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Sample records for damage detection system

  1. Detection of damage in axial (membrane) systems

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, T.A.; Baker, W.E.; Farrar, C.R.; Rhee, W.H.

    1998-12-31

    In a recent paper, two methods of damage identification (Modified Damage Index and Change-in-Flexibility) were applied to detection of damage in an 8-DOF vibrating system. The goal of the work was to detect damage (reduction in stiffness of one or more of the elements) as well as to locate the particular damaged elements (S). However, the investigation was limited to numerical simulations only. In this paper, a physical, spring-mass model of a similar, degenerate 8-DOF system (7 normal modes plus a rigid-body mode) was constructed. Experiments were then performed and the modal properties of the system were determined in undamaged and damaged states. Excitation was provided either by an impact hammer or by an electromechanical shaker. Damage was induced by replacing one of the springs with a spring of lower stiffness. The Modified Damage Index method clearly isolated the location of damage for a variety of damage locations and levels of damage. The Change-in-Flexibility method, however, was found to be less reliable. The ability of the method to locate damage depended strongly on location and the level of damage as well as the number of modes included.

  2. Flat Surface Damage Detection System (FSDDS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Lewis, Mark; Gibson, Tracy; Lane, John; Medelius, Pedro; Snyder, Sarah; Ciarlariello, Dan; Parks, Steve; Carrejo, Danny; Rojdev, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    The Flat Surface Damage Detection system (FSDDS} is a sensory system that is capable of detecting impact damages to surfaces utilizing a novel sensor system. This system will provide the ability to monitor the integrity of an inflatable habitat during in situ system health monitoring. The system consists of three main custom designed subsystems: the multi-layer sensing panel, the embedded monitoring system, and the graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI LABVIEW software uses a custom developed damage detection algorithm to determine the damage location based on the sequence of broken sensing lines. It estimates the damage size, the maximum depth, and plots the damage location on a graph. Successfully demonstrated as a stand alone technology during 2011 D-RATS. Software modification also allowed for communication with HDU avionics crew display which was demonstrated remotely (KSC to JSC} during 2012 integration testing. Integrated FSDDS system and stand alone multi-panel systems were demonstrated remotely and at JSC, Mission Operations Test using Space Network Research Federation (SNRF} network in 2012. FY13, FSDDS multi-panel integration with JSC and SNRF network Technology can allow for integration with other complementary damage detection systems.

  3. In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Tate, Lanetra C. (Inventor); Smith, Trent M. (Inventor); Gibson, Tracy L. (Inventor); Jolley, Scott T. (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An in-situ system for detecting damage in an electrically conductive wire. The system includes a substrate at least partially covered by a layer of electrically conductive material forming a continuous or non-continuous electrically conductive layer connected to an electrical signal generator adapted to delivering electrical signals to the electrically conductive layer. Data is received and processed to identify damage to the substrate or electrically conductive layer. The electrically conductive material may include metalized carbon fibers, a thin metal coating, a conductive polymer, carbon nanotubes, metal nanoparticles or a combination thereof.

  4. In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Roberson, Luke; Tate, Lanetra; Smith, Trent; Gibson, Tracy; Medelius, Pedro; Jolley, Scott

    2012-01-01

    An In-Situ Wire Damage Detection System (ISWDDS) has been developed that is capable of detecting damage to a wire insulation, or a wire conductor, or to both. The system will allow for realtime, continuous monitoring of wiring health/integrity and reduce the number of false negatives and false positives while being smaller, lighter in weight, and more robust than current systems. The technology allows for improved safety and significant reduction in maintenance hours for aircraft, space vehicles, satellites, and other critical high-performance wiring systems for industries such as energy production and mining. The integrated ISWDDS is comprised of two main components: (1) a wire with an innermost core conductor, an inner insulation film, a conductive layer or inherently conductive polymer (ICP) covering the inner insulation film, an outermost insulation jacket; and (2) smart connectors and electronics capable of producing and detecting electronic signals, and a central processing unit (CPU) for data collection and analysis. The wire is constructed by applying the inner insulation films to the conductor, followed by the outer insulation jacket. The conductive layer or ICP is on the outer surface of the inner insulation film. One or more wires are connected to the CPU using the smart connectors, and up to 64 wires can be monitored in real-time. The ISWDDS uses time domain reflectometry for damage detection. A fast-risetime pulse is injected into either the core conductor or conductive layer and referenced against the other conductor, producing transmission line behavior. If either conductor is damaged, then the signal is reflected. By knowing the speed of propagation of the pulse, and the time it takes to reflect, one can calculate the distance to and location of the damage.

  5. Damage detection in initially nonlinear systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bornn, Luke; Farrar, Charles; Park, Gyuhae

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is to detect structural anomalies before they reach a critical level. Because of the potential life-safety and economic benefits, SHM has been widely studied over the past decade. In recent years there has been an effort to provide solid mathematical and physical underpinnings for these methods; however, most focus on systems that behave linearly in their undamaged state - a condition that often does not hold in complex 'real world' systems and systems for which monitoring begins mid-lifecycle. In this work, we highlight the inadequacy of linear-based methodology in handling initially nonlinear systems. We then show how the recently developed autoregressive support vector machine (AR-SVM) approach to time series modeling can be used for detecting damage in a system that exhibits initially nonlinear response. This process is applied to data acquired from a structure with induced nonlinearity tested in a laboratory environment.

  6. Cable Damage Detection System and Algorithms Using Time Domain Reflectometry

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, G A; Robbins, C L; Wade, K A; Souza, P R

    2009-03-24

    This report describes the hardware system and the set of algorithms we have developed for detecting damage in cables for the Advanced Development and Process Technologies (ADAPT) Program. This program is part of the W80 Life Extension Program (LEP). The system could be generalized for application to other systems in the future. Critical cables can undergo various types of damage (e.g. short circuits, open circuits, punctures, compression) that manifest as changes in the dielectric/impedance properties of the cables. For our specific problem, only one end of the cable is accessible, and no exemplars of actual damage are available. This work addresses the detection of dielectric/impedance anomalies in transient time domain reflectometry (TDR) measurements on the cables. The approach is to interrogate the cable using time domain reflectometry (TDR) techniques, in which a known pulse is inserted into the cable, and reflections from the cable are measured. The key operating principle is that any important cable damage will manifest itself as an electrical impedance discontinuity that can be measured in the TDR response signal. Machine learning classification algorithms are effectively eliminated from consideration, because only a small number of cables is available for testing; so a sufficient sample size is not attainable. Nonetheless, a key requirement is to achieve very high probability of detection and very low probability of false alarm. The approach is to compare TDR signals from possibly damaged cables to signals or an empirical model derived from reference cables that are known to be undamaged. This requires that the TDR signals are reasonably repeatable from test to test on the same cable, and from cable to cable. Empirical studies show that the repeatability issue is the 'long pole in the tent' for damage detection, because it is has been difficult to achieve reasonable repeatability. This one factor dominated the project. The two-step model-based approach is

  7. Damage Detection/Locating System Providing Thermal Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Jones, Thomas W. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor); Qamar, A. Shams (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A damage locating system also provides thermal protection. An array of sensors substantially tiles an area of interest. Each sensor is a reflective-surface conductor having operatively coupled inductance and capacitance. A magnetic field response recorder is provided to interrogate each sensor before and after a damage condition. Changes in response are indicative of damage and a corresponding location thereof.

  8. System Would Detect Foreign-Object Damage in Turbofan Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torso, James A.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2006-01-01

    A proposed data-fusion system, to be implemented mostly in software, would further process the digitized and preprocessed outputs of sensors in a turbofan engine to detect foreign-object damage (FOD) [more precisely, damage caused by impingement of such foreign objects as birds, pieces of ice, and runway debris]. The proposed system could help a flight crew to decide what, if any, response is necessary to complete a flight safely, and could aid mechanics in deciding what post-flight maintenance action might be needed. The sensory information to be utilized by the proposed system would consist of (1) the output of an accelerometer in an engine-vibration-monitoring subsystem and (2) features extracted from a gas path analysis. ["Gas path analysis" (GPA) is a term of art that denotes comprehensive analysis of engine performance derived from readings of fuel-flow meters, shaft-speed sensors, temperature sensors, and the like.] The acceleration signal would first be processed by a wavelet-transform-based algorithm, using a wavelet created for the specific purpose of finding abrupt FOD-induced changes in noisy accelerometer signals. Two additional features extracted would be the amplitude of vibration (determined via a single- frequency Fourier transform calculated at the rotational speed of the engine), and the rate of change in amplitude due to an FOD-induced rotor imbalance. This system would utilize two GPA features: the fan efficiency and the rate of change of fan efficiency with time. The selected GPA and vibrational features would be assessed by two fuzzy-logic inference engines, denoted the "Gas Path Expert" and the "Vibration Expert," respectively (see Figure 1). Each of these inference engines would generate a "possibility" distribution for occurrence of an FOD event: Each inference engine would assign, to its input information, degrees of membership, which would subsequently be transformed into basic probability assignments for the gas path and vibration

  9. Damage Detection and Verification System (DDVS) for In-Situ Health Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Lewis, Mark; Szafran, J.; Shelton, C.; Ludwig, L.; Gibson, T.; Lane, J.; Trautwein, T.

    2015-01-01

    Project presentation for Game Changing Program Smart Book Release. Detection and Verification System (DDVS) expands the Flat Surface Damage Detection System (FSDDS) sensory panels damage detection capabilities and includes an autonomous inspection capability utilizing cameras and dynamic computer vision algorithms to verify system health. Objectives of this formulation task are to establish the concept of operations, formulate the system requirements for a potential ISS flight experiment, and develop a preliminary design of an autonomous inspection capability system that will be demonstrated as a proof-of-concept ground based damage detection and inspection system.

  10. Damage detection in nonlinear systems using multiple system augmentations and matrix updating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Souza, Kiran; Epureanu, Bogdan I.

    2006-03-01

    Recently, a damage detection method for nonlinear systems using model updating has been developed by the authors. The method uses an augmented linear model of the system, which is determined from the functional form of the nonlinearities and a nonlinear discrete model of the system. The modal properties of the augmented system after the onset of damage are extracted from the system using a modal analysis technique that uses known but not prescribed forcing. Minimum Rank Perturbation Theory was generalized so that damage location and extent could be determined using the augmented modal properties. The method was demonstrated previously for cubic springs and Coulomb friction nonlinearities. In this work, the methodology is extended to handle large systems where only the first few of the augmented eigenvectors are known. The methodology capitalizes on the ability to create multiple augmentations for a single nonlinear system. Cubic spring nonlinearities are explored within a nonlinear 3-bay truss structure for various damage scenarios simulated numerically.

  11. The study of target damage assessment system based on image change detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ping; Yang, Fan; Feng, Xinxi

    2009-10-01

    Target Damage Assessment (TDA) system is an important component of the intelligent command and control system. The method of building TDA based on Image Change Detection can greatly improve the system efficiency and accuracy, thus get a fast and precise assessment results. This paper firstly analyzes the structure of TDA system. Then studies the key technology in this system. Finally, gives an evaluation criteria based on image change detection of the target damage assessment system.

  12. SmartComposite system for impact damage detection on composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing, Xinlin P.; Beard, Shawn J.; Pinsonnault, Jerome; Banerjee, Sourav

    2009-03-01

    Composites are increasingly used in numerous structural applications because of their low weight-to-strength and weight-to-stiffness ratios. However, the performance and behavior characteristics of nearly all in-service composite structures can be affected by degradation resulting from sustained use as well as from exposure to severe environmental conditions or damage resulting from external conditions such as impact, loading abrasion, operator abuse. These factors can have serious consequences on the structures relative to safety, cost, and operational capability. In this paper, a SmartComposite system is introduced for monitoring the integrity of large composite structures. Key features of the system include miniaturized lightweight hardware, self-diagnostics and an adaptive algorithm to automatically compensate for damaged sensors, reliable damage detection under different environmental conditions, and generation of POD curves. Tests were conducted on composite test article with sensor network embedded inside the composite skin or surface mounted to demonstrate the impact damage detection capability of the SmartComposite System. It is clear from the test results that the SmartComposite system can successfully detect impact damages, including both damage location and probability of damage size.

  13. Damage Detection System with Sub-microsecond Resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Udd, E; Benterou, J

    2008-02-11

    Fiber optic grating sensors have been used to measure multi-dimensional strain, pressure, temperature, corrosion and moisture. This paper presents a method of using fiber grating sensors to measure the position and velocity of a very fast event associated with a blast wave. A chirped fiber grating of 50 mm length is placed in a highly energetic material. The action of the shock wave is to destroy the fiber grating as it propagates along it. By using a spectral filter such as a chirped fiber grating in combination with high speed detectors the position and velocity of the shock wave may be determined. A layout of a system used to experimentally verify this technique is described and results presented for two different highly energetic materials.

  14. A multi-stage approach for damage detection in structural systems based on flexibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grande, E.; Imbimbo, M.

    2016-08-01

    The paper proposes a fusion approach for damage detection in structural applications in the case of multiple damage locations and three-dimensional systems. Based on the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory, a multi-stage approach is proposed with the mode shapes assumed as primary sources and local decisions based on a flexibility method. The proposed approach has been applied to two case studies, a a fixed end beam analyzed in other papers and a three dimensional structures codified in a Benchmark problem. Both the case studies have shown the ability and the efficiency of the proposed approach to detect damage also in the case of multiple damage, limited number of identified parameters and noise measurements.

  15. Use of near-infrared video recording system for the detection of freeze damaged citrus leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Escobar, D. E.; Bowen, R. L.; Gausman, H. W.; Cooper, G. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    A video recording system with a visible light blocking filter to give sensitivity in the 0.78 m to 1.1 m waveband detected freeze-damaged citrus leaves rapidly. With this technique, the time to analyze images can be decreased from about one day for conventional photography to less than one hour for video recording.

  16. Excitation optimization for damage detection

    SciTech Connect

    Bement, Matthew T; Bewley, Thomas R

    2009-01-01

    A technique is developed to answer the important question: 'Given limited system response measurements and ever-present physical limits on the level of excitation, what excitation should be provided to a system to make damage most detectable?' Specifically, a method is presented for optimizing excitations that maximize the sensitivity of output measurements to perturbations in damage-related parameters estimated with an extended Kalman filter. This optimization is carried out in a computationally efficient manner using adjoint-based optimization and causes the innovations term in the extended Kalman filter to be larger in the presence of estimation errors, which leads to a better estimate of the damage-related parameters in question. The technique is demonstrated numerically on a nonlinear 2 DOF system, where a significant improvement in the damage-related parameter estimation is observed.

  17. Multifunctional system for active noise control and damage detection on a typical aeronautical structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecce, Leonardo; Viscardi, Massimo; Zumpano, Giuseppe

    2001-08-01

    The present work relates to the assessment and testing of a multifunctional intelligent system, based upon the use of piezoelectric devices, devoted both to the active noise and vibration control and to damage detection f the structure. In the control application, the piezoelectric devices (in form of patches) play the role of actuators; their induced secondary vibration field has the target to reduce the primary one through a specific control algorithm and system. In the health monitoring application, the piezo devices play both the roles of actuators and sensors. In fact the developed technique is primarily based upon the evaluation and comparison of the structure Frequency Response Functions (FRF) that intrinsically contains all the information regarding the structural properties whose change may be correlated with incipient damages. The aforementioned application were investigated and experimentally assessed with good results with reference to a typical partial fuselage structure (three frames, eight stringers and the skin panels: 1.2 m x 1.7 m). On the noise control application side, a height sensors/height actuators control architecture was then assessed and experimentally tested whose results may be synthesized in a 30 dB vibration level reduction at sensors locations and more than 20 dB of reduction of the associated noise field. In the optic of a multifunctional intelligent system, the aforementioned set of piezo's was decided to be used also for health monitoring application. As a preliminary activity, an extensive monitoring was performed on the integer structure to verify the sensibility of the system and the stability of the defined Damage Index (DI) in respect to environmental factor not related to structural real modification. To verify the sensibility of the technique to reveal and locate a typical shear clip damage, a set of rivets were successively cut in the area surrounding the frame shear clip, and relative FRF's were acquired and relative DI

  18. Multi-Dimensional Damage Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Tracy L. (Inventor); Williams, Martha K. (Inventor); Lewis, Mark E. (Inventor); Roberson, Luke B. (Inventor); Snyder, Sarah J. (Inventor); Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Methods and systems may provide for a structure having a plurality of interconnected panels, wherein each panel has a plurality of detection layers separated from one another by one or more non-detection layers. The plurality of detection layers may form a grid of conductive traces. Additionally, a monitor may be coupled to each grid of conductive traces, wherein the monitor is configured to detect damage to the plurality of interconnected panels in response to an electrical property change with respect to one or more of the conductive traces. In one example, the structure is part of an inflatable space platform such as a spacecraft or habitat.

  19. Rotor health monitoring and damage detection utilizing a disk spin simulation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Baaklini, George Y.

    2001-08-01

    This paper describes a unique, disk spin simulation system currently being utilized at NASA Glenn Research Center. The system allows for precision controlled spin tests that can facilitate the application of various sensing technologies for in-situ detection of rotor damage. In addition, the disk spin simulation system has the capability for elevated temperatures up to 540°C (1000°F). The current rotor used to simulate a bladed disk consists of a 46 cm(18 in.) diameter, titanium disk with 30 machined gear teeth. The gear design imitates the blades of a compressor or turbine disk. Operating speeds for the system can reach 1000 revolutions per minute. This allows the system to achieve circumferential velocities paralleling those seen in actual aircraft engines. For this study, a new, innovative capacitive sensing system was used to monitor blade tip clearance (i.e., gear tooth clearance). In turn, the sensor information was employed to calculate the change in the center of mass of the rotor system. T he capacitive sensor and corresponding software were analyzed by attaching a localized weight at numerous positions on the disk. Upon calculating the change in the center of mass, the sensitivities of the sensor and software were established. In the end, it is hoped that by studying the motion and position of blades as well as the change in the center of mass of a rotor system, it may be feasible to identify alterations due to damage (e.g., cracks) eitehr in the blades or the disk itself.

  20. Structural damage detection via nonlinear system identification and structural intensity methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semperlotti, Fabio

    sensory system for data acquisition. The second technique presented in this work is based on the use of Structural Intensity (SI) as a damage detection tool. Although SI has been used in the past for structural vibrations and noise control systems, applications to damage detection are still very limited. A numerical study exploring the relationship between several structural (loss factors, damage size) and experimental (frequency resolution, sensor size and placements) parameters and the SI field is presented. The changes in SI at discrete structural locations are used as the damage metric. In order to improve performance and adaptability of the SI based system over a wide spectrum of structures, the concept of Active Energy Sink (AES) is introduced. A feedback control system is used to realize the absorption device. The AES design is presented, and validated through experimental testing. An increase in the closed loop loss factors up to eta=29% was measured for the low frequency modes. Finally, the concept of Nonlinear Structural Surface Intensity (NSSI) is presented. The SI-based SHM was initially developed by relying on the availability of a baseline for the healthy structure. In order to develop a baseline-free technique, the HHRS is integrated into the SI concept. This approach results in a single technique which benefits from the localization capabilities from the HHRS approach and of the sizing capabilities proper of the SI approach.

  1. Detection and Location of Damage on Pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Karen A. Moore; Robert Carrington; John Richardson

    2003-11-01

    The INEEL has developed and successfully tested a real-time pipeline damage detection and location system. This system uses porous metal resistive traces applied to the pipe to detect and locate damage. The porous metal resistive traces are sprayed along the length of a pipeline. The unique nature and arrangement of the traces allows locating the damage in real time along miles of pipe. This system allows pipeline operators to detect damage when and where it is occurring, and the decision to shut down a transmission pipeline can be made with actual real-time data, instead of conservative estimates from visual inspection above the area.

  2. Development of a wireless, self-sustaining damage detection sensor system based on chemiluminescence for structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, K. S. C.

    2014-03-01

    A novel application of chemiluminescence resulting from the chemical reaction in a glow-stick as sensors for structural health monitoring is demonstrated here. By detecting the presence of light emitting from these glow-sticks, it is possible to develop a low-cost sensing device with the potential to provide early warning of damage in a variety of engineering applications such as monitoring of cracks or damage in concrete shear walls, detecting of ground settlement, soil liquefaction, slope instability, liquefaction-related damage of underground structure and others. In addition, this paper demonstrates the ease of incorporating wireless capability to the sensor device and the possibility of making the sensor system self-sustaining by means of a renewable power source for the wireless module. A significant advantage of the system compared to previous work on the use of plastic optical fibre (POF) for damage detection is that here the system does not require an electrically-powered light source. Here, the sensing device, embedded in a cement host, is shown to be capable of detecting damage. A series of specimens with embedded glow-sticks have been investigated and an assessment of their damage detection capability will be reported. The specimens were loaded under flexure and the sensor responses were transmitted via a wireless connection.

  3. Impact damage detection system using small-diameter optical fiber sensors wavily embedded in CFRP laminate structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsui, Hiroaki; Kawamata, Akio; Kimoto, Junichi; Isoe, Akira; Hirose, Yasuo; Sanda, Tomio; Takeda, Nobuo

    2003-08-01

    It is well known that barely visible damage is often induced in composite structures subjected to out-of plane impact, and the mechanical properties of the composites decrease markedly. In this study, some element technologies for the detection of the damage are explained. Those are (1) the technologies for the arrangement of embedded small-diameter optical fibers which have no serious effect on the mechanical properties of composites, (2) the technologies for the egress of the optical fibers using "the embedded connector for smart structures" which can be trimmed without care about the optical fibers, (3) the technologies for the damage detection system that has the functions for data acquisition and analysis, the evaluation of the initiation and the position of damage, and the visualization of damage information. The impact test using the composite airframe demonstrator is conducted. The sensors embedded in the upper panel of the stiffened cylindrical composite structure with 1.5 m in diameter and 3 m in length, are FBG sensors for strain measurement and the optical fibers for optical loss measurement. The detection of damage in the composite structures using a developed damage detection system is demonstrated.

  4. Structural Damage Detection Using Virtual Passive Controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lew, Jiann-Shiun; Juang, Jer-Nan

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents novel approaches for structural damage detection which uses the virtual passive controllers attached to structures, where passive controllers are energy dissipative devices and thus guarantee the closed-loop stability. The use of the identified parameters of various closed-loop systems can solve the problem that reliable identified parameters, such as natural frequencies of the open-loop system may not provide enough information for damage detection. Only a small number of sensors are required for the proposed approaches. The identified natural frequencies, which are generally much less sensitive to noise and more reliable than the identified natural frequencies, are used for damage detection. Two damage detection techniques are presented. One technique is based on the structures with direct output feedback controllers while the other technique uses the second-order dynamic feedback controllers. A least-squares technique, which is based on the sensitivity of natural frequencies to damage variables, is used for accurately identifying the damage variables.

  5. Detection of impact damage on thermal protection systems using thin-film piezoelectric sensors for integrated structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Jeong K.; Kuhr, Samuel J.; Jata, Kumar V.

    2008-03-01

    Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) can be subjected to impact damage during flight and/or during ground maintenance and/or repair. AFRL/RXLP is developing a reliable and robust on-board sensing/monitoring capability for next generation thermal protection systems to detect and assess impact damage. This study was focused on two classes of metallic thermal protection tiles to determine threshold for impact damage and develop sensing capability of the impacts. Sensors made of PVDF piezoelectric film were employed and tested to evaluate the detectability of impact signals and assess the onset or threshold of impact damage. Testing was performed over a range of impact energy levels, where the sensors were adhered to the back of the specimens. The PVDF signal levels were analyzed and compared to assess damage, where digital microscopy, visual inspection, and white light interferometry were used for damage verification. Based on the impact test results, an assessment of the impact damage thresholds for each type of metallic TPS system was made.

  6. Experimental validation of a modal flexibility-based damage detection method for a cyber-physical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Castro, Rosana E.; Eskew, Edward L.; Jang, Shinae

    2014-03-01

    The detection and localization of damage in a timely manner is critical in order to avoid the failure of structures. When a structure is subjected to an unscheduled impulsive force, the resulting damage can lead to failure in a very short period of time. As such, a monitoring strategy that can adapt to variability in the environment and that anticipates changes in physical processes has the potential of detecting, locating and mitigating damage. These requirements can be met by a cyber-physical system (CPS) equipped with Wireless Smart Sensor Network (WSSN) systems that is capable of measuring and analyzing dynamic responses in real time using on-board in network processing. The Eigenparameter Decomposition of Structural Flexibility Change (ED) Method is validated with real data and considered to be used in the computational core of this CPS. The condition screening is implemented on a damaged structure and compared to an original baseline calculation, hence providing a supervised learning environment. An experimental laboratory study on a 5-story shear building with three damage conditions subjected to an impulsive force has been chosen to validate the effectiveness of the method proposed to locate and quantify the extent of damage. A numerical simulation of the same building subject to band-limited white noise has also been developed with this purpose. The effectiveness of the ED Method to locate damage is compared to that of the Damage Index Method. With some modifications, the ED Method is capable of locating and quantifying damage satisfactorily in a shear building subject to a lower frequency content predominant excitation.

  7. Optimal controller design for structural damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lew, Jiann-Shiun

    2005-03-01

    The virtual passive control technique has recently been applied to structural damage detection, where the virtual passive controller only uses the existing control devices, and no additional physical elements are attached to the tested structure. One important task is to design passive controllers that can enhance the sensitivity of the identified parameters, such as natural frequencies, to structural damage. This paper presents a novel study of an optimal controller design for structural damage detection. We apply not only passive controllers but also low-order and fixed-structure controllers, such as PID controllers. In the optimal control design, the performance of structural damage detection is based on the application of a neural network technique, which uses the pattern of the correlation between the natural frequency changes of the tested system and the damaged system.

  8. Development of integrated damage detection system for international America's Cup class yacht structures using a fiber optic distributed sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyoshi, Shimada; Naruse, Hiroshi; Uzawa, Kyoshi; Murayama, Hideaki; Kageyama, Kazuro

    2000-06-01

    We constructed a new health monitoring system to detect damage using a fiber optic distributed sensor, namely a Brillouin optical time domain reflectometer (BOTDR), and installed it in International America's Cup Class (IACC) yachts, the Japanese entry in America's Cup 2000. IACC yachts are designed to be as fast as possible, so it is essential that they are lightweight and encounter minimum water resistance. Advanced composite sandwich structures, made with carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) skins and a honeycomb core, are used to achieve the lightweight structure. Yacht structure designs push the strength of the materials to their limit and so it is important to detect highly stressed or damaged regions that might cause a catastrophic fracture. The BOTDR measures changes in the Brillouin frequency shift caused by distributed strain along one optical fiber. We undertook two experiments: a pulling test and a four point bending test on a composite beam. The former showed that no slippage occurred between the optical fiber glass and its coating. The latter confirmed that a debonding between the skin and the core of 300 mm length could be found with the BOTDR. Next we examined the effectiveness with which this system can assess the structural integrity of IACC yachts. The results show that our system has the potential for use as a damage detection system for smart structures.

  9. Evaluation of SonicIR handheld system on composite impact damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiaoyan; Ar-Rasheed, Justin M.; Zhang, Ding; Lubowicki, Anthony

    2016-02-01

    Sonic Infrared (IR) Imaging has shown its capability as a fast, wide area NDE method. We have demonstrated its wide applications to different types of materials and structures. Along the path of the development of this technology, we have studied the effect of the input UT source transducer frequency, heating mechanism of different types of defects, the role coupling materials, the non-linear phenomena, the effect of crack closure, etc. The WSU team has also been developing prototypes of this technology for future in-field inspection. In this paper, we present the evaluation of the system with structured composite samples containing widespread impact damages.

  10. Smart accelerometer. [vibration damage detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention discloses methods and apparatus for detecting vibrations from machines which indicate an impending malfunction for the purpose of preventing additional damage and allowing for an orderly shutdown or a change in mode of operation. The method and apparatus is especially suited for reliable operation in providing thruster control data concerning unstable vibration in an electrical environment which is typically noisy and in which unrecognized ground loops may exist.

  11. Damage detection via shortest-path network sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciulla, Fabio; Perra, Nicola; Baronchelli, Andrea; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    Large networked systems are constantly exposed to local damages and failures that can alter their functionality. The knowledge of the structure of these systems is, however, often derived through sampling strategies whose effectiveness at damage detection has not been thoroughly investigated so far. Here, we study the performance of shortest-path sampling for damage detection in large-scale networks. We define appropriate metrics to characterize the sampling process before and after the damage, providing statistical estimates for the status of nodes (damaged, not damaged). The proposed methodology is flexible and allows tuning the trade-off between the accuracy of the damage detection and the number of probes used to sample the network. We test and measure the efficiency of our approach considering both synthetic and real networks data. Remarkably, in all of the systems studied, the number of correctly identified damaged nodes exceeds the number of false positives, allowing us to uncover the damage precisely.

  12. Intelligent-based Structural Damage Detection Model

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eric Wai Ming; Yu, K.F.

    2010-05-21

    This paper presents the application of a novel Artificial Neural Network (ANN) model for the diagnosis of structural damage. The ANN model, denoted as the GRNNFA, is a hybrid model combining the General Regression Neural Network Model (GRNN) and the Fuzzy ART (FA) model. It not only retains the important features of the GRNN and FA models (i.e. fast and stable network training and incremental growth of network structure) but also facilitates the removal of the noise embedded in the training samples. Structural damage alters the stiffness distribution of the structure and so as to change the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system. The measured modal parameter changes due to a particular damage are treated as patterns for that damage. The proposed GRNNFA model was trained to learn those patterns in order to detect the possible damage location of the structure. Simulated data is employed to verify and illustrate the procedures of the proposed ANN-based damage diagnosis methodology. The results of this study have demonstrated the feasibility of applying the GRNNFA model to structural damage diagnosis even when the training samples were noise contaminated.

  13. Vibration-Based Damage Detection in Rotating Machinery

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffey, T.A.

    1999-06-28

    Damage detection as determined from changes in the vibration characteristics of a system has been a popular research topic for the last thirty years. Numerous damage identification algorithms have been proposed for detecting and locating damage in structural and mechanical systems. To date, these damage-detection methods have shown mixed results. A particular application of vibration-based damage detection that has perhaps enjoyed the greatest success is that of damage detection in rotating machinery. This paper summarizes the state of technology in vibration-based damage detection applied to rotating machinery. The review interprets the damage detection process in terms of a statistical pattern recognition paradigm that encompasses all vibration-based damage detection methods and applications. The motivation for the study reported herein is to identify the reasons that vibration-based damage detection has been successfully applied to rotating machinery, but has yet to show robust applications to civil engineering infrastructure. The paper concludes by comparing and contrasting the vibration-based damage detection applied to rotating machinery with large civil engineering infrastructure applications.

  14. Acoustic emission beamforming for enhanced damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaskey, Gregory C.; Glaser, Steven D.; Grosse, Christian U.

    2008-03-01

    As civil infrastructure ages, the early detection of damage in a structure becomes increasingly important for both life safety and economic reasons. This paper describes the analysis procedures used for beamforming acoustic emission techniques as well as the promising results of preliminary experimental tests on a concrete bridge deck. The method of acoustic emission offers a tool for detecting damage, such as cracking, as it occurs on or in a structure. In order to gain meaningful information from acoustic emission analyses, the damage must be localized. Current acoustic emission systems with localization capabilities are very costly and difficult to install. Sensors must be placed throughout the structure to ensure that the damage is encompassed by the array. Beamforming offers a promising solution to these problems and permits the use of wireless sensor networks for acoustic emission analyses. Using the beamforming technique, the azmuthal direction of the location of the damage may be estimated by the stress waves impinging upon a small diameter array (e.g. 30mm) of acoustic emission sensors. Additional signal discrimination may be gained via array processing techniques such as the VESPA process. The beamforming approach requires no arrival time information and is based on very simple delay and sum beamforming algorithms which can be easily implemented on a wireless sensor or mote.

  15. Current Status of Hybrid Bearing Damage Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Certo, Joseph M.; Morales, Wilfredo

    2004-01-01

    Advances in material development and processing have led to the introduction of ceramic hybrid bearings for many applications. The introduction of silicon nitride hybrid bearings into the high pressure oxidizer turbopump, on the space shuttle main engine, led NASA to solve a highly persistent and troublesome bearing problem. Hybrid bearings consist of ceramic balls and steel races. The majority of hybrid bearings utilize Si3N4 balls. The aerospace industry is currently studying the use of hybrid bearings and naturally the failure modes of these bearings become an issue in light of the limited data available. In today s turbine engines and helicopter transmissions, the health of the bearings is detected by the properties of the debris found in the lubrication line when damage begins to occur. Current oil debris sensor technology relies on the magnetic properties of the debris to detect damage. Since the ceramic rolling elements of hybrid bearings have no metallic properties, a new sensing system must be developed to indicate the system health if ceramic components are to be safely implemented in aerospace applications. The ceramic oil debris sensor must be capable of detecting ceramic and metallic component damage with sufficient reliability and forewarning to prevent a catastrophic failure. The objective of this research is to provide a background summary on what is currently known about hybrid bearing failure modes and to report preliminary results on the detection of silicon nitride debris, in oil, using a commercial particle counter.

  16. Damage detection using multivariate recurrence quantification analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, J. M.; Trickey, S. T.; Seaver, M.

    2006-02-01

    Recurrence-quantification analysis (RQA) has emerged as a useful tool for detecting subtle non-stationarities and/or changes in time-series data. Here, we extend the RQA analysis methods to multivariate observations and present a method by which the "length scale" parameter ɛ (the only parameter required for RQA) may be selected. We then apply the technique to the difficult engineering problem of damage detection. The structure considered is a finite element model of a rectangular steel plate where damage is represented as a cut in the plate, starting at one edge and extending from 0% to 25% of the plate width in 5% increments. Time series, recorded at nine separate locations on the structure, are used to reconstruct the phase space of the system's dynamics and subsequently generate the multivariate recurrence (and cross-recurrence) plots. Multivariate RQA is then used to detect damage-induced changes to the structural dynamics. These results are then compared with shifts in the plate's natural frequencies. Two of the RQA-based features are found to be more sensitive to damage than are the plate's frequencies.

  17. Damage detection in concrete and cementitious composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hwai-Chung; Pai, P. Frank

    2008-03-01

    Traditionally ultrasonic testing is used to estimate the extent of damage in a concrete structure. However Pulse-velocity and amplitude attenuation methods are not very reliable, and are difficult to reveal early damage of concrete. In a previous study, a new active modulation approach, Nonlinear Active Wave Modulation Spectroscopy, was developed and found promising for early detection of damage in concrete. In this procedure, a probe wave is passed through the system in a fashion similar to regular acoustic methods for inspection. Simultaneously, a second, low-frequency modulating wave is applied to the system to effectively change the size and stiffness of flaws microscopically and cyclically, thereby causing the frequency modulation to change cyclically as well. It has been also shown that it is advantageous to apply the Hilbert-Huang transform to decompose nonlinear non-stationary time-domain responses of plain concrete. Such procedure leads to improving the damage detection sensitivity of this modulation method in concrete. In this paper, further investigation on mortar and fiber reinforced concrete will be presented and discussed.

  18. Long term application of bus monitoring system to short and medium span bridges and damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Ayaho; Lúcio, Válter J. G.; Emoto, Hisao; Tanaka, Hideaki

    2015-07-01

    In this study, as one solution to the problem for condition assessment of existing short and medium span reinforced/prestressed concrete bridges, a new monitoring method using a public bus as part of a public transit system (bus monitoring system) is proposed, along with safety indices, namely, characteristic deflection, which is relatively free from the influence of dynamic disturbances due to such factors as the roughness of the road surface, and a structural anomaly parameter. A basic study was conducted by using the results of technical verification experiments and numerical analysis simulation. This paper describes the details of not only how to assess the bridge condition by public bus vibration measured in operating on Ube City bus network as a specific example for verify the system but also what kind of consideration we need to apply the system to existing bridges in overseas country.

  19. Ability of Impedance-Based Health Monitoring To Detect Structural Damage of Propulsion System Components Assessed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Richard E.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.; Baaklini, George Y.

    2005-01-01

    Impedance-based structural-health-monitoring uses piezoelectric (PZT) patches that are bonded onto or embedded in a structure. Each individual patch behaves as both an actuator of the surrounding structural area as well as a sensor of the structural response. The size of the excited area varies with the geometry and material composition of the structure, and an active patch is driven by a sinusoidal voltage sweep. When a PZT patch is subjected to an electric field, it produces a mechanical strain; and when it is stressed, it produces an electric charge. Since the patch is bonded to the structure, driving a patch deforms and vibrates the structure. The structure then produces a localized dynamic response. This structural system response is transferred back to the PZT patch, which in turn produces an electrical response. The electromechanical impedance method is based on the principle of electromechanical coupling between the active sensor and the structure, which allows researchers to assess local structural dynamics directly by interrogating a distributed sensor array. Because of mechanical coupling between the sensor and the host structure, this mechanical effect is picked up by the sensor and, through electromechanical coupling inside the active element, is reflected in electrical impedance measured at the sensor s terminals.

  20. Rotor damage detection by using piezoelectric impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Y.; Tao, Y.; Mao, Y. F.

    2016-04-01

    Rotor is a core component of rotary machinery. Once the rotor has the damage, it may lead to a major accident. Thus the quantitative rotor damage detection method based on piezoelectric impedance is studied in this paper. With the governing equation of piezoelectric transducer (PZT) in a cylindrical coordinate, the displacement along the radius direction is derived. The charge of PZT is calculated by the electric displacement. Then, by the use of the obtained displacement and charge, an analytic piezoelectric impedance model of the rotor is built. Given the circular boundary condition of a rotor, annular elements are used as the analyzed objects and spectral element method is used to set up the damage detection model. The Electro-Mechanical (E/M) coupled impedance expression of an undamaged rotor is deduced with the application of a low-cost impedance test circuit. A Taylor expansion method is used to obtain the approximate E/M coupled impedance expression for the damaged rotor. After obtaining the difference between the undamaged and damaged rotor impedance, a rotor damage detection method is proposed. This method can directly calculate the change of bending stiffness of the structural elements, it follows that the rotor damage can be effectively detected. Finally, a preset damage configuration is used for the numerical simulation. The result shows that the quantitative damage detection algorithm based on spectral element method and piezoelectric impedance proposed in this paper can identify the location and the severity of the damaged rotor accurately.

  1. Multi-Dimensional Damage Detection for Surfaces and Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha; Lewis, Mark; Roberson, Luke; Medelius, Pedro; Gibson, Tracy; Parks, Steen; Snyder, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Current designs for inflatable or semi-rigidized structures for habitats and space applications use a multiple-layer construction, alternating thin layers with thicker, stronger layers, which produces a layered composite structure that is much better at resisting damage. Even though such composite structures or layered systems are robust, they can still be susceptible to penetration damage. The ability to detect damage to surfaces of inflatable or semi-rigid habitat structures is of great interest to NASA. Damage caused by impacts of foreign objects such as micrometeorites can rupture the shell of these structures, causing loss of critical hardware and/or the life of the crew. While not all impacts will have a catastrophic result, it will be very important to identify and locate areas of the exterior shell that have been damaged by impacts so that repairs (or other provisions) can be made to reduce the probability of shell wall rupture. This disclosure describes a system that will provide real-time data regarding the health of the inflatable shell or rigidized structures, and information related to the location and depth of impact damage. The innovation described here is a method of determining the size, location, and direction of damage in a multilayered structure. In the multi-dimensional damage detection system, layers of two-dimensional thin film detection layers are used to form a layered composite, with non-detection layers separating the detection layers. The non-detection layers may be either thicker or thinner than the detection layers. The thin-film damage detection layers are thin films of materials with a conductive grid or striped pattern. The conductive pattern may be applied by several methods, including printing, plating, sputtering, photolithography, and etching, and can include as many detection layers that are necessary for the structure construction or to afford the detection detail level required. The damage is detected using a detector or

  2. Optical detection of DNA damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Kim R.; Apostol, A.; Cembrano, J.

    1999-02-01

    A rapid and sensitive fluorescence assay for oxidative damage to calf thymus DNA is reported. A decrease in the transition temperature for strand separation resulted from exposure of the DNA to the reactive decomposition products of 3- morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) (i.e., nitric oxide, superoxide, peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals). A decrease in melting temperature of 12 degrees Celsius was indicative of oxidative damage including single strand chain breaks. Double stranded (ds) and single stranded (ss) forms of DNA were determined using the indicator dyes ethidium bromide and PicoGreen. The change in DNA 'melting' curves was dependant on the concentration of SIN-1 and was most pronounced at 75 degrees Celsius. This chemically induced damage was significantly inhibited by sodium citrate, tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris), and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), but was unaffected by superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, ethylenediamine tetraacietic acid (EDTA), or deferoxamine. Lowest observable effect level for SIN-1-induced damage was 200 (mu) M.

  3. Dynamic based damage detection in composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Sauvik; Ricci, Fabrizio; Baid, Harsh; Mal, Ajit K.

    2009-03-01

    Advanced composites are being used increasingly in state-of-the-art aircraft and aerospace structures. In spite of their many advantages, composite materials are highly susceptible to hidden flaws that may occur at any time during the life cycle of a structure, and if undetected, may cause sudden and catastrophic failure of the entire structure. This paper is concerned with the detection and characterization of hidden defects in composite structures before they grow to a critical size. A methodology for automatic damage identification and localization is developed using a combination of vibration and wave propagation data. The structure is assumed to be instrumented with an array of actuators and sensors to excite and record its dynamic response, including vibration and wave propagation effects. A damage index, calculated from the measured dynamical response of the structure in a previous (reference) state and the current state, is introduced as a determinant of structural damage. The indices are used to identify low velocity impact damages in increasingly complex composite structural components. The potential application of the approach in developing health monitoring systems in defects-critical structures is indicated.

  4. Remote detection of forest damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, B. N.; Vogelmann, J. E.; Vogelmann, A. F.; Hoshizaki, T.; Williams, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    The use of remote sensing to discriminate, measure, and map forest damage is evaluated. TM spectal coverage, a helicopter-mounted radiometer, and ground-based surveys were utilized to examine the responses of the spruces and firs of Camels Hump Mountain, Vermont to stresses, such as pollution and trace metals. The basic spectral properties of vegetation are described. Forest damage at the site was estimated as 11.8-76.0 percent for the spruces and 19-43.8 percent for the balsam firs. Shifts in the spectra of the conifers in particular in the near IR region are analyzed, and variations in the mesophyll cell anatomy and pigment content of the spruces and firs are investigated. The relations between canopy moisture and damage is studied. The TM data are compared to aircraft data and found to be well correlated.

  5. Damage Detection Using Holography and Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews classical approaches to damage detection using laser holography and interferometry. The paper then details the modern uses of electronic holography and neural-net-processed characteristic patterns to detect structural damage. The design of the neural networks and the preparation of the training sets are discussed. The use of a technique to optimize the training sets, called folding, is explained. Then a training procedure is detailed that uses the holography-measured vibration modes of the undamaged structures to impart damage-detection sensitivity to the neural networks. The inspections of an optical strain gauge mounting plate and an International Space Station cold plate are presented as examples.

  6. Tissue damage detection by osmotic surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Enyedi, Balázs; Kala, Snigdha; Nikolich-Zugich, Tijana; Niethammer, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    How tissue damage is detected to induce inflammatory responses is unclear. Most studies have focused on damage signals released by cell breakage and necrosis1. Whether tissues utilize other cues besides cell lysis to detect that they are damaged is unknown. We find that osmolarity differences between interstitial fluid and the external environment mediate rapid leukocyte recruitment to sites of tissue damage in zebrafish by activating cytosolic phospholipase a2 (cPLA2) at injury sites. cPLA2 initiates the production of non-canonical arachidonate metabolites that mediate leukocyte chemotaxis via a 5-oxo-ETE receptor (OXE-R). Thus, tissues can detect damage through direct surveillance of barrier integrity. By this mechanism, cell-swelling likely functions as a pro-inflammatory intermediate. PMID:23934216

  7. Tissue damage detection by osmotic surveillance.

    PubMed

    Enyedi, Balázs; Kala, Snigdha; Nikolich-Zugich, Tijana; Niethammer, Philipp

    2013-09-01

    How tissue damage is detected to induce inflammatory responses is unclear. Most studies have focused on damage signals released by cell breakage and necrosis. Whether tissues use other cues in addition to cell lysis to detect that they are damaged is unknown. We find that osmolarity differences between interstitial fluid and the external environment mediate rapid leukocyte recruitment to sites of tissue damage in zebrafish by activating cytosolic phospholipase a2 (cPLA2) at injury sites. cPLA2 initiates the production of non-canonical arachidonate metabolites that mediate leukocyte chemotaxis through a 5-oxo-ETE receptor (OXE-R). Thus, tissues can detect damage through direct surveillance of barrier integrity, with cell swelling probably functioning as a pro-inflammatory intermediate in the process. PMID:23934216

  8. Development of the Non-Destructive Evaluation System Using an Eddy Current Probe for Detection of Fatigue Damage in a Stainless Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, M.; Yakushiji, T.; Tsuchida, Y.; Enokizono, M.

    2006-03-06

    The non-destructive evaluation system which is developed using an eddy current probe to evaluate fatigue damage in an austenitic stainless steel is reported in this paper. This probe is composed of the ferrite core and two pick-up coils connected differentially. The eddy current induced by the excitation coil is disarranged by nonuniform distribution of electromagnetic characteristics due to fatigue damage. The structural function of the eddy current probe proposed, enable to detect the eddy current disarrangement by fatigue damage. This probe detects the change of electromagnetic characteristics in the direction of X. In this paper, SUS304, a austenitic stainless steel was used as the sample. The experimental results show that the output voltage of the probe clearly depends on the number of stress cycles.

  9. Damage detection in mechanical structures using extreme value statistic.

    SciTech Connect

    Worden, K.; Allen, D. W.; Sohn, H.; Farrar, C. R.

    2002-01-01

    The first and most important objective of any damage identification algorithms is to ascertain with confidence if damage is present or not. Many methods have been proposed for damage detection based on ideas of novelty detection founded in pattern recognition and multivariate statistics. The philosophy of novelty detection is simple. Features are first extracted from a baseline system to be monitored, and subsequent data are then compared to see if the new features are outliers, which significantly depart from the rest of population. In damage diagnosis problems, the assumption is that outliers are generated from a damaged condition of the monitored system. This damage classification necessitates the establishment of a decision boundary. Choosing this threshold value is often based on the assumption that the parent distribution of data is Gaussian in nature. While the problem of novelty detection focuses attention on the outlier or extreme values of the data i.e. those points in the tails of the distribution, the threshold selection using the normality assumption weighs the central population of data. Therefore, this normality assumption might impose potentially misleading behavior on damage classification, and is likely to lead the damage diagnosis astray. In this paper, extreme value statistics is integrated with the novelty detection to specifically model the tails of the distribution of interest. Finally, the proposed technique is demonstrated on simulated numerical data and time series data measured from an eight degree-of-freedom spring-mass system.

  10. Damage detection of an in-service condensation pipeline joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briand, Julie; Rezaei, Davood; Taheri, Farid

    2010-04-01

    The early detection of damage in structural or mechanical systems is of vital importance. With early detection, the damage may be repaired before the integrity of the system is jeopardized, resulting in monetary losses, loss of life or limb, and environmental impacts. Among the various types of structural health monitoring techniques, vibration-based methods are of significant interest since the damage location does not need to be known beforehand, making it a more versatile approach. The non-destructive damage detection method used for the experiments herein is a novel vibration-based method which uses an index called the EMD Energy Damage Index, developed with the aim of providing improved qualitative results compared to those methods currently available. As part of an effort to establish the integrity and limitation of this novel damage detection method, field testing was completed on a mechanical pipe joint on a condensation line, located in the physical plant of Dalhousie University. Piezoceramic sensors, placed at various locations around the joint were used to monitor the free vibration of the pipe imposed through the use of an impulse hammer. Multiple damage progression scenarios were completed, each having a healthy state and multiple damage cases. Subsequently, the recorded signals from the healthy and damaged joint were processed through the EMD Energy Damage Index developed in-house in an effort to detect the inflicted damage. The proposed methodology successfully detected the inflicted damages. In this paper, the effects of impact location, sensor location, frequency bandwidth, intrinsic mode functions, and boundary conditions are discussed.

  11. Ozone damage detection in cantaloupe plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Escobar, D. E.; Rodriguez, R. R.; Thomas, C. E.; Bowen, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Ozone causes up to 90 percent of air pollution injury to vegetation in the United States; excess ozone affects plant growth and development and can cause undetected decrease in yields. Laboratory and field reflectance measurements showed that ozone-damaged cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) leaves had lower water contents and higher reflectance than did nondamaged leaves. Cantaloupe plants which were lightly, severely, and very severely ozone-damaged were distinguishable from nondamaged plants by reflectance measurements in the 1.35- to 2.5 micron near-infrared water absorption waveband. Ozone-damaged leaf areas were detected photographically 16 h before the damage was visible. Sensors are available for use with aircraft and spacecraft that possibly could be used routinely to detect ozone-damaged crops.

  12. Spiral Bevel Gear Damage Detection Using Decision Fusion Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    2002-01-01

    A diagnostic tool for detecting damage to spiral bevel gears was developed. Two different monitoring technologies, oil debris analysis and vibration, were integrated using data fusion into a health monitoring system for detecting surface fatigue pitting damage on gears. This integrated system showed improved detection and decision-making capabilities as compared to using individual monitoring technologies. This diagnostic tool was evaluated by collecting vibration and oil debris data from fatigue tests performed in the NASA Glenn Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue Rigs. Data was collected during experiments performed in this test rig when pitting damage occurred. Results show that combining the vibration and oil debris measurement technologies improves the detection of pitting damage on spiral bevel gears.

  13. Wireless Damage Location Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant Douglas (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A wireless damage location sensing system uses a geometric-patterned wireless sensor that resonates in the presence of a time-varying magnetic field to generate a harmonic response that will experience a change when the sensor experiences a change in its geometric pattern. The sensing system also includes a magnetic field response recorder for wirelessly transmitting the time-varying magnetic field and for wirelessly detecting the harmonic response. The sensing system compares the actual harmonic response to a plurality of predetermined harmonic responses. Each predetermined harmonic response is associated with a severing of the sensor at a corresponding known location thereof so that a match between the actual harmonic response and one of the predetermined harmonic responses defines the known location of the severing that is associated therewith.

  14. Impact Damage Detection in Composite Plates using a Self-diagnostic Electro-Mechanical Impedance-based Structural Health Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif-Khodaei, Z.; Ghajari, M.; Aliabadi, M. H.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, application of the electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) method in structural health monitoring as a damage detection technique has been investigated. A damage metric based on the real and imaginary parts of the impedance measures is introduced. Numerical and experimental tests are carried out to investigate the applicability of the method for various types of damage, such as debonding between the transducers and the plate, faulty sensors and impact damage in composite plates. The effect of several parameters, such as environmental effects, frequency sweep, severity of damage, location of damage, etc., on the damage metric has been reported.

  15. Open Circuit Resonant Sensors for Composite Damage Detection and Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mielnik, John J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Under the Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) program work was begun to investigate the feasibility of sensor systems for detecting and diagnosing damage to aircraft composite structures and materials. Specific interest for this study was in damage initiated by environmental storm hazards and the direct effect of lightning strikes on the material structures of a composite aircraft in flight. A series of open circuit resonant sensors was designed, fabricated, characterized, and determined to be a potentially viable means for damage detection and diagnosis of composite materials. The results of this research and development effort are documented in this report.

  16. Transmission Bearing Damage Detection Using Decision Fusion Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Lewicki, David G.; Decker, Harry J.

    2004-01-01

    A diagnostic tool was developed for detecting fatigue damage to rolling element bearings in an OH-58 main rotor transmission. Two different monitoring technologies, oil debris analysis and vibration, were integrated using data fusion into a health monitoring system for detecting bearing surface fatigue pitting damage. This integrated system showed improved detection and decision-making capabilities as compared to using individual monitoring technologies. This diagnostic tool was evaluated by collecting vibration and oil debris data from tests performed in the NASA Glenn 500 hp Helicopter Transmission Test Stand. Data was collected during experiments performed in this test rig when two unanticipated bearing failures occurred. Results show that combining the vibration and oil debris measurement technologies improves the detection of pitting damage on spiral bevel gears duplex ball bearings and spiral bevel pinion triplex ball bearings in a main rotor transmission.

  17. Prototype Systems Containing Human Cytochrome P450 for High-Throughput Real-Time Detection of DNA Damage by Compounds That Form DNA-Reactive Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Brito Palma, Bernardo; Fisher, Charles W; Rueff, José; Kranendonk, Michel

    2016-05-16

    The formation of reactive metabolites through biotransformation is the suspected cause of many adverse drug reactions. Testing for the propensity of a drug to form reactive metabolites has increasingly become an integral part of lead-optimization strategy in drug discovery. DNA reactivity is one undesirable facet of a drug or its metabolites and can lead to increased risk of cancer and reproductive toxicity. Many drugs are metabolized by cytochromes P450 in the liver and other tissues, and these reactions can generate hard electrophiles. These hard electrophilic reactive metabolites may react with DNA and may be detected in standard in vitro genotoxicity assays; however, the majority of these assays fall short due to the use of animal-derived organ extracts that inadequately represent human metabolism. The current study describes the development of bacterial systems that efficiently detect DNA-damaging electrophilic reactive metabolites generated by human P450 biotransformation. These assays use a GFP reporter system that detects DNA damage through induction of the SOS response and a GFP reporter to control for cytotoxicity. Two human CYP1A2-competent prototypes presented here have appropriate characteristics for the detection of DNA-damaging reactive metabolites in a high-throughput manner. The advantages of this approach include a short assay time (120-180 min) with real-time measurement, sensitivity to small amounts of compound, and adaptability to a microplate format. These systems are suitable for high-throughput assays and can serve as prototypes for the development of future enhanced versions. PMID:27031942

  18. A Robust Damage Assessment Model for Corrupted Database Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Ge; Zhu, Hong; Li, Yingjiu

    An intrusion tolerant database uses damage assessment techniques to detect damage propagation scales in a corrupted database system. Traditional damage assessment approaches in a intrusion tolerant database system can only locate damages which are caused by reading corrupted data. In fact, there are many other damage spreading patterns that have not been considered in traditional damage assessment model. In this paper, we systematically analyze inter-transaction dependency relationships that have been neglected in the previous research and propose four different dependency relationships between transactions which may cause damage propagation. We extend existing damage assessment model based on the four novel dependency relationships. The essential properties of our model is also discussed.

  19. Damage Detection in Electrically Conductive Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Todd A.

    2002-12-01

    High-technology systems are in need of structures that perform with increased functionality and a reduction in weight, while simultaneously maintaining a high level of performance and reliability. To accomplish this, structural elements must be designed more efficiently and with increased functionality, thereby creating multifunctional structures (MFS). Through the addition of carbon fibers, nanotubes, or particles, composite structures can be made electrically conductive while simultaneously increasing their strength and stiffness to weight ratios. Using the electrical properties of these structures for the purpose of damage detection and location for health and usage monitoring is of particular interest for aerospace structures. One such method for doing this is Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). With EIT, an electric current is applied through a pair of electrodes and the electric potential is recorded at other monitoring electrodes around the area of study. An inverse solution of the governing Maxwell equations is then required to determine the conductivities of discrete areas within the region of interest. However, this method is nearly ill-posed and computationally intensive as it focuses on imaging small changes in conductivity within the region of interest. For locating damage in a medium with an otherwise homogeneous conductivity, an alternative approach is to search for parameters such as the damage location and size. Towards those ends, this study develops an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to determine the state of an electrically conductive region based on applied reference current and electrical potentials at electrodes around the periphery of the region. A significant benefit of the ANN approach is that once trained, the solution of an inverse problem does not require costly computations of the inverse problem. This method also takes advantage of the pattern recognition abilities of neural networks and is a robust solution method in the presence

  20. Detecting Tooth Damage in Geared Drive Trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nachtsheim, Philip R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a method that was developed to detect gear tooth damage that does not require a priori knowledge of the frequency characteristic of the fault. The basic idea of the method is that a few damaged teeth will cause transient load fluctuations unlike the normal tooth load fluctuations. The method attempts to measure the energy in the lower side bands of the modulated signal caused by the transient load fluctuations. The method monitors the energy in the frequency interval which excludes the frequency of the lowest dominant normal tooth load fluctuation and all frequencies above it. The method reacted significantly to the tooth fracture damage results documented in the Lewis data sets which were obtained from tests of the OH-58A transmission and tests of high contact ratio spiral bevel gears. The method detected gear tooth fractures in all four of the high contact ratio spiral bevel gear runs. Published results indicate other detection methods were only able to detect faults for three out of four runs.

  1. Earthquake damage to transportation systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCullough, Heather

    1994-01-01

    Earthquakes represent one of the most destructive natural hazards known to man. A large magnitude earthquake near a populated area can affect residents over thousands of square kilometers and cause billions of dollars in property damage. Such an event can kill or injure thousands of residents and disrupt the socioeconomic environment for months, sometimes years. A serious result of a large-magnitude earthquake is the disruption of transportation systems, which limits post-disaster emergency response. Movement of emergency vehicles, such as police cars, fire trucks and ambulances, is often severely restricted. Damage to transportation systems is categorized below by cause including: ground failure, faulting, vibration damage, and tsunamis.

  2. In-flight fiber optic acoustic emission sensor (FAESense) system for the real time detection, localization, and classification of damage in composite aircraft structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Edgar; Prohaska, John; Kempen, Connie; Esterkin, Yan; Sun, Sunjian

    2013-05-01

    Acoustic emission sensing is a leading structural health monitoring technique use for the early warning detection of structural damage associated with impacts, cracks, fracture, and delaminations in advanced materials. Current AE systems based on electronic PZT transducers suffer from various limitations that prevent its wide dynamic use in practical avionics and aerospace applications where weight, size and power are critical for operation. This paper describes progress towards the development of a wireless in-flight distributed fiber optic acoustic emission monitoring system (FAESense™) suitable for the onboard-unattended detection, localization, and classification of damage in avionics and aerospace structures. Fiber optic AE sensors offer significant advantages over its counterpart electronic AE sensors by using a high-density array of micron-size AE transducers distributed and multiplex over long lengths of a standard single mode optical fiber. Immediate SHM applications are found in commercial and military aircraft, helicopters, spacecraft, wind mil turbine blades, and in next generation weapon systems, as well as in the petrochemical and aerospace industries, civil structures, power utilities, and a wide spectrum of other applications.

  3. Spiral-Bevel-Gear Damage Detected Using Decision Fusion Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Handschuh, Robert F.

    2003-01-01

    Helicopter transmission integrity is critical to helicopter safety because helicopters depend on the power train for propulsion, lift, and flight maneuvering. To detect impending transmission failures, the ideal diagnostic tools used in the health-monitoring system would provide real-time health monitoring of the transmission, demonstrate a high level of reliable detection to minimize false alarms, and provide end users with clear information on the health of the system without requiring them to interpret large amounts of sensor data. A diagnostic tool for detecting damage to spiral bevel gears was developed. (Spiral bevel gears are used in helicopter transmissions to transfer power between nonparallel intersecting shafts.) Data fusion was used to integrate two different monitoring technologies, oil debris analysis and vibration, into a health-monitoring system for detecting surface fatigue pitting damage on the gears.

  4. Capacitance-based damage detection sensing for aerospace structural composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami, P.; Yamamoto, N.; Chen, Y.; Manohara, H.

    2014-04-01

    Damage detection technology needs improvement for aerospace engineering application because detection within complex composite structures is difficult yet critical to avoid catastrophic failure. Damage detection is challenging in aerospace structures because not all the damage detection technology can cover the various defect types (delamination, fiber fracture, matrix crack etc.), or conditions (visibility, crack length size, etc.). These defect states are expected to become even more complex with future introduction of novel composites including nano-/microparticle reinforcement. Currently, non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods with X-ray, ultrasound, or eddy current have good resolutions (< 0.1 mm), but their detection capabilities is limited by defect locations and orientations and require massive inspection devices. System health monitoring (SHM) methods are often paired with NDE technologies to signal out sensed damage, but their data collection and analysis currently requires excessive wiring and complex signal analysis. Here, we present a capacitance sensor-based, structural defect detection technology with improved sensing capability. Thin dielectric polymer layer is integrated as part of the structure; the defect in the structure directly alters the sensing layer's capacitance, allowing full-coverage sensing capability independent of defect size, orientation or location. In this work, capacitance-based sensing capability was experimentally demonstrated with a 2D sensing layer consisting of a dielectric layer sandwiched by electrodes. These sensing layers were applied on substrate surfaces. Surface indentation damage (~1mm diameter) and its location were detected through measured capacitance changes: 1 to 250 % depending on the substrates. The damage detection sensors are light weight, and they can be conformably coated and can be part of the composite structure. Therefore it is suitable for aerospace structures such as cryogenic tanks and rocket

  5. Damage detection using frequency shift path

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Longqi; Lie, Seng Tjhen; Zhang, Yao

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel concept called FREquency Shift (FRESH) path to describe the dynamic behavior of structures with auxiliary mass. FRESH path combines the effects of frequency shifting and amplitude changing into one space curve, providing a tool for analyzing structure health status and properties. A damage index called FRESH curvature is then proposed to detect local stiffness reduction. FRESH curvature can be easily adapted for a particular problem since the sensitivity of the index can be adjusted by changing auxiliary mass or excitation power. An algorithm is proposed to adjust automatically the contribution from frequency and amplitude in the method. Because the extraction of FRESH path requires highly accurate frequency and amplitude estimators; therefore, a procedure based on discrete time Fourier transform is introduced to extract accurate frequency and amplitude with the time complexity of O (n log n), which is verified by simulation signals. Moreover, numerical examples with different damage sizes, severities and damping are presented to demonstrate the validity of the proposed damage index. In addition, applications of FRESH path on two steel beams with different damages are presented and the results show that the proposed method is valid and computational efficient.

  6. Damage modeling and damage detection for structures using a perturbation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Akash

    non-contact Laser-Doppler Vibrometer sensors. Assuming the damaged structure to be a linear system, the response is expressed as the summation of the responses of the corresponding undamaged structure and the response (negative response) of the damage alone. If the second part of the response is isolated, it forms what can be regarded as the damage signature. The damage signature gives a clear indication of the damage. In this thesis, the existence of the damage signature is investigated when the damaged structure is excited at one of its natural frequencies and therefore it is called "partial mode contribution". The second damage detection method is based on this new physical parameter as determined using the partial mode contribution. The physical reasoning is verified analytically, thereupon it is verified using finite element models and experiments. The limits of damage size that can be determined using the method are also investigated. There is no requirement of having a baseline data with this damage detection method. Since the partial mode contribution is a local parameter, it is thus very sensitive to the presence of damage. The parameter is also shown to be not affected by noise in the detection ambience.

  7. Experimental system identification of the dynamics of a vibro-impact beam with a view towards structural health monitoring and damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Heng; Kurt, Mehmet; Lee, Young S.; McFarland, D. Michael; Bergman, Lawrence A.; Vakakis, Alexander F.

    2014-05-01

    We perform nonlinear system identification (NSI) on the acceleration signals that were experimentally measured at ten, almost evenly spaced positions along a cantilever beam undergoing vibro-impacts between two rigid stops with clearances. Our goal is to characterize the nonlinear dynamics due to vibro-impacts with a view toward structural health monitoring (SHM) and damage detection (DD). The NSI methodology is based on the correspondence between analytical and empirical slow-flow dynamics, with the first step requiring empirical mode decomposition (EMD) analysis of the measured time series leading to sets of intrinsic modal oscillators (IMOs) governing the vibro-impact dynamics at different time scales. By comparing the spatiotemporal variations of the nonlinear modal interactions (and hence the IMOs), we examine how vibro-impacts influence the low- and high-frequency modes in global and local senses. In applications of the NSI results to SHM/DD, we calculate typical measures such as the modal assurance criterion (MAC) and the coordinate modal assurance criterion (COMAC) by extracting information about the mode shape functions from the spatiotemporal IMO solutions. Whereas the MAC provides a global aspect of damage occurrence (i.e., which modes are more affected by induced defects), the COMAC can narrow down the damage locations (i.e., where in the structure defects exist that yield low correlation values in specific modes).

  8. Tapered Roller Bearing Damage Detection Using Decision Fusion Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Kreider, Gary; Fichter, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A diagnostic tool was developed for detecting fatigue damage of tapered roller bearings. Tapered roller bearings are used in helicopter transmissions and have potential for use in high bypass advanced gas turbine aircraft engines. A diagnostic tool was developed and evaluated experimentally by collecting oil debris data from failure progression tests conducted using health monitoring hardware. Failure progression tests were performed with tapered roller bearings under simulated engine load conditions. Tests were performed on one healthy bearing and three pre-damaged bearings. During each test, data from an on-line, in-line, inductance type oil debris sensor and three accelerometers were monitored and recorded for the occurrence of bearing failure. The bearing was removed and inspected periodically for damage progression throughout testing. Using data fusion techniques, two different monitoring technologies, oil debris analysis and vibration, were integrated into a health monitoring system for detecting bearing surface fatigue pitting damage. The data fusion diagnostic tool was evaluated during bearing failure progression tests under simulated engine load conditions. This integrated system showed improved detection of fatigue damage and health assessment of the tapered roller bearings as compared to using individual health monitoring technologies.

  9. Development of a Fish Cell Biosensor System for Genotoxicity Detection Based on DNA Damage-Induced Trans-Activation of p21 Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Deyu; Zhang, Zhixia; Guo, Huarong

    2012-01-01

    p21CIP1/WAF1 is a p53-target gene in response to cellular DNA damage. Here we report the development of a fish cell biosensor system for high throughput genotoxicity detection of new drugs, by stably integrating two reporter plasmids of pGL3-p21-luc (human p21 promoter linked to firefly luciferase) and pRL-CMV-luc (CMV promoter linked to Renilla luciferase) into marine flatfish flounder gill (FG) cells, referred to as p21FGLuc. Initial validation of this genotoxicity biosensor system showed that p21FGLuc cells had a wild-type p53 signaling pathway and responded positively to the challenge of both directly acting genotoxic agents (bleomycin and mitomycin C) and indirectly acting genotoxic agents (cyclophosphamide with metabolic activation), but negatively to cyclophosphamide without metabolic activation and the non-genotoxic agents ethanol and D-mannitol, thus confirming a high specificity and sensitivity, fast and stable response to genotoxic agents for this easily maintained fish cell biosensor system. This system was especially useful in the genotoxicity detection of Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a rodent carcinogen, but negatively reported in most non-mammalian in vitro mutation assays, by providing a strong indication of genotoxicity for DEHP. A limitation for this biosensor system was that it might give false positive results in response to sodium butyrate and any other agents, which can trans-activate the p21 gene in a p53-independent manner. PMID:25585933

  10. A Comparison of Vibration and Oil Debris Gear Damage Detection Methods Applied to Pitting Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.

    2000-01-01

    Helicopter Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) must provide reliable, real-time performance monitoring of helicopter operating parameters to prevent damage of flight critical components. Helicopter transmission diagnostics are an important part of a helicopter HUMS. In order to improve the reliability of transmission diagnostics, many researchers propose combining two technologies, vibration and oil monitoring, using data fusion and intelligent systems. Some benefits of combining multiple sensors to make decisions include improved detection capabilities and increased probability the event is detected. However, if the sensors are inaccurate, or the features extracted from the sensors are poor predictors of transmission health, integration of these sensors will decrease the accuracy of damage prediction. For this reason, one must verify the individual integrity of vibration and oil analysis methods prior to integrating the two technologies. This research focuses on comparing the capability of two vibration algorithms, FM4 and NA4, and a commercially available on-line oil debris monitor to detect pitting damage on spur gears in the NASA Glenn Research Center Spur Gear Fatigue Test Rig. Results from this research indicate that the rate of change of debris mass measured by the oil debris monitor is comparable to the vibration algorithms in detecting gear pitting damage.

  11. Wavenumber Imaging For Damage Detection and Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogge, Matthew D.; Johnson, Pat H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method for analyzing ultrasonic wavefield data using the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) applied in the spatial domain. Unlike data obtained by sparse arrays of transducers, full wavefield data contains information local to the structure and can be used to obtain more detailed measurements of damage type, location, size, etc. By calculating the CWT of the wavefield in the spatial domain, the wavenumber spectrum is determined for the inspected locations. Because wavenumber is affected by the local geometry and material properties of the structure through which Lamb waves propagate, the wavenumber spectrum can be analyzed to assess the location, severity, and size of damage. The technique is first applied to experimental wavefield data obtained using a laser Doppler vibrometer and automated positioning stage. The out-of-plane velocity along the length of a composite stringer was measured to detect the presence of delaminations within the composite overwrap. Next, simulated corrosion is detected and measured within an aluminum plate using the two dimensional CWT. The experimental results show the usefulness of the technique for vehicle structure inspection applications.

  12. Damage assessment of the truss system with uncertainty using frequency response function based damage identification method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jie; DeSmidt, Hans; Yao, Wei

    2015-04-01

    A novel vibration-based damage identification methodology for the truss system with mass and stiffness uncertainties is proposed and demonstrated. This approach utilizes the damaged-induced changes of frequency response functions (FRF) to assess the severity and location of the structural damage in the system. The damage identification algorithm is developed basing on the least square and Newton-Raphson methods. The dynamical model of system is built using finite element method and Lagrange principle while the crack model is based on fracture mechanics. The method is synthesized via numerical examples for a truss system to demonstrate the effectiveness in detecting both stiffness and mass uncertainty existed in the system.

  13. Multi-stage identification scheme for detecting damage in structures under ambient excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Chunxiao; Hao, Hong; Li, Zhong-Xian

    2013-04-01

    Structural damage identification methods are critical to the successful application of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems to civil engineering structures. The dynamic response of civil engineering structures is usually characterized by high nonlinearity and non-stationarity. Accordingly, an improved Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) method which is adaptive, output-only and applicable to system identification of in-service structures under ambient excitations is developed in this study. Based on this method, a multi-stage damage detection scheme including the detection of damage occurrence, damage existence, damage location and the estimation of damage severity is developed. In this scheme, the improved HHT method is used to analyse the structural acceleration response, the obtained instantaneous frequency detects the instant of damage occurrence, the instantaneous phase is sensitive to minor damage and provides reliable damage indication, and the damage indicator developed based on statistical analysis of the Hilbert marginal spectrum detects damage locations. Finally, the response sampled at the detected damage location is continuously analysed to estimate the damage severity. Numerical and experimental studies of frame structures under ambient excitations are performed. The results demonstrate that this scheme accomplishes the above damage detection functions within one flow. It is robust, time efficient, simply implemented and applicable to the real-time SHM of in-service structures.

  14. Acoustic Emission Beamforming for Detection and Localization of Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivey, Joshua Callen

    The aerospace industry is a constantly evolving field with corporate manufacturers continually utilizing innovative processes and materials. These materials include advanced metallics and composite systems. The exploration and implementation of new materials and structures has prompted the development of numerous structural health monitoring and nondestructive evaluation techniques for quality assurance purposes and pre- and in-service damage detection. Exploitation of acoustic emission sensors coupled with a beamforming technique provides the potential for creating an effective non-contact and non-invasive monitoring capability for assessing structural integrity. This investigation used an acoustic emission detection device that employs helical arrays of MEMS-based microphones around a high-definition optical camera to provide real-time non-contact monitoring of inspection specimens during testing. The study assessed the feasibility of the sound camera for use in structural health monitoring of composite specimens during tensile testing for detecting onset of damage in addition to nondestructive evaluation of aluminum inspection plates for visualizing stress wave propagation in structures. During composite material monitoring, the sound camera was able to accurately identify the onset and location of damage resulting from large amplitude acoustic feedback mechanisms such as fiber breakage. Damage resulting from smaller acoustic feedback events such as matrix failure was detected but not localized to the degree of accuracy of larger feedback events. Findings suggest that beamforming technology can provide effective non-contact and non-invasive inspection of composite materials, characterizing the onset and the location of damage in an efficient manner. With regards to the nondestructive evaluation of metallic plates, this remote sensing system allows us to record wave propagation events in situ via a single-shot measurement. This is a significant improvement over

  15. Vibration Monitoring Techniques Applied to Detect Damage in Rotating Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.

    2002-01-01

    Rotor health monitoring and online damage detection are increasingly gaining the interest of the manufacturers of aircraft engines. This is primarily due to the need for improved safety during operation as well as the need for lower maintenance costs. Applied techniques for detecting damage in and monitoring the health of rotors are essential for engine safety, reliability, and life prediction. The goals of engine safety are addressed within the NASA-sponsored Aviation Safety Program (AvSP). AvSP provides research and technology products needed to help the Federal Aviation Administration and the aerospace industry improve aviation safety. The Nondestructive Evaluation Group at the NASA Glenn Research Center is addressing propulsion health management and the development of propulsion-system-specific technologies intended to detect potential failures prior to catastrophe.

  16. Ultrasonic Techniques for Baseline-Free Damage Detection in Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Debaditya

    This research presents ultrasonic techniques for baseline-free damage detection in structures in the context of structural health monitoring (SHM). Conventional SHM methods compare signals obtained from the pristine condition of a structure (baseline signals) with those from the current state, and relate certain changes in the signal characteristics to damage. While this approach has been successful in the laboratory, there are certain drawbacks of depending on baseline signals in real field applications. Data from the pristine condition are not available for most existing structures. Even if they are available, operational and environmental variations tend to mask the effect of damage on the signal characteristics. Most important, baseline measurements may become meaningless while assessing the condition of a structure after an extreme event such as an earthquake or a hurricane. Such events may destroy the sensors themselves and require installation of new sensors at different locations on the structure. Baseline-free structural damage detection can broaden the scope of SHM in the scenarios described above. A detailed discussion on the philosophy of baseline-free damage detection is provided in Chapter 1. Following this discussion, the research questions are formulated. The organization of this document and the major contributions of this research are also listed in this chapter. Chapter 2 describes a fully automated baseline-free technique for notch and crack detection in plates using a collocated pair of piezoelectric wafer transducers for measuring ultrasonic signals. Signal component corresponding to the damage induced mode-converted Lamb waves is extracted by processing the originally measured ultrasonic signals. The damage index is computed as a function of this mode-converted Lamb wave signal component. An over-determined system of Lamb wave measurements is used to find a least-square estimate of the measurement errors. This error estimate serves as the

  17. Underlying modal data issues for detecting damage in truss structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashangaki, Thomas A-L.; Smith, Suzanne Weaver; Lim, Tae W.

    1992-01-01

    Independent of the modal identification techniques employed for damage detection, use of measured modal data limits the expectations for damage location. These limitations are examined using the distribution of modal strain energy and the sensitivity of the frequency and mode shapes to structural stiffness changes. For given measured modal information of specific accuracy, this examination reveals the following: (1) damage detection is feasible for members that contribute significantly to the strain energy of the measured modes, (2) the modes which are most effective in detecting damage to certain critical members can be identified, and (3) a relationship can be drawn between the accuracy of the measured modes and frequencies and damage detection feasibility.

  18. Semi-active control of isolated and damaged structures using online damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amini, Fereidoun; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad; Javanbakht, Majd

    2015-10-01

    The idea of using semi-active or active control devices within a base isolation system has been developed recently, since applying this system to building structures has some shortcomings such as the creation of large displacements at the base level and the system's lack of adaptability to different seismic excitations. In this study, an integrated structural health monitoring and semi-active control scheme is proposed to enhance the seismic behavior of damaged isolated structures. The nonlinear behavior of an isolated structure is limited to the isolator level and the superstructure is assumed to remain linear. Then, using an online damage detection algorithm based on identified system Markov parameters and a semi-active fuzzy controller, the damage in the base isolator is mitigated and the seismic response of the structure is reduced. In addition, a magnetorheological damper is utilized as a well-studied semi-active actuator in the control system. The effectiveness of the proposed control system is evaluated through the numerical study of a six-degrees-of-freedom model of base-isolated buildings excited by various near-fault and far-field earthquake records. The results of the simulation show that the integrated algorithm is substantially effective in improving the dynamic behavior of isolated structures and reducing the damage in the isolator.

  19. A local damage detection approach based on restoring force method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Chao; Li, Dongsheng; Li, Hongnan

    2014-09-01

    Chain-like systems have been studied by many researchers for their simple structure and wide range of application. Previously, the damage in a chain-like system was detected by the reduction of the mass-normalized stiffness coefficient for certain elements as reported by Nayeri et al. (2008 [16]). However, some shortcomings exist in that approach and for overcoming them; an improved approach is derived and presented in this paper. In our improved approach, the mass normalized stiffness coefficients under two states (baseline state and potentially damaged state) are first estimated by a least square method, then these mass-stiffness coupled coefficients are decoupled to derive stiffness and mass relative change ratios for individual elements. These ratios are assembled in a vector, which is defined as damage indication vector (DIV). Each component in DIV is normalized individually to one to get multiple solutions. These solutions are averaged for estimating relative system changes, while abnormal solutions are discarded. The work of judging a solution as normal or abnormal is done by a cluster analysis algorithm. The most intriguing merit of this improved approach is that the relative stiffness and mass changes, which are coupled in the previous approach, can be separately identified. By this approach, the damage (single or multiple) extent and location can be correctly detected under operational conditions, meanwhile the proposed damage index has a clear physical meaning and is directly related to the stiffness reduction of corresponding structural elements. For illustrating the effectiveness and robustness of the improved approach, numerical simulation of a four floor building was carried out and experimental data from a structure tested at the Los Alamos National Laboratory was employed. Identified structural changes with both simulation and experimental data properly indicated the location and extent of actual structural damage, which validated the proposed

  20. Damage scenarios and an onboard support system for damaged ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jin; Lee, Dongkon; Kang, Hee Jin; Kim, Soo-Young; Shin, Sung-Chul

    2014-06-01

    Although a safety assessment of damaged ships, which considers environmental conditions such as waves and wind, is important in both the design and operation phases of ships, in Korea, rules or guidelines to conduct such assessments are not yet developed. However, NATO and European maritime societies have developed guidelines for a safety assessment. Therefore, it is required to develop rules or guidelines for safety assessments such as the Naval Ship Code (NSC) of NATO. Before the safety assessment of a damaged ship can be performed, the available damage scenarios must be developed and the safety assessment criteria must be established. In this paper, the parameters related to damage by accidents are identified and categorized when developing damage scenarios. The need for damage safety assessment criteria is discussed, and an example is presented. In addition, a concept and specifications for the DB-based supporting system, which is used in the operation phases, are proposed.

  1. A damage detection technique for reinforced concrete structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ai-Lun; Yang, Jann N.; Loh, Chin-Hsiung

    2012-04-01

    Civil engineering structures, such as reinforced concrete frames, exhibit nonlinear hysteretic behavior when subject to dynamic loads, such as earthquakes. The ability to detect damages in structures after a major earthquake will ensure their reliability and safety. Innovative analysis techniques for damage detection of structures have been extensively studied recently. However, practical and effective damage identification techniques remain to be developed for nonlinear structures, in particular hysteretic reinforced concrete (RC) structures. In this paper, a smooth hysteretic model with stiffness and strength degradations and with the pinching effect is used to represent the dynamic characteristics of reinforced concrete (RC) frames. A system identification method capable of detecting damages in nonlinear structures, referred to as the adaptive quadratic sum-square error with unknown inputs (AQSSE-UI), is used to detect damages in hysteretic RC frames. The performance of the AQSSE-UI technique is demonstrated by the experimental data. A 1/3 scale 2-story RC frame has been tested experimentally on the shake table at NCREE, Taiwan. This 2-story RC frame was subject to different levels of ground excitations back to back. The RC frame is firstly considered as a linear model with rotational springs and the tracking of the degradation of the stiffness parameters is carried out using the AQSSE-UI technique. Then the same RC frame is considered as a nonlinear structure with plastic hinges following a smooth hysteretic model. Experimental results show that the AQSSE-UI technique is quite effective for tracking of : (i) the stiffness degradation of linear structures, and (ii) the non-linear hysteretic parameters with stiffness and strength degradations.

  2. Impedance-based damage detection for civil infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Seunghee; Roh, YongRae; Yi, JinHak; Yun, Chung-Bang; Kwak, Hyo-Gyoung; Lee, SangHan

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of an impedance-based damage detection technique using piezoelectric (PZT) transducers for civil infrastructures such as steel bridges. The basic concept of the technique is to monitor the changes in the electrical impedance to detect structural damages. Those changes in the electrical impedance are due to the electro-mechanical coupling property of piezoelectric materials. The smart PZT transducers which act as both actuators and sensors in a self-analyzing manner are emerging to be effective in non-parametric health monitoring of structural systems. This health monitoring technique can be easily adapted to existing structures, since only a small number of PZT patches are needed for continuous monitoring of their structural integrity. This impedance-based method operates at high frequencies (above 100 kHz), which enables it to detect incipient-type damage. It is not interfered by normal operating conditions, vibrations of the host structure, and changes in the host external body. The results of the experimental study on three kinds of structural members indicate that cracks or loosened bolts/nuts near the PZT sensors may be effectively detected by monitoring the shifts of the resonant frequencies of the impedance functions.

  3. Gear Damage Detection Using Oil Debris Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to verify, when using an oil debris sensor, that accumulated mass predicts gear pitting damage and to identify a method to set threshold limits for damaged gears. Oil debris data was collected from 8 experiments with no damage and 8 with pitting damage in the NASA Glenn Spur Gear Fatigue Rig. Oil debris feature analysis was performed on this data. Video images of damage progression were also collected from 6 of the experiments with pitting damage. During each test, data from an oil debris sensor was monitored and recorded for the occurrence of pitting damage. The data measured from the oil debris sensor during experiments with damage and with no damage was used to identify membership functions to build a simple fuzzy logic model. Using fuzzy logic techniques and the oil debris data, threshold limits were defined that discriminate between stages of pitting wear. Results indicate accumulated mass combined with fuzzy logic analysis techniques is a good predictor of pitting damage on spur gears.

  4. Evaluation of the damage detection capability of a sparse-array guided-wave SHM system applied to a complex structure under varying thermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Thomas; Cawley, Peter; Wilcox, Paul David; Croxford, Anthony John

    2009-12-01

    A sparse-array structural health monitoring (SHM) system based on guided waves was applied to the door of a commercial shipping container. The door comprised a corrugated steel panel approximately 2.4 m by 2.4 m surrounded by a box beam frame and testing was performed in a nonlaboratory environment. A 3-D finite element (FE) model of the corrugations was used to predict transmission coefficients for the A0 and S0 modes across the corrugations as a function of incidence angle. The S0 mode transmission across the corrugations was substantially stronger, and this mode was used in the main test series. A sparse array with 9 transducers was attached to the structure, and signals from the undamaged structure were recorded at periodic intervals over a 3-week period, and the resulting signal database was used for temperature compensation of subsequent signals. Defects in the form of holes whose diameter was increased incrementally from 1 to 10 mm were introduced at 2 different points of the structure, and signals were taken for each condition. Direct analysis of subtracted signals allowed understanding of the defect detection capability of the system. Comparison of signals transmitted between different transducer pairs before and after damage was used to give an initial indication of defect detectability. Signals from all combinations of transducers were then used in imaging algorithms, and good localization of holes with a 5-mm diameter or above was possible within the sparse array, which covered half of the area of the structure. PMID:20040403

  5. Image Science and Analysis Group Spacecraft Damage Detection/Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheaton, Ira M., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This project consisted of several tasks that could be served by an intern to assist the ISAG in detecting damage to spacecrafts during missions. First, this project focused on supporting the Micrometeoroid Orbital Debris (MMOD) damage detection and assessment for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) using imagery from the last two HST Shuttle servicing missions. In this project, we used coordinates of two windows on the Shuttle Aft flight deck from where images were taken and the coordinates of three ID points in order to calculate the distance from each window to the three points. Then, using the specifications from the camera used, we calculated the image scale in pixels per inch for planes parallel to and planes in the z-direction to the image plane (shown in Table 1). This will help in the future for calculating measurements of objects in the images. Next, tabulation and statistical analysis were conducted for screening results (shown in Table 2) of imagery with Orion Thermal Protection System (TPS) damage. Using the Microsoft Excel CRITBINOM function and Goal Seek, the probabilities of detection of damage to different shuttle tiles were calculated as shown in Table 3. Using developed measuring tools, volume and area measurements will be created from 3D models of Orion TPS damage. Last, mathematical expertise was provided to the Photogrammetry Team. These mathematical tasks consisted of developing elegant image space error equations for observations along 3D lines, circles, planes, etc. and checking proofs for minimal sets of sufficient multi-linear constraints. Some of the processes and resulting equations are displayed in Figure 1.

  6. DNA damage may drive nucleosomal reorganization to facilitate damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeGresley, Sarah E.; Wilt, Jamie; Antonik, Matthew

    2014-03-01

    One issue in genome maintenance is how DNA repair proteins find lesions at rates that seem to exceed diffusion-limited search rates. We propose a phenomenon where DNA damage induces nucleosomal rearrangements which move lesions to potential rendezvous points in the chromatin structure. These rendezvous points are the dyad and the linker DNA between histones, positions in the chromatin which are more likely to be accessible by repair proteins engaged in a random search. The feasibility of this mechanism is tested by considering the statistical mechanics of DNA containing a single lesion wrapped onto the nucleosome. We consider lesions which make the DNA either more flexible or more rigid by modeling the lesion as either a decrease or an increase in the bending energy. We include this energy in a partition function model of nucleosome breathing. Our results indicate that the steady state for a breathing nucleosome will most likely position the lesion at the dyad or in the linker, depending on the energy of the lesion. A role for DNA binding proteins and chromatin remodelers is suggested based on their ability to alter the mechanical properties of the DNA and DNA-histone binding, respectively. We speculate that these positions around the nucleosome potentially serve as rendezvous points where DNA lesions may be encountered by repair proteins which may be sterically hindered from searching the rest of the nucleosomal DNA. The strength of the repositioning is strongly dependent on the structural details of the DNA lesion and the wrapping and breathing of the nucleosome. A more sophisticated evaluation of this proposed mechanism will require detailed information about breathing dynamics, the structure of partially wrapped nucleosomes, and the structural properties of damaged DNA.

  7. Quantitative phase imaging applied to laser damage detection and analysis.

    PubMed

    Douti, Dam-Bé L; Chrayteh, Mhamad; Aknoun, Sherazade; Doualle, Thomas; Hecquet, Christophe; Monneret, Serge; Gallais, Laurent

    2015-10-01

    We investigate phase imaging as a measurement method for laser damage detection and analysis of laser-induced modification of optical materials. Experiments have been conducted with a wavefront sensor based on lateral shearing interferometry associated with a high-magnification optical microscope. The system has been used for the in-line observation of optical thin films and bulk samples, laser irradiated in two different conditions: 500 fs pulses at 343 and 1030 nm, and millisecond to second irradiation with a CO2 laser at 10.6 μm. We investigate the measurement of the laser-induced damage threshold of optical material by detection and phase changes and show that the technique realizes high sensitivity with different optical path measurements lower than 1 nm. Additionally, the quantitative information on the refractive index or surface modification of the samples under test that is provided by the system has been compared to classical metrology instruments used for laser damage or laser ablation characterization (an atomic force microscope, a differential interference contrast microscope, and an optical surface profiler). An accurate in-line measurement of the morphology of laser-ablated sites, from few nanometers to hundred microns in depth, is shown. PMID:26479612

  8. Damage detection using the eigenparameter decomposition of substructural flexibility matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Shun; Zhu, Hong-Ping; Xia, Yong; Mao, Ling

    2013-01-01

    The crack or local damage on a structure reduces the stiffness of the structure, and thus leads to the modification of the dynamic properties. Damage detection is widely performed by comparing the initial modal data of the intact structure with those of the damaged structure. For a large-scale structure, the local damage usually introduces slight change to the global modal data, which makes the local damage difficult to be detected. This paper proposes a new substructuring method for the damage detection of a structure. The global structure is divided into manageable substructures. The modal data measured on the global structure are disassembled for obtaining the independent substructural dynamic flexibility matrices, under the force and displacement compatibility constraints. Thereafter, the substructural flexibility matrix is decomposed into its eigenvalues and eigenvectors to be used as the indicators for damage detection. Since the substructuring method concerns the local area by treating it as an independent structure, the substructural eigenparameters are more sensitive to the local damage than the global eigenparameters. The proposed substructuring method is firstly verified by a laboratory-tested portal frame structure. The location of the artificial cuts can be detected successfully by comparing the change of substructural eigenparameters. The proposed method is then applied to the 600 m tall Guangzhou New TV Tower. As compared with the global eigenparameters, the substructural eigenparameters bear larger changes caused by the local damage and thus are more sensitive to the local damage.

  9. Damage detection in bridges through fiber optic structural health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doornink, J. D.; Phares, B. M.; Wipf, T. J.; Wood, D. L.

    2006-10-01

    A fiber optic structural health monitoring (SHM) system was developed and deployed by the Iowa State University (ISU) Bridge Engineering Center (BEC) to detect gradual or sudden damage in fracture-critical bridges (FCBs). The SHM system is trained with measured performance data, which are collected by fiber optic strain sensors to identify typical bridge behavior when subjected to ambient traffic loads. Structural responses deviating from the trained behavior are considered to be signs of structural damage or degradation and are identified through analytical procedures similar to control chart analyses used in statistical process control (SPC). The demonstration FCB SHM system was installed on the US Highway 30 bridge near Ames, IA, and utilizes 40 fiber bragg grating (FBG) sensors to continuously monitor the bridge response when subjected to ambient traffic loads. After the data is collected and processed, weekly evaluation reports are developed that summarize the continuous monitoring results. Through use of the evaluation reports, the bridge owner is able to identify and estimate the location and severity of the damage. The information presented herein includes an overview of the SHM components, results from laboratory and field validation testing on the system components, and samples of the reduced and analyzed data.

  10. Integrating Oil Debris and Vibration Gear Damage Detection Technologies Using Fuzzy Logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    2002-01-01

    A diagnostic tool for detecting damage to spur gears was developed. Two different measurement technologies, wear debris analysis and vibration, were integrated into a health monitoring system for detecting surface fatigue pitting damage on gears. This integrated system showed improved detection and decision-making capabilities as compared to using individual measurement technologies. This diagnostic tool was developed and evaluated experimentally by collecting vibration and oil debris data from fatigue tests performed in the NASA Glenn Spur Gear Fatigue Test Rig. Experimental data were collected during experiments performed in this test rig with and without pitting. Results show combining the two measurement technologies improves the detection of pitting damage on spur gears.

  11. Application of Damage Detection Techniques Using Wind Turbine Modal Data

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, E.; Rumsey, M.; Simmermacher, T.; Zadoks, R.I.

    1998-12-17

    As any structure ages, its structural characteristics will also change. The goal of this work was to determine if modal response data fkom a wind turbine could be used in the detection of damage. The input stimuli to the wind turbine were from traditional modal hammer input and natural wind excitation. The structural response data was acquired using accelerometers mounted on the rotor of a parked and undamaged horizontal-axis wind turbine. The bolts at the root of one of the three blades were then loosened to simulate a damaged blade. The structural response data of the rotor was again recorded. The undamaged and damage-simulated datasets were compared using existing darnage detection algorithms. Also, a novel algorithm for combining the results of different damage detection algorithms was utilized in the assessment of the data. This paper summarizes the code development and discusses some preliminary damage detection results.

  12. Vibration Based Sun Gear Damage Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Adrian; LaBerge, Kelsen; Lewicki, David; Pines, Darryll

    2013-01-01

    Seeded fault experiments were conducted on the planetary stage of an OH-58C helicopter transmission. Two vibration based methods are discussed that isolate the dynamics of the sun gear from that of the planet gears, bearings, input spiral bevel stage, and other components in and around the gearbox. Three damaged sun gears: two spalled and one cracked, serve as the focus of this current work. A non-sequential vibration separation algorithm was developed and the resulting signals analyzed. The second method uses only the time synchronously averaged data but takes advantage of the signal/source mapping required for vibration separation. Both algorithms were successful in identifying the spall damage. Sun gear damage was confirmed by the presence of sun mesh groups. The sun tooth crack condition was inconclusive.

  13. DAMAGE DETECTION IN PLATE STRUCTURES USING MODAL POWER FLOW ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X.; Wong, W. O.; Cheng, L.

    2010-05-28

    The power flow and energy distribution of a vibration mode of a damaged plate is studied experimentally. Variation of the modal reactive power distribution of a damaged plate is experimentally evaluated with a scanning LDV and compared to the theoretical predictions. Large variation of local reactive power flow in or around the damage region of a plate under resonant vibration is found to be related to the change of strain and kinetic energies in the damage region. Feasibility of damage identification based on the detection of this local variation of modal reactive power flow in a structure is studied.

  14. Damage diagnosis algorithm using a sequential change point detection method with an unknown distribution for damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Hae Young; Rajagopal, Ram; Kiremidjian, Anne S.

    2012-04-01

    This paper introduces a damage diagnosis algorithm for civil structures that uses a sequential change point detection method for the cases where the post-damage feature distribution is unknown a priori. This algorithm extracts features from structural vibration data using time-series analysis and then declares damage using the change point detection method. The change point detection method asymptotically minimizes detection delay for a given false alarm rate. The conventional method uses the known pre- and post-damage feature distributions to perform a sequential hypothesis test. In practice, however, the post-damage distribution is unlikely to be known a priori. Therefore, our algorithm estimates and updates this distribution as data are collected using the maximum likelihood and the Bayesian methods. We also applied an approximate method to reduce the computation load and memory requirement associated with the estimation. The algorithm is validated using multiple sets of simulated data and a set of experimental data collected from a four-story steel special moment-resisting frame. Our algorithm was able to estimate the post-damage distribution consistently and resulted in detection delays only a few seconds longer than the delays from the conventional method that assumes we know the post-damage feature distribution. We confirmed that the Bayesian method is particularly efficient in declaring damage with minimal memory requirement, but the maximum likelihood method provides an insightful heuristic approach.

  15. On damage detection in wind turbine gearboxes using outlier analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniadou, Ifigeneia; Manson, Graeme; Dervilis, Nikolaos; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.; Worden, Keith

    2012-04-01

    The proportion of worldwide installed wind power in power systems increases over the years as a result of the steadily growing interest in renewable energy sources. Still, the advantages offered by the use of wind power are overshadowed by the high operational and maintenance costs, resulting in the low competitiveness of wind power in the energy market. In order to reduce the costs of corrective maintenance, the application of condition monitoring to gearboxes becomes highly important, since gearboxes are among the wind turbine components with the most frequent failure observations. While condition monitoring of gearboxes in general is common practice, with various methods having been developed over the last few decades, wind turbine gearbox condition monitoring faces a major challenge: the detection of faults under the time-varying load conditions prevailing in wind turbine systems. Classical time and frequency domain methods fail to detect faults under variable load conditions, due to the temporary effect that these faults have on vibration signals. This paper uses the statistical discipline of outlier analysis for the damage detection of gearbox tooth faults. A simplified two-degree-of-freedom gearbox model considering nonlinear backlash, time-periodic mesh stiffness and static transmission error, simulates the vibration signals to be analysed. Local stiffness reduction is used for the simulation of tooth faults and statistical processes determine the existence of intermittencies. The lowest level of fault detection, the threshold value, is considered and the Mahalanobis squared-distance is calculated for the novelty detection problem.

  16. Vibration-based damage detection algorithm for WTT structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Tuan-Cuong; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Choi, Sang-Hoon; Ryu, Joo-Young; Kim, Jeong-Tae

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the integrity of a wind turbine tower (WTT) structure is nondestructively estimated using its vibration responses. Firstly, a damage detection algorithm using changes in modal characteristics to predict damage locations and severities in structures is outlined. Secondly, a finite element (FE) model based on a real WTT structure is established by using a commercial software, Midas FEA. Thirdly, forced vibration tests are performed on the FE model of the WTT structure under various damage scenarios. The changes in modal parameters such as natural frequencies and mode shapes are examined for damage monitoring in the structure. Finally, the feasibility of the vibration-based damage detection method is numerically verified by predicting locations and severities of the damage in the FE model of the WTT structure.

  17. Vibration characteristics and damage detection in a suspension bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickramasinghe, Wasanthi R.; Thambiratnam, David P.; Chan, Tommy H. T.; Nguyen, Theanh

    2016-08-01

    Suspension bridges are flexible and vibration sensitive structures that exhibit complex and multi-modal vibration. Due to this, the usual vibration based methods could face a challenge when used for damage detection in these structures. This paper develops and applies a mode shape component specific damage index (DI) to detect and locate damage in a suspension bridge with pre-tensioned cables. This is important as suspension bridges are large structures and damage in them during their long service lives could easily go un-noticed. The capability of the proposed vibration based DI is demonstrated through its application to detect and locate single and multiple damages with varied locations and severity in the cables of the suspension bridge. The outcome of this research will enhance the safety and performance of these bridges which play an important role in the transport network.

  18. Guided wave damage detection with PZT-FBG sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoyi; Tian, Zhenhua; Lin, Bin; Yu, Lingyu

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents guided waves based damage detection by using a hybrid PZT actuator and optic fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors. In the hybrid sensing, a piezoelectric wafer (PZT) is used to generate incident guided waves based on the piezoelectric principle. Meanwhile, multiple fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBG) are adopted as receivers to measure the high-frequency small-strain guided waves base on the full width half maximum (FWHM) principle. If the inspected structure has damage such as hole, crack and notch, the incident guided waves will be reflected or scattered by the damage. Through multiple FBG sensors at different locations, the damage induced waves can be acquired and further processed for damage detection. In this research, two configurations are explored, the rosette and line arrangements of multiple sensors. The sensing and wave source localization on aluminum plate are demonstrated. The results show that wave source can be successfully detected by using both the FBG rosette and the FBG array.

  19. Damage detection and health monitoring of operational structures

    SciTech Connect

    James, G.; Mayes, R.; Carne, T.; Reese, G.

    1994-09-01

    Initial damage detection/health monitoring experiments have been performed on three different operational structures: a fracture critical bridge, a composite wind turbine blade, and an aging aircraft. An induced damage test was performed on the Rio Grande/I40 bridge before its demolition. The composite wind turbine test was fatgued to failure with periodic modal testing performed throughout the testing. The front fuselage of a DC-9 aircraft was used as the testbed for an induced damage test. These tests have yielded important insights into techniques for experimental damage detection on real structures. Additionally, the data are currently being used with current damage detection algorithms to further develop the numerical technology. State of the art testing technologies such as, high density modal testing, scanning laser vibrometry and natural excitation testing have also been utilized for these tests.

  20. Structural Damage Detection Using Slopes of Longitudinal Vibration Shapes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xu, W.; Zhu, W. D.; Smith, S. A.; Cao, M. S.

    2016-03-18

    While structural damage detection based on flexural vibration shapes, such as mode shapes and steady-state response shapes under harmonic excitation, has been well developed, little attention is paid to that based on longitudinal vibration shapes that also contain damage information. This study originally formulates a slope vibration shape for damage detection in bars using longitudinal vibration shapes. To enhance noise robustness of the method, a slope vibration shape is transformed to a multiscale slope vibration shape in a multiscale domain using wavelet transform, which has explicit physical implication, high damage sensitivity, and noise robustness. These advantages are demonstrated in numericalmore » cases of damaged bars, and results show that multiscale slope vibration shapes can be used for identifying and locating damage in a noisy environment. A three-dimensional (3D) scanning laser vibrometer is used to measure the longitudinal steady-state response shape of an aluminum bar with damage due to reduced cross-sectional dimensions under harmonic excitation, and results show that the method can successfully identify and locate the damage. Slopes of longitudinal vibration shapes are shown to be suitable for damage detection in bars and have potential for applications in noisy environments.« less

  1. Numerical simulation of damage detection using laser-generated ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peipei; Nazirah, Ab Wahab; Sohn, Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Laser ultrasonic techniques have been widely investigated due to its high spatial resolution and capacity for remote and noncontact measurement. In this study, the laser induced ultrasonic wave on an aluminum plate is simulated, and a nonlinear feature is used to detect a micro crack introduced in the plate model. A multi-physics simulation is conducted and optimized considering the effect of thermal diffusion. A nonlinear feature, called Bhattacharyya Distance (BD), is calculated to show the crack-induced geometric difference among the state space attractors obtained from closely spaced measurement points near the crack. First, a 3D model is built, and its simulation result is compared with an experiment performed using a noncontact laser ultrasonic measurement system. Then, by creating a micro crack in the model, BD is extracted and the crack is successfully detected and visualized. Finally, the effects of BD parameters, such as embedding dimension and frequency band, on damage visualization are investigated. PMID:27079488

  2. Detection of distributed damage in concrete using transient stress waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesner, Keith; Sansalone, Mary; Poston, Randall W.

    1998-03-01

    Distributed damage mechanisms, such as delayed ettringite formation (DEF) and alkali-silica reactivity (ASR) can cause cracking and premature deterioration of concrete structures. The focus of the authors' research has been to determine whether transient stress waves can be used for assessing the amount of damage present in plate-like concrete sections. Results obtained from numerical, laboratory, and field studies are presented. Finite element analyses were performed to study the effects caused by distributed damage on propagation stress waves. Laboratory studies involved the use of accelerated damage specimens for performing tests for detecting changes in physical properties over time, impact-echo tests, and neutron radiography to quantify the amount of cracking present in a specimen. A correlation was made between damage predictions obtained from impact-echo signals and the actual amount of cracking as determined from radiographs. A field study on concrete box beams suffering deterioration caused by distributed damage mechanisms was performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the methods for quantifying damage in actual concrete members. These studies demonstrated that impact-echo signals can be used to detect and quantify the amount of distributed damage in concrete sections. Guidelines for determining the amount of damage using impact-echo signals are presented. For the first time, engineers have a tool for assessing the amount of damage in concrete structures with distributed cracking.

  3. Damage Detection Using the Frequency-Response Curvature Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SAMPAIO, R. P. C.; MAIA, N. M. M.; SILVA, J. M. M.

    1999-10-01

    Structural damage detection has gained increasing attention from the scientific community since unpredicted major hazards, most with human losses, have been reported. Aircraft crashes and the catastrophic bridge failures are some examples. Security and economy aspects are the important motivations for increasing research on structural health monitoring. Since damage alters the dynamic characteristics of a structure, namely its eigenproperties (natural frequencies, modal damping and modes of vibration), several techniques based on experimental modal analysis have been developed in recent years. A method that covers the four steps of the process of damage detection—existence, localization, extent and prediction—has not yet been recognized or reported. The frequency-response-function (FRF) curvature method encompasses the first three referred steps being based on only the measured data without the need for any modal identification. In this paper, the method is described theoretically and compared with two of the most referenced methods on literature. Numerically generated data, from a lumped-mass system, and experimental data, from a real bridge, are used for better illustration.

  4. Airframe structural damage detection: a non-linear structural surface intensity based technique.

    PubMed

    Semperlotti, Fabio; Conlon, Stephen C; Barnard, Andrew R

    2011-04-01

    The non-linear structural surface intensity (NSSI) based damage detection technique is extended to airframe applications. The selected test structure is an upper cabin airframe section from a UH-60 Blackhawk helicopter (Sikorsky Aircraft, Stratford, CT). Structural damage is simulated through an impact resonator device, designed to simulate the induced vibration effects typical of non-linear behaving damage. An experimental study is conducted to prove the applicability of NSSI on complex mechanical systems as well as to evaluate the minimum sensor and actuator requirements. The NSSI technique is shown to have high damage detection sensitivity, covering an extended substructure with a single sensing location. PMID:21476618

  5. Automatic Damage Detection for Sensitive Cultural Heritage Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerra, D.; Tian, J.; Lysandrou, V.; Plank, S.

    2016-06-01

    The intentional damages to local Cultural Heritage sites carried out in recent months by the Islamic State (IS) have received wide coverage from the media worldwide. Earth Observation data is an important tool to assess these damages in such non-accessible areas: If a fast response is desired, automated image processing techniques would be needed to speed up the analysis. This paper shows the first results of applying fast and robust change detection techniques to sensitive areas. A map highlighting potentially damaged buildings is derived, which could help experts at timely assessing the damages to the Cultural Heritage sites in the observed images.

  6. Chimeric Proteins to Detect DNA Damage and Mismatches

    SciTech Connect

    McCutchen-Maloney, S; Malfatti, M; Robbins, K M

    2002-01-14

    The goal of this project was to develop chimeric proteins composed of a DNA mismatch or damage binding protein and a nuclease, as well as methods to detect DNA mismatches and damage. We accomplished this through protein engineering based on using polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) to create chimeras with novel functions for damage and mismatch detection. This project addressed fundamental questions relating to disease susceptibility and radiation-induced damage in cells. It also supported and enhanced LLNL's competency in the emerging field of proteomics. In nature, DNA is constantly being subjected to damaging agents such as exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and various environmental and dietary carcinogens. If DNA damage is not repaired however, mutations in DNA result that can eventually manifest in cancer and other diseases. In addition to damage-induced DNA mutations, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which are variations in the genetic sequence between individuals, may predispose some to disease. As a result of the Human Genome Project, the integrity of a person's DNA can now be monitored. Therefore, methods to detect DNA damage, mutations, and SNPs are useful not only in basic research but also in the health and biotechnology industries. Current methods of detection often use radioactive labeling and rely on expensive instrumentation that is not readily available in many research settings. Our methods to detect DNA damage and mismatches employ simple gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry, thereby alleviating the need for radioactive labeling and expensive equipment. In FY2001, we explored SNP detection by developing methods based on the ability of the chimeric proteins to detect mismatches. Using multiplex assays with flow cytometry and fluorescent beads to which the DNA substrates where attached, we showed that several of the chimeras possess greater affinity for damaged and mismatched DNA than for native DNA. This affinity was demonstrated in

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF NONLINEAR HARMONIC SENSORS FOR DETECTION OF MECHANICAL DAMAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred E. Crouch; Alan Dean; Carl Torres; Jeff Aron

    2004-03-01

    In a joint effort with Tuboscope Pipeline Services of Houston, Texas, Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) adapted its nonlinear harmonic (NLH) sensing technology for use on a new in-line inspection system (smart pig). Nonlinear harmonics, an AC magnetic method for detecting local anomalies of stress and plastic deformation, shows promise of improved characterization of mechanical damage defects such as gouged dents, even though the dents may have re-rounded. The SwRI-Tuboscope project produced a sensor design, electronic design, and sensor suspension design that are directly adaptable to a multitechnology ILI system. This report describes the NLH method, the sensor, circuit, and suspension designs, and shows results from the supporting laboratory work.

  8. Sequential damage detection based on the continuous wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yizheng; Balafas, Konstantinos; Rajagopal, Ram; Kiremidjian, Anne S.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a sequential structural damage detection algorithm that is based on a statistical model for the wavelet transform of the structural responses. The detector uses the coefficients of the wavelet model and does not require prior knowledge of the structural properties. Principal Component Analysis is applied to select and extract the most sensitive features from the wavelet coefficients as the damage sensitive features. The damage detection algorithm is validated using the simulation data collected from a four-story steel moment frame. Various features have been explored and the detection algorithm was able to identify damage. Additionally, we show that for a desired probability of false alarm, the proposed detector is asymptotically optimal on the expected delay.

  9. Nonlinear damage identification of breathing cracks in Truss system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jie; DeSmidt, Hans

    2014-03-01

    The breathing cracks in truss system are detected by Frequency Response Function (FRF) based damage identification method. This method utilizes damage-induced changes of frequency response functions to estimate the severity and location of structural damage. This approach enables the possibility of arbitrary interrogation frequency and multiple inputs/outputs which greatly enrich the dataset for damage identification. The dynamical model of truss system is built using the finite element method and the crack model is based on fracture mechanics. Since the crack is driven by tensional and compressive forces of truss member, only one damage parameter is needed to represent the stiffness reduction of each truss member. Assuming that the crack constantly breathes with the exciting frequency, the linear damage detection algorithm is developed in frequency/time domain using Least Square and Newton Raphson methods. Then, the dynamic response of the truss system with breathing cracks is simulated in the time domain and meanwhile the crack breathing status for each member is determined by the feedback from real-time displacements of member's nodes. Harmonic Fourier Coefficients (HFCs) of dynamical response are computed by processing the data through convolution and moving average filters. Finally, the results show the effectiveness of linear damage detection algorithm in identifying the nonlinear breathing cracks using different combinations of HFCs and sensors.

  10. Damage detection in concrete using Lamb waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Young-Chul; Na, Won-Bae; Kundu, Tribikram; Ehsani, Mohammad R.

    2000-06-01

    The feasibility of detecting defects in concrete beams using Lamb waves is investigated in this paper. The Lamb wave can propagate a long distance along the specimen as the guided wave and is sensitive to defects that are smaller than its wavelength. The traditional ultrasonic methods for inspecting defects in concrete use reflection, transmission and scattering of longitudinal waves by internal defects. In traditional techniques signal amplitude and time of flight measurements provide information about the internal defects in concrete. These methods are time consuming and often fail to detect a variety of defects, such as internal corrosion, honeycombs, closed cracks and small inclusions. In this paper Lamb waves are used to detect those defects in concrete beams with and without reinforcement. The Lamb wave technique is found to be reliable for detecting such defects. The effect of separation or delamination between concrete and reinforcing steel bars on the Lamb wave propagation characteristics is also investigated. Corrosion of rebars can cause this delamination. It is found that the cylindrical guided waves propagating along the steel rebars are very sensitive to the degree of delamination between the concrete and the rebars. This investigation shows that the Lamb wave inspection technique is an efficient and effective tool for health monitoring of concrete structures.

  11. Acoustic Emission Detection of Impact Damage on Space Shuttle Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, William H.; Gorman, Michael R.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2004-01-01

    The loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia as a result of impact damage from foam debris during ascent has led NASA to investigate the feasibility of on-board impact detection technologies. AE sensing has been utilized to monitor a wide variety of impact conditions on Space Shuttle components ranging from insulating foam and ablator materials, and ice at ascent velocities to simulated hypervelocity micrometeoroid and orbital debris impacts. Impact testing has been performed on both reinforced carbon composite leading edge materials as well as Shuttle tile materials on representative aluminum wing structures. Results of these impact tests will be presented with a focus on the acoustic emission sensor responses to these impact conditions. These tests have demonstrated the potential of employing an on-board Shuttle impact detection system. We will describe the present plans for implementation of an initial, very low frequency acoustic impact sensing system using pre-existing flight qualified hardware. The details of an accompanying flight measurement system to assess the Shuttle s acoustic background noise environment as a function of frequency will be described. The background noise assessment is being performed to optimize the frequency range of sensing for a planned future upgrade to the initial impact sensing system.

  12. Detection and damage assessment of citrus tree losses with aerial color infrared photography /ACIR/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blazquez, C. H.; Horn, F. W., Jr.; Edwards, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    Detection and disease damage assessment of citrus tree losses in a Florida citrus grove were made by establishing a registration (grove site location) coordinate system, developing a damage assessment system, and testing sequential aerial color infrared (ACIR) photography at the scale of 1 in. = 333 ft (2.5 cm = 100 m) during the winter, spring, and summer seasons of 1978 and spring of 1979. Spring photography was the easiest to photo interpret, showed the greatest differences between healthy and diseased trees, and had the least shadow and background interference for photo interpretation. Trees showing slight disease damage were detected in ACIR before they were found in ground surveys.

  13. Development of practical damage-mapping and inspection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rainer, F.

    1998-08-19

    We have developed and are continuing to refine semi-automated technology for the detection and inspection of surface and bulk defects and damage in large laser optics Different manifestations of the DAMOCLES system (Damage and Artifact Mapping Of Coherent-Laser-Exposed Substrates) provide an effective and economical means of being able to detect, map and characterize surface and bulk defects which may become precursors of massive damage in optics when subjected to high-fluence laser irradiation Subsequent morphology and evolution of damage due to laser irradiation can be tracked efficiently The strength of the Damocles system is that it allows for immediate visual observation of defects in an entire optic, which can range up to l-meter dimensions, while also being able to provide digital map and magnified images of the defects with resolutions better than 5 µm.

  14. Direct Detection and Sequencing of Damaged DNA Bases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Products of various forms of DNA damage have been implicated in a variety of important biological processes, such as aging, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Therefore, there exists great interest to develop methods for interrogating damaged DNA in the context of sequencing. Here, we demonstrate that single-molecule, real-time (SMRT®) DNA sequencing can directly detect damaged DNA bases in the DNA template - as a by-product of the sequencing method - through an analysis of the DNA polymerase kinetics that are altered by the presence of a modified base. We demonstrate the sequencing of several DNA templates containing products of DNA damage, including 8-oxoguanine, 8-oxoadenine, O6-methylguanine, 1-methyladenine, O4-methylthymine, 5-hydroxycytosine, 5-hydroxyuracil, 5-hydroxymethyluracil, or thymine dimers, and show that these base modifications can be readily detected with single-modification resolution and DNA strand specificity. We characterize the distinct kinetic signatures generated by these DNA base modifications. PMID:22185597

  15. Damage detection in turbine wind blades by vibration based methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doliński, L.; Krawczuk, M.

    2009-08-01

    The paper describes results of numerical simulation for damage localization in the composite coat of a wind turbine blade using modal parameters and a modern damage detection method (wavelet transform). The presented results were obtained in the first period of research on the diagnostic method, which is aimed at detecting damage in the blades of large wind turbines during normal operation. A blade-modelling process including the geometry, loads and failures has been introduced in the paper. A series of simulations has been carried out for different localizations and size of damage for finding the method's limits. To verify the results of numeric simulations a subscale blade has been built which has geometric features and mechanical properties similar to the computer model.

  16. Study on an auto-correlation-function-based damage index: Sensitivity analysis and structural damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Muyu; Schmidt, Rüdiger

    2015-12-01

    The damage index based on the auto correlation function to detect the damage of the structure under white noise excitation is studied in detail in this paper. The maximum values of the auto correlation function of the vibration response signals (displacement, velocity and acceleration) from different measurement points of the structure are collected and formulated as a vector called Auto Correlation Function at Maximum Point Value Vector (AMV), which is expressed as a weighted combination of the Hadamard product of two mode shapes. AMV is normalized by its root mean square value so that the influence of the excitation can be eliminated. Sensitivity analysis for the different parts of the normalized AMV shows that the sensitivity of the normalized AMV to the local stiffness is dependent most on the sensitivity of the Hadamard product of the two lower order mode shapes to the local stiffness, which has a sudden change of the value around the local stiffness change position. The sensitivity of the normalized AMV has the similar shape and same trend that shows it is a very good damage indicator even for the very small damage. The relative change of the normalized AMV before and after damage occurs in the structure is adopted as the damage index to show the damage location. Several examples of the stiffness reduction detection of a 12-story shear frame structure are utilized to validate the results in sensitivity analysis, illustrate the effectiveness and anti-noise ability of the AMV-based damage detection method and compare the effect of the response type on the detectability of the normalized AMV.

  17. Rapid detection and quantification of impact damage in composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Barry T.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that a multidisciplinary nondestructive evaluation approach for impact damage detection in composite structures can be used to produce a more efficient inspection. The multidisciplinary NDE approach relies on fast large area thermographic inspections along with detailed ultrasonic volumetric imaging. The thermal inspection technique rapidly identifies the impact damage. The ultrasonic volumetric imaging quantifies the impact generated delaminations through the volume of the structure.

  18. Rapid detection and quantification of impact damage in composite structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Farley, Gary; Smith, Barry T.

    1991-01-01

    NDE results from thermographic and volumetric ultrasonic techniques are presented to illustrate the multidisciplinary NDE approach to impact-damage detection in such composite structures as are increasingly prevalent in helicopters. Attention is given to both flat-panel and 'y-stiffened' panel specimens; these were fabricated either with kevlar or carbon fiber through-the-thickness reinforcements. While thermal inspection identifies impact damage, volumetric imaging quantifies the impact-generated delaminations through the volume of the structure.

  19. Detecting damage in steel with scanning SQUID microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Tae-Kyu; Clatterbuck, David; Morris Jr., J.W.; Shaw, T.J.; McDermott R.; Clarke, John

    2001-09-04

    A ''Holy Grail'' of NDE research is a non-destructive method for measuring fatigue damage prior to crack initiation. High-Tc scanning SQUID microscopy may be a useful tool. Because of the exceptional magnetic sensitivity of this technique, fatigue damage can be detected well before microcrack initiation, and in the absence of other obvious microstructure or property changes. Given the spatial resolution of the technique, undamaged material can be located and used to set internal standards.

  20. Info-gap robustness of an input signal optimization algorithm for damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquali, M.; Stull, C. J.; Farrar, C. R.

    2015-01-01

    Info-Gap Decision Theory is adopted to assess the robustness of a technique aimed at identifying the optimal excitation signal to be used for active sensing approaches to damage detection. Here the term "active sensing" refers to procedures where a known input is applied to the structure to enhance the damage detection process. Given limited system response measurements and ever-present physical limits on the level of excitation, the ultimate goal of the mentioned technique is to improve the detectability of damage by increasing the difference between measured outputs of the undamaged and damaged systems. In particular, a two degree-of-freedom mass-spring-damper system characterized by the presence of a nonlinear stiffness is considered. Uncertainty is introduced to the system in the form of deviations of its parameters (mass, stiffness, damping ratio) from their nominal values. Variations in the performance of the mentioned technique are then evaluated both in terms of changes in the estimated difference between the responses of the damaged and undamaged systems and in terms of deviations of the identified optimal input signal from its nominal estimation. Finally, plots of the performances of the analyzed algorithm for different levels of uncertainty are obtained, enabling a clear evaluation of the risks connected with designing excitation signals for damage detection, when the parameters that dictate system behavior (e.g. stiffness, mass) are poorly characterized or improperly modeled.

  1. Damage Detection Response Characteristics of Open Circuit Resonant (SansEC) Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Kenneth L.; Szatkowski, George N.; Smith, Laura J.; Koppen, Sandra V.; Ely, Jay J.; Nguyen, Truong X.; Wang, Chuantong; Ticatch, Larry A.; Mielnik, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The capability to assess the current or future state of the health of an aircraft to improve safety, availability, and reliability while reducing maintenance costs has been a continuous goal for decades. Many companies, commercial entities, and academic institutions have become interested in Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) and a growing effort of research into "smart" vehicle sensing systems has emerged. Methods to detect damage to aircraft materials and structures have historically relied on visual inspection during pre-flight or post-flight operations by flight and ground crews. More quantitative non-destructive investigations with various instruments and sensors have traditionally been performed when the aircraft is out of operational service during major scheduled maintenance. Through the use of reliable sensors coupled with data monitoring, data mining, and data analysis techniques, the health state of a vehicle can be detected in-situ. NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is developing a composite aircraft skin damage detection method and system based on open circuit SansEC (Sans Electric Connection) sensor technology. Composite materials are increasingly used in modern aircraft for reducing weight, improving fuel efficiency, and enhancing the overall design, performance, and manufacturability of airborne vehicles. Materials such as fiberglass reinforced composites (FRC) and carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP) are being used to great advantage in airframes, wings, engine nacelles, turbine blades, fairings, fuselage structures, empennage structures, control surfaces and aircraft skins. SansEC sensor technology is a new technical framework for designing, powering, and interrogating sensors to detect various types of damage in composite materials. The source cause of the in-service damage (lightning strike, impact damage, material fatigue, etc.) to the aircraft composite is not relevant. The sensor will detect damage independent of the cause

  2. Damage Detection of Structures Identified with Deterministic-Stochastic Models Using Seismic Data

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ming-Chih; Wang, Yen-Po; Chang, Ming-Lian

    2014-01-01

    A deterministic-stochastic subspace identification method is adopted and experimentally verified in this study to identify the equivalent single-input-multiple-output system parameters of the discrete-time state equation. The method of damage locating vector (DLV) is then considered for damage detection. A series of shaking table tests using a five-storey steel frame has been conducted. Both single and multiple damage conditions at various locations have been considered. In the system identification analysis, either full or partial observation conditions have been taken into account. It has been shown that the damaged stories can be identified from global responses of the structure to earthquakes if sufficiently observed. In addition to detecting damage(s) with respect to the intact structure, identification of new or extended damages of the as-damaged counterpart has also been studied. This study gives further insights into the scheme in terms of effectiveness, robustness, and limitation for damage localization of frame systems. PMID:25165749

  3. Damage detection of structures identified with deterministic-stochastic models using seismic data.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming-Chih; Wang, Yen-Po; Chang, Ming-Lian

    2014-01-01

    A deterministic-stochastic subspace identification method is adopted and experimentally verified in this study to identify the equivalent single-input-multiple-output system parameters of the discrete-time state equation. The method of damage locating vector (DLV) is then considered for damage detection. A series of shaking table tests using a five-storey steel frame has been conducted. Both single and multiple damage conditions at various locations have been considered. In the system identification analysis, either full or partial observation conditions have been taken into account. It has been shown that the damaged stories can be identified from global responses of the structure to earthquakes if sufficiently observed. In addition to detecting damage(s) with respect to the intact structure, identification of new or extended damages of the as-damaged counterpart has also been studied. This study gives further insights into the scheme in terms of effectiveness, robustness, and limitation for damage localization of frame systems. PMID:25165749

  4. Non-Harmonic Fourier Analysis for bladed wheels damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, P.; Peeters, B.

    2015-11-01

    The interaction between bladed wheels and the fluid distributed by the stator vanes results in cyclic loading of the rotating components. Compressors and turbines wheels are subject to vibration and fatigue issues, especially when resonance conditions are excited. Even if resonance conditions can be often predicted and avoided, high cycle fatigue failures can occur, causing safety issues and economic loss. Rigorous maintenance programs are then needed, forcing the system to expensive shut-down. Blade crack detection methods are beneficial for condition-based maintenance. While contact measurement systems are not always usable in exercise conditions (e.g. high temperature), non-contact methods can be more suitable. One (or more) stator-fixed sensor can measure all the blades as they pass by, in order to detect the damaged ones. The main drawback in this situation is the short acquisition time available for each blade, which is shortened by the high rotational speed of the components. A traditional Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) analysis would result in a poor frequency resolution. A Non-Harmonic Fourier Analysis (NHFA) can be executed with an arbitrary frequency resolution instead, allowing to obtain frequency information even with short-time data samples. This paper shows an analytical investigation of the NHFA method. A data processing algorithm is then proposed to obtain frequency shift information from short time samples. The performances of this algorithm are then studied by experimental and numerical tests.

  5. Laser-based structural sensing and surface damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guldur, Burcu

    Damage due to age or accumulated damage from hazards on existing structures poses a worldwide problem. In order to evaluate the current status of aging, deteriorating and damaged structures, it is vital to accurately assess the present conditions. It is possible to capture the in situ condition of structures by using laser scanners that create dense three-dimensional point clouds. This research investigates the use of high resolution three-dimensional terrestrial laser scanners with image capturing abilities as tools to capture geometric range data of complex scenes for structural engineering applications. Laser scanning technology is continuously improving, with commonly available scanners now capturing over 1,000,000 texture-mapped points per second with an accuracy of ~2 mm. However, automatically extracting meaningful information from point clouds remains a challenge, and the current state-of-the-art requires significant user interaction. The first objective of this research is to use widely accepted point cloud processing steps such as registration, feature extraction, segmentation, surface fitting and object detection to divide laser scanner data into meaningful object clusters and then apply several damage detection methods to these clusters. This required establishing a process for extracting important information from raw laser-scanned data sets such as the location, orientation and size of objects in a scanned region, and location of damaged regions on a structure. For this purpose, first a methodology for processing range data to identify objects in a scene is presented and then, once the objects from model library are correctly detected and fitted into the captured point cloud, these fitted objects are compared with the as-is point cloud of the investigated object to locate defects on the structure. The algorithms are demonstrated on synthetic scenes and validated on range data collected from test specimens and test-bed bridges. The second objective of

  6. The use of strain gauges in vibration-based damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques dos Santos, Fabio Luis; Peeters, Bart; Lau, Jenny; Desmet, Wim; Sandoval Goes, Luiz Carlos

    2015-07-01

    Strain gauges and strain measurements have been widely used in structural health monitoring (SHM) systems as a means of detecting and localizing damage, due to their higher sensitivity to local damage. These damage identification techniques normally use strain related measurements such as the mode curvature, strain frequency response function or strain energy as the main parameter to detect damage. However, damage detection techniques based on acceleration measurements have also been investigated in the past, using modal parameter comparison and other methodologies. In this paper, the use of vibration-based strain measurements for use in SHM systems will be evaluated, with the purpose of characterizing their higher sensitivity in damage detection, when compared to other vibration measurements, such as acceleration-based measurements. Since the choice and use of the most damage sensitive parameter can lead to a more sensitive and robust system, the assessment of the more suitable sensor and processing of information is very important. For this purpose, numerical and experimental examples will be discussed to evaluate the higher performance of the strain gauges.

  7. Machine learning algorithms for damage detection: Kernel-based approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Adam; Figueiredo, Eloi; Silva, M. F. M.; Sales, C. S.; Costa, J. C. W. A.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents four kernel-based algorithms for damage detection under varying operational and environmental conditions, namely based on one-class support vector machine, support vector data description, kernel principal component analysis and greedy kernel principal component analysis. Acceleration time-series from an array of accelerometers were obtained from a laboratory structure and used for performance comparison. The main contribution of this study is the applicability of the proposed algorithms for damage detection as well as the comparison of the classification performance between these algorithms and other four ones already considered as reliable approaches in the literature. All proposed algorithms revealed to have better classification performance than the previous ones.

  8. Polarimetric sensors for damage detection of aluminum materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Wee M.; Ng, Poh K.; Sng, Su-fern S.; Ma, Jianjun; Asundi, Anand K.; Puttappa, Jayanth

    2001-06-01

    A PFOS for monitoring and detecting damages in aluminum specimen has been demonstrated. It has been shown that PFOS can be used to monitor the development of cracks and predict residual load on aluminum structures. The experimental result obtained is very consistent and the sensor is immune to temperature changes and electromagnetic interference, as it does not require a reference are more accurate for damage detection. Some of the features such as low cost, durable, light weight and real-time applications of PFOS have been highlighted.

  9. Optical components damage parameters database system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yizheng; Li, Xinglan; Jin, Yuquan; Xie, Dongmei; Tang, Dingyong

    2012-10-01

    Optical component is the key to large-scale laser device developed by one of its load capacity is directly related to the device output capacity indicators, load capacity depends on many factors. Through the optical components will damage parameters database load capacity factors of various digital, information technology, for the load capacity of optical components to provide a scientific basis for data support; use of business processes and model-driven approach, the establishment of component damage parameter information model and database systems, system application results that meet the injury test optical components business processes and data management requirements of damage parameters, component parameters of flexible, configurable system is simple, easy to use, improve the efficiency of the optical component damage test.

  10. Detection of Damaged DNA Bases by DNA Glycosylase Enzymes†

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Joshua I.; Stivers, James T.

    2010-01-01

    A fundamental and shared process in all forms of life is the use of DNA glycosylase enzymes to excise rare damaged bases from genomic DNA. Without such enzymes, the highly-ordered primary sequences of genes would rapidly deteriorate. Recent structural and biophysical studies are beginning to reveal a fascinating multistep mechanism for damaged base detection that begins with short-range sliding of the glycosylase along the DNA chain in a distinct conformation we refer to as the search complex (SC). Sliding is frequently punctuated by the formation of a transient “interrogation” complex (IC) where the enzyme extrahelically inspects both normal and damaged bases in an exosite pocket that is distant from the active site. When normal bases are presented in the exosite, the IC rapidly collapses back to the SC, while a damaged base will efficiently partition forward into the active site to form the catalytically competent excision complex (EC). Here we review the unique problems associated with enzymatic detection of rare damaged DNA bases in the genome, and emphasize how each complex must have specific dynamic properties that are tuned to optimize the rate and efficiency of damage site location. PMID:20469926

  11. Detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity identifies neuronal integrity in damaged rat central nervous system after application of bacterial melanin

    PubMed Central

    Petrosyan, Tigran R.; Ter-Markosyan, Anna S.; Hovsepyan, Anna S.

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to confirm the neuroregenerative effects of bacterial melanin (BM) on central nervous system injury using a special staining method based on the detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity. Twenty-four rats were randomly assigned to undergo either unilateral destruction of sensorimotor cortex (group I; n = 12) or unilateral rubrospinal tract transection at the cervical level (C3–4) (group II; n = 12). In each group, six rats were randomly selected after surgery to undergo intramuscular injection of BM solution (BM subgroup) and the remaining six rats were intramuscularly injected with saline (saline subgroup). Neurological testing confirmed that BM accelerated the recovery of motor function in rats from both BM and saline subgroups. Two months after surgery, Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity detection in combination with Chilingarian’s calcium adenoside triphosphate method revealed that BM stimulated the sprouting of fibers and dilated the capillaries in the brain and spinal cord. These results suggest that BM can promote the recovery of motor function of rats with central nervous system injury; and detection of Ca2+-dependent acid phosphatase activity is a fast and easy method used to study the regeneration-promoting effects of BM on the injured central nervous system.

  12. Application of Hilbert-Huang transformation for detection of damage in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hwai-Chung; Pai, P. Frank; Warnemuende, Kraig

    2007-04-01

    Several nondestructive testing methods can be used to estimate the extent of damage in a concrete structure. Pulse-velocity and amplitude attenuation methods are very common in nondestructive ultrasonic evaluation. Velocity of propagation is not very sensitive to the degree of damage unless a great deal of micro-damages have evolved into localized macro-damages. The amplitude attenuation method is potentially more sensitive to damage than the pulse-velocity method. However, this method depends strongly on the coupling conditions between the transducers and the concrete and hence is unreliable. In a previous study, a new active modulation approach, Nonlinear Active Wave Modulation Spectroscopy, was developed and found promising for early detection of damage in concrete. In this procedure, a probe wave is passed through the system in a fashion similar to regular acoustic methods for inspection. Simultaneously, a second, low-frequency modulating wave is applied to the system to effectively change the size and stiffness of flaws microscopically and cyclically, thereby causing the frequency modulation to change cyclically as well. The resulting amplified modulations can be correlated to the extent of damage and quantification of small damage becomes possible. In this paper, we present the use of Hilbert-Huang transform to significantly enhance the damage detection sensitivity of this modulation method by performing time-frequency decomposition of nonlinear non-stationary time-domain responses.

  13. Nonlinear damage detection in composite structures using bispectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciampa, Francesco; Pickering, Simon; Scarselli, Gennaro; Meo, Michele

    2014-03-01

    Literature offers a quantitative number of diagnostic methods that can continuously provide detailed information of the material defects and damages in aerospace and civil engineering applications. Indeed, low velocity impact damages can considerably degrade the integrity of structural components and, if not detected, they can result in catastrophic failure conditions. This paper presents a nonlinear Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) method, based on ultrasonic guided waves (GW), for the detection of the nonlinear signature in a damaged composite structure. The proposed technique, based on a bispectral analysis of ultrasonic input waveforms, allows for the evaluation of the nonlinear response due to the presence of cracks and delaminations. Indeed, such a methodology was used to characterize the nonlinear behaviour of the structure, by exploiting the frequency mixing of the original waveform acquired from a sparse array of sensors. The robustness of bispectral analysis was experimentally demonstrated on a damaged carbon fibre reinforce plastic (CFRP) composite panel, and the nonlinear source was retrieved with a high level of accuracy. Unlike other linear and nonlinear ultrasonic methods for damage detection, this methodology does not require any baseline with the undamaged structure for the evaluation of the nonlinear source, nor a priori knowledge of the mechanical properties of the specimen. Moreover, bispectral analysis can be considered as a nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy (NEWS) technique for materials showing either classical or non-classical nonlinear behaviour.

  14. Portable modular detection system

    DOEpatents

    Brennan, James S.; Singh, Anup; Throckmorton, Daniel J.; Stamps, James F.

    2009-10-13

    Disclosed herein are portable and modular detection devices and systems for detecting electromagnetic radiation, such as fluorescence, from an analyte which comprises at least one optical element removably attached to at least one alignment rail. Also disclosed are modular detection devices and systems having an integrated lock-in amplifier and spatial filter and assay methods using the portable and modular detection devices.

  15. Detecting Damage in Ceramic Matrix Composites Using Electrical Resistance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Craig E.; Gyekenyesi, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The majority of damage in SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites subjected to monotonic tensile loads is in the form of distributed matrix cracks. These cracks initiate near stress concentrations, such as 90 deg fiber tows or large matrix pores and continue to accumulate with additional stress until matrix crack saturation is achieved. Such damage is difficult to detect with conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques (immersion ultrasonics, x-ray, etc.). Monitoring a specimen.s electrical resistance change provides an indirect approach for monitoring matrix crack density. Sylramic-iBN fiber- reinforced SiC composites with a melt infiltrated (MI) matrix were tensile tested at room temperature. Results showed an increase in resistance of more than 500% prior to fracture, which can be detected either in situ or post-damage. A relationship between resistance change and matrix crack density was also determined.

  16. Lightning detection network averts damage and speeds restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, R.; Samm, R.; Cummins, K.; Pyle, R.; Tuel, J.

    1996-04-01

    This article describes new tools to track thunderstorms for advance warning, enabling utilities to reduce damage and shorten repair time. Based on an extensive survey of US power utilities, lightning is the single largest cause of outages on distribution and transmission systems in lightning prone areas. But now with the aid of a network of electromagnetic sensors, computer systems, and satellite communications, the National Lightning Detection Network{trademark} (NLDN) helps utilities prepare for storms. Utilities in the path of intense lightning storms can prepare for storms, alert repair crews, and arrange for help from neighboring utilities. Real-time lightning data has been shown to reduce maintenance costs by shortening the thunder-storm-watch period and to improve reliability by allowing prepositioning of repair crews. Also, using line failure history, designers can analyze the lightning and line historical data and prioritize line upgrades to protect them from future storms by employing additional protection. Documented evidence available from the NLDN system helps utilities prove the time and location of lightning strikes, quickly resolving insurance claims. This network is a product of two EPRI research projects (RP3669 and RP2741).

  17. Structural damage detection based on the reconstructed phase space for reinforced concrete slab: Experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Zhenhua; Hao, Hong; Ma, Hongwei

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, a parameter based on geometry changes of the reconstructed multidimensional phase space of the measured vibration signals for structural damage identification is proposed. The choice of the proper delay time steps and embedding dimensions for phase space reconstruction of linear systems is discussed. Using the determined delay time and embedding dimensions, an index Changes of Phase Space Topology (CPST) with multiple embedding dimensions is calculated and then used to identify the structural damage. To demonstrate the reliability of the proposed method, vibration test data corresponding to different damage states of a continuous reinforced concrete slab is used to calculate the CPST value for damage identification. The results indicate that except the measurement points at structural supports, the CPST values at all the measurement points on the structure increase with structural damage level irrespective of the damage location, indicating that using a single or a minimum number of measurement points and their CPST value can effectively identify damage existence in the structure. The traditional modal-based indices are also calculated using the same vibration data for comparison. It is found that the proposed method with CPST is the most sensitive to structural damage than any modal-based index. The results demonstrate that the proposed method with CPST value is very effective in identifying damage existence in the structure. Although it cannot quantify the damage, it can be a good candidate for continuous structural health monitoring because it needs only a few sensors to detect damage existence in the entire structure.

  18. Gas Flow Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, Thomas; Ihlefeld, Curtis; Slack, Barry

    2010-01-01

    This system provides a portable means to detect gas flow through a thin-walled tube without breaking into the tubing system. The flow detection system was specifically designed to detect flow through two parallel branches of a manifold with only one inlet and outlet, and is a means for verifying a space shuttle program requirement that saves time and reduces the risk of flight hardware damage compared to the current means of requirement verification. The prototype Purge Vent and Drain Window Cavity Conditioning System (PVD WCCS) Flow Detection System consists of a heater and a temperature-sensing thermistor attached to a piece of Velcro to be attached to each branch of a WCCS manifold for the duration of the requirement verification test. The heaters and thermistors are connected to a shielded cable and then to an electronics enclosure, which contains the power supplies, relays, and circuit board to provide power, signal conditioning, and control. The electronics enclosure is then connected to a commercial data acquisition box to provide analog to digital conversion as well as digital control. This data acquisition box is then connected to a commercial laptop running a custom application created using National Instruments LabVIEW. The operation of the PVD WCCS Flow Detection System consists of first attaching a heater/thermistor assembly to each of the two branches of one manifold while there is no flow through the manifold. Next, the software application running on the laptop is used to turn on the heaters and to monitor the manifold branch temperatures. When the system has reached thermal equilibrium, the software application s graphical user interface (GUI) will indicate that the branch temperatures are stable. The operator can then physically open the flow control valve to initiate the test flow of gaseous nitrogen (GN2) through the manifold. Next, the software user interface will be monitored for stable temperature indications when the system is again at

  19. Damage Detection in Bridge Structure Using Vibration Data under Random Travelling Vehicle Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, C. H.; Hung, T. Y.; Chen, S. F.; Hsu, W. T.

    2015-07-01

    Due to the random nature of the road excitation and the inherent uncertainties in bridge-vehicle system, damage identification of bridge structure through continuous monitoring under operating situation become a challenge problem. Methods for system identification and damage detection of a continuous two-span concrete bridge structure in time domain is presented using interaction forces from random moving vehicles as excitation. The signals recorded in different locations of the instrumented bridge are mixed with signals from different internal and external (road roughness) vibration sources. The damage structure is also modelled as the stiffness reduction in one of the beam element. For the purpose of system identification and damage detection three different output-only modal analysis techniques are proposed: The covariance-driven stochastic subspace identification (SSI-COV), the blind source separation algorithms (called Second Order Blind Identification) and the multivariate AR model. The advantages and disadvantages of the three algorithms are discussed. Finally, the null-space damage index, subspace damage indices and mode shape slope change are used to detect and locate the damage. The proposed approaches has been tested in simulation and proved to be effective for structural health monitoring.

  20. Automatic detection of impact damage in carbon fiber composites using active thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usamentiaga, R.; Venegas, P.; Guerediaga, J.; Vega, L.; López, I.

    2013-05-01

    Accidental impacts can severely reduce the structural strength and stability of composite materials, which can lead to severe consequences due to the degradation of the mechanical properties of components designed to perform for decades. Because accidental impacts are difficult to avoid, robust and reliable inspection methods to detect impact damage are required. Many methods have been proposed recently. However, most of them require an experienced technician to analyze the data, which leads to a significant decrease in manufacturing productivity. This work proposes a method to automatically detect impact damage in carbon fiber composites using active thermography. The proposed system detects defects caused by impact damage in the infrared images without human intervention. Impact damage detection is performed using a robust method based on an active thermographic inspection. Thermographic data is preprocessed to improve signal-to-noise ratio and to remove non-uniform background caused by non-uniform heating. Then, peaks and edges are identified and clustered, and regions corresponding to impact damage are detected. The proposed procedure has been applied to three specimens that contain 6 and 12 plies, different types of cores, and damage caused by energies from 6 J to 50 J. All defects are detected correctly.

  1. Detection of damage in welded structure using experimental modal data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu Husain, N.; Ouyang, H.

    2011-07-01

    A typical automotive structure could contain thousands of spot weld joints that contribute significantly to the vehicle's structural stiffness and dynamic characteristics. However, some of these joints may be imperfect or even absent during the manufacturing process and they are also highly susceptible to damage due to operational and environmental conditions during the vehicle lifetime. Therefore, early detection and estimation of damage are important so necessary actions can be taken to avoid further problems. Changes in physical parameters due to existence of damage in a structure often leads to alteration of vibration modes; thus demonstrating the dependency between the vibration characteristics and the physical properties of structures. A sensitivity-based model updating method, performed using a combination of MATLAB and NASTRAN, has been selected for the purpose of this work. The updating procedure is regarded as parameter identification which aims to bring the numerical prediction to be as closely as possible to the measured natural frequencies and mode shapes data of the damaged structure in order to identify the damage parameters (characterised by the reductions in the Young's modulus of the weld patches to indicate the loss of material/stiffness at the damage region).

  2. Structural Damage Detection with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2011-07-01

    Piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) are lightweight and inexpensive enablers for a large class of damage detection and structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. This paper starts with a brief review of PWAS physical principles and basic modelling and continues by considering the various ways in which PWAS can be used for damage detection: (a) embedded guided-wave ultrasonics, i.e., pitch-catch, pulse-echo, phased arrays, thickness mode; (b) high-frequency modal sensing, i.e., the electro-mechanical (E/M) impedance method; (c) passive detection, i.e., acoustic emission and impact detection. An example of crack-like damage detection and localization with PWAS phased arrays on a small metallic plate is given. The modelling of PWAS detection of disbond damage in adhesive joints is achieved with the analytical transfer matrix method (TMM). The analytical methods offer the advantage of fast computation which enables parameter studies and carpet plots. A parametric study of the effect of crack size and PWAS location on disbond detection is presented. The power and energy transduction between PWAS and structure is studied analytically with a wave propagation method. Special attention is given to the mechatronics modeling of the complete transduction cycle from electrical excitation into ultrasonic acoustic waves by the piezoelectric effect, the transfer through the structure, and finally reverse piezoelectric transduction to generate the received electric signal. It is found that the combination of PWAS size and wave frequency/wavelength play an important role in identifying transduction maxima and minima that could be exploited to achieve an optimum power-efficient design. The multi-physics finite element method (MP-FEM), which permits fine discretization of damaged regions and complicated structural geometries, is used to study the generation of guided waves in a plate from an electrically excited transmitter PWAS and the capture of these waves as electric

  3. In situ detection and analysis of laser-induced damage on a 1.5-m multilayer-dielectric grating compressor for high-energy, petawatt-class laser systems.

    PubMed

    Qiao, J; Schmid, A W; Waxer, L J; Nguyen, T; Bunkenburg, J; Kingsley, C; Kozlov, A; Weiner, D

    2010-05-10

    A grating-inspection system and a damage-analysis method have been developed to measure in situ laser-induced damage on a 1.5-m tiled-grating assembly of the OMEGA EP pulse compressor during a 15-ps, 2.2-kJ energy ramp. The beam fluence at which significant damage growth occurred was determined. This is the first report on beam fluence versus laser-induced-damage growth of meter-sized multilayer-dielectric-diffraction gratings. This result was correlated to the damage-probability measurement conducted on a small grating sample and is consistent with the fluence, corresponding to 100% damage probability. PMID:20588897

  4. Damage Detection Based on Static Strain Responses Using FBG in a Wind Turbine Blade.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shaohua; Yang, Zhibo; Chen, Xuefeng; Xie, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The damage detection of a wind turbine blade enables better operation of the turbines, and provides an early alert to the destroyed events of the blade in order to avoid catastrophic losses. A new non-baseline damage detection method based on the Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in a wind turbine blade is developed in this paper. Firstly, the Chi-square distribution is proven to be an effective damage-sensitive feature which is adopted as the individual information source for the local decision. In order to obtain the global and optimal decision for the damage detection, the feature information fusion (FIF) method is proposed to fuse and optimize information in above individual information sources, and the damage is detected accurately through of the global decision. Then a 13.2 m wind turbine blade with the distributed strain sensor system is adopted to describe the feasibility of the proposed method, and the strain energy method (SEM) is used to describe the advantage of the proposed method. Finally results show that the proposed method can deliver encouraging results of the damage detection in the wind turbine blade. PMID:26287200

  5. Damage Detection Based on Static Strain Responses Using FBG in a Wind Turbine Blade

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shaohua; Yang, Zhibo; Chen, Xuefeng; Xie, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The damage detection of a wind turbine blade enables better operation of the turbines, and provides an early alert to the destroyed events of the blade in order to avoid catastrophic losses. A new non-baseline damage detection method based on the Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in a wind turbine blade is developed in this paper. Firstly, the Chi-square distribution is proven to be an effective damage-sensitive feature which is adopted as the individual information source for the local decision. In order to obtain the global and optimal decision for the damage detection, the feature information fusion (FIF) method is proposed to fuse and optimize information in above individual information sources, and the damage is detected accurately through of the global decision. Then a 13.2 m wind turbine blade with the distributed strain sensor system is adopted to describe the feasibility of the proposed method, and the strain energy method (SEM) is used to describe the advantage of the proposed method. Finally results show that the proposed method can deliver encouraging results of the damage detection in the wind turbine blade. PMID:26287200

  6. Automated laser-based barely visible impact damage detection in honeycomb sandwich composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girolamo, D.; Girolamo, L.; Yuan, F. G.

    2015-03-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for detection and quantification of damage in composite materials is fundamental in the assessment of the overall structural integrity of modern aerospace systems. Conventional NDE systems have been extensively used to detect the location and size of damages by propagating ultrasonic waves normal to the surface. However they usually require physical contact with the structure and are time consuming and labor intensive. An automated, contactless laser ultrasonic imaging system for barely visible impact damage (BVID) detection in advanced composite structures has been developed to overcome these limitations. Lamb waves are generated by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, raster scanned by a set of galvano-mirrors over the damaged area. The out-of-plane vibrations are measured through a laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) that is stationary at a point on the corner of the grid. The ultrasonic wave field of the scanned area is reconstructed in polar coordinates and analyzed for high resolution characterization of impact damage in the composite honeycomb panel. Two methodologies are used for ultrasonic wave-field analysis: scattered wave field analysis (SWA) and standing wave energy analysis (SWEA) in the frequency domain. The SWA is employed for processing the wave field and estimate spatially dependent wavenumber values, related to discontinuities in the structural domain. The SWEA algorithm extracts standing waves trapped within damaged areas and, by studying the spectrum of the standing wave field, returns high fidelity damage imaging. While the SWA can be used to locate the impact damage in the honeycomb panel, the SWEA produces damage images in good agreement with X-ray computed tomographic (X-ray CT) scans. The results obtained prove that the laser-based nondestructive system is an effective alternative to overcome limitations of conventional NDI technologies.

  7. Automated laser-based barely visible impact damage detection in honeycomb sandwich composite structures

    SciTech Connect

    Girolamo, D. Yuan, F. G.; Girolamo, L.

    2015-03-31

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for detection and quantification of damage in composite materials is fundamental in the assessment of the overall structural integrity of modern aerospace systems. Conventional NDE systems have been extensively used to detect the location and size of damages by propagating ultrasonic waves normal to the surface. However they usually require physical contact with the structure and are time consuming and labor intensive. An automated, contactless laser ultrasonic imaging system for barely visible impact damage (BVID) detection in advanced composite structures has been developed to overcome these limitations. Lamb waves are generated by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, raster scanned by a set of galvano-mirrors over the damaged area. The out-of-plane vibrations are measured through a laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) that is stationary at a point on the corner of the grid. The ultrasonic wave field of the scanned area is reconstructed in polar coordinates and analyzed for high resolution characterization of impact damage in the composite honeycomb panel. Two methodologies are used for ultrasonic wave-field analysis: scattered wave field analysis (SWA) and standing wave energy analysis (SWEA) in the frequency domain. The SWA is employed for processing the wave field and estimate spatially dependent wavenumber values, related to discontinuities in the structural domain. The SWEA algorithm extracts standing waves trapped within damaged areas and, by studying the spectrum of the standing wave field, returns high fidelity damage imaging. While the SWA can be used to locate the impact damage in the honeycomb panel, the SWEA produces damage images in good agreement with X-ray computed tomographic (X-ray CT) scans. The results obtained prove that the laser-based nondestructive system is an effective alternative to overcome limitations of conventional NDI technologies.

  8. Analysis of shape memory alloy sensory particles for damage detection via substructure and continuum damage modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielefeldt, Brent R.; Benzerga, A. Amine; Hartl, Darren J.

    2016-04-01

    The ability to monitor and predict the structural health of an aircraft is of growing importance to the aerospace industry. Currently, structural inspections and maintenance are based upon experiences with similar aircraft operating in similar conditions. While effective, these methods are time-intensive and unnecessary if the aircraft is not in danger of structural failure. It is imagined that future aircraft will utilize non-destructive evaluation methods, allowing for the near real-time monitoring of structural health. A particularly interesting method involves utilizing the unique transformation response of shape memory alloy (SMA) particles embedded in an aircraft structure. By detecting changes in the mechanical and/or electromagnetic responses of embedded particles, operators could detect the formation or propagation of fatigue cracks in the vicinity of these particles. This work focuses on a finite element model of SMA particles embedded in an aircraft wing using a substructure modeling approach in which degrees of freedom are retained only at specified points of connection to other parts or the application of boundary conditions, greatly reducing computational cost. Previous work evaluated isolated particle response to a static crack to numerically demonstrate and validate this damage detection method. This paper presents the implementation of a damage model to account for crack propagation and examine for the first time the effect of particle configuration and/or relative placement with respect to the ability to detect damage.

  9. A Coupled Approach for Structural Damage Detection with Incomplete Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, George; Cao, Timothy; Kaouk, Mo; Zimmerman, David

    2013-01-01

    This historical work couples model order reduction, damage detection, dynamic residual/mode shape expansion, and damage extent estimation to overcome the incomplete measurements problem by using an appropriate undamaged structural model. A contribution of this work is the development of a process to estimate the full dynamic residuals using the columns of a spring connectivity matrix obtained by disassembling the structural stiffness matrix. Another contribution is the extension of an eigenvector filtering procedure to produce full-order mode shapes that more closely match the measured active partition of the mode shapes using a set of modified Ritz vectors. The full dynamic residuals and full mode shapes are used as inputs to the minimum rank perturbation theory to provide an estimate of damage location and extent. The issues associated with this process are also discussed as drivers of near-term development activities to understand and improve this approach.

  10. Damage detection and characterization using fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glisic, Branko; Sigurdardottir, Dorotea; Yao, Yao; Hubbell, David

    2013-04-01

    Fiber optic sensors (FOS) have significantly evolved and have reached their market maturity during the last decade. Their widely recognized advantages are high precision, long-term stability, and durability. But in addition to these advantageous performances, FOS technologies allow for affordable instrumentation of large areas of structure enabling global large-scale monitoring based on long-gauge sensors and integrity monitoring based on distributed sensors. These two approaches are particularly suitable for damage detection and characterization, i.e., damage localization and to certain extent quantification and propagation, as illustrated by two applications presented in detail in this paper: post-tensioned concrete bridge and segmented concrete pipeline. Early age cracking was detected, localized and quantified in the concrete deck of a pedestrian bridge using embedded long-gauge FOS. Post-tensioning of deck closed the cracks; however, permanent weakening in a bridge joint occurred due to cracking and it was identified and quantified. The damage was confirmed using embedded distributed FOS and a separate load test of the bridge. Real-size concrete pipeline specimens and surrounding soil were equipped with distributed FOS and exposed to permanent ground displacement in a large-scale testing facility. Two tests were performed on different pipeline specimens. The sensors bonded on the pipeline specimens successfully detected and localized rupture of pipeline joints, while the sensors embedded in the soil were able to detect and localize the failure plane. Comparison with strain-gauges installed on the pipeline and visual inspection after the test confirmed accurate damage detection and characterization.

  11. Detection Of Tornado Damage Tracks With EOS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Nair, Udaysankar; Haines, Stephanie L.

    2005-01-01

    The damage surveys conducted by the NWS in the aftermath of a reported tornadic event are used to document the location of the tornado ground damage track (path length and width) and an estimation of the tornado intensity. This study explored the possibility of using near real-time medium and high-resolution satellite imagery from the NASA EOS satellites to provide additional information for the surveys. MODIS and ASTER data were used to study the damage tracks from three tornadic storms; the La Plata, Maryland storm of 28 April 2002 and the Carter-Butler Counties and Madison County Missouri storms of 24 April 2002. These storms varied in intensity (from F0-F4) and occurred over regions with different land use. It was found that, depending on the nature of land use, tornado damage tracks from intense storms (F2 or greater) may be evident in both ASTER and MODIS satellite imagery. In areas of dense vegetation the scar patterns show up very clearly, while in areas of grassland and regions with few trees, scar patterns are not at all obvious in the satellite imagery. The detection of previously unidentified segments of a damage track caused by the 24 April 2004 Madison County, Missouri tornado demonstrates the utility of satellite imagery for damage surveys. However, the capability to detect tornado tracks in satellite imagery appears to be as much dependent on the nature of the underlying surface and land use as on the severity of the tornadic storm. The imaging sensors on the NPOESS operational satellites to be launched in 2006 will continue the unique observing capabilities of the EOS instruments.

  12. In-situ damage detection using self-sensing composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Shoaib A.; Wang, Liwei; Mahendran, Ramani S.; Harris, Dee; Ojo, Samuel O.; Collins, Dave; Paget, Mark; Pandita, Surya D.; Machavaram, Venkata R.; Fernando, Gerard F.

    2009-03-01

    The focus of this paper is on real-time damage detection in reinforcing fiber bundles and composites using high-speed photography and image analysis. In other words, the end of a reinforcing fiber bundle or composite is imaged and the sequence of fiber fracture is monitored using a high-speed camera. These studies were undertaken using as-received and silane-treated custom-made optical fibers of around 12 μm diameter and E-glass fibers of 15 (+/-3) μm diameter. The first part of this paper reports on the techniques that were developed to produce void-free test specimens and the procedures used for imaging the end of the fiber bundle and composite during tensile loading. Evanescent wave spectroscopy was used to study the effect of silane treatment on the cross-linking kinetics of an epoxy/amine resin system. Conventional piezo-electric acoustic emission (AE) transducers were used to monitor the acoustic events occurring during the tensile test. The signals from the AE transducers were used to trigger the high-speed camera. The second part of this paper presents details of the image analysis routines that were developed to track the light intensity transmitted through individual fibers during tensile loading. Good correlation was observed between the transmitted light intensity and the AE signals.

  13. Long distance laser ultrasonic propagation imaging system for damage visualization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung-Ryul; Shin, He-Jin; Chia, Chen Ciang; Dhital, Dipesh; Yoon, Dong-Jin; Huh, Yong-Hak

    2011-12-01

    Wind turbine blade failure is the most prominent and common type of damage occurring in operating wind turbine systems. Conventional nondestructive testing systems are not available for in situ wind turbine blades. We propose a portable long distance ultrasonic propagation imaging (LUPI) system that uses a laser beam targeting and scanning system to excite, from a long distance, acoustic emission sensors installed in the blade. An examination of the beam collimation effect using geometric parameters of a commercial 2 MW wind turbine provided Lamb wave amplitude increases of 41.5 and 23.1 dB at a distance of 40 m for symmetrical and asymmetrical modes, respectively, in a 2 mm-thick stainless steel plate. With this improvement in signal-to-noise ratio, a feasibility study of damage detection was conducted with a 5 mm-thick composite leading edge specimen. To develop a reliable damage evaluation system, the excitation/sensing technology and the associated damage visualization algorithm are equally important. Hence, our results provide a new platform based on anomalous wave propagation imaging (AWPI) methods with adjacent wave subtraction, reference wave subtraction, reference image subtraction, and the variable time window amplitude mapping method. The advantages and disadvantages of AWPI algorithms are reported in terms of reference data requirements, signal-to-noise ratios, and damage evaluation accuracy. The compactness and portability of the proposed UPI system are also important for in-field applications at wind farms.

  14. Damage Detection in Composite Structures with Wavenumber Array Data Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Leckey, Cara; Yu, Lingyu

    2013-01-01

    Guided ultrasonic waves (GUW) have the potential to be an efficient and cost-effective method for rapid damage detection and quantification of large structures. Attractive features include sensitivity to a variety of damage types and the capability of traveling relatively long distances. They have proven to be an efficient approach for crack detection and localization in isotropic materials. However, techniques must be pushed beyond isotropic materials in order to be valid for composite aircraft components. This paper presents our study on GUW propagation and interaction with delamination damage in composite structures using wavenumber array data processing, together with advanced wave propagation simulations. Parallel elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) is used for the example simulations. Multi-dimensional Fourier transform is used to convert time-space wavefield data into frequency-wavenumber domain. Wave propagation in the wavenumber-frequency domain shows clear distinction among the guided wave modes that are present. This allows for extracting a guided wave mode through filtering and reconstruction techniques. Presence of delamination causes spectral change accordingly. Results from 3D CFRP guided wave simulations with delamination damage in flat-plate specimens are used for wave interaction with structural defect study.

  15. Advanced signal processing technique for damage detection in steel tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amjad, Umar; Yadav, Susheel Kumar; Dao, Cac Minh; Dao, Kiet; Kundu, Tribikram

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, ultrasonic guided waves gained attention for reliable testing and characterization of metals and composites. Guided wave modes are excited and detected by PZT (Lead Zirconate Titanate) transducers either in transmission or reflection mode. In this study guided waves are excited and detected in the transmission mode and the phase change of the propagating wave modes are recorded. In most of the other studies reported in the literature, the change in the received signal strength (amplitude) is investigated with varying degrees of damage while in this study the change in phase is correlated with the extent of damage. Feature extraction techniques are used for extracting phase and time-frequency information. The main advantage of this approach is that the bonding condition between the transducer and the specimen does not affect the phase while it can affect the strength of recorded signal. Therefore, if the specimen is not damaged but the transducer-specimen bonding is deteriorated then the received signal strength is altered but the phase remains same and thus false positive predictions for damage can be avoided.

  16. A simple damage detection indicator using operational deflection shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampaio, R. P. C.; Maia, N. M. M.; Almeida, R. A. B.; Urgueira, A. P. V.

    2016-05-01

    Catastrophic structural failure of aircrafts, bridges, buildings and other structures in modern societies has always been of primary concern because of the loss of human lifes and of negative economic impact. The aging of the structures, the growing dependency on their role in our networks of transportation, energy and comunications, the smaller construction tolerances, the bigger power demanded and the media and society awardness to catastrophic events are sufficient motivations for the growing field of structural health monitoring, which aims at assessing the actual condition of a structure and to identify incipient damage. Damage identification can be considered as a two step process, the detection and the diagnosis. The former, and fundamental step, is the confirmation of an efective damage existence. When the response is affirmative, the latter step begins with the diagnosis, and then the questions are: where?, how much?, what type?, when will it fail? In this paper the authors propose a simple method to detect and relatively quantify structural damage by using measured vibrations data, specifically the operational deflections shapes. Numerical simulations and experimental tests are presented to validate the proposed method.

  17. Interior intrusion detection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, J.R.; Matter, J.C. ); Dry, B. )

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to present technical information that should be useful to NRC licensees in designing interior intrusion detection systems. Interior intrusion sensors are discussed according to their primary application: boundary-penetration detection, volumetric detection, and point protection. Information necessary for implementation of an effective interior intrusion detection system is presented, including principles of operation, performance characteristics and guidelines for design, procurement, installation, testing, and maintenance. A glossary of sensor data terms is included. 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Early detection of fatigue damage in composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salkind, M. J.

    1975-01-01

    Early detection of fatigue damage in composite materials by nondestructive inspection (NDI) techniques has been demonstrated for glass/epoxy, graphite/glass/epoxy, and graphite/epoxy composites. Modulus and temperature were monitored and a correlation between them observed. Axial modulus and torsional modulus changes were a function of the laminate orientation. Torsional modulus measurements and coin tap tests were performed at 0, 1 million, 5 million, and 10 million cycles, on axial fatigue specimens. Three distinct regions were noted. In the primary region a small but rapid change in stiffness was noted in the first few thousand cycles. This was followed by a secondary region of little or no stiffness change. The tertiary region was characterized by an increasing rate of stiffness change leading to fracture. NDI procedures including holographic interferometry, ultrasonics, penetrant, and X-ray radiography were evaluated for fatigue damage detection.

  19. Offline and online detection of damage using autoregressive models and artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omenzetter, Piotr; de Lautour, Oliver R.

    2007-04-01

    Developed to study long, regularly sampled streams of data, time series analysis methods are being increasingly investigated for the use of Structural Health Monitoring. In this research, Autoregressive (AR) models are used in conjunction with Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for damage detection, localisation and severity assessment. In the first reported experimental exercise, AR models were used offline to fit the acceleration time histories of a 3-storey test structure in undamaged and various damaged states when excited by earthquake motion simulated on a shake table. Damage was introduced into the structure by replacing the columns with those of a thinner thickness. Analytical models of the structure in both damaged and undamaged states were also developed and updated using experimental data in order to determine structural stiffness. The coefficients of AR models were used as damage sensitive features and input into an ANN to build a relationship between them and the remaining structural stiffness. In the second, analytical exercise, a system with gradually progressing damage was numerically simulated and acceleration AR models with exogenous inputs were identified recursively. A trained ANN was then required to trace the structural stiffness online. The results for the offline and online approach showed the efficiency of using AR coefficient as damage sensitive features and good performance of the ANNs for damage detection, localization and quantification.

  20. HC-NIDS: signatures and simulations for detecting cyber-attacks aiming to cause damage against cyber-physical energy systems

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-12-01

    Physical device safety is typically implemented locally using embedded controllers, while operations safety is primarily performed in control centers. Safe operations can be enhanced by correct design of device-level control algorithms, and protocols, procedures and operator training at the control-room level, but all can fail. Moreover, these elements exchange data and issue commands via vulnerable communication layers. In order to secure these gaps and enhance operational safety, we believe monitoring of command sequences must bemore » combined with an awareness of physical device limitations and automata models that capture safety mechanisms. One way of doing this is by leveraging specification-based intrusion detection to monitor for physical constraint violations. The method can also verify that physical infrastructure state is consistent with monitoring information and control commands exchanged between field devices and control centers. This additional security layer enhances protection from both outsider attacks and insider mistakes. We implemented specification-based SCADA command analyzers using physical constraint algorithms directly in the Bro framework and Broccoli APIs for three separate scenarios: a water heater, an automated distribution system, and an over-current protection scheme. To accomplish this, we added low-level analyzers capable of examining control system-specific protocol packets for both Modbus TCP and DNP3, and also higher-level analyzers able to interpret device command and data streams within the context of each device’s physical capabilities and present operational state. Thus the software that we are making available includes the Bro/Broccoli scripts for these three scenarios, as well as simulators, written in C, of those scenarios that generate sample traffic that is monitored by the Bro/Broccoli scripts. In addition, we have also implemented systems to directly pull cyber-physical information from the OSIsoft PI historian

  1. HC-NIDS: signatures and simulations for detecting cyber-attacks aiming to cause damage against cyber-physical energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    2014-12-01

    Physical device safety is typically implemented locally using embedded controllers, while operations safety is primarily performed in control centers. Safe operations can be enhanced by correct design of device-level control algorithms, and protocols, procedures and operator training at the control-room level, but all can fail. Moreover, these elements exchange data and issue commands via vulnerable communication layers. In order to secure these gaps and enhance operational safety, we believe monitoring of command sequences must be combined with an awareness of physical device limitations and automata models that capture safety mechanisms. One way of doing this is by leveraging specification-based intrusion detection to monitor for physical constraint violations. The method can also verify that physical infrastructure state is consistent with monitoring information and control commands exchanged between field devices and control centers. This additional security layer enhances protection from both outsider attacks and insider mistakes. We implemented specification-based SCADA command analyzers using physical constraint algorithms directly in the Bro framework and Broccoli APIs for three separate scenarios: a water heater, an automated distribution system, and an over-current protection scheme. To accomplish this, we added low-level analyzers capable of examining control system-specific protocol packets for both Modbus TCP and DNP3, and also higher-level analyzers able to interpret device command and data streams within the context of each device’s physical capabilities and present operational state. Thus the software that we are making available includes the Bro/Broccoli scripts for these three scenarios, as well as simulators, written in C, of those scenarios that generate sample traffic that is monitored by the Bro/Broccoli scripts. In addition, we have also implemented systems to directly pull cyber-physical information from the OSIsoft PI historian system. We

  2. PVDF piezo film as dynamic strain sensor for local damage detection of steel frame buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurata, M.; Li, X.; Fujita, K.; He, L.; Yamaguchi, M.

    2013-04-01

    A structural health monitoring system that aims to extract local damage information (i.e., existence, location and severity) in buildings may require a dense array of transducers due to the high complexity and high degree of statical indeterminacy of their structural system. While monitoring systems for building applications are mostly consisted of seismographs or tremor sensors, a technique to pragmatically and accurately capture strain information of structural members is efficacious for detecting damage in individual members. This paper presents the use of polyvinylidene fluoride piezoelectric films as dynamic strain sensors for detecting local damage in steel moment-resisting frames. First, a damage detection methodology that monitors the changes in the relative distribution of the bending moments in structural systems is presented. Next, an array of dynamic strain sensors networked by wireless sensing units is developed in consideration of its installation cost and efforts when it is applied to real buildings. Finally, the performances of the developed methodology and its sensing system are evaluated through a series of vibration testing using a 5-story steel testbed frame that can simulate seismic damage at beam-to-column connections.

  3. Uncertainty handling in structural damage detection using fuzzy logic and probabilistic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrashekhar, M.; Ganguli, Ranjan

    2009-02-01

    A fuzzy logic system (FLS) with a new sliding window defuzzifier is developed for damage detection. The effect of changes in the damage evaluation parameter (frequency) due to uncertainty in material properties is explored and the results of the probabilistic analysis are used to develop a robust FLS for damage detection. Probabilistic analysis is performed using Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) on a beam finite element (FE) model to calculate statistical properties of the variation in natural frequencies of the beam due to structural damage and material uncertainty. Variation in these frequency measures, further contaminated with measurement noise, are used for testing the FLS. The FLS developed for damage detection in the steel beam having material uncertainty (elastic modulus) with coefficient of variation (COV) of 3 percent and noise level of 0.15 in the measurement data, correctly identifies the fault with an accuracy of about 94 percent. The FLS also accurately classifies the undamaged condition in presence of the mentioned uncertainties reducing the possibility of false alarms. From an algorithmic standpoint, this paper connects the disparate areas of probability and fuzzy logic to alleviate uncertainty issues in damage detection.

  4. Digestive system damage caused by substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Dimitrijević, I; Kalezić, N; Ristić, J; Bojović, O; Dimitrijević, N

    2008-01-01

    Substance abuse and addiction represent a worldwide problem and cause a number of family, social and health problems. Digestive system damage caused by substance intake is an increasing problem amoung drug addicts. Many studies show that substances can cause cancer of all parts of the digestive system. Alcohol consumption was significantly associated with colon and rectal cancer. For rectal cancer, the risk was increased in association with drinking of alcoholic beverages, specialy for beer consumption. Sinthetic drugs such as ecstasy may lead also to digestive and hepatic damage, as well as vascular complications of the stomach. Many studies show the existance of supstance associated enterocolitis as well as ishemic colitis. Diagnosis of ishemic colitis is based on the presence of rectal bleeding, abdominal pain, a history of substance use, supportive endoscopic and histopathologic findings, and the absence of other etiologic mechanisms of ischemic colitis. Great damage to the digestive system is also produced by smuggling narcotics packed into small pages that are afterwards been swallowed or implemented on other sorts of ways inside the smugglers natural body spaces as the rectum or vagina. In the paper authors reviewed literature conserning digestive system damage caused by substance abuse and drug smuggling. PMID:19069706

  5. Feasibility study on an angular velocity-based damage detection method using gyroscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, S. H.; Lee, J. H.; Park, J. W.; Koo, K. Y.; Jung, H. J.

    2014-07-01

    This paper proposes an angular velocity-based damage detection method using gyroscopes and investigates its feasibility. This study basically intends to enhance the performance of the existing modal flexibility-based methods by replacing accelerations measured from accelerometers with angular velocities measured from gyroscopes. In order to verify the superiority of a gyroscope in damage detection, numerical studies were performed by changing optional parameters such as damage location, severity, and measurement noise. From parametric studies, it was shown that the damage detection results using gyroscopes are more sensitive to damage and more robust to noise generated from the curvature estimation than those using accelerometers. Experimental validations were also carried out to investigate the feasibility of a gyroscope in damage detection. From the results, it was shown that the gyroscope-based damage detection method can successfully identify damage location. In conclusion, it was numerically and experimentally verified that a new damage detection approach using gyroscopes could improve damage detection ability significantly.

  6. LiDAR scan and smart piezo layer combined damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shenen; Chung, Howard; Park, Youngjin

    2013-04-01

    The motivation of this study is to determine a technique to completely describe the damage state of large deformed structures commonly found during forensic investigations. The combination of Laser Detecting and Ranging (LiDAR) and Piezoelectric (PZT) Sensing Technologies for damage quantification is suggested to generate the full-field description of large deformation of a plate. The test subject is a 16 inch by 16 inch aluminum plate subjected to different damage scenarios. LiDAR is a static scanning laser that provides a 3-dimensional picture of the object. Smart Layer is a commercial PZT actuator/sensor network system that generates stress waves for internal damage evaluation. Both techniques were applied to the test plate after damages are introduced. In order to effectively analyze the results, the images for each test were superimposed. Frequencies that depicted the best interpretation of damage in the direct path images were superimposed with the 3-dimensional LiDAR images. Four damage scenarios were imposed on an aluminum plate including saw cuts at different depths using an electric saw. The final damage is a severe bending of the plate. The bending of the specimen produced an image that located the most severe damage directly under the left hand portion and directly above the right hand portion of the bend.

  7. Application of damage detection methods using passive reconstruction of impulse response functions.

    PubMed

    Tippmann, J D; Zhu, X; Lanza di Scalea, F

    2015-02-28

    In structural health monitoring (SHM), using only the existing noise has long been an attractive goal. The advances in understanding cross-correlations in ambient noise in the past decade, as well as new understanding in damage indication and other advanced signal processing methods, have continued to drive new research into passive SHM systems. Because passive systems take advantage of the existing noise mechanisms in a structure, offshore wind turbines are a particularly attractive application due to the noise created from the various aerodynamic and wave loading conditions. Two damage detection methods using a passively reconstructed impulse response function, or Green's function, are presented. Damage detection is first studied using the reciprocity of the impulse response functions, where damage introduces new nonlinearities that break down the similarity in the causal and anticausal wave components. Damage detection and localization are then studied using a matched-field processing technique that aims to spatially locate sources that identify a change in the structure. Results from experiments conducted on an aluminium plate and wind turbine blade with simulated damage are also presented. PMID:25583863

  8. Non-invasive damage detection in beams using marker extraction and wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yi-Zhe; Bowen, Chris R.; Kim, H. Alicia; Nassehi, Aydin; Padget, Julian; Gathercole, Nick; Dent, Andrew

    2014-12-01

    For structural health monitoring applications there is a need for simple and contact-less methods of Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE). A number of damage detection techniques have been developed, such as frequency shift, generalised fractal dimension and wavelet transforms with the aim to identify, locate and determine the severity of damage in a material or structure. These techniques are often tailored for factors such as (i) type of material, (ii) damage pattern (crack, delamination), and (iii) the nature of any input signals (space and time). This paper describes and evaluates a wavelet-based damage detection framework that locates damage on cantilevered beams via NDE using computer vision technologies. The novelty of the approach is the use of computer vision algorithms for the contact-less acquisition of modal shapes. Using the proposed method, the modal shapes of cantilever beams are reconstructed by extracting markers using sub-pixel Hough Transforms from images captured using conventional slow motion cameras. The extracted modal shapes are then used as an input for wavelet transform damage detection, exploiting both discrete and continuous variants. The experimental results are verified and compared against finite element analysis. The methodology enables a non-invasive damage detection system that avoids the need for expensive equipment or the attachment of sensors to the structure. Two types of damage are investigated in our experiments: (i) defects induced by removing material to reduce the stiffness of a steel beam and (ii) delaminations in a (0/90/0/90/0)s composite laminate. Results show successful detection of notch depths of 5%, 28% and 50% for the steel beam and of 30 mm delaminations in central and outer layers for the composite laminate.

  9. Neural network based system for damage identification and location in structural and mechanical systems

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C.R.; Doebling, S.W.; Prime, M.B.; Cornwell, P.; Kam, M.; Straser, E.G.; Hoerst, B.C.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Recent advances in wireless, remotely monitored data acquisition systems coupled with the development of vibration-based damage detection algorithms make the possibility of self- or remotely-monitored structures and mechanical systems appear to be within the capabilities of current technology. However, before such a system can be relied upon to perform this monitoring, the variability of the vibration properties that are the basis for the damage detection algorithm must be understood and quantified. This understanding is necessary so that the artificial intelligence/expert system that is employed to discriminate when changes in modal properties are indicative of damage will not yield false indications of damage. To this end, this project has focused on developing statistical methods for quantifying variability in identified vibration proper ties of structural and mechanical systems.

  10. Robust ultrasonic damage detection under complex environmental conditions using singular value decomposition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Harley, Joel B; Bergés, Mario; Greve, David W; Oppenheim, Irving J

    2015-04-01

    Guided wave ultrasonics is an attractive monitoring technique for damage diagnosis in large-scale plate and pipe structures. Damage can be detected by comparing incoming records with baseline records collected on intact structure. However, during long-term monitoring, environmental and operational conditions often vary significantly and produce large changes in the ultrasonic signals, thereby challenging the baseline comparison based damage detection. Researchers developed temperature compensation methods to eliminate the effects of temperature variation, but they have limitations in practical implementations. In this paper, we develop a robust damage detection method based on singular value decomposition (SVD). We show that the orthogonality of singular vectors ensures that the effect of damage and that of environmental and operational variations are separated into different singular vectors. We report on our field ultrasonic monitoring of a 273.05 mm outer diameter pipe segment, which belongs to a hot water piping system in continuous operation. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method on experimental pitch-catch records collected during seven months. We show that our method accurately detects the presence of a mass scatterer, and is robust to the environmental and operational variations exhibited in the practical system. PMID:25600118

  11. In situ CTE measurements and damage detection using optical metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajaram, Satish; Cuadra, Jefferson; Saralaya, Raghav; Bartoli, Ivan; Kontsos, Antonios

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a methodology to make coefficient of thermal expansion measurements through the combined use of two non-contact and full field optical metrology methods including digital image correlation and infrared thermography. In this context, active Infrared Thermography techniques combined with contact and non-contact deformation measurement methods have already been reported to measure materials’ thermal expansion. In addition, such techniques have been reported to be capable to detect surface and subsurface defects from changes in homogenous heat diffusion due to damage. Based on this knowledge, it is hypothesized in this article that the material response induced by thermal loading and quantified by coefficient of thermal expansion measurements could be further used as an indicator of damage. To validate the hypothesis three measurements were performed. The first established the effectiveness of using deformation and thermal full field data for coefficient of thermal expansion measurements. The second intended to demonstrate the advantage of using such full field data in order to provide site-specific measurements of thermal expansion. Finally damage was a priori induced to a metallic specimen, and the measured variations of local CTE confirmed the potential of using the described approach as a means of damage quantification in materials and structures.

  12. Sensitivity of PZT Impedance Sensors for Damage Detection of Concrete Structures

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yaowen; Hu, Yuhang; Lu, Yong

    2008-01-01

    Piezoelectric ceramic Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) based electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) technique for structural health monitoring (SHM) has been successfully applied to various engineering systems. However, fundamental research work on the sensitivity of the PZT impedance sensors for damage detection is still in need. In the traditional EMI method, the PZT electro-mechanical (EM) admittance (inverse of the impedance) is used as damage indicator, which is difficult to specify the effect of damage on structural properties. This paper uses the structural mechanical impedance (SMI) extracted from the PZT EM admittance signature as the damage indicator. A comparison study on the sensitivity of the EM admittance and the structural mechanical impedance to the damages in a concrete structure is conducted. Results show that the SMI is more sensitive to the damage than the EM admittance thus a better indicator for damage detection. Furthermore, this paper proposes a dynamic system consisting of a number of single-degree-of-freedom elements with mass, spring and damper components to model the SMI. A genetic algorithm is employed to search for the optimal value of the unknown parameters in the dynamic system. An experiment is carried out on a two-storey concrete frame subjected to base vibrations that simulate earthquake. A number of PZT sensors are regularly arrayed and bonded to the frame structure to acquire PZT EM admittance signatures. The relationship between the damage index and the distance of the PZT sensor from the damage is studied. Consequently, the sensitivity of the PZT sensors is discussed and their sensing region in concrete is derived.

  13. Detection of structural damage using novelty detection algorithm under variational environmental and operational conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Mountassir, M.; Yaacoubi, S.; Dahmene, F.

    2015-07-01

    Novelty detection is a widely used algorithm in different fields of study due to its capabilities to recognize any kind of abnormalities in a specific process in order to ensure better working in normal conditions. In the context of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM), this method is utilized as damage detection technique because the presence of defects can be considered as abnormal to the structure. Nevertheless, the performance of such a method could be jeopardized if the structure is operating in harsh environmental and operational conditions (EOCs). In this paper, novelty detection statistical technique is used to investigate the detection of damages under various EOCs. Experiments were conducted with different scenarios: damage sizes and shapes. EOCs effects were simulated by adding stochastic noise to the collected experimental data. Different levels of noise were studied to determine the accuracy and the performance of the proposed method.

  14. Damage detection in elastic structures using vibratory residual forces and weighted sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricles, J. M.; Kosmatka, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    A methodology is presented for detecting structural damage in elastic structures by nondestructive means. Measured modal test data along with a correlated analytical structural model are used to locate potentially damaged regions using residual modal force vectors and to conduct a weighted sensitivity analysis to assess the extent of mass and/or stiffness variations, where damage is characterized as a stiffness reduction. The current approach is unique among other approaches in that it accounts for (1) variations in system mass, system stiffness, and mass center (locations), (2) perturbations of both the natural frequencies and modal vectors, and (3) statistical confidence factors for the structural parameters and potential experimental instrumentation error. Moreover, this procedure can be used with either full or reduced models. A wide variety of numerical examples are presented that show that the current method provides a precise indication of both the location and the extent of structural damage.

  15. Damage detection using the signal entropy of an ultrasonic sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas, E.; Baltazar, A.; Loh, K. J.

    2015-07-01

    Piezoelectric ultrasonic sensors used to propagate guided waves can potentially be implemented to inspect large areas in engineering structures. However, the inherent dispersion and noise of guided acoustic signals, multiple echoes in the structure, as well as a lack of an approximate or exact model, limit their use as a continuous structural health monitoring system. In this work, the implementation of a network of piezoelectric sensors randomly placed on a plate-like structure to detect and locate artificial damage is studied. A network of macro fiber composite (MFC) sensors working in a pitch-catch configuration was set on an aluminum thin plate 1.9 mm in thickness. Signals were analyzed in the time-scale domain using the discrete wavelet transform. The objectives of this work were threefold, namely to first develop a damage index based on the entropy distribution using short time wavelet entropy of the ultrasonic waves generated by a sensor network, second to determine the performance of an array of spare MFC sensors to detect artificial damage, and third to implement a time-of-arrival (TOA) algorithm on the gathered signals for damage location of an artificial circular discontinuity. Our preliminary test results show that the proposed methodology provides sufficient information for damage detection, which, once combined with the TOA algorithm, allows localization of the damage.

  16. Wireless and embedded carbon nanotube networks for damage detection in concrete structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saafi, Mohamed

    2009-09-01

    Concrete structures undergo an uncontrollable damage process manifesting in the form of cracks due to the coupling of fatigue loading and environmental effects. In order to achieve long-term durability and performance, continuous health monitoring systems are needed to make critical decisions regarding operation, maintenance and repairs. Recent advances in nanostructured materials such as carbon nanotubes have opened the door for new smart and advanced sensing materials that could effectively be used in health monitoring of structures where wireless and real time sensing could provide information on damage development. In this paper, carbon nanotube networks were embedded into a cement matrix to develop an in situ wireless and embedded sensor for damage detection in concrete structures. By wirelessly measuring the change in the electrical resistance of the carbon nanotube networks, the progress of damage can be detected and monitored. As a proof of concept, wireless cement-carbon nanotube sensors were embedded into concrete beams and subjected to monotonic and cyclic loading to evaluate the effect of damage on their response. Experimental results showed that the wireless response of the embedded nanotube sensors changes due to the formation of cracks during loading. In addition, the nanotube sensors were able to detect the initiation of damage at an early stage of loading.

  17. Wireless and embedded carbon nanotube networks for damage detection in concrete structures.

    PubMed

    Saafi, Mohamed

    2009-09-30

    Concrete structures undergo an uncontrollable damage process manifesting in the form of cracks due to the coupling of fatigue loading and environmental effects. In order to achieve long-term durability and performance, continuous health monitoring systems are needed to make critical decisions regarding operation, maintenance and repairs. Recent advances in nanostructured materials such as carbon nanotubes have opened the door for new smart and advanced sensing materials that could effectively be used in health monitoring of structures where wireless and real time sensing could provide information on damage development. In this paper, carbon nanotube networks were embedded into a cement matrix to develop an in situ wireless and embedded sensor for damage detection in concrete structures. By wirelessly measuring the change in the electrical resistance of the carbon nanotube networks, the progress of damage can be detected and monitored. As a proof of concept, wireless cement-carbon nanotube sensors were embedded into concrete beams and subjected to monotonic and cyclic loading to evaluate the effect of damage on their response. Experimental results showed that the wireless response of the embedded nanotube sensors changes due to the formation of cracks during loading. In addition, the nanotube sensors were able to detect the initiation of damage at an early stage of loading. PMID:19724107

  18. Nondestructive Structural Damage Detection in Flexible Space Structures Using Vibration Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricles, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Spacecraft are susceptible to structural damage over their operating life from impact, environmental loads, and fatigue. Structural damage that is not detected and not corrected may potentially cause more damage and eventually catastrophic structural failure. NASA's current fleet of reusable spacecraft, namely the Space Shuttle, has been flown on several missions. In addition, configurations of future NASA space structures, e.g. Space Station Freedom, are larger and more complex than current structures, making them more susceptible to damage as well as being more difficult to inspect. Consequently, a reliable structural damage detection capability is essential to maintain the flight safety of these structures. Visual inspections alone can not locate impending material failure (fatigue cracks, yielding); it can only observe post-failure situations. An alternative approach is to develop an inspection and monitoring system based on vibration characterization that assesses the integrity of structural and mechanical components. A methodology for detecting structural damage is presented. This methodology is based on utilizing modal test data in conjunction with a correlated analytical model of the structure to: (1) identify the structural dynamic characteristics (resonant frequencies and mode shapes) from measurements of ambient motions and/or force excitation; (2) calculate modal residual force vectors to identify the location of structural damage; and (3) conduct a weighted sensitivity analysis in order to assess the extent of mass and stiffness variations, where structural damage is characterized by stiffness reductions. The approach is unique from other existing approaches in that varying system mass and stiffness, mass center locations, the perturbation of both the natural frequencies and mode shapes, and statistical confidence factors for structural parameters and experimental instrumentation are all accounted for directly.

  19. Structural damage detection for in-service highway bridge under operational and environmental variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chenhao; Li, Jingcheng; Jang, Shinae; Sun, Xiaorong; Christenson, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Structural health monitoring has drawn significant attention in the past decades with numerous methodologies and applications for civil structural systems. Although many researchers have developed analytical and experimental damage detection algorithms through vibration-based methods, these methods are not widely accepted for practical structural systems because of their sensitivity to uncertain environmental and operational conditions. The primary environmental factor that influences the structural modal properties is temperature. The goal of this article is to analyze the natural frequency-temperature relationships and detect structural damage in the presence of operational and environmental variations using modal-based method. For this purpose, correlations between natural frequency and temperature are analyzed to select proper independent variables and inputs for the multiple linear regression model and neural network model. In order to capture the changes of natural frequency, confidence intervals to detect the damages for both models are generated. A long-term structural health monitoring system was installed on an in-service highway bridge located in Meriden, Connecticut to obtain vibration and environmental data. Experimental testing results show that the variability of measured natural frequencies due to temperature is captured, and the temperature-induced changes in natural frequencies have been considered prior to the establishment of the threshold in the damage warning system. This novel approach is applicable for structural health monitoring system and helpful to assess the performance of the structure for bridge management and maintenance.

  20. Guided Wave and Damage Detection in Composite Laminates Using Different Fiber Optic Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Fucai; Murayama, Hideaki; Kageyama, Kazuro; Shirai, Takehiro

    2009-01-01

    Guided wave detection using different fiber optic sensors and their applications in damage detection for composite laminates were systematically investigated and compared in this paper. Two types of fiber optic sensors, namely fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) and Doppler effect-based fiber optic (FOD) sensors, were addressed and guided wave detection systems were constructed for both types. Guided waves generated by a piezoelectric transducer were propagated through a quasi-isotropic carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminate and acquired by these fiber optic sensors. Characteristics of these fiber optic sensors in ultrasonic guided wave detection were systematically compared. Results demonstrated that both the FBG and FOD sensors can be applied in guided wave and damage detection for the CFRP laminates. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of guided wave signal captured by an FOD sensor is relatively high in comparison with that of the FBG sensor because of their different physical principles in ultrasonic detection. Further, the FOD sensor is sensitive to the damage-induced fundamental shear horizontal (SH0) guided wave that, however, cannot be detected by using the FBG sensor, because the FOD sensor is omnidirectional in ultrasound detection and, in contrast, the FBG sensor is severely direction dependent. PMID:22412347

  1. Sensitivity analysis of an auto-correlation-function-based damage index and its application in structural damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Muyu; Schmidt, Rüdiger

    2014-12-01

    Structural damage detection using time domain vibration responses has advantages such as simplicity in calculation and no requirement of a finite element model, which attracts more and more researchers in recent years. In present paper, a new approach to detect the damage based on the auto correlation function is proposed. The maximum values of the auto correlation function of the vibration response signals from different measurement points are formulated as a vector called Auto Correlation Function at Maximum Point Value Vector, AMV for short. The relative change of the normalized AMV before and after damage is used as the damage index to locate the damage. Sensitivity analysis of the normalized AMV with respect to the local stiffness shows that the normalized AMV has a sharp change around the local stiffness change location, which means the normalized AMV is a good indicator to detect the damage even when the damage is very small. Stiffness reduction detection of a 12-story frame structure is provided to illustrate the validity, effectiveness and the anti-noise ability of the proposed method. Comparison of the normalized AMV and the other correlation-function-based damage detection method shows the normalized AMV has a better detectability.

  2. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Klinger, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  3. Idaho Explosive Detection System

    ScienceCinema

    Klinger, Jeff

    2013-05-28

    Learn how INL researchers are making the world safer by developing an explosives detection system that can inspect cargo. For more information about INL security research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory

  4. Damage detection of civil infrastructures with piezoelectric oscillator sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Y. R.; Kim, D. Y.; Park, S. H.; Yun, C. B.

    2006-03-01

    Many researches have been reported on the condition monitoring of civil infrastructures by means of piezoelectric sensors. Most of them made use of the impedance change of the piezoelectric device in relation to the creation of internal damages to the structure. The impedance measurement is a well accepted method in the piezoelectric sensor area, and has been proved by many authors to be useful for civil structure diagnosis. However, the impedance measurement normally requires sophisticated equipment and analysis technology. For more general and wide application of the piezoelectric diagnosis tool, a new methodology is desired to overcome the limitations of the impedance measurement. This paper presents the feasibility of a piezoelectric oscillator sensor to detect the damages in civil infrastructures. The oscillator sensor is composed of an electronic feedback oscillator circuit and a piezoelectric thickness mode vibrator to be attached to the structure of interest. Damage to the structure causes a change in the impedance spectrum of the structure, which results in a corresponding change of the resonant frequency of the structure. The oscillator sensors can instantly detect the frequency change in a very simple manner. Feasibility of the piezoelectric oscillator sensor was verified in this work with a sample aluminum plate where artificial cracks of different depth were imposed in sequence. Validity of the measurement was confirmed through comparison of the experimental data with the results of finite element analyses of the plate with cracks. Performance of the oscillator sensor was also compared with that of its conventional counterpart, i.e. impedance measurement, to manifest the superiority of the oscillator sensor.

  5. Damage detection and model refinement using elemental stiffness perturbations with constrained connectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Doebling, S.W.

    1996-04-01

    A new optimal update method for the correlation of dynamic structural finite element models with modal data is presented. The method computes a minimum-rank solution for the perturbations of the elemental stiffness parameters while constraining the connectivity of the global stiffness matrix. The resulting model contains a more accurate representation of the dynamics of the test structure. The changes between the original model and the updated model can be interpreted as modeling errors or as changes in the structure resulting from damage. The motivation for the method is presented in the context of existing optimal matrix update procedures. The method is demonstrated numerically on a spring-mass system and is also applied to experimental data from the NASA Langley 8-bay truss damage detection experiment. The results demonstrate that the proposed procedure may be useful for updating elemental stiffness parameters in the context of damage detection and model refinement.

  6. Underwater laser detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomaa, Walid; El-Sherif, Ashraf F.; El-Sharkawy, Yasser H.

    2015-02-01

    The conventional method used to detect an underwater target is by sending and receiving some form of acoustic energy. But the acoustic systems have limitations in the range resolution and accuracy; while, the potential benefits of a laserbased underwater target detection include high directionality, high response, and high range accuracy. Lasers operating in the blue-green region of the light spectrum(420 : 570nm)have a several applications in the area of detection and ranging of submersible targets due to minimum attenuation through water ( less than 0.1 m-1) and maximum laser reflection from estimated target (like mines or submarines) to provide a long range of detection. In this paper laser attenuation in water was measured experimentally by new simple method by using high resolution spectrometer. The laser echoes from different targets (metal, plastic, wood, and rubber) were detected using high resolution CCD camera; the position of detection camera was optimized to provide a high reflection laser from target and low backscattering noise from the water medium, digital image processing techniques were applied to detect and discriminate the echoes from the metal target and subtract the echoes from other objects. Extraction the image of target from the scattering noise is done by background subtraction and edge detection techniques. As a conclusion, we present a high response laser imaging system to detect and discriminate small size, like-mine underwater targets.

  7. Bro Intrusion Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Paxson, Vern; Campbell, Scott; leres, Craig; Lee, Jason

    2006-01-25

    Bro is a Unix-based Network Intrusion Detection System (IDS). Bro monitors network traffic and detects intrusion attempts based on the traffic characteristics and content. Bro detects intrusions by comparing network traffic against rules describing events that are deemed troublesome. These rules might describe activities (e.g., certain hosts connecting to certain services), what activities are worth alerting (e.g., attempts to a given number of different hosts constitutes a "scan"), or signatures describing known attacks or access to known vulnerabilities. If Bro detects something of interest, it can be instructed to either issue a log entry or initiate the execution of an operating system command. Bro targets high-speed (Gbps), high-volume intrusion detection. By judiciously leveraging packet filtering techniques, Bro is able to achieve the performance necessary to do so while running on commercially available PC hardware, and thus can serve as a cost effective means of monitoring a site’s Internet connection.

  8. Application of ARMAV models to the identification and damage detection of mechanical and civil engineering structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodeux, J. B.; Golinval, J. C.

    2001-06-01

    In this paper, the application of auto-regressive moving average vector models to system identification and damage detection is investigated. These parametric models have already been applied for the analysis of multiple input-output systems under ambient excitation. Their main advantage consists in the capability of extracting modal parameters from the recorded time signals, without the requirement of excitation measurement. The excitation is supposed to be a stationary Gaussian white noise. The method also allows the estimation of modal parameter uncertainties. On the basis of these uncertainties, a statistically based damage detection scheme is performed and it becomes possible to assess whether changes of modal parameters are caused by, e.g. some damage or simply by estimation inaccuracies. The paper reports first an example of identification and damage detection applied to a simulated system under random excitation. The `Steel-Quake' benchmark proposed in the framework of COST Action F3 `Structural Dynamics' is also analysed. This structure was defined by the Joint Research Centre in Ispra (Italy) to test steel building performance during earthquakes. The proposed method gives an excellent identification of frequencies and mode shapes, while damping ratios are estimated with less accuracy.

  9. Portable pathogen detection system

    DOEpatents

    Colston, Billy W.; Everett, Matthew; Milanovich, Fred P.; Brown, Steve B.; Vendateswaran, Kodumudi; Simon, Jonathan N.

    2005-06-14

    A portable pathogen detection system that accomplishes on-site multiplex detection of targets in biological samples. The system includes: microbead specific reagents, incubation/mixing chambers, a disposable microbead capture substrate, and an optical measurement and decoding arrangement. The basis of this system is a highly flexible Liquid Array that utilizes optically encoded microbeads as the templates for biological assays. Target biological samples are optically labeled and captured on the microbeads, which are in turn captured on an ordered array or disordered array disposable capture substrate and then optically read.

  10. [Preliminary research on insect damage detection in pecans using terahertz spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Wei-Li; Zhao, Chun-Jiang; Zhang, Bao-Hua

    2014-05-01

    Pecan is an important nut in US, however, the inner insect influences pecan's quality a lot. To realize the nondestructive detection of insect damage in American pecans rapidly and efficiently, preliminary research on insect damage detection in pecans was conducted based on terahertz spectroscopy. Firstly, a set of native pecan nuts were collected and were manually sliced with a thickness of about 1, 2 and 3 mm and with a size of about 2 cm(length) X 1 cm(width) for every pecan nutmeat; Pecan shell and inner separator were also cut into the same size. Secondly, the absorption spectra of the nutmeat slices, shell, and inner separator were collected using THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) developed by a group of researchers at Oklahoma State University, and the spectral characteristic of the slices was analyzed. Thirdly, the absorption spectra of the alive manduca sexta and dry pecan weevil were collected, and due to the high contents in the insects, very obvious spectral characteristics were found. Finally, the transmission experiment was conducted with the whole pecans. The results from the preliminary study show a potential application of THz technology for insect damage detection. This research provides a reference for further understanding terahertz and exploring sample preparation methods, test methods, data acquisition and optical parameters calculation methods, and developing nondestructive detection system for insect damage in American pecans based on terahertz technology. PMID:25095406

  11. Solar system fault detection

    DOEpatents

    Farrington, R.B.; Pruett, J.C. Jr.

    1984-05-14

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  12. Solar system fault detection

    DOEpatents

    Farrington, Robert B.; Pruett, Jr., James C.

    1986-01-01

    A fault detecting apparatus and method are provided for use with an active solar system. The apparatus provides an indication as to whether one or more predetermined faults have occurred in the solar system. The apparatus includes a plurality of sensors, each sensor being used in determining whether a predetermined condition is present. The outputs of the sensors are combined in a pre-established manner in accordance with the kind of predetermined faults to be detected. Indicators communicate with the outputs generated by combining the sensor outputs to give the user of the solar system and the apparatus an indication as to whether a predetermined fault has occurred. Upon detection and indication of any predetermined fault, the user can take appropriate corrective action so that the overall reliability and efficiency of the active solar system are increased.

  13. Fractal mechanism for characterizing singularity of mode shape for damage detection

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, M. S.; Ostachowicz, W.; Bai, R. B.; Radzieński, M.

    2013-11-25

    Damage is an ordinary physical phenomenon jeopardizing structural safety; damage detection is an ongoing interdisciplinary issue. Waveform fractal theory has provided a promising resource for detecting damage in plates while presenting a concomitant problem: susceptibility to false features of damage. This study proposes a fractal dimension method based on affine transformation to address this problem. Physical experiments using laser measurement demonstrate that this method can substantially eliminate false features of damage and accurately identify complex cracks in plates, providing a fundamental mechanism that brings the merits of waveform fractal theory into full play in structural damage detection applications.

  14. Fish detection and classification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidd, Richard A.; Wilder, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Marine biologists traditionally determine the presence and quantities of different types of fish by dragging nets across the bottom, and examining their contents. This method, although accurate, kills the collected fish, damages their habitat, and consumes large quantities of resources. This paper presents an alternative, a machine vision system capable of determining the presence of fish species. Illumination presents a unique problem in this environment, and the design of an effective illumination system is discussed. The related issues of object orientation and measurement are also discussed and resolved. Capturing images of fish in murky water also presents challenges. An adaptive thresholding technique is required to appropriately segment the fish from the background in these images. Mode detection, and histogram analysis are useful tools in determining these localized thresholds. It is anticipated that this system, created in conjunction with the Rutgers Institute for Marine and Coastal Science, will effectively classify fish in the estuarine environment.

  15. Continuous dynamic monitoring of a lively footbridge for serviceability assessment and damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Wei-Hua; Moutinho, Carlos; Caetano, Elsa; Magalhães, Filipe; Cunha, Álvaro

    2012-11-01

    This paper aims at analyzing the feasibility of applying a vibration based damage detection approach, based on Principal Components Analysis (PCA), to eliminate environmental effects using the large amount of high quality data continuously collected by the dynamic monitoring system of Pedro e Inês footbridge since 2007. Few works describe real data, regularly collected along several years by reliable continuous dynamic monitoring systems in bridge structures. One main contribution is to show a large difference between making academic research based on numerical simulations or limited experimental samples, and making validity tests of innovative procedures using large high quality databases collected in real structures. The monitoring system, installed with the only initial objective of checking the efficiency of vibration control devices used to mitigate lateral and vertical vibrations, was therefore further developed for research purposes by implementing LabVIEW based automated signal processing and output-only modal identification routines, that enabled the analysis of the correlation of modal estimates with the temperature and the vibration level, as well as the automatic tracking of modal parameters along several years. With the final purpose of detecting potential structural damage at an early stage, the Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was employed to effectively eliminate temperature effects, whereas Novelty Analysis on the residual errors of the PCA model was used to provide a statistical indication of damage. The efficiency of this vibration based damage detection approach was verified using 3 years of measurements at Pedro e Inês footbridge under operational conditions and simulating several realistic damage scenarios affecting the boundary conditions. It is demonstrated that such a dynamic monitoring system, apart from providing relevant instantaneous dynamic information, working as an alert system associated to the verification of vibration

  16. Embedded transmissibility function analysis for damage detection in a mobile sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xiaohua; Zhu, Dapeng; Wang, Yang; Guo, Jiajie; Lee, Kok-Meng

    2010-04-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) and damage detection have attracted great interest in recent decades, in meeting the challenges of assessing the safety condition of large-scale civil structures. By wiring remote sensors directly to a centralized data acquisition system, traditional structural health monitoring systems are usually costly and the installation is time-consuming. Recent advances in wireless sensing technology have made it feasible for structural health monitoring; furthermore, the computational core in a wireless sensing unit offers onboard data interrogation. In addition to wireless sensing, the authors have recently developed a mobile sensing system for providing high spatial resolution and flexible sensor deployment in structural health monitoring. In this study, transmissibility function analysis is embedded in the mobile sensing node to perform onboard and in-network structural damage detection. The system implementation is validated using a laboratory 2D steel portal frame. Simulated damage is applied to the frame structure, and the damage is successfully identified by two mobile sensing nodes that autonomously navigate through the structure.

  17. Damage detection under varying environmental and operational conditions using Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima decay lines similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjirkallis, A.; Kyprianou, A.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last three decades, there have been increasing demands to develop and deploy Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems for engineering structures in service. Since these structures are subjected to varying environmental and operational conditions, reliable SHM methodologies must be capable of not misattributing to damage changes due to environmental conditions. This paper presents a novel damage detection methodology based on the similarity between maxima decay lines of the continuous wavelet transform scalogram of the structural responses obtained under different operational and environmental conditions. The normalized cross correlation (NCC) is used as a measure of this similarity. In addition, the pointwise summation of similar Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima (WTMM) decay lines is used to identify changes due to the presence of damage from different force realizations and/or varying environmental conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is demonstrated using a simulated 3DOF system and an experimental cantilever beam.

  18. Idaho Explosives Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Edward L. Reber; Larry G. Blackwood; Andrew J. Edwards; J. Keith Jewell; Kenneth W. Rohde; Edward H. Seabury; Jeffery B. Klinger

    2005-12-01

    The Idaho Explosives Detection System was developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to respond to threats imposed by delivery trucks potentially carrying explosives into military bases. A full-scale prototype system has been built and is currently undergoing testing. The system consists of two racks, one on each side of a subject vehicle. Each rack includes a neutron generator and an array of NaI detectors. The two neutron generators are pulsed and synchronized. A laptop computer controls the entire system. The control software is easily operable by minimally trained staff. The system was developed to detect explosives in a medium size truck within a 5-min measurement time. System performance was successfully demonstrated with explosives at the INL in June 2004 and at Andrews Air Force Base in July 2004.

  19. Damage detection by Acousto-Ultrasonic Location (AUL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marioli-Riga, Z. P.; Karanika, A. N.; Philippidis, T. P.; Paipetis, S. A.

    1992-12-01

    Damage detection in aircraft structures in-situ is important, especially with not visible defects in composite components for a variety of reasons. In the present paper a new technique based on the Acousto-Ultrasonic (AU) concept is introduced, but instead of extracting information from the externally generated pulsed wave, as with AU, the characteristics of waves reflected from defects are measured. In this way it was possible to identify and locate defected areas in honeycomb panels and thermoplastic carbon fiber laminates. The results were correlated with ultrasonic C-scans, and satisfactory agreement was obtained. The present is part of a major project aiming at the development of a fast inspection method for aircraft components during routine maintenance cycles.

  20. Detection and location of debris cloud impact damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Pang, Baojun; Liu, Zhidong; Chi, Runqiang

    2009-12-01

    A variety of anomalies and system failure can be caused by micrometeoroid and space debris impact on spacecraft. A system based on acoustic emission technique is considered for monitoring the impact events. Most of recent works focused on point-like source localization. However, the spacecraft may use a single thin plate named "bumper" placed at a short distance ahead of a primary structural system. The impact source would be in the form of debris cloud. In this study, normal hypervelocity impact experiments were used to study the characteristics of signals caused by debris cloud impact. Four ultrasonic transducers were mounted on the target plate for collecting the debris cloud impact signals. In the Fourier transform of the signals, the distinctions caused by different form of debris cloud impact could be seen. The mathematical model to determine the impact location was provided. It was found that the position predicted was near the center of the damaged region caused by debris cloud impact.

  1. Detection and location of debris cloud impact damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Pang, Baojun; Liu, ZhiDong; Chi, Runqiang

    2010-03-01

    A variety of anomalies and system failure can be caused by micrometeoroid and space debris impact on spacecraft. A system based on acoustic emission technique is considered for monitoring the impact events. Most of recent works focused on point-like source localization. However, the spacecraft may use a single thin plate named "bumper" placed at a short distance ahead of a primary structural system. The impact source would be in the form of debris cloud. In this study, normal hypervelocity impact experiments were used to study the characteristics of signals caused by debris cloud impact. Four ultrasonic transducers were mounted on the target plate for collecting the debris cloud impact signals. In the Fourier transform of the signals, the distinctions caused by different form of debris cloud impact could be seen. The mathematical model to determine the impact location was provided. It was found that the position predicted was near the center of the damaged region caused by debris cloud impact.

  2. Damage detection tomography based on guided waves in composite structures using a distributed sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memmolo, Vittorio; Maio, Leandro; Boffa, Natalino Daniele; Monaco, Ernesto; Ricci, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) based on guided waves allows assessing the health of a structure due to the sensitivity to the occurrence of delamination. However, wave propagation presents several complexities for effective damage identification in composite structures. An efficient implementation of a guided wave-based SHM system requires an accurate analysis of collected data to obtain a useful detection. This paper is concerned with the identification of small emerging delaminations in composite structural components using a sparse array of surface ultrasonic transducers. An ultrasonic-guided wave tomography technique focused on impact damage detection in composite plate-like structures is presented. A statistical damage index approach is adopted to interpret the recorded signals, and a subsequent graphic interpolation is implemented to reconstruct the damage appearance. Experimental tests carried out on a typical composite structure demonstrated the effectiveness of the developed technique with the aim to investigate the presence and location of damage using simple imaging reports and a limited number of measurements. A traditional ultrasonic inspection (C-scan) is used to assess the methodology.

  3. Nondestructive detection of damage in carbon fibre composites by SQUID magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruosi, A.

    2005-03-01

    Monitoring of structural integrity is an essential issue in enhancing the affordability as well the safety of modern aircraft and spacecraft structures. Increasingly, metallic parts of aircrafts are being replaced by carbon fibre composite components due to their high strength and stiffness combined with low density. This paper reviews of the use of superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) in the detection of different types of damage in carbon fibre panels. The results presented here on impact damage on carbon fibre reinforced polymer and cracks induced by tensile loads on carbon fibre reinforced carbon matrix show that this method is sensitive not only to the presence but also the severity of damage. Indeed, it enables one to distinguish between the different failure mechanisms as the damage process evolves. SQUIDs response to artificial delaminations, flaws and deep-lying defects are also presented. The application of a neural network system for the detection of impact damage in a noisy environment is discussed. Experimental results demonstrate that nondestructive evaluation using SQUID magnetometers is a suitable technique to investigate composites to improve their mechanical properties.

  4. Water system virus detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J.

    1975-01-01

    A monitoring system developed to test the capability of a water recovery system to reject the passage of viruses into the recovered water is described. A nonpathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, is fed into the process stream before the recovery unit and the reclaimed water is assayed for its presence. Detection of the marker virus consists of two major components, concentration and isolation of the marker virus, and detection of the marker virus. The concentration system involves adsorption of virus to cellulose acetate filters in the presence of trivalent cations and low pH with subsequent desorption of the virus using volumes of high pH buffer. The detection of the virus is performed by a passive immune agglutination test utilizing specially prepared polystyrene particles. An engineering preliminary design was performed as a parallel effort to the laboratory development of the marker virus test system. Engineering schematics and drawings of a fully functional laboratory prototype capable of zero-G operation are presented. The instrument consists of reagent pump/metering system, reagent storage containers, a filter concentrator, an incubation/detector system, and an electronic readout and control system.

  5. Extended Kalman filter based structural damage detection for MR damper controlled structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chenhao; Jang, Shinae; Sun, Xiaorong; Jiang, Zhaoshuo; Christenson, Richard

    2016-04-01

    The Magneto-rheological (MR) dampers have been widely used in many building and bridge structures against earthquake and wind loadings due to its advantages including mechanical simplicity, high dynamic range, low power requirements, large force capacity, and robustness. However, research about structural damage detection methods for MR damper controlled structures is limited. This paper aims to develop a real-time structural damage detection method for MR damper controlled structures. A novel state space model of MR damper controlled structure is first built by combining the structure's equation of motion and MR damper's hyperbolic tangent model. In this way, the state parameters of both the structure and MR damper are added in the state vector of the state space model. Extended Kalman filter is then used to provide prediction for state variables from measurement data. The two techniques are synergistically combined to identify parameters and track the changes of both structure and MR damper in real time. The proposed method is tested using response data of a three-floor MR damper controlled linear building structure under earthquake excitation. The testing results show that the adaptive extended Kalman filter based approach is capable to estimate not only structural parameters such as stiffness and damping of each floor, but also the parameters of MR damper, so that more insights and understanding of the damage can be obtained. The developed method also demonstrates high damage detection accuracy and light computation, as well as the potential to implement in a structural health monitoring system.

  6. A microsuspension adaptation of the Bacillus subtilis ''rec'' assay. [Detection of chemically induced DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    McCarroll, N.E.; Keech, B.H.; Piper, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    We have demonstrated the utility of an Escherichia coli microsuspension assay to detect and characterize chemical mediation of DNA damage by a wide variety of mutagens and carcinogens. The assay have been improved by the development of a microsuspension modification to the Bacillus subtilis ''rec'' assay. The addition of these gram-positive organisms has allowed detection of DNA damage induced by benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), 3-aminopyrene (3-AP), 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthrancene (DMBA), 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC), and 4-nitrobiphenyl (4-NBP). Data presented in this paper from tests of 61 additional compounds, including a representative number of direct and promutagenic agents, indicate that the B subtilis H17 and M45 strains provide an effective microbial system for identification of DNA damage susceptible to postreplicational repair. The results of this study further suggests that the inclusion of these strains in the microsuspension assay for DNA damage will markedly enhance the detection of agents which cannot readily penetrate the intact cell wall of E coli.

  7. Research on fatigue damage detection for wind turbine blade based on high-spatial-resolution DPP-BOTDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jinlong; Dong, Yongkang; Li, Hui

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a fatigue damage detection system used for wind turbine blade is successfully developed by using highspatial- resolution differential pulse-width pair Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (DPP-BOTDA) sensing system. A piece of polarization-maintaining optical fiber is bonded on the blade surface to form the distributed sensing network. A DPP-BOTDA system, with a spatial resolution of 20cm and sampling interval of 1cm, is adopted to measuring distributed strain and detecting fatigue damage of wind turbine blade during fatigue test using the differential pulse pair of 39.5ns/41.5ns. Strain and the Brillouin gain spectra changes from undamaged state to fatigue failure are experimentally presented. The experimental results reveal that fatigue damage changes the strain distribution especially around the high strain area, and the width, amplitude and central frequency of the Brillouin gain spectra are sensitive to fatigue damage as the stiffness degradation and accumulated cracks change local strain gradient. As the damage becomes larger, the width of the Brillouin gain spectra becomes broader. Consequently, location and size of fatigue damage could be estimated. The developed system shows its potentiality for developing highly reliable wind turbine monitoring system as the effectiveness of damage detection and distributed sensing.

  8. TECHNICAL NOTE: An unsupervised statistical damage detection method for structural health monitoring (applied to detection of delamination of a composite beam)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Atsushi; Todoroki, Akira; Shimamura, Yoshinobu; Kobayashi, Hideo

    2004-10-01

    The present paper proposes a new damage diagnosis method for structural health monitoring that does not require data on damaged-state structures. Structural health monitoring is an essential technology for aged civil structures and advanced composite structures. For damage diagnostic methods, most current structural health monitoring systems adopt parametric methods based on modeling, or non-parametric methods such as artificial neural networks. The conventional methods require FEM modeling of structure or data for training the damaged-state structure. These processes require judgment by a human, resulting in high cost. The present paper proposes a new automatic damage diagnostic method for structural health monitoring that does not require these processes by using a system identification and statistical similarity test of the identified systems using an F-test. As an example of damage diagnosis using the new method, the present study describes delamination detection of a CFRP beam. System identification among the strain data measured on the surface of a composite beam is used for damage diagnosis. The results show that the new statistical damage diagnostic method successfully diagnoses damage without the use of modeling and without learning data for damaged structures.

  9. Bro Intrusion Detection System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-01-25

    Bro is a Unix-based Network Intrusion Detection System (IDS). Bro monitors network traffic and detects intrusion attempts based on the traffic characteristics and content. Bro detects intrusions by comparing network traffic against rules describing events that are deemed troublesome. These rules might describe activities (e.g., certain hosts connecting to certain services), what activities are worth alerting (e.g., attempts to a given number of different hosts constitutes a "scan"), or signatures describing known attacks or accessmore » to known vulnerabilities. If Bro detects something of interest, it can be instructed to either issue a log entry or initiate the execution of an operating system command. Bro targets high-speed (Gbps), high-volume intrusion detection. By judiciously leveraging packet filtering techniques, Bro is able to achieve the performance necessary to do so while running on commercially available PC hardware, and thus can serve as a cost effective means of monitoring a site’s Internet connection.« less

  10. Corticosteroids: do they damage the cardiovascular system?

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, S. R.; Moots, R. J.; Kendall, M. J.

    1994-01-01

    Since their introduction for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, corticosteroids have become widely used as effective agents in the control of inflammatory diseases. Although there have been undoubted benefits upon mortality in diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, many patients survive only to suffer a high incidence of premature atherosclerosis. There is also evidence of increased rates of vascular mortality in other corticosteroid-treated diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, reversible airways obstruction and transplant recipients. Possible mechanisms of damage include elevated blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidaemia, and imbalances in thrombosis and fibrinolysis. This paper reviews the clinical evidence supporting the contention that there is an excess cardiovascular mortality in steroid-treated patients and the underlying mechanisms, and points to further areas of research. PMID:7870631

  11. Application of electromechanical impedance-based SHM for damage detection in bolted pipeline connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martowicz, Adam; Sendecki, Arkadiusz; Salamon, Marcin; Rosiek, Mateusz; Uhl, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    The work discusses the effectiveness of the electromechanical impedance-based Structural Health Monitoring system for damage detection in a laboratory test stand - a bolted pipeline section. The impedance-based system developed by the authors and equipped with 12 piezoelectric transducers was used to acquire the data. Different damage scenarios related to loosened bolts and measurement configurations are analysed. Both point and transfer frequency response functions are applied to deterministic and stochastic damage metrics, which are used to assess the condition of the monitored structure. The thresholds levels are proposed for different measurement configurations. Moreover, the authors discuss the perspective to determine the size and localisation of a damage. As confirmed in the work, the stochastic damage metric, preferably applied with a transfer frequency response, is found as of the most practical significance for the tested structure. The carried out analyses consider an outlier removal technique, which becomes necessary to prevent from errors due to temporary variation of the acquired characteristics after initialisation of the measurements.

  12. Towards damage detection using blind source separation integrated with time-varying auto-regressive modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musafere, F.; Sadhu, A.; Liu, K.

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades, structural health monitoring (SHM) has been an indispensable subject in the field of vibration engineering. With the aid of modern sensing technology, SHM has garnered significant attention towards diagnosis and risk management of large-scale civil structures and mechanical systems. In SHM, system identification is one of major building blocks through which unknown system parameters are extracted from vibration data of the structures. Such system information is then utilized to detect the damage instant, and its severity to rehabilitate and prolong the existing health of the structures. In recent years, blind source separation (BSS) algorithm has become one of the newly emerging advanced signal processing techniques for output-only system identification of civil structures. In this paper, a novel damage detection technique is proposed by integrating BSS with the time-varying auto-regressive modeling to identify the instant and severity of damage. The proposed method is validated using a suite of numerical studies and experimental models followed by a full-scale structure.

  13. Radiation detection system

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Melvin A.; Davies, Terence J.; Morton, III, John R.

    1976-01-01

    A radiation detection system which utilizes the generation of Cerenkov light in and the transmission of that light longitudinally through fiber optic wave guides in order to transmit intelligence relating to the radiation to a remote location. The wave guides are aligned with respect to charged particle radiation so that the Cerenkov light, which is generated at an angle to the radiation, is accepted by the fiber for transmission therethrough. The Cerenkov radiation is detected, recorded, and analyzed at the other end of the fiber.

  14. Eddy Current System and Method for Crack Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wincheski, Russell A. (Inventor); Simpson, John W. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An eddy current system and method enables detection of sub-surface damage in a cylindrical object. The invention incorporates a dual frequency, orthogonally wound eddy current probe mounted on a stepper motor-controlled scanning system. The system is designed to inspect for outer surface damage from the interior of the cylindrical object.

  15. Detection of Ballast Damage by In-Situ Vibration Measurement of Sleepers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, H. F.; Wong, M. T.; Keefe, R. M.

    2010-05-01

    Ballasted track is one of the most important elements of railway transportation systems worldwide. Owing to its importance in railway safety, many monitoring and evaluation methods have been developed. Current railway track monitoring systems are comprehensive, fast and efficient in testing railway track level and alignment, rail gauge, rail corrugation, etc. However, the monitoring of ballast condition still relies very much on visual inspection and core tests. Although extensive research has been carried out in the development of non-destructive methods for ballast condition evaluation, a commonly accepted and cost-effective method is still in demand. In Hong Kong practice, if abnormal train vibration is reported by the train operator or passengers, permanent way inspectors will locate the problem area by track geometry measurement. It must be pointed out that visual inspection can only identify ballast damage on the track surface, the track geometry deficiencies and rail twists can be detected using a track gauge. Ballast damage under the sleeper loading area and the ballast shoulder, which are the main factors affecting track stability and ride quality, are extremely difficult if not impossible to be detected by visual inspection. Core test is a destructive test, which is expensive, time consuming and may be disruptive to traffic. A fast real-time ballast damage detection method that can be implemented by permanent way inspectors with simple equipment can certainly provide valuable information for engineers in assessing the safety and riding quality of ballasted track systems. The main objective of this paper is to study the feasibility in using the vibration characteristics of sleepers in quantifying the ballast condition under the sleepers, and so as to explore the possibility in developing a handy method for the detection of ballast damage based on the measured vibration of sleepers.

  16. A procedure for damage detection and localization of framed buildings based on curvature variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditommaso, Rocco; Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Auletta, Gianluca; Iacovino, Chiara; Mossucca, Antonello; Nigro, Domenico; Nigro, Antonella

    2014-05-01

    Structural Health Monitoring and Damage Detection are topics of current interest in civil, mechanical and aerospace engineering. Damage Detection approach based on dynamic monitoring of structural properties over time has received a considerable attention in recent scientific literature of the last years. The basic idea arises from the observation that spectral properties, described in terms of the so-called modal parameters (eigenfrequencies, mode shapes, and modal damping), are functions of the physical properties of the structure (mass, energy dissipation mechanisms and stiffness). Structural damage exhibits its main effects in terms of stiffness and damping variation. As a consequence, a permanent dynamic monitoring system makes it possible to detect and, if suitably concentrated on the structure, to localize structural and non-structural damage occurred on the structure during a strong earthquake. In the last years many researchers are working to set-up new methodologies for Non-destructive Damage Evaluation (NDE) based on the variation of the dynamic behaviour of structures under seismic loads. Pandey et al. (1991) highlighted on the possibility to use the structural mode shapes to extract useful information for structural damage localization. In this paper a new procedure for damage detection on framed structures based on changes in modal curvature is proposed. The proposed approach is based on the use of Stockwell Transform, a special kind of integral transformation that become a powerful tool for nonlinear signal analysis and then to analyse the nonlinear behaviour of a general structure. Using this kind of approach, it is possible to use a band-variable filter (Ditommaso et al., 2012) to extract from a signal recorded on a structure (excited by an earthquake) the response related to a single mode of vibration for which the related frequency changes over time (if the structure is being damaged). İn general, by acting simultaneously in both frequency and

  17. How damage diversification can reduce systemic risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkholz, Rebekka; Garas, Antonios; Schweitzer, Frank

    2016-04-01

    We study the influence of risk diversification on cascading failures in weighted complex networks, where weighted directed links represent exposures between nodes. These weights result from different diversification strategies and their adjustment allows us to reduce systemic risk significantly by topological means. As an example, we contrast a classical exposure diversification (ED) approach with a damage diversification (DD) variant. The latter reduces the loss that the failure of high degree nodes generally inflict to their network neighbors and thus hampers the cascade amplification. To quantify the final cascade size and obtain our results, we develop a branching process approximation taking into account that inflicted losses cannot only depend on properties of the exposed, but also of the failing node. This analytic extension is a natural consequence of the paradigm shift from individual to system safety. To deepen our understanding of the cascade process, we complement this systemic perspective by a mesoscopic one: an analysis of the failure risk of nodes dependent on their degree. Additionally, we ask for the role of these failures in the cascade amplification.

  18. Open Circuit Resonant (SansEC) Sensor for Composite Damage Detection and Diagnosis in Aircraft Lightning Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Chuantong; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2012-01-01

    Composite materials are increasingly used in modern aircraft for reducing weight, improving fuel efficiency, and enhancing the overall design, performance, and manufacturability of airborne vehicles. Materials such as fiberglass reinforced composites (FRC) and carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP) are being used to great advantage in airframes, wings, engine nacelles, turbine blades, fairings, fuselage and empennage structures, control surfaces and coverings. However, the potential damage from the direct and indirect effects of lightning strikes is of increased concern to aircraft designers and operators. When a lightning strike occurs, the points of attachment and detachment on the aircraft surface must be found by visual inspection, and then assessed for damage by maintenance personnel to ensure continued safe flight operations. In this paper, a new method and system for aircraft in-situ damage detection and diagnosis are presented. The method and system are based on open circuit (SansEC) sensor technology developed at NASA Langley Research Center. SansEC (Sans Electric Connection) sensor technology is a new technical framework for designing, powering, and interrogating sensors to detect damage in composite materials. Damage in composite material is generally associated with a localized change in material permittivity and/or conductivity. These changes are sensed using SansEC. Unique electrical signatures are used for damage detection and diagnosis. NASA LaRC has both experimentally and theoretically demonstrated that SansEC sensors can be effectively used for in-situ composite damage detection.

  19. Damage detection for beam-like structures using the normalized curvature of a uniform load surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, S. H.; Jung, H. J.; Jung, H. Y.

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents a new vibration-based damage detection method for beam-like structures that uses the normalized uniform load surface (NULS) curvature obtained by modal flexibility. Analytical studies on the NULS curvature method for beam-like structures, which follow Bernoulli-Euler beam theory, have shown that changes in NULS curvature only occur at damaged elements and not at intact ones because the internal forces induced by damage only act on the damaged elements and not on the undamaged elements. Therefore, computing the changes in NULS curvature set indicating only damaged elements at a normalized level is central to the approach. Also, a damage index is proposed based on outlier analysis to account for measurement noise. In order to confirm the feasibility of the proposed method, a cantilever beam and a simply supported beam were numerically investigated for two damage scenarios by using modal parameters obtained by eigenvalue analysis and simulations of an impact test using MATLAB/Simulink. The results showed that the proposed method could accurately localize multiple damage locations as well as single damage locations without any false-positive or false-negative detections. For comparison, damage detection was also conducted using the uniform load surface (ULS) curvature method and the mode shape curvature method. The ULS curvature method clearly identified single damage locations but some missed multiple damage locations. For the mode shape curvature method, it was shown that the false-positive and false-negative detections were performed at several damaged or undamaged locations. The comparison showed that the proposed detection method can more effectively identify single and multiple damage locations than the other two methods. In conclusion, the proposed method performed better in detecting damages than the other two methods in terms of sensitivity to damage regardless of location and robustness against noisy signals generated from calculating the

  20. Damage detection technique by measuring laser-based mechanical impedance

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyeonseok; Sohn, Hoon

    2014-02-18

    This study proposes a method for measurement of mechanical impedance using noncontact laser ultrasound. The measurement of mechanical impedance has been of great interest in nondestructive testing (NDT) or structural health monitoring (SHM) since mechanical impedance is sensitive even to small-sized structural defects. Conventional impedance measurements, however, have been based on electromechanical impedance (EMI) using contact-type piezoelectric transducers, which show deteriorated performances induced by the effects of a) Curie temperature limitations, b) electromagnetic interference (EMI), c) bonding layers and etc. This study aims to tackle the limitations of conventional EMI measurement by utilizing laser-based mechanical impedance (LMI) measurement. The LMI response, which is equivalent to a steady-state ultrasound response, is generated by shooting the pulse laser beam to the target structure, and is acquired by measuring the out-of-plane velocity using a laser vibrometer. The formation of the LMI response is observed through the thermo-mechanical finite element analysis. The feasibility of applying the LMI technique for damage detection is experimentally verified using a pipe specimen under high temperature environment.

  1. Damage detection technique by measuring laser-based mechanical impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyeonseok; Sohn, Hoon

    2014-02-01

    This study proposes a method for measurement of mechanical impedance using noncontact laser ultrasound. The measurement of mechanical impedance has been of great interest in nondestructive testing (NDT) or structural health monitoring (SHM) since mechanical impedance is sensitive even to small-sized structural defects. Conventional impedance measurements, however, have been based on electromechanical impedance (EMI) using contact-type piezoelectric transducers, which show deteriorated performances induced by the effects of a) Curie temperature limitations, b) electromagnetic interference (EMI), c) bonding layers and etc. This study aims to tackle the limitations of conventional EMI measurement by utilizing laser-based mechanical impedance (LMI) measurement. The LMI response, which is equivalent to a steady-state ultrasound response, is generated by shooting the pulse laser beam to the target structure, and is acquired by measuring the out-of-plane velocity using a laser vibrometer. The formation of the LMI response is observed through the thermo-mechanical finite element analysis. The feasibility of applying the LMI technique for damage detection is experimentally verified using a pipe specimen under high temperature environment.

  2. Acoustic damage detection in laser-cut CFRP composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishino, Michiteru; Harada, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Takayuki; Niino, Hiroyuki

    2012-03-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) composite material, which is expected to reduce the weight of automotive, airplane and etc., was cut by laser irradiation with a pulsed-CO2 laser (TRUMPF TFL5000; P=800W, 20kHz, τ=8μs, λ=10.6μm, V=1m/min) and single-mode fiber lasers (IPG YLR-300-SM; P=300W, λ=1.07μm, V=1m/min)(IPG YLR- 2000-SM; P=2kW, λ=1.07μm, V=7m/min). To detect thermal damage at the laser cutting of CFRP materials consisting of thermoset resin matrix and PAN or PITCH-based carbon fiber, the cut quality was observed by X-ray CT. The effect of laser cutting process on the mechanical strength for CFRP tested at the tensile test. Acoustic emission (AE) monitoring, high-speed camera and scanning electron microscopy were used for the failure process analysis. AE signals and fractographic features characteristic of each laser-cut CFRP were identified.

  3. An automatic damage detection algorithm based on the Short Time Impulse Response Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auletta, Gianluca; Carlo Ponzo, Felice; Ditommaso, Rocco; Iacovino, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    Structural Health Monitoring together with all the dynamic identification techniques and damage detection techniques are increasing in popularity in both scientific and civil community in last years. The basic idea arises from the observation that spectral properties, described in terms of the so-called modal parameters (eigenfrequencies, mode shapes, and modal damping), are functions of the physical properties of the structure (mass, energy dissipation mechanisms and stiffness). Damage detection techniques traditionally consist in visual inspection and/or non-destructive testing. A different approach consists in vibration based methods detecting changes of feature related to damage. Structural damage exhibits its main effects in terms of stiffness and damping variation. Damage detection approach based on dynamic monitoring of structural properties over time has received a considerable attention in recent scientific literature. We focused the attention on the structural damage localization and detection after an earthquake, from the evaluation of the mode curvature difference. The methodology is based on the acquisition of the structural dynamic response through a three-directional accelerometer installed on the top floor of the structure. It is able to assess the presence of any damage on the structure providing also information about the related position and severity of the damage. The procedure is based on a Band-Variable Filter, (Ditommaso et al., 2012), used to extract the dynamic characteristics of systems that evolve over time by acting simultaneously in both time and frequency domain. In this paper using a combined approach based on the Fourier Transform and on the seismic interferometric analysis, an useful tool for the automatic fundamental frequency evaluation of nonlinear structures has been proposed. Moreover, using this kind of approach it is possible to improve some of the existing methods for the automatic damage detection providing stable results

  4. A novel damage index for fatigue damage detection in a laminated composites using Lamb waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, Daigo

    A well-established structural health monitoring (SHM) technique, the Lamb wave based approach, is used for fatigue damage identification in a laminated composite. A novel damage index, 'normalized correlation moment' (NCM) which is composed of the nth moment of the cross correlation of the baseline and comparison waves, was used as damage index for monitoring damage in composites and compared with the signal difference coefficient (SDC) which is one of the most commonly used damage indices. Composite specimens were fabricated by the hand layup method by followed by compression. Piezo electric disks mounted on composite specimens were used as actuators and sensors. Three point bending fatigue tests were carried out on an intact composite laminate and a delaminated composite laminate with [06/904/06] orientation. Finite element analysis was performed to test the validity of SDC and NCM for fatigue damage.

  5. Wireless ultrasonic wavefield imaging via laser for hidden damage detection inside a steel box girder bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yun-Kyu; Song, Homin; Sohn, Hoon

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a wireless ultrasonic wavefield imaging (WUWI) technique for detecting hidden damage inside a steel box girder bridge. The proposed technique allows (1) complete wireless excitation of piezoelectric transducers and noncontact sensing of the corresponding responses using laser beams, (2) autonomous damage visualization without comparing against baseline data previously accumulated from the pristine condition of a target structure and (3) robust damage diagnosis even for real structures with complex structural geometries. First, a new WUWI hardware system was developed by integrating optoelectronic-based signal transmitting and receiving devices and a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. Next, a damage visualization algorithm, self-referencing f-k filter (SRF), was introduced to isolate and visualize only crack-induced ultrasonic modes from measured ultrasonic wavefield images. Finally, the performance of the proposed technique was validated through hidden crack visualization at a decommissioned Ramp-G Bridge in South Korea. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique instantaneously detects and successfully visualizes hidden cracks even in the complex structure of a real bridge.

  6. Online Damage Detection on Metal and Composite Space Structures by Active and Passive Acoustic Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheerer, M.; Cardone, T.; Rapisarda, A.; Ottaviano, S.; Ftancesconi, D.

    2012-07-01

    In the frame of ESA funded programme Future Launcher Preparatory Programme Period 1 “Preparatory Activities on M&S”, Aerospace & Advanced Composites and Thales Alenia Space-Italia, have conceived and tested a structural health monitoring approach based on integrated Acoustic Emission - Active Ultrasound Damage Identification. The monitoring methods implemented in the study are both passive and active methods and the purpose is to cover large areas with a sufficient damage size detection capability. Two representative space sub-structures have been built and tested: a composite overwrapped pressure vessel (COPV) and a curved, stiffened Al-Li panel. In each structure, typical critical damages have been introduced: delaminations caused by impacts in the COPV and a crack in the stiffener of the Al-Li panel which was grown during a fatigue test campaign. The location and severity of both types of damages have been successfully assessed online using two commercially available systems: one 6 channel AE system from Vallen and one 64 channel AU system from Acellent.

  7. Ultrasonic Leak Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Moerk, J. Steven (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A system for detecting ultrasonic vibrations. such as those generated by a small leak in a pressurized container. vessel. pipe. or the like. comprises an ultrasonic transducer assembly and a processing circuit for converting transducer signals into an audio frequency range signal. The audio frequency range signal can be used to drive a pair of headphones worn by an operator. A diode rectifier based mixing circuit provides a simple, inexpensive way to mix the transducer signal with a square wave signal generated by an oscillator, and thereby generate the audio frequency signal. The sensitivity of the system is greatly increased through proper selection and matching of the system components. and the use of noise rejection filters and elements. In addition, a parabolic collecting horn is preferably employed which is mounted on the transducer assembly housing. The collecting horn increases sensitivity of the system by amplifying the received signals. and provides directionality which facilitates easier location of an ultrasonic vibration source.

  8. Water system virus detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, A. S.; Wells, A. F.; Tenoso, H. J. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    The performance of a waste water reclamation system is monitored by introducing a non-pathogenic marker virus, bacteriophage F2, into the waste-water prior to treatment and, thereafter, testing the reclaimed water for the presence of the marker virus. A test sample is first concentrated by absorbing any marker virus onto a cellulose acetate filter in the presence of a trivalent cation at low pH and then flushing the filter with a limited quantity of a glycine buffer solution to desorb any marker virus present on the filter. Photo-optical detection of indirect passive immune agglutination by polystyrene beads indicates the performance of the water reclamation system in removing the marker virus. A closed system provides for concentrating any marker virus, initiating and monitoring the passive immune agglutination reaction, and then flushing the system to prepare for another sample.

  9. Seismic response and damage detection analyses of an instrumented steel moment-framed building

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodgers, J.E.; Celebi, M.

    2006-01-01

    The seismic performance of steel moment-framed buildings has been of particular interest since brittle fractures were discovered at the beam-column connections in a number of buildings following the M 6.7 Northridge earthquake of January 17, 1994. A case study of the seismic behavior of an extensively instrumented 13-story steel moment frame building located in the greater Los Angeles area of California is described herein. Response studies using frequency domain, joint time-frequency, system identification, and simple damage detection analyses are performed using an extensive strong motion dataset dating from 1971 to the present, supported by engineering drawings and results of postearthquake inspections. These studies show that the building's response is more complex than would be expected from its highly symmetrical geometry. The response is characterized by low damping in the fundamental mode, larger accelerations in the middle and lower stories than at the roof and base, extended periods of vibration after the cessation of strong input shaking, beating in the response, elliptical particle motion, and significant torsion during strong shaking at the top of the concrete piers which extend from the basement to the second floor. The analyses conducted indicate that the response of the structure was elastic in all recorded earthquakes to date, including Northridge. Also, several simple damage detection methods employed did not indicate any structural damage or connection fractures. The combination of a large, real structure and low instrumentation density precluded the application of many recently proposed advanced damage detection methods in this case study. Overall, however, the findings of this study are consistent with the limited code-compliant postearthquake intrusive inspections conducted after the Northridge earthquake, which found no connection fractures or other structural damage. ?? ASCE.

  10. Corrosion damage detection with piezoelectric wafer active sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Dustin T.; Welter, John T.; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2004-07-01

    Since today's aging fleet is intended to far exceed their proposed design life, monitoring the structural integrity of those aircraft has become a priority issue for today's Air Force. One of the most critical structural problems is corrosion. In fact the KC-135 now costs $1.2 billion a year to repair corrosion. In this paper, we plan to show the use of Lamb waves to detect material loss in thin plates representative of aircraft skins. To do this we will use embedded transducers called Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensor (PWAS) in a pitch-catch configuration. The sensors were placed on a grid pattern. Material loss through corrosion was simulated by removing the material mechanically with an abrasive tool. Thus, simulated corrosion pits of various depths and area coverage were made. Three-count tone burst wave packets were used. The Lamb wave packets were sent in a pitch-catch mode from one transmitter PWAS to the other PWAS in the grid acting as receivers. The Lamb wave mode used in these experiments was A1, since this was found to be more sensitive to changes due to material loss. At the frequencies considered in our experiments, the A1 waves are highly dispersive. It was found that, as the Lamb wave travels through simulated corrosion damage, the signal changes. The observed changes were in the signal wavelength (due to change in the dispersive properties of the medium) and in signal amplitude (due to redistribution of energy in the wave packet). This change in signal can be correlated to the magnitude of damage. To achieve this, we have used several approaches: (a) direct correlation between the sent and the received signals; (b) wavelet transform of the signal followed by correlation of the wavelet coefficients time-frequency maps; (c) Hilbert transform of the signal to produce the signal envelope and comparison of the resulting envelope signals (d) neural network correlation between the sent and received signals. It was found that these methods work well

  11. Volatile Semiochemicals Released from Undamaged Cotton Leaves (A Systemic Response of Living Plants to Caterpillar Damage).

    PubMed Central

    Rose, USR.; Manukian, A.; Heath, R. R.; Tumlinson, J. H.

    1996-01-01

    Cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum L.), attacked by herbivorous insects release volatile semiochemicals (chemical signals) that attract natural enemies of the herbivores to the damaged plants. We found chemical evidence that volatiles are released not only at the damaged site but from the entire cotton plant. The release of volatiles was detected from upper, undamaged leaves after 2 to 3 d of continuous larval damage on lower leaves of the same plant. Compounds released systemically were (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-[beta]-ocimene, linalool, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, (E)-[beta]-farnesene, (E,E)-[alpha]-farnesene, and (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene. All systemically released compounds are known to be induced by caterpillar damage and are not released in significant amounts by undamaged plants. Other compounds, specifically indole, isomeric hexenyl butyrates, and 2-methylbutyrates, known to be released by cotton in response to caterpillar damage, were not released systemically. However, when upper, undamaged leaves of a caterpillar-damaged plant were damaged with a razor blade, they released isomeric hexenyl butyrates, 2-methylbutyrates, and large amounts of constitutive compounds in addition to the previously detected induced compounds. Control plants, damaged with a razor blade in the same way, did not release isomeric hexenyl butyrates or 2-methylbutyrates and released significantly smaller amounts of constitutive compounds. Indole was not released systemically, even after artificial damage. PMID:12226304

  12. Performance optimization of a diagnostic system based upon a simulated strain field for fatigue damage characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sbarufatti, C.; Manes, A.; Giglio, M.

    2013-11-01

    The work presented hereafter is about the development of a diagnostic system for crack damage detection, localization and quantification on a typical metallic aeronautical structure (skin stiffened through riveted stringers). Crack detection and characterization are based upon strain field sensitivity to damage. The structural diagnosis is carried out by a dedicated smart algorithm (Artificial Neural Network) which is trained on a database of Finite Element simulations relative to damaged and undamaged conditions, providing the system with an accurate predictor at low overall cost. The algorithm, trained on numerical damage experience, is used in a simulated environment to provide reliable preliminary information concerning the algorithm performances for damage diagnosis, thus further reducing the experimental costs and efforts associated with the development and optimization of such systems. The same algorithm has been tested on real experimental strain patterns acquired during real fatigue crack propagation, thus verifying the capability of the numerically trained algorithm for anomaly detection, damage assessment and localization on a real complex structure. The load variability, the discrepancy between the Finite Element Model and the real structure, and the uncertainty in the algorithm training process have been addressed in order to enhance the robustness of the system inference process. Some further algorithm training strategies are discussed, aimed at minimizing the risk for false alarms while maintaining a high probability of damage detection.

  13. Damage Detection and Analysis in CFRPs Using Acoustic Emission Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitlow, Travis Laron

    Real time monitoring of damage is an important aspect of life management of critical structures. Acoustic emission (AE) techniques allow for measurement and assessment of damage in real time. Acoustic emission parameters such as signal amplitude and duration were monitored during the loading sequences. Criteria that can indicate the onset of critical damage to the structure were developed. Tracking the damage as it happens gives a better analysis of the failure evolution that will allow for a more accurate determination of structural life. The main challenge is distinguishing between legitimate damage signals and "false positives" which are unrelated to damage growth. Such false positives can be related to electrical noise, friction, or mechanical vibrations. This research focuses on monitoring signals of damage growth in carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) and separating the relevant signals from the false ones. In this Dissertation, acoustic emission signals from CFRP specimens were experimentally recorded and analyzed. The objectives of this work are: (1) perform static and fatigue loading of CFRP composite specimens and measure the associated AE signals, (2) accurately determine the AE parameters (energy, frequency, duration, etc.) of signals generated during failure of such specimens, (3) use fiber optic sensors to monitor the strain distribution of the damage zone and relate these changes in strain measurements to AE data.

  14. Arc fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Jha, K.N.

    1999-05-18

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard. 1 fig.

  15. Arc fault detection system

    DOEpatents

    Jha, Kamal N.

    1999-01-01

    An arc fault detection system for use on ungrounded or high-resistance-grounded power distribution systems is provided which can be retrofitted outside electrical switchboard circuits having limited space constraints. The system includes a differential current relay that senses a current differential between current flowing from secondary windings located in a current transformer coupled to a power supply side of a switchboard, and a total current induced in secondary windings coupled to a load side of the switchboard. When such a current differential is experienced, a current travels through a operating coil of the differential current relay, which in turn opens an upstream circuit breaker located between the switchboard and a power supply to remove the supply of power to the switchboard.

  16. Autoregressive modeling with state-space embedding vectors for damage detection under operational and environmental variability

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, Charles; Figueiredo, Eloi; Todd, Michael; Flynn, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A nonlinear time series approach is presented to detect damage in systems by using a state-space reconstruction to infer the geometrical structure of a deterministic dynamical system from observed time series response at multiple locations. The unique contribution of this approach is using a Multivariate Autoregressive (MAR) model of a baseline condition to predict the state space, where the model encodes the embedding vectors rather than scalar time series. A hypothesis test is established that the MAR model will fail to predict future response if damage is present in the test condition, and this test is investigated for robustness in the context of operational and environmental variability. The applicability of this approach is demonstrated using acceleration time series from a base-excited 3-story frame structure.

  17. Using reflectance and photography to detect ozone damage to cantaloupe plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Escobar, D. E.; Rodriguez, R. R.; Thomas, C. E.; Bowen, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    Laboratory and field reflectance measurements showed that ozone-damaged cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.) leaves had lower water contents and higher reflectance than nondamaged leaves. Cantaloupe plants with lightly, severely, and very severely ozone-damaged leaves were distinguishable from nondamaged plants by reflectance measurements in the 1.35-2.5-micron near-IR water absorption band. Ozone-damaged leaf areas were detected photographically 16 hours before the damage was visible.

  18. Acoustic-sensor-based detection of damage in composite aircraft structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foote, Peter; Martin, Tony; Read, Ian

    2004-03-01

    Acoustic emission detection is a well-established method of locating and monitoring crack development in metal structures. The technique has been adapted to test facilities for non-destructive testing applications. Deployment as an operational or on-line automated damage detection technology in vehicles is posing greater challenges. A clear requirement of potential end-users of such systems is a level of automation capable of delivering low-level diagnosis information. The output from the system is in the form of "go", "no-go" indications of structural integrity or immediate maintenance actions. This level of automation requires significant data reduction and processing. This paper describes recent trials of acoustic emission detection technology for the diagnosis of damage in composite aerospace structures. The technology comprises low profile detection sensors using piezo electric wafers encapsulated in polymer film ad optical sensors. Sensors are bonded to the structure"s surface and enable acoustic events from the loaded structure to be located by triangulation. Instrumentation has been enveloped to capture and parameterise the sensor data in a form suitable for low-bandwidth storage and transmission.

  19. Multi-physics modeling of multifunctional composite materials for damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujidkul, Thanyawalai

    This study presents a modeling of multifunction composite materials for damage detection with its verification and validation to mechanical behavior predictions of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer composites (CFRPs), CFRPs laminated composites, and woven SiC/SiC matrix composites that are subjected to fracture damage. Advantages of those materials are low cost, low density, high strength-to-weight ratio, and comparable specific tensile properties, the special of SiC/SiC is good environmental stability at high temperature. Resulting in, the composite has been used for many important structures such as helicopter rotors, aerojet engines, gas turbines, hot control surfaces, sporting goods, and windmill blades. Damage or material defect detection in a mechanical component can provide vital information for the prediction of remaining useful life, which will result in the prevention of catastrophic failures. Thus the understanding of the mechanical behavior have been challenge to the prevent damage and failure of composites in different scales. The damage detection methods in composites have been investigated widely in recent years. Non-destructive techniques are the traditional methods to detect the damage such as X-ray, acoustic emission and thermography. However, due to the invisible damage in composite can be occurred, to prevent the failure in composites. The developments of damage detection methods have been considered. Due to carbon fibers are conductive materials, in resulting CFRPs can be self-sensing to detect damage. As is well known, the electrical resistance has been shown to be a sensitive measure of internal damage, and also this work study in thermal resistance can detect damage in composites. However, there is a few number of different micromechanical modeling schemes has been proposed in the published literature for various types of composites. This works will provide with a numerical, analytical, and theoretical failure models in different damages to

  20. Modal flexibility-based damage detection of cantilever beam-type structures using baseline modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, S. H.; Koo, K. Y.; Jung, H. J.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a new damage detection approach for cantilever beam-type structures using the damage-induced inter-storey deflection (DIID) estimated by modal flexibility matrix. This approach can be utilized for damage detection of cantilever beam-type structures such as super high-rise buildings, high-rise apartment buildings, etc. Analytical studies on the DIID of cantilever beam-type structures have shown that the DIID abruptly occurs from damage location. Baseline modification concept was newly introduced to detect multiple damages in cantilever beam-type structures by changing the baseline to the prior damage location. This approach has a clear theoretical base and directly identifies damage location(s) without the use of a finite element (FE) model. For validating the applicability of the proposed approach to cantilever beam-type structures, a series of numerical and experimental studies on a 10-storey building model were carried out. From the tests, it was found that the damage locations can be successfully identified by the proposed approach for multiple damages as well as a single damage. In order to confirm the superiority of the proposed approach, a comparative study was carried out on two well-known damage metrics such as modal strain-based damage index approach and uniform load surface curvature approach.

  1. Unified Mars detection system. [life detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. P.; Kok, B.; Radmer, R.; Johnson, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    A life-detection system is described which is designed to detect and characterize possible Martian biota and to gather information about the chemical environment of Mars, especially the water and amino acid contents of the soil. The system is organized around a central mass spectrometer that can sensitively analyze trace gases from a variety of different experiments. Some biological assays and soil-chemistry tests that have been performed in the laboratory as typical experiment candidates for the system are discussed, including tests for soil-organism metabolism, measurements of soil carbon contents, and determinations of primary aliphatic amines (amino acids and protein) in soils. Two possible test strategies are outlined, and the operational concept of the detection system is illustrated. Detailed descriptions are given for the mass spectrometer, gas inlet, incubation box, test cell modules, seal drive mechanism, soil distribution assembly, and electronic control system.

  2. Barely visible impact damage detection for composite sandwich structures by optical-fiber-based distributed strain measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakuchi, S.; Okabe, Y.; Mizutani, T.; Takeda, N.

    2009-08-01

    The authors developed an impact damage-detection system for large-scale composite sandwich structures using an optical fiber network running throughout the structure. A Brillouin-based sensing system with high spatial resolution (pre-pump pulse Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (PPP-BOTDA)) was utilized for distributed strain measurement. The PPP-BOTDA sensing system can measure axial strain along the optical fiber by employing stimulated Brillouin scattering. The system realizes a spatial resolution of 10 cm, a sampling interval of 5 cm, and a sensing range of more than 1 km. Our previous study revealed that a non-uniform axial strain within centimeter spatial resolution broadens the width of the Brillouin gain spectrum, which is the output of the PPP-BOTDA. The specific response of the PPP-BOTDA was employed to detect non-uniform strain distribution along a residual facesheet dent in a damaged area. First, the response of the optical fiber sensor network, formed in the adhesive layer, was simulated to clarify the effectiveness and limitations of the proposed damage-detection technique. The system was then validated by an experiment. As the damage became larger, the width of the Brillouin gain spectra became broader. Consequently, the location and size of barely visible damage could be estimated. The system developed is quite useful for a first inspection of large-scale sandwich structures in aerospace and marine applications.

  3. Vibration-based damage detection for filament wound pressure vessel filled with fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, W.; Wu, Z.; Li, H.

    2008-03-01

    Filament wound pressure vessels have been extensively used in industry and engineering. The existing damage detection and health monitoring methods for these vessels, such as X-ray and ultrasonic scan, can not meet the requirement of online damage detection; moreover optical grating fibre can only sense the local damage, but not the damage far away from the location of sensors. Vibration-based damage detection methods have the potential to meet such requirements. There methods are based on the fact that damages in a structure results in a change in structural dynamic characteristics. A damage detection method based on a residual associated with output-only subspace-based modal identification and global or focused chi^2-tests built on that residual has been proposed and successfully experimented on a variety of test cases. The purpose of this work is to describe the damage detection method and apply this method to assess the composite structure filled with fluid. The results of identification and damage detection will be presented.

  4. Statistical damage detection method for frame structures using a confidence interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiming; Zhu, Hongping; Luo, Hanbin; Xia, Yong

    2010-03-01

    A novel damage detection method is applied to a 3-story frame structure, to obtain statistical quantification control criterion of the existence, location and identification of damage. The mean, standard deviation, and exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) are applied to detect damage information according to statistical process control (SPC) theory. It is concluded that the detection is insignificant with the mean and EWMA because the structural response is not independent and is not a normal distribution. On the other hand, the damage information is detected well with the standard deviation because the influence of the data distribution is not pronounced with this parameter. A suitable moderate confidence level is explored for more significant damage location and quantification detection, and the impact of noise is investigated to illustrate the robustness of the method.

  5. Fatigue crack damage detection using subharmonic component with nonlinear boundary condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Weiliang; Shen, Yanfeng; Qu, Wenzhong; Xiao, Li; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, researchers have focused on structural health monitoring (SHM) and damage detection techniques using nonlinear vibration and nonlinear ultrasonic methods. Fatigue cracks may exhibit contact acoustic nonlinearity (CAN) with distinctive features such as superharmonics and subharmonics in the power spectrum of the sensing signals. However, challenges have been noticed in the practical applications of the harmonic methods. For instance, superharmonics can also be generated by the piezoelectric transducers and the electronic equipment; super/subharmonics may also stem from the nonlinear boundary conditions such as structural fixtures and joints. It is hard to tell whether the nonlinear features come from the structural damage or the intrinsic nonlinear boundary conditions. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the application of nonlinear ultrasonic subharmonic method for detecting fatigue cracks with nonlinear boundary conditions. The fatigue crack was qualitatively modeled as a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system with non-classical hysteretic nonlinear interface forces at both sides of the crack surfaces. The threshold of subharmonic generation was studied, and the influence of crack interface parameters on the subharmonic resonance condition was investigated. The different threshold behaviors between the nonlinear boundary condition and the fatigue crack was found, which can be used to distinguish the source of nonlinear subharmonic features. To evaluate the proposed method, experiments of an aluminum plate with a fatigue crack were conducted to quantitatively verify the subharmonic resonance range. Two surface-bonded piezoelectric transducers were used to generate and receive ultrasonic wave signals. The fatigue damage was characterized in terms of a subharmonic damage index. The experimental results demonstrated that the subharmonic component of the sensing signal can be used to detect the fatigue crack and further distinguish it from

  6. Heat transfer computed tomography techniques for damage detection in metallic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Nephi R.; Lynch, Jerome P.; Jeffers, Ann E.

    2015-04-01

    The detection of damage in structures at its earliest stages has many economical and safety benefits. Permanent monitoring systems using various forms of sensor networks and analysis methods are often employed to increase the frequency and diagnostic capabilities of inspections. Some of these techniques provide spatial/volumetric information about a given area/volume of a structure. Many of the available spatial sensing techniques can be costly and cannot be permanently deployed (e.g., IR camera thermography). For this reason intricate analysis methods using permanently deployable sensors are being developed (e.g., ultrasonic piezoelectrics, sensing skins). One approach is to leverage the low cost of heaters and temperature sensors to develop an economical, permanently installable method of spatial damage detection using heat transfer. This paper presents a method similar to that of X-ray computed tomography (CT). However, the theories for Xray CT must be adapted to properly represent heat transfer as well as account for the relatively large and immobile sensors spacing used on a structure (i.e., there is a finite number of heaters/sensors permanently installed around the perimeter of the area of interest). The derivation of heat transfer computed tomography is discussed in this paper including two methods for steering the effective heat wave. A high fidelity finite element method (FEM) model is used to verify the analytical derivation of individual steps within the method as well as simulate the complete damage detection technique. Experimental results from both damaged and undamaged aluminum plate specimens are used to validate the FEM model and to justify theoretical assumptions. The simulation results are discussed along with possible improvements and modifications to the technique.

  7. Fatigue crack damage detection using subharmonic component with nonlinear boundary condition

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Weiliang Qu, Wenzhong E-mail: xiaoli6401@126.com; Xiao, Li E-mail: xiaoli6401@126.com; Shen, Yanfeng Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2015-03-31

    In recent years, researchers have focused on structural health monitoring (SHM) and damage detection techniques using nonlinear vibration and nonlinear ultrasonic methods. Fatigue cracks may exhibit contact acoustic nonlinearity (CAN) with distinctive features such as superharmonics and subharmonics in the power spectrum of the sensing signals. However, challenges have been noticed in the practical applications of the harmonic methods. For instance, superharmonics can also be generated by the piezoelectric transducers and the electronic equipment; super/subharmonics may also stem from the nonlinear boundary conditions such as structural fixtures and joints. It is hard to tell whether the nonlinear features come from the structural damage or the intrinsic nonlinear boundary conditions. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the application of nonlinear ultrasonic subharmonic method for detecting fatigue cracks with nonlinear boundary conditions. The fatigue crack was qualitatively modeled as a single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system with non-classical hysteretic nonlinear interface forces at both sides of the crack surfaces. The threshold of subharmonic generation was studied, and the influence of crack interface parameters on the subharmonic resonance condition was investigated. The different threshold behaviors between the nonlinear boundary condition and the fatigue crack was found, which can be used to distinguish the source of nonlinear subharmonic features. To evaluate the proposed method, experiments of an aluminum plate with a fatigue crack were conducted to quantitatively verify the subharmonic resonance range. Two surface-bonded piezoelectric transducers were used to generate and receive ultrasonic wave signals. The fatigue damage was characterized in terms of a subharmonic damage index. The experimental results demonstrated that the subharmonic component of the sensing signal can be used to detect the fatigue crack and further distinguish it from

  8. An Evaluation of the Applicability of Damage Tolerance to Dynamic Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forth, Scott C.; Le, Dy; Turnberg, Jay

    2005-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the aircraft industry have teamed together to develop methods and guidance for the safe life-cycle management of dynamic systems. Based on the success of the United States Air Force damage tolerance initiative for airframe structure, a crack growth based damage tolerance approach is being examined for implementation into the design and management of dynamic systems. However, dynamic systems accumulate millions of vibratory cycles per flight hour, more than 12,000 times faster than an airframe system. If a detectable crack develops in a dynamic system, the time to failure is extremely short, less than 100 flight hours in most cases, leaving little room for error in the material characterization, life cycle analysis, nondestructive inspection and maintenance processes. In this paper, the authors review the damage tolerant design process focusing on uncertainties that affect dynamic systems and evaluate the applicability of damage tolerance on dynamic systems.

  9. Case study: Automated utilities damage assessment (AUDA) system

    SciTech Connect

    Salavani, R.; Laventure, G.C.; Smith, M.D.

    1994-12-31

    A demonstration program of an automated utility damage assessment system (AUDA) at a United States Air Force facility (USAF) is described. The AUDA is designed to assess damage, in an efficient manner, to military equipment or utilities, such as electrical equipment, potable and waste water, HVAC systems, petroleum, oil and lubricants, and natural gas.

  10. Neonatal Jaundice Detection System.

    PubMed

    Aydın, Mustafa; Hardalaç, Fırat; Ural, Berkan; Karap, Serhat

    2016-07-01

    Neonatal jaundice is a common condition that occurs in newborn infants in the first week of life. Today, techniques used for detection are required blood samples and other clinical testing with special equipment. The aim of this study is creating a non-invasive system to control and to detect the jaundice periodically and helping doctors for early diagnosis. In this work, first, a patient group which is consisted from jaundiced babies and a control group which is consisted from healthy babies are prepared, then between 24 and 48 h after birth, 40 jaundiced and 40 healthy newborns are chosen. Second, advanced image processing techniques are used on the images which are taken with a standard smartphone and the color calibration card. Segmentation, pixel similarity and white balancing methods are used as image processing techniques and RGB values and pixels' important information are obtained exactly. Third, during feature extraction stage, with using colormap transformations and feature calculation, comparisons are done in RGB plane between color change values and the 8-color calibration card which is specially designed. Finally, in the bilirubin level estimation stage, kNN and SVR machine learning regressions are used on the dataset which are obtained from feature extraction. At the end of the process, when the control group is based on for comparisons, jaundice is succesfully detected for 40 jaundiced infants and the success rate is 85 %. Obtained bilirubin estimation results are consisted with bilirubin results which are obtained from the standard blood test and the compliance rate is 85 %. PMID:27229489

  11. Distributed fiber optic fuel leak detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Edgar; Kempen, C.; Esterkin, Yan; Sun, Sonjian

    2013-05-01

    With the increase worldwide demand for hydrocarbon fuels and the vast development of new fuel production and delivery infrastructure installations around the world, there is a growing need for reliable fuel leak detection technologies to provide safety and reduce environmental risks. Hydrocarbon leaks (gas or liquid) pose an extreme danger and need to be detected very quickly to avoid potential disasters. Gas leaks have the greatest potential for causing damage due to the explosion risk from the dispersion of gas clouds. This paper describes progress towards the development of a fast response, high sensitivity, distributed fiber optic fuel leak detection (HySenseTM) system based on the use of an optical fiber that uses a hydrocarbon sensitive fluorescent coating to detect the presence of fuel leaks present in close proximity along the length of the sensor fiber. The HySenseTM system operates in two modes, leak detection and leak localization, and will trigger an alarm within seconds of exposure contact. The fast and accurate response of the sensor provides reliable fluid leak detection for pipelines, tanks, airports, pumps, and valves to detect and minimize any potential catastrophic damage.

  12. Distributed fiber optic fuel leak detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, Edgar; Kempen, C.; Esterkin, Yan; Sun, Sunjian

    2013-05-01

    With the increase worldwide demand for hydrocarbon fuels and the vast development of new fuel production and delivery infrastructure installations around the world, there is a growing need for reliable fuel leak detection technologies to provide safety and reduce environmental risks. Hydrocarbon leaks (gas or liquid) pose an extreme danger and need to be detected very quickly to avoid potential disasters. Gas leaks have the greatest potential for causing damage due to the explosion risk from the dispersion of gas clouds. This paper describes progress towards the development of a fast response, high sensitivity, distributed fiber optic fuel leak detection (HySensTM) system based on the use of an optical fiber that uses a hydrocarbon sensitive fluorescent coating to detect the presence of fuel leaks present in close proximity along the length of the sensor fiber. The HySenseTM system operates in two modes, leak detection and leak localization, and will trigger an alarm within seconds of exposure contact. The fast and accurate response of the sensor provides reliable fluid leak detection for pipelines, tanks, airports, pumps, and valves to detect and minimize any potential catastrophic damage.

  13. Modal macro-strain vector based damage detection methodology with long-gauge FBG sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bin; Liu, Chongwu W.; Masri, Sami F.

    2009-07-01

    Advances in optic fiber sensing technology provide easy and reliable way for the vibration-based strain measurement of engineering structures. As a typical optic fiber sensing techniques with high accuracy and resolution, long-gauge Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors have been widely employed in health monitoring of civil engineering structures. Therefore, the development of macro strain-based identification methods is crucial for damage detection and structural condition evaluation. In the previous study by the authors, a damage detection algorithm for a beam structure with the direct use of vibration-based macro-strain measurement time history with neural networks had been proposed and validated with experimental measurements. In this paper, a damage locating and quantifying method was proposed using modal macrostrain vectors (MMSVs) which can be extracted from vibration induced macro-strain response measurement time series from long-gage FBG sensors. The performance of the proposed methodology for damage detection of a beam with different damage scenario was studied with numerical simulation firstly. Then, dynamic tests on a simply-supported steel beam with different damage scenarios were carried out and macro-strain measurements were employed to detect the damage severity. Results show that the proposed MMSV based structural identification and damage detection methodology can locate and identify the structural damage severity with acceptable accuracy.

  14. Hybrid computational strategy for structural damage detection with short-term monitoring data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, P. H.; Law, S. S.

    2016-03-01

    The scenario of damage detection of a structure without permanent structural health monitoring system is explored. Dynamic responses are collected from different measurement setups and excitations in different regions of a structure. All the measured data are analyzed together in the proposed strategy with consideration of the different excitations. Local damages in terms of physical structural parameters are evaluated from the direct analysis using the Pattern Search method with a hybrid parallel computing strategy using CPU and GPU instead of the usual inverse analysis. The objective function is the difference between the measured and calculated responses from an updated finite element model of the structure. The proposed approach is illustrated with a plane frame structure with different tests and measurements in three regions. The effect of the size of the Generating Matrix of the Pattern Search method is also investigated and discussed. There is noted and improved computation efficiency when a large Generating Matrix with 2000 columns is used. The simulations illustrate the feasibility of using a few sensors for the damage detection of a large-scale structure with short-term monitoring data.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF PHOTO MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR BUILDING DAMAGE ASSESSMENT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiu, Makoto; Numada, Muneyoshi; Ohara, Miho; Meguro, Kimiro

    In Japan, several big earthquakes are expected to occur in the near future. A lot of structural damages due to these earthquakes will cause enormous needs for building damage assessment. In this paper, a system for supporting administrative staffs was designed and photo management system (PhotoMas) was developed in Miyagi prefecture during the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake. The system for management some photos of damaged houses and some database which managed local governmant was developed based on Excel VBA. This system makes easier to search photos which are taken by inspector in damaged area, and the system can visually confirm the percentage of completion of building damage assessment.

  16. Guided wave energy trapping to detect hidden multilayer delamination damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leckey, Cara A. C.; Seebo, Jeffrey P.

    2015-03-01

    Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) and Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) simulation tools capable of modeling three-dimensional (3D) realistic energy-damage interactions are needed for aerospace composites. Current practice in NDE/SHM simulation for composites commonly involves over-simplification of the material parameters and/or a simplified two-dimensional (2D) approach. The unique damage types that occur in composite materials (delamination, microcracking, etc) develop as complex 3D geometry features. This paper discusses the application of 3D custom ultrasonic simulation tools to study wave interaction with multilayer delamination damage in carbon-fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites. In particular, simulation based studies of ultrasonic guided wave energy trapping due to multilayer delamination damage were performed. The simulation results show changes in energy trapping at the composite surface as additional delaminations are added through the composite thickness. The results demonstrate a potential approach for identifying the presence of hidden multilayer delamination damage in applications where only single-sided access to a component is available. The paper also describes recent advancements in optimizing the custom ultrasonic simulation code for increases in computation speed.

  17. SAR Remote Sensing for Urban Building Earthquake-Damage Detection and Assessment: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Lixia; Wu, Fan; Zhang, Jingfa; Li, Rong

    2014-11-01

    Urban building damage detection and assessment after earthquake is crucial for effective post disaster relief actions. Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a key sensor to provide vital information due to its ability to map the affected areas independently of weather conditions, day and night. Under the condition of medium resolution SAR image, change detection is usually applied to identify damaged building by comparing post-seismic to pre-seismic images based on the intensity correlation and interferometric coherence. However, the new high resolution on-orbit SAR sensors (e.g. Radarsat-2, TerraSAR-X/ TanDEM-X, COSMO-SkyMed etc.) have renewed interest in extraction information for monitoring the damage. Intensity, phase and polarimetric information are usually adopted for the damage detection and assessment. The present paper reviews the theoretical background and applications of SAR remote sensing techniques to the study of urban building damage detection and assessment by earthquake.

  18. Impact damage detection in composite chiral sandwich panels using nonlinear vibro-acoustic modulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepka, Andrzej; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.; di Maio, Dario; Scarpa, Fabrizio

    2013-08-01

    This paper reports an application of nonlinear acoustics to impact damage detection in a composite chiral sandwich panel. The panel is built from a chiral honeycomb and two composite skins. High-frequency ultrasonic excitation and low-frequency modal excitation were used to observe nonlinear modulations in ultrasonic waves due to structural damage. Low-profile, surface-bonded piezoceramic transducers were used for ultrasonic excitation. Non-contact laser vibrometry was applied for ultrasonic sensing. The work presented focuses on the analysis of the modulation intensities and damage-related nonlinearities. The paper demonstrates that the method can be used for impact damage detection in composite chiral sandwich panels.

  19. Thermography Inspection for Early Detection of Composite Damage in Structures During Fatigue Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Burke, Eric R.; Parker, F. Raymond; Seebo, Jeffrey P.; Wright, Christopher W.; Bly, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced composite structures are commonly tested under controlled loading. Understanding the initiation and progression of composite damage under load is critical for validating design concepts and structural analysis tools. Thermal nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is used to detect and characterize damage in composite structures during fatigue loading. A difference image processing algorithm is demonstrated to enhance damage detection and characterization by removing thermal variations not associated with defects. In addition, a one-dimensional multilayered thermal model is used to characterize damage. Lastly, the thermography results are compared to other inspections such as non-immersion ultrasonic inspections and computed tomography X-ray.

  20. Damage detection of metro tunnel structure through transmissibility function and cross correlation analysis using local excitation and measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lei; Yi, Xiaohua; Zhu, Dapeng; Xie, Xiongyao; Wang, Yang

    2015-08-01

    In a modern metropolis, metro rail systems have become a dominant mode for mass transportation. The structural health of a metro tunnel is closely related to public safety. Many vibration-based techniques for detecting and locating structural damage have been developed in the past several decades. However, most damage detection techniques and validation tests are focused on bridge and building structures; very few studies have been reported on tunnel structures. Among these techniques, transmissibility function and cross correlation analysis are two well-known diagnostic approaches. The former operates in frequency domain and the latter in time domain. Both approaches can be applied to detect and locate damage through acceleration data obtained from sensor arrays. Furthermore, the two approaches can directly utilize structural response data without requiring excitation measurement, which offers advantages in field testing on a large structure. In this research, a numerical finite element model of a metro tunnel is built and different types of structural defects are introduced at multiple locations of the tunnel. Transmissibility function and cross correlation analysis are applied to perform structural damage detection and localization, based on simulated structural vibration data. Numerical results demonstrate that the introduced defects can be successfully identified and located. The sensitivity and feasibility of the two approaches have been verified when sufficient distribution of measurement locations is available. Damage detection results of the two different approaches are compared and discussed.

  1. The activation of DNA damage detection and repair responses in cleavage-stage rat embryos by a damaged paternal genome.

    PubMed

    Grenier, Lisanne; Robaire, Bernard; Hales, Barbara F

    2012-06-01

    Male germ cell DNA damage, after exposure to radiation, exogenous chemicals, or chemotherapeutic agents, is a major cause of male infertility. DNA-damaged spermatozoa can fertilize oocytes; this is of concern because there is limited information on the capacity of early embryos to repair a damaged male genome or on the fate of these embryos if repair is inadequate. We hypothesized that the early activation of DNA damage response in the early embryo is a critical determinant of its fate. The objective of this study was to assess the DNA damage response and mitochondrial function as a measure of the energy supply for DNA repair and general health in cleavage-stage embryos sired by males chronically exposed to an anticancer alkylating agent, cyclophosphamide. Male rats were treated with saline or cyclophosphamide (6 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks and mated to naturally cycling females. Pronuclear two- and eight-cell embryos were collected for immunofluorescence analysis of mitochondrial function and biomarkers of the DNA damage response: γH2AX foci, 53BP1 reactivity, and poly(ADP-ribose) polymer formation. Mitochondrial activities did not differ between embryos sired by control- and cyclophosphamide-exposed males. At the two-cell stage, there was no treatment-related increase in DNA double-strand breaks; by the eight-cell stage, a significant increase was noted, as indicated by increased medium and large γH2AX foci. This was accompanied by a dampened DNA repair response, detected as a decrease in the nuclear intensity of poly(ADP-ribose) polymers. The micronuclei formed in cyclophosphamide-sired embryos contained large γH2AX foci and enhanced poly(ADP-ribose) polymer and 53BP1 reactivity compared with their nuclear counterparts. Thus, paternal cyclophosphamide exposure activated a DNA damage response in cleavage-stage embryos. Furthermore, this damage response may be useful in assessing embryo quality and developmental competence. PMID:22454429

  2. Sequential structural damage diagnosis algorithm using a change point detection method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, H.; Rajagopal, R.; Kiremidjian, A. S.

    2013-11-01

    This paper introduces a damage diagnosis algorithm for civil structures that uses a sequential change point detection method. The general change point detection method uses the known pre- and post-damage feature distributions to perform a sequential hypothesis test. In practice, however, the post-damage distribution is unlikely to be known a priori, unless we are looking for a known specific type of damage. Therefore, we introduce an additional algorithm that estimates and updates this distribution as data are collected using the maximum likelihood and the Bayesian methods. We also applied an approximate method to reduce the computation load and memory requirement associated with the estimation. The algorithm is validated using a set of experimental data collected from a four-story steel special moment-resisting frame and multiple sets of simulated data. Various features of different dimensions have been explored, and the algorithm was able to identify damage, particularly when it uses multidimensional damage sensitive features and lower false alarm rates, with a known post-damage feature distribution. For unknown feature distribution cases, the post-damage distribution was consistently estimated and the detection delays were only a few time steps longer than the delays from the general method that assumes we know the post-damage feature distribution. We confirmed that the Bayesian method is particularly efficient in declaring damage with minimal memory requirement, but the maximum likelihood method provides an insightful heuristic approach.

  3. A New Approach to Overcoming Spatial Aliasing in Structural Damage Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulz, Mark J.; Naser, Ahmad S.; Thyagarajan, Sunil K.; Mickens, Travluss; Pai, Frank

    1998-01-01

    Aircraft, reusable launch vehicles,unmanned aircraft, and other advanced structures are being built using lightweight composite materials/metals with design safety factors as low as 1.25. These advanced structures operate in uncertain and severe environments and are susceptible to damage such as delamination, fiber/matrix damage, hydrothermal strain in composite materials, and fatigue and cracking in metals. To ensure human safety and load-bearing integrity these structures must be inspected to detect and locate often invisible damage and faults before they become catastrophic. Conventional methods of non-destructive evaluation sometimes miss significant damage and are time consuming and expensive to perform. In contrast, vibrometry or vibration signature techniques are a global method of structural integrity monitoring that potentially can efficiently detect damage on large structures, including damage that is away from sensor locations, and in the interior of structures. However, a barrier problem in damage detection using vibration measurements is the need to measure the vibration response at a large number of points on the structure. Typically, model reduction or expansion procedures such as Guyan reduction or dynamic expansion are attempted to overcome the problem of insufficient measurements or spatial aliasing. These approaches depend on using information from the healthy model, and thus put error into the reduction used to represent the damaged structure. In this paper, a Frequency Response Function technique is used to detect damage to a fixed-free beam. The technique uses measured frequency response functions from the healthy structure as reference data, and then monitors vibration measurements during the life of the structure to detect damage. In an analytical simulation using a finite-element model of a beam, damage was located using only sparse measurements because the technique uses both rotation and translation measurements from the damaged structure.

  4. Damage detection using data-driven methods applied to moving-load responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavadas, Filipe; Smith, Ian F. C.; Figueiras, Joaquim

    2013-08-01

    Developed economies depend on complex and extensive systems of infrastructure to maintain economic prosperity and quality of life. In recent years, the implementation of Structural health monitoring (SHM) systems on full-scale bridges has increased. The goal of these systems is to inform owners of the condition of structures, thereby supporting surveillance, maintenance and other management tasks. Data-driven methods, that involve tracking changes in signals only, are well-suited for analyzing measurements during continuous monitoring of structures. Also, information provided by the response of structures under moving loads is useful for condition assessment. This paper discusses the application of data-driven methods on moving-load responses in order to detect the occurrence and the location of damage. First, an approach for using moving-load responses as time series data is proposed. The work focuses on two data-driven methods - Moving principal component analysis (MPCA) and Robust regression analysis (RRA) - that have already been successful for damage detection during continuous monitoring. The performance of each method is assessed using data obtained by simulating the crossing of a point-load on a simple frame.

  5. DETECTION OF DNA DAMAGE USING A FIBEROPTIC BIOSENSOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid and sensitive fiber optic biosensor assay for radiation-induced DNA damage is reported. For this assay, a biotin-labeled capture oligonucleotide (38 mer) was immobilized to an avidin-coated quartz fiber. Hybridization of a dye-labeled complementary sequence was observed...

  6. DETECTION OF DNA DAMAGE USING MELTING ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid and simple fluorescence screening assay for UV radiation-, chemical-, and enzyme-induced DNA damage is reported. This assay is based on a melting/annealing analysis technique and has been used with both calf thymus DNA and plasmid DNA (puc 19 plasmid from E. coli). DN...

  7. A Study of Concrete Slab Damage Detection Based on the Electromechanical Impedance Method

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xianyan; Zhu, Hongping; Wang, Dansheng

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) is being gradually applied into practice as a new intelligent material for structural health monitoring. In order to study the damage detection properties of PZT on concrete slabs, simply supported reinforced concrete slabs with piezoelectric patches attached to their surfaces were chosen as the research objects and the Electromechanical Impedance method (EMI) was adopted for research. Five kinds of damage condition were designed to test the impedance values at different frequency bands. Consistent rules are found by calculation and analysis. Both the root mean square deviation (RMSD) and the correlation coefficient deviation (CCD) damage indices are capable of detecting the structural damage. The newly proposed damage index Ry/Rx can also predict the changes well. The numerical and experimental studies verify that the Electromechanical Impedance method can accurately predict changes in the amount of damage in reinforced concrete slabs. The damage index changes regularly with the distance of damages to the sensor. This relationship can be used to determine the damage location. The newly proposed damage index Ry/Rx is accurate in determining the damage location. PMID:25341438

  8. Damage Detection on Sudden Stiffness Reduction Based on Discrete Wavelet Transform

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Chen, Zhi-wei; Wang, Gan-jun; Xie, Wei-ping

    2014-01-01

    The sudden stiffness reduction in a structure may cause the signal discontinuity in the acceleration responses close to the damage location at the damage time instant. To this end, the damage detection on sudden stiffness reduction of building structures has been actively investigated in this study. The signal discontinuity of the structural acceleration responses of an example building is extracted based on the discrete wavelet transform. It is proved that the variation of the first level detail coefficients of the wavelet transform at damage instant is linearly proportional to the magnitude of the stiffness reduction. A new damage index is proposed and implemented to detect the damage time instant, location, and severity of a structure due to a sudden change of structural stiffness. Numerical simulation using a five-story shear building under different types of excitation is carried out to assess the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed damage index for the building at different damage levels. The sensitivity of the damage index to the intensity and frequency range of measurement noise is also investigated. The made observations demonstrate that the proposed damage index can accurately identify the sudden damage events if the noise intensity is limited. PMID:24991647

  9. The use of 0-3 piezocomposite embedded Lamb wave sensors for detection of damage in advanced fibre composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badcock, R. A.; Birt, E. A.

    2000-06-01

    The use of smart damage-detection systems may have considerable benefits for equipment operators. As sensing elements for a health-monitoring array, piezoelectric elements offer potential benefits. In particular, 0-3 piezocomposite elements have been identified as good candidates since they offer the potential for embedment within the advanced fibre composites. Ultrasonic Lamb waves have been shown to offer a technique for large-area damage detection for composites. It has been shown that the use of the S0 Lamb mode may enable a quantitative estimate of the degree of damage to be obtained. A comparison of various transducer elements for Lamb wave detection is made and the use of embedded 0-3 piezocomposite elements demonstrated.

  10. Probability of Detection Study on Impact Damage to Honeycomb Composite Structure using Thermographic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, Andrew J.; Walker, James L., II

    2008-01-01

    A probability of detection study was performed for the detection of impact damage using flash heating infrared thermography on a full scale honeycomb composite structure. The honeycomb structure was an intertank structure from a previous NASA technology demonstration program. The intertank was fabricated from IM7/8552 carbon fiber/epoxy facesheets and aluminum honeycomb core. The intertank was impacted in multiple locations with a range of impact energies utilizing a spherical indenter. In a single blind study, the intertank was inspected with thermography before and after impact damage was incurred. Following thermographic inspection several impact sites were sectioned from the intertank and cross-sectioned for microscopic comparisons of NDE detection and actual damage incurred. The study concluded that thermographic inspection was a good method of detecting delamination damage incurred by impact. The 90/95 confidence level on the probability of detection was close to the impact energy that delaminations were first observed through cross-sectional analysis.

  11. Intelligent Leak Detection System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-10-27

    apability of underground carbon dioxide storage to confine and sustain injected CO2 for a very long time is the main concern for geologic CO2 sequestration. If a leakage from a geological CO2 sequestration site occurs, it is crucial to find the approximate amount and the location of the leak in order to implement proper remediation activity. An overwhelming majority of research and development for storage site monitoring has been concentrated on atmospheric, surface or nearmore » surface monitoring of the sequestered CO2. This study aims to monitor the integrity of CO2 storage at the reservoir level. This work proposes developing in-situ CO2 Monitoring and Verification technology based on the implementation of Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG) or “Smart Wells” along with Artificial Intelligence and Data Mining (AI&DM). The technology attempts to identify the characteristics of the CO2 leakage by de-convolving the pressure signals collected from Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG). Citronelle field, a saline aquifer reservoir, located in the U.S. was considered for this study. A reservoir simulation model for CO2 sequestration in the Citronelle field was developed and history matched. The presence of the PDGs were considered in the reservoir model at the injection well and an observation well. High frequency pressure data from sensors were collected based on different synthetic CO2 leakage scenarios in the model. Due to complexity of the pressure signal behaviors, a Machine Learning-based technology was introduced to build an Intelligent Leakage Detection System (ILDS). The ILDS was able to detect leakage characteristics in a short period of time (less than a day) demonstrating the capability of the system in quantifying leakage characteristics subject to complex rate behaviors. The performance of ILDS was examined under different conditions such as multiple well leakages, cap rock leakage, availability of an additional monitoring well, presence of pressure drift

  12. Intelligent Leak Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Mohaghegh, Shahab D.

    2014-10-27

    apability of underground carbon dioxide storage to confine and sustain injected CO2 for a very long time is the main concern for geologic CO2 sequestration. If a leakage from a geological CO2 sequestration site occurs, it is crucial to find the approximate amount and the location of the leak in order to implement proper remediation activity. An overwhelming majority of research and development for storage site monitoring has been concentrated on atmospheric, surface or near surface monitoring of the sequestered CO2. This study aims to monitor the integrity of CO2 storage at the reservoir level. This work proposes developing in-situ CO2 Monitoring and Verification technology based on the implementation of Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG) or “Smart Wells” along with Artificial Intelligence and Data Mining (AI&DM). The technology attempts to identify the characteristics of the CO2 leakage by de-convolving the pressure signals collected from Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG). Citronelle field, a saline aquifer reservoir, located in the U.S. was considered for this study. A reservoir simulation model for CO2 sequestration in the Citronelle field was developed and history matched. The presence of the PDGs were considered in the reservoir model at the injection well and an observation well. High frequency pressure data from sensors were collected based on different synthetic CO2 leakage scenarios in the model. Due to complexity of the pressure signal behaviors, a Machine Learning-based technology was introduced to build an Intelligent Leakage Detection System (ILDS). The ILDS was able to detect leakage characteristics in a short period of time (less than a day) demonstrating the capability of the system in quantifying leakage characteristics subject to complex rate behaviors. The performance of ILDS was examined under different conditions such as multiple well leakages, cap rock leakage, availability of an additional monitoring well, presence of pressure drift and noise

  13. USING THE DNA ALKALINE UNWINDING ASSAY TO DETECT DNA DAMAGE IN LABORATORY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY EXPOSED CELLS AND TISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DNA alkaline unwinding assay is being evaluated for use in the detection of DNA damage in marine animals exposed to environmental pollutants. n preliminary work, DNA unwinding methods were used with in vitro cell systems to demonstrate DNA strand breaks. ultured mammalian fib...

  14. Comparative study of performance of neutral axis tracking based damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soman, R.; Malinowski, P.; Ostachowicz, W.

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of a novel SHM technique for damage isolation. The performance of the Neutral Axis (NA) tracking based damage detection strategy is compared to other popularly used vibration based damage detection methods viz. ECOMAC, Mode Shape Curvature Method and Strain Flexibility Index Method. The sensitivity of the novel method is compared under changing ambient temperature conditions and in the presence of measurement noise. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the DTU 10 MW Wind Turbine was conducted to compare the local damage identification capability of each method and the results are presented. Under the conditions examined, the proposed method was found to be robust to ambient condition changes and measurement noise. The damage identification in some is either at par with the methods mentioned in the literature or better under the investigated damage scenarios.

  15. a Numerical Study of Structural Damage Detection Using Changes in the Rotation of Mode Shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ABDO, M. A.-B.; HORI, M.

    2002-03-01

    Damage detection using changes in global dynamic characteristics has been a hot research topic and attracted civil, aerospace, and mechanical engineering communities in recent years. In this paper, a numerical study of the relationship between damage characteristics and the changes in the dynamic properties is presented. It is found that the rotation of mode shape is a sensitive indicator of damage. The numerical results clarify that the rotation of mode shape has the characteristic of localization at the damaged region even though the displacement modes are not localized. Also, the results illustrate that the rotations of modes are robust in locating multiple damage locations with different sizes in a structure. Furthermore, using the changes in the rotation of mode shape does not need very fine grid of measurements to detect and locate damage, effectively.

  16. Damage detection and identification in smart structures using SVM and ANN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooq, M.; Zheng, H.; Nagabhushana, A.; Roy, S.; Burkett, S.; Barkey, M.; Kotru, S.; Sazonov, E.

    2012-04-01

    A critical part of structural health monitoring is accurate detection of damages in the structure. This paper presents the results of two multi-class damage detection and identification approaches based on classification using Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The article under test was a fiber composite panel modeled by a Finite Element Model (FEM). Static strain data were acquired at 6 predefined locations and mixed with Gaussian noise to simulate performance of real strain sensors. Strain data were then normalized by the mean of the strain values. Two experiments were performed for the performance evaluation of damage detection and identification. In both experiments, one healthy structure and two damaged structures with one and two small cracks were simulated with varying material properties and loading conditions (45 cases for each structure). The SVM and ANN models were trained with 70% of these samples and the remaining 30% samples were used for validation. The objective of the first experiment was to detect whether or not the panel was damaged. In this two class problem the average damage detection accuracy for ANN and SVM were 93.2% and 96.66% respectively. The objective of second experiment was to detect the severity of the damage by differentiating between structures with one crack and two cracks. In this three class problem the average prediction accuracy for ANN and SVM were 83.5% and 90.05% respectively. These results suggest that for noisy data, SVM may perform better than ANN for this problem.

  17. Incipient fire detection system

    DOEpatents

    Brooks, Jr., William K.

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for an incipient fire detection system that receives gaseous samples and measures the light absorption spectrum of the mixture of gases evolving from heated combustibles includes a detector for receiving gaseous samples and subjecting the samples to spectroscopy and determining wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples. The wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples are compared to predetermined absorption wavelengths. A warning signal is generated whenever the wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples correspond to the predetermined absorption wavelengths. The method includes receiving gaseous samples, subjecting the samples to light spectroscopy, determining wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples, comparing the wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples to predetermined absorption wavelengths and generating a warning signal whenever the wavelengths of absorption of the gaseous samples correspond to the predetermined absorption wavelengths. In an alternate embodiment, the apparatus includes a series of channels fluidically connected to a plurality of remote locations. A pump is connected to the channels for drawing gaseous samples into the channels. A detector is connected to the channels for receiving the drawn gaseous samples and subjecting the samples to spectroscopy. The wavelengths of absorption are determined and compared to predetermined absorption wavelengths is provided. A warning signal is generated whenever the wavelengths correspond.

  18. Avoiding the need for baseline data: an information-theoretic approach to detecting damage-induced nonlinearities in structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Jonathan M.; Trickey, Stephen T.; Seaver, Mark

    2005-05-01

    An information-theoretic approach is described for detecting damage-induced nonlinearities in structures. Both the time-delayed mutual information and time-delayed transfer entropy are presented as methods for computing the amount of information transported between points on a structure. By comparing these measures to "linearized" surrogate data sets, the presence and degree of nonlinearity in a system may be deduced. For a linear, five-degree-of-freedom system both mutual information and transfer entropy are derived. An algorithm is then described for computing both quantities from time-series data and is shown to be in agreement with theory. The approach successfully deduces the amount of damage to the structure even in the presence of simulated temperature fluctuations. We then demonstrate the approach to be effective in detecting varying levels of impact damage in a thick composite plate structure.

  19. Embedding damage detection algorithms in a wireless sensing unit for operational power efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Jerome Peter; Sundararajan, Arvind; Law, Kincho H.; Kiremidjian, Anne S.; Carryer, Ed

    2004-08-01

    A low-cost wireless sensing unit is designed and fabricated for deployment as the building block of wireless structural health monitoring systems. Finite operational lives of portable power supplies, such as batteries, necessitate optimization of the wireless sensing unit design to attain overall energy efficiency. This is in conflict with the need for wireless radios that have far-reaching communication ranges that require significant amounts of power. As a result, a penalty is incurred by transmitting raw time-history records using scarce system resources such as battery power and bandwidth. Alternatively, a computational core that can accommodate local processing of data is designed and implemented in the wireless sensing unit. The role of the computational core is to perform interrogation tasks of collected raw time-history data and to transmit via the wireless channel the analysis results rather than time-history records. To illustrate the ability of the computational core to execute such embedded engineering analyses, a two-tiered time-series damage detection algorithm is implemented as an example. Using a lumped-mass laboratory structure, local execution of the embedded damage detection method is shown to save energy by avoiding utilization of the wireless channel to transmit raw time-history data.

  20. Effects of Ionizing Radiation on Biological Molecules—Mechanisms of Damage and Emerging Methods of Detection

    PubMed Central

    Reisz, Julie A.; Bansal, Nidhi; Qian, Jiang; Zhao, Weiling

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The detrimental effects of ionizing radiation (IR) involve a highly orchestrated series of events that are amplified by endogenous signaling and culminating in oxidative damage to DNA, lipids, proteins, and many metabolites. Despite the global impact of IR, the molecular mechanisms underlying tissue damage reveal that many biomolecules are chemoselectively modified by IR. Recent Advances: The development of high-throughput “omics” technologies for mapping DNA and protein modifications have revolutionized the study of IR effects on biological systems. Studies in cells, tissues, and biological fluids are used to identify molecular features or biomarkers of IR exposure and response and the molecular mechanisms that regulate their expression or synthesis. Critical Issues: In this review, chemical mechanisms are described for IR-induced modifications of biomolecules along with methods for their detection. Included with the detection methods are crucial experimental considerations and caveats for their use. Additional factors critical to the cellular response to radiation, including alterations in protein expression, metabolomics, and epigenetic factors, are also discussed. Future Directions: Throughout the review, the synergy of combined “omics” technologies such as genomics and epigenomics, proteomics, and metabolomics is highlighted. These are anticipated to lead to new hypotheses to understand IR effects on biological systems and improve IR-based therapies. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21: 260–292. PMID:24382094

  1. Non-destructive freeze damage detection in oranges using machine vision and ultraviolet fluorescence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A non-contact, non-destructive, and rapid method of detecting freeze damaged oranges based on ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence of the peel oil constituents visible on the peel surface was investigated. The visual appearance is different from oleocellosis in that freeze damaged oranges exhibit a fine pa...

  2. Measurement of damage in systemic vasculitis: a comparison of the Vasculitis Damage Index with the Combined Damage Assessment Index

    PubMed Central

    Suppiah, Ravi; Flossmann, Oliver; Mukhtyar, Chetan; Alberici, Federico; Baslund, Bo; Brown, Denise; Hasan, Nadeem; Holle, Julia; Hruskova, Zdenka; Jayne, David; Judge, Andrew; Little, Mark A; Merkel, Peter A; Palmisano, Alessandra; Seo, Philip; Stegeman, Coen; Tesar, Vladimir; Vaglio, Augusto; Westman, Kerstin; Luqmani, Raashid

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the Vasculitis Damage Index (VDI) with the Combined Damage Assessment Index (CDA) as measures of damage from vasculitis. Methods A total of 283 patients with vasculitis from 11 European centres were evaluated in a cross-sectional study using the VDI and CDA. Results Wegener’s granulomatosis (58.4%) and microscopic polyangiitis (11.0%) were the most common diagnoses. Agreement between VDI and CDA scores (Spearman’s correlation) was 0.90 (95% CI 0.87 to 0.92). There was good correlation between individual comparably evaluated organ systems (Spearman’s correlation 0.70–0.94). Interobserver reliability (assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)) was 0.94 (95% CI 0.89 to 0.98) for VDI and 0.78 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.93) for CDA. Intraobserver reliability was 0.92 (95% CI 0.83 to 1.00) for VDI and 0.87 (95% CI 0.75 to 1.00) for CDA. A total of 13 items were not used in the VDI compared to 23 in the CDA. Observers agreed that the CDA covered the full spectrum of damage attributable to vasculitis but was more time consuming and thus possibly less feasible for clinical and research purposes. Conclusions The VDI and CDA capture reliable data on damage among patients with vasculitis. The CDA captures more detail but is more complex and less practical than the VDI. Further evolution of damage assessment in vasculitis is likely to include key elements from both instruments. PMID:20736392

  3. Damage detection in aircraft structures using dynamically measured static flexibility matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, N.A.; Peterson, L.D.; James, G.H.; Doebling, S.W.

    1996-02-01

    Two methods for detecting the location of structural damage in an aircraft fuselage using modal test data are presented. Both methods use the dynamically measured static flexibility matrix, which is assembled from a combination of measured modal vectors, frequencies, and driving point residual flexibilities. As a consequence, neither method requires a mode-to-mode correlation, and both avoid tedious modal discrimination and selection. The first method detects damage as a softening in the point flexibility components, which are the diagonal entries in the flexibility matrix. The second method detects damage from the disassembled elemental stiffnesses as determined using a presumed connectivity. Vibration data from a laser vibrometer is used to measure the modal mechanics of a DC9 aircraft fuselage before and after induced weakening in a longitudinal stringer. Both methods are shown to detect the location of the damage, primarily because the normal stiffness of the reinforced shell of the fuselage is localized to a few square centimeters.

  4. Damage detection strategies for aircraft shell-like structures based on propagation guided elastic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dot Zak, A.; Ostachowicz, W.; Krawczuk, M.

    2011-07-01

    Damage of aircraft structural elements in any form always present high risks. Failures of these elements can be caused by various reasons including material fatigue or impact leading to damage initiation and growth. Detection of these failures at their earliest stage of development, estimation of their size and location, are one of the most crucial factors for each damage detection method. Structural health monitoring strategies based on propagation of guided elastic waves in structures and wave interaction with damage related discontinuities are very promising tools that offer not only damage detection capabilities, but are also meant to provide precise information about the state of the structures and their remaining lifetime. Because of that various techniques are employed to simulate and mimic the wave-discontinuity interactions. The use of various types of sensors, their networks together with sophisticated contactless measuring techniques are investigated both numerically and experimentally. Certain results of numerical simulations obtained by the use of the spectral finite element method are presented by the authors and related with propagation of guided elastic waves in shell-type aircraft structures. Two types of structures are considered: flat 2D panels with or without stiffeners and 3D shell structures. The applicability of two different damage detection approaches is evaluated in order to detect and localise damage in these structures. Selected results related with the use of laser scanning vibrometry are also presented and discussed by the authors.

  5. Damage detection and quantification in a structural model under seismic excitation using time-frequency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Chun-Kai; Loh, Chin-Hsiung; Wu, Tzu-Hsiu

    2015-04-01

    In civil engineering, health monitoring and damage detection are typically carry out by using a large amount of sensors. Typically, most methods require global measurements to extract the properties of the structure. However, some sensors, like LVDT, cannot be used due to in situ limitation so that the global deformation remains unknown. An experiment is used to demonstrate the proposed algorithms: a one-story 2-bay reinforce concrete frame under weak and strong seismic excitation. In this paper signal processing techniques and nonlinear identification are used and applied to the response measurements of seismic response of reinforced concrete structures subject to different level of earthquake excitations. Both modal-based and signal-based system identification and feature extraction techniques are used to study the nonlinear inelastic response of RC frame using both input and output response data or output only measurement. From the signal-based damage identification method, which include the enhancement of time-frequency analysis of acceleration responses and the estimation of permanent deformation using directly from acceleration response data. Finally, local deformation measurement from dense optical tractor is also use to quantify the damage of the RC frame structure.

  6. Detection of structural damage in multiwire cables by monitoring the entropy evolution of wavelet coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibáñez, Flor; Baltazar, Arturo; Mijarez, Rito; Aranda, Jorge

    2015-03-01

    Multiwire cables are widely used in important civil structures. Since they are exposed to several dynamic and static loads, their structural health can be compromised. The cables can also be submitted to mechanical contact, tension and energy propagation in addition to changes in size and material within their wires. Due to the critical role played by multiwire cables, it is necessary to develop a non-destructive health monitoring method to maintain their structure and proper performance. Ultrasonic inspection using guided waves is a promising non-destructive damage monitoring technique for rods, single wires and multiwire cables. The propagated guided waves are composed by an infinite number of vibrational modes making their analysis difficult. In this work, an entropy-based method to identify small changes in non-stationary signals is proposed. A system to capture and post-process acoustic signals is implemented. The Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is computed in order to obtain the reconstructed wavelet coefficients of the signals and to analyze the energy at different scales. The feasibility of using the concept of entropy evolution of non-stationary signals to detect damage in multiwire cables is evaluated. The results show that there is a high correlation between the entropy value and damage level of the cable. The proposed method has low sensitivity to noise and reduces the computational complexity found in a typical time-frequency analysis.

  7. Lessons from two field tests on pipeline damage detection using acceleration measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinozuka, Masanobu; Lee, Sungchil; Kim, Sehwan; Chou, Pai H.

    2011-04-01

    Early detection of pipeline damages has been highlighted in water supply industry. Water pressure change in pipeline due to a sudden rupture causes pipe to vibrate and the pressure change propagates through the pipeline. From the measurement of pipe vibration the rupture can be detected. In this paper, the field test results and observations are provided for implementing next generation of SCADA system for pipeline rupture detection. Two field tests were performed on real buried plastic and metal pipelines for rupture detection. The rupture was simulated by introducing sudden water pressure drop caused by water blow-off and valve control. The measured acceleration data at the pipe surfaces were analyzed in both time and frequency domain. In time domain, the sudden narrow increase of acceleration amplitude was used as an indication of rupture event. For the frequency domain analysis, correlation function and the short time Fourier Transform technique were adopted to trace the dominant frequency shift. The success of rupture detection was found to be dependent on several factors. From the frequency analysis, the dominant frequency of metal water pipe was shifted by the water pressure drop, however, it was hard to identify from the plastic pipeline. Also the influence of existing facility such as airvac on pipe vibrations was observed. Finally, several critical lessons learned in the viewpoint of field measurement are discussed in this paper.

  8. Simulation of Detecting Damage in Composite Stiffened Panel Using Lamb Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, John T.; Ross, Richard W.; Huang, Guo L.; Yuan, Fuh G.

    2013-01-01

    Lamb wave damage detection in a composite stiffened panel is simulated by performing explicit transient dynamic finite element analyses and using signal imaging techniques. This virtual test process does not need to use real structures, actuators/sensors, or laboratory equipment. Quasi-isotropic laminates are used for the stiffened panels. Two types of damage are studied. One type is a damage in the skin bay and the other type is a debond between the stiffener flange and the skin. Innovative approaches for identifying the damage location and imaging the damage were developed. The damage location is identified by finding the intersection of the damage locus and the path of the time reversal wave packet re-emitted from the sensor nodes. The damage locus is a circle that envelops the potential damage locations. Its center is at the actuator location and its radius is computed by multiplying the group velocity by the time of flight to damage. To create a damage image for estimating the size of damage, a group of nodes in the neighborhood of the damage location is identified for applying an image condition. The image condition, computed at a finite element node, is the zero-lag cross-correlation (ZLCC) of the time-reversed incident wave signal and the time reversal wave signal from the sensor nodes. This damage imaging process is computationally efficient since only the ZLCC values of a small amount of nodes in the neighborhood of the identified damage location are computed instead of those of the full model.

  9. Electrical Resistance of Ceramic Matrix Composites for Damage Detection and Life-Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Craig; Morscher, Gregory N.; Xia, Zhenhai

    2008-01-01

    The electric resistance of woven SiC fiber reinforced SiC matrix composites were measured under tensile loading conditions. The results show that the electrical resistance is closely related to damage and that real-time information about the damage state can be obtained through monitoring of the resistance. Such self-sensing capability provides the possibility of on-board/in-situ damage detection or inspection of a component during "down time". The correlation of damage with appropriate failure mechanism can then be applied to accurate life prediction for high-temperature ceramic matrix composites.

  10. Hand held explosives detection system

    DOEpatents

    Conrad, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a sensitive hand-held explosives detection device capable of detecting the presence of extremely low quantities of high explosives molecules, and which is applicable to sampling vapors from personnel, baggage, cargo, etc., as part of an explosives detection system.

  11. Simulation Based Investigation of Hidden Delamination Damage Detection in CFRP Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckey, Cara A. C.; Parker, F. Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Guided wave (GW) based damage detection methods have shown promise in structural health monitoring (SHM) and hybrid SHM-nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques. Much previous GW work in the aerospace field has been primarily focused on metallic materials, with a growing focus on composite materials. The work presented in this paper demonstrates how realistic three-dimensional (3D) GW simulations can aid in the development of GW based damage characterization techniques for aerospace composites. 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique is implemented to model GW interaction with realistic delamination damage. A local wavenumber technique is applied to simulation data in order to investigate the detectability of hidden delamination damage to enable accurate characterization of damage extent.

  12. Detection of damaged urban areas using interferometric SAR coherence change with PALSAR-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Manabu; Thapa, Rajesh Bahadur; Ohsumi, Tsuneo; Fujiwara, Hiroyuki; Yonezawa, Chinatsu; Tomii, Naoya; Suzuki, Sinichi

    2016-07-01

    The interferometric SAR coherence-change technique with coherence filter and polarization (HH and HV) has been used to detect the parts of buildings damaged by the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake. A survey of the building damage was conducted in every house to evaluate the detection accuracy in the Khokana and Sankhu urban areas in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal. The damaged parts of the urban area were adequately detected using coherence-change (∆ γ) values obtained before the earthquake ( γ pre) and during the inter-seismic stage of the earthquake ( γ int). The use of a coherence filter effectively increased overall accuracy by ~2.1 to 7.0 % with HH polarization. The incorporation of HV polarization marginally increased the accuracy (~0.9 to 1.2 %). It was confirmed that road damage due to liquefaction was also observed using the interferometric SAR coherence-change detection technique. The classification accuracy was lower (27.1-35.1 %) for areas that were damaged. However, higher accuracy (97.8-99.2 %) was achieved for areas that were damage-free, in ∆ γ obtained from HH and HV polarization with a coherence filter. This helped to identify the damaged urban areas (using this technique) immediately after occurrence of an earthquake event.

  13. On the cross correlation function amplitude vector and its application to structural damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhichun; Yu, Zhefeng; Sun, Hao

    2007-10-01

    A new approach to detecting structure damage using the cross correlation function amplitude vector (CorV) of the measured vibration responses is proposed. It is verified that under a steady random excitation with specific frequency spectrum, the CorV of a structure only depends on the frequency response function matrix of the structure, and it is also found that the normalized CorV has a specific shape. Thus the damage can be detected and located with the correlation and the relative difference between the CorVs obtained from intact and damaged structures. The Cross Correlation Function Amplitude Vector Assurance Criterion (CVAC) is then defined and can be used to quantify the variation of CorV. It is found that the CVAC decreases monotonously with the increasing of damage factor, which indicates the change of CorV is related to the damage severity. The methods of damage locating with CorV are then proposed and demonstrated by the experiments. Finally, the experiment on detection in the fasteners loosing of an aircraft panel model are presented to illustrate the application of the CorV. The feature of this approach lies in that the CorV is obtained from the time domain vibration responses of the structure under steady random excitation, and it has the advantages of simplicity in calculation and the damage detection, so it is possible that the presented approach applies to the structural health monitoring (SHM) with steady ambient excitations.

  14. Damage detection of concrete masonry structures by enhancing deformation measurement using DIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolhassani, Mohammad; Rajaram, Satish; Hamid, Ahmad A.; Kontsos, Antonios; Bartoli, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    This study focuses on deformability and damage detection of a concrete masonry wall. It employed point-to-point traditional strain gages and full-field measurement technique using digital image correlation (DIC) to investigate the damage and deformability of a partially grouted (PG) reinforced masonry wall. A set of ungrouted and grouted assemblages and full-scale concrete masonry shear wall were constructed and tested under displacement control loading. The wall was constructed according with masonry standards joint committee (MSJC 2013) and tested under constant vertical compression load and horizontal lateral load using quasi-static displacement procedure. The DIC method was used to determine non-uniform strain contours on the assemblages. This method was verified by comparing strains along the selected directions with traditional TML gage results. After a successful comparison, the method was used to investigate the state of damage and deformability of the wall specimen. Panel deformation, crack pattern, displacement at the top, and the base strain of the wall were captured using full-field measurement and results were in a good agreement with traditional strain gages. It is concluded that full-filed measurements using DIC is promising especially when the test specimens experience inelastic deformation and high degree of damage. The ability to characterize and anticipate failure mechanisms of concrete masonry systems by depicting strain distribution, categorizing structural cracks and investigating their effects on the behavior of the wall were also shown using DIC. In addition to monitoring strains across the gage length, the DIC method provided full-field strain behavior of the test specimens and revealed strain hotspots at locations that corresponded to failure.

  15. Evolutionary Algorithms Approach to the Solution of Damage Detection Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar Pinto, Pedro Yoajim; Begambre, Oscar

    2010-09-01

    In this work is proposed a new Self-Configured Hybrid Algorithm by combining the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and a Genetic Algorithm (GA). The aim of the proposed strategy is to increase the stability and accuracy of the search. The central idea is the concept of Guide Particle, this particle (the best PSO global in each generation) transmits its information to a particle of the following PSO generation, which is controlled by the GA. Thus, the proposed hybrid has an elitism feature that improves its performance and guarantees the convergence of the procedure. In different test carried out in benchmark functions, reported in the international literature, a better performance in stability and accuracy was observed; therefore the new algorithm was used to identify damage in a simple supported beam using modal data. Finally, it is worth noting that the algorithm is independent of the initial definition of heuristic parameters.

  16. Antigen detection systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious agents or their constituent parts (antigens or nucleic acids) can be detected in fresh, frozen, or fixed tissue using a variety of direct or indirect assays. The assays can be modified to yield the greatest sensitivity and specificity but in most cases a particular methodology is chosen ...

  17. Antigen detection systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious agents or their constituent parts (antigens or nucleic acids) can be detected in fresh, frozen, or fixed tissues or other specimens, using a variety of direct or indirect assays. The assays can be modified to yield the greatest sensitivity and specificity but in most cases a particular m...

  18. Detection of fungal damaged popcorn using image property covariance features

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Covariance-matrix-based features were applied to the detection of popcorn infected by a fungus that cause a symptom called “blue-eye.” This infection of popcorn kernels causes economic losses because of their poor appearance and the frequently disagreeable flavor of the popped kernels. Images of ker...

  19. Protein detection system

    DOEpatents

    Fruetel, Julie A.; Fiechtner, Gregory J.; Kliner, Dahv A. V.; McIlroy, Andrew

    2009-05-05

    The present embodiment describes a miniature, microfluidic, absorption-based sensor to detect proteins at sensitivities comparable to LIF but without the need for tagging. This instrument utilizes fiber-based evanescent-field cavity-ringdown spectroscopy, in combination with faceted prism microchannels. The combination of these techniques will increase the effective absorption path length by a factor of 10.sup.3 to 10.sup.4 (to .about.1-m), thereby providing unprecedented sensitivity using direct absorption. The coupling of high-sensitivity absorption with high-performance microfluidic separation will enable real-time sensing of biological agents in aqueous samples (including aerosol collector fluids) and will provide a general method with spectral fingerprint capability for detecting specific bio-agents.

  20. Damage detection with streamlined structural health monitoring data.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Deng, Jun; Xie, Weizhi

    2015-01-01

    The huge amounts of sensor data generated by large scale sensor networks in on-line structural health monitoring (SHM) systems often overwhelms the systems' capacity for data transmission and analysis. This paper presents a new concept for an integrated SHM system in which a streamlined data flow is used as a unifying thread to integrate the individual components of on-line SHM systems. Such an integrated SHM system has a few desirable functionalities including embedded sensor data compression, interactive sensor data retrieval, and structural knowledge discovery, which aim to enhance the reliability, efficiency, and robustness of on-line SHM systems. Adoption of this new concept will enable the design of an on-line SHM system with more uniform data generation and data handling capacity for its subsystems. To examine this concept in the context of vibration-based SHM systems, real sensor data from an on-line SHM system comprising a scaled steel bridge structure and an on-line data acquisition system with remote data access was used in this study. Vibration test results clearly demonstrated the prominent performance characteristics of the proposed integrated SHM system including rapid data access, interactive data retrieval and knowledge discovery of structural conditions on a global level. PMID:25884788

  1. Detection of bearing damage by statistic vibration analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, E. A.

    2016-04-01

    The condition of bearings, which are essential components in mechanisms, is crucial to safety. The analysis of the bearing vibration signal, which is always contaminated by certain types of noise, is a very important standard for mechanical condition diagnosis of the bearing and mechanical failure phenomenon. In this paper the method of rolling bearing fault detection by statistical analysis of vibration is proposed to filter out Gaussian noise contained in a raw vibration signal. The results of experiments show that the vibration signal can be significantly enhanced by application of the proposed method. Besides, the proposed method is used to analyse real acoustic signals of a bearing with inner race and outer race faults, respectively. The values of attributes are determined according to the degree of the fault. The results confirm that the periods between the transients, which represent bearing fault characteristics, can be successfully detected.

  2. Damage detection using experimentally measured mass and stiffness matrices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, L. D.; Alvin, K. F.; Doebling, S. W.; Park, K. C.

    1993-01-01

    A method is presented for locating physical damage or change in a structure using experimentally measured mass and stiffness matrices. The approach uses a recently developed algorithm for transforming a state-space realization into a second order structural model with physical displacements as the generalized coordinates. This is accomplished by first rotating a state-space model of the identified structural dynamics into modal coordinates and approximating the mass normalized modal vectors for the output measurement set. Next, the physical mass, damping and stiffness matrices are synthesized directly from the measured modal parameters. This yields experimental mass and stiffness matrices for the structure without the use of a finite element model or a numerical search. The computed mass and stiffness are asymptotically equivalent to a static condensation of the global physical coordinate model. Techniques for solving the inverse connectivity problem are then developed whereby it is possible to assess the stiffness in a region of the structure bounded by several sensors. Applications to both simulated data and experimental data are used to discuss the effectiveness of the approach.

  3. Enhancement of the Feature Extraction Capability in Global Damage Detection Using Wavelet Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saleeb, Atef F.; Ponnaluru, Gopi Krishna

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to assess the specific capabilities of the defect energy parameter technique for global damage detection developed by Saleeb and coworkers. The feature extraction is the most important capability in any damage-detection technique. Features are any parameters extracted from the processed measurement data in order to enhance damage detection. The damage feature extraction capability was studied extensively by analyzing various simulation results. The practical significance in structural health monitoring is that the detection at early stages of small-size defects is always desirable. The amount of changes in the structure's response due to these small defects was determined to show the needed level of accuracy in the experimental methods. The arrangement of fine/extensive sensor network to measure required data for the detection is an "unlimited" ability, but there is a difficulty to place extensive number of sensors on a structure. Therefore, an investigation was conducted using the measurements of coarse sensor network. The white and the pink noises, which cover most of the frequency ranges that are typically encountered in the many measuring devices used (e.g., accelerometers, strain gauges, etc.) are added to the displacements to investigate the effect of noisy measurements in the detection technique. The noisy displacements and the noisy damage parameter values are used to study the signal feature reconstruction using wavelets. The enhancement of the feature extraction capability was successfully achieved by the wavelet theory.

  4. Lamb wave based automatic damage detection using matching pursuit and machine learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Sushant; Mitra, Mira

    2014-08-01

    In this study, matching pursuit (MP) has been tested with machine learning algorithms such as artificial neural networks (ANNs) and support vector machines (SVMs) to automate the process of damage detection in metallic plates. Here, damage detection is done using the Lamb wave response in a thin aluminium plate simulated using a finite element (FE) method. To reduce the complexity of the Lamb wave response, only the {{A}_{0}} mode is excited and sensed. The procedure adopted for damage detection consists of three major steps, involving signal processing and machine learning (ML). In the first step, MP is used for de-noising and enhancing the sparsity of the database. In the existing literature, MP is used to decompose any signal into a linear combination of waveforms that are selected from a redundant dictionary. In this work, MP is deployed in two stages to make the database sparse as well as to de-noise it. After using MP on the database, it is then passed as input data for ML classifiers. ANN and SVM are used to detect the location of the potential damage from the reduced data. The study demonstrates that the SVM is a robust classifier in the presence of noise and is more efficient than the ANN. Out-of-sample data are used for the validation of the trained and tested classifier. Trained classifiers are found to be successful in the detection of damage with a detection rate of more than 95%.

  5. Detection of chemical damage in concrete using ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Ould Naffa, S; Goueygou, M; Piwakowski, B; Buyle-Bodin, F

    2002-05-01

    This research deals with a non-destructive method for characterizing the degraded cover of concrete structures using high-frequency ultrasound (0.5-1 MHz). Although such a frequency range is unusual in civil engineering, it is well suited to the kind of defect to be detected, as it corresponds to a thin near-to-surface layer with increased porosity and density of microcracks. In order to assess the feasibility of detecting concrete cover degradation, velocity and attenuation measurements were made on both halves of a concrete slab. One half was immersed into an acid solution for 15-45 days, while the other half remained sound. These measurements were made for longitudinal, transverse and surface waves. The results obtained show a 23% decrease of ultrasonic pulse velocity and a 1000% increase of attenuation in the degraded material relative to the sound material. It is thus possible to detect and characterize concrete cover degradation using high-frequency ultrasound. Although attenuation measurements in heterogeneous media are difficult, their sensitivity to degradation is very high. PMID:12159941

  6. Detecting Damage in Composite Material Using Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meo, Michele; Polimeno, Umberto; Zumpano, Giuseppe

    2008-05-01

    Modern aerospace structures make increasing use of fibre reinforced plastic composites, due to their high specific mechanical properties. However, due to their brittleness, low velocity impact can cause delaminations beneath the surface, while the surface may appear to be undamaged upon visual inspection. Such damage is called barely visible impact damage (BVID). Such internal damages lead to significant reduction in local strengths and ultimately could lead to catastrophic failures. It is therefore important to detect and monitor damages in high loaded composite components to receive an early warning for a well timed maintenance of the aircraft. Non-linear ultrasonic spectroscopy methods are promising damage detection and material characterization tools. In this paper, two different non-linear elastic wave spectroscopy (NEWS) methods are presented: single mode nonlinear resonance ultrasound (NRUS) and nonlinear wave modulation technique (NWMS). The NEWS methods were applied to detect delamination damage due to low velocity impact (<12 J) on various composite plates. The results showed that the proposed methodology appear to be highly sensitive to the presence of damage with very promising future NDT and structural health monitoring applications.

  7. Damage Detection with Streamlined Structural Health Monitoring Data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Deng, Jun; Xie, Weizhi

    2015-01-01

    The huge amounts of sensor data generated by large scale sensor networks in on-line structural health monitoring (SHM) systems often overwhelms the systems’ capacity for data transmission and analysis. This paper presents a new concept for an integrated SHM system in which a streamlined data flow is used as a unifying thread to integrate the individual components of on-line SHM systems. Such an integrated SHM system has a few desirable functionalities including embedded sensor data compression, interactive sensor data retrieval, and structural knowledge discovery, which aim to enhance the reliability, efficiency, and robustness of on-line SHM systems. Adoption of this new concept will enable the design of an on-line SHM system with more uniform data generation and data handling capacity for its subsystems. To examine this concept in the context of vibration-based SHM systems, real sensor data from an on-line SHM system comprising a scaled steel bridge structure and an on-line data acquisition system with remote data access was used in this study. Vibration test results clearly demonstrated the prominent performance characteristics of the proposed integrated SHM system including rapid data access, interactive data retrieval and knowledge discovery of structural conditions on a global level. PMID:25884788

  8. Hyperspectral near-infrared imaging for the detection of physical damages of pear

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bruise damage on pears is one of the most crucial internal quality factors, which needs to be detected in postharvest quality sorting processes. Thus, a reliable non-destructive detection method for the fruit defects including bruises is necessary to ensure accurate quality assessment. Infra-red ima...

  9. Infra-red imaging technology for detection of bruise damages of Shingo pear

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bruise damage on pears is one of the most crucial internal quality factors that needs to be detected in postharvest quality sorting processes. Development of sensitive detection methods for the defects including fruit bruise is necessary to ensure accurate quality assessment. Infra-red imaging tech...

  10. A hybrid method for damage detection and quantification in advanced X-COR composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neerukatti, Rajesh Kumar; Rajadas, Abhishek; Borkowski, Luke; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Huff, Daniel W.

    2016-04-01

    Advanced composite structures, such as foam core carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites, are increasingly being used in applications which require high strength, high in-plane and flexural stiffness, and low weight. However, the presence of in situ damage due to manufacturing defects and/or service conditions can complicate the failure mechanisms and compromise their strength and reliability. In this paper, the capability of detecting damages such as delaminations and foam-core separations in X-COR composite structures using non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques is investigated. Two NDE techniques, flash thermography and low frequency ultrasonics, were used to detect and quantify the damage size and locations. Macro fiber composites (MFCs) were used as actuators and sensors to study the interaction of Lamb waves with delaminations and foam-core separations. The results indicate that both flash thermography and low frequency ultrasonics were capable of detecting damage in X-COR sandwich structures, although low frequency ultrasonic methods were capable of detecting through thickness damages more accurately than flash thermography. It was also observed that the presence of foam-core separations significantly changes the wave behavior when compared to delamination, which complicates the use of wave based SHM techniques. Further, a wave propagation model was developed to model the wave interaction with damages at different locations on the X-COR sandwich plate.

  11. Structural damage detection using higher-order finite elements and a scanning laser vibrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Si

    In contrast to conventional non-destructive evaluation methods, dynamics-based damage detection methods are capable of rapid integrity evaluation of large structures and have received considerable attention from aerospace, mechanical, and civil engineering communities in recent years. However, the identifiable damage size using dynamics-based methods is determined by the number of sensors used, level of measurement noise, accuracy of structural models, and signal processing techniques. In this thesis we study dynamics of structures with damage and then derive and experimentally verify new model-independent structural damage detection methods that can locate small damage to structures. To find sensitive damage detection parameters we develop a higher-order beam element that enforces the continuity of displacements, slopes, bending moments, and shear forces at all nodes, and a higher-order rectangular plate element that enforces the continuity of displacements, slopes, and bending and twisting moments at all nodes. These two elements are used to study the dynamics of beams and plates. Results show that high-order spatial derivatives of high-frequency modes are important sensitive parameters that can locate small structural damage. Unfortunately the most powerful and popular structural modeling technique, the finite element method, is not accurate in predicting high-frequency responses. Hence, a model-independent method using dynamic responses obtained from high density measurements is concluded to be the best approach. To increase measurement density and reduce noise a Polytec PI PSV-200 scanning laser vibrometer is used to provide non-contact, dense, and accurate measurements of structural vibration velocities. To avoid the use of structural models and to extract sensitive detection parameters from experimental data, a brand-new structural damage detection method named BED (Boundary-Effect Detection) is developed for pinpointing damage locations using Operational

  12. Prestorm estimation of hurricane damage to electric power distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Guikema, Seth D; Quiring, Steven M; Han, Seung-Ryong

    2010-12-01

    Hurricanes frequently cause damage to electric power systems in the United States, leading to widespread and prolonged loss of electric service. Restoring service quickly requires the use of repair crews and materials that must be requested, at considerable cost, prior to the storm. U.S. utilities have struggled to strike a good balance between over- and underpreparation largely because of a lack of methods for rigorously estimating the impacts of an approaching hurricane on their systems. Previous work developed methods for estimating the risk of power outages and customer loss of power, with an outage defined as nontransitory activation of a protective device. In this article, we move beyond these previous approaches to directly estimate damage to the electric power system. Our approach is based on damage data from past storms together with regression and data mining techniques to estimate the number of utility poles that will need to be replaced. Because restoration times and resource needs are more closely tied to the number of poles and transformers that need to be replaced than to the number of outages, this pole-based assessment provides a much stronger basis for prestorm planning by utilities. Our results show that damage to poles during hurricanes can be assessed accurately, provided that adequate past damage data are available. However, the availability of data can, and currently often is, the limiting factor in developing these types of models in practice. Opportunities for further enhancing the damage data recorded during hurricanes are also discussed. PMID:21039701

  13. Locating damage using integrated global-local approach with wireless sensing system and single-chip impedance measurement device.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Hsuan; Lu, Yung-Chi; Hung, Shih-Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study developed an integrated global-local approach for locating damage on building structures. A damage detection approach with a novel embedded frequency response function damage index (NEFDI) was proposed and embedded in the Imote2.NET-based wireless structural health monitoring (SHM) system to locate global damage. Local damage is then identified using an electromechanical impedance- (EMI-) based damage detection method. The electromechanical impedance was measured using a single-chip impedance measurement device which has the advantages of small size, low cost, and portability. The feasibility of the proposed damage detection scheme was studied with reference to a numerical example of a six-storey shear plane frame structure and a small-scale experimental steel frame. Numerical and experimental analysis using the integrated global-local SHM approach reveals that, after NEFDI indicates the approximate location of a damaged area, the EMI-based damage detection approach can then identify the detailed damage location in the structure of the building. PMID:24672359

  14. Locating Damage Using Integrated Global-Local Approach with Wireless Sensing System and Single-Chip Impedance Measurement Device

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Shih-Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study developed an integrated global-local approach for locating damage on building structures. A damage detection approach with a novel embedded frequency response function damage index (NEFDI) was proposed and embedded in the Imote2.NET-based wireless structural health monitoring (SHM) system to locate global damage. Local damage is then identified using an electromechanical impedance- (EMI-) based damage detection method. The electromechanical impedance was measured using a single-chip impedance measurement device which has the advantages of small size, low cost, and portability. The feasibility of the proposed damage detection scheme was studied with reference to a numerical example of a six-storey shear plane frame structure and a small-scale experimental steel frame. Numerical and experimental analysis using the integrated global-local SHM approach reveals that, after NEFDI indicates the approximate location of a damaged area, the EMI-based damage detection approach can then identify the detailed damage location in the structure of the building. PMID:24672359

  15. Particle detection systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Morris, Christopher L.; Makela, Mark F.

    2010-05-11

    Techniques, apparatus and systems for detecting particles such as muons and neutrons. In one implementation, a particle detection system employs a plurality of drift cells, which can be for example sealed gas-filled drift tubes, arranged on sides of a volume to be scanned to track incoming and outgoing charged particles, such as cosmic ray-produced muons. The drift cells can include a neutron sensitive medium to enable concurrent counting of neutrons. The system can selectively detect devices or materials, such as iron, lead, gold, uranium, plutonium, and/or tungsten, occupying the volume from multiple scattering of the charged particles passing through the volume and can concurrently detect any unshielded neutron sources occupying the volume from neutrons emitted therefrom. If necessary, the drift cells can be used to also detect gamma rays. The system can be employed to inspect occupied vehicles at border crossings for nuclear threat objects.

  16. Towards automation of building damage detection using WorldView-2 satellite image: the case of the Haiti earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Tao; Kazama, Yoriko

    2010-10-01

    Information of disaster damage assessment is very significant to disaster mitigation, aid and post disaster redevelopment planning. Remotely sensed data, especially very high resolution image data from aircraft and satellite have been long recognized very essential and objective source for disaster mapping. However feature extraction from these data remains a very challenge task currently. In this paper, we present a method to extract building damage caused by earthquake from two pairs of Worldview-2 high resolution satellite image. Targeting at implementing a practically operational system, we develop a novel framework integrating semi-automatic building extraction with machine learning mechanism to maximize the automation level of system. We also present a rectilinear building model to deal with a wide variety of rooftops. Through the study case of Haiti earthquake, we demonstrate our method is highly effective for detecting building damage from high resolution satellite image.

  17. Optical fiber null coupler sensor for damage detection using ultrasonic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, HaiFeng; Liao, Yanbiao; Zhang, Ming; Lai, Shu R.

    2005-02-01

    A novel optical fiber null coupler (OFNC) sensor based on acousto-optic interaction is developed, which can be used in the structure health monitoring of the medical materials. The OFNC sensors can be response to 10MHz supersonic wave, and their signal-to noise ratio are higher then Piezo Ceramic Transducers(PZT). A kind of Perspex with a 1mm hole is employed as the sample, where the OFNC sensor is glued on, and the reflected signal of ultrasonic wave by the hole is detected .

  18. An integrated digital system for earthquake damage reconnaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deaton, Scott Lowrey

    PQuake(TM) is an integrated digital system that facilitates earthquake damage reconnaissance. It combines digital photography, handheld GPS technology and custom software for a PalmRTM handheld computer to provide a user-friendly field data collection system. It mitigates the deficiencies involved with traditional reconnaissance techniques by allowing the rapid collection of consistent quantitative and qualitative damage data for both manmade structures and natural features. At the end of each day of reconnaissance, the reconnaissance personnel can upload their data to a personal computer and in minutes using the GIS-extension, create comprehensive maps of the damage. Consequently, PQuake(TM) facilitates more sophisticated planning of the reconnaissance activities, collecting larger quantities of consistent data, collaboration among researchers, near real-time reporting, analysis, visualization and mapping of the data. Additionally, it utilizes a relational database for managing, storing and archiving damage data as well as linking data to digital photographs and GPS waypoints. Consequently, PQuake facilitates the complete workflow process from data collection through analysis and reporting. The limitations of traditional reconnaissance are illustrated through a case history utilizing reconnaissance data collected in Adapazari, Turkey, following the Kocaeli earthquake of August 17, 1999. The damage data was combined with liquefaction analyses performed on geotechnical soundings obtained by PEER months after the event to investigate the building damage associated with local site effects in Adapazari. In particular, this case history demonstrates the necessity and benefits of the PQuake system. The PQuake(TM) system was first field-tested following the Gujarat, India, earthquake in January 2001. Additionally, the system was modified following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack on the World Trade Centers to document structural and non structural damage to the

  19. Detecting Structural Damage of Nuclear Power Plant by Interactive Data Mining Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Yufei Shu

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear structural damage identification technique, based on an interactive data mining approach, which integrates a human cognitive model in a data mining loop. A mining control agent emulating human analysts is developed, which directly interacts with the data miner, analyzing and verifying the output of the data miner and controlling the data mining process. Additionally, an artificial neural network method, which is adopted as a core component of the proposed interactive data mining method, is evolved by adding a novelty detecting and retraining function for handling complicated nuclear power plant quake-proof data. Plant quake-proof testing data has been applied to the system to show the validation of the proposed method. (author)

  20. Feasibility of PZT ceramics for impact damage detection in composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dib, Gerges; Koricho, Ermias; Karpenko, Oleksii; Haq, Mahmood; Udpa, Lalita; Udpa, Satish S.

    2015-03-01

    Fiber reinforced plastic composites are becoming widely used in vehicles and airframe structures due to their high strength to weight ratio. However unlike metals, the multilayered composite structures are more susceptible to damage mechanisms such as disbonds and delaminations due to impacts. It is often difficult to visually detect the damage. Lead-Zirconate-Titanate (PZT) thin films are becoming popular for in-situ structural health monitoring due to their small size, high piezoelectric coupling coefficient, and ease of surface-mounting and/or embedding in composite structures. A network of such transducers could be utilized for damage detection using guided wave techniques, impedance techniques, or passive impact detection techniques. However, the PZT films are subject to the same impact probabilities that the structure encounters. If the transducers fail due to the subjected impacts, they can result in false readings and ultimately failing to correctly detect damage in the structure. This paper presents a feasibility study using the guided wave S0 mode for detecting impact damage. The health of the structure is quantified using guided wave measurements, and the PZT health is monitored using impedance methods.

  1. An improved modal strain energy method for damage detection in offshore platform structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingchao; Wang, Shuqing; Zhang, Min; Zheng, Chunmei

    2016-04-01

    The development of robust damage detection methods for offshore structures is crucial to prevent catastrophes caused by structural failures. In this research, we developed an Improved Modal Strain Energy (IMSE) method for detecting damage in offshore platform structures based on a traditional modal strain energy method (the Stubbs index method). The most significant difference from the Stubbs index method was the application of modal frequencies. The goal was to improve the robustness of the traditional method. To demonstrate the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed IMSE method, both numerical and experimental studies were conducted for different damage scenarios using a jacket platform structure. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of the IMSE method in damage location when only limited, spatially incomplete, and noise-polluted modal data is available. Comparative studies showed that the IMSE index outperformed the Stubbs index and exhibited stronger robustness, confirming the superiority of the proposed approach.

  2. An improved modal strain energy method for damage detection in offshore platform structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingchao; Wang, Shuqing; Zhang, Min; Zheng, Chunmei

    2016-06-01

    The development of robust damage detection methods for offshore structures is crucial to prevent catastrophes caused by structural failures. In this research, we developed an Improved Modal Strain Energy (IMSE) method for detecting damage in offshore platform structures based on a traditional modal strain energy method (the Stubbs index method). The most significant difference from the Stubbs index method was the application of modal frequencies. The goal was to improve the robustness of the traditional method. To demonstrate the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed IMSE method, both numerical and experimental studies were conducted for different damage scenarios using a jacket platform structure. The results demonstrated the effectiveness of the IMSE method in damage location when only limited, spatially incomplete, and noise-polluted modal data is available. Comparative studies showed that the IMSE index outperformed the Stubbs index and exhibited stronger robustness, confirming the superiority of the proposed approach.

  3. Damage detection in rotating machinery by means of entropy-based parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tocarciuc, Alexandru; Bereteu, Liviu; ǎgǎnescu, Gheorghe Eugen, Dr

    2014-11-01

    The paper is proposing two new entropy-based parameters, namely Renyi Entropy Index (REI) and Sharma-Mittal Entropy Index (SMEI), for detecting the presence of failures (or damages) in rotating machinery, namely: belt structural damage, belt wheels misalignment, failure of the fixing bolt of the machine to its baseplate and eccentricities (i.e.: due to detaching a small piece of material or bad mounting of the rotating components of the machine). The algorithms to obtain the proposed entropy-based parameters are described and test data is used in order to assess their sensitivity. A vibration test bench is used for measuring the levels of vibration while artificially inducing damage. The deviation of the two entropy-based parameters is compared in two states of the vibration test bench: not damaged and damaged. At the end of the study, their sensitivity is compared to Shannon Entropic Index.

  4. Automatic detection and classification of damage zone(s) for incorporating in digital image correlation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Sudipta; Deb, Debasis

    2016-07-01

    Digital image correlation (DIC) is a technique developed for monitoring surface deformation/displacement of an object under loading conditions. This method is further refined to make it capable of handling discontinuities on the surface of the sample. A damage zone is referred to a surface area fractured and opened in due course of loading. In this study, an algorithm is presented to automatically detect multiple damage zones in deformed image. The algorithm identifies the pixels located inside these zones and eliminate them from FEM-DIC processes. The proposed algorithm is successfully implemented on several damaged samples to estimate displacement fields of an object under loading conditions. This study shows that displacement fields represent the damage conditions reasonably well as compared to regular FEM-DIC technique without considering the damage zones.

  5. Detection of DNA damage induced by heavy ion irradiation in the individual cells with comet assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, S.; Natsuhori, M.; Ito, N.; Funayama, T.; Kobayashi, Y.

    2003-05-01

    Investigating the biological effects of high-LET heavy ion irradiation at low fluence is important to evaluate the risk of charged particles. Especially it is important to detect radiation damage induced by the precise number of heavy ions in the individual cells. Thus we studied the relationship between the number of ions traversing the cell and DNA damage produced by the ion irradiation. We applied comet assay to measure the DNA damage in the individual cells. Cells attached on the ion track detector CR-39 were irradiated with ion beams at TIARA, JAERI-Takasaki. After irradiation, the cells were stained with ethidium bromide and the opposite side of the CR-39 was etched. We observed that the heavy ions with higher LET values induced the heavier DNA damage. The result indicated that the amount of DNA damage induced by one particle increased with the LET values of the heavy ions.

  6. Laser excitation and fully non-contact sensing ultrasonic propagation imaging system for damage evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhital, Dipesh; Lee, Jung Ryul; Park, Chan Yik; Flynn, Eric

    2012-04-01

    Various types of damages occur in aerospace, mechanical and many other engineering structures, and a reliable nondestructive evaluation technique is essential to detect any possible damage at the initiation phase. Ultrasound has been widely used but the conventional contact ultrasonic inspection techniques are not suitable for mass and couplant sensitive structures and are relatively slow. This study presents a fully non-contact hybrid laser ultrasonic generation and piezoelectric air-coupled transducer (ACT)/laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) sensing technique combined with ultrasonic wave propagation imaging (UWPI), ultrasonic spectral imaging (USI) and wavelet-transformed ultrasonic propagation imaging (WUPI) algorithms to extract defect-sensitive features aimed at performing a thorough diagnosis of damage. Optimization enables improved performance efficiency of ACT and LDV to be used as receivers for non-contact hybrid laser ultrasonic propagation imaging (UPI) system as shown from the experimental results in this study. Real fatigue closed surface micro crack on metal structure was detected using hybrid laser ultrasonic generation/ACT sensing system, with size detection accuracy as high as 96%. Impact damages on carbon fiber reinforced plastic composite wing-box specimen were detected and localized using hybrid laser ultrasonic generation/LDV sensing system.

  7. Structural damage detection using extended Kalman filter combined with statistical process control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chenhao; Jang, Shinae; Sun, Xiaorong

    2015-04-01

    Traditional modal-based methods, which identify damage based upon changes in vibration characteristics of the structure on a global basis, have received considerable attention in the past decades. However, the effectiveness of the modalbased methods is dependent on the type of damage and the accuracy of the structural model, and these methods may also have difficulties when applied to complex structures. The extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm which has the capability to estimate parameters and catch abrupt changes, is currently used in continuous and automatic structural damage detection to overcome disadvantages of traditional methods. Structural parameters are typically slow-changing variables under effects of operational and environmental conditions, thus it would be difficult to observe the structural damage and quantify the damage in real-time with EKF only. In this paper, a Statistical Process Control (SPC) is combined with EFK method in order to overcome this difficulty. Based on historical measurements of damage-sensitive feathers involved in the state-space dynamic models, extended Kalman filter (EKF) algorithm is used to produce real-time estimations of these features as well as standard derivations, which can then be used to form control ranges for SPC to detect any abnormality of the selected features. Moreover, confidence levels of the detection can be adjusted by choosing different times of sigma and number of adjacent out-of-range points. The proposed method is tested using simulated data of a three floors linear building in different damage scenarios, and numerical results demonstrate high damage detection accuracy and light computation of this presented method.

  8. Thermography inspection for detection and tracking of composite cylinder damage during load testing

    SciTech Connect

    Zalameda, J. N.; Winfree, W. P.; Johnston, P. H.; Seebo, J. P.

    2011-06-23

    Two thermography techniques, passive and active, are used to detect damage initiation and progression in a cyclically loaded composite cylinder. The passive thermography tracks damage progression in real time during cyclic loading. Active flash thermography, using a flash tube enclosed within the cylinder, images delaminations. A differential thermography processing technique eliminates normal material variations and improves sensitivity to and sizing of delaminations. The thermography results were compared to non-immersion ultrasonic results.

  9. Thermography Inspection for Detection and Tracking of Composite Cylinder Damage During Load Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, J. N.; Winfree, W. P.; Seebo, J. P.; Johnston, P. H.

    2010-01-01

    Two thermography techniques, passive and active, are used to detect damage initiation and progression in a cyclically loaded composite cylinder. The passive thermography tracks damage progression in real time during cyclic loading. Active flash thermography, using a flash tube enclosed within the cylinder, images delaminations in a cylinder under different loads. A differential thermography processing technique eliminates normal material variations and improves sensitivity to and sizing of delaminations. The thermography results were compared to nonimmersion ultrasonic results.

  10. Thermal neutron detection system

    DOEpatents

    Peurrung, Anthony J.; Stromswold, David C.

    2000-01-01

    According to the present invention, a system for measuring a thermal neutron emission from a neutron source, has a reflector/moderator proximate the neutron source that reflects and moderates neutrons from the neutron source. The reflector/moderator further directs thermal neutrons toward an unmoderated thermal neutron detector.

  11. Colorimetric detection of DNA damage by using hemin-graphene nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, W.; Zhang, D. M.; Yin, L. H.; Pu, Y. P.; Liu, S. Q.

    2013-04-01

    A colorimetric method for detection of DNA damage was developed by using hemin-graphene nanosheets (H-GNs). H-GNs were skillfully synthesized by adsorping of hemin on graphene through π-π interactions. The as-prepared H-GNs possessed both the ability of graphene to differentiate the damage DNA from intact DNA and the catalytic action of hemin. The damaged DNA made H-GNs coagulated to different degrees from the intact DNA because there were different amount of negative charge exposed on their surface, which made a great impact on the solubility of H-GNs. As a result, the corresponding centrifugal supernatant of H-GNs solution showed different color in the presence of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and H2O2, which could be discriminated by naked eyes or by ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectrometer. Based on this, the damaged effects of styrene oxide (SO), NaAsO2 and UV radiation on DNA were studied. Results showed that SO exerted most serious damage effect on DNA although all of them damaged DNA seriously. The new method for detection of DNA damage showed good prospect in the evaluation of genotoxicity of new compounds, the maximum limit of pesticide residue, food additives, and so on, which is important in the fields of food science, pharmaceutical science and pesticide science.

  12. Preliminary Results of Earthquake-Induced Building Damage Detection with Object-Based Image Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabuncu, A.; Uca Avci, Z. D.; Sunar, F.

    2016-06-01

    Earthquakes are the most destructive natural disasters, which result in massive loss of life, infrastructure damages and financial losses. Earthquake-induced building damage detection is a very important step after earthquakes since earthquake-induced building damage is one of the most critical threats to cities and countries in terms of the area of damage, rate of collapsed buildings, the damage grade near the epicenters and also building damage types for all constructions. Van-Ercis (Turkey) earthquake (Mw= 7.1) was occurred on October 23th, 2011; at 10:41 UTC (13:41 local time) centered at 38.75 N 43.36 E that places the epicenter about 30 kilometers northern part of the city of Van. It is recorded that, 604 people died and approximately 4000 buildings collapsed or seriously damaged by the earthquake. In this study, high-resolution satellite images of Van-Ercis, acquired by Quickbird-2 (Digital Globe Inc.) after the earthquake, were used to detect the debris areas using an object-based image classification. Two different land surfaces, having homogeneous and heterogeneous land covers, were selected as case study areas. As a first step of the object-based image processing, segmentation was applied with a convenient scale parameter and homogeneity criterion parameters. As a next step, condition based classification was used. In the final step of this preliminary study, outputs were compared with streetview/ortophotos for the verification and evaluation of the classification accuracy.

  13. Rotor anisotropy as a blade damage indicator for wind turbine structural health monitoring systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tcherniak, Dmitri

    2016-06-01

    Structural damage of a rotor blade causes structural anisotropy of the rotor. In rotor dynamic, the anisotropy affects the symmetry of the rotor mode shapes, and the latter can be utilized to detect the blade damage. The mode shape symmetry can be characterized by relative blades' magnitude and phase. The study examines the potential use of these parameters as rotor damage indicators. Firstly the indicators are studied analytically using a simple 6 degrees-of-freedom model of a rotating rotor. Floquet analysis is used due to the time periodic nature of the considered system. Floquet analysis allows one to perform analytical modal decomposition of the system and study the sensitivity of the damage indicators to the amount of damage. Secondly, operational modal analysis (OMA) is involved to extract the same damage indicators from simulated experimental data, which was synthesized via numerical simulations. Finally, the same procedure was applied to operating Vestas V27 wind turbine, first using the simulated experimental data obtained by using aeroelastic simulation code HAWC2 and then using the data acquired during the measurement campaign on a real wind turbine. The study demonstrates that the proposed damage indicators are significantly more sensitive than the commonly used changes in natural frequency, and in contrast to the latter, can also pinpoint the faulty blade. It is also demonstrated that these indicators can be derived from blades vibration data obtained from real life experiment.

  14. Damage Detection and Mitigation in Open Collaboration Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Andrew G.

    2013-01-01

    Collaborative functionality is changing the way information is amassed, refined, and disseminated in online environments. A subclass of these systems characterized by "open collaboration" uniquely allow participants to "modify" content with low barriers-to-entry. A prominent example and our case study, English Wikipedia,…

  15. A Method to have Multi-Layer Thermal Insulation Provide Damage Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Taylor, Bryant D.; Jones, Thomas W.; Shams, Qamar A.; Lyons, Frankel; Henderson, Donald

    2007-01-01

    Design and testing of a multi-layer thermal insulation system that also provides debris and micrometeorite damage detection is presented. One layer of the insulation is designed as an array of passive open-circuit electrically conductive spiral trace sensors. The sensors are a new class of sensors that are electrically open-circuits that have no electrical connections thereby eliminating one cause of failure to circuits. The sensors are powered using external oscillating magnetic fields. Once electrically active, they produce their own harmonic magnetic fields. The responding field frequency changes if any sensor is damaged. When the sensors are used together in close proximity, the inductive coupling between sensors provides a means of telemetry. The spiral trace design using reflective electrically conductive material provides sufficient area coverage for the sensor array to serves as a layer of thermal insulation. The other insulation layers are designed to allow the sensor s magnetic field to permeate the insulation layers while having total reflective surface area to reduce thermal energy transfer. Results of characterizing individual sensors and the sensor array s response to punctures are presented. Results of hypervelocity impact testing using projectiles of 1-3.6 millimeter diameter having speeds ranging from 6.7-7.1 kilometers per second are also presented.

  16. Implementation of damage detection algorithms for the Alfred Zampa Memorial Suspension Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talebinejad, I.; Sedarat, H.; Emami-Naeini, A.; Krimotat, A.; Lynch, Jerome

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated a number of different damage detection algorithms for structural health monitoring of a typical suspension bridge. The Alfred Zampa Memorial Bridge, a part of the Interstate 80 in California, was selected for this study. The focus was to implement and validate simple damage detection algorithms for structural health monitoring of complex bridges. Accordingly, the numerical analysis involved development of a high fidelity finite element model of the bridge in order to simulate various structural damage scenarios. The finite element model of the bridge was validated based on the experimental modal properties. A number of damage scenarios were simulated by changing the stiffness of different bridge components including suspenders, main cable, bulkheads and deck. Several vibration-based damage detection methods namely the change in the stiffness, change in the flexibility, change in the uniform load surface and change in the uniform load surface curvature were employed to locate the simulated damages. The investigation here provides the relative merits and shortcomings of these methods when applied to long span suspension bridges. It also shows the applicability of these methods to locate the decay in the structure.

  17. Active sensing and damage detection using piezoelectric zinc oxide-based nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, Frederick N.; Loh, Kenneth J.; Dodds, John S.; Baltazar, Arturo

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated the design and performance of piezoelectric nanocomposite-based interdigitated transducers (IDTs) for active sensing and damage detection. First, thin films that are highly piezoelectric and mechanically flexible were designed by embedding zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in a poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) (PVDF-TrFE) piezo-polymer matrix. Second, the suspended nanoparticle solutions were then spin coated onto patterned comb electrodes to fabricate the IDTs. The films were then poled to align their electric domains and to increase their permanent piezoelectricity. Upon IDT fabrication, its sensing and actuation of Lamb waves on an aluminum pipe was validated. These results were also compared to data obtained from commercial Macro Fiber Composite IDT transducers. In the last phase of this work, damage detection was demonstrated by mounting these nanocomposite sensors and actuators (using a pitch-catch setup) onto an aluminum pipe and plate. Damage was simulated by tightening a band clamp around the pipe and by drilling holes in the plate. A damage index calculation was used to compare results corresponding to different levels of damage applied to the plate (i.e., different drilled hole depths), and good correlation was observed. Thus, ZnO/PVDF-TrFE transducers were shown to have the potential for use as piezoelectric transducers for structural health monitoring and damage detection.

  18. Study on correlation methods for damage detection: Simulation and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Acqua, D.; Di Maio, D.

    2014-05-01

    In the current days there is an increment of interest in damage detection methods, aimed to assure the operating status of existing structures or for intensifier quality control on production line. These are only some of the applications whereby damage detection methods have been dev eloped. In the past several researches have been addressed towards damage detection using vibration analysis, especially through mode shape and natural frequencies changes. In the preset study correlation methods based on ODSs have been developed. The structure was taken under consideration is steel plate. The correlation methods presented are based on the comparison of the ODSs generated by two FEM models of the plate, one defined as pristine and the other as damaged. The latter has been modelled adding a single node mass element to the model surface. This mass element was chosen to simulate a magnet attached to the surface plate in the experimental case. Several simulations have been performed using combinations of mass and positions, for a total of 16 cases. Studying the correlations between a ODSs pair, given by the same excitation frequency and position, is possible to identify the presence of damage in the structure. The experimental model validation has been performed using the best excitation condition obtained by simulation, which can point out large differences between the damaged ODS and undamaged ODS.

  19. Power line detection system

    DOEpatents

    Latorre, Victor R.; Watwood, Donald B.

    1994-01-01

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard.

  20. Power line detection system

    DOEpatents

    Latorre, V.R.; Watwood, D.B.

    1994-09-27

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard. 4 figs.

  1. Centrifugal unbalance detection system

    DOEpatents

    Cordaro, Joseph V.; Reeves, George; Mets, Michael

    2002-01-01

    A system consisting of an accelerometer sensor attached to a centrifuge enclosure for sensing vibrations and outputting a signal in the form of a sine wave with an amplitude and frequency that is passed through a pre-amp to convert it to a voltage signal, a low pass filter for removing extraneous noise, an A/D converter and a processor and algorithm for operating on the signal, whereby the algorithm interprets the amplitude and frequency associated with the signal and once an amplitude threshold has been exceeded the algorithm begins to count cycles during a predetermined time period and if a given number of complete cycles exceeds the frequency threshold during the predetermined time period, the system shuts down the centrifuge.

  2. Radiation detection system

    DOEpatents

    Whited, R.C.

    A system for obtaining improved resolution in relatively thick semiconductor radiation detectors, such as HgI/sub 2/, which exhibit significant hole trapping. Two amplifiers are used: the first measures the charge collected and the second the contribution of the electrons to the charge collected. The outputs of the two amplifiers are utilized to unfold the total charge generated within the detector in response to a radiation event.

  3. Nondestructive methods for early detection of damage to living plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fateyeva, Natalya L.; Matvienko, Gennadii G.; Shul'gina, Lidia A.

    2004-10-01

    As a result of the accomplish experiments determine, that by a method of a laser-induced fluorescence of chlorophyll it is possible to spot for cedar an early stage of the stressful factor, bound with presence in ground <>. In our case the laboratory researches provided learning a quantitative contents chlorophyll for plants found in normal and stressful conditions on a basis spectrophotometrical of a method. Natural measurement the observations behind dynamics of a photosynthetic state means of wood plants in vivo enable. For an estimation of this state the fluorescence of chlorophyll on wavelength 685 and 740 nm was used. The optical model of a green leaf was developed for methods of a laser-induced fluorescence of chlorophyll. A experiments series on remote research of processes violation of mineral power supply and exchange in plants is carried spent. Was considered the change of the ratios of intensity of a fluorescence of chlorophyll and carotenoids at deficiency. Was designed technique for detection infringement processes of mineral nutrition and change surveyed acidity grounds on laser-induce fluorescent responses of deciduous plants.

  4. Baseline Signal Reconstruction for Temperature Compensation in Lamb Wave-Based Damage Detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guoqiang; Xiao, Yingchun; Zhang, Hua; Ren, Gexue

    2016-01-01

    Temperature variations have significant effects on propagation of Lamb wave and therefore can severely limit the damage detection for Lamb wave. In order to mitigate the temperature effect, a temperature compensation method based on baseline signal reconstruction is developed for Lamb wave-based damage detection. The method is a reconstruction of a baseline signal at the temperature of current signal. In other words, it compensates the baseline signal to the temperature of current signal. The Hilbert transform is used to compensate the phase of baseline signal. The Orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) is used to compensate the amplitude of baseline signal. Experiments were conducted on two composite panels to validate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method could effectively work for temperature intervals of at least 18 °C with the baseline signal temperature as the center, and can be applied to the actual damage detection. PMID:27529245

  5. Infrared imaging technology for detection of bruising damages of 'Shingo' pear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Kim, Moon S.; Lee, Hoonsoo; Delwiche, Stephen R.

    2011-06-01

    Bruise damage on pears is one of the most crucial internal quality factors that needs to be detected in postharvest quality sorting processes. Development of sensitive detection methods for the defects including fruit bruise is necessary to ensure accurate quality assessment. Infra-red imaging techniques in the 1000 nm to 1700 nm has good potentials for identifying and detecting bruises since bruises result in the rupture of internal cell walls due to defects on agricultural materials. In this study, feasibility of hyperspectral infra-red (1000 - 1700 nm) imaging technique for the detection of bruise damages underneath the pear skin was investigated. Pear bruises, affecting the quality of fruits underneath the skin, are not easily discernable by using conventional imaging technique in the visible wavelength ranges. Simple image combination methods as well as multivariate image analyses were explored to develop optimal image analysis algorithm to detect bruise damages of pear. Results demonstrated good potential of the infra-red imaging techniques for detection of bruises damages on pears.

  6. Detection and localization of damage using empirical mode decomposition and multilevel support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dushyanth, N. D.; Suma, M. N.; Latte, Mrityanjaya V.

    2016-03-01

    Damage in the structure may raise a significant amount of maintenance cost and serious safety problems. Hence detection of the damage at its early stage is of prime importance. The main contribution pursued in this investigation is to propose a generic optimal methodology to improve the accuracy of positioning of the flaw in a structure. This novel approach involves a two-step process. The first step essentially aims at extracting the damage-sensitive features from the received signal, and these extracted features are often termed the damage index or damage indices, serving as an indicator to know whether the damage is present or not. In particular, a multilevel SVM (support vector machine) plays a vital role in the distinction of faulty and healthy structures. Formerly, when a structure is unveiled as a damaged structure, in the subsequent step, the position of the damage is identified using Hilbert-Huang transform. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated in both simulation and experimental tests on a 6061 aluminum plate with dimensions 300 mm × 300 mm × 5 mm which accordingly yield considerable improvement in the accuracy of estimating the position of the flaw.

  7. APDS: Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Langlois, R G; Brown, S; Burris, L; Colston, B; Jones, L; Makarewicz, T; Mariella, R; Masquelier, D; McBride, M; Milanovich, F; Masarabadi, S; Venkateswaran, K; Marshall, G; Olson, D; Wolcott, D

    2002-02-14

    An early warning system to counter bioterrorism, the Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) continuously monitors the environment for the presence of biological pathogens (e.g., anthrax) and once detected, it sounds an alarm much like a smoke detector warns of a fire. Long before September 11, 2001, this system was being developed to protect domestic venues and events including performing arts centers, mass transit systems, major sporting and entertainment events, and other high profile situations in which the public is at risk of becoming a target of bioterrorist attacks. Customizing off-the-shelf components and developing new components, a multidisciplinary team developed APDS, a stand-alone system for rapid, continuous monitoring of multiple airborne biological threat agents in the environment. The completely automated APDS samples the air, prepares fluid samples in-line, and performs two orthogonal tests: immunoassay and nucleic acid detection. When compared to competing technologies, APDS is unprecedented in terms of flexibility and system performance.

  8. Diversified transmission multichannel detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Tournois, P.; Engelhard, P.

    1984-07-03

    A detection system for imaging by sonar or radar signals. The system associates diversified transmissions with an interferometric base. This base provides an angular channel formation means and each signal formed in this way is processed by matched filtering in a circuit containing copy signals characterizing the space coloring obtained by the diversified transmission means. The invention is particularly applicable to side or front looking detection sonars.

  9. Damage detection in carbon composite material typical of wind turbine blades using auto-associative neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dervilis, N.; Barthorpe, R. J.; Antoniadou, I.; Staszewski, W. J.; Worden, K.

    2012-04-01

    The structure of a wind turbine blade plays a vital role in the mechanical and structural operation of the turbine. As new generations of offshore wind turbines are trying to achieve a leading role in the energy market, key challenges such as a reliable Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of the blades is significant for the economic and structural efficiency of the wind energy. Fault diagnosis of wind turbine blades is a "grand challenge" due to their composite nature, weight and length. The damage detection procedure involves additional difficulties focused on aerodynamic loads, environmental conditions and gravitational loads. It will be shown that vibration dynamic response data combined with AANNs is a robust and powerful tool, offering on-line and real time damage prediction. In this study the features used for SHM are Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) acquired via experimental methods based on an LMS system by which identification of mode shapes and natural frequencies is accomplished. The methods used are statistical outlier analysis which allows a diagnosis of deviation from normality and an Auto-Associative Neural Network (AANN). Both of these techniques are trained by adopting the FRF data for normal and damage condition. The AANN is a method which has not yet been widely used in the condition monitoring of composite materials of blades. This paper is trying to introduce a new scheme for damage detection, localisation and severity assessment by adopting simple measurements such as FRFs and exploiting multilayer neural networks and outlier novelty detection.

  10. Detection of transport and age induced damages on artwork: an advanced concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morawitz, M.; Hein, N.; Alexeenko, I.; Wilke, M.; Pedrini, G.; Krekel, C.; Osten, W.

    2013-05-01

    For the society it is of great interest to make cultural heritage accessible to the general public. The subsequent increase of museum loan services increases the risk of accelerated degeneration. Hence, in addition to the age related deterioration, transportation can be another source of damage. Despite modern packaging technologies, vibrations and environmental climate change can add up and damage the transported object. Besides obvious mechanical influencing quantities, a main concern is the detection of climate induced damages. Changes in the relative humidity cause inner strain, which may lead to defect formations and damages. White light fringe projection was applied to detect object changes due to variations of the relative humidity. First measurements indicated a sensitivity down to a relative humidity change of 6 %. Recently, the Stuppach Madonna, a painting by Matthias Grunewald (painted 1514 - 1516), was investigated with shearography after the return from an exhibition. The obtained shearograms revealed a variety of defects like bubbles, delaminations and tunnels caused by wood worms. Even the planking of the wooden panel and existing putty could be detected. This paper describes the first steps of a project with the aim of investigating and implementing a method to detect and classify transport related damages on works of art.

  11. Distributed thin film sensor array for damage detection and localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, Austin; Laflamme, Simon; Ubertini, Filippo

    2016-04-01

    The authors have developed a capacitive-based thin film sensor for monitoring strain on mesosurfaces. Arranged in a network configuration, the sensing system is analogous to a biological skin, where local strain can be monitored over a global area. The measurement principle is based on a measurable change in capacitance provoked by strain. In the case of bidirectional in-plane strain, the sensor output contains the additive measurement of both principal strain components. In this paper, we present an algorithm for retrieving unidirectional strain from the bidirectional measurements of the capacitive-based thin film sensor when place in a hybrid dense sensor network with state-of-the-art unidirectional strain sensors. The algorithm leverages the advantages of a hybrid dense network for application of the thin film sensor to reconstruct the surface strain maps. A bidirectional shape function is assumed, and it is differentiated to obtain expressions for planar strain. A least squares estimator (LSE) is used to reconstruct the planar strain map from the networks measurements, after the system's boundary conditions have been enforced in the model. The coefficients obtained by the LSE can be used to reconstruct the estimated strain map. Results from numerical simulations and experimental investigations show good performance of the algorithm.

  12. Damage Detection in a Composite Plate Using Modal Analysis and Artificial Intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasiri, M. R.; Mahjoob, M. J.; Aghakasiri, A.

    2011-12-01

    The use of composite materials has vastly increased in recent years. Great interest is therefore developed in the damage detection of composites using non-destructive test methods. Several approaches have been applied to obtain information about the existence, location and growth of the faults. The main goal in this paper is to use the vibration response of a composite plate to detect and localize delamination defect based on the frequency response and modal analysis. The features extracted are used as the input data in an artificial intelligence scheme to identify the severity of the damages. Experiments are then conducted to validate the developed model.

  13. Impact damage detection in sandwich composite structures using Lamb waves and laser vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamboul, B.; Passilly, B.; Roche, J.-M.; Osmont, D.

    2013-01-01

    This experimental study explores the feasibility of impact damage detection in composite sandwich structures using Lamb wave excitation and signals acquired with a laser Doppler vibrometer. Energy maps are computed from the transient velocity wave fields and used to highlight defect areas in impacted coupons of foam core and honeycomb core sandwich materials. The technique performs well for the detection of barely visible damage in this type of material, and is shown to be robust in the presence of wave reverberation. Defect extent information is not always readily retrieved from the obtained defect signatures, which depend on the wave - defect interaction mechanisms.

  14. Thermomechanical analysis of a damaged thermal protection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Wei Heok

    Research on the effects of damage on the thermomechanical performance and structural integrity of thermal protection systems (TPS) has been limited. The objective of this research is to address this need by conducting experiments and finite element (FE) analysis on damaged TPS. The TPS selected for study is the High-Temperature Reusable Insulation (HRSI) tiles that are used extensively on NASA's Space Shuttle Orbiter. The TPS considered, which consists of a LI-900 tile, the strain isolator pad and the underlying structure, is subjected to the thermal loading and re-entry static pressure of the Access to Space reference vehicle. The damage to the TPS emulates hypervelocity-impact-type damage, which is approximated in the current research by a cylindrical hole ending with a spherical cap. Preliminary FE analysis using several simplifying assumptions, was conducted to determine the accuracy of using an approximate axisymmetric model compared to a complete three-dimensional model for both heat transfer and thermal stress analyses. Temperature results from the two models were found to be reasonable close; however, thermal stress results displayed significant differences. The sensitivity of the FE results to the various simplifying assumptions was also examined and it was concluded that for reliable results, the simplifying assumptions were not acceptable. Subsequently, an exact three-dimensional model was developed and validated by comparison with experimental data. Re-entry static pressures and temperatures were simulated using a high-temperature experimental facility that consists of a quartz radiant heater and a vacuum chamber with appropriate instrumentation. This facility was developed during the course of this dissertation. Temperatures on the top and bottom surfaces of the TPS specimen as well as strains in the underlying structure were recorded for FE model validation. The validated FE model was then combined with improved thermal loads based on the interactions

  15. Quality control mechanisms in cellular and systemic DNA damage responses

    PubMed Central

    Ermolaeva, Maria A.; Dakhovnik, Alexander; Schumacher, Björn

    2016-01-01

    The maintenance of the genome is of pivotal importance for the functional integrity of cells and tissues. The gradual accumulation of DNA damage is thought to contribute to the functional decline of tissues and organs with ageing. Defects in multiple genome maintenance systems cause human disorders characterized by cancer susceptibility, developmental failure, and premature ageing. The complex pathological consequences of genome instability are insufficiently explained by cell-autonomous DNA damage responses (DDR) alone. Quality control pathways play an important role in DNA repair and cellular DDR pathways. Recent years have revealed non-cell autonomous effects of DNA damage that impact the physiological adaptations during ageing. We will discuss the role of quality assurance pathways in cell-autonomous and systemic responses to genome instability. PMID:25560147

  16. Evaluation of modal-based damage detection techniques for composite aircraft sandwich structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, J. A.; Kosmatka, J. B.

    2005-05-01

    Composite sandwich structures are important as structural components in modern lightweight aircraft, but are susceptible to catastrophic failure without obvious forewarning. Internal damage, such as disbonding between skin and core, is detrimental to the structures' strength and integrity and thus must be detected before reaching critical levels. However, highly directional low density cores, such as Nomex honeycomb, make the task of damage detection and health monitoring difficult. One possible method for detecting damage in composite sandwich structures, which seems to have received very little research attention, is analysis of global modal parameters. This study will investigate the viability of modal analysis techniques for detecting skin-core disbonds in carbon fiber-Nomex honeycomb sandwich panels through laboratory testing. A series of carbon fiber prepreg and Nomex honeycomb sandwich panels-representative of structural components used in lightweight composite airframes-were fabricated by means of autoclave co-cure. All panels were of equal dimensions and two were made with predetermined sizes of disbonded areas, created by substituting areas of Teflon release film in place of epoxy film adhesive during the cure. A laser vibrometer was used to capture frequency response functions (FRF) of all panels, and then real and imaginary FRFs at different locations on each plate and operating shapes for each plate were compared. Preliminary results suggest that vibration-based techniques hold promise for damage detection of composite sandwich structures.

  17. Information systems for durability and damage behavior of composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkgenc, Ozgur

    Damage tolerance, damage resistance and durability assessments of airborne composite structures are essential parts of their certification procedure. The certification procedure, in general, usually requires lengthy experimental efforts although much research has been conducted to understand the behavior of polymer matrix composites under service conditions. A fair amount of data is available together with a number of analytical models in these areas of research. However, because of the vast number of parameters involved, a generic model is rather difficult to develop. The ultimate goal of this study is the identification of design parameters to be used in the development of information system tools that can help engineers synthesize different sets of data efficiently. In the information system for damage behavior, all parameters that have been studied so far are provided for the user to choose as input. The output contains design parameters such as compression strength after impact, dent depth and damage area as well as literature references, raw data, tables, and plots. The information system is constituted in a relational database environment and tools from expert system technology are incorporated so that low confidence input can be captured and flexibility can be maintained in similarity assessments. With this system it is also possible to conduct parametric studies in order to determine the effect of each design parameter or a combination of parameters on the damage behavior. These objectives have been achieved by developing custom user interfaces using various programming languages. Case examples are included to demonstrate practical uses of the information system for both data retrieval and similarity studies. A similar system has been developed for fatigue design of composites. To achieve this goal, design parameters have been identified as well as the values these parameters can take. Results of the parameter identification study have been used to create

  18. Moisture damage in home associates with systemic inflammation in children.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, K; Karvonen, A M; Kirjavainen, P; Roponen, M; Schaub, B; Hyvärinen, A; Frey, U; Renz, H; Pfefferle, P I; Genuneit, J; Vaarala, O; Pekkanen, J

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the association between confirmed moisture damage in homes and systemic subclinical inflammation in children. Home inspections were performed in homes of 291 children at the age of 6 years. Subclinical inflammation at the age of 6 years was assessed by measuring the circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and leukocytes in peripheral blood and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured in unstimulated, and in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin (PI), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or peptidoglycan (PPG)-stimulated whole blood. Major moisture damage in the child's main living areas (living room, kitchen, or child's bedroom) and moisture damage with mold in the bathroom were associated with increased levels of CRP and stimulated production of several proinflammatory cytokines. There were no significant associations between moisture damage/visible mold and leukocyte or FeNO values. The results suggest that moisture damage or mold in home may be associated with increased systemic subclinical inflammation and proinflammatory cytokine responsiveness. PMID:25924948

  19. Detection and quantification of pipe damage from change in time of flight and phase.

    PubMed

    Amjad, Umar; Yadav, Susheel K; Kundu, Tribikram

    2015-09-01

    The use of ultrasonic guided waves for damage detection in pipes is continuously increasing. Generally longitudinal (axial symmetric) modes are excited and detected by PZT (Lead Zirconate Titanate) transducers in transmission mode for this purpose. In most studies the change in the received signal strength with the extent of damage has been investigated while in this study the change in the phase and the time-of-flight (TOF) of the propagating wave modes with the damage size is investigated. The cross-correlation technique is used to record the small changes in the TOF as the damage size varies in steel pipes. Dispersion curves are calculated to carefully identify the propagating wave modes. Differential TOF is recorded and compared for different propagating wave modes. Feature extraction techniques are used for extracting phase and time-frequency information. The main advantage of this approach is that unlike the recorded signal strength the TOF and the phase are not affected by the bonding condition between the transducer and the pipe. Therefore, if the pipe is not damaged but the transducer-pipe bonding is deteriorated then although the received signal strength is altered the TOF and phase remain same avoiding the false positive alarms of damage. PMID:26096882

  20. Finite element simulation of magnetic detection of creep damage at seam welds

    SciTech Connect

    Sablik, M.J.; Rubin, S.W.; Jiles, D.C.; Kaminski, D.; Bi, Y.

    1996-09-01

    Using appropriately modified magnetization curves for each element of creep-damaged material, a finite element calculation has been carried out to simulate magnetic detection of non-uniform creep damage around a seam weld in a 2.25 Cr 1 Mo steam pipe. The magnetization curves for the creep-damaged elements were obtained from an earlier model for the magnetic effect of a uniformly creep-damaged material as given by Chen, et al. In the finite element calculation, a magnetic C-core with primary and secondary coils was placed with its pole pieces flush against the specimen in the vicinity of the weld. The secondary emf was shown to be reduced when creep damage was present inside the pipe wall at the cusp of weld and in the vicinity of the cusp. The C-core detected the creep damage best if it completely spanned the weld seam width. Also, the current in the primary needed to be such that the C-core was not magnetically saturated.

  1. Damage detection on the joint of steel frame through high-frequency admittance signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dansheng; Zhu, Hongping; Zhou, Huaqiang; Yang, Haiping

    2008-11-01

    The basic idea of a piezoelectric admittance (reciprocal of impedance) technique for structural health monitoring is presented in this paper. An experimental study on damage detection of a steel frame structure is operated by the use of the high-frequency piezoelectric admittance signals. In this experiment, three PZT active sensors are bonded to three different components around a joint of the steel frame separately, and the looseness of bolts is identified by monitoring the variations of piezoelectric admittance measurements. From the experimental results it is found that the PZT active sensors hold the ability to detect structural local damage, i.e. they are insensitive to the damage in far fields. Subsequently, two damage indexes, the covariance and the cross correlation coefficient between two real admittance data sets are defined respectively, by which the extent of damage of the frame structure is evaluated. It is found that the cross correlation coefficient index can correctly reflect the damage extent of the frame structure qualitatively in different frequency ranges, but the covariance index can not.

  2. Development of damage monitoring system for aircraft structure using a PZT actuator/FBG sensor hybrid system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogisu, Toshimichi; Shimanuki, Masakazu; Kiyoshima, Satoshi; Okabe, Yoji; Takeda, Nobuo

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a part of the research results on a damage monitoring system using PZT actuators/FBG sensors for advanced composite material structures of new-generation aircrafts. To achieve weight reduction of the aircraft structure, these advanced composite materials have gradually been employed for the primary structure. It is expected that when these materials are extensively employed, an efficient bonded structure such as a hat-shaped stringer will be utilized for the aircraft structure. However, these bonded structures have critical problems such as debonding and delamination at the interfaces of the laminate. Further, a single-step molding process of the structure elements is necessary in order to ensure low cost and thus affordability. However, this low-cost process results in an increase in the non-destructive inspection (NDI) cost. Therefore, an innovative damage monitoring system is required for structural health management. In the present study, the authors have developed a hybrid sensor system that can detect the elastic waves launched from the piezo transducer (PZT) actuator using a high-speed and high-accuracy fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor to resolve the issues mentioned above. In this study, the conceptual design of an aircraft that can employ this damage monitoring system was carried out. Subsequently, the application area was selected based on cases of certain kinds of damage. Further, the validity of the damage monitoring system for the verification of the structural integrity of the aircraft was discussed. Next, in order to verify the elastic wave detectability of the FBG sensor, it was confirmed that an elastic wave of 300 kHz is detectable at a distance of 5 cm between the PZT actuator and FBG sensor using an aluminum sheet and CFRP cross-ply laminate and also by considering the relationship between sensor length and sensitivity. Through the present research results, the possibility of applying the damage monitoring system to the

  3. UV Radiation Damage and Bacterial DNA Repair Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zion, Michal; Guy, Daniel; Yarom, Ruth; Slesak, Michaela

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a simple hands-on laboratory procedure for high school students in studying both radiation damage and DNA repair systems in bacteria. The sensitivity to ultra-violet (UV) radiation of both "Escherichia coli" and "Serratia marcescens" is tested by radiating them for varying time periods. Two growth temperatures are used in…

  4. Ready II damage estimation system: fallout trajectories program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-12-01

    The Fallout Trajectories Program is designed to provide the Ready II Fallout Effects Program with a file containing weapon fallout trajectories. The program is designed to be run on an Univac 1108 computer in conjunction with the Ready II Damage Estimation System. This program differs from earlier versions in that it allows the attack to cover up to a 2-week period.

  5. Application of information fusion and Shannon entropy in structural damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Yuequan; Li, Hui

    2007-04-01

    Vibration-based damage identification is a useful tool for structural health monitoring. But, the damage detection results always have uncertainty because of the measurement noise, modeling error and environment changes. In this paper, information fusion based on D-S (Dempster-Shafer) evidence theory and Shannon entropy are employed for decreasing the uncertainty and improving accuracy of damage identification. Regarding that the multiple evidence from different information sources are different importance and not all the evidences are effective for the final decision. The different importance of the evidences is considered by assigning weighting coefficient. Shannon entropy is a measurement of uncertainty. In this paper it is employed to measure the uncertainty of damage identification results. The first step of the procedure is training several artificial neural networks with different input parameters to obtain the damage decisions respectively. Second, weighing coefficients are assigned to neural networks according to the reliability of the neural networks. The Genetic Algorithm is employed to optimize the weighing coefficients. Third, the weighted decisions are assigned to information fusion center. And in fusion center, a selective fusion method is proposed. Numerical studies on the Binzhou Yellow River Highway Bridge are carried out. The results indicate that the method proposed can improve the damage identification accuracy and increase the reliability of damage identification to compare with the method by neural networks alone.

  6. Structural damage detection of space truss structures using best achievable eigenvectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lim, Tae W.; Kashangaki, Thomas A. L.

    1994-01-01

    A method is presented by which measured modes and frequencies from a modal test can be used to determine the location and magnitude of damage in a space struss structure. The damage is located by computing the Euclidean distances between the measured mode shapes and the best achievable eigenvectors. The best achievable eigenvectors are the projection of the measured mode shapes onto the subspace defined by the refined analytical model of the structure and the measured frequencies. Loss of both stiffness and mass properties can be located and quantified. To examine the performance of the method when experimentally measured modes are employed, various damage detection studies using a laboratory eight-bay truss structure were conducted. The method performs well even though the measurement errors inevitably make the damage location more difficult.

  7. Structural damage detection of space truss structures using best achievable eigenvectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Tae W.; Kashangaki, Thomas A. L.

    1994-05-01

    A method is presented by which measured modes and frequencies from a modal test can be used to determine the location and magnitude of damage in a space truss structure. The damage is located by computing the Euclidean distances between the measured mode shapes and the best achievable eigenvectors. The best achievable eigenvectors are the projection of the measured mode shapes onto the subspace defined by the refined analytical model of the structure and the measured frequencies. Loss of both stiffness and mass properties can be located and quantified. To examine the performance of the method when experimentally measured modes are employed, various damage detection studies using a laboratory eight-bay truss structure were conducted. The method performs well even though the measurement errors inevitably make the damage location more difficult.

  8. Experimental verification and comparison of mode shape-based damage detection methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radzieński, M.; Krawczuk, M.

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents experimental verification and comparison of damage detection methods based on changes in mode shapes such as: mode shape curvature (MSC), modal assurance criterion (MAC), strain energy (SE), modified Laplacian operator (MLO), generalized fractal dimension (GFD) and Wavelet Transform (WT). The object of the investigation is to determine benefits and drawbacks of the aforementioned methods and to develop data preprocessing algorithms for increasing damage assessment effectiveness by using signal processing techniques such as interpolation and extrapolation of measured points. Noise reduction algorithms based on moving average, median filter, and wavelet decomposition are also tested. The experiments were performed on an aluminium plate with riveted stiffeners. Damage was introduced in a form of damaged rivets and a saw cut in the angle bar. Measurements were made using a non-contact Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer (SLDV) at 101 points in two rows, distributed over the structure height and positioned along two reinforcing ribs.

  9. Multiple damage identification on a wind turbine blade using a structural neural system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirikera, Goutham R.; Schulz, Mark J.; Sundaresan, Mannur J.

    2007-04-01

    A large number of sensors are required to perform real-time structural health monitoring (SHM) to detect acoustic emissions (AE) produced by damage growth on large complicated structures. This requires a large number of high sampling rate data acquisition channels to analyze high frequency signals. To overcome the cost and complexity of having such a large data acquisition system, a structural neural system (SNS) was developed. The SNS reduces the required number of data acquisition channels and predicts the location of damage within a sensor grid. The sensor grid uses interconnected sensor nodes to form continuous sensors. The combination of continuous sensors and the biomimetic parallel processing of the SNS tremendously reduce the complexity of SHM. A wave simulation algorithm (WSA) was developed to understand the flexural wave propagation in composite structures and to utilize the code for developing the SNS. Simulation of AE responses in a plate and comparison with experimental results are shown in the paper. The SNS was recently tested by a team of researchers from University of Cincinnati and North Carolina A&T State University during a quasi-static proof test of a 9 meter long wind turbine blade at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) test facility in Golden, Colorado. Twelve piezoelectric sensor nodes were used to form four continuous sensors to monitor the condition of the blade during the test. The four continuous sensors are used as inputs to the SNS. There are only two analog output channels of the SNS, and these signals are digitized and analyzed in a computer to detect damage. In the test of the wind turbine blade, multiple damages were identified and later verified by sectioning of the blade. The results of damage identification using the SNS during this proof test will be shown in this paper. Overall, the SNS is very sensitive and can detect damage on complex structures with ribs, joints, and different materials, and the system

  10. A novel sensitivity-based method for damage detection of structures under unknown periodic excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naseralavi, S. S.; Salajegheh, E.; Fadaee, M. J.; Salajegheh, J.

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a technique for damage detection in structures under unknown periodic excitations using the transient displacement response. The method is capable of identifying the damage parameters without finding the input excitations. We first define the concept of displacement space as a linear space in which each point represents displacements of structure under an excitation and initial condition. Roughly speaking, the method is based on the fact that structural displacements under free and forced vibrations are associated with two parallel subspaces in the displacement space. Considering this novel geometrical viewpoint, an equation called kernel parallelization equation (KPE) is derived for damage detection under unknown periodic excitations and a sensitivity-based algorithm for solving KPE is proposed accordingly. The method is evaluated via three case studies under periodic excitations, which confirm the efficiency of the proposed method.

  11. Extracellular ATP drives systemic inflammation, tissue damage and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Cauwels, A; Rogge, E; Vandendriessche, B; Shiva, S; Brouckaert, P

    2014-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndromes (SIRS) may be caused by both infectious and sterile insults, such as trauma, ischemia-reperfusion or burns. They are characterized by early excessive inflammatory cytokine production and the endogenous release of several toxic and damaging molecules. These are necessary to fight and resolve the cause of SIRS, but often end up progressively damaging cells and tissues, leading to life-threatening multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). As inflammasome-dependent cytokines such as interleukin-1β are critically involved in the development of MODS and death in SIRS, and ATP is an essential activator of inflammasomes in vitro, we decided to analyze the ability of ATP removal to prevent excessive tissue damage and mortality in a murine LPS-induced inflammation model. Our results indeed indicate an important pro-inflammatory role for extracellular ATP. However, the effect of ATP is not restricted to inflammasome activation at all. Removing extracellular ATP with systemic apyrase treatment not only prevented IL-1β accumulation but also the production of inflammasome-independent cytokines such as TNF and IL-10. In addition, ATP removal also prevented systemic evidence of cellular disintegration, mitochondrial damage, apoptosis, intestinal barrier disruption and even mortality. Although blocking ATP receptors with the broad-spectrum P2 purinergic receptor antagonist suramin imitated certain beneficial effects of apyrase treatment, it could not prevent morbidity or mortality at all. We conclude that removal of systemic extracellular ATP could be a valuable strategy to dampen systemic inflammatory damage and toxicity in SIRS. PMID:24603330

  12. Rapid building damage assessment system using mobile phone technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cimellaro, Gian Paolo; Scura, G.; Renschler, C. S.; Reinhorn, A. M.; Kim, H. U.

    2014-09-01

    One common scenario during disasters such as earthquakes is that the activity of damage field reconnaissance on site is not well-coordinated. For example in Italy the damage assessment of structures after an earthquake is managed from the Italian Emergency Authority, using printed forms (AeDES) which are filled by experts on site generating a lot of confusion in filling and transferring the forms to the Disaster Management Operative Center. Because of this, the paper explores the viability of using mobile communication technologies (smart phones) and the Web to develop response systems that would aid communities after a major disaster, providing channels for allowing residents and responders of uploading and distributing information, related to structural damages coordinating the damage field reconnaissance. A mobile application that can be run by residents on smart phones has been developed, to give an initial damage evaluation of the area, which is going to be very useful when resources (e.g. the number of experts is limited). The mobile application has been tested for the first time during 2012 Emilia earthquake to enhance the emergency response, showing the efficiency of the proposed method in statistical terms comparing the proposed procedure with the standard procedure.

  13. Detecting and Segregating Black Tip-Damaged Wheat Kernels Using Visible and Near Infrared Spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection of individual wheat kernels with black tip symptom (BTS) and black tip damage (BTD) was demonstrated using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) and silicon light-emitting-diode (LED) based instruments. The two instruments tested, a single kernel near-infrared spectroscopy instrume...

  14. A dual mode imaging array for damage detection in grout structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Yu, Lingyu; EL-Batanouny, Mohamed; Ziehl, Paul; Zhao, Liuxian

    2013-04-01

    Due to the heterogeneous nature of the cement-based materials, the ultrasonic waves in concrete exhibit highly scattering and attenuation, leading to the difficulty of concrete damaged detection. This paper presents a dual mode ultrasonic array imaging methodology that can map damage using Rayleigh surface waves and permanently installed piezoelectric sensors. The dual mode sensing integrates passive acoustic emission and active ultrasonic wave inspection. When a crack is developing, acoustic emission (AE) occurs and the disturbance can propagate outwards along the structure surface. A novel AE source imaging algorithm has been developed to detect and locate the AE source. Once the AE source is located, the sensor array switches to its active mode. For active sensing, one sensor in the array is used to generate Rayleigh wave for interrogation, while all the others are used as the wave receivers. All the sensory data are processed by the active ultrasonic array imaging algorithm. The proof-of-concept testing was performed on a grout specimen with representative dimensions. The passive array imaging algorithm was able to locate the AE source simulated by pencil lead break while active sensing imaging was able to detect the damage simulated by a hole. The duel mode imaging method is promising and economically beneficial for solving a key source localization problem in damage detection on large concrete structures.

  15. Probability-based damage detection using model updating with efficient uncertainty propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yalan; Qian, Yu; Chen, Jianjun; Song, Gangbing

    2015-08-01

    Model updating method has received increasing attention in damage detection of structures based on measured modal parameters. In this article, a probability-based damage detection procedure is presented, in which the random factor method for non-homogeneous random field is developed and used as the forward propagation to analytically evaluate covariance matrices in each iteration step of stochastic model updating. An improved optimization algorithm is introduced to guarantee the convergence and reduce the computational effort, in which the design variables are restricted in search region by region truncation of each iteration step. The developed algorithm is illustrated by a simulated 25-bar planar truss structure and the results have been compared and verified with those obtained from Monte Carlo simulation. In order to assess the influences of uncertainty sources on the results of model updating and damage detection of structures, a comparative study is also given under different cases of uncertainties, that is, structural uncertainty only, measurement uncertainty only and combination of the two. The simulation results show the proposed method can perform well in stochastic model updating and probability-based damage detection of structures with less computational effort.

  16. Uncertainty quantification of relative acoustic nonlinearity parameter of guided waves for damage detection in composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Ming; Mao, Zhu; Todd, Michael D.; Su, Zhongqing; Qing, Xinlin

    2015-03-01

    Nonlinear guided waves have been studied extensively for the characterization of micro-damage in plate-like structures, such as early-stage fatigue and thermal degradation in metals. Meanwhile, an increasing number of studies have reported the use of nonlinear acoustic techniques for detection of impact damage, fatigue, and thermal fatigue in composite structures. Among these techniques, the (relative) acoustic nonlinearity parameter, extracted from acousto-ultrasonic waves based on second-harmonic generation, has been considered one of the most popular tools for quantifying the detection of nonlinearity in inspected structures. Considering the complex nature of nonlinearities involved in composite materials (even under healthy conditions), and operational/environmental variability and measurement noise, the calculation of the relative acoustic nonlinearity parameter (RANP) from experimental data may suffer from considerable uncertainties, which may impair the quality of damage detection. In this study, we aim to quantify the uncertainty of the magnitude of the RANP estimator in the context of impact damage identification in unidirectional carbon fiber laminates. First, the principles of nonlinear ultrasonics are revisited briefly. A general probability density function of the RANP is then obtained through numerical evaluation in a theoretical setting. Using piezoelectric wavers, continuous sine waves are generated in the sample. Steady-state responses are acquired and processed to produce histograms of the RANP estimates before and after the impact damage. These observed histograms are consistent with the predicted distributions, and examination of the distributions demonstrates the significance of uncertainty quantification when using the RANP for damage detection in composite structures.

  17. Integrated multisensor perimeter detection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, P. J.; Fretwell, P.; Barrett, D. J.; Faulkner, D. A.

    2007-10-01

    The report describes the results of a multi-year programme of research aimed at the development of an integrated multi-sensor perimeter detection system capable of being deployed at an operational site. The research was driven by end user requirements in protective security, particularly in threat detection and assessment, where effective capability was either not available or prohibitively expensive. Novel video analytics have been designed to provide robust detection of pedestrians in clutter while new radar detection and tracking algorithms provide wide area day/night surveillance. A modular integrated architecture based on commercially available components has been developed. A graphical user interface allows intuitive interaction and visualisation with the sensors. The fusion of video, radar and other sensor data provides the basis of a threat detection capability for real life conditions. The system was designed to be modular and extendable in order to accommodate future and legacy surveillance sensors. The current sensor mix includes stereoscopic video cameras, mmWave ground movement radar, CCTV and a commercially available perimeter detection cable. The paper outlines the development of the system and describes the lessons learnt after deployment in a pilot trial.

  18. Seismic damage identification using multi-line distributed fiber optic sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Jinping; Hou, Shuang

    2005-06-01

    Determination of the actual nonlinear inelastic response mechanisms developed by civil structures such as buildings and bridges during strong earthquakes and post-earthquake damage assessment of these structures represent very difficult challenges for earthquake structural engineers. One of the main reasons is that the traditional sensor can't serve for such a long period to cover an earthquake and the seismic damage location in the structure can't be predicted in advance definitely. It is thought that the seismic damage of reinforced concrete (RC) structure can be related to the maximum response the structure, which can also be related to the cracks on the concrete. A distributed fiber optic sensor was developed to detect the cracks on the reinforced concrete structure under load. Fiber optic couples were used in the sensor system to extend the sensor system's capacity from one random point detection to more. An optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) is employed for interrogation of the sensor signal. Fiber optic sensors are attached on the surface of the concrete by the epoxy glue. By choosing the strength of epoxy, the damage state of the concrete can be responded to the occurrence of the Fresnel scattering in the fiber optic sensor. Experiments involved monotonic loading to failure. Finally, the experimental results in terms of crack detection capability are presented and discussed.

  19. Integrated acoustic emission/vibration sensor for detecting damage in aircraft drive train components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godínez-Azcuaga, Valery F.; Ozevin, Didem; Finlayson, Richard D.; Anastasopoulos, Athanasios; Tsimogiannis, Apostolos

    2007-04-01

    Diaphragm-type couplings are high misalignment torque and speed transfer components used in aircrafts. Crack development in such couplings, or in the drive train in general, can lead to component failure that can bring down an aircraft. Real time detection of crack formation and growth is important to prevent such catastrophic failures. However, there is no single Nondestructive Monitoring method available that is capable of assessing the early stages of crack growth in such components. While vibration based damage identification techniques are used, they cannot detect cracks until they reach a considerable size, which makes detection of the onset of cracking extremely difficult. Acoustic Emission (AE) can detect and monitor early stage crack growth, however excessive background noise can mask acoustic emissions produced by crack initiation. Fusion of the two mentioned techniques can increase the accuracy of measurement and minimize false alarms. However, a monitoring system combining both techniques could prove too large and heavy for the already restricted space available in aircrafts. In the present work, we will present a newly developed integrated Acoustic Emission/Vibration (AE/VIB) combined sensor which can operate in the temperature range of -55°F to 257°F and in high EMI environment. This robust AE/VIB sensor has a frequency range of 5 Hz-2 kHz for the vibration component and a range of 200-400 kHz for the acoustic emission component. The sensor weight is comparable to accelerometers currently used in flying aircraft. Traditional signal processing approaches are not effective due to high signal attenuation and strong background noise conditions, commonly found in aircraft drive train systems. As an alternative, we will introduce a new Supervised Pattern Recognition (SPR) methodology that allows for simultaneous processing of the signals detected by the AE/VIB sensor and their classification in near-real time, even in these adverse conditions. Finally, we

  20. Genetic Algorithm Based Objective Functions Comparative Study for Damage Detection and Localization in Beam Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatir, S.; Belaidi, I.; Serra, R.; Benaissa, B.; Ait Saada, A.

    2015-07-01

    The detection techniques based on non-destructive testing (NDT) defects are preferable because of their low cost and operational aspects related to the use of the analyzed structure. In this study, we used the genetic algorithm (GA) for detecting and locating damage. The finite element was used for diagnostic beams. Different structures considered may incur damage to be modelled by a loss of rigidity supposed to represent a defect in the structure element. Identification of damage is formulated as an optimization problem using three objective functions (change of natural frequencies, Modal Assurance Criterion MAC and MAC natural frequency). The results show that the best objective function is based on the natural frequency and MAC while the method of the genetic algorithm present its efficiencies in indicating and quantifying multiple damage with great accuracy. Three defects have been created to enhance damage depending on the elements 2, 5 and 8 with a percentage allocation of 50% in the beam structure which has been discretized into 10 elements. Finally the defect with noise was introduced to test the stability of the method against uncertainty.

  1. Model-Trained Neural Networks and Electronic Holography Demonstrated to Detect Damage in Blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Arthur J.; Fite, E. Brian; Mehmed, Oral; Thorp, Scott A.

    1998-01-01

    Detect Damage in Blades Electronic holography can show damaged regions in fan blades at 30 frames/sec. The electronic holograms are transformed by finite-element-model-trained artificial neural networks to visualize the damage. The trained neural networks are linked with video and graphics to visualize the bending-induced strain distribution, which is very sensitive to damage. By contrast, it is very difficult to detect damage by viewing the raw, speckled, characteristic fringe patterns. For neural-network visualization of damage, 2 frames or 2 fields are used, rather than the 12 frames normally used to compute the displacement distribution from electronic holograms. At the NASA Lewis Research Center, finite element models are used to compute displacement and strain distributions for the vibration modes of undamaged and cracked blades. A model of electronic time-averaged holography is used to transform the displacement distributions into finite-element-resolution characteristic fringe patterns. Then, a feedforward neural network is trained with the fringe-pattern/strain-pattern pairs, and the neural network, electronic holography, and video are implemented on a workstation. Now that the neural networks have been tested successfully at 30 frames/sec on undamaged and cracked cantilevers, the electronic holography and neural-network processing are being adapted for onsite damage inspection of twisted fan blades and rotormounted blades. Our conclusion is that model-trained neural nets are effective when they are trained with good models whose application is well understood. This work supports the aeromechanical testing portion of the Advanced Subsonic Technology Project.

  2. A method for detecting damage-induced nonlinearities in structures using information theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, J. M.; Seaver, M.; Trickey, S. T.

    2006-10-01

    In this work a new approach is presented for detecting the presence of damage-induced nonlinearities in structures from measurements of structural dynamics. Two different information-theoretic (IT) measures, the time-delayed mutual information and the time-delayed transfer entropy are used to provide a probabilistic measure of the coupling between structural components. These measures may be used to capture both linear and nonlinear relationships among time-series data. The formula for both quantities is derived for a linear, five degree-of-freedom system subject to Gaussian excitation. An algorithm is then described for computing the IT metrics from time-series data and results are shown to agree with theory. We then show that as the coupling between the structure's components changes from linear to nonlinear the "information flow" can be used to indicate the degree of nonlinearity. Deviations from a linear model are quantified statistically by generating surrogate data sets that, by construction, possess only linear (second-order) correlations. We then apply the proposed algorithms to both the original data and the surrogates. Differences in the results are shown to be proportional to the degree of nonlinearity. This result is shown to be independent of global changes in stiffness and is therefore unaffected by certain models of environmental variability. Furthermore, the method provides an absolute measure of nonlinearity and therefore does not require a baseline data set for making comparisons. This approach is discussed in the context of structural health monitoring where damage is often associated with structural nonlinearity.

  3. Statistical analysis and ground-based testing of the on-orbit Space Shuttle damage detection sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Brian H.; Tanner, Elizabeth A.; Carter, John P.; Kamerman, Gary W.; Schwartz, Robert

    2005-05-01

    The loss of Space Shuttle Columbia and her crew led to the creation of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB), which concluded that a piece of external fuel tank insulating foam impacted the Shuttle"s wing leading edge. The foam created a hole in the reinforced carbon/carbon (RCC) insulating material which gravely compromised the Shuttle"s thermal protection system (TPS). In response to the CAIB recommendation, the upcoming Return to Flight Shuttle Mission (STS-114) NASA will include a Shuttle deployed sensor suite which, among other sensors, will include two laser sensing systems, Sandia National Lab"s Laser Dynamic Range Imager (LDRI) and Neptec"s Laser Camera System (LCS) to collect 3-D imagery of the Shuttle"s exterior. Herein is described a ground-based statistical testing procedure that will be used by NASA as part of a damage detection performance assessment studying the performance of each of the two laser radar systems in detecting and identifying impact damage to the Shuttle. A statistical framework based on binomial and Bayesian statistics is used to describe the probability of detection and associated statistical confidence. A mock-up of a section of Shuttle wing RCC with interchangeable panels includes a random pattern of 1/4" and 1" diameter holes on the simulated RCC panels and is cataloged prior to double-blind testing. A team of ladar sensor operators will acquire laser radar imagery of the wing mock-up using a robotic platform in a laboratory at Johnson Space Center to execute linear image scans of the wing mock-up. The test matrix will vary robotic platform motion to simulate boom wobble and alter lighting and background conditions at the 6.5 foot and 10 foot sensor-wing stand-off distances to be used on orbit. A separate team of image analysts will process and review the data and characterize and record the damage that is found. A suite of software programs has been developed to support hole location definition, damage disposition

  4. Automatic Building Damage Detection Method Using High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images and 3d GIS Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Jihui; Sui, Haigang; Feng, Wenqing; Song, Zhina

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a novel approach of building damaged detection is proposed using high resolution remote sensing images and 3D GIS-Model data. Traditional building damage detection method considers to detect damaged building due to earthquake, but little attention has been paid to analyze various building damaged types(e.g., trivial damaged, severely damaged and totally collapsed.) Therefore, we want to detect the different building damaged type using 2D and 3D feature of scenes because the real world we live in is a 3D space. The proposed method generalizes that the image geometric correction method firstly corrects the post-disasters remote sensing image using the 3D GIS model or RPC parameters, then detects the different building damaged types using the change of the height and area between the pre- and post-disasters and the texture feature of post-disasters. The results, evaluated on a selected study site of the Beichuan earthquake ruins, Sichuan, show that this method is feasible and effective in building damage detection. It has also shown that the proposed method is easily applicable and well suited for rapid damage assessment after natural disasters.

  5. Satellite detection of vegetative damage and alteration caused by pollutants emitted by a zinc smelter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator); Fritz, E. L.; Pennypacker, S. P.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Field observations and data collected by low flying aircraft were used to verify the accuracy of maps produced from the satellite data. Although areas of vegetation as small as six acres can accurately be detected, a white pine stand that was severely damaged by sulfur dioxide could not be differentiated from a healthy white pine stand because spectral differences were not large enough. When winter data were used to eliminate interference from herbaceous and deciduous vegetation, the damage was still undetectable. The analysis was able to produce a character map that accurately delineated areas of vegetative alteration due to high zinc levels accumulating in the soil. The map depicted a distinct gradient of less damage and alteration as the distance from the smelter increased. Although the satellite data will probably not be useful for detecting small acreages of damaged vegetation, it is concluded that the data may be very useful as an inventory tool to detect and delineate large vegetative areas possessing differing spectral signatures.

  6. Structural Health Monitoring and Impact Detection Using Neural Networks for Damage Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Richard W.

    2006-01-01

    Detection of damage due to foreign object impact is an important factor in the development of new aerospace vehicles. Acoustic waves generated on impact can be detected using a set of piezoelectric transducers, and the location of impact can be determined by triangulation based on the differences in the arrival time of the waves at each of the sensors. These sensors generate electrical signals in response to mechanical motion resulting from the impact as well as from natural vibrations. Due to electrical noise and mechanical vibration, accurately determining these time differentials can be challenging, and even small measurement inaccuracies can lead to significant errors in the computed damage location. Wavelet transforms are used to analyze the signals at multiple levels of detail, allowing the signals resulting from the impact to be isolated from ambient electromechanical noise. Data extracted from these transformed signals are input to an artificial neural network to aid in identifying the moment of impact from the transformed signals. By distinguishing which of the signal components are resultant from the impact and which are characteristic of noise and normal aerodynamic loads, the time differentials as well as the location of damage can be accurately assessed. The combination of wavelet transformations and neural network processing results in an efficient and accurate approach for passive in-flight detection of foreign object damage.

  7. Hearing aid malfunction detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessinger, R. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A malfunction detection system for detecting malfunctions in electrical signal processing circuits is disclosed. Malfunctions of a hearing aid in the form of frequency distortion and/or inadequate amplification by the hearing aid amplifier, as well as weakening of the hearing aid power supply are detectable. A test signal is generated and a timed switching circuit periodically applies the test signal to the input of the hearing aid amplifier in place of the input signal from the microphone. The resulting amplifier output is compared with the input test signal used as a reference signal. The hearing aid battery voltage is also periodically compared to a reference voltage. Deviations from the references beyond preset limits cause a warning system to operate.

  8. Statistical updating of finite element model with Lamb wave sensing data for damage detection problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanli, O. Arda; Jung, Sungmoon

    2014-01-01

    Health monitoring of large structures with embedded, distributed sensor systems is gaining importance. This study proposes a new probabilistic model updating method in order to improve the damage prediction capability of a finite element analysis (FEA) model with experimental observations from a Lamb-wave sensing system. The approach statistically calibrates unknown parameters of the FEA model and estimates a bias-correcting function to achieve a good match between the model predictions and sensor observations. An experimental validation study is presented in which a set of controlled damages are generated on a composite panel. Time-series signals are collected with the damage condition using a Lamb-wave sensing system and a one dimensional FEA model of the panel is constructed to quantify the damages. The damage indices from both the experiments and the computational model are used to calibrate assumed parameters of the FEA model and to estimate a bias-correction function. The updated model is used to predict the size (extent) and location of damage. It is shown that the proposed model updating approach achieves a prediction accuracy that is superior to a purely statistical approach or a deterministic model calibration approach.

  9. On-orbit damage detection and health monitoring of large space trusses: Status and critical issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashangaki, Thomas A. L.

    1991-01-01

    The long lifetimes, delicate nature and stringent pointing requirements of large space structures such as Space Station Freedom and geostationary Earth sciences platforms might require that these spacecraft be monitored periodically for possible damage to the load carrying structures. A review of the literature in damage detection and health monitoring of such structures is presented, along with a candidate structure to be used as a testbed for future work in this field. A unified notation and terminology is also proposed to facilitate comparisons between candidate methods.

  10. [Comparative study of transmission and reflection hyperspectral imaging technology for potato damage detection].

    PubMed

    Gao, Hai-Long; Li, Xiao-Yu; Xu, Sen-Miao; Tao, Hai-Long; Li, Xiao-Jin; Sun, Jin-Feng

    2013-12-01

    The randomly placed damage parts of potato will affect the detection accuracy, this paper used transmission and reflection hyperspectral imaging technology to acquire potato images of three directions(the damage part facing to the camera, back to the camera, side to the camera), and then processed the comparative study for damage detection. Independent component (IC) analysis was used to analyze the transmission and reflection hyperspectral images and to extract the features, the resulting char acteristics were used for the secondary IC analysis of the reflected images and the variable selection of the transmittance and re flectance spectroscopy. Finally, the potato injury qualitative recognition model was established based on the reflection images, the reflectance spectral and the transmittance spectral; Further optimization was done for high recognition accuracy of model, and secondary variable selection was carried out for the transmission spectrum by the Sub-window Permutation Analysis(SPA) and the optimal model for damage identification of potato randomly placed was established. The results of experiments show that the accuracy of the identification model based on the reflection image and the reflection spectrum is low, wherein the potato bruise based on the reflection images falls into the lowest recognition accuracy of 43. 10% when it is side to the camera; The accuracy of the model for identification based on the transmittance spectroscopy information is the highest, the recognition accuracy with the damage part facing and back to the camera is 100%t, and 99. 53% when it is side to the camera. The accuracy of the optimal model for identification based on the 3 kinds of transmittance spectroscopy information of randomly placed potato is 97. 39%. Then the application of transmission hyperspectral imaging technology could detect potato injury in any orientation, and the research can provide technical support for the online detection of potato quality. PMID

  11. Semi autonomous mine detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas Few; Roelof Versteeg; Herman Herman

    2010-04-01

    CMMAD is a risk reduction effort for the AMDS program. As part of CMMAD, multiple instances of semi autonomous robotic mine detection systems were created. Each instance consists of a robotic vehicle equipped with sensors required for navigation and marking, a countermine sensors and a number of integrated software packages which provide for real time processing of the countermine sensor data as well as integrated control of the robotic vehicle, the sensor actuator and the sensor. These systems were used to investigate critical interest functions (CIF) related to countermine robotic systems. To address the autonomy CIF, the INL developed RIK was extended to allow for interaction with a mine sensor processing code (MSPC). In limited field testing this system performed well in detecting, marking and avoiding both AT and AP mines. Based on the results of the CMMAD investigation we conclude that autonomous robotic mine detection is feasible. In addition, CMMAD contributed critical technical advances with regard to sensing, data processing and sensor manipulation, which will advance the performance of future fieldable systems. As a result, no substantial technical barriers exist which preclude – from an autonomous robotic perspective – the rapid development and deployment of fieldable systems.

  12. Portable Microleak-Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, H. Kevin; Sikora, Joseph G.; Sankaran, Sankara N.

    2007-01-01

    The figure schematically depicts a portable microleak-detection system that has been built especially for use in testing hydrogen tanks made of polymer-matrix composite materials. (As used here, microleak signifies a leak that is too small to be detectable by the simple soap-bubble technique.) The system can also be used to test for microleaks in tanks that are made of other materials and that contain gases other than hydrogen. Results of calibration tests have shown that measurement errors are less than 10 percent for leak rates ranging from 0.3 to 200 cm3/min. Like some other microleak-detection systems, this system includes a vacuum pump and associated plumbing for sampling the leaking gas, and a mass spectrometer for analyzing the molecular constituents of the gas. The system includes a flexible vacuum chamber that can be attached to the outer surface of a tank or other object of interest that is to be tested for leakage (hereafter denoted, simply, the test object). The gas used in a test can be the gas or vapor (e.g., hydrogen in the original application) to be contained by the test object. Alternatively, following common practice in leak testing, helium can be used as a test gas. In either case, the mass spectrometer can be used to verify that the gas measured by the system is the test gas rather than a different gas and, hence, that the leak is indeed from the test object.

  13. Analysis of traffic-induced vibration and damage detection by blind source separation with application to bridge monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sheng-Fu; Hung, Tzu-Yun; Loh, Chin-Hsiung

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate the application of two different system identification methods on the structural health monitoring of a bridge. The numerical simulation of bridge-vehicle interaction with road surface roughness is considered in this study for system identification. To identify the bridge dynamic characteristics Covariance-driven Stochastic Subspace Identification method (SSI-COV) in cooperated with Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT) decomposition are used to extract the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system. For comparison, a popular blind source separation technique called Second Order Blind Identification (SOBI) is also used. Comparison between these two different identification methods is discussed. It was demonstrated that the bridge natural frequencies can be identified by the proposed two system identification techniques. Besides, the SOBI algorithm can avoid the difficulty of determining of parameters by using SSI-COV algorithm, such as system order, row of Hankel matrix, etc. Finally, a damage scenario of the bridge structure is provided and damage detection algorithms are also proposed to quantify and locate the damage.

  14. A Hyperspectral Imaging System for Quality Detection of Pickles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A hyperspectral imaging system in simultaneous reflectance (400-675 nm) and transmittance (675-1000 nm) modes was developed for detection of hollow or bloater damage on whole pickles. Hyperspectral reflectance and transmittance images were acquired from normal and bloated whole pickle samples collec...

  15. Tape Cassette Bacteria Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of an automatic bacteria detection system with a zero-g capability and based on the filter-capsule approach is described. This system is intended for monitoring the sterility of regenerated water in a spacecraft. The principle of detection is based on measuring the increase in chemiluminescence produced by the action of bacterial porphyrins (i.e., catalase, cytochromes, etc.) on a luminol-hydrogen peroxide mixture. Since viable as well as nonviable organisms initiate this luminescence, viable organisms are detected by comparing the signal of an incubated water sample with an unincubated control. Higher signals for the former indicate the presence of viable organisms. System features include disposable sealed sterile capsules, each containing a filter membrane, for processing discrete water samples and a tape transport for moving these capsules through a processing sequence which involves sample concentration, nutrient addition, incubation, a 4 Molar Urea wash and reaction with luminol-hydrogen peroxide in front of a photomultiplier tube. Liquids are introduced by means of a syringe needle which pierces a rubber septum contained in the wall of the capsule. Detection thresholds obtained with this unit towards E. coli and S. marcescens assuming a 400 ml water sample are indicated.

  16. Optimization of a low noise detection circuit for probing the structure of damage cascades with IBIC

    SciTech Connect

    Auden, Elizabeth C.; Doyle, Barney L.; Bielejec, Edward; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Wampler, William R.

    2015-06-18

    Optimal detector / pre-amplifier combinations have been identified for the use of light ion IBIC (ion beam induced charge) to probe the physical structure of electrically active defects in damage cascades caused by heavy ion implantation. The ideal detector must have a sufficiently thin dead layer that incident ions will produce the majority of damage cascades in the depletion region of the detector rather than the dead layer. Detector and circuit noise must be low enough to detect the implantation of a single heavy ion as well as the decrease in the light ion IBIC signal caused by Shockley-Read-Hall recombination when the beam scans regions of the detector damaged by the heavy ion. The IBIC signals from three detectors irradiated with 750 keV He⁺ ions are measured with commercial and bespoke charge sensitive pre-amplifiers to identify the combination with the lowest noise.

  17. Optimization of a low noise detection circuit for probing the structure of damage cascades with IBIC

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Auden, Elizabeth C.; Doyle, Barney L.; Bielejec, Edward; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Wampler, William R.

    2015-06-18

    Optimal detector / pre-amplifier combinations have been identified for the use of light ion IBIC (ion beam induced charge) to probe the physical structure of electrically active defects in damage cascades caused by heavy ion implantation. The ideal detector must have a sufficiently thin dead layer that incident ions will produce the majority of damage cascades in the depletion region of the detector rather than the dead layer. Detector and circuit noise must be low enough to detect the implantation of a single heavy ion as well as the decrease in the light ion IBIC signal caused by Shockley-Read-Hall recombinationmore » when the beam scans regions of the detector damaged by the heavy ion. The IBIC signals from three detectors irradiated with 750 keV He⁺ ions are measured with commercial and bespoke charge sensitive pre-amplifiers to identify the combination with the lowest noise.« less

  18. Damage detection of concrete beam based on embedded PZT impedance transducer encapsulated by cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dansheng; Zhu, Hongping; Yuan, Junqiang; Li, Jinghui; Li, Yu

    2012-04-01

    Piezoelectric material, such as, Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) can be use as sensing and/or actuating element for structural health monitoring due to its direct and converse piezoelectric effects. In this study, several fabricated PZT impedance transducers encapsulated by cement were embedded into a plain concrete beam to detect the surface crack damage. By monitoring the electromechanical (EM) admittance spectra of the embedded transducers, the structural surface crack damage was investigated. From the experimental results it is found that the shape of the electrical admittance spectra curve of the embedded PZT transducers hardly changes before and after surface crack is of presence, and the EM admittance spectra exhibits tiny change in amplitude with the increase of crack depth, which indicate that the embedded PZT transducers into concrete are insensitive to surface crack damage.

  19. Damage Detection in Rotorcraft Composite Structures Using Thermography and Laser-Based Ultrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Zalameda, Joseph N.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2004-01-01

    New rotorcraft structural composite designs incorporate lower structural weight, reduced manufacturing complexity, and improved threat protection. These new structural concepts require nondestructive evaluation inspection technologies that can potentially be field-portable and able to inspect complex geometries for damage or structural defects. Two candidate technologies were considered: Thermography and Laser-Based Ultrasound (Laser UT). Thermography and Laser UT have the advantage of being non-contact inspection methods, with Thermography being a full-field imaging method and Laser UT a point scanning technique. These techniques were used to inspect composite samples that contained both embedded flaws and impact damage of various size and shape. Results showed that the inspection techniques were able to detect both embedded and impact damage with varying degrees of success.

  20. NMR detection of thermal damage in carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brady, Steven K.; Conradi, Mark S.; Vaccaro, Christopher M.

    2005-02-01

    Composite materials of epoxy resins reinforced by carbon fibers are increasingly being used in the construction of aircraft. In these applications, the material may be thermally damaged and weakened by jet blast and accidental fires. The feasibility of using proton NMR relaxation times T1, T1 ρ, and T2 to detect and quantify the thermal damage is investigated. In conventional spectrometers with homogeneous static magnetic fields, T1 ρ is readily measured and is found to be well correlated with thermal damage. This suggests that NMR measurements of proton T1 ρ may be used for non-destructive evaluation of carbon fiber-epoxy composites. Results from T1 ρ measurements in the inhomogeneous static and RF magnetic fields of an NMR-MOUSE are also discussed.

  1. Optimization of a Low Noise Detection Circuit for Probing the Structure of Damage Cascades with IBIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auden, Elizabeth C.; Doyle, Barney L.; Bielejec, Edward; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Wampler, William R.

    Optimal detector / pre-amplifier combinations have been identified for the use of light ion IBIC (ion beam induced charge) to probe the physical structure of electrically active defects in damage cascades caused by heavy ion implantation. The ideal detector must have a sufficiently thin dead layer that incident ions will produce the majority of damage cascades in the depletion region of the detector rather than the dead layer. Detector and circuit noise must be low enough to detect the implantation of a single heavy ion as well as the decrease in the light ion IBIC signal caused by Shockley-Read-Hall recombination when the beam scans regions of the detector damaged by the heavy ion. The IBIC signals from three detectors irradiated with 750 keV He+ ions are measured with commercial and bespoke charge sensitive pre-amplifiers to identify the combination with the lowest noise.

  2. Systemic inflammation regulates microglial responses to tissue damage in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gyoneva, Stefka; Davalos, Dimitrios; Biswas, Dipankar; Swanger, Sharon A; Garnier-Amblard, Ethel; Loth, Francis; Akassoglou, Katerina; Traynelis, Stephen F

    2014-08-01

    Microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system, exist in either a "resting" state associated with physiological tissue surveillance or an "activated" state in neuroinflammation. We recently showed that ATP is the primary chemoattractor to tissue damage in vivo and elicits opposite effects on the motility of activated microglia in vitro through activation of adenosine A2A receptors. However, whether systemic inflammation affects microglial responses to tissue damage in vivo remains largely unknown. Using in vivo two-photon imaging of mice, we show that injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at levels that can produce both clear neuroinflammation and some features of sepsis significantly reduced the rate of microglial response to laser-induced ablation injury in vivo. Under proinflammatory conditions, microglial processes initially retracted from the ablation site, but subsequently moved toward and engulfed the damaged area. Analyzing the process dynamics in 3D cultures of primary microglia indicated that only A2A , but not A1 or A3 receptors, mediate process retraction in LPS-activated microglia. The A2A receptor antagonists caffeine and preladenant reduced adenosine-mediated process retraction in activated microglia in vitro. Finally, administration of preladenant before induction of laser ablation in vivo accelerated the microglial response to injury following systemic inflammation. The regulation of rapid microglial responses to sites of injury by A2A receptors could have implications for their ability to respond to the neuronal death occurring under conditions of neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24807189

  3. Gear Fault Detection Effectiveness as Applied to Tooth Surface Pitting Fatigue Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G.; Dempsey, Paula J.; Heath, Gregory F.; Shanthakumaran, Perumal

    2009-01-01

    A study was performed to evaluate fault detection effectiveness as applied to gear tooth pitting fatigue damage. Vibration and oil-debris monitoring (ODM) data were gathered from 24 sets of spur pinion and face gears run during a previous endurance evaluation study. Three common condition indicators (RMS, FM4, and NA4) were deduced from the time-averaged vibration data and used with the ODM to evaluate their performance for gear fault detection. The NA4 parameter showed to be a very good condition indicator for the detection of gear tooth surface pitting failures. The FM4 and RMS parameters performed average to below average in detection of gear tooth surface pitting failures. The ODM sensor was successful in detecting a significant amount of debris from all the gear tooth pitting fatigue failures. Excluding outliers, the average cumulative mass at the end of a test was 40 mg.

  4. Building protypes of damaged systems from analysis simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.S.; Dolin, R.M.; Hefele, J.

    1996-12-31

    Our rapid prototype of damaged systems project seeks to provide a technology for allowing engineers to build demonstration prototypes of damaged products from analysis post-processing data. Most commercial finite element programs do not have a capability to construct deformed geometry at the conclusion of an analysis simulation. It is therefore not presently possible to build prototypes of predicted states of a product as the result of being subjected to simulated adverse environments. Our approach is to reverse engineer a description of a deformed finite element mesh into a stereolithography format for prototyping using a Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) machine. This stereolithography file can be generated from deformed surface node information as well as from a reconstructed surface defined by inspection data. We are developing software to allow users to represent a part or assembly in a deformed condition. The damaged part can then be manufactured using the SLS process for visualization and assessment purposes. The resulting representation can also be used to create simulated X-rays of a damaged or deformed configuration for comparison with experimental test results or field data. This allows engineers to benchmark their analysis methods and provide increased understanding of analysis results through enhanced visualization. The process of reverse engineering `in-use` or damaged products allows for a more refined inspection and comparison of imperfect parts. It addresses the issue of whether or not a part will still work when subjected to certain environments or scenarios. Answers to this question can be found using our model reconstruction technique that represents an `as- built` engineering model configuration. An additional feature of this reverse engineering process is product benchmarking and closer engineer/manufacturer interactions.

  5. Efficient interpretation algorithm for embedded Bragg gratings for damage detection in composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhugoud, Mohanraj; Peters, Kara J.

    2003-07-01

    The goal of a structural health monitoring system is to detect, locate, and identify damages in a structure during its lifetime. The concept of structural health monitoring is particularly important for fiber reinforced composites due to the complexity of the possible failure mechanisms. The goal of this work is to simulate the response of optical fiber Bragg grating sensors to multi-component loading for their implementation in structural health monitoring algorithms for composites. A simulation method is presented to determine the effects of axial, bending and shear loading on an embedded optical fiber Bragg grating sensor. The effect of fiber bending on the Bragg grating sensor is experimentally verified by embedding the sensor in a solid cone, clamped at the base and subjected to a point load at the apex. Next, a numerically efficient method to calculate the response of sensors embedded in a unidirectional composite is developed using both finite element analysis and optimal shear-lag theory and taking into account the above effects. The limitations of the optimal shear-lag theory are derived through comparison with the finite element results. The application of this method is demonstrated through a numerical example, simulating the response of sensors embedded in one fiber layer to a transverse crack.

  6. Feasibility of OCT to detect radiation-induced esophageal damage in small animal models (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelvehgaran, Pouya; Alderliesten, Tanja; Salguero, Javier; Borst, Gerben; Song, Ji-Ying; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; de Boer, Johannes F.; de Bruin, Daniel M.; van Herk, Marcel B.

    2016-03-01

    Lung cancer survival is poor and radiotherapy patients often suffer serious treatment side effects. The esophagus is particularly sensitive leading to reduced food intake or even fistula formation. Only few direct techniques exist to measure radiation-induced esophageal damage, for which knowledge is needed to improve the balance between risk of tumor recurrence and complications. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a minimally-invasive imaging technique that obtains cross-sectional, high-resolution (1-10µm) images and is capable of scanning the esophageal wall up to 2-3mm depth. In this study we investigated the feasibility of OCT to detect esophageal radiation damage in mice. In total 30 mice were included in 4 study groups (1 main and 3 control groups). Mice underwent cone-beam CT imaging for initial setup assessment and dose planning followed by single-fraction dose delivery of 4, 10, 16, and 20Gy on 5mm spots, spaced 10mm apart. Mice were repeatedly imaged using OCT: pre-irradiation and up to 3 months post-irradiation. The control groups received either OCT only, irradiation only, or were sham-operated. We used histopathology as gold standard for radiation-induced damage diagnosis. The study showed edema in both the main and OCT-only groups. Furthermore, radiation-induced damage was primarily found in the highest dose region (distal esophagus). Based on the histopathology reports we were able to identify the radiation-induced damage in the OCT images as a change in tissue scattering related to the type of induced damage. This finding indicates the feasibility and thereby the potentially promising role of OCT in radiation-induced esophageal damage assessment.

  7. Quantitative PCR for detection of DNA damage in mitochondrial DNA of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Senoo, Takanori; Yamanaka, Mayumi; Nakamura, Atori; Terashita, Tomoki; Kawano, Shinji; Ikeda, Shogo

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) has been employed to detect DNA damage and repair in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of human and several model organisms. The assay also permits the quantitation of relative mtDNA copy number in cells. Here, we developed the QPCR assay primers and reaction conditions for the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, an important model of eukaryote biology, not previously described. Under these conditions, long targets (approximately 10kb) in mtDNA were quantitatively amplified using 0.1ng of crude DNA templates without isolation of mitochondria and mtDNA. Quantitative detection of oxidative DNA damage in mtDNA was illustrated by using a DNA template irradiated with UVA in the presence of riboflavin. The damage to mtDNA in S. pombe cells treated with hydrogen peroxide and paraquat was also quantitatively measured. Finally, we found that mtDNA copy number in S. pombe cells increased after transition into a stationary phase and that the damage to mtDNA due to endogenous cellular processes accumulated during chronological aging. PMID:27236021

  8. Damage detection on framed structures: modal curvature evaluation using Stockwell Transform under seismic excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditommaso, Rocco; Ponzo, F. C.; Auletta, G.

    2015-06-01

    The key parameters for damage detection and localization are eigenfrequencies, related equivalent viscous damping factors and mode shapes. The classical approach is based on the evaluation of these structural parameters before and after a seismic event, but by using a modern approach based on time-frequency transformations it is possible to quantify these parameters throughout the ground shaking phase. In particular with the use of the S-Transform, it is possible to follow the temporal evolution of the structural dynamics parameters before, during and after an earthquake. In this paper, a methodology for damage localization on framed structures subjected to strong motion earthquakes is proposed based on monitoring the modal curvature variation in the natural frequency of a structure. Two examples of application are described to illustrate the technique: Computer simulation of the nonlinear response of a model, and several laboratory (shaking table) tests performed at the University of Basilicata (Italy). Damage detected using the proposed approach and damage revealed via visual inspections in the tests are compared.

  9. Guided wave propagation based damage detection in welded rectangular tubular structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xi; Lu, M. Y.; Zhou, L. M.; Su, Z. Q.; Cheng, Li; Ye, Lin; Meng, Guang

    2009-07-01

    Guided wave based methods have shown great potential to practical use and have been the object of many researches for structural health monitoring (SHM). In this paper, a welded steel structure with rectangular section, which is almost 1:1 scale model for a bogie frame segment of train, is investigated by using both finite element method (FEM) and experimental analysis for the purpose of damage detection. Finite element models are established to simulate the propagation behavior of guided waves in the structure. An active actuator/sensor network is employed to generate guided waves propagating in the structures and collect response signals. Excitations at selected frequency are used to minimize the effect of the intrinsic multi-mode phenomenon of guided waves on the consequent signal interpretation. Modern signal processing approaches, such as continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and Hilbert transform (HT), are applied to all collected signals. An algorithm based on the concept of damage presence probability (DPP) is proposed for estimation of damage location. The results indicate that the recommended guided wave propagation based approach is reasonable for damage detection in such kind of structures.

  10. Potential drop detection of creep damage in the vicinity of welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prajapati, Seeran; Nagy, Peter B.; Cawley, Peter

    2012-05-01

    Recent research indicated that directional Alternating Current Potential Drop (ACPD) measurements could be exploited for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of creep damage. Unfortunately, creep damage is often concentrated in welded sections where the inspection is less straightforward. In this work, a directional square-electrode ACPD probe with spring-loaded contact pins was used to evaluate different levels of creep damage in the vicinity of welds. The electric transfer resistance is measured in two orthogonal directions to detect creep-induced material damage. This is particularly difficult close to weld/base-metal interfaces because the electric conductivity usually changes significantly from one side of the interface to the other and therefore exhibit an apparent anisotropy caused by the influence of the boundary. The feasibility of directional ACPD evaluation of creep damage in the vicinity of such transition regions was studied by experimental, analytical, and numerical means. Finite element simulations validated the analytical predictions and experimental observations and offered an opportunity to further investigate critical effects, such as the inclination angle of the interface relative to the surface and the influence of an extended transition zone.

  11. Fiber optic hydrogen detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemi, Alex A.; Larson, David B.; Wuestling, Mark D.

    1999-12-01

    Commercial and military launch vehicles are designed to use hydrogen as the main propellant, which is very volatile, extremely flammable, and highly explosive. Current detection systems uses Teflon transfer tubes at a large number of vehicle locations through which gas samples are drawn and the stream analyzed by a mass spectrometer. A concern with this approach is the high cost of the system. Also, the current system does not provide leak location and is not in real-time. This system is very complex and cumbersome for production and ground support measurement personnel. The fiber optic micromirror sensor under development for cryogenic environment relies on a reversible chemical interaction causing a change in reflectivity of a thin film of coated Palladium. The magnitude of the reflectivity change is correlated to hydrogen concentration. The sensor uses only a tiny light beam, with no electricity whatsoever at the sensor, leading to devices that is intrinsically safe from explosive ignition. The sensor, extremely small in size and weight detects, hydrogen concentration using a passive element consisting of chemically reactive microcoatings deposited on the surface of a glass microlens, which is then bonded to an optical fiber. The system uses a multiplexing technique with a fiber optic driver-receiver consisting of a modulated LED source that is launched into the sensor, and a photodiode detector that synchronously measures the reflected signal. The system incorporates a microprocessor (or PC) to perform the data analysis and storage, as well as trending and set alarm function. As it is a low cost system with a fast response, many more detection sensors can be used that will be extremely helpful in determining leak location for safety of crew and vehicles during launch operations.

  12. The effects of finite element grid density on model correlation and damage detection of a bridge

    SciTech Connect

    Simmermacher, T.; Mayes, R.L.; Reese, G.M.; James, G.H.; Zimmerman, D.C.

    1995-12-31

    Variation of model size as determined by grid density is studied for both model refinement and damage detection. In model refinement 3 it is found that a large model with a fine grid is preferable in order to achieve a reasonable correlation between the experimental response and the finite element model. A smaller model falls victim to the inaccuracies of the finite element method. As the grid become increasing finer, the FE method approaches an accurate representation. In damage detection the FE method is only a starting point. The model is refined with a matrix method which doesn`t retain the FE approximation, therefore a smaller model that captures most of the dynamics of the structure can be used and is preferable.

  13. Mechanochromic Fluorescent Probe Molecules for Damage Detection in Aerospace Polymers and Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toivola, Ryan E.

    The detection of damage in aerospace composites can be improved by incorporation of mechanochromic fluorescent probe molecules into the polymers used in composite parts. This study focuses on a novel series of mechanochromic probes, AJNDE15 and AJNDE17, which are incorporated in structural epoxy resin DGEBA-DETA. Chapter 1 details the characterization of the DGEBA-DETA epoxy system used in this study. The important characteristics of DGEBA-DETA's response to mechanical loading will be discussed within the larger field of glassy amorphous polymer deformation. The mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties of DGEBA-DETA relevant to this work will be measured using standardized techniques and instrumentation. Chapters 2 and 3 focus on the mechanochromic probes AJNDE15 and AJNDE17 in the DGEBA-DETA system. Chapter 2 presents research designed to identify the mechanism through which the probes display mechanochromism. The possible mechanochromic mechanisms are introduced in a literature review. Research on these probes in DGEBA-DETA will be presented and discussed with respect to the possible mechanisms, and the mechanism that best fits the results will be identified as a mechanochemical reaction. Chapter 3 continues the analysis of the mechanochromism of the probes in DGEBA-DETA. The kinetics of the mechanochromic reaction will be studied and compared with the current understanding of glassy polymer deformation. Possible models for the molecular interactions responsible for mechanochromism in this system will be put forward. Research will be presented to evaluate the mechanochromism kinetics and for comparison with the behavior predicted by the models.

  14. Detection of exposure damage in composite materials using Fourier transform infrared technology.

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Duvall, Randy L.

    2010-09-01

    Goal: to detect the subtle changes in laminate composite structures brought about by thermal, chemical, ultraviolet, and moisture exposure. Compare sensitivity of an array of NDI methods, including Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), to detect subtle differences in composite materials due to deterioration. Inspection methods applied: ultrasonic pulse echo, through transmission ultrasonics, thermography, resonance testing, mechanical impedance analysis, eddy current, low frequency bond testing & FTIR. Comparisons between the NDI methods are being used to establish the potential of FTIR to provide the necessary sensitivity to non-visible, yet significant, damage in the resin and fiber matrix of composite structures. Comparison of NDI results with short beam shear tests are being used to relate NDI sensitivity to reduction in structural performance. Chemical analyses technique, which measures the infrared intensity versus wavelength of light reflected on the surface of a structure (chemical and physical information via this signature). Advances in instrumentation have resulted in hand-held portable devices that allow for field use (few seconds per scan). Shows promise for production quality assurance and in-service applications on composite aircraft structures (scarfed repairs). Statistical analysis on frequency spectrums produced by FTIR interrogations are being used to produce an NDI technique for assessing material integrity. Conclusions are: (1) Use of NDI to assess loss of composite laminate integrity brought about by thermal, chemical, ultraviolet, and moisture exposure. (2) Degradation trends between SBS strength and exposure levels (temperature and time) have been established for different materials. (3) Various NDI methods have been applied to evaluate damage and relate this to loss of integrity - PE UT shows greatest sensitivity. (4) FTIR shows promise for damage detection and calibration to predict structural integrity (short beam shear). (5

  15. Progressive damage detection using the reusable electromechanical impedance method for metal structures with a possibility of weight loss identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Wongi S.

    2016-05-01

    Damage accumulation in structures may result in a structural failure which is a serious problem when ensuring public safety. Although various non-destructive techniques are available to seek for the existence of damage at an early stage, most of these techniques rely on the experience of the experts. To date, automated structural health monitoring systems have been extensively researched and one of the methods, known as the electromechanical impedance (EMI) method, has shown promising results. However, the EMI method is a local method requiring a large number of sensors for covering large areas such as in bridges and buildings. In addition, attaching these sensors onto a surface can be time consuming since adhesives are used for attaching the sensors where its curing time increases the setting up time even further. In this study, the performance of the reusable piezoelectric (PZT) device for metal structures is examined against two different types of progressive damage scenarios. Overall, the reusable PZT device shown in this study has successfully identified damage with a possibility of weight loss detection.

  16. Open Circuit Resonant (SansEC) Sensor Technology for Lightning Mitigation and Damage Detection and Diagnosis for Composite Aircraft Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szatkowski, George N.; Dudley, Kenneth L.; Smith, Laura J.; Wang, Chuantong; Ticatch, Larry A.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional methods to protect composite aircraft from lightning strike damage rely on a conductive layer embedded on or within the surface of the aircraft composite skin. This method is effective at preventing major direct effect damage and minimizes indirect effects to aircraft systems from lightning strike attachment, but provides no additional benefit for the added parasitic weight from the conductive layer. When a known lightning strike occurs, the points of attachment and detachment on the aircraft surface are visually inspected and checked for damage by maintenance personnel to ensure continued safe flight operations. A new multi-functional lightning strike protection (LSP) method has been developed to provide aircraft lightning strike protection, damage detection and diagnosis for composite aircraft surfaces. The method incorporates a SansEC sensor array on the aircraft exterior surfaces forming a "Smart skin" surface for aircraft lightning zones certified to withstand strikes up to 100 kiloamperes peak current. SansEC sensors are open-circuit devices comprised of conductive trace spiral patterns sans (without) electrical connections. The SansEC sensor is an electromagnetic resonator having specific resonant parameters (frequency, amplitude, bandwidth & phase) which when electromagnetically coupled with a composite substrate will indicate the electrical impedance of the composite through a change in its resonant response. Any measureable shift in the resonant characteristics can be an indication of damage to the composite caused by a lightning strike or from other means. The SansEC sensor method is intended to diagnose damage for both in-situ health monitoring or ground inspections. In this paper, the theoretical mathematical framework is established for the use of open circuit sensors to perform damage detection and diagnosis on carbon fiber composites. Both computational and experimental analyses were conducted to validate this new method and system for

  17. Optimal selection of autoregressive model coefficients for early damage detectability with an application to wind turbine blades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoell, Simon; Omenzetter, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    Data-driven vibration-based damage detection techniques can be competitive because of their lower instrumentation and data analysis costs. The use of autoregressive model coefficients (ARMCs) as damage sensitive features (DSFs) is one such technique. So far, like with other DSFs, either full sets of coefficients or subsets selected by trial-and-error have been used, but this can lead to suboptimal composition of multivariate DSFs and decreased damage detection performance. This study enhances the selection of ARMCs for statistical hypothesis testing for damage presence. Two approaches for systematic ARMC selection, based on either adding or eliminating the coefficients one by one or using a genetic algorithm (GA) are proposed. The methods are applied to a numerical model of an aerodynamically excited large composite wind turbine blade with disbonding damage. The GA out performs the other selection methods and enables building multivariate DSFs that markedly enhance early damage detectability and are insensitive to measurement noise.

  18. Detection of sudden structural damage using blind source separation and time-frequency approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morovati, V.; Kazemi, M. T.

    2016-05-01

    Seismic signal processing is one of the most reliable methods of detecting the structural damage during earthquakes. In this paper, the use of the hybrid method of blind source separation (BSS) and time-frequency analysis (TFA) is explored to detect the changes in the structural response data. The combination of the BSS and TFA is applied to the seismic signals due to the non-stationary nature of them. Firstly, the second-order blind identification technique is used to decompose the response signal of structural vibration into modal coordinate signals which will be mono-components for TFA. Then each mono-component signal is analyzed to extract instantaneous frequency of structure. Numerical simulations and a real-world seismic-excited structure with time-varying frequencies show the accuracy and robustness of the developed algorithm. TFA of extracted sources shows that used method can be successfully applied to structural damage detection. The results also demonstrate that the combined method can be used to identify the time instant of structural damage occurrence more sharply and effectively than by the use of TFA alone.

  19. Optimal selection of artificial boundary conditions for model update and damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordis, Joshua H.; Papagiannakis, Konstantinos

    2011-07-01

    Sensitivity-based model error localization and damage detection is hindered by the relative differences in modal sensitivity magnitude among updating parameters. The method of artificial boundary conditions is shown to directly address this limitation, resulting in the increase of the number of updating parameters at which errors can be accurately localized. Using a single set of FRF data collected from a modal test, the artificial boundary conditions (ABC) method identifies experimentally the natural frequencies of a structure under test for a variety of different boundary conditions, without having to physically apply the boundary conditions, hence the term "artificial". The parameter-specific optimal ABC sets applied to the finite element model will produce increased sensitivities in the updating parameter, yielding accurate error localization and damage detection solutions. A method is developed for identifying the parameter-specific optimal ABC sets for updating or damage detection, and is based on the QR decomposition with column pivoting. Updating solution residuals, such as magnitude error and false error location, are shown to be minimized when the updating parameter set is limited to those corresponding to the QR pivot columns. The existence of an optimal ABC set for a given updating parameter is shown to be dependent on the number of modes used, and hence the method developed provides a systematic determination of the minimum number of modes required for localization in a given updating parameter. These various concepts are demonstrated on a simple model with simulated test data.

  20. Detection of fiber damage in a graphite epoxy composite using current injection and magnetic field mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blalock, T. N.; Yost, W. T.

    1986-01-01

    A novel NDE technique is reported for detecting fiber disruptions in graphite-epoxy composites. The technique involves injecting electric current along the graphite fibers of a composite and measuring the resulting magnetic fields. The disruptions in current paths, which occur in areas of fiber damage, are detectable as perturbations in the magnetic field. The experimental setup, the measurements, and the magnetic images of experimental samples are presented. A resistive model has been developed to be used in the modeling of two-dimensional conductivity patterns in graphite composites. Diagrams of the setup and the circuitry are included.

  1. Guided Wave Subsurface Damage Detection for a Composite on a Half-Space Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, X.; Rose, J. L.; Smith, E.

    2010-02-01

    Guided waves are applied for subsurface damage detection in the structure of a composite skin on a half-space. The global matrix method with a 2D root search is used to determine the complex wave numbers. The dispersion relations and wave structures are obtained for both propagating and attenuating modes in which the attenuation is caused by the leakage from the waveguide to the half-space. The scattering of leaky waves by skin-substrate disbond is analyzed by a finite element model. Theoretically driven experiments are conducted on a composite rotor blade section to detect the disbond between skin and substrate.

  2. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System

    SciTech Connect

    Dzenitis, J M; Makarewicz, A J

    2009-01-13

    We developed, tested, and now operate a civilian biological defense capability that continuously monitors the air for biological threat agents. The Autonomous Pathogen Detection System (APDS) collects, prepares, reads, analyzes, and reports results of multiplexed immunoassays and multiplexed PCR assays using Luminex{copyright} xMAP technology and flow cytometer. The mission we conduct is particularly demanding: continuous monitoring, multiple threat agents, high sensitivity, challenging environments, and ultimately extremely low false positive rates. Here, we introduce the mission requirements and metrics, show the system engineering and analysis framework, and describe the progress to date including early development and current status.

  3. Detecting transition in agricultural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neary, P. J.; Coiner, J. C.

    1979-01-01

    Remote sensing of agricultural phenomena has been largely concentrated on analysis of agriculture at the field level. Concern has been to identify crop status, crop condition, and crop distribution, all of which are spatially analyzed on a field-by-field basis. A more general level of abstraction is the agricultural system, or the complex of crops and other land cover that differentiate various agricultural economies. The paper reports on a methodology to assist in the analysis of the landscape elements of agricultural systems with Landsat digital data. The methodology involves tracing periods of photosynthetic activity for a fixed area. Change from one agricultural system to another is detected through shifts in the intensity and periodicity of photosynthetic activity as recorded in the radiometric return to Landsat. The Landsat-derived radiometric indicator of photosynthetic activity appears to provide the ability to differentiate agricultural systems from each other as well as from conterminous natural vegetation.

  4. Nucleic acid detection system and method for detecting influenza

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Hong; Song, Jian

    2015-03-17

    The invention provides a rapid, sensitive and specific nucleic acid detection system which utilizes isothermal nucleic acid amplification in combination with a lateral flow chromatographic device, or DNA dipstick, for DNA-hybridization detection. The system of the invention requires no complex instrumentation or electronic hardware, and provides a low cost nucleic acid detection system suitable for highly sensitive pathogen detection. Hybridization to single-stranded DNA amplification products using the system of the invention provides a sensitive and specific means by which assays can be multiplexed for the detection of multiple target sequences.

  5. Errors, error detection, error correction and hippocampal-region damage: data and theories.

    PubMed

    MacKay, Donald G; Johnson, Laura W

    2013-11-01

    This review and perspective article outlines 15 observational constraints on theories of errors, error detection, and error correction, and their relation to hippocampal-region (HR) damage. The core observations come from 10 studies with H.M., an amnesic with cerebellar and HR damage but virtually no neocortical damage. Three studies examined the detection of errors planted in visual scenes (e.g., a bird flying in a fish bowl in a school classroom) and sentences (e.g., I helped themselves to the birthday cake). In all three experiments, H.M. detected reliably fewer errors than carefully matched memory-normal controls. Other studies examined the detection and correction of self-produced errors, with controls for comprehension of the instructions, impaired visual acuity, temporal factors, motoric slowing, forgetting, excessive memory load, lack of motivation, and deficits in visual scanning or attention. In these studies, H.M. corrected reliably fewer errors than memory-normal and cerebellar controls, and his uncorrected errors in speech, object naming, and reading aloud exhibited two consistent features: omission and anomaly. For example, in sentence production tasks, H.M. omitted one or more words in uncorrected encoding errors that rendered his sentences anomalous (incoherent, incomplete, or ungrammatical) reliably more often than controls. Besides explaining these core findings, the theoretical principles discussed here explain H.M.'s retrograde amnesia for once familiar episodic and semantic information; his anterograde amnesia for novel information; his deficits in visual cognition, sentence comprehension, sentence production, sentence reading, and object naming; and effects of aging on his ability to read isolated low frequency words aloud. These theoretical principles also explain a wide range of other data on error detection and correction and generate new predictions for future test. PMID:23999403

  6. Compensated intruder-detection systems

    DOEpatents

    McNeilly, David R.; Miller, William R.

    1984-01-01

    Intruder-detection systems in which intruder-induced signals are transmitted through a medium also receive spurious signals induced by changes in a climatic condition affecting the medium. To combat this, signals received from the detection medium are converted to a first signal. The system also provides a reference signal proportional to climate-induced changes in the medium. The first signal and the reference signal are combined for generating therefrom an output signal which is insensitive to the climatic changes in the medium. An alarm is energized if the output signal exceeds a preselected value. In one embodiment, an acoustic cable is coupled to a fence to generate a first electrical signal proportional to movements thereof. False alarms resulting from wind-induced movements of the fence (detection medium) are eliminated by providing an anemometer-driven voltage generator to provide a reference voltage proportional to the velocity of wind incident on the fence. An analog divider receives the first electrical signal and the reference signal as its numerator and denominator inputs, respectively, and generates therefrom an output signal which is insensitive to the wind-induced movements in the fence.

  7. Capillary Electrophoresis - Optical Detection Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sepaniak, M. J.

    2001-08-06

    Molecular recognition systems are developed via molecular modeling and synthesis to enhance separation performance in capillary electrophoresis and optical detection methods for capillary electrophoresis. The underpinning theme of our work is the rational design and development of molecular recognition systems in chemical separations and analysis. There have been, however, some subtle and exciting shifts in our research paradigm during this period. Specifically, we have moved from mostly separations research to a good balance between separations and spectroscopic detection for separations. This shift is based on our perception that the pressing research challenges and needs in capillary electrophoresis and electrokinetic chromatography relate to the persistent detection and flow rate reproducibility limitations of these techniques (see page 1 of the accompanying Renewal Application for further discussion). In most of our work molecular recognition reagents are employed to provide selectivity and enhance performance. Also, an emerging trend is the use of these reagents with specially-prepared nano-scale materials. Although not part of our DOE BES-supported work, the modeling and synthesis of new receptors has indirectly supported the development of novel microcantilevers-based MEMS for the sensing of vapor and liquid phase analytes. This fortuitous overlap is briefly covered in this report. Several of the more significant publications that have resulted from our work are appended. To facilitate brevity we refer to these publications liberally in this progress report. Reference is also made to very recent work in the Background and Preliminary Studies Section of the Renewal Application.

  8. Building prototypes of damaged systems from analysis simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Cynthia S.; Dolin, Ronald M.; Hefele, Jill

    1997-01-01

    Our rapid prototype of damaged systems project seeks to provide a technology for allowing engineers to build demonstration prototypes of damaged products from analysis post-processing data. Most commercial finite element programs do not have a capability to construct deformed geometry at conclusion of an analysis simulation. It is therefore not presently possible to build prototypes of predicted states of a product as the result of being subjected to simulated adverse environments. Our approach is to reverse engineer a description of a deformed finite element mesh into a stereolithography format for prototyping using a selective laser sintering (SLS) machine. This stereolithography file can be generated from deformed surface node information as well as from a reconstructed surface defined by inspection data. We are developing software to allow users to represent a part or assembly in a deformed condition. The resulting representation can also be used to create simulated x-rays of a damaged or deformed configuration for comparison with experimental test results or field data. This allows engineers to benchmark their analysis methods and provide increased understanding of analysis results through enhanced visualization. The process of reverse engineering 'in-use' or damaged products allows for a more refined inspection and comparison of imperfect parts. It addresses the issue of whether or not a part will still work when subjected to certain environments or scenarios. Answers to this question can be found using our model reconstruction technique that represents an 'as-built' engineering model configuration. An additional feature of this reverse engineering process is product benchmarking and closer engineer/manufacturer interactions.

  9. Structural damage detection in wind turbine blades based on time series representations of dynamic responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoell, Simon; Omenzetter, Piotr

    2015-03-01

    The development of large wind turbines that enable to harvest energy more efficiently is a consequence of the increasing demand for renewables in the world. To optimize the potential energy output, light and flexible wind turbine blades (WTBs) are designed. However, the higher flexibilities and lower buckling capacities adversely affect the long-term safety and reliability of WTBs, and thus the increased operation and maintenance costs reduce the expected revenue. Effective structural health monitoring techniques can help to counteract this by limiting inspection efforts and avoiding unplanned maintenance actions. Vibration-based methods deserve high attention due to the moderate instrumentation efforts and the applicability for in-service measurements. The present paper proposes the use of cross-correlations (CCs) of acceleration responses between sensors at different locations for structural damage detection in WTBs. CCs were in the past successfully applied for damage detection in numerical and experimental beam structures while utilizing only single lags between the signals. The present approach uses vectors of CC coefficients for multiple lags between measurements of two selected sensors taken from multiple possible combinations of sensors. To reduce the dimensionality of the damage sensitive feature (DSF) vectors, principal component analysis is performed. The optimal number of principal components (PCs) is chosen with respect to a statistical threshold. Finally, the detection phase uses the selected PCs of the healthy structure to calculate scores from a current DSF vector, where statistical hypothesis testing is performed for making a decision about the current structural state. The method is applied to laboratory experiments conducted on a small WTB with non-destructive damage scenarios.

  10. Ionization detection system for aerosols

    DOEpatents

    Jacobs, Martin E.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved smoke-detection system of the ionization-chamber type. In the preferred embodiment, the system utilizes a conventional detector head comprising a measuring ionization chamber, a reference ionization chamber, and a normally non-conductive gas triode for discharging when a threshold concentration of airborne particulates is present in the measuring chamber. The improved system utilizes a measuring ionization chamber which is modified to minimize false alarms and reductions in sensitivity resulting from changes in ambient temperature. In the preferred form of the modification, an annular radiation shield is mounted about the usual radiation source provided to effect ionization in the measuring chamber. The shield is supported by a bimetallic strip which flexes in response to changes in ambient temperature, moving the shield relative to the source so as to vary the radiative area of the source in a manner offsetting temperature-induced variations in the sensitivity of the chamber.

  11. Mitochondrial DNA damage is associated with damage accrual and disease duration in patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    López-López, Linnette; Nieves-Plaza, Mariely; Castro, María del R.; Font, Yvonne M.; Torres-Ramos, Carlos; Vilá, Luis M.; Ayala-Peña, Sylvette

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the extent of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients compared to healthy subjects and to determine the factors associated with mtDNA damage among SLE patients. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in 86 SLE patients (per American College of Rheumatology classification criteria) and 86 healthy individuals matched for age and gender. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from subjects to assess the relative amounts of mtDNA damage. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay was used to measure the frequency of mtDNA lesions and mtDNA abundance. Socioeconomic-demographic features, clinical manifestations, pharmacologic treatment, disease activity, and damage accrual were determined. Statistical analyses were performed using t test, pairwise correlation, and Pearson’s chi-square test (or Fisher’s exact test) as appropriate. Results Among SLE patients, 93.0% were women. The mean (SD) age was 38.0 (10.4) years and the mean (SD) disease duration was 8.7 (7.5) years. SLE patients exhibited increased levels of mtDNA damage as shown by higher levels of mtDNA lesions and decreased mtDNA abundance as compared to healthy individuals. There was a negative correlation between disease damage and mtDNA abundance and a positive correlation between mtDNA lesions and disease duration. No association was found between disease activity and mtDNA damage. Conclusion PBMCs from SLE patients exhibited more mtDNA damage compared to healthy subjects. Higher levels of mtDNA damage were observed among SLE patients with major organ involvement and damage accrual. These results suggest that mtDNA damage have a potential role in the pathogenesis of SLE. PMID:24899636

  12. An optimal baseline selection methodology for data-driven damage detection and temperature compensation in acousto-ultrasonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres-Arredondo, M.-A.; Sierra-Pérez, Julián; Cabanes, Guénaël

    2016-05-01

    The process of measuring and analysing the data from a distributed sensor network all over a structural system in order to quantify its condition is known as structural health monitoring (SHM). For the design of a trustworthy health monitoring system, a vast amount of information regarding the inherent physical characteristics of the sources and their propagation and interaction across the structure is crucial. Moreover, any SHM system which is expected to transition to field operation must take into account the influence of environmental and operational changes which cause modifications in the stiffness and damping of the structure and consequently modify its dynamic behaviour. On that account, special attention is paid in this paper to the development of an efficient SHM methodology where robust signal processing and pattern recognition techniques are integrated for the correct interpretation of complex ultrasonic waves within the context of damage detection and identification. The methodology is based on an acousto-ultrasonics technique where the discrete wavelet transform is evaluated for feature extraction and selection, linear principal component analysis for data-driven modelling and self-organising maps for a two-level clustering under the principle of local density. At the end, the methodology is experimentally demonstrated and results show that all the damages were detectable and identifiable.

  13. Detecting damage in non-uniform beams using the dereverberated transfer function response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purekar, A. S.; Pines, D. J.; Purekar, A. S.

    2000-08-01

    Delamination damage in composite rotorcraft flexbeams caused by excessive vibratory and fatigue loads can lead to degradation in flapwise and lagwise performance of the rotor blade. In addition, delaminations can result in rapid fatigue failure of these tailored composite elements leading to catastrophic results. A novel damage detection strategy is evaluated in this work which attempts to exploit the dereverberated transfer function response of beams with tapered geometries. This approach avoids high fidelity finite element models of damaged one-dimensional beams with non-uniform geometries. To obtain the dereverberated transfer function response, a virtual control force is applied to the reverberated transfer function response to remove resonant and anti-resonant dynamics associated with the beam's boundary conditions. Magnitude and phase characteristics between each actuator and sensor can then be used to infer changing structural properties. Analytical and experimental results suggest that this approach can be used to quantitatively and qualitatively infer delamination damage in non-uniform beams. Experimental results are displayed for beams with varying thickness and width tapers.

  14. A hybrid approach for damage detection of structures under operational conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadel Miguel, Leandro Fleck; Holdorf Lopez, Rafael; Fadel Miguel, Letícia Fleck

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a hybrid stochastic/deterministic optimisation algorithm to solve the target optimisation problem of vibration-based damage detection. The use of a numerical solution of the representation formula to locate the region of the global solution, i.e., to provide a starting point for the local optimiser, which is chosen to be the Nelder-Mead algorithm (NMA), is proposed. A series of numerical examples with different damage scenarios and noise levels was performed under impact and ambient vibrations. Thereafter, an experimental study of three cantilever beams with several different damage scenarios was conducted. To test the accuracy and efficiency of the optimisation algorithm, its results were compared to previous procedures available in the literature, which employed different solutions such as the genetic algorithm (GA), the harmony search algorithm (HS) and the particle swarm optimisation (PSO) algorithm. The performance of the proposed optimisation scheme was more accurate and required a lower computational cost than the GA, HS and PSO algorithms, emphasising the capacity of the proposed methodology for its use in damage diagnosis and assessment. In addition, the methodology was able to handle incomplete measurements and truncated mode shapes, which is of paramount importance for dealing with operational conditions in long-term structural health monitoring (SHM) applications.

  15. Detection and Prediction of Creep-Damage of Copper Using Nonlinear Acoustic Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayana, V. J. S.; Balasubramaniam, K.; Prakash, R. V.

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes the use of nonlinear acoustic techniques for the characterization of material damage gradient in 99.98% pure copper due to high temperature creep. Creep damage progression was monitored by conducting continuous and interrupted modes of creep tests. In case of continuous loading, nonlinear ultrasonic (NLU) measurements were conducted, after fracture at different locations along the gage length of the sample. For interrupted tests, the NLU measurements were conducted at different creep life fractions, through periodic interruption of creep test. The third harmonic was more sensitive to creep damage compared to second and static component nonlinearity. All samples show one peak in the nonlinear response at 25-45% of creep life. Finally, we presented the results of nonlinear response working at low power levels, since the interesting effect of accumulated dislocations. Using that effect we applied to creep damage detection. In this the NLU amplitude vs. input amplitude was observed to correlate well with the micro-void concentrations caused by creep conditions.

  16. Singular spectrum analysis for enhancing the sensitivity in structural damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Law, S. S.; Xia, Y.; Zhu, X. Q.

    2014-01-01

    Time domain structural condition assessment methods have been studied extensively in the last two decades due to their effectiveness in dealing with limited and short duration measurements from a structure under operational conditions. The sensitivity-based method is revisited in this paper with an enhancement in the sensitivity with respect to local damages via the singular spectrum analysis technique. The measured response of the structure is decomposed and the sensitivity vectors as well as the computed response vectors are projected into the corresponding decomposition subspace. The projected identification equations associate with components which contain the least measurement noise and the most damage information are then used to detect local damages in the structure. The enhanced sensitivity-based method is shown to be capable of yielding more accurate identified results with noisy measurement in a planar truss structure compared to conventional sensitivity-based method. A seven-storey steel frame test is performed in the laboratory, and the proposed method is checked to be able to identify the damage location and extend of this structure with an acceptable accuracy.

  17. Advanced Information Processing System - Fault detection and error handling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lala, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    The Advanced Information Processing System (AIPS) is designed to provide a fault tolerant and damage tolerant data processing architecture for a broad range of aerospace vehicles, including tactical and transport aircraft, and manned and autonomous spacecraft. A proof-of-concept (POC) system is now in the detailed design and fabrication phase. This paper gives an overview of a preliminary fault detection and error handling philosophy in AIPS.

  18. Damage detection and characterization using long-gauge and distributed fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glišić, Branko; Hubbell, David; Sigurdardottir, Dorotea Hoeg; Yao, Yao

    2013-08-01

    Fiber optic strain sensors have significantly evolved and have reached their market maturity during the last decade. Their widely recognized advantages are high precision, long-term stability, and durability. In addition to these benefits, fiber optic (FO) techniques allow for affordable instrumentation of large areas of civil structures and infrastructure enabling global large-scale monitoring based on long-gauge sensors, and integrity monitoring based on distributed sensors. The FO techniques that enable these two approaches are based on fiber Bragg-gratings and Brillouin optical time-domain analysis. The aim of this paper is to present both FO techniques and both structural assessment approaches, and to validate them through large-scale applications. Although many other currently applied methods fail to detect the damage in real, on-site conditions, the presented approaches were proven to be suitable for damage detection and characterization, i.e., damage localization and, to certain extent, quantification. This is illustrated by two applications presented in detail in this paper: the first on a post-tensioned concrete bridge and the second on segmented concrete pipeline.

  19. Detection, location, and quantification of structural damage by neural-net-processed moiré profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Barry G.; Gonzalez, Frank S.; Blatt, Joel H.; Hooker, Jeffery A.

    1992-03-01

    The development of efficient high speed techniques to recognize, locate, and quantify damage is vitally important for successful automated inspection systems such as ones used for the inspection of undersea pipelines. Two critical problems must be solved to achieve these goals: the reduction of nonuseful information present in the video image and automatic recognition and quantification of extent and location of damage. Artificial neural network processed moire profilometry appears to be a promising technique to accomplish this. Real time video moire techniques have been developed which clearly distinguish damaged and undamaged areas on structures, thus reducing the amount of extraneous information input into an inspection system. Artificial neural networks have demonstrated advantages for image processing, since they can learn the desired response to a given input and are inherently fast when implemented in hardware due to their parallel computing architecture. Video moire images of pipes with dents of different depths were used to train a neural network, with the desired output being the location and severity of the damage. The system was then successfully tested with a second series of moire images. The techniques employed and the results obtained are discussed.

  20. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, Roswitha S.; Todd, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  1. Pulsed helium ionization detection system

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, R.S.; Todd, R.A.

    1985-04-09

    A helium ionization detection system is provided which produces stable operation of a conventional helium ionization detector while providing improved sensitivity and linearity. Stability is improved by applying pulsed dc supply voltage across the ionization detector, thereby modifying the sampling of the detectors output current. A unique pulse generator is used to supply pulsed dc to the detector which has variable width and interval adjust features that allows up to 500 V to be applied in pulse widths ranging from about 150 nsec to about dc conditions.

  2. Structural damage assessment of propulsion system components by impedance based health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Richard E.; Gyekneyesi, Andrew L.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.; Baaklini, George Y.

    2005-05-01

    Critical components of propulsion systems frequently operate at high stress levels for long periods of time. The integrity of these parts must be proven by non-destructive evaluation (NDE) during various manufacturing steps and also during systematic overhaul inspections. Conventional NDE methods, however, have unacceptable limits. Some of these techniques are time-consuming and inconvenient for service aircraft testing. Impedance-based structural-health-monitoring (SHM) uses piezoelectric (PZT) patches that are bonded onto or embedded in a structure; each individual patch both actuates the surrounding structural area and senses the resulting structural response. The size of the excited area varies with the geometry and material composition of the structure. A series of experiments on simple geometry specimens (thin-gage aluminum square plates) was conducted for assessing the potential of E/M impedance method for structural damage detection. Based on the results of this preliminary study, further testing was conducted on a subscale disk specimen. Based on the results it can be concluded that the E/M impedance method has the potential to be used for damage detection of structures. The experimental method, signal processing, and damage detection algorithm should be tuned to the specific method used for structural interrogation.

  3. Damage detection in a cantilever beam under dynamic conditions using a distributed, fast, and high spatial resolution Brillouin interrogator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motil, A.; Davidi, R.; Bergman, A.; Botsev, Y.; Hahami, M.; Tur, M.

    2016-05-01

    The ability of Brillouin-based fiber-optic sensing to detect damage in a moving cantilever beam is demonstrated. A fully computerized, distributed and high spatial resolution (10cm) Fast-BOTDA interrogator (50 full-beam Brillouin-gain-spectra per second) successfully directly detected an abnormally stiffened (i.e., `damaged') 20cm long segment in a 6m Aluminum beam, while the beam was in motion. Damage detection was based on monitoring deviations of the measured strain distribution along the beam from that expected in the undamaged case.

  4. Infrared trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Bien, Fritz; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Matthew, Michael W.

    1988-01-01

    An infrared trace element detection system including an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined.

  5. Infrared trace element detection system

    DOEpatents

    Bien, F.; Bernstein, L.S.; Matthew, M.W.

    1988-11-15

    An infrared trace element detection system includes an optical cell into which the sample fluid to be examined is introduced and removed. Also introduced into the optical cell is a sample beam of infrared radiation in a first wavelength band which is significantly absorbed by the trace element and a second wavelength band which is not significantly absorbed by the trace element for passage through the optical cell through the sample fluid. The output intensities of the sample beam of radiation are selectively detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The intensities of a reference beam of the radiation are similarly detected in the first and second wavelength bands. The sensed output intensity of the sample beam in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other and similarly, the intensity of the reference beam of radiation in one of the first and second wavelength bands is normalized with respect to the other. The normalized sample beam intensity and normalized reference beam intensity are then compared to provide a signal from which the amount of trace element in the sample fluid can be determined. 11 figs.

  6. Discriminating Damage from Surface Wetting via Feature Analysis for Ultrasonic Structural Health Monitoring Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yinghui; Michaels, Jennifer E.

    2008-02-01

    Benign environmental effects, including temperature and surface condition changes, can adversely affect the performance of an ultrasonic structural health monitoring system because ultrasonic waves are sensitive to such changes as well as to damage. Compared to temperature, the problem of surface condition changes is more difficult to formalize because of their variability in terms of type, location and extent. In this paper, we systematically investigate the effects of surface wetting with a simplified experiment where well controlled water drops are added onto the surface of a specimen in conjunction with damage. The approach is to find selective features which are sensitive to damage but insensitive to the applied surface wetting. Features considered are derived from the time domain ultrasonic signals and their matching pursuit decompositions. Experimental results show good performance in detecting damage in the presence of the applied surface wetting, and provide a set of differential features with potential for dealing with the problem of surface wetting for ultrasonic structural health monitoring systems.

  7. Sensitive detection of PDT-induced cell damages with luminescent oxygen nanosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Hong-Ru; Peng, Hong-shang; You, Fang-tian; Ping, Jian-tao; Zhou, Chao; Guo, Lan-ying

    2016-09-01

    In this work luminescent nanosensors specifically created for intracellular oxygen (ic-O2) were utilized to assess photodynamic therapy (PDT) -induced cell damages. Firstly, ic-O2 was demonstrated to be consumed much faster than extracellular O2 with respective O2 nanosensors. Using the ic-O2 nanosensors, PDT-treated cells with different degree of impairment were then resolved according to the oxygen consumption rate (OCR). The evolving trend of cytotoxicity derived from OCRs was in agreement with cell viability obtained from 3-(4,5-cimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Moreover, the direct damage of PDT on cell mitochondria was successfully detected by monitoring respiration instantly after PDT treatment, which is actually beyond the scope of MTT assay. These results suggest that fluorescence sensing of ic-O2-associated cell respiration is promising and even may become a standardized method, complementary to MTT assay, to evaluate PDT-induced cytotoxicity.

  8. Detection of DNA damage in haemocytes of zebra mussel using comet assay.

    PubMed

    Pavlica, M; Klobucar, G I; Mojas, N; Erben, R; Papes, D

    2001-02-20

    The aim of the study was to use the comet assay on haemocytes of freshwater mussel, Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, for detection of possible DNA damage after exposure to pentachlorophenol (PCP) and to evaluate the potential application of the comet assay on mussel haemocytes for genotoxicity monitoring of freshwater environment. Zebra mussels were exposed for seven days to different concentrations (10, 80, 100, 150 microg/l) of PCP and in the river Sava downstream from Zagreb municipal wastewater outlet. Significant increase in DNA damage was observed after exposure to PCP at doses of 80 microg/l and higher and after in situ exposure in the river Sava as well. This study confirmed that the comet assay applied on zebra mussel haemocytes may be a useful tool in determining the potential genotoxicity of water pollutants. PMID:11342246

  9. A novel method for the detection of plasma jet boundaries by exploring DNA damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahnev, Blagovest; Bowden, Mark D.; Stypczyńska, Agnieszka; Ptasińska, Sylwia; Mason, Nigel J.; Braithwaite, Nicholas St. J.

    2014-06-01

    In this study we have investigated the plasma-air boundary of an atmospheric pressure discharge by exposing samples of dry plasmid DNA to a plasma jet. While visible emission from excited plasma species suggested that the plasma jet had dimensions approximately 5.5 cm long and 0.4 cm wide, damage to DNA samples was detected at distances of up to 20 cm from the tip of the jet with observable effects far outside the luminous plasma volume. Reactive oxygen species were identified as the most likely cause of DNA damage at these long distances. These results provide a novel method for determining the extent of any kind of plasma jet generated in the open atmosphere.

  10. Damage Detection in Plate Structures Using Sparse Ultrasonic Transducer Arrays and Acoustic Wavefield Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Michaels, T.E.; Michaels, J.E.; Mi, B.; Ruzzene, M.

    2005-04-09

    A methodology is presented for health monitoring and subsequent inspection of critical structures. Algorithms have been developed to detect and approximately locate damaged regions by analyzing signals recorded from a permanently mounted, sparse array of transducers. Followup inspections of suspected flaw locations are performed using a dual transducer ultrasonic approach where a permanently mounted transducer is the source and an externally scanned transducer is the receiver. Scan results are presented as snapshots of the propagating ultrasonic wavefield radiating out from the attached transducers. This method, referred to here as Acoustic Wavefield Imaging (AWI), provides an excellent visual representation of the interaction of propagating ultrasonic waves with the structure. Pre-flaw and post-flaw ultrasonic waveforms are analyzed from an aluminum plate specimen with artificially induced damage, and the AWI results show the location and spatial extent of all of the defects.

  11. On Using Residual Voltage to Estimate Electrode Model Parameters for Damage Detection

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ashwati; Kelly, Shawn K.

    2016-01-01

    Current technology has enabled a significant increase in the number of electrodes for electrical stimulation. For large arrays of electrodes, it becomes increasingly difficult to monitor and detect failures at the stimulation site. In this paper, we propose the idea that the residual voltage from a biphasic electrical stimulation pulse can serve to recognize damage at the electrode-tissue interface. We use a simple switch circuit approach to estimate the relaxation time constant of the electrode model, which essentially models the residual voltage in biphasic electrical stimulation, and compare it with standard electrode characterization techniques. Out of 15 electrodes in a polyimide-based SIROF array, our approach highlights 3 damaged electrodes, consistent with measurements made using cyclic voltammetry and electrode impedance spectroscopy.

  12. Damage detection on mesosurfaces using distributed sensor network and spectral diffusion maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinde, V.; Cao, L.; Vaidya, U.; Laflamme, S.

    2016-04-01

    In this work, we develop a data-driven method for the diagnosis of damage in mesoscale mechanical structures using an array of distributed sensor networks. The proposed approach relies on comparing intrinsic geometries of data sets corresponding to the undamaged and damaged states of the system. We use a spectral diffusion map approach to identify the intrinsic geometry of the data set. In particular, time series data from distributed sensors is used for the construction of diffusion maps. The low dimensional embedding of the data set corresponding to different damage levels is obtained using a singular value decomposition of the diffusion map. We construct appropriate metrics in the diffusion space to compare the different data sets corresponding to different damage cases. The developed algorithm is applied for damage diagnosis of wind turbine blades. To achieve this goal, we developed a detailed finite element-based model of CX-100 blade in ANSYS using shell elements. Typical damage, such as crack or delamination, will lead to a loss of stiffness, is modeled by altering the stiffness of the laminate layer. One of the main challenges in the development of health monitoring algorithms is the ability to use sensor data with a relatively small signal-to-noise ratio. Our developed diffusion map-based algorithm is shown to be robust to the presence of sensor noise. The proposed diffusion map-based algorithm is advantageous by enabling the comparison of data from numerous sensors of similar or different types of data through data fusion, hereby making it attractive to exploit the distributed nature of sensor arrays. This distributed nature is further exploited for the purpose of damage localization. We perform extensive numerical simulations to demonstrate that the proposed method can successfully determine the extent of damage on the wind turbine blade and also localize the damage. We also present preliminary results for the application of the developed algorithm on

  13. Explosives detection system and method

    DOEpatents

    Reber, Edward L.; Jewell, James K.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Seabury, Edward H.; Blackwood, Larry G.; Edwards, Andrew J.; Derr, Kurt W.

    2007-12-11

    A method of detecting explosives in a vehicle includes providing a first rack on one side of the vehicle, the rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a second rack on another side of the vehicle, the second rack including a neutron generator and a plurality of gamma ray detectors; providing a control system, remote from the first and second racks, coupled to the neutron generators and gamma ray detectors; using the control system, causing the neutron generators to generate neutrons; and performing gamma ray spectroscopy on spectra read by the gamma ray detectors to look for a signature indicative of presence of an explosive. Various apparatus and other methods are also provided.

  14. Evaluation of Intrusion Detection Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ulvila, Jacob W.; Gaffney, John E.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive method for evaluating intrusion detection systems (IDSs). It integrates and extends ROC (receiver operating characteristic) and cost analysis methods to provide an expected cost metric. Results are given for determining the optimal operation of an IDS based on this expected cost metric. Results are given for the operation of a single IDS and for a combination of two IDSs. The method is illustrated for: 1) determining the best operating point for a single and double IDS based on the costs of mistakes and the hostility of the operating environment as represented in the prior probability of intrusion and 2) evaluating single and double IDSs on the basis of expected cost. A method is also described for representing a compound IDS as an equivalent single IDS. Results are presented from the point of view of a system administrator, but they apply equally to designers of IDSs.

  15. 3D Mapping of plasma effective areas via detection of cancer cell damage induced by atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xu; Liu, Yueing; Stack, M. Sharon; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, a nitrogen atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was used for irradiation of oral cancer cells. Since cancer cells are very susceptible to plasma treatment, they can be used as a tool for detection of APPJ-effective areas, which extended much further than the visible part of the APPJ. An immunofluorescence assay was used for DNA damage identification, visualization and quantification. Thus, the effective damage area and damage level were determined and plotted as 3D images.

  16. Structural Damage Detection Using Artificial Neural Networks and Measured Frf Data Reduced via Principal Component Projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ZANG, C.; IMREGUN, M.

    2001-05-01

    This paper deals with structural damage detection using measured frequency response functions (FRFs) as input data to artificial neural networks (ANNs). A major obstacle, the impracticality of using full-size FRF data with ANNs, was circumvented by applying a principal component analysis (PCA)-based data reduction technique to the measured FRFs. The compressed FRFs, represented by their projection onto the most significant principal components, were then used as the ANN input variables instead of the raw FRF data. The output is a prediction for the actual state of the specimen, i.e., healthy or damaged. A further advantage of this particular approach was found to be the ability to deal with relatively high measurement noise, which is of common occurrence when dealing with industrial structures. The methodology was applied to the measured FRFs of a railway wheel, each response function having 4096 spectral lines. The available FRF data were grouped into x, y and z direction FRFs and a compression ratio of about 400 was achieved for each direction. Three different networks, each corresponding to a co-ordinate direction, were trained and verified using 80 PCA-compressed FRFs. Twenty compressed FRFs, obtained from further measurements, were used for the actual damage detection tests. Half of the test FRFs were polluted further by adding 5% random noise in order to assess the robustness of the method in the presence of significant experimental noise. The results showed that, in all cases considered, it was possible to distinguish between the healthy and damaged states with very good accuracy and repeatability.

  17. Strong earthquakes knowledge base for calibrating fast damage assessment systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolova, N.; Kozlov, M.; Larionov, V.; Nikolaev, A.; Suchshev, S.; Ugarov, A.

    2003-04-01

    At present Systems for fast damage and loss assessment due to strong earthquakes may use as input data: (1) information about event parameters (magnitude, depth and coordinates) issued by Alert Seismological Surveys; (2) wave-form data obtained by strong-motion seismograph network; (3) high resolution space images of the affected area obtained before and after the event. When data about magnidute, depth and location of event are used to simulate possible consequences, the reliability of estimations depends on completeness and reliability of databases on elements at risk (population and built environment); reliability of vulnerability functions of elements at risk; and errors in strong earthquakes' parameters determination by Alert Seismological Surveys. Some of these factors may be taken into account at the expense of the System calibration with usage of well documented past strong earthquakes. The paper is describing the structure and content of the knowledge base about well documented strong events, which occurred in last century. It contains the description of more than 1000 events. The data are distributed almost homogeneously as the losses due to earthquakes are concerned; the most events are in the magnitude range 6.5 -7.9. Software is created to accumulate and analyze the information about these events source parameters and social consequences. Created knowledge base is used for calibration the Fast Damage Assessment Tool, which is at present on duty with the framework of EDRIM Program. It is also used as additional information by experts who analyses the results of computations.

  18. Influence of Input Parameters on the Performance of an Artificial Neural Network Used to Detect Structural Damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalba, Jesus Daniel; Gomez, Ivan Dario; Laier, Jose Elias

    2010-09-01

    Structural damage detection is a very important research topic and, currently, there are not specific tools to solve it. A promising tool that can be used is the artificial neural network, ANN, which can deal with hard problems. This paper uses a back propagation ANN with Bayesian regularization training to locate and quantify damage in truss structures. The input parameters corresponded to natural frequencies combined with shape modes, modal flexibilities or modal strain energies. The ANN was trained by considering only simple damage scenarios, random multiple damage scenarios or a combination of them. The results are shown in terms of the percentage of cases in which the ANN trained achieves a determined performance in assessing both the damage extension and the presence of damaged elements. The best performance for the ANN is obtained by using modal strain energies and multiple damage scenarios.

  19. An Improved Method of Parameter Identification and Damage Detection in Beam Structures under Flexural Vibration Using Wavelet Multi-Resolution Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ravanfar, Seyed Alireza; Abdul Razak, Hashim; Ismail, Zubaidah; Monajemi, Hooman

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a two-step approach for optimally determining the location and severity of damage in beam structures under flexural vibration. The first step focuses on damage location detection. This is done by defining the damage index called relative wavelet packet entropy (RWPE). The damage severities of the model in terms of loss of stiffness are assessed in the second step using the inverse solution of equations of motion of a structural system in the wavelet domain. For this purpose, the connection coefficient of the scaling function to convert the equations of motion in the time domain into the wavelet domain is applied. Subsequently, the dominant components based on the relative energies of the wavelet packet transform (WPT) components of the acceleration responses are defined. To obtain the best estimation of the stiffness parameters of the model, the least squares error minimization is used iteratively over the dominant components. Then, the severity of the damage is evaluated by comparing the stiffness parameters of the identified model before and after the occurrence of damage. The numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is robust and effective for the determination of damage location and accurate estimation of the loss in stiffness due to damage. PMID:26371005

  20. An Improved Method of Parameter Identification and Damage Detection in Beam Structures under Flexural Vibration Using Wavelet Multi-Resolution Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ravanfar, Seyed Alireza; Razak, Hashim Abdul; Ismail, Zubaidah; Monajemi, Hooman

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a two-step approach for optimally determining the location and severity of damage in beam structures under flexural vibration. The first step focuses on damage location detection. This is done by defining the damage index called relative wavelet packet entropy (RWPE). The damage severities of the model in terms of loss of stiffness are assessed in the second step using the inverse solution of equations of motion of a structural system in the wavelet domain. For this purpose, the connection coefficient of the scaling function to convert the equations of motion in the time domain into the wavelet domain is applied. Subsequently, the dominant components based on the relative energies of the wavelet packet transform (WPT) components of the acceleration responses are defined. To obtain the best estimation of the stiffness parameters of the model, the least squares error minimization is used iteratively over the dominant components. Then, the severity of the damage is evaluated by comparing the stiffness parameters of the identified model before and after the occurrence of damage. The numerical and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is robust and effective for the determination of damage location and accurate estimation of the loss in stiffness due to damage. PMID:26371005

  1. Recent advances in microfluidic detection systems

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Christopher A; Duong, Cindy T; Grimley, Alix; Roper, Michael G

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous detection methods available for methods are being put to use for detection on these miniaturized systems, with the analyte of interest driving the choice of detection method. In this article, we summarize microfluidic 2 years. More focus is given to unconventional approaches to detection routes and novel strategies for performing high-sensitivity detection. PMID:20414455

  2. Detection and analysis of DNA damage in mouse skeletal muscle in situ using the TUNEL method.

    PubMed

    Fayzullina, Saniya; Martin, Lee J

    2014-01-01

    Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick end labeling (TUNEL) is the method of using the TdT enzyme to covalently attach a tagged form of dUTP to 3' ends of double- and single-stranded DNA breaks in cells. It is a reliable and useful method to detect DNA damage and cell death in situ. This video describes dissection, tissue processing, sectioning, and fluorescence-based TUNEL labeling of mouse skeletal muscle. It also describes a method of semi-automated TUNEL signal quantitation. Inherent normal tissue features and tissue processing conditions affect the ability of the TdT enzyme to efficiently label DNA. Tissue processing may also add undesirable autofluorescence that will interfere with TUNEL signal detection. Therefore, it is important to empirically determine tissue processing and TUNEL labeling methods that will yield the optimal signal-to-noise ratio for subsequent quantitation. The fluorescence-based assay described here provides a way to exclude autofluorescent signal by digital channel subtraction. The TUNEL assay, used with appropriate tissue processing techniques and controls, is a relatively fast, reproducible, quantitative method for detecting apoptosis in tissue. It can be used to confirm DNA damage and apoptosis as pathological mechanisms, to identify affected cell types, and to assess the efficacy of therapeutic treatments in vivo. PMID:25549099

  3. Geometric identification and damage detection of structural elements by terrestrial laser scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Tsung-Chin; Liu, Yu-Wei; Su, Yu-Min

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, three-dimensional (3D) terrestrial laser scanning technologies with higher precision and higher capability are developing rapidly. The growing maturity of laser scanning has gradually approached the required precision as those have been provided by traditional structural monitoring technologies. Together with widely available fast computation for massive point cloud data processing, 3D laser scanning can serve as an efficient structural monitoring alternative for civil engineering communities. Currently most research efforts have focused on integrating/calculating the measured multi-station point cloud data, as well as modeling/establishing the 3D meshes of the scanned objects. Very little attention has been spent on extracting the information related to health conditions and mechanical states of structures. In this study, an automated numerical approach that integrates various existing algorithms for geometric identification and damage detection of structural elements were established. Specifically, adaptive meshes were employed for classifying the point cloud data of the structural elements, and detecting the associated damages from the calculated eigenvalues in each area of the structural element. Furthermore, kd-tree was used to enhance the searching efficiency of plane fitting which were later used for identifying the boundaries of structural elements. The results of geometric identification were compared with M3C2 algorithm provided by CloudCompare, as well as validated by LVDT measurements of full-scale reinforced concrete beams tested in laboratory. It shows that 3D laser scanning, through the established processing approaches of the point cloud data, can offer a rapid, nondestructive, remote, and accurate solution for geometric identification and damage detection of structural elements.

  4. White Matter Damage and Systemic Inflammation in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Lu, Cheng-Hsien; Lin, Hsin-Ching; Chen, Pei-Chin; Chou, Kun-Hsien; Lin, Wei-Ming; Tsai, Nai-Wen; Su, Yu-Jih; Friedman, Michael; Lin, Ching-Po; Lin, Wei-Che

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate white matter integrity in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and to assess its relationship with systemic inflammation. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: One tertiary medical center research institute. Patients or Participants: Twenty patients with severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] > 30, 18 men and 2 women) and 14 healthy volunteers (AHI < 5, 11 men and 3 women). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Patients with severe OSA and healthy volunteers underwent polysomnography to determine the severity of sleep apnea, and DTI scanning to determine fiber integrity. Early or late phase changes in leukocyte apoptosis and its subsets were determined by flow cytometry. DTI-related indices (including fractional anisotropy [FA], axial diffusivity [AD], radial diffusivity [RD], and mean diffusivity [MD]) were derived from DTI. The FA maps were compared using voxel-based statistics to determine differences between the severe OSA and control groups. The differences in DTI indices, clinical severity, and leukocyte apoptosis were correlated after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, and systolic blood pressure. Exploratory group-wise comparison between the two groups revealed that patients with OSA exhibited low FA accomplished by high RD in several brain locations, without any differences in AD and MD. The FA values were negatively correlated with clinical disease severity and leukocyte early apoptosis. Conclusions: Obstructive sleep apnea impairs white matter integrity in vulnerable regions, and this impairment is associated with increased disease severity. The possible interactions between systemic inflammation and central nervous system microstructural damage may represent variant hypoxic patterns and their consequent processes in obstructive sleep apnea. Citation: Chen HL, Lu CH, Lin HC, Chen PC, Chou KH, Lin WM, Tsai NW, Su YJ, Friedman M, Lin CP, Lin WC. White matter damage

  5. Chromosome damage and aneuploidy detected by interphase multicolour FISH in benzene-exposed shale oil workers.

    PubMed

    Marcon, F; Zijno, A; Crebelli, R; Carere, A; Veidebaum, T; Peltonen, K; Parks, R; Schuler, M; Eastmond, D

    1999-09-30

    A multicolour tandem-labelling fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) procedure was used to detect chromosome alterations in peripheral blood cells of a group of Estonian petrochemistry workers. Twelve workers employed in benzene production and five cokery workers, together with eight unexposed rural controls, were enrolled in the study. The methodology employed, based on the in situ hybridization of adjacent centromeric and pericentromeric regions, allowed the simultaneous detection of both chromosome breakage, involving damage-prone pericentromeric regions, and hyperploidy in interphase cells. Blood smears from all subjects were hybridized with chromosome 1 specific probes, in order to detect genotoxic damage in circulating lymphocytes and granulocytes. Moreover, lymphocyte cultures were established, harvested 48 h following mitogen stimulation and hybridized with the tandem chromosomes 1 and 9 probes. No significant difference in the incidence of breakage was detected in the nucleated cells of blood smears of exposed vs. control subjects. In contrast, modest but significantly increased frequencies of breakage affecting both chromosomes 1 and 9 were observed in the cultured lymphocytes of the benzene-exposed workers compared to the unexposed controls, suggesting an expression of premutagenic lesions during the S-phase in vitro. Across the entire study group, the frequencies of breakage affecting chromosomes 1 and 9 in the stimulated lymphocytes were highly intercorrelated (p < 0.001). No significant difference was found in the incidence of hyperploidy among the study groups, although a tendency to higher values was observed in benzene-exposed workers. Although the relatively small size of the study groups does not allow firm conclusions on the role of occupational exposure, the observed patterns are suggestive of effects in the benzene-exposed workers. This work also shows that tandem labelling FISH can be usefully applied in human biomonitoring, allowing the

  6. A Portable Infrasonic Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Burkett, Cecil G.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Lawrenson, Christopher C.; Masterman, Michael

    2008-01-01

    During last couple of years, NASA Langley has designed and developed a portable infrasonic detection system which can be used to make useful infrasound measurements at a location where it was not possible previously. The system comprises an electret condenser microphone, having a 3-inch membrane diameter, and a small, compact windscreen. Electret-based technology offers the lowest possible background noise, because Johnson noise generated in the supporting electronics (preamplifier) is minimized. The microphone features a high membrane compliance with a large backchamber volume, a prepolarized backplane and a high impedance preamplifier located inside the backchamber. The windscreen, based on the high transmission coefficient of infrasound through matter, is made of a material having a low acoustic impedance and sufficiently thick wall to insure structural stability. Close-cell polyurethane foam has been found to serve the purpose well. In the proposed test, test parameters will be sensitivity, background noise, signal fidelity (harmonic distortion), and temporal stability. The design and results of the compact system, based upon laboratory and field experiments, will be presented.

  7. Combined analytical FEM approach for efficient simulation of Lamb wave damage detection.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanfeng; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2016-07-01

    Lamb waves have been widely explored as a promising inspection tool for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health monitoring (SHM). This article presents a combined analytical finite element model (FEM) approach (CAFA) for the accurate, efficient, and versatile simulation of 2-D Lamb wave propagation and interaction with damage. CAFA used a global analytical solution to model wave generation, propagation, scattering, mode conversion, and detection, while the wave-damage interaction coefficients (WDICs) were extracted from harmonic analysis of local FEM with non-reflective boundaries (NRB). The analytical procedure was coded using MATLAB, and a predictive simulation tool called WaveFormRevealer 2-D was developed. The methodology of obtaining WDICs from local FEM was presented. Case studies were carried out for Lamb wave propagation in a pristine plate and a damaged plate. CAFA predictions compared well with full scale multi-physics FEM simulations and experiments with scanning laser Doppler vibrometry (SLDV), while achieving remarkable performance in computational efficiency and computer resource saving compared with conventional FEM. PMID:27085109

  8. Photoelectric detection system. [manufacturing automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, J. R.; Schansman, R. R. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A photoelectric beam system for the detection of the arrival of an object at a discrete station wherein artificial light, natural light, or no light may be present is described. A signal generator turns on and off a signal light at a selected frequency. When the object in question arrives on station, ambient light is blocked by the object, and the light from the signal light is reflected onto a photoelectric sensor which has a delayed electrical output but is of the frequency of the signal light. Outputs from both the signal source and the photoelectric sensor are fed to inputs of an exclusively OR detector which provides as an output the difference between them. The difference signal is a small width pulse occurring at the frequency of the signal source. By filter means, this signal is distinguished from those responsive to sunlight, darkness, or 120 Hz artificial light. In this fashion, the presence of an object is positively established.

  9. Planetary system detection by POINTS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reasenberg, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    The final report and semiannual reports 1, 2, and 3 in response to the study of 'Planetary System Detection by POINTS' is presented. The grant covered the period from 15 Jun. 1988 through 31 Dec. 1989. The work during that period comprised the further development and refinement of the POINTS concept. The status of the POINTS development at the end of the Grant period was described by Reasenberg in a paper given at the JPL Workshop on Space Interferometry, 12-13 Mar. 1990, and distributed as CfA Preprint 3138. That paper, 'POINTS: a Small Astrometric Interferometer,' follows as Appendix-A. Our proposal P2276-7-09, dated July 1990, included a more detailed description of the state of the development of POINTS at the end of the tenure of Grant NAGW-1355. That proposal, which resulted in Grant NAGW-2497, is included by reference.

  10. Gear Fault Detection Effectiveness as Applied to Tooth Surface Pitting Fatigue Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, David G.; Dempsey, Paula J.; Heath, Gregory F.; Shanthakumaran, Perumal

    2010-01-01

    A study was performed to evaluate fault detection effectiveness as applied to gear-tooth-pitting-fatigue damage. Vibration and oil-debris monitoring (ODM) data were gathered from 24 sets of spur pinion and face gears run during a previous endurance evaluation study. Three common condition indicators (RMS, FM4, and NA4 [Ed. 's note: See Appendix A-Definitions D were deduced from the time-averaged vibration data and used with the ODM to evaluate their performance for gear fault detection. The NA4 parameter showed to be a very good condition indicator for the detection of gear tooth surface pitting failures. The FM4 and RMS parameters perfomu:d average to below average in detection of gear tooth surface pitting failures. The ODM sensor was successful in detecting a significant 8lDOunt of debris from all the gear tooth pitting fatigue failures. Excluding outliers, the average cumulative mass at the end of a test was 40 mg.

  11. Object-based change detection: dimension of damage in residential areas of Abu Suruj, Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demharter, Timo; Michel, Ulrich; Ehlers, Manfred; Reinartz, Peter

    2011-11-01

    Given the importance of Change Detection, especially in the field of crisis management, this paper discusses the advantage of object-based Change Detection. This project and the used methods give an opportunity to coordinate relief actions strategically. The principal objective of this project was to develop an algorithm which allows to detect rapidly damaged and destroyed buildings in the area of Abu Suruj. This Sudanese village is located in West-Darfur and has become the victim of civil war. The software eCognition Developer was used to per-form an object-based Change Detection on two panchromatic Quickbird 2 images from two different time slots. The first image shows the area before, the second image shows the area after the massacres in this region. Seeking a classification for the huts of the Sudanese town Abu Suruj was reached by first segmenting the huts and then classifying them on the basis of geo-metrical and brightness-related values. The huts were classified as "new", "destroyed" and "preserved" with the help of a automated algorithm. Finally the results were presented in the form of a map which displays the different conditions of the huts. The accuracy of the project is validated by an accuracy assessment resulting in an Overall Classification Accuracy of 90.50 percent. These change detection results allow aid organizations to provide quick and efficient help where it is needed the most.

  12. PREFACE: Radiation Damage in Biomolecular Systems (RADAM07)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuigan, Kevin G.

    2008-03-01

    The annual meeting of the COST P9 Action `Radiation damage in biomolecular systems' took place from 19-22 June 2007 in the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, in Dublin. The conference was structured into 5 Working Group sessions: Electrons and biomolecular interactions Ions and biomolecular interactions Radiation in physiological environments Theoretical developments for radiation damage Track structure in cells Each of the five working groups presented two sessions of invited talks. Professor Ron Chesser of Texas Tech University, USA gave a riveting plenary talk on `Mechanisms of Adaptive Radiation Responses in Mammals at Chernobyl' and the implications his work has on the Linear-No Threshold model of radiation damage. In addition, this was the first RADAM meeting to take place after the Alexander Litvenenko affair and we were fortunate to have one of the leading scientists involved in the European response Professor Herwig Paretzke of GSF-Institut für Strahlenschutz, Neuherberg, Germany, available to speak. The remaining contributions were presented in the poster session. A total of 72 scientific contributions (32 oral, 40 poster), presented by 97 participants from 22 different countries, gave an overview on the current progress in the 5 different subfields. A 1-day pre-conference `Early Researcher Tutorial Workshop' on the same topic kicked off on 19 June attended by more than 40 postgrads, postdocs and senior researchers. Twenty papers, based on these reports, are included in this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series. All the contributions in this volume were fully refereed, and they represent a sample of the courses, invited talks and contributed talks presented during RADAM07. The interdisciplinary RADAM07 conference brought together researchers from a variety of different fields with a common interest in biomolecular radiation damage. This is reflected by the disparate backgrounds of the authors of the papers presented in these proceedings

  13. Detection of DNA damage based on metal-mediated molecular beacon and DNA strands displacement reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yanxiang; Wei, Min; Wei, Wei; Yin, Lihong; Pu, Yuepu; Liu, Songqin

    2014-01-01

    DNA hairpin structure probes are usually designed by forming intra-molecular duplex based on Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds. In this paper, a molecular beacon based on silver ions-mediated cytosine-Ag+-cytosine base pairs was used to detect DNA. The inherent characteristic of the metal ligation facilitated the design of functional probe and the adjustment of its binding strength compared to traditional DNA hairpin structure probes, which make it be used to detect DNA in a simple, rapid and easy way with the help of DNA strands displacement reaction. The method was sensitive and also possesses the good specificity to differentiate the single base mismatched DNA from the complementary DNA. It was also successfully applied to study the damage effect of classic genotoxicity chemicals such as styrene oxide and sodium arsenite on DNA, which was significant in food science, environmental science and pharmaceutical science.

  14. Methods and Piezoelectric Imbedded Sensors for Damage Detection in Composite Plates Under Ambient and Cryogenic Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engberg, Robert; Ooi, Teng K.

    2004-01-01

    New methods for structural health monitoring are being assessed, especially in high-performance, extreme environment, safety-critical applications. One such application is for composite cryogenic fuel tanks. The work presented here attempts to characterize and investigate the feasibility of using imbedded piezoelectric sensors to detect cracks and delaminations under cryogenic and ambient conditions. A variety of damage detection methods and different Sensors are employed in the different composite plate samples to aid in determining an optimal algorithm, sensor placement strategy, and type of imbedded sensor to use. Variations of frequency, impedance measurements, and pulse echoing techniques of the sensors are employed and compared. Statistical and analytic techniques are then used to determine which method is most desirable for a specific type of damage. These results are furthermore compared with previous work using externally mounted sensors. Results and optimized methods from this work can then be incorporated into a larger composite structure to validate and assess its structural health. This could prove to be important in the development and qualification of any 2" generation reusable launch vehicle using composites as a structural element.

  15. Ionizing radiation-induced DNA injury and damage detection in patients with breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Borrego-Soto, Gissela; Ortiz-López, Rocío; Rojas-Martínez, Augusto

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Radiotherapy is frequently used in patients with breast cancer, but some patients may be more susceptible to ionizing radiation, and increased exposure to radiation sources may be associated to radiation adverse events. This susceptibility may be related to deficiencies in DNA repair mechanisms that are activated after cell-radiation, which causes DNA damage, particularly DNA double strand breaks. Some of these genetic susceptibilities in DNA-repair mechanisms are implicated in the etiology of hereditary breast/ovarian cancer (pathologic mutations in the BRCA 1 and 2 genes), but other less penetrant variants in genes involved in sporadic breast cancer have been described. These same genetic susceptibilities may be involved in negative radiotherapeutic outcomes. For these reasons, it is necessary to implement methods for detecting patients who are susceptible to radiotherapy-related adverse events. This review discusses mechanisms of DNA damage and repair, genes related to these functions, and the diagnosis methods designed and under research for detection of breast cancer patients with increased radiosensitivity. PMID:26692152

  16. Impact resonance method for damage detection in RC beams strengthened with composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheorghiu, Catalin; Rhazi, Jamal E.; Labossiere, Pierre

    2005-05-01

    There are numerous successful applications of fibre-reinforced composites for strengthening the civil engineering infrastructure. Most of these repairs are being continuously or intermittently monitored for assessing their effectiveness and safety. The impact resonance method (IRM), a non-destructive technique, utilized in civil engineering exclusively for determining the dynamic concrete properties, could be a valuable and viable damage detection tool for structural elements. The IRM gives useful information about the dynamic characteristics of rectangular and circular concrete members such as beams and columns. In this experimental program, a 1.2-m-long reinforced concrete beam strengthened with a carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) plate has been employed. The CFRP-strengthened beam has been loaded in fatigue for two million cycles at 3 Hz. The load amplitude was from 15 to 35% of the anticipated yielding load of the beam. Throughout fatigue testing the cycling was stopped for IRM measurements to be taken. The obtained data provided information about changes in modal properties such as natural frequencies of vibration. These results have shown the successful use of the IRM for detecting fatigue damage in concrete members strengthened with composites.

  17. T1ρ MRI detects cartilage damage in asymptomatic individuals with a cam deformity.

    PubMed

    Anwander, Helen; Melkus, Gerd; Rakhra, Kawan S; Beaulé, Paul E

    2016-06-01

    Hips with a cam deformity are at risk for early cartilage degeneration, mainly in the anterolateral region of the joint. T1ρ MRI is a described technique for assessment of proteoglycan content in hyaline cartilage and subsequently early cartilage damage. In this study, 1.5 Tesla T1ρ MRI was performed on 20 asymptomatic hips with a cam deformity and compared to 16 healthy control hips. Cam deformity was defined as an alpha angle at 1:30 o'clock position over 60° and/or at 3:00 o'clock position over 50.5°. Hip cartilage was segmented and divided into four regions of interest (ROIs): anterolateral, anteromedial, posterolateral, and posteromedial quadrants. Mean T1ρ value of the entire weight bearing cartilage in hips with a cam deformity (34.0 ± 4.6 ms) was significantly higher compared to control hips (31.3 ± 3.2 ms, p = 0.050). This difference reached significance in the anterolateral (p = 0.042) and posteromedial quadrants (p = 0.041). No significant correlation between the alpha angle and T1ρ values was detected. The results indicate cartilage damage occurs in hips with a cam deformity before symptoms occur. A significant difference in T1ρ values was found in the anterolateral quadrant, the area of direct engagement of the deformity, and in the posteromedial quadrant. To conclude, T1ρ MRI can detect early chondral damage in asymptomatic hips with a cam deformity. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1004-1009, 2016. PMID:26573964

  18. A boundary element method for detection of damages and self-diagnosis of transducers using electro-mechanical impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Fangxin; Aliabadi, M. H.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, for the first time, a boundary element method (BEM) for modelling the electro-mechanical responses of three-dimensional structures is reported. Within an electro-mechanically coupled system, the host structure is formulated using the 3D dual boundary element method in order to be able to take into account the possible existence of cracks, and the piezoelectric transducers, which are the key to measuring electro-mechanical impedance (EMI), are modelled using a semi-analytical finite element approach. The analyses of the coupled system are performed in the frequency domain. The EMI signatures computed by the BEM developed in this work show excellent agreement with those obtained using the finite element method and from experiments. Using parametric studies, the potential of using EMI signatures for the detection of damages in structures and for the self-diagnosis of transducers is assessed.

  19. Application of Golay codes to distributed optical fiber sensor for long-distance oil pipeline leakage and external damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yannian; Jiang, Zhuangde

    2006-03-01

    A new distributed optical fiber sensor system for long-distance oil pipeline leakage and external damage detection is presented. A smart and sensitive optical fiber cable is buried beneath the soil running along the oil pipeline, which is sensitive to soakage of oil products and mechanical deformation and vibration caused by leaking, tampering, and mechanical impacting. The region of additional attenuation can be located based on the optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR), and the types of external disturbances can be identified according to the characteristics of transmitted optical power. The Golay codes are utilized to improve the range-resolution performance of the OTDR sub-system and offer a method to characterize the transmitted optical power in a wide range of frequency spectrum. Theoretic analysis and simulation experiment have shown that the application of Golay codes can overcome the shortcomings of the prototype based on the conventional single-pulse OTDR.

  20. Non-Baseline Damage Detection from Changes in Strain Energy Mode Shapes Experiments on Armored Vehicle Launched Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazonov, E. S.; Klinkhachorn, P.; GangaRao, H. V. S.; Halabe, U. B.

    2003-03-01

    There are several existing methods for damage detection based on identifying changes in strain energy mode shapes. Most of these methods require knowing strain energy mode shapes for a structure without damage in order to establish a baseline for damage detection. Usually, the mode shapes from the structure under test should be compared to the baseline mode shapes to identify and locate damage. However, these methods of damage detection are not very suitable for application on structures where baseline mode shapes cannot be readily obtained, for example, structures with preexisting damage. Conventional methods, like building a finite element model of a structure to be used as a baseline might be an expensive and time-consuming task that can be impossible for complex structures. A new (non-baseline) method for the extraction of localized changes (damage peaks) from strain energy mode shapes based on Fourier analysis of the strain energy mode shapes has been developed and analytically proved for the cases of a pinned-pinned and a free-free beam. The new method looks for characteristic changes in the power spectrum of the strain energy mode shapes in order to locate and identify damage. The analytical results have been confirmed both by the finite element model and impact testing experiments on a free-free aluminum beam, including single and multiple damage scenarios. This paper presents results of testing the non-baseline method on a complex structure — Armored Vehicle Launched Bridge, which consists of loosely coupled hinged beams with variable cross-section. The results of testing confirm applicability of the non-baseline method to damage detection in complex structures and highlight certain particularities of its use.

  1. Three-dimensional structural damage localization system and method using layered two-dimensional array of capacitance sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Mark A (Inventor); Senibi, Simon D (Inventor); Banks, David L (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method for detecting damage to a structure is provided. The system includes a voltage source and at least one capacitor formed as a layer within the structure and responsive to the voltage source. The system also includes at least one sensor responsive to the capacitor to sense a voltage of the capacitor. A controller responsive to the sensor determines if damage to the structure has occurred based on the variance of the voltage of the capacitor from a known reference value. A method for sensing damage to a structure involves providing a plurality of capacitors and a controller, and coupling the capacitors to at least one surface of the structure. A voltage of the capacitors is sensed using the controller, and the controller calculates a change in the voltage of the capacitors. The method can include signaling a display system if a change in the voltage occurs.

  2. Damage of composite structures: Detection technique, dynamic response and residual strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestari, Wahyu

    2001-10-01

    Reliable and accurate health monitoring techniques can prevent catastrophic failures of structures. Conventional damage detection methods are based on visual or localized experimental methods and very often require prior information concerning the vicinity of the damage or defect. The structure must also be readily accessible for inspections. The techniques are also labor intensive. In comparison to these methods, health-monitoring techniques that are based on the structural dynamic response offers unique information on failure of structures. However, systematic relations between the experimental data and the defect are not available and frequently, the number of vibration modes needed for an accurate identification of defects is much higher than the number of modes that can be readily identified in the experiment. These motivated us to develop an experimental data based detection method with systematic relationships between the experimentally identified information and the analytical or mathematical model representing the defective structures. The developed technique use changes in vibrational curvature modes and natural frequencies. To avoid misinterpretation of the identified information, we also need to understand the effects of defects on the structural dynamic response prior to developing health-monitoring techniques. In this thesis work we focus on two type of defects in composite structures, namely delamination and edge notch like defect. Effects of nonlinearity due to the presence of defect and due to the axial stretching are studied for beams with delamination. Once defects are detected in a structure, next concern is determining the effects of the defects on the strength of the structure and its residual stiffness under dynamic loading. In this thesis, energy release rate due to dynamic loading in a delaminated structure is studied, which will be a foundation toward determining the residual strength of the structure.

  3. Comparison of remote sensing change detection techniques for assessing hurricane damage to forests.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fugui; Xu, Y Jun

    2010-03-01

    This study compared performance of four change detection algorithms with six vegetation indices derived from pre- and post-Katrina Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) imagery and a composite of the TM bands 4, 5, and 3 in order to select an optimal remote sensing technique for identifying forestlands disturbed by Hurricane Katrina. The algorithms included univariate image differencing (UID), selective principal component analysis (PCA), change vector analysis (CVA), and postclassification comparison (PCC). The indices consisted of near-infrared to red ratios, normalized difference vegetation index, Tasseled Cap index of greenness, brightness, and wetness (TCW), and soil-adjusted vegetation index. In addition to the satellite imagery, the "ground truth" data of forest damage were also collected through field investigation and interpretation of post-Katrina aerial photos. Disturbed forests were identified by classifying the composite and the continuous change imagery with the supervised classification method. Results showed that the change detection techniques exerted apparent influence on detection results with an overall accuracy varying between 51% and 86% and a kappa statistics ranging from 0.02 to 0.72. Detected areas of disturbed forestlands were noticeable in two groups: 180,832-264,617 and 85,861-124,205 ha. The landscape of disturbed forests also displayed two unique patterns, depending upon the area group. The PCC algorithm along with the composite image contributed the highest accuracy and lowest error (0.5%) in estimating areas of disturbed forestlands. Both UID and CVA performed similarly, but caution should be taken when using selective PCA in detecting hurricane disturbance to forests. Among the six indices, TCW outperformed the other indices owing to its maximum sensitivity to forest modification. This study suggested that compared with the detection algorithms, proper selection of vegetation indices was more critical for obtaining satisfactory results. PMID

  4. The Effects of Foam Thermal Protection System on the Damage Tolerance Characteristics of Composite Sandwich Structures for Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T.; Hodge, A. J.; Jackson, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    For any structure composed of laminated composite materials, impact damage is one of the greatest risks and therefore most widely tested responses. Typically, impact damage testing and analysis assumes that a solid object comes into contact with the bare surface of the laminate (the outer ply). However, most launch vehicle structures will have a thermal protection system (TPS) covering the structure for the majority of its life. Thus, the impact response of the material with the TPS covering is the impact scenario of interest. In this study, laminates representative of the composite interstage structure for the Ares I launch vehicle were impact tested with and without the planned TPS covering, which consists of polyurethane foam. Response variables examined include maximum load of impact, damage size as detected by nondestructive evaluation techniques, and damage morphology and compression after impact strength. Results show that there is little difference between TPS covered and bare specimens, except the residual strength data is higher for TPS covered specimens.

  5. Evaluation of Oxidation Damage in Thermal Barrier Coating Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    1996-01-01

    A method based on the technique of dilatometry has been established to quantitatively evaluate the interfacial damage due to the oxidation in a thermal barrier coating system. Strain isolation and adhesion coefficients have been proposed to characterize the thermal barrier coating (TBC) performance based on its thermal expansion behavior. It has been found that, for a thermal barrier coating system consisting of ZrO2-8%Y2O3/FeCrAlY/4140 steel substrate, the oxidation of the bond coat and substrate significantly reduced the ceramic coating adherence, as inferred from the dilatometry measurements. The in-situ thermal expansion measurements under 30 deg C to 700 deg C thermal cycling in air showed that the adhesion coefficient, A(sub i) decreased by 25% during the first 35 oxidation cycles. Metallography showed that delamination occurred at both the ceramic/bond coat and bond coat/substrate interfaces. In addition, the strain isolation effect has been improved by increasing the FeCrAlY bond coat thickness. The strain isolation coefficient, Si, increased from about 0.04 to 0.25, as the bond coat thickness changed from 0.1 mm to 1.0 mm. It may be possible to design optimum values of strain isolation and interface adhesion coefficients to achieve the best TBC performance.

  6. Damage detection method for wind turbine blades based on dynamics analysis and mode shape difference curvature information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanfeng; Liang, Ming; Xiang, Jiawei

    2014-10-01

    Blades are among the key components of wind turbines. Blade damage is one of the most common types of structural defects and can cause catastrophic structural failure. Therefore, it is highly desirable to detect and diagnose blade damage as early as possible. In this paper, we propose a method for blade damage detection and diagnosis. This method incorporates finite element method (FEM) for dynamics analysis (modal analysis and response analysis) and the mode shape difference curvature (MSDC) information for damage detection/diagnosis. Finite element models of wind turbine blades have been built and modified via frequency comparison with experimental data and the formula for the model updating technique. Our numerical simulation results have demonstrated that the proposed technique can detect the spatial locations of damages for wind turbine blades. Changes in natural frequencies and modes for smaller size blades with damage are found to occur at lower frequencies and lower modes than in the larger sized blade case. The relationship between modal parameters and damage information (location, size) is very complicated especially for larger size blades. Moreover, structure and dynamic characters for larger size blades are different from those for smaller sized blades. Therefore, dynamic response analysis for a larger sized wind turbine blade with a multi-layer composite material based on aerodynamic loads’ (including lift forces and drag forces) calculation has been carried out and improved the efficiency and precision to damage detection by combining (MSDC) information. This method provides a low cost and efficient non-destructive tool for wind turbine blade condition monitoring.

  7. Detection of Anomalous Machining Damages in Inconel 718 and TI 6-4 by Eddy Current Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, C. C. H.; Shimon, M.; Nakagawa, N.

    2010-02-01

    This paper reports on an eddy current (EC) study aimed at detecting anomalous machining damages in Inconel 718 and Ti 6-4 samples, including (i) surface discontinuities such as re-depositing of chips onto the machined surface, and (ii) microstructural damages manifested as a white surface layer and a subsurface layer of distorted grains, typically tens of microns thick. A series of pristine and machine-damaged coupons were studied by EC scans using a differential probe operated at 2 MHz to detect discontinuous surface anomalies, and by swept high frequency EC (SHFEC) measurements from 0.5 MHz to 65.5 MHz using proprietary detection coils to detect surface microstructural damages. In general, the EC c-scan data from machine-damaged surfaces show spatial variations with larger standard deviations than those from the undamaged surfaces. In some cases, the c-scan images exhibit characteristic bipolar indications in good spatial correlation with surface anomalies revealed by optical microscopy and laser profilometry. Results of the SHFEC measurements indicate a reduced near-surface conductivity of the damaged surfaces compared to the undamaged surfaces.

  8. Damage detection and artificial healing of asphalt concrete after trafficking with a load simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, M.; Arraigada, M.; Partl, M. N.

    2016-03-01

    Artificial healing of asphalt concrete by induction heating requires the addition of electrically conductive and/or magnetic materials into the asphalt mixture. Hence, bitumen can be heated up by an alternating electromagnetic field, decreasing therefore its viscosity and allowing it to flow for closing cracks and recover bonding among the mineral aggregates. In this work, a recent performance oriented study of this innovative approach to prove the feasibility of the healing concept at large scale is presented. This work was focused on the analysis of 1.8 m long test slabs damaged by the Model Mobile Load Simulator MMLS3. It is known that visible cracks cannot be completely healed by this technique and therefore, recovery of the mechanical performance is not significant. For this reason, inductive heating must be applied not later than the initiation of micro-cracks to allow them to be promptly closed avoiding their propagation. In order to monitor the damage level of a number of the test slabs during the loading phase, a digital image correlation system was used in this work. This optical method allowed us to see the accumulated damage as well as to select the right moment to accomplish the healing process. In addition, this method was useful to confirm that the strength was recovered after a healing process and hence, an increase of life of the asphalt pavement might be obtained. Finally, it was demonstrated that healing by induction heating can be a feasible alternative for maintenance purposes when used before irreversible damage of the pavement.

  9. Demonstration of detectability of SHM system with FBG/PZT hybrid system in composite wing box structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soejima, Hideki; Ogisu, Toshimichi; Yoneda, Hiroshi; Okabe, Yoji; Takeda, Nobuo; Koshioka, Yasuhiro

    2008-03-01

    We have developed a novel damage monitoring system that can monitor the integrity of composite structures in aircrafts. In this system, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are used as sensors and piezoelectric transducers (PZT) are used as the generators of elastic waves that propagate in the structure to be inspected. The damage monitoring system can detect the structural integrity by the change in elastic waves that are detected by the FBG sensor and arrayed waveguide grating (AWG)-type filter. We confirmed that the structure health monitoring (SHM) system was able to monitor the damage initiation and propagation by a change in the waveform of the elastic waves in coupon specimens and structural element specimens. In this study, we demonstrate the detectability of the damage monitoring system by using a subcomponent test specimen that simulates an actual aircraft wing box structure composed of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs). The FBG sensors and PZTs are bonded to the surfaces of hat-shaped stringers by an adhesive. Damages such as de-bonding and delamination are introduced in the bonded sections of the skin and stringers by impact. Damage monitoring and diagnosis are carried out by the SHM system under ambient conditions. We successfully verify the detectability of our system.

  10. Damage detection monitoring applications in self-healing concrete structures using embedded piezoelectric transducers and recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaiskos, G.; Tsangouri, E.; Aggelis, D. G.; Deraemaeker, A.; Van Hemelrijck, D.

    2015-07-01

    The ageing, operational and ambient loadings have a great impact in the operational and maintenance cost of concrete structures. Their service life prolongation is of utmost importance and this can be efficiently achieved by using reliable and low-cost monitoring and self-healing techniques. In the present study, the ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) method using embedded small-size and low-cost piezoelectric PZT (lead zirconate titanate) ceramic transducers in concrete with self-healing properties is implemented for monitoring not only the setting and hardening phases of concrete since casting time, but also for the detection of damage initiation, propagation and recovery of integrity after healing. A couple of small-scale notched unreinforced concrete beams are subjected to mode-I fracture through three-point bending tests. After a 24-hour healing agent curing period, the beams are reloaded using the same loading scenario. The results demonstrate the excellent performance of the proposed monitoring technique during the hydration, damage generation and recovery periods.

  11. Investigation of Tapered Roller Bearing Damage Detection Using Oil Debris Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Krieder, Gary; Fichter, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A diagnostic tool was developed for detecting fatigue damage to tapered roller bearings. Tapered roller bearings are used in helicopter transmissions and have potential for use in high bypass advanced gas turbine aircraft engines. This diagnostic tool was developed and evaluated experimentally by collecting oil debris data from failure progression tests performed by The Timken Company in their Tapered Roller Bearing Health Monitoring Test Rig. Failure progression tests were performed under simulated engine load conditions. Tests were performed on one healthy bearing and three predamaged bearings. During each test, data from an on-line, in-line, inductance type oil debris sensor was monitored and recorded for the occurrence of debris generated during failure of the bearing. The bearing was removed periodically for inspection throughout the failure progression tests. Results indicate the accumulated oil debris mass is a good predictor of damage on tapered roller bearings. The use of a fuzzy logic model to enable an easily interpreted diagnostic metric was proposed and demonstrated.

  12. Development of nondestructive non-contact acousto-thermal evaluation technique for damage detection in materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathish, Shamachary; Welter, John T.; Jata, Kumar V.; Schehl, Norman; Boehnlein, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents the development of a new non-contact acousto-thermal signature (NCATS) nondestructive evaluation technique. The physical basis of the method is the measurement of the efficiency of the material to convert acoustic energy into heat, and a theoretical model has been used to evaluate this. The increase in temperature due to conversion of acoustic energy injected into the material without direct contact was found to depend on the thermal and elastic properties of the material. In addition, it depends on the experimental parameters of the acoustic source power, the distance between sample and acoustic source, and the period of acoustic excitation. Systematic experimental approaches to optimize each of the experimental variables to maximize the observed temperature changes are described. The potential of the NCATS technique to detect microstructural-level changes in materials is demonstrated by evaluating accumulated damage due to plasticity in Ti-6Al-4V and low level thermal damage in polymer matrix composites. The ability of the technique for macroscopic applications in nondestructive evaluation is demonstrated by imaging a crack in an aluminum test sample.

  13. Wideband excitation in nonlinear vibro-acoustic modulation for damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepka, A.; Adamczyk, M.; Pieczonka, L.; Staszewski, W. J.

    2016-04-01

    The paper discusses the use of wideband excitation in nonlinear vibro-acoustic modulation technique (VAM) used for damage detection. In its origin