Note: This page contains sample records for the topic damage evolution law from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Hypervelocity impacts and damage laws  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space debris are nowadays a recognized threat for any space mission. Hypervelocity impacts of space objects can degrade, or terminate prematurely, costly missions. It is, therefore, necessary to improve the survivability of spacecraft. The first step toward this goal is to characterize the behaviour of different materials and configurations under hypervelocity impacts. The purpose of this paper is to present experimental results covering a fairly wide range of materials. Aluminium, carbon fibre reinforced plastics, carbon-carbon, and various type of thermal insulation are considered. The behaviour of sandwich panels with carbon fibre reinforced facings and aluminium honeycomb cores is also investigated. Considerations are given to hypervelocity impacts on gas filled pressure vessels. On the basis of the available data, damage laws are proposed with remarks about their range of applicability.

Lambert, M.

1997-05-01

2

One damage law for different mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider here a general three-dimensional kinetic damage law. It uses the thermodynamic of irreversible processes formalism\\u000a and the phenomenological aspects of isotropic damage. It gives the damage rate as a function of its associated variable, the\\u000a strain energy density release rate and the accumulated plastic strain rate.\\u000a \\u000a Associated with different plastic constitutive equations, this damage law takes into account

J. Lemaitre; J. P. Sermage

1997-01-01

3

A Damage Evolution Approach in Fracture Mechanics of Pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The paper concentrates on perspectives of the damage evolution approach in fracture mechanics of oil and gas pipelines. This\\u000a approach is based on the generalised concept of damage. It is postulated that deformation and fracture processes in solids\\u000a are determined by some general functional law related to the accumulation of damage. Fracture mechanics parameters are accepted\\u000a as the controlling parameters

Yu. G. Matvienko

4

Evolution of the Second Law of Thermodynamics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents the history surrounding the evolution of the second law of thermodynamics. Discusses Sadi Carnot's contributions, but also refers to those by Clapeyron, Thomson, Joule, Clausius, and Boltzman among others. (RR)|

Raman, V. V.

1970-01-01

5

As Law Goes By: Topology, Ontology, Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The paper deals with Hayek’s classical distinction between cosmos and taxis, i.e., evolution vs. constructivism, spontaneous\\u000a orders vs. human (political) planning. Recent empirical evidence confirms that the informational complexity of the law is\\u000a not reducible to taxis alone and, furthermore, orders spontaneously emerge from the complexity of the environment through\\u000a specific laws of evolution. Whereas, most of the time, today’s

Ugo Pagallo

2009-01-01

6

The Cultural Evolution of Tort Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Institutes of Justinian and other Graeco-Roman recitations of tort-type delicts and remedies are recognized as root stock of modern western tort law, common law, or civil code-based alike. Long before these sources, however, both ancient and primitive cultures adopted norms and customs which defined permissible individual and group conduct, and which provided for remedies ranging from money damages to

M. Stuart Madden

2005-01-01

7

Evolution and the second law of thermodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Skeptics of biological evolution often claim that evolution requires a decrease in entropy, giving rise to a conflict with the second law of thermodynamics. This argument is fallacious because it neglects the large increase in entropy provided by sunlight striking the Earth. A recent article provided a quantitative assessment of the entropies involved and showed explicitly that there is no conflict. That article rests on an unjustified assumption about the amount of entropy reduction involved in evolution. I present a refinement of the argument that does not rely on this assumption.

Bunn, Emory F.

2009-10-01

8

Micro Damage Evolution Analysis of Target Impacted by Projectile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new dynamic stress-strain rate type constitutive model for mixed hardening material has been developed using evolutional Gurson type yield function for solving problems of rigid plastic porous materials. During the plastic process of ductile materials in many engineering problems, the failure of materials is mainly induced by the damage behaviors such as the nucleation of micro void, their evolutions and the coalescence. With the aid of some concept of parameters and formulations, such as generalized triaxiality function in stress space, void fraction, effective stress with micro void interaction and void induced effective strain rate, generalized triaxiality ratio and so on, the dynamic void evolutional process of mixed hardening material has been analyzed in detail. Based on the above constitutive law the rigid-plastic finite element modeling and the FEM computer system including the damage evolutional process have been developed. The micro damage phenomena caused by collision of a flying projectile on to a target is simulated in order to reveal the applicability of the method. The inherent relations between the penetration and perforation process, and damage evolution process during the impact of target plate by projectile are revealed.

Tsuta, Toshio; Yin, Yajun; Iwamoto, Takeshi

9

Damage evolution in filled elastomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report summarizes theoretical and experimental research on distributed damage growth and its effect on stress-strain behavior and on the strain distribution around macrocracks in particle-filled rubber. Two Appendices provide details on the constitutive model, experimental determination of deformation and damage in specimens under axial straining and confining pressure, and experimental measurement of strain fields in biaxially-stressed specimens with cracks.

Ha, K.; Park, S.; Schapery, R. A.

1993-06-01

10

On a finite-strain viscoplastic law coupled with anisotropic damage: theoretical formulations and numerical applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on a dissipation inequality at finite strains and the effective stress concept, a Chaboche-type infinitesimal viscoplastic\\u000a theory is extended to finite-strain cases coupled with anisotropic damage. The anisotropic damage is described by a rank-two\\u000a symmetric tensor. The constitutive law is formulated in the corotational material coordinate system. Thus, the evolution equations\\u000a of all internal variables can be expressed in

R. C. Lin; W. Brocks

2006-01-01

11

Radiation damage evolution in ceramics  

SciTech Connect

A review is presented of recent results on radiation damage production, defect accumulation and dynamic annealing in a number of ceramics, such as silicon carbide, zircon and zirconia. Under energetic particle irradiation, ceramics can undergo amorphization by the accumulation of point defects and defect clusters (silicon carbide) or direct impact amorphization (zircon). Ceramics that resist radiation-induced amorphization have mechanisms to dissipate the primary knock-on atom energy, such as replacement collision sequences that leave the lattice undisturbed and low-energy cation site exchange. The presence of engineered mobile defects, such as structural vacancies in stabilized zirconia, can dynamically anneal radiation damage. Thus, defect engineering is a promising strategy to design radiation tolerance for applications such as nuclear waste disposal.

Devanathan, Ramaswami

2009-09-15

12

Lagrangian Approach to Evolution Equations: Symmetries and Conservation Laws.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We present a Lagrangian approach to evolution equations by considering them together with their associated equations. The approach allows one to employ Noether's theorem and derive conservation laws from symmetries of the coupled system of evolution type ...

N. H. Ibragimov T. Kolsrud

2003-01-01

13

Application of Patent Law Damages Analysis to Trade Secret Misappropriation Claims: Apportionment, Alternatives, and Other Common Limitations on Damages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Part I of this article discusses the case law acknowledging the applicability of patent law precedents in the context of trade secret damage claims. Part II discusses the application of patent law precedents regarding lost profits as a measure of damages. Part III analyzes the applicability of patent law damages principles in the context of unjust enrichment as a measure

Douglas G. Smith

2002-01-01

14

Properties of Conservation Laws of Nonlinear Evolution Equations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic method is developed for evaluating conservation laws of nonlinear evolution equations (NEE's) by employing the time parts of the Bäcklund transformations. The properties of conservation laws are then investigated in detail to obtain the informations about the structure of NEE's themselves. In particular, we focus our attention on the independence of conservation laws. The NEE's considered in this

Yoshimasa Matsuno

1990-01-01

15

Damages for pain and suffering in tort law.  

PubMed

Legislation enacted between 2002 and 2005 by each Australian State and Territory reformed and partially codified the common law of personal injuries. This column examines the nature and history of damages for pain and suffering and analyses the approach taken by different Australian jurisdictions to compensation for non-economic loss. Non-economic loss is generally composed of pain and suffering, loss of amenities of life, and loss of enjoyment of life (some jurisdictions, eg New South Wales, also include disfigurement, and loss of expectation of life). Several jurisdictions have imposed thresholds that a claimant must meet as a prerequisite to suing for damages at common law. PMID:18575167

Mendelson, Danuta

2008-05-01

16

Evolution of oil and gas law  

Microsoft Academic Search

This survey of case law in condensed form reveals a development of scientific, industrial, and business experience that united to produce the present-day law. Constant movement from extreme individualism to emphasis on the common interest in the proper exploitation and use of important minerals in the legal decisions of the present time is detailed by case citations. Rules have modified

1941-01-01

17

General entanglement scaling laws from time evolution.  

PubMed

We establish a general scaling law for the entanglement of a large class of ground states and dynamically evolving states of quantum spin chains: we show that the geometric entropy of a distinguished block saturates, and hence follows an entanglement-boundary law. These results apply to any ground state of a gapped model resulting from dynamics generated by a local Hamiltonian, as well as, dually, to states that are generated via a sudden quench of an interaction as recently studied in the case of dynamics of quantum phase transitions. We achieve these results by exploiting ideas from quantum information theory and tools provided by Lieb-Robinson bounds. We also show that there exist noncritical fermionic systems and equivalent spin chains with rapidly decaying interactions violating this entanglement-boundary law. Implications for the classical simulatability are outlined. PMID:17155303

Eisert, Jens; Osborne, Tobias J

2006-10-12

18

Biphasic constitutive laws for biological interface evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model of tissue differentiation at the bone–implant interface is proposed. The basic hypothesis of the model is that the\\u000a mechanical environment determines the tissue differentiation. The stimulus chosen is related to the bone–implant micromotions.\\u000a Equations governing the evolution of the interfacial tissue are proposed and combined with a finite element code to determine\\u000a the evolution of the fibrous tissue

P. Büchler; D. P. Pioletti; L. R. Rakotomanana

2003-01-01

19

The Evolution of Global Water Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter presents an overview of global trends in water law and policy and assesses current global water governance. It\\u000a identifies the key purpose of this book as providing an historic understanding of how and why after 5,000 years of water governance,\\u000a that governance still has not reached stability. It identifies the key research questions for this book. It provides

Joseph W. Dellapenna; Joyeeta Gupta

20

Scale-Dependent Friction and Damage Interface law: implications for effective earthquake rupture dynamics and radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Propagation and radiation of an earthquake rupture is commonly considered as a friction dominated process on fault surfaces. Friction laws, such as the slip weakening and the rate-and-state laws are widely used in the modeling of the earthquake rupture process. These laws prescribe the traction evolution versus slip, slip rate and potentially other internal variables. They introduce a finite cohesive length scale over which the fracture energy is released. However faults are finite-width interfaces with complex internal structures, characterized by highly damaged zones embedding a very thin principal slip interface where most of the dynamic slip localizes. Even though the rupture process is generally investigated at wavelengths larger than the fault zone thickness, which should justify a formulation based upon surface energy, a consistent homogeneization, a very challenging problem, is still missing. Such homogeneization is however be required to derive the consistent form of an effective interface law, as well as the appropriate physical variables and length scales, to correctly describe the coarse-grained dissipation resulting from surface and volumetric contributions at the scale of the fault zone. In this study, we investigate a scale-dependent law, introduced by Raous et al. (1999) in the context of adhesive material interfaces, that takes into account the transition between a damage dominated and a friction dominated state. Such a phase-field formalism describes this transition through an order parameter. We first compare this law to standard slip weakening friction law in terms of the rupture nucleation. The problem is analyzed through the representation of the solution of the quasi-static elastic problem onto the Chebyshev polynomial basis, generalizing the Uenishi-Rice solution. The nucleation solutions, at the onset of instability, are then introduced as initial conditions for the study of the dynamic rupture propagation, in the case of in-plane rupture, using high-order Spectral Element Methods and non-smooth contact mechanics. In particular, we investigate the implications of this new interface law in terms of the rupture propagation and arrest. Special attention is focused on radiation and supershear transition. Comparison with the classical slip weakening friction law is provided. Finally, first results toward a dynamic consistent homogeneization of damaged fault zones will be discussed. Raous, M., Cangémi, L. and Cocou, M. (1999). A consistent model coupling adhesion, friction and unilateral contact', Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Vol. 177, pp.383-399.

Festa, Gaetano; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre; Raous, Michel; Henninger, Carole

2010-05-01

21

Stochastic dynamics of damage evolution in brittle rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of defects in brittle rocks is analysed in terms of continuous damage mechanics with an emphasis on a shear damage evolution. Necessity to account for an effect of stochastic action leads to an introduction of kinetic relations for damage accumlation in a form of stochastic differential equations. Numerical algorithms for their solution for three types of noise are proposed.

Vadim V. Silberschmidt; Vladimir G. Silberschmidt

1996-01-01

22

The constructal law of design and evolution in nature  

PubMed Central

Constructal theory is the view that (i) the generation of images of design (pattern, rhythm) in nature is a phenomenon of physics and (ii) this phenomenon is covered by a principle (the constructal law): ‘for a finite-size flow system to persist in time (to live) it must evolve such that it provides greater and greater access to the currents that flow through it’. This law is about the necessity of design to occur, and about the time direction of the phenomenon: the tape of the design evolution ‘movie’ runs such that existing configurations are replaced by globally easier flowing configurations. The constructal law has two useful sides: the prediction of natural phenomena and the strategic engineering of novel architectures, based on the constructal law, i.e. not by mimicking nature. We show that the emergence of scaling laws in inanimate (geophysical) flow systems is the same phenomenon as the emergence of allometric laws in animate (biological) flow systems. Examples are lung design, animal locomotion, vegetation, river basins, turbulent flow structure, self-lubrication and natural multi-scale porous media. This article outlines the place of the constructal law as a self-standing law in physics, which covers all the ad hoc (and contradictory) statements of optimality such as minimum entropy generation, maximum entropy generation, minimum flow resistance, maximum flow resistance, minimum time, minimum weight, uniform maximum stresses and characteristic organ sizes. Nature is configured to flow and move as a conglomerate of ‘engine and brake’ designs.

Bejan, Adrian; Lorente, Sylvie

2010-01-01

23

The constructal law and the evolution of design in nature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The constructal law accounts for the universal phenomenon of generation and evolution of design (configuration, shape, structure, pattern, rhythm). This phenomenon is observed across the board, in animate, inanimate and human systems. The constructal law states the time direction of the evolutionary design phenomenon. It defines the concept of design evolution in physics. Along with the first and second law, the constructal law elevates thermodynamics to a science of systems with configuration. In this article we review the more recent work of our group, with emphasis on the advances made with the constructal law in the natural sciences. Highlighted are the oneness of animate and inanimate designs, the origin of finite-size organs on animals and vehicles, the flow of stresses as the generator of design in solid structures (skeletons, vegetation), the universality and rigidity of hierarchy in all flow systems, and the global design of human flows. Noteworthy is the tapestry of distributed energy systems, which balances nodes of production with networks of distribution on the landscape, and serves as key to energy sustainability and empowerment. At the global level, the constructal law accounts for the geography and design of human movement, wealth and communications.

Bejan, Adrian; Lorente, Sylvie

2011-10-01

24

A three-dimensional elastic plastic damage constitutive law for bone tissue.  

PubMed

Motivated by mechanical analysis of bones and bone-implant systems, a 3D constitutive law describing the macroscopic mechanical behaviour of both cortical and trabecular bone in cyclic (not fatigue) overloads is developed. The proposed model which mathematical formulation is established within the framework of generalized standard materials accounts for three distinct material evolution modes where elastic, plastic and damage aspects are closely related. The anisotropic elasticity of bone is described by a morphology-based model and distinct damage behaviour in tension and compression by a halfspacewise generalized Hill criterion. The plastic criterion is based on the intact elastic compliance tensor. The algorithm applies three distinct projections based on the relationship between the internal variables and criteria. Their respective consistent tangent operators are presented. Numerical resolutions of several boundary value problems and a biomechanical application are presented to illustrate the potential of the constitutive model and demonstrate the expected quadratic convergence of the algorithm. PMID:18398628

Garcia, David; Zysset, Philippe K; Charlebois, Mathieu; Curnier, Alain

2008-04-09

25

The Evolution of the German Tort Law in the 19th Century - An Economic Analysis of the Evolution of Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the advances in New Institutional Economics about the economic consequences of institutions and legal rules, up to now we have only limited knowledge about the mechanisms of the evolution of law. By combining the main ideas of Evolutionary Economics and New Institutional Economics this paper tries to contribute to our understanding of the process of institutional innovations. It is

Martina Eckardt

1999-01-01

26

Plastic strain induced damage evolution and martensitic transformation in ductile materials at cryogenic temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fe-Cr-Ni stainless steels are well known for their ductile behavior at cryogenic temperatures. This implies development and evolution of plastic strain fields in the stainless steel components subjected to thermo-mechanical loads at low temperatures. The evolution of plastic strain fields is usually associated with two phenomena: ductile damage and strain induced martensitic transformation. Ductile damage is described by the kinetic law of damage evolution (cf. [1]). Here, the assumption of isotropic distribution of damage (microcracks and microvoids) in the Representative Volume Element (RVE) is made. Formation of the plastic strain induced martensite (irreversible process) leads to the presence of quasi-rigid inclusions of martensite in the austenitic matrix. The amount of martensite platelets in the RVE depends on the intensity of the plastic strain fields and on the temperature. The evolution of the volume fraction of martensite is governed by a kinetic law based on the accumulated plastic strain (cf. [2]). Both of these irreversible phenomena, associated with the dissipation of plastic power, are included into the constitutive model of stainless steels at cryogenic temperatures. The model is tested on the thin-walled corrugated shells (known as bellows expansion joints) used in the interconnections of the Large Hadron Collider, the new proton storage ring being constructed at present at CERN. .

Garion, C.; Skoczen, B. T.

2002-05-01

27

Emergence of Zipf's law in the evolution of communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Zipf’s law seems to be ubiquitous in human languages and appears to be a universal property of complex communicating systems. Following the early proposal made by Zipf concerning the presence of a tension between the efforts of speaker and hearer in a communication system, we introduce evolution by means of a variational approach to the problem based on Kullback’s Minimum Discrimination of Information Principle. Therefore, using a formalism fully embedded in the framework of information theory, we demonstrate that Zipf’s law is the only expected outcome of an evolving communicative system under a rigorous definition of the communicative tension described by Zipf.

Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Fortuny, Jordi; Solé, Ricard V.

2011-03-01

28

Exact Conservation Laws and Exclusion Principle of Biological Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological evolution is dynamics of diversity and complexity of living beings from cells to humans. Metabolism, which allows for entropy decrease, and mortality, which allows for natural selection, are its biological must. Their characteristics are known to yield approximate (and rather noisy) universal relations. I conjecture they are accurate for certain ("canonic") fractions of these characteristics. (The conjecture is verified with experimental tests of its counterintuitive predictions). A relation, which is conserved under (invariant to) transformations from one species in its living conditions to another, is a conservation law of biological evolution. Of course, all parameters of such transformations can hardly be comprehensively specified. However, when canonic fractions are additive, the very invariance of the law to an extraordinary wide class of transformations, with no other experimental data, in any given interval of canonic fraction values accurately predicts [1]: either their conservation law is linear, or the population is homogeneous with respect to their values (an "exclusion principle" of their heterogeneity in an otherwise heterogeneous population). To be specific. Metabolism conservation laws (e.g., the dependence of oxygen consumption at rest per heartbeat on the animal mass) are linear. They imply [2] the existence of fundamental biological constants, which are similar to those crucial in physics. Survivability conservation law (the relation between the probabilities to survive to any two given ages) is piecewise linear (with four linear intervals). At the intersections mortality is homogeneous, and its susceptibility to living conditions vanishes. The law predicts that a dominant canonic fraction of mortality in protected populations is reversible for species as different as humans and flies, and may be eliminated. All these predictions agree with experimental data. (For instance, mortality of Swedish females, born in 1916, at 48 years decreases to its value 28 years earlier). The law implies the existence of a new, reversible, kind of evolution, whose relaxation (i.e. adjustment to external conditions) time is small compared to the lifespan of an animal. The law suggests its universal mechanism which may be rapidly and biologically non-specifically regulated, and whose molecular nature may be established in specified physical and biological experiments. A crucial problem is to unravel a complete set of conservation laws of unique evolutionary dynamics and their physiological and physical nature. . [1] M.Ya. Azbel',Phys. Rev. E66, 016107 (2002), Exp. Geront. 37, 859 (2002); [2] M. Ya. Azbel', PNAS USA 91, 12453 (1994)

Azbel', Mark Ya.

2003-03-01

29

Properties of Conservation Laws of Nonlinear Evolution Equations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A systematic method is developed for evaluating conservation laws of nonlinear evolution equations (NEE’s) by employing the time parts of the Bäcklund transformations. The properties of conservation laws are then investigated in detail to obtain the informations about the structure of NEE’s themselves. In particular, we focus our attention on the independence of conservation laws. The NEE’s considered in this paper are the Boussinesq equation, a model equation for shallow-water waves due to Hirota and Satsuma, the Sawada-Kotera and the Kaup equations and the Ito equation. For all these equations, the inverse scattering transform problems have not been fully solved since the associated isospectral equations become higher-order ones in comparison with the usual Schrödinger equation.

Matsuno, Yoshimasa

1990-09-01

30

Damage evolution and fluid flow in poroelastic rock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a formulation for mechanical modeling of the interaction between fracture and fluid flow. Our model combines the classic Biot poroelastic theory and a damage rheology model. The model provides an internally consistent framework for simulating coupled evolution of fractures and fluid flow together with gradual transition from brittle fracture to cataclastic flow in high-porosity rocks. The theoretical analysis, based on thermodynamic principles, leads to a system of coupled kinetic equations for the evolution of damage and porosity. A significant advantage of the model is the ability to reproduce the entire yield curve, including positive and negative slopes, in high-porosity rocks by a unified formulation. A transition from positive to negative values in the yield curve, referred to as a yield cap, is determined by the competition between the two thermodynamic forces associated with damage and porosity evolution. Numerical simulations of triaxial compression tests reproduce the gradual transition from localized brittle failure to distributed cataclastic flow with increasing pressure in high-porosity rocks and fit well experimentally measured yield stress for Berea sandstone samples. We modified a widely used permeability porosity relation by accounting for the effect of damage intensity on the connectivity. The new damage-permeability relation, together with the coupled kinetics of damage and porosity evolution, reproduces a wide range of realistic features of rock behavior. We constrain the model variables by comparisons of the theoretical predictions with laboratory results reporting porosity and permeability variation in rock samples during isotropic and anisotropic loading. The new damage-porosity-permeability relation enables simulation of coupled evolution of fractures and fluid flow and provides a possible explanation for permeability measurements in high-porosity rocks, referred to as the “apparent permeability paradox.”

Lyakhovsky, V.; Hamiel, Ya.

2007-01-01

31

Dollo's law and the re-evolution of shell coiling.  

PubMed

Gastropods have lost the quintessential snail feature, the coiled shell, numerous times in evolution. In many cases these animals have developed a limpet morphology with a cap-shaped shell and a large foot. Limpets thrive in marginal habitats such as hydrothermal vents, the high-energy rocky intertidal areas and fresh water, but they are considered to be evolutionary dead-ends, unable to re-evolve a coiled shell and therefore unable to give rise to the diversity seen among coiled snails. The re-evolution of a coiled shell, or any complex character, is considered unlikely or impossible (Dollo's law) because the loss of the character is followed by the loss of the genetic architecture and developmental mechanisms that underlie that character. Here, we quantify the level of coiling in calyptraeids, a family of mostly uncoiled limpets, and show that coiled shells have re-evolved at least once within this family. These results are the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of the re-evolution of coiling in a gastropod, and show that the developmental features underlying coiling have not been lost during 20-100 Myr of uncoiled evolutionary history. This is the first example of the re-evolution of a complex character via a change in developmental timing (heterochrony) rather than a change in location of gene expression (heterotopy). PMID:14728776

Collin, Rachel; Cipriani, Roberto

2003-12-22

32

Permeability of WIPP Salt During Damage Evolution and Healing  

SciTech Connect

The presence of damage in the form of microcracks can increase the permeability of salt. In this paper, an analytical formulation of the permeability of damaged rock salt is presented for both initially intact and porous conditions. The analysis shows that permeability is related to the connected (i.e., gas accessible) volumetric strain and porosity according to two different power-laws, which may be summed to give the overall behavior of a porous salt with damage. This relationship was incorporated into a constitutive model, known as the Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which has been formulated to describe the inelastic flow behavior of rock salt due to coupled creep, damage, and healing. The extended model was used to calculate the permeability of rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site under conditions where damage evolved with stress over a time period. Permeability changes resulting from both damage development under deviatoric stresses and damage healing under hydrostatic pressures were considered. The calculated results were compared against experimental data from the literature, which indicated that permeability in damaged intact WIPP salt depends on the magnitude of the gas accessible volumetric strain and not on the total volumetric strain. Consequently, the permeability of WIPP salt is significantly affected by the kinetics of crack closure, but shows little dependence on the kinetics of crack removal by sintering.

BODNER,SOL R.; CHAN,KWAI S.; MUNSON,DARRELL E.

1999-12-03

33

A continuum damage constitutive law for brittle rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-linear mechanical behaviour of two different granites was investigated. Short term triaxial tests have been performed in order to study the short term behaviour (instantaneous growth of cracks) of the rock. A continuous damage model is then proposed. The internal damage variable is directly related to the second order crack density tensor used by Kachanov in the study of

F. Homand-Etienne; D. Hoxha; J. F. Shao

1998-01-01

34

Mathematical Modelling of Hydraulic Permeability Evolution in the Damage Zone Surrounding Geological Faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological faults are planar structures, oriented in three-dimensional space, on which shear displacement has occurred. As the rock shears, the material within and around the shear plane is damaged causing a huge variability in fluid flow properties. Faults can be barriers to flow, conduits, or combinations of the two, and their hydraulic properties vary considerably over both space and time. It is critical for the prediction of both future and historical fluid (or gas) migration through fault zones to be able to assess their spatial and temporal hydraulic evolution. This is particularly relevant, due to the large timescales involved, when modelling historic migration in oil fields, or when simulating the transport of radionuclides following the deep burial of radioactive waste. Fluid flow and structural deformation are fully coupled processes within fault zones: Small scale discontinuities, such as fractures and deformation bands of reduced permeability, are formed in the damage zone surrounding faults and have a strong influence on flow properties. Fluid flow in the subsurface is traditionally modelled using Darcy's law, and structural deformation using Navier's law. The main aim of this research is to investigate and validate our understanding of these coupled processes in the damage zone surrounding faults. In the research presented here, fault zone evolution is modelled using a finite element approach. The coupled hydro-mechanical model has been developed and validated using standard benchmark data. The model has been used to simulate deformation and fluid flow in damage zone structures mapped at the Big Hole fault, Utah. Results demonstrate propagation of the existing slip surfaces leading to increased flow. The model is now being applied to explore temporal and spatial fault evolution in the Sierra Nevada based on data sets collected by Bürgmann and Pollard. Results will validate and enhance scientific understanding of the physical processes inherent in fault development. Ultimately, the model will be extended to include chemical processes such as mineralisation, and will provide an invaluable tool for predicting the heterogeneous hydrogeological properties of faults.

Willson, J. P.; Lunn, R. J.; Cowie, P.

2004-12-01

35

Stress-weakening effect on friction and a major revision of evolution law for contact state  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rate and State Friction (RSF) law comprehensively captures important aspects of rock friction and has explained various aspects of fault motion successfully. However, existing RSF laws are clearly incorrect in describing some aspects of friction firmly established by experiments [Beeler et al., 1994]. The shortfall is that the state evolution law which aptly represents time-dependent strengthening of virtually locked faults

K. Nagata; M. Nakatani; S. Yoshida

2009-01-01

36

Synchrotron Tomographic Characterization of Damage Evolution During Aluminum Alloy Solidification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fast synchrotron X-ray microtomography was used to directly observe damage accumulation in a semi-solid Al-15 wt pct Cu alloy with a solid fraction of ~0.75 during isothermal tensile deformation. The evolution of damage was quantified in terms of size distribution of internal and surface-connected damage, strain mapping, and volume change to provide an insight into hot tear formation. A combination of existing void growth, void nucleation, and void coalescence all contribute to the final failure, although each dominates during different stages of deformation. Specifically, internal voids are shown to grow and coalesce from the region of high triaxiality at the center of the gage length outward and prove to be the contributing factor to final failure caused by insufficient liquid feeding.

Puncreobutr, Chedtha; Lee, Peter D.; Hamilton, Richard W.; Cai, Biao; Connolley, Thomas

2012-12-01

37

Survivor statistics and damage spreading on social network with power-law degree distributions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Damage spreading(DS) of the random graph networks with power-law degree distributions is investigated using Glauber dynamics. Various subgraphs defined by the probability of acquaintance show distinct features in DS as measured by Hamming distance. A heuristic understanding of the long-time value of damage is achieved through an analysis of the survivor statistics. All survivors are dynamical, flipping in unison for the controlled sample and the damaged sample. Verification of these dynamic survivors is achieved through the introduction of a new measure of self-damage.

Guo, Z. Z.; Szeto, K. Y.

2007-01-01

38

Stochastic damage evolution modeling in laminates. Ph.D. Thesis  

SciTech Connect

A stochastic mesomechanics model has been developed for damage accumulation analysis in advanced laminated composites. The model is based on a theory of excursions of random process beyond the limiting bounds. Stochastic strains in the laminate subjected to random Gaussian in-plane loading are calculated using lamination theory and random functions theory. Probabilistic variation of stiffness and strength characteristics of plies are used in the analysis. A stochastic version of maximum strain failure criterion is applied for damage probability calculation. A mesovolume concept is utilized in modeling stiffness degradation. The model is verified experimentally based on the available data. Capabilities of the model are illustrated by predictions of damage accumulation and failure in a Kevlar/epoxy (0/ +/- 30/90){sub s} laminate under quasistationary, long-term stationary, and cyclic loading. Effects of loading rate, deviation, stationary level and cyclic amplitude on damage evolution are discussed. High-cycle fatigue behavior of laminate is calculated utilizing the observed stages in failure accumulation under the cyclic loading. Percolation type analysis of damage morphology is performed for the inhomogeneous anisotropic media. The model and computer codes developed can be incorporated into structural analysis software and used in design of laminated structures.

Dzenis, Y.A.

1994-01-01

39

Time evolution of damage due to environmentally assisted aging in a fiber bundle model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Damage growth in composite materials is a complex process which is of interest in many fields of science and engineering. We consider this problem in a fiber bundle model where fibers undergo an aging process due to the accumulation of damage driven by the locally acting stress in a chemically active environment. By subjecting the bundle to a constant external load, fibers fail either when the load on them exceeds their individual intrinsic strength or when the accumulated internal damage exceeds a random threshold. We analyze the time evolution of the breaking process under low external loads where aging of fibers dominates. In the mean field limit, we show analytically that the aging system continuously accelerates in a way which can be characterized by an inverse power law of the event rate with a singularity that defines a failure time. The exponent is not universal; it depends on the details of the aging process. For localized load sharing, a more complex damage process emerges which is dominated by distinct spatial regions of the system with different degrees of stress concentration. Analytical calculations revealed that the final acceleration to global failure is preceded by a stationary accumulation of damage. When the disorder is strong, the accelerating phase has the same functional behavior as in the mean field limit. The analytical results are verified by computer simulations.

Lennartz-Sassinek, S.; Main, I. G.; Danku, Z.; Kun, F.

2013-09-01

40

The Evolution of Law and Policy for CIA Targeted Killing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many critiques of the Central Intelligence Agency’s alleged use of killer drones depend on law that does not bind the United States or on contestable applications of uncertain facts to vague law. While acknowledging a blurry line between law and policy, we continue to develop a due process for targeted killing. In the real world, intelligence is sometimes faulty, mistakes

Afsheen John Radsan

2012-01-01

41

Observation of damage evolution in polymer bonded explosives using acoustic emission and digital image correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Acoustic Emission (AE) and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) methods have been combined to measure and evaluate the damage evolution of Polymer Bonded Explosives (PBXs) under uniaxial compression. The global damage evolution was measured by AE and the local (spatial) distribution of damage observed by DIC. It was found that a Dominant Localization Band (DLB) plays a key role in

Xian Wang; Shaopeng Ma; Yingtao Zhao; Zhongbin Zhou; Pengwan Chen

2011-01-01

42

Between Law and Social Norms: The Evolution of Global Governance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.?It is commonplace that economic globalization poses new challenges to legal theory. But instead of responding to these challenges, legal scholars often get caught up in heated yet purely abstract discussions of positivist and legal pluralist conceptions of the law. Meanwhile, economics-based theories such as “Law and Social Norms” have much less difficulty in analysing the newly arising forms of

GRALF-PETER CALLIESS; MORITZ RENNER

2009-01-01

43

The Evolution of the Exponent of Zipf's Law in Language Ontogeny  

PubMed Central

It is well-known that word frequencies arrange themselves according to Zipf's law. However, little is known about the dependency of the parameters of the law and the complexity of a communication system. Many models of the evolution of language assume that the exponent of the law remains constant as the complexity of a communication systems increases. Using longitudinal studies of child language, we analysed the word rank distribution for the speech of children and adults participating in conversations. The adults typically included family members (e.g., parents) or the investigators conducting the research. Our analysis of the evolution of Zipf's law yields two main unexpected results. First, in children the exponent of the law tends to decrease over time while this tendency is weaker in adults, thus suggesting this is not a mere mirror effect of adult speech. Second, although the exponent of the law is more stable in adults, their exponents fall below 1 which is the typical value of the exponent assumed in both children and adults. Our analysis also shows a tendency of the mean length of utterances (MLU), a simple estimate of syntactic complexity, to increase as the exponent decreases. The parallel evolution of the exponent and a simple indicator of syntactic complexity (MLU) supports the hypothesis that the exponent of Zipf's law and linguistic complexity are inter-related. The assumption that Zipf's law for word ranks is a power-law with a constant exponent of one in both adults and children needs to be revised.

Baixeries, Jaume; Elvevag, Brita; Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon

2013-01-01

44

Defect and damage evolution quantification in dynamically-deformed metals using orientation-imaging microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Orientation-imaging microscopy offers unique capabilities to quantify the defects and damage evolution occurring in metals following dynamic and shock loading. Examples of the quantification of the types of deformation twins activated, volume fraction of twinning, and damage evolution as a function of shock loading in Ta are presented. Electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) examination of the damage evolution in sweeping-detonation-wave shock loading to study spallation in Cu is also presented.

Gray Iii, George T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Livescu, Veronica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cerreta, Ellen K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

45

Evolution of Zipf's Law for Indian Urban Agglomerations Vis-à-Vis Chinese Urban Agglomerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate into the rank-size distributions of urban agglomerations for India between 1981 to 2011. The incidence of a power law tail is prominent. A relevant question persists regarding the evolution of the power tail coefficient. We have developed a methodology to meaningfully track the power law coefficient over time, when a country experience population growth. A relevant dynamic law, Gibrat's law, is empirically tested in this connection. We argue that these empirical findings for India are in contrast with the findings in case of China, another country with population growth but monolithic political system.

Gangopadhyay, Kausik; Basu, Banasri

46

Securing recompense under nuisance law for crop damages from pesticide applications.  

PubMed

In areas where several crops are grown or where organic practices have been adopted, conflicts may arise due to the use of pesticides. Accompanying the use of specialized pesticides for individualized crops are possibilities that spray applications or volatilization will result in airborne pesticide particulates damaging nontarget crops. American jurisprudence provides several major causes of action that may be used to secure recompense for damages to crops from applications of pesticides. However, defenses and limitations for each of these causes of action create impediments that make recovery difficult. An evaluation of nuisance law discloses that defenses often preclude recoveries for damages to nontarget crops from airborne pesticide particulates. Policy makers may want to evaluate the defenses due to their interference with property rights. The defenses may discourage changes in crop production resulting in suboptimal uses of resources. PMID:22721686

Centner, Terence J

2012-06-20

47

Exact Conservation Laws and Exclusion Principle of Biological Evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological evolution is dynamics of diversity and complexity of living beings from cells to humans. Metabolism, which allows for entropy decrease, and mortality, which allows for natural selection, are its biological must. Their characteristics are known to yield approximate (and rather noisy) universal relations. I conjecture they are accurate for certain (\\

Mark Ya. Azbel

2003-01-01

48

Microscopic elasticity and rate and state friction evolution laws  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rate and state friction formalism represents the dependence of macroscopic shear traction ?M on sliding velocity V and the history of the sliding surface. In macroscopic terms, ?M = PN[?0 + a ln(V/Vref) + b ln(?/?norm)], where PN is normal traction, ?0 is the coefficient of friction, a ? b ? 0.01 are small dimensionless parameters, Vref is a reference velocity, ? is the state variable that depends on history, and ?norm represents the effect of changes in normal traction. This representation does not consider microscopic elasticity and is inadequate over very small times. The apparent value of a just after a small decrease in shear traction is a factor of a few larger than its traditional value of ˜0.01. Changes of microscopic elastic strain energy may cause this effect. Microscopic elasticity affects friction after changes in normal traction. Shear traction does not change instantly after a sudden change in normal traction because time is required for real contact area to change. A hybrid of the aging law (where ?increases linearly with time during holds) and the slip law behavior (where the state variable does not change in the limit of zero sliding velocity) is necessary. Slip-law behavior dominates near steady state and also applies to sudden initial sliding where the state variable and porosity are far from steady state. Porosity increases from its initial value toward the steady state value over slip scaling with the critical displacementDc. The ratio of dilatant to shear strain in low porosity material is a modest fraction of 1 and related to the construct of dilatancy angle in engineering.

Sleep, Norman H.

2012-12-01

49

[Evolution of pharmaceutical regulations from the origins to Germinal law].  

PubMed

The rising of pharmaceutical regulations took place in the civilisations located around the Mediterranean Sea. Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greco-Roman world, Byzantine Empire, were followed by Bagdad, where sayadila, inspections and grabadins appeared. The creation of Universities, during the XIIth and XIIIth centuries, plaid a role in the rising of apothecaries communities in Occident. Melfi Constitutions (Constititiones Melfiae, 1231) and new constitutions (1241) inspired most of the regulations of apothecaries communities in Europe. Declaration of the King of France in April 1777 announced the famous "Loi de Germinal", Germinal law, which organized the modern Pharmacy, in 1803. PMID:14763458

Lafont, Olivier

2003-01-01

50

On a new law of bone remodeling based on damage elasticity: a thermodynamic approach  

PubMed Central

Background Bone tissue is the main element of the human skeleton and is a dynamic tissue that is continuously renewed by bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts. The bone is also capable of repairing itself and adapting its structure to changes in its load environment through the process of bone remodeling. Therefore, this phenomenon has been gaining increasing interest in the last years and many laws have been developed in order to simulate this process. Results In this paper, we develop a new law of bone remodeling in the context of damaged elastic by applying the thermodynamic approach in the case of small perturbations. The model is solved numerically by a finite difference method in the one-dimensional bone structure of a n-unit elements model. Conclusion In addition, several numerical simulations are presented that confirm the accuracy and effectiveness of the model.

2012-01-01

51

Stress-weakening effect on friction and a major revision of evolution law for contact state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rate and State Friction (RSF) law comprehensively captures important aspects of rock friction and has explained various aspects of fault motion successfully. However, existing RSF laws are clearly incorrect in describing some aspects of friction firmly established by experiments [Beeler et al., 1994]. The shortfall is that the state evolution law which aptly represents time-dependent strengthening of virtually locked faults systematically mispredicts the slip distance required to complete the state evolution caused by changed slip velocity [Marone, 1998; Nakatani, 2001]. To address the problem of evolution law, we observed state variable in RSF continuously in friction experiments on rough granite surfaces. The observation of state variable was performed in the following two independent ways; 1) by subtracting direct effect from measured shear stress 2) by using an acoustic monitoring technique [Nagata et al., 2008]. The latter method is usable even when slip velocity is so low that the former method cannot be used. The former can be regarded as “semi-direct” measurements of state variable. This method strongly depends on the value of coefficient of direct effect a. Ideally, a is observed as the instantaneous change of applied shear stress (direct effect) upon velocity step. However, the measured shear stress change is much smaller than the real direct effect in reality because the state variable changes considerably before the stress peak. Correction by inferring the change of state using an evolution law is a routine procedure, but the evolution law is in doubt. Hence, before we tackled the evolution law issue, we have designed a special step test where the change of state is minimal and have established that a >0.03. Further, with help of acoustic method, we have identified that a ~0.05. The value is surprisingly large, but agrees very well with the activation volume of silicate lattice. We compared thus observed variation of frictional strength with the prediction of a popular version of evolution law called “ageing law” [Dieterich, 1979; Ruina, 1983; Beeler, 1994], which explicitly involves both time-dependent healing and slip-dependent weakening. The comparison has shown that an additional shear-stress-dependent weakening term is needed for ageing law to well reproduce the observed variation of frictional strength. Additional independent support for the existence of stress-dependent weakening was obtained from acoustic observation in experiments carefully designed to suppress effects other than shear stress. In further detail, we have observed by acoustic method that the effect diminishes at lower shear stress. Simulations using the modified ageing law reproduced both shear stress and state variable quantitatively well with the same set of parameter values for various types of experiments, which was actually not possible with the original ageing law. Furthermore, the modified law predicts nearly symmetric response to velocity step up and down, as well as it predicts the completion of slip-weakening in a nearly fixed slip distance irrespective of the initial value of state variable; the two major deficits known for the original ageing law has been dissolved.

Nagata, K.; Nakatani, M.; Yoshida, S.

2009-12-01

52

Evolution Equation of Creep Damage Under Stress Variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design and assessment of structural components at elevated temperature are very significant for ensuring the safety. Lear\\u000a damage accumulation (summation of creep time fraction) is widely used to predict creep rupture time under stress and temperature\\u000a variation. Life prediction of creep under stress variation by creep damage mechanics of Kachanov-Rabotnov concides with that\\u000a of linear damage accumulation model. However, creep

Yukio Sanomura; Kzutaka Saitoh

53

Damage Evolution in Ballistic Impact of Glass Plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-velocity impact onto a layered glass target produces a very extensive damage pattern exhibiting many distinct morphologies. High-speed photography reveals failure waves and cracks that move at acoustic velocities. These prompt features evolve into a complex final damage pattern that includes needle fragments around the penetration cavity, radial cracks at mid distance, and dicing cracks near the edges.

Bless, S. J.; Russell, R.; Berry, D. T.; Levinson, S.

2009-12-01

54

DAMAGE EVOLUTION IN BALLISTIC IMPACT OF GLASS PLATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-velocity impact onto a layered glass target produces a very extensive damage pattern exhibiting many distinct morphologies. High-speed photography reveals failure waves and cracks that move at acoustic velocities. These prompt features evolve into a complex final damage pattern that includes needle fragments around the penetration cavity, radial cracks at mid distance, and dicing cracks near the edges.

S. J. Bless; R. Russell; D. T. Berry; S. Levinson

2009-01-01

55

Damage Evolution in Ballistic Impact of Glass Plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-velocity impact onto a layered glass target produces a very extensive damage pattern exhibiting many distinct morphologies. High-speed photography reveals failure waves and cracks that move at acoustic velocities. These prompt features evolve into a complex final damage pattern that includes needle fragments around the penetration cavity, radial cracks at mid distance, and dicing cracks near the edges.

S. J. Bless; R. Russell; D. T. Berry; S. Levinson

2009-01-01

56

Finite element modeling of impact, damage evolution and penetration of thick-section composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impact, damage evolution and penetration of thick-section composites are investigated using explicit finite element (FE) analysis. A full 3D FE model of impact on thick-section composites is developed. The analysis includes initiation and progressive damage of the composite during impact and penetration over a wide range of impact velocities, i.e., from 50 m\\/s to 1000 m\\/s. Low velocity impact damage is modeled

Bazle A. Gama; John W. Gillespie

2011-01-01

57

Damage Evolution in Ballistic Impact of Glass Plates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-speed photographs were obtained from impact of .50-caliber fragment-simulating projectiles at 1100 m/s onto a 12 mm glass plate bonded with polyurethane to 28 mm of polycarbonate. Impact damage was compared to similar impacts on multi-glass-layer targets. Transitions from bundled radial cracks to fan cracks to radial cracks to dicing cracks occurred in both targets, but in the single-glass-layer target, a layer of glass remained adhered to the substrate. Initial damage spread was faster than the maximum crack speed, but fan and radial cracks grew at the crack speed in glass. The damage development is similar to that seen in edge-on-impact experiments reported over the past couple of years, and it is suggested that those experiments should be reinterpreted as showing impact-plate damage and not penetration phenomena.

Bless, Stephan; Russell, Rod; Berry, Don; Levinson, Scott

2009-06-01

58

Unification of Small and Large Time Scales for Biological Evolution: Deviations from Power Law  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a unified model that describes both “micro” and “macro” evolutions within a single theoretical framework. The ecosystem is described as a dynamic network; the population dynamics at each node of this network describes the “microevolution” over ecological time scales (i.e., birth, ageing, and natural death of individual organisms), while the appearance of new nodes, the slow changes of the links, and the disappearance of existing nodes accounts for the “macroevolution” over geological time scales (i.e., the origination, evolution, and extinction of species). In contrast to several earlier claims in the literature, we observe strong deviations from power law in the regime of long lifetimes.

Chowdhury, Debashish; Stauffer, Dietrich; Kunwar, Ambarish

2003-02-01

59

Oxidative damage, ageing, and life-history evolution: where now?  

PubMed

The idea that resources are limited and animals can maximise fitness by trading costly activities off against one another forms the basis of life-history theory. Although investment in reproduction or growth negatively affects survival, the mechanisms underlying such trade-offs remain obscure. One plausible mechanism is oxidative damage to proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we critically evaluate the premise that ROS-induced oxidative damage shapes life history, focussing on birds and mammals, and highlight the importance of ecological studies examining free-living animals within this experimental framework. We conclude by emphasising the value of using multiple assays to determine oxidative protection and damage. We also highlight the importance of using standardised and appropriate protocols, and discuss future research directions. PMID:22789512

Selman, Colin; Blount, Jonathan D; Nussey, Daniel H; Speakman, John R

2012-07-11

60

32 CFR 536.50 - Determination of damages-applicable law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...all subparts, property loss or damage refers to actual tangible property. Accordingly, consequential damages, including, but not limited...are not payable. The payment of punitive damages, that is, damages in...

2010-07-01

61

32 CFR 536.50 - Determination of damages-applicable law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...all subparts, property loss or damage refers to actual tangible property. Accordingly, consequential damages, including, but not limited...are not payable. The payment of punitive damages, that is, damages in...

2013-07-01

62

32 CFR 536.50 - Determination of damages-applicable law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...all subparts, property loss or damage refers to actual tangible property. Accordingly, consequential damages, including, but not limited...are not payable. The payment of punitive damages, that is, damages in...

2009-07-01

63

Evolution of poroelastic properties and permeability in damaged sandstone  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is devoted to experimental investigation of mechanical behavior, poroelastic properties and permeability in saturated sandstone. The emphasis is to study the evolution of Biot’s coefficients and permeability with the growth of microcracks. Basic mechanical responses are first investigated through triaxial compression tests, showing nonlinear stress–strain relations, volumetric dilatancy, pressure sensitivity, elastic modulus degradation and induced anisotropy. Original tests

D. W. Hu; H. Zhou; F. Zhang; J. F. Shao

2010-01-01

64

Modelling of Damage Reduction and Microstructure Evolution by Annealing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main aim of the research described in this paper is to develop a set of mechanism-based unified viscoplastic constitutive equations to model the damage and dislocation development in cold deformation and their recovery by annealing. In addition, recrystallisation of the deformed material during the subsequent annealing process is modelled. The annealing temperature was 700°C. The effects of annealing time on damage and dislocation reduction during annealing are also investigated. Tensile tests were performed on a low carbon ferritic steel before and after annealing. The experimental results are used to characterise the unified constitutive equations using an Evolutionary Programming (EP)-based optimization method. Using these equations, the stress-strain relationships for interrupted constant strain rate tests, were predicted with good accuracy.

Li, H.; Lin, J.; Dean, T. A.; Wen, S. W.; Bannister, A. C.

2007-04-01

65

Damage Evolution in Ballistic Impact of Glass Plates  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-speed photographs were obtained from impact of .50-caliber fragment-simulating projectiles at 1100 m\\/s onto a 12 mm glass plate bonded with polyurethane to 28 mm of polycarbonate. Impact damage was compared to similar impacts on multi-glass-layer targets. Transitions from bundled radial cracks to fan cracks to radial cracks to dicing cracks occurred in both targets, but in the single-glass-layer target,

Stephan Bless; Rod Russell; Don Berry; Scott Levinson

2009-01-01

66

The chemical evolution of a Milky Way-like galaxy: the importance of a cosmologically motivated infall law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: We aim to find a cosmologically motivated infall law to understand if the LambdaCDM cosmology can reproduce the main chemical characteristics of a Milky Way-like spiral galaxy. Methods: We test several different gas infall laws, starting from that suggested in the two-infall model for the chemical evolution of the Milky Way, but focusing on laws derived from cosmological simulations

Edoardo Colavitti; Francesca Matteucci; Giuseppe Murante

2008-01-01

67

Homogenization of composite vicinal surfaces: Evolution laws in 1+1 dimensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply classical homogenization to derive macroscopic relaxation laws for crystal surfaces with distinct inhomogeneities at the microscale. The proposed method relies on a formal multiscale expansion in one spatial coordinate. This approach transcends the coarse graining applied previously via Taylor expansions. Our work offers an extension of the static homogenization formulated in a brief report [D. Margetis, Homogenization of reconstructed crystal surfaces: Fick’s law of diffusion, Phys. Rev. E 79 (2009) 052601] to account for surface evolution. The starting point is the Burton-Cabrera-Frank (BCF) model for the motion of line defects (steps) separating nanoscale terraces. We enrich this model with sequences of distinct material parameters, i.e., disparate diffusivities of adsorbed atoms (adatoms) across terraces, kinetic sticking rates at step edges, and step energy parameters for elastic-dipole interactions. Multiscale expansions for the adatom concentration and flux are used, with a slow diffusive time scale consistent with the quasi-steady regime for terrace diffusion. The ensuing macroscopic, nonlinear evolution laws incorporate averages of the microscale parameters.

Margetis, Dionisios; Nakamura, Kanna

2012-07-01

68

A method for calculating damage evolution in adiabatic shear band of titanium alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for calculating the evolution of the local damage variable at the adiabatic shear band (ASB) center was proposed. In the present method, the JOHNSON-COOK model and the nonlocal theory were adopted, and the damage variable formula applicable for the bilinear (linearly elastic and strain-softening) constitutive relation was further generalized to consider the plastic deformation occurring in the strain-hardening

Xue-bin WANG

2009-01-01

69

High-Latitude Emission of a Non-Power-Law Spectrum and Spectral Evolution of GRB X-Ray Tails  

SciTech Connect

The apparent spectral evolution observed in the steep decay phase of many GRB earlyX-ray afterglows raises a great concern of the high-latitude ''curvature effect'' interpretation of this phase. However, previous curvature effect models only invoked a simple power law spectrum upon the cessation of the prompt internal emission. We investigate the 'curvature effect' model of a more general non-power-law spectrum and and test this model with the Swift/XRT observations By comparing the simulated lightcurves/spectra with the observed ones, we show that one can reproduce both the observed lightcurve and the apparent spectral evolution of GRB 050814 using a model invoking a cut-off power-law spectrum. This suggests that at least for some GRBs, the fast spectral evolution in the steep-decay phase can be explained by the curvature effect of a non-power-law spectrum.

Zhang Binbin; Zhang Bing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Liang Enwei [Department of Physics, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Wang Xiangyu [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2009-05-25

70

Ductile damage evolution and experimental simulation under high rates of strain in 10100 copper.  

SciTech Connect

The high strain-rate damage evolution and Eracture behavior of half-hard 10 LOO Cu was investigated by experiments and computer simulations. Testing of uniaxial stress and axisymmetric notched bars of the Hancock-Mackenzie geometries were performetl using a momentum trapped tensile split Hopkinson pressure bar. Specimens were. tested to fracture and to several stages of incipient failure prior to fracture. Recovered specimens were sectioned and metallographically examined using image analysis and optical profilornelry to quantify the resulting damage. The quantified damage is described by spatially resolved porosity distributions, spatially resolved volumetric number densiries, and spatia Ily resolved void size distributions. Concurrent to mechanical testing, explicit finite element simulations of the tensile split Hopkinson pressure bar experiments were perfornicd to quantify the local stress-state and strain-state within the material and to determine the evolution of damage within the notch region. The coinpressive plasticity behavior of the material was fit to the mechanical threshold stress constitutive model, and was used in the simulations. The quantified damage was coniprued with damage model (TEPLA) predictions and used to refine model parameters and damage nucleation criteria. The simulation results also show that the maximum stress triaxiality in the specimens quickly enlarges after the onset of plastic flow or tensile instability to almost twice that of the Bridgman predicted levels.

Thissell, W. R. (W. Richards); McKirgan, J. B. (John B.); Chen, S. R. (Shuh-Rong); Trujillo, C. P. (Carl P.); Macdougall, D. A. S. (Duncan A. S.)

2001-01-01

71

Anisotropic damage evolution in unidirectional fiber reinforced ceramics  

SciTech Connect

Damage transverse to the loading direction of a unidirectionally reinforced ceramic matrix composite has been observed and characterized by ultrasonic methods and acetate replicas. A laser-ultrasonic technique approach was developed and used to measure the ultrasonic velocity anisotropy, thus the complete elastic stiffness tensor, during uniaxial tensile loading/unloading of calcium aluminosilicate (CAS) composites reinforced by Nicalon SiC fibers. Acoustic emission and surface replica observations link degradation of the axial stiffness to the accumulation of matrix cracks normal to the loading (and fiber) direction. The substantial loss of transverse stiffness is proposed to originate from the fiber/matrix interface debonding near matrix cracks. These observations may significantly impact the constitutive models used to design multiaxially loaded ceramic matrix composites.

Liu, Y.M.; Mitchell, T.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Center for Materials Science; Wadley, H.N.G. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

1997-10-01

72

Effect of microstructure of particle reinforced composites on the damage evolution: probabilistic and numerical analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of particle clustering on the effective response and damage evolution in particle reinforced Al\\/SiC composites is studied numerically and analytically. A probability of material failure is determined on the basis of the model of a composite as an array of subdomains, and with the use of the probabilistic analysis of failure of matrix ligaments between particles. It was

L. Mishnaevsky Jr; K. Derrien; D. Baptiste

2004-01-01

73

Evolution of damage fraction due to dense ionizing irradiation on TiO2 film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Damage fraction evolution is studied in TiO2 thin films during 100 MeV Ag ion irradiation.Modification of surface roughness and surface potential of films are estimated from SPM studies.Variation of defect concentration with fluence is correlated to surface roughness and work function of thin films.

Kumar, Avesh; Kanjilal, D.; Mohanty, T.

2013-10-01

74

Effect of heat treatments on mechanical properties and damage evolution of thixoformed aluminium alloys  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, the effects of heat treatments on mechanical properties, microstructure evolution and damage resulting from plastic deformation of thixoformed A319 and A356 aluminium alloys, are studied. The thixoforming process can lead to the production of components that are characterized by very good mechanical properties and low porosity with a globular microstructure which is fine and uniform. The

P.. Cavaliere; E. Cerri; P. Leo

2005-01-01

75

Damage evolution in Au-implanted Ho2Ti2O7 titanate pyrochlore  

SciTech Connect

Damage evolution at room temperature in Ho2Ti2O7 single crystals is studied under 1 MeV Au2+ ion irradiation by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy along the <001> direction. For a better determination of ion-induced disorder profile, an iterative procedure and a Monte Carlo code (McChasy) were used to analyze ion channeling spectra. A disorder accumulation model, with contributions from the amorphous fraction and the crystalline disorder, is fit to the Ho damage accumulation data. The damage evolution behavior indicates that the relative disorder on the Ho sublattice follows a nonlinear dependence on dose and that defect-stimulated amorphization is the primary amorphization mechanism. Similar irradiation behavior previously was observed in Sm2Ti2O7. A slower damage accumulation rate for Ho2Ti2O7, as compared with damage evolution in Sm2Ti2O7, is mainly attributed to a lower effective cross section for defect-simulated amorphization.

Zhang, Yanwen; Jagielski, Jacek; Bae, In-Tae; Xiang, Xia; Thome, Lionel; Balakrishnan, G.; Paul, D. M.; Weber, William J.

2010-10-01

76

Collateral damage: Evolution with displacement of fracture distribution and secondary fault strands in fault damage zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the development of fracture distributions as a function of displacement to determine whether damage around small and large faults is governed by the same process. Based on our own field work combined with data from the literature, we find that (1) isolated single faults with small displacements have macrofracture densities that decay as r-0.8, where r is distance from the fault plane, (2) mature fault damage zones can be interpreted as a superposition of these r-0.8 decays from secondary fault strands, resulting in an apparently more gradual decay with distance, and (3) a change in apparent decay and fault zone thickness becomes evident in faults that have displaced more than ˜150 m. This last observation is consistent with a stochastic model where strand formation is related to the number of fractures within the damage zone, which in turn is a function of displacement. These three observations together suggest that the apparent break in scaling between small and large faults is due to the nucleation of secondary faults and not a change in process.

Savage, Heather M.; Brodsky, Emily E.

2011-03-01

77

The law and economics of pollution damage arising from carriage of oil by sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Private law plays an important and indispensable role in the effort to tackle ship-source oil pollution, in which the Civil Liability Convention (CLC) is the key regime setting out the liability and compensation framework for oil spills. In attempting to evaluate the law to determine whether it should be improved, the paper employs a law and economics approach to examine

Jingjing Xu

2009-01-01

78

Dynamic damage model of crevasse opening and application to glacier calving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theory and applications of continuum damage mechanics for ice are discussed, and on this basis, an ice damage model, valid at low stresses, is proposed. The model describes the damage itself, the rheology of the damaged ice, and the damage evolution. A local damaging and healing law is considered, and its parameterization is motivated. The model parameters are inferred from

A. Pralong; M. Funk

2005-01-01

79

Numerical Simulations of Inter-laminar Damage Evolution in a Composite Wing Box  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a numerical study has been carried out on skin delamination and skin-stringer debonding growth in a composite wing-box under compressive loading conditions. The adopted numerical models use the Virtual Crack Closure Technique to simulate the inter-laminar damage evolution and the numerical analyses have been performed by means of the FEM code ABAQUS and B2000++. The obtained numerical results have been assessed and compared each other in terms of delaminated area evolution, delamination growth initiation load and strain distributions. In order to investigate the effectiveness of the adopted numerical platforms in predicting the evolution of inter-laminar damages, comparisons with experimental data, in terms of load displacement curves and strains in the debonding area, have been also introduced.

Riccio, A.; Raimondo, A.; Borrelli, R.; Mercurio, U.; Tescione, D.; Scaramuzzino, F.

2013-10-01

80

Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A case involving the mental health rights of children is currently working its way toward the Supreme Court. That case, Bartley v. Kremens, challenges the power of parents to institutionalize their children in mental hospitals or institutions for the retarded without due process of law. (Author/RK)|

Ellis, James W.

1976-01-01

81

Laws of Conservation as Related to Brain Growth, Aging, and Evolution: Symmetry of the Minicolumn  

PubMed Central

Development, aging, and evolution offer different time scales regarding possible anatomical transformations of the brain. This article expands on the perspective that the cerebral cortex exhibits a modular architecture with invariant properties in regards to these time scales. These properties arise from morphometric relations of the ontogenetic minicolumn as expressed in Noether’s first theorem, i.e., that for each continuous symmetry there is a conserved quantity. Whenever minicolumnar symmetry is disturbed by either developmental or aging processes the principle of least action limits the scope of morphometric alterations. Alternatively, local and global divergences from these laws apply to acquired processes when the system is no longer isolated from its environment. The underlying precepts to these physical laws can be expressed in terms of mathematical equations that are conservative of quantity. Invariant properties of the brain include the rotational symmetry of minicolumns, a scaling proportion or “even expansion” between pyramidal cells and core minicolumnar size, and the translation of neuronal elements from the main axis of the minicolumn. It is our belief that a significant portion of the architectural complexity of the cerebral cortex, its response to injury, and its evolutionary transformation, can all be captured by a small set of basic physical laws dictated by the symmetry of minicolumns. The putative preservations of parameters related to the symmetry of the minicolumn suggest that the development and final organization of the cortex follows a deterministic process.

Casanova, Manuel F.; El-Baz, Ayman; Switala, Andrew

2011-01-01

82

Birth and death of protein domains: A simple model of evolution explains power law behavior  

PubMed Central

Background Power distributions appear in numerous biological, physical and other contexts, which appear to be fundamentally different. In biology, power laws have been claimed to describe the distributions of the connections of enzymes and metabolites in metabolic networks, the number of interactions partners of a given protein, the number of members in paralogous families, and other quantities. In network analysis, power laws imply evolution of the network with preferential attachment, i.e. a greater likelihood of nodes being added to pre-existing hubs. Exploration of different types of evolutionary models in an attempt to determine which of them lead to power law distributions has the potential of revealing non-trivial aspects of genome evolution. Results A simple model of evolution of the domain composition of proteomes was developed, with the following elementary processes: i) domain birth (duplication with divergence), ii) death (inactivation and/or deletion), and iii) innovation (emergence from non-coding or non-globular sequences or acquisition via horizontal gene transfer). This formalism can be described as a birth, death and innovation model (BDIM). The formulas for equilibrium frequencies of domain families of different size and the total number of families at equilibrium are derived for a general BDIM. All asymptotics of equilibrium frequencies of domain families possible for the given type of models are found and their appearance depending on model parameters is investigated. It is proved that the power law asymptotics appears if, and only if, the model is balanced, i.e. domain duplication and deletion rates are asymptotically equal up to the second order. It is further proved that any power asymptotic with the degree not equal to -1 can appear only if the hypothesis of independence of the duplication/deletion rates on the size of a domain family is rejected. Specific cases of BDIMs, namely simple, linear, polynomial and rational models, are considered in details and the distributions of the equilibrium frequencies of domain families of different size are determined for each case. We apply the BDIM formalism to the analysis of the domain family size distributions in prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteomes and show an excellent fit between these empirical data and a particular form of the model, the second-order balanced linear BDIM. Calculation of the parameters of these models suggests surprisingly high innovation rates, comparable to the total domain birth (duplication) and elimination rates, particularly for prokaryotic genomes. Conclusions We show that a straightforward model of genome evolution, which does not explicitly include selection, is sufficient to explain the observed distributions of domain family sizes, in which power laws appear as asymptotic. However, for the model to be compatible with the data, there has to be a precise balance between domain birth, death and innovation rates, and this is likely to be maintained by selection. The developed approach is oriented at a mathematical description of evolution of domain composition of proteomes, but a simple reformulation could be applied to models of other evolving networks with preferential attachment.

Karev, Georgy P; Wolf, Yuri I; Rzhetsky, Andrey Y; Berezovskaya, Faina S; Koonin, Eugene V

2002-01-01

83

Damage evolution of yttria-stabilized zirconia induced by He irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The study presents an investigation of damage evolution of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) induced by irradiation of 100 keV He ions at room temperature as a function of fluence. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used in order to study the nature and evolution of structural damage at different levels. Our study shows that various kinds of defects are formed with the increasing fluence. Firstly, at low fluences, from 1 1016 to 4 1016 cm 2, of which maximum values of displacement per atom (dpa) range from 0.29 to 1.17, an elastic strain which is attributed to the accumulation of irradiation-induced discrete point defects, is presented. Secondly, in the intermediate fluences ranging from 8 1016 to 1 1017 cm 2 with corresponding dpa varying from 2.33 to 2.91, a large drop of elastic strain occurs accompanied by presence of an intensive damage region, which is comprised by large and interacted defect clusters. Thirdly, at the two high fluences of 2 1017 and 4 1017 cm 2, of which dpa are 5.83 and 11.65 respectively, a great amount of ribbon-like He bubbles with granular structure and cracks are presented at the depth of maximum concentration of deposited He atoms. The structural damage evolution and the mechanism of formation of He bubbles are discussed.

Yang, Tengfei [Peking University; Huang, Xuejun [Peking University; Gao, Yuan [Peking University; Wang, Chenxu [Peking University; Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL; Xue, Jianming [Peking University; Yan, Sha [Peking University; Wang, Yugang [Peking University

2012-01-01

84

Effect of grain size and arrangement on dynamic damage evolution of ductile metal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plate-impact experiments have been carried out to examine the effect of grain size and grain arrangement on the damage evolution of ultrapure aluminum. Two groups of samples, “cross-cut“ and “longitudinal-cut,“ are obtained from the rolled aluminum rod along different directions. The peak compressive stress is approximately 1.25 GPa-1.61 GPa, which can cause incipient spall damage that is correlated to the material microstructure. The metallographic analyses of all recovered samples show that nearly all damage nucleates at the grain boundaries, especially those with larger curvature. Moreover, under lower shock stress, the spall strength of the “longitudinal-cut“ sample is smaller than that of the “cross-cut“ sample, because the different grain sizes and arrangement of the two samples cause different nucleation, growth, and coalescence processes. In this study, the difference in the damage distribution between “longitudinal-cut“ and “cross-cut“ samples and the causes for this difference under lower shock-loading conditions are also analyzed by both qualitative and semi-quantitative methods. It is very important for these conclusions to establish a reasonable and perfect equation of damage evolution for ductile metals.

Qi, Mei-Lan; Zhong, Sheng; He, Hong-Liang; Fan, Duan; Zhao, Li

2013-04-01

85

Evolution of In Situ Rock Mass Damage Induced by Mechanical-Thermal Loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand and predict the in situ brittle rock mass damage process induced by a coupled thermo-mechanical loading, the knowledge of rock mass yielding strength, scaling relationship between laboratory and in situ and microstructure characterization is required. Difficulties have been recognized due to the seldom availability of in situ experiment and appropriate numerical methodologies. The Äspö Pillar Stability Experiment was used to monitor the evolution of rock mass damage in a pillar of rock separating two 1.75-m diameter vertical boreholes. The loading of the pillar was controlled using the in situ stresses, excavation geometry, and locally increasing the rock temperature. The induced loading resulted in a complex discontinuum process that involved fracture initiation, propagation, interaction and buckling, all dominated by a tensile mechanism. Tracking this damage process was carried out in two steps. Initially, a three-dimensional numerical model was used to generate the stresses from the excavation geometry and thermal loading. The plane strain stresses, at selected locations where detailed displacement monitoring was available, were then used to track the evolution of damage caused by these induced stresses. The grain-based discrete element modeling approach described in Lan et al. (2010), which captures the grain scale heterogeneity of the rock, was used to establish the extent of damage. Good agreement was found between the predicted and measured temperatures and displacements. The grain-based model provided new insights into the progressive failure process.

Lan, Hengxing; Martin, C. D.; Andersson, J. C.

2013-01-01

86

Scaling laws in laser-induced potassium dihydrogen phosphate crystal damage by nanosecond pulses at 3{omega}  

SciTech Connect

A model for the description of laser-induced damage in bulk potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) by nanosecond laser pulses is addressed. It is based on the heating of nanometric plasma balls whose absorption efficiency is described through the Mie theory. The plasma optical indices are then evaluated within the Drude model framework. This modeling provides an evaluation of the scaling law exponent x linking the damage threshold laser pulse energy density F{sub c} to the pulse duration {tau} as F{sub c}={alpha}{tau}{sup x}, where {alpha} is a constant. The inverse problem for which the knowledge of experimental data allows one to determine physical parameters of the model is considered. The results suggest that the critical plasma density is reached in a time much shorter than the pulse duration. Information about the nature of defects responsible for the damage initiation is also provided.

Dyan, A.; Enguehard, F.; Lallich, S.; Piombini, H.; Duchateau, G. [Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Centre d'Etude du Ripault, BP 16, 37260 Monts (France)

2008-06-15

87

The Influence of Grain Boundary Type upon Damage Evolution at Grain Boundary Interfaces  

SciTech Connect

In a prior work, it was found that grain boundary structure strongly influences damage evolution at grain boundaries in copper samples subjected to either shock compression or incipient spall. Here, several grain boundaries with different grain boundary structures, including a {Sigma}3 (10-1) boundary, are interrogated via conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) to investigate the effects of atomic-scale structural differences on grain boundary strength and mobility. Boundaries are studied both before and after shock compression at a peak shock stress of 10 GPa. Results of the TEM and HRTEM work are used in conjunction with MD modeling to propose a model for shock-induced damage evolution at grain boundary interfaces that is dependent upon coincidence.

Perez-Bergquist, Alejandro G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brandl, Christian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Escobedo, Juan P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trujillo, Carl P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cerreta, Ellen K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gray III, George T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Germann, Timothy C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-09

88

Damage Evolution in Creep of SCS6\\/Ti24AI11Nb Metal-Matrix Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study is presented of the creep behavior of a model SCS-6\\/Ti-24Al-11Nb composite with the main objective of understanding its damage evolution under sustained loading at high temperature. Tensile creep tests were conducted in the 650-815 C temperature range. All tests were conducted in laboratory air on specimens fabricated from unidirectional panels. The specimens were loaded with tensile axis

M. Khobaib

1993-01-01

89

Modeling the effects of damage rate and He/dpa ratio on microstructural evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of displacement damage rate, helium generation rate and other irradiation conditions on irradiation-induced microstructural changes and swelling in an austenitic stainless steel were investigated by numerical calculations. The computer model developed in this study dynamically integrates rate equations which describe the evolution of point defects, small point defect cluster including cascade vacancy clusters, cavity nucleation and the evolution of the cavity size distribution.The model was calibrated using data obtained from a dual-beam ion irradiation experiment. In this experiment, solution annealed type 316 stainless steel was irradiated by 4 MeV nickel ions with simultaneous implantation of helium ions up to 25 dpa at 873 K. The He/dpa ratios and the displacement damage rates were in the range of 1 to 50 appm He/dpa and 2 × 10-3 to 1 × 10-2 dpa/sec, respectively. These experiments showed that helium effects on dislocation evolution significantly influence the nucleation and growth of cavities. The predicted effects of helium over a broad range of damage rates were calculated using the calibrated model.

Katoh, Yutai; Stoller, Roger E.; Kohno, Yutaka; Kohyama, Akira

1992-09-01

90

Damage evolution in GLARE fibre-metal laminate under repeated low-velocity impact tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study was performed on the repeated low-velocity impact behaviour of GLARE. Damage evolution in the material constituents was characterised with successive number of impacts. Records were correlated with visual inspection, ultrasound C-scan and chemical etching. The stiffness of the plate varied when cumulating the number of impacts. Damage accumulation was limited thanks to the synthesis of unidirectional composite and metal. The glass/epoxy plies with high elastic tensile strength could withstand several impacts before perforation despite delamination growth in the vicinity of the impacted area. The damage tolerant aluminium layers prevented the penetration of the projectile and avoided the expansion of delamination. This efficient mechanism preserved the structural integrity of GLARE until first aluminium cracking at the non-impacted side. Among the different failure modes, plate deformation absorbed most of the impact energy. The findings will support the development of a generic quasi-static analytical model and numerical methods.

Morinière, Freddy D.; Alderliesten, René C.; Tooski, Mehdi Yarmohammad; Benedictus, Rinze

2012-12-01

91

An experimental investigation of damage evolution in a ceramic matrix composite  

SciTech Connect

The mechanical behavior of a glass-ceramic matrix composite, SiC/CAS (calcium aluminosilicate reinforced with unidirectional SiC fibers), is studied. Results based on uniaxial tension experiments are presented for specimens with fibers aligned in the loading direction. Axial and transverse strain gages on all four gage section surfaces and in situ acoustic emission and ultrasonic wave speed measurements were used to monitor the evolution of damage. All measurements were made with high-resolution, continuous data acquisition. Post-test optical and scanning electron microscopy was also used to identify the various micromechanisms of damage. The experimental results demonstrate the existence of zones of deformation'' which are associated with the onset of different damage mechanisms. It is shown that the observed stress-strain behavior can be explained in terms of the material properties of the matrix and the fiber, the material processing, and the postulated zones of deformation.

Walter, M.E.; Ravichandran, G. (California Inst. of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States). Graduate Aeronautical Lab.)

1995-01-01

92

Stable and unstable damage evolution in rocks with implications to fracturing of granite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address the relation between the rock rigidity and crack density by comparing predictions of a viscoelastic damage rheology model to laboratory data that include direct microscopic mapping of cracks. The damage rheology provides a generalization of Hookean elasticity to a non-linear continuum mechanics framework incorporating degradation and recovery of the effective elastic properties, transition from stable to unstable fracturing, and gradual accumulation of irreversible deformation. This approach is based on the assumption that the density of microcracks is uniform over a length scale much larger than the length of a typical crack, yet much smaller than the size of the entire deforming domain. For a system with a sufficiently large number of cracks, one can define a representative volume in which the crack density is uniform and introduce an intensive damage variable for this volume. We tested our viscoelastic damage rheology against sets of laboratory experiments done on Mount Scott granite. Based on fitting the entire stress-strain records the damage variable is constrained, and found to be a linear function of the crack density. An advantage of these sets experiments is that they were preformed with different loading paths and explicitly demonstrated the existence of stable and unstable fracturing regimes. We demonstrate that the viscoelastic damage rheology provides an adequate quantitative description of the brittle rock deformation and simulates both the stable and unstable damage evolution under various loading conditions. Comparison between the presented data analysis of experiments with Mount Scott granite and previous results with Westerly granite and Berea sandstone indicates that granular or porous rocks have lower seismic coupling. This implies that the portion of elastic strain released during a seismic cycle as brittle deformation depends on the lithology of the region. Hence, upper crustal regions with thick sedimentary cover, or fault zones with high degree of damage are expected to undergo a more significant inelastic deformation in the interseismic period compared to `intact' crystalline rocks.

Hamiel, Yariv; Katz, Oded; Lyakhovsky, Vladimir; Reches, Ze'ev; Fialko, Yuri

2006-11-01

93

International Humanitarian Law and Bombing Campaigns: Legitimate Military Objectives and Excessive Collateral Damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This article focuses on the law which applies during armed conflicts to aerial bombardments or missiles launched from warships.\\u000a In particular, the principles of distinction and proportionality are examined and the contribution of international courts\\u000a and tribunals to the law in this area is considered. Issues raised by recent bombing campaigns, such as the bombing of electricity\\u000a grids and television

Christine Byron

94

Special rapporteurs as law makers: the developments and evolution of the normative framework for protecting and assisting internally displaced persons  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the development and evolution of the UN Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement and other relevant supplementary soft-laws prepared within the mandate of the special rapporteur on the human rights of internally displaced persons. By showcasing the increasing recognition and acceptance of the guiding principles as an authoritative framework governing the issue of internal displacement at the national,

Allehone Mulugeta Abebe

2011-01-01

95

Similarity Solutions of Creep — Damage Coupled Problems in Fracture Mechanics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The asymptotic solution to Mode III and Mode I crack problems in a creeping solid in the framework of Continuum Damage Mechanics\\u000a is presented. The kinetic law of damage evolution is the Kachanov — Rabotnov equation [1]. The damage parameter is incorporated into the power-law creep constitutive equations. Thus the coupled system of damage\\u000a mechanics — creep theory equations is

L. V. Stepanova; M. E. Fedina

96

Federal common law and ocean pollution: a private remedy for oil pollution damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of oil-spill pollution cases is outlined and present legal systems for compensating private persons suffering loss are shown to be inadequate. A review of available state, national, and international systems points out gaps and suggests the possibility of Federal common law to fill those gaps. The courts can focus on whether federal statutes should protect coastal waters from

Glaeser

2009-01-01

97

Use of atomic force microscopy for characterizing damage evolution during fatigue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of the development of surface fatigue damage in PH 13-8 Mo stainless steel and copper by atomic force microscopy (AFM) was performed. AFM observations allow highly automated, quantitative characterization of surface deformation with a resolution of 5 nm or better, which is ideal for understanding fatigue damage evolution. A secondary objective was to establish a correlation between fatigue life exhausted and impedance spectroscopy. Strain controlled fatigue tests were conducted both in high and low cycle fatigue regimes, and interruptions of the fatigue tests allowed characterizing the evolution of the surface upset at various life-fractions. In the low strain amplitude tests on stainless steel (Deltaepsilonpl/2 = 0.0026%), surface damage occurred in the shape of narrow streaks at the interface between martensite laths where reverted austenite was present. The streaks eventually coalesced to form crack nuclei. In high strain amplitude tests (Deltaepsilon pl/2 = 0.049%), fatigue surface damage was essentially dominated by the formation of extrusions. In copper, both low (Deltaepsilonpl/2 = 0.061%) and high (Deltaepsilonpl/2 = 0.134%) strain amplitude tests showed the formation of slip bands (mainly extrusions) across entire grains. Protrusions were present only in copper specimens tested at the high strain amplitude. Crack nucleation in the low strain amplitude tests occurred in both materials at the interface between a region that sustained a high level of deformation and one with little evidence of surface upset. This commonality between these two materials that are otherwise very dissimilar in nature suggests a universal scheme for location of fatigue crack nucleation sites during HCF. A procedure was developed in this study to quantitatively characterize the amount of irreversible surface strain. The proposed formalism is applicable to any material, independently of the type of surface damage, and leads to a criterion for crack nucleation based on physical evidence of surface damage. A correlation between fatigue damage and impedance spectroscopy measurements was shown in copper, in particular during the primary cyclic hardening stage. The measurements were however less sensitive to the development of surface upset that occurred beyond that stage.

Cretegny, Laurent

2000-10-01

98

26 CFR 1.162-22 - Treble damage payments under the antitrust laws.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...except that Z Co.'s claim for treble damages was based on a conspiracy to fix and maintain prices with respect to electrical insulators for high-tension power poles. Since the civil action was not based on the same violation of the Federal antitrust...

2013-04-01

99

Stress analyses coupled with damage laws to determine biomechanical risk factors for deep tissue injury during sitting.  

PubMed

Deep tissue injury (DTI) is a potentially life-threatening form of pressure ulcer that onsets in muscle tissue overlying bony prominences and progresses unnoticeably to more superficial tissues. To minimize DTI, the efficacy of wheelchair cushions should be evaluated not only based on their performance in redistributing interface pressures but also according to their effects on stress concentrations in deep tissues, particularly muscles. However, a standard bioengineering approach for such analyses is missing in literature. The goals of this study were to develop an algorithm to couple finite element (FE) modeling of the buttocks with an injury threshold for skeletal muscle and with a damage-stiffening law for injured muscle tissue, from previous animal experiments, to predict DTI onset and progression for different patient anatomies and wheelchair cushions. The algorithm was also employed for identifying intrinsic (anatomical) biomechanical risk factors for DTI onset. A set of three-dimensional FE models of seated human buttocks was developed, representing different severities of pathoanatomical changes observed in chronically sitting patients: muscle atrophy and "flattening" of the ischial tuberosity (IT). These models were then tested with cushions of different stiffnesses representing products available on the market and semirigid supports. Outcome measures were the percentage of damaged muscle tissue volumes after 90 min and 110 min of simulated continuous immobilized sitting as well as muscle injury rates post-60 min, -90 min, and -110 min of continuous sitting. Damaged muscle volumes grew exponentially with the level of muscle atrophy. For example, simulation of a subject with 70% muscle atrophy sitting on a soft cushion showed damage to 33% of the muscle volume after 90 min of immobilized sitting, whereas a comparable simulation with a nonatrophied muscle yielded only 0.4% damaged tissue volume. The rates of DTI progression also increased substantially with increasing severities of muscle atrophy, e.g., 70% atrophy resulted in 8.9, 2.7, and 1.6 times greater injury rates compared with the "reference" muscle thickness cases, after 60 min, 90 min, and 110 min of sitting, respectively. Across all simulation cases, muscle injury rate was higher when a "flatter" IT was simulated. Stiffer cushions increased both the extent and rate of DTI at times shorter than 90 min of continuous sitting, but after 110 min, volumes and rates of tissue damage converged to approximately similar values across the different cushion materials. The present methodology is a practical tool for evaluating the performances of cushions in reducing the risk for DTI in a manner that goes far beyond the commonly accepted measurements of sitting pressures. PMID:19045919

Linder-Ganz, Eran; Gefen, Amit

2009-01-01

100

A Damage Mechanics Treatment of Creep Failure in Rock Salt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent progress in the formulation of a constitutive model for describing coupled creep and damage development in rock salt is summarized. The constitutive model is based on the assumption that both dislocation slip and creep damage in the form of microcracks with possible wing-tips contribute to the macroscopic inelastic strain rate. The relevant kinetic equations, flow law, and damage evolution

K. S. Chan; S. R. Bodner; A. F. Fossum; D. E. Munson

1997-01-01

101

Nonlocal modelling of cyclic thermal shock damage including parameter estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, rate dependent evolution laws are identified and characterized to model the mechanical (elasticity-based) and thermal damage occurring in coarse grain refractory material subject to cyclic thermal shock. The interacting mechanisms for elastic deformation driven damage induced by temperature gradients and thermal damage induced by isotropic thermal expansion are combined and represented by a single variable for the

F. Damhof; W. A. M. Brekelmans; M. G. D. Geers

2011-01-01

102

Damage and Microstructure Evolution in GaN under Au Ion Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Damage and microstructure evolution in gallium nitride (GaN) under Au+ ion irradiation has been investigated using complementary electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry and ion beam analysis techniques. Epitaxially-grown GaN layers (2-um-thick) have been irradiated by 2.0 MeV Au ions to 1.0 × 1015 and 1.4 × 1015 cm-2 at 155 K and 7.3 × 1015 cm-2 at 200 K. The irradiation-induced damage has been analyzed by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy in a channeling direction (RBS/C). For a better determination of ion-induced disorder profile, an iterative procedure and a Monte Carlo code (McChasy) are combined to analyze the ion channeling spectra. With increasing irradiation dose, separated amorphous layers develop from the sample surface and near the damage peak region. Formation of large nitrogen bubbles with sizes up to 70 nm is observed in the buried amorphous layer, while the surface layer contains small bubbles with diameter of a few nanometers due to significant nitrogen loss from the surface. Volume expansion from 3% to 25% in the irradiated region is suggested by cross sectional transmission electron microscope and RBS/C measurement. The anomalous shape of the Au distributions under three irradiations indicates out-diffusion of Au toward sample surface. The results from the complementary techniques suggest that nitrogen is retained in the damaged GaN where the crystallinity is preserved. Once the amorphous state is reached in the surface region, GaN starts to decompose and nitrogen escapes from the surface. Furthermore, experimental results show considerable errors in both disorder profile and ion range predicted by the Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter code, indicating a significant overestimation of electronic stopping powers of Au ions in GaN.

Zhang, Yanwen; Ishimaru, Manabu; Jagielski, Jacek; Zhang, Weiming; Zhu, Zihua; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Jiang, Weilin; Thome, Lionel; Weber, William J.

2010-02-11

103

Tool Life Prediction for Ceramic Tools in Intermittent Turning of Hardened Steel Based on Damage Evolution Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Al2O3-based ceramic is one of the most widely used materials for tools employed in hardened steel turning applications due to its high hardness, wear resistance, heat resistance and chemical stability. The objective of this work is to predict the lives of Al2O3-(W, Ti)C ceramic tools in intermittent turning of hardened AISI 1045 steel by means of damage evolution model taking into account the mechanical loading and thermal effect in the cutting process. A damage evolution model analyzing the RVE with uniformly distributed interacting cracks is constructed based on micromechanics. The calculated results of the proposed damage evolution model are compared with the lives of two kinds of Al2O3-(W, Ti)C ceramic tools obtained through experiments. It is found that the proposed model can be used to predict the lives of the ceramic cutting tools in intermittent turning operation.

Cui, Xiaobin; Zhao, Jun; Zhou, Yonghui; Zheng, Guangming

2011-07-01

104

Anisotropic damage mechanics for viscoelastic ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a formulation of continuum damage in glacier ice that incorporates the induced anisotropy of the damage effects but restricts these formally to orthotropy. Damage is modeled by a symmetric second rank tensor that structurally plays the role of an internal variable. It may be interpreted as a texture measure that quantifies the effective specific areas over which internal stresses can be transmitted. The evolution equation for the damage tensor is motivated in the reference configuration and pushed forward to the present configuration. A spatially objective constitutive form of the evolution equation for the damage tensor is obtained. The rheology of the damaged ice presumes no volume conservation. Its constitutive relations are derived from the free enthalpy and a dissipation potential, and extends the classical isotropic power law by elastic and damage tensor dependent terms. All constitutive relations are in conformity with the second law of thermodynamics.

Pralong, A.; Hutter, K.; Funk, M.

2006-02-01

105

Characterization of damage evolution in an AM60 magnesium alloy by computed tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL) are collaborating on the development of new techniques to study damage evolution and growth in material specimens subjected to mechanical loading. These techniques include metallography, radiography, computed tomography (CT) and modeling. The material specimens being studied include cast magnesium and aluminum alloys, and forged stainless steel. We will concentrate on characterizing monotonically loaded magnesium alloy specimens using computed tomography. Several notched tensile specimens were uniaxially loaded to different percentages of the failure load. Specimens were initially characterized by radiography and computed tomography to determine the preloaded state. Subsequent CT scans were performed after the samples were loaded to different percentages of the load failure. The CT volumetric data are being used to measure void size, distribution and orientation in all three dimensions nondestructively to determine the effect of void growth on the mechanical behavior of the materials.

Waters, Amy; Martz, Harry; Dolan, Ken; Horstemeyer, Mark; Rikard, Derrill; Green, Robert

1999-12-01

106

Defining Terrorism: The Evolution of Terrorism as a Legal Concept in International Law and Its Influence on Definitions in Domestic Legislation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article examines the evolution of the definition of terrorism at international law and tests the widely held view that international law does not provide a definition of terrorism. It contends that by abstracting from the common elements and themes present in the United Nations General Assembly and Security Council resolutions concerning terrorism, and the multi-lateral anti-terrorism conventions, treaties, and

Reuven Young

2006-01-01

107

[The spirit of the law and the laws of the spirit: the evolution of Brazilian legal thought in the realm of mental health].  

PubMed

The article explores the evolution of the Brazilian republic's laws and norms on mental illness during three periods. The first (1890-1910) saw the topic of mental pathology introduced into the State's realm of interest, with the main concern being to recognize and preserve the rights of those displaying such pathologies. During this period, mental alterations were understood in terms of neuropathology. The following period (1911-1945) saw expansion of government initiatives, with the same concerns as the previous period. The interpretation of mental illness did not undergo any major changes, although it broadened in scope. Marked by a discontinuity in relation to previous times, Brazil's developmentalist period (1946-1982) saw an economic developmentalist spirit hold sway, underpinned by humanist thought of conservative propensity. It brought a vigorous growth in the number of Brazilian hospitals, while interest in protecting the mentally ill continued. PMID:19241674

Messas, Guilherme Peres

108

Effect of heat treatments on mechanical properties and damage evolution of thixoformed aluminium alloys  

SciTech Connect

In the present work, the effects of heat treatments on mechanical properties, microstructure evolution and damage resulting from plastic deformation of thixoformed A319 and A356 aluminium alloys, are studied. The thixoforming process can lead to the production of components that are characterized by very good mechanical properties and low porosity with a globular microstructure which is fine and uniform. The mechanical properties can be further improved through heat treatments such as T5 and T6. The prime factor influencing the damage in the alloys belonging to the Al-Si system is represented by decohesion of silicon particles resulting from the stress concentration at the particle-matrix interfaces. A statistical analysis of fractured particles after tensile tests in the as-cast and as-treated condition has been carried out in the present work; optical and scanning electron microscopy techniques have been used to characterize the microstructure and fracture surfaces of the specimens and the results are fully presented.

Cavaliere, P. [INFM-Dept. of Ingegneria dell'Innovazione, Engineering Faculty, University of Lecce, Via per Arnesano, I-73100-Lecce (Italy)]. E-mail: pasquale.cavaliere@unile.it; Cerri, E. [INFM-Dept. of Ingegneria dell'Innovazione, Engineering Faculty, University of Lecce, Via per Arnesano, I-73100-Lecce (Italy); Leo, P. [INFM-Dept. of Ingegneria dell'Innovazione, Engineering Faculty, University of Lecce, Via per Arnesano, I-73100-Lecce (Italy)

2005-07-15

109

Punitive Damages  

Microsoft Academic Search

Punitive damages is a controversial topic in American law. Defenders of punitive damages see these awards as a useful mechanism for sanctioning and deterring egregious conduct, particularly the conduct of corporations not subject to the sanctions of the criminal law but still harmful to society. Opponents of punitive damages argue that they are capriciously and unfairly awarded by juries and

Neil Vidmar; Matthew W. Wolfe

2009-01-01

110

Features in chemical kinetics. I. Signatures of self-emerging dimensional reduction from a general format of the evolution law  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simplification of chemical kinetics description through dimensional reduction is particularly important to achieve an accurate numerical treatment of complex reacting systems, especially when stiff kinetics are considered and a comprehensive picture of the evolving system is required. To this aim several tools have been proposed in the past decades, such as sensitivity analysis, lumping approaches, and exploitation of time scales separation. In addition, there are methods based on the existence of the so-called slow manifolds, which are hyper-surfaces of lower dimension than the one of the whole phase-space and in whose neighborhood the slow evolution occurs after an initial fast transient. On the other hand, all tools contain to some extent a degree of subjectivity which seems to be irremovable. With reference to macroscopic and spatially homogeneous reacting systems under isothermal conditions, in this work we shall adopt a phenomenological approach to let self-emerge the dimensional reduction from the mathematical structure of the evolution law. By transforming the original system of polynomial differential equations, which describes the chemical evolution, into a universal quadratic format, and making a direct inspection of the high-order time-derivatives of the new dynamic variables, we then formulate a conjecture which leads to the concept of an ``attractiveness'' region in the phase-space where a well-defined state-dependent rate function ? has the simple evolution ??=-?2 along any trajectory up to the stationary state. This constitutes, by itself, a drastic dimensional reduction from a system of N-dimensional equations (being N the number of chemical species) to a one-dimensional and universal evolution law for such a characteristic rate. Step-by-step numerical inspections on model kinetic schemes are presented. In the companion paper [P. Nicolini and D. Frezzato, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 234102 (2013)] this outcome will be naturally related to the appearance (and hence, to the definition) of the slow manifolds.

Nicolini, Paolo; Frezzato, Diego

2013-06-01

111

Features in chemical kinetics. I. Signatures of self-emerging dimensional reduction from a general format of the evolution law.  

PubMed

Simplification of chemical kinetics description through dimensional reduction is particularly important to achieve an accurate numerical treatment of complex reacting systems, especially when stiff kinetics are considered and a comprehensive picture of the evolving system is required. To this aim several tools have been proposed in the past decades, such as sensitivity analysis, lumping approaches, and exploitation of time scales separation. In addition, there are methods based on the existence of the so-called slow manifolds, which are hyper-surfaces of lower dimension than the one of the whole phase-space and in whose neighborhood the slow evolution occurs after an initial fast transient. On the other hand, all tools contain to some extent a degree of subjectivity which seems to be irremovable. With reference to macroscopic and spatially homogeneous reacting systems under isothermal conditions, in this work we shall adopt a phenomenological approach to let self-emerge the dimensional reduction from the mathematical structure of the evolution law. By transforming the original system of polynomial differential equations, which describes the chemical evolution, into a universal quadratic format, and making a direct inspection of the high-order time-derivatives of the new dynamic variables, we then formulate a conjecture which leads to the concept of an "attractiveness" region in the phase-space where a well-defined state-dependent rate function ? has the simple evolution ?[over dot]=-?(2) along any trajectory up to the stationary state. This constitutes, by itself, a drastic dimensional reduction from a system of N-dimensional equations (being N the number of chemical species) to a one-dimensional and universal evolution law for such a characteristic rate. Step-by-step numerical inspections on model kinetic schemes are presented. In the companion paper [P. Nicolini and D. Frezzato, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 234102 (2013)] this outcome will be naturally related to the appearance (and hence, to the definition) of the slow manifolds. PMID:23802945

Nicolini, Paolo; Frezzato, Diego

2013-06-21

112

Effects of temperature change on microstructural evolution in vanadium alloys under ion irradiation up to high damage levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, it has been pointed out that temperature change under irradiation strongly affects the microstructural evolution of materials. From an engineering point of view, it is very important to investigate the effects of temperature change under irradiation up to high damage levels. Ion irradiations were conducted in the High Fluence Irradiation Facility (HIT) up to 25 dpa. Both upward and

N. Nita; T. Yamamoto; T. Iwai; K. Yasunaga; K. Fukumoto; H. Matsui

2002-01-01

113

Damage Evolution in Composite Materials and Sandwich Structures Under Impulse Loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Damage evolution in composite materials is a rather complex phenomenon. There are numerous failure modes in composite materials stemming from the interaction of the various constituent materials and the particular loading conditions. This thesis is concerned with investigating damage evolution in sandwich structures under repeated transient loading conditions associated with impulse loading due to hull slamming of high-speed marine craft. To fully understand the complex stress interactions, a full field technique to reveal stress or strain is required. Several full field techniques exist but are limited to materials with particular optical properties. A full field technique applicable to most materials is known as thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) and reveals the variation in sum of principal stresses of a cyclically loaded sample by correlating the stresses to a small temperature change occurring at the loading frequency. Digital image correlation (DIC) is another noncontact full field technique that reveals the deformation field by tracking the motion of subsets of a random speckle pattern during the loading cycles. A novel experimental technique to aid in the study of damage progression that combines TSA and DIC simultaneously utilizing a single infrared camera is presented in this thesis. A technique to reliably perform DIC with an infrared (IR) camera is developed utilizing variable emissivity paint. The thermal data can then be corrected for rigid-body motion and deformation such that each pixel represents the same material point in all frames. TSA is then performed on this corrected data, reducing motion blur and increasing accuracy. This combined method with a single infrared camera has several advantages, including a straightforward experimental setup without the need to correct for geometric effects of two spatially separate cameras. Additionally, there is no need for external lighting in TSA as the measured electromagnetic radiation is emitted by the sample's thermal fields. The particular stress resolution of TSA will depend on properties of the material of interest but the noise floor for the temperature variation is universal to the camera utilized. For the camera system in this thesis, the noise floor was found to be fairly frequency independent with a magnitude of 0.01 °C, giving the minimum measurable stress for 2024 aluminum alloy of 3.6 MPa and for Nylon of 0.84 MPa. The average displacement range found during a static DIC test with IR images was 0.1 pixels. The maximum displacement variation at 1 Hz was 0.018 pixels. The average variation in strain at 1 Hz was 25 microstrain comparable to traditional DIC measurements in the visible optical regime. The combined TSA-DIC method in IR was validated with several benchmark example problems including plate structures with holes, cracks, and bimaterials. The validated technique was applied to foam-core sandwich composite beams under repeated simulated wave slamming loading. There are numerous failure modes in sandwich composite materials and the full field stress and strain from TSA and DIC, respectively, allow for improved failure analysis and prediction. Understanding damage in sandwich structures under impulse loading is a complex open area of research and the combined TSA-DIC method provides further insight into the failure process.

Silva, Michael Lee

114

Fatigue crack initiation and damage evolution of unnotched titanium matrix composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fatigue crack initiation, multiplication, matrix crack density evolution, and stiffness reduction of several unnotched SCS-6 silicon carbide fiber-reinforced titanium and titanium aluminide matrix composites have been investigated experimentally and analytically. The effects of the thickness of the interfacial reaction layer and fiber coating on fatigue crack initiation life, crack growth rate, and fatigue damage evolution of the composites were examined. Growth behavior of small fatigue cracks in TMCs was also studied carefully. It was found that fatigue crack initiation and multiplication of TMCs are strongly influenced by the thickness of the interfacial reaction layer. Fatigue crack will not develop from the micro-notches in the interfacial reaction layer until the thickness of the reaction layer exceeds a critical value. Matrix crack growth rate is affected by the applied stress level, however, it appears to be independent of the matrix material and heat treatment. The combined effects of fatigue crack multiplication and propagation result in stiffness degradation of the composites. The Ag/Ta duplex fiber coating significantly improves the transverse tensile and flexural creep resistance of the SCS-6/Ti-25-10 composite. However, the Ag/Ta-coated composite exhibits a shorter crack initiation life, higher number of matrix cracks, and higher crack growth rate than the uncoated composite. The embrittlement of the residual Ag/Ta layer suggests that Ag is not an effective diffusion barrier to prevent the interdiffusion of atomic species across the interface. The high interfacial cracking density and high interfacial bond strength in the Ag/Ta-coated SCS-6/Tisb3Al composite are believed to be responsible for its poor fatigue damage tolerance. For titanium alloys, the threshold intensity factor range, Delta Ksbth, for small fatigue cracks in the matrix alloys of TMCs has been determined to be between 0.9 ˜ 1.0 MPa*msp{1/2} which is much lower than that for long fatigue cracks which is ˜5 MPa*msp{1/2}. The crack growth rate fluctuates widely while the cracks are short, and converges gradually with crack growth. The transition from short fatigue crack to long fatigue crack in the SCS-6/Ti-15-3 composite has been found to occur when the crack length is in the range of 400 to 1000 mum. Finally, an interface-controlled fatigue cracking model incorporating a modified shear-lag model, the strain-life equation, and a fiber bridging model is developed to predict the fatigue crack initiation life, matrix crack growth rate, saturated matrix crack spacing, normalized matrix crack density, and residual stiffness of the composites. The predicted fatigue properties correlate well with experimental results.

Her, Yung-Chiun

115

Damage Evolution, Acoustic Emissions and Elastic Wave Velocities in Porous Carbonate Rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured compressional and shear wave velocities of Chauvigny limestone in triaxial compression tests and at hydrostatic pressures (30, 50, 70, 100 MPa). Chauvigny limestone is almost pure (~99 %) calcite with 17 % porosity. Tests were performed on dry specimens of 50 mm in diameter and 100 mm in length at room temperature and at a constant strain rate of 2.10-4s-1. Acoustic emission (AE) hypocenter locations were used to analyze the spatial damage distribution and we used first motion polarity, to define AE source types. Volumetric strains were recorded using strain gages. Our mechanical data during hydrostatic and triaxial compression experiments is similar to that of Tavel and Indiana limestone (Vajdova et al. 2004). For confining pressures ? 30 MPa, Chauvigny limestone samples show shear-enhanced compaction. For experiments performed at 30-50 MPa confining pressure, samples first compact and then show dilatancy with increasing axial strain. During the hydrostatic loading up to 140 MPa, P-wave velocities increase by only 2 % indicating that the samples are almost free of pre-existing cracks. During triaxial loading, a stress-induced anisotropy of P-wave velocities develops, with vertical velocity components being faster than horizontal velocities. Increasing confining pressure also significantly reduces P-wave anisotropy. These observations suggest the development of vertical cracks during the shear-enhanced compaction. P-wave velocity measured during depressurization remain lower than when measured during pressurization (decrease higher than 30 %), demonstrating the evolution of crack damage. Our microstructural observations indicate that samples deform by cataclastic flow.

Fortin, J.; Stanchits, S.; Dresen, G.; Gueguen, Y.

2006-12-01

116

Oxidative DNA damage is important to the evolution of antibiotic resistance: evidence of mutation bias and its medicinal implications.  

PubMed

Several (1) studies have revealed that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by antibacterial stimulation accelerates the evolution of antibiotic resistance, which uncovered new links between oxygen rise and evolution and inspired new strategies to prevent antibiotic resistance. Considering many other mechanisms cause DNA mutations aside from ROS damage, evaluating the significance of oxidative DNA damage in the development of antibiotic resistance is of great interest. In this study, we examined the ratio of G:C?>?T:A transversion to G:C?>?A:T transition in drug-resistant Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis and found that it is significantly higher than the background values. This finding strongly suggests that ROS damage plays a critical role in the development of antibacterial resistance. Considering the long-term co-evolution between host organisms and pathogenic bacteria, we speculate that the hosts may have evolved strategies for combating antibiotic resistance by controlling DNA damage in bacteria. Analysis of the global transcriptional profiles of Staphylococcus aureus treated with berberine (derived from Berberis, a traditional antibacterial medicine) revealed that the transcription of DNA repair enzymes was markedly upregulated, whereas the antioxidant enzymes were significantly downregulated. Thus, we propose that consolidating the DNA repair systems of bacteria may be a viable strategy for preventing antibiotic resistance. (1)These authors contributed equally to this work. PMID:22908856

Wang, Zhong-Yi; Xiong, Min; Fu, Liang-Yu; Zhang, Hong-Yu

2012-08-22

117

Damage Evolution and Recovery in Al-Implanted 4H-SiC  

SciTech Connect

Damage evolution in 4H-SiC epitaxial layers irradiated with 1.1 MeV Al molecular ions at 150 K to a range of ion fluences and subsequent isochronal recovery were studied by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). The relative disorder on both the Si and C sublattices follows a sigmoidal dependence on ion fluence, and a buried amorphous layer is formed when the local dose reaches a critical amorphization value (0.12 dpa). The buried amorphous thickness increases rapidly at {approx} 2.0 x 1014 Al/cm2 and eventually saturates at the highest fluence. Isochronal annealing studies up to 870 K reveals the existence of three distinct recovery stages at {approx} 335, 520 and 650 K for low to intermediate ion fluences, where the relative disorder has not yet reached the fully amorphous level. In high-dose samples, where a buried amorphous layer is produced, the onset of a fourth recovery stage appears above 800 K. Recrystallization occurs at the rear interface and in the surface region, and the relative amount of recovery decreases with increasing fluence for the same annealing temperatures. Defect-stimulated epitaxial growth rather than thermal-stimulated epitaxial growth dominates the recrystallization.

Zhang, Yanwen (EMSL FACILITY USERS); Weber, William J. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Jiang, Weilin (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Hallen, Anders (Royal Institute of Technology); Possnert, Goran (Uppsala University); Y. Yoshida, S. Nishino, H. Harima, and T. Kimoto

2001-12-01

118

Upstream Innovation Protection: Common Law Evolution and the Dynamics of Wage Inequality  

Microsoft Academic Search

What is the most innovation-enhancing level of patent protection for the new ideas generated within the framework of multi-stage sequential innovation? How does increasing early innovation appropriability affect basic research, applied research, education, and wage inequality? What does the common law system imply on the macroeconomic responses to institutional change? We show how the jurisprudential changes in intellectual property rights

Guido Cozzi; Silvia Galli

2009-01-01

119

The discrepancies in multistep damage evolution of yttria-stabilized zirconia irradiated with different ions  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports a comprehensive investigation of structural damage in yttria-stabilized zirconia irradiated with different ions over a wide fluence range. A similar multistep damage accumulation exists for the irradiations of different ions, but the critical doses for occurrence of second damage step, characterized by a faster increase in damage fraction, and the maximum elastic strain at the first damage step are varied and depend on ion mass. For irradiations of heavier ions, the second damage step occurs at a higher dose with a lower critical elastic strain. Furthermore, larger extended defects were observed in the irradiations of heavy ions at the second damage step. Associated with other experiment results and multistep damage accumulation model, the distinct discrepancies in the damage buildup under irradiations of different ions were interpreted by the effects of electronic excitation, energy of primary knock-on atom and chemistry contributions of deposited ions.

Yang, Tengfei [Peking University; Taylor, Caitlin A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kong, Shuyan [Peking University; Wang, Chenxu [Peking University; Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL; Huang, Xuejun [Peking University; Xue, Jianming [Peking University; Yan, Sha [Peking University; Wang, Yugang [Peking University

2013-01-01

120

Toward a Theory of Statutory Evolution: The Federalization of Environmental Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let us begin by renouncing two of the more ambitious implications of thetitle. No, we do not believe that any single theory can do justice to all varietiesof statutory development. Nor do we believe that everything worth sayingabout the processes by which statutes change can be captured by analogy tobiological evolution.Just as each human being has a unique life history,

E. Donald Elliott; Bruce A Ackerman; John C Millian

1985-01-01

121

The Effects of Shockwave Profile Shape and Shock Obliquity on Spallation: Kinetic and Stress-State Effects on Damage Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shock-loading of a material in contact with a high explosive (HE) experiences a ``Taylor wave'' (triangular wave) loading profile in contrast to the square-wave loading profile imparted via the impact of a flyer plate. Detailed metallographic and microtextural analysis of the damage evolution in spalled Cu samples as a function of square/triangle and sweeping detonation-wave loading is presented.

Gray, G. T.; Hull, L. M.; Faulkner, J. R.; Briggs, M. E.; Cerreta, E. K.; Addessio, F. L.; Bourne, N. K.

2009-12-01

122

Tensile properties and damage evolution in a 3D C\\/SiC composite at cryogenic temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tensile test was used upon a 3D-C\\/SiC composite under air or nitrogen atmosphere to characterize its mechanical behaviors and associated damage evolutions from room to cryogenic temperatures. The tensile strength relatively weakened most at ?40°C, however, that is recovered as temperature decreasing to ?100°C. The mismatch of coefficient of thermal expansions between carbon fiber and SiC matrix plays a role

Xiaochong Liu; Laifei Cheng; Litong Zhang; Ning Dong; Shoujun Wu; Zhixin Meng

2011-01-01

123

Failure of a welded pressure vessel due to creep: damage initiation, evolution and reheat cracking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuum damage mechanics (CDM)-based constitutive equations are reviewed and presented for austenitic AISI 316H stainless steels, which undergo creep deformation and damage at 550°C. Two multi-axial stress rupture functions\\/criteria have been utilised. Equations and the finite element computer code, DAMAGE XX, were used to carry out CDM studies of the weldment in an axi-symmetric equivalent of the flank section of

F. Vakili-Tahami; Hayhurst

2007-01-01

124

Implication of the power law cutoff evolution in XTE J1550-564  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present spectral analysis of data collected using RXTE during two periods of X-ray activity in 1998 and 2000 from the Galactic X-ray black hole binary XTE J1550-564. We particularly concentrate on the behavior of the high energy cutoff of the power law part of the spectrum. The 1998 event was very powerful, showing a quick initial transition from low-hard state to very high state. The power law cutoff energy decreases from low-hard to intermediate states and increased again during transition to very high and high-soft states. For the 2000 outburst we also observe the decrease of the cutoff energy during the start of the state transition, similar to that in 1998 outburst, however the increase of the high energy cutoff (folding energy) is not apparent in this track because the source does not reach the real high-soft state in this event. We attribute this difference in the cutoff energy behavior to the different partial contributions of the thermal and non-thermal (bulk motion) Comptonization in photon upscattering. Namely, during the 1998 event higher accretion rate presumably provided more cooling to Comptonizing media and thus reducing the effectiveness of the thermal upscattering process. Under these conditions the bulk motion should take a leading role in boosting the input soft photons. This observational behavior of the cutoff energy presents an additional evidence of the existence of the converging bulk motion region near the central objects and provides further support for the previously reported index saturations effect as a black hole signature.

Titarchuk, Lev; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai

125

Long-range Automaton Models of Earthquakes: Power-law Accelerations, Correlation Evolution, and Mode-switching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

- We introduce a conceptual model for the in-plane physics of an earthquake fault. The model employs cellular automaton techniques to simulate tectonic loading, earthquake rupture, and strain redistribution. The impact of a hypothetical crustal elastodynamic Green's function is approximated by a long-range strain redistribution law with a r-p dependance. We investigate the influence of the effective elastodynamic interaction range upon the dynamical behaviour of the model by conducting experiments with different values of the exponent (p). The results indicate that this model has two distinct, stable modes of behaviour. The first mode produces a characteristic earthquake distribution with moderate to large events preceeded by an interval of time in which the rate of energy release accelerates. A correlation function analysis reveals that accelerating sequences are associated with a systematic, global evolution of strain energy correlations within the system. The second stable mode produces Gutenberg-Richter statistics, with near-linear energy release and no significant global correlation evolution. A model with effectively short-range interactions preferentially displays Gutenberg-Richter behaviour. However, models with long-range interactions appear to switch between the characteristic and GR modes. As the range of elastodynamic interactions is increased, characteristic behaviour begins to dominate GR behaviour. These models demonstrate that evolution of strain energy correlations may occur within systems with a fixed elastodynamic interaction range. Supposing that similar mode-switching dynamical behaviour occurs within earthquake faults then intermediate-term forecasting of large earthquakes may be feasible for some earthquakes but not for others, in alignment with certain empirical seismological observations. Further numerical investigation of dynamical models of this type may lead to advances in earthquake forecasting research and theoretical seismology.

Weatherley, D.; Mora, P.; Xia, M. F.

126

Study of the damage evolution function of tin silver copper in cycling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present research focused on the assessment of solder joint fatigue life in microelectronics assemblies. A general concern of any reliability engineer is whether accelerated tests are relevant to field conditions. The risk of this was minimized by developing an approach to reduce the duration of an accelerated thermal cycling test, thus allowing for the use of less accelerated test conditions. For this purpose the conventional dye and pry technique was improved and used together with artificial neural networks to measure and characterize very early stages of crack growth. The same work also demonstrated a quantitative link between thermal cycling induced recrystallization and a strong acceleration of the subsequent fatigue crack growth and failure. A new study was conducted in which different combinations of annealing and isothermal cycling provided a systematic characterization of the effects of a range of individual parameters on the recrystallization. Experiments showed the ongoing coarsening of secondary precipitates to have a clear effect on recrystallization. The rate of recrystallization was also shown not to scale with the inelastic energy deposition. This means that the most popular current thermal cycling model cannot apply to SnAgCu solder joints. Recrystallization of the Sn grains is usually not the rate limiting mechanism in isothermal cycling. The crack initiation stage often takes up a much greater fraction of the overall life, and the eventual failure of BGA joints tends to involve transgranular crack growth instead. Cycling of individual solder joints allowed for monitoring of the evolution of the solder properties and the rate of inelastic energy deposition. Both the number of cycles to crack initiation and the subsequent number of cycles to failure were shown to be determined by the inelastic energy deposition. This provides for a simple model for the extrapolation of accelerated test results to the much milder cycling amplitudes characteristic of long term service conditions based on conventional Finite Element Modeling. It also offers a critical basis for the ongoing development of a practical model to account for the often dramatic break-down of Miner's rule of linear damage accumulation under variable cycling amplitudes as expected in realistic applications.

Qasaimeh, Awni

127

Compaction localization in Saint-Maximin limestone: Spatial evolution of damage and acoustic emission activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of deformation and failure in many sedimentary settings hinges upon a fundamental understanding of inelastic behavior and failure mode of porous carbonate rocks. Previous laboratory studies on low to intermediate porosity limestone showed that even if porosity had several important effects on the overall mechanical behavior, a similar phenomenology of failure was observed in rocks with porosity ranging from 3 to 18%. Dilatancy and shear localization developed under low confining pressure, while strain hardening and shear-enhanced compaction were observed at elevated confining pressure. Samples deformed in the compactive regime failed by homogeneous cataclastic flow. However, recent field observations revealed the development of deformation bands in higher porosity carbonates. To investigate the development of compaction localization in carbonate rocks, we have conducted a systematic study of deformation and failure in Saint-Maximin limestone of 37% porosity. To investigate the development of compaction localization in carbonate rock, we have conducted a systematic study of deformation and failure in Saint-Maximin limestone of 37% porosity. Two series of conventional triaxial experiments were performed in parallel at room temperature, constant strain rate in both dry and wet conditions at confining pressures between 3 and 50 MPa. Wet experiments were carried out with water in drained conditions at 10 MPa of pore pressure. The first series of experiments were performed at IPG Strasbourg on relatively small samples. The failure modes and spatial distribution of damage were studied systematically in these samples. The second series of experiments were performed on larger samples at ENS Paris. Acoustic emission activity was recorded during these tests. The events were located via 12 piezoelectric transducers attached to the samples. The evolution of P-wave velocity in four directions was also recorded during these experiments. Shear enhanced compaction was observed at all pressures conditions. Compactive shear band developed at low effective pressures, while more complex failure modes involving deformation bands of variable orientations were observed at higher effective pressures. A significant weakening effect of water was also observed in Saint Maximin limestone. Our new data showed that the onset of inelastic compaction in Saint Maximin limestone was, like in porous sandstone, marked by a clear increase in acoustic emission activity both in dry and wet conditions. A relatively modest decrease of Vp was observed during the experiments. Strain gage data, acoustic emission and velocity data confirmed that compaction localization occurred in both dry and wet conditions. * Currently at Andra, Châtenay Malabry , France

Rolland, Alexandra; Schubnel, Alexandre; Baud, Patrick

2010-05-01

128

Stable and unstable damage evolution in rocks with implications to fracturing of granite  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the relation between the rock rigidity and crack density by comparing predictions of a viscoelastic damage rheology model to laboratory data that include direct microscopic mapping of cracks. The damage rheology provides a generalization of Hookean elasticity to a non-linear continuum mechanics framework incorporating degradation and recovery of the effective elastic properties, transition from stable to unstable fracturing,

Yariv Hamiel; Oded Katz; Vladimir Lyakhovsky; Ze'ev Reches; Yuri Fialko

2006-01-01

129

Helicopter rotor blade frequency evolution with damage growth and signal processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural damage in materials evolves over time due to growth of fatigue cracks in homogenous materials and a complicated process of matrix cracking, delamination, fiber breakage and fiber matrix debonding in composite materials. In this study, a finite element model of the helicopter rotor blade is used to analyze the effect of damage growth on the modal frequencies in a

Niranjan Roy; Ranjan Ganguli

2005-01-01

130

Fatigue damage evolution and property degradation of a SCS-6/Ti-22Al-23Nb orthorhombic titanium aluminide composite  

SciTech Connect

The fatigue damage evolution and property degradation of a SCS-6/Ti-22Al-23Nb orthorhombic titanium aluminide composite under low cycle fatigue loading at room temperature was investigated. The fatigue test was conducted under a load-controlled mode with a load ratio (R) of 0.1, a frequency of 10 Hz, and a maximum applied stress ranging from 600 to 945 MPa. The stiffness reduction as well as the evolution of microstructural damage which includes matrix crack length, matrix crack density and interfacial debonding length as a function of fatigue cycles, and applied stresses were measured. An analytical model and a computer simulation were also developed to predict the residual stiffness and the post-fatigued tensile strength as a function of microstructural damage. Finally, a steady-state crack growth model proposed by Marshall et al. was used to predict the interfacial frictional stress and the critical crack length. Correlation between the theoretical predictions and experimental results were also discussed.

Wang, P.C.; Jeng, S.M.; Yang, J.M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Russ, S.M. [Wright Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States). Materials Directorate

1996-08-01

131

Comets and entropy hydrodynamics: How does evolution violate the 2nd law?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information density can increase locally if one is careful to control the flow of entropy. Not diffusively but through clever use of "invariants of the flow". Replacing entropy with true invariants of the flow, we show how information can be concentrated or "added" consistent with the observation of increasing complexity on the Earth. Analogous to a digital computer made of fluid components, the "calculation" proceeds by clever manipulation of boundary conditions. Magnetized comets possess exactly the properties needed to produce the simplest entropy invariant, making them a prime candidate for driving evolution. They may also provide the origin of the chirality or "handedness" of life. Thus the Origin-of-life, evolutionary progress paradox can be solved, but at the cost of requiring the universe to be in a highly information-dense initial state.

Sheldon, Robert B.; Webb, Gary

2013-09-01

132

Multistep damage evolution process in cubic zirconia irradiated with MeV ions  

SciTech Connect

This work reports the study, via the combination of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and channeling, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy experiments, of the damage formation in cubic yttria-stabilized zirconia single crystals irradiated with medium-energy (4 MeV) heavy (Au) ions. The damage buildup, which is accounted for in the framework of the multistep damage accumulation model, occurs in three steps. The first step at low fluences (up to 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}), characterized by a regular increase in both the damage yield and the elastic strain, is related to the formation of small defect clusters. The second step in the intermediate fluence range (from 10{sup 15} to 5x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}) leads to a sharp increase in the damage yield and to a large drop of the strain due to the formation of dislocation loops which collapse into a network of tangled dislocations. The third step at high fluences (above 5x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}) exhibits a surprising decrease in the damage yield, which may be attributed to the reorganization of the dislocation network that leads to the formation of weakly damaged regions with a size of the order of 100 nm.

Moll, S.; Thome, L.; Debelle, A.; Garrido, F.; Vincent, L. [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse (CSNSM), CNRS-IN2P3-Univ. Paris-Sud 11, Bat. 108, 91405 Orsay (France); Sattonnay, G. [LEMHE/ICMMO, Univ. Paris-Sud 11, UMR 8182, Bat. 410, 91405 Orsay (France); Jagielski, J. [Institute for Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland) and Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Swierk/Otwock (Poland)

2009-10-01

133

Negative Power Law Scaling of Rockfalls along the Yorkshire Coast: Implications for Long Term Landscape Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increasing body of evidence suggests that rockfalls follow a negative power law scaling in their magnitude-frequency distribution of the form F = aM-b. Where F is the normalized frequency density, M is the event magnitude, and a / b are dimensionless scaling coefficients. Investigation using Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) has produced an extremely high resolution inventory of rockfall magnitudes along the sea cliffs near Staithes, UK. Such data is ideal for erosion modelling. Once the scaling parameters have been estimated, the volume of eroded rock for events of magnitude x (Vx) is derived as Vx = ax-b+1. Therefore, the total volume (V t) of eroded rock between a minimum and maximum magnitude can be calculated by taking by integrating the above. An examination of monthly fluctuations in the scaling coefficients indicates greater variation within the winter months in response to higher deliveries of wave energy during these months. Initial results using geophone data indicate a relationship between the magnitude of the scaling coefficients and the amount of wave energy delivered to the cliff. Such linkages suggest the possibility of a predictive model for erosion based on wave climate, providing a predictive capability for the implications of environmental change. Model testing is to be accomplished using an innovative cliff recession model derived using cosmogenic isotope concentrations and paleoenvironmental data. Our cosmogenic dating model considers marine variables (tidal range, wave climate and inundation duration); Holocene relative sea level change; lateral cliff retreat, and the consequent changes in geometrical and marine shielding to establish the rate of retreat based on a continuum of Be10 concentrations.

Barlow, John; Rosser, Nick; Lime, Michael; Petley, David; Brain, Matthew; Sapsford, Melanie; Norman, Emma

2010-05-01

134

Coda Wave Interferometry Method Applied in Structural Monitoring to Assess Damage Evolution in Masonry and Concrete Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this experimental program the main goal is to monitor the damage evolution in masonry and concrete structures by Acoustic Emission (AE) signal analysis applying a well-know seismic method. For this reason the concept of the coda wave interferometry is applied to AE signal recorded during the tests. Acoustic Emission (AE) are very effective non-destructive techniques applied to identify micro and macro-defects and their temporal evolution in several materials. This technique permits to estimate the velocity of ultrasound waves propagation and the amount of energy released during fracture propagation to obtain information on the criticality of the ongoing process. By means of AE monitoring, an experimental analysis on a set of reinforced masonry walls under variable amplitude loading and strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) beams under monotonic static load has been carried out. In the reinforced masonry wall, cyclic fatigue stress has been applied to accelerate the static creep and to forecast the corresponding creep behaviour of masonry under static long-time loading. During the tests, the evaluation of fracture growth is monitored by coda wave interferometry which represents a novel approach in structural monitoring based on AE relative change velocity of coda signal. In general, the sensitivity of coda waves has been used to estimate velocity changes in fault zones, in volcanoes, in a mining environment, and in ultrasound experiments. This method uses multiple scattered waves, which travelled through the material along numerous paths, to infer tiny temporal changes in the wave velocity. The applied method has the potential to be used as a "damage-gauge" for monitoring velocity changes as a sign of damage evolution into masonry and concrete structures.

Masera, D.; Bocca, P.; Grazzini, A.

2011-07-01

135

Real-time in situ sensing of damage evolution in advanced fiber composites using carbon nanotube networks.  

PubMed

Developments in producing nanostructured materials with novel properties have opened up new opportunities in which unique functionality can be added to existing material systems. As advanced fiber composites are utilized more frequently in primary structural applications there is a key challenge to enhance the performance and reliability while reducing maintenance. As a consequence there is tremendous scientific and technical interest in the development of techniques for monitoring the health of composite structures where real-time sensing can provide information on the state of microstructural damage. In this research we utilize electrically conductive networks of carbon nanotubes as in situ sensors for detecting damage accumulation during cyclic loading of advanced fiber composites. Here we show that, by combining load and strain measurements in real-time with direct current electrical resistance measurements of the carbon nanotube network, insight can be gained toward the evolution and accumulation of damage. The resistance/strain relations show substantial hysteresis due to the formation and opening/closing of cracks during cyclic loading. Through interpreting the resistance response curves we identify a parameter that may be utilized as a quantitative measure of damage. PMID:21730592

Thostenson, Erik T; Chou, Tsu-Wei

2008-04-23

136

The role of off-fault damage in the evolution of normal faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent measurements of slip profiles on normal faults have found that they are usually triangular in shape. This has been explained to be a consequence of on-fault processes such as slip-dependent friction. However, the recent observation that cumulative slip profiles on normal faults and fault systems in Afar are both triangular and self-similar excludes this explanation and requires some form of off-fault deformation. Here, we use elastic modelling to show that large triangular zones of off-fault damage can explain the observed triangular slip profiles provided damage is anisotropic in the form of cracks sub-parallel to the fault. Our modelling suggests that these triangular damage zones result from the enlargement of the crack tip damage area as the fault (or system) lengthens. Our modelling also demonstrates that different types of 'barriers' can cause the slip profiles to terminate abruptly at one or both fault ends, as observed in Afar and elsewhere.

Manighetti, Isabelle; King, Geoffrey; Sammis, Charles G.

2004-01-01

137

Penetration and induced damage evolution of concrete and granite when subjected to multiple projectile impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study was conducted to investigate the penetration process of multiple impacts into concrete targets. The concrete targets were subjected to repeated constant velocity impacts with an ogive nose projectile. The penetration and crater formation data were consistent with single impact penetration data from previous studies conducted at Sandia National Laboratories. In order to predict the depth of the multiple impact penetration, a single impact penetration model, developed by M. Forrestal at Sandia National Laboratories, was extended to account for the degradation of the target strength with each subsequent impact. The degradation of the target was determined empirically and included in the model as a strength-modifying factor. To further understand the multiple impact penetration process, a study was conducted to look at both the static and dynamic properties of concrete and granite as a function of induced damage. Both static and dynamic compression experiments were performed on concrete and granite specimens with various levels of induced damage. The static compressive strength of both materials decreased with increasing levels of damage due to the induced damage causing the activation and propagation of failure cracks in the specimens. In contrast, the dynamic compressive strength remained unchanged with increasing damage due to the inability of the fracture process zone to develop and relieve the strain energy before complete specimen failure. A series of dynamic and static tensile-splitting experiments were performed on concrete and granite specimens to investigate the effect of induced damage on their tensile strength. The experiments showed that the static splitting strength was highly dependent on the orientation of the induced damage with regard to the applied loading, however the dynamic tensile strength decreased with increasing damage with no apparent dependency on the random damage orientation. Photoelastic experiments have shown that the mechanism of failure changes for the dynamically tested damaged specimens, reducing their dependence on damage orientation. The photoelastic experiments also determined that the tensile splitting specimen was in equilibrium at the time of failure, and that the dynamic stress field closely resembles the static splitting stress field.

Gomez, Jason Thomas

138

Nonlocal modeling of thermal shock damage in refractory materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-local damage framework has been coupled with heat transport to model transient thermo-mechanical damage (in particular thermal shock) in refractory materials. The non-locality, to be dealt with to obtain an adequate problem formulation, is introduced by terms accounting for micro-structural strain gradients induced by transient temperature gradients. The parameters figuring in the evolution law for elasticity-based damage are temperature

F. Damhof; W. A. M. Brekelmans; M. G. D. Geers

2008-01-01

139

Law by human intent or evolution? Some remarks on the Austrian school of economics’ role in the development of law and economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the late nineteenth century, economic analysis of law experienced an outright rejection by the German-speaking legal community.\\u000a In the second half of the twentieth century, it became a dominant approach in American legal inquiry. We argue that this success\\u000a was partly due to the insights of Austrian economics which the second wave of law and economics has incorporated. We

Michael Litschka; Kristoffel Grechenig

2010-01-01

140

Aftershocks and damage mechanics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All earthquakes are followed by an aftershock sequence. A universal feature of aftershock sequences is that they decay in time according to the modified Omori's law, a power-law decay. A characteristic of the rupture of brittle materials is the time delay between the application of a stress and the rupture. In the earth's brittle crust, the aftershock sequences following all earthquakes are examples of this type of delay. When a rupture occurs on a fault there is a redistribution of stress around the fault. Some regions have a reduction in stress (stress shadows), and other regions have an increase in stress (stress halos). Since the total stored elastic energy must decrease, the integrated reduction of stress is greater than the integrated increase. Nevertheless, the regions of increased stress are significant and it is these regions where aftershocks occur (both on the fault that initially ruptured and on adjacent faults). In this work we consider the applicability of damage mechanics to earthquake aftershocks. The damage variable ? introduced in damage mechanics quantifies the deviation of a brittle solid from linear elasticity. The evolution of damage is specified by a rate equation. Thermally activated creep processes (diffusion and dislocation creep), the plastic deformation of ductile materials beyond a threshold and the rupture of brittle materials are examples of damage. We draw an analogy between the metastable behavior of a stressed brittle solid and the metastable behavior of a superheated liquid. The nucleation of microcracks is analogous to the nucleation of bubbles in the superheated liquid. We obtain a solution for the evolution of damage after the instantaneous application of a constant strain to a rod. If the increased stress ? exceeds the yield stress ?_y damage will occur. We hypothesize that this damage will occur at constant strain ?_0 and the damage will relax the stress back to the yield stress ?_y. We show that the subsequent stress relaxation can reproduce the modified Omori's law. It is argued that the aftershocks themselves cause random fluctuations similar to the thermal fluctuations associated with phase changes. We believe that this stress relaxation process is applicable to the understanding of the aftershock sequence that follows an earthquake. The time delay of the aftershocks relative to the main shock is in direct analogy to the time delay of the damage. This delay is because it takes time to nucleate microcracks (aftershocks).

Shcherbakov, R.; Turcotte, D. L.

2003-04-01

141

Measurement of volatile hydrocarbon evolution in vitro and in vivo for study of radiation damage and its chemical modification  

SciTech Connect

The authors previously reported radiation-induced evolution of n-pentane from cell membranes in vitro and from rats. To better understand these processes, they examined the effect of chemical modifiers of radiation damage on pentane evolution. Erythrocyte membranes generated pentane upon irradiation (800 Gy, Cobalt-60) as measured by gas chromotography. Fe/sup +2/ stimulated pentane formation, whereas addition of free radical scavengers diminished pentane formation. In an in vivo system, adult male rats were followed individually in a closed gas collection chamber. Air samples (40 ml) were collected and pentane measured in a Reaction-Chromatography System. Pentane production was increased during the postirradiation period after both sublethal and lethal whole-body irradiation (3-10 Gy) or after partial-body irradiation. Levels of pentane up to 10 picomole/100 g body wt/min were observed when rats were pretreated with iron-dextran before irradiation. To a lesser extent, pretreatment for several days with the radiosensitizer misonidazole, buthionine sulfoximine (a depleter of glutathione), or combined treatment resulted in increased levels of pentane. The described procedures for measurement of hydrocarbons resulting from lipid peroxidation appear to be useful for investigation of oxidative processes in relation to radiation damage and its modification by chemicals.

Vaishnav, Y.N.; Kumar, K.S.; Weiss, J.F.

1986-05-01

142

Influence of sweeping detonation-wave loading on shock hardening and damage evolution during spallation loading in tantalum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Widespread research over the past five decades has provided a wealth of experimental data and insight concerning the shock hardening, damage evolution, and the spallation response of materials subjected to square-topped shock-wave loading profiles. However, fewer quantitative studies have been conducted on the effect of direct, in-contact, high explosive (HE)-driven Taylor wave (unsupported shocks) loading on the shock hardening, damage evolution, or spallation response of materials. Systematic studies quantifying the effect of sweeping-detonation wave loading are yet sparser. In this study, the shock hardening and spallation response of Ta is shown to be critically dependent on the peak shock stress and the shock obliquity during sweeping-detonation-wave shock loading. Sweeping-wave loading is observed to: a) yield a lower spall strength than previously documented for 1-D supported-shock-wave loading, b) exhibit increased shock hardening as a function of increasing obliquity, and c) lead to an increased incidence of deformation twin formation with increasing shock obliquity.

Gray, G. T.; Hull, L. M.; Livescu, V.; Faulkner, J. R.; Briggs, M. E.; Cerreta, E. K.

2012-08-01

143

Collateral Damage: the Implications of Utrecht Star Cluster Astrophysics for Galaxy Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Until the early 2000s, the research portfolio of the Astronomical Institute in Utrecht (SIU) did not include galaxy evolution. Somewhat serendipitously, this changed with the advent of the star cluster group. In only a few years, a simple framework was developed to describe and quantify the properties of dynamically evolving star cluster populations. Since then, the ‘Utrecht cluster disruption model’ has shown that the galactic environment plays an important role in setting the evolution of stellar clusters. From this simple result, it follows that cluster populations bear some imprint of the characteristics and histories of their host galaxies, and that star clusters can be used to trace galaxy evolution—an aim for which the Utrecht star cluster models were never designed, but which they are well-capable of fulfilling. I review some of the work in this direction, with a strong emphasis on the contributions from the SIU.

Kruijssen, J. M. D.

2013-01-01

144

The primary damage state and its evolution over multiple length and time scales  

Microsoft Academic Search

During his long and illustrious career, Professor Kiritani made many of the most significant and revealing observations regarding the nature of the primary damage state and the fate of the produced defects in irradiated metals and semiconductors. We present a review of recent results of molecular dynamics (MD) and kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations of defect production and annealing in

T. Diaz de La Rubia; M. J. Caturla; E. A. Alonso; N. Soneda; M. D. Johnson

1999-01-01

145

Perinatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Damage: Evolution of an Animal Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early research in the Vannucci laboratory prior to 1981 focused largely on brain energy metabolism in the developing rat. At that time, there was no experimental model to study the effects of perinatal hypoxia-ischemia in the rodent, despite the tremendous need to investigate the pathophysiology of perinatal asphyxial brain damage in infants. Accordingly, we developed such a model in the

Robert C. Vannucci; Susan J. Vannucci

2005-01-01

146

A phenomenological approach to simulating the evolution of radioactive-waste container damage due to pitting corrosion  

SciTech Connect

The damage to high-level radioactive-waste containers by pitting corrosion is an important design and performance assessment consideration. It is desirable to calculate the evolution of the pit depth distribution, not just the time required for initial penetration of the containers, so that the area available for advective of diffusive release of radionuclides through the container can be estimated. A phenomenological approach for computing the time evolution of these distributions is presented which combines elements of the deterministic and stochastic aspects of pit growth. The consistency of this approach with the mechanisms believed to control the evolution of the pit depth distribution is discussed. Qualitative comparisons of preliminary model predictions with a variety of experimental data from the literature are shown to be generally favorable. The sensitivity of the simulated distributions to changes in the input parameters is discussed. Finally, the results of the current model are compared to those of existing approaches based on extreme-value statistics, particularly regarding the extrapolation of laboratory data to large exposed surface areas.

Henshall, G.A.

1995-10-25

147

Damage evolution by using the near-tip fields of a crack in gas turbine liners  

Microsoft Academic Search

A residual lifetime prediction study has been performed on a combustion liner metallic material exposed to elevated temperatures by simulating the evolution of plastic work fields at a crack tip under monotonically loading. The strain and stress distribution has been computed by finite element analysis. The method gives a measure of the metal degradation and enables to evaluate the failure

A. Can Altunlu; Hoogt van der Peter; Boer de André

2010-01-01

148

Continuum damage evolution in Pb-free solder joint under shear fatigue loadings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progressive materials damage process in solder joint under cyclic shear deformation is examined in this study. A 3-D finite element model of a single reflowed SAC405 solder specimen is developed for this purpose. Cyclic relative displacement cycles between zero and 1.0 mm at displacement ramp rate of 2.0 mm\\/sec. is applied in the direction parallel to the solder\\/pad interface. Strain

N. M. Shaffiar; W. K. Loh; N. Kamsah; M. N. Tamin

2010-01-01

149

“Deborah numbers”, coupling multiple space and time scales and governing damage evolution to failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different spatial levels are involved concerning damage accumulation to eventual failure. This can entail sample size\\u000a l (~cm) to characteristic microdamage size c*(~?m). Associated are three physical processes with three different rates, namely\\u000a macroscopic elastic wave velocity a, nucleation and growth rates of microdamage nN* and V*.\\u000a \\u000a It is found that the trans-scale length ratio c*\\/L does not directly

Y. L. Bai; H. Y. Wang; M. F. Xia; F. J. Ke

150

Damage evolution in different types of concrete by means of splitting tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new splitting test has been used for evaluating damage in different types of concrete. The set up was developed at the Stevin Laboratory of Delft University of Technology and comprises a completely new loading device in which a perfectly horizontal splitting load can be applied to concrete specimens.\\u000aIn addition to classical mechanical measurements, a high resolution optical microscope

A. Vervuurt; J. G. M. Van Mier; B. Chiaia

1995-01-01

151

Copyright Law, Computer Software, and Government Acquisition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis examines copyright law as it relates to computer software and how this law affects the Government acquisition of computer software. Following a differentation of copyright law, patent law, and trade secrets, a brief history of the evolution of...

P. R. Dauphinias

1984-01-01

152

Evolution of oxidation and creep damage mechanisms in HIPed silicon nitride materials  

SciTech Connect

Several yttria-fluxed, hot-isostatically pressed (HIPed) silicon nitrides have been tensile creep tested at temperatures representative of gas turbine engines. Creep and oxidation assisted damage mechanisms concurrently evolve when these materials are tested at high temperatures and low stresses (i.e., long exposure times at temperature). Atmospheric creep testing results in creation of oxygen and yttrium gradients across the radial dimension. High concentrations of oxygen and yttrium coincide with dense populations of lenticular-shaped cavities near the surface of crept specimens. The center of the tensile specimens was devoid of oxygen or yttrium; in addition, lenticular cavities were rare. The gradient in lenticular-cavity concentration is coincident with the oxygen and yttrium gradients. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) also occurs in these HIPed silicon nitrides when they are subjected to stress at high temperatures in ambient air. The size of this damage zone increases when the temperature is higher and/or the applied stress is lower. Stress-corrosion cracking initiates at the surface of the tensile specimen and advances radially inwards. What nucleates SCC has not yet been identified, but it is believed to result from a stress-concentrator (e.g., machining damage) at the surface and its growth is a result of coalescence of microcracks and cavities. The higher concentration of oxygen and yttrium in the grain boundaries near the specimen`s surface lessens the local high temperature mechanical integrity; this is believed to be associated with the growth of the SCC zone. This SCC zone continues to grow in size during tensile loading until it reaches a critical size which causes fracture.

Wereszczak, A.A.; Ferber, M.K.; Kirkland, T.P.; More, K.L.

1994-10-01

153

Modeling electrical power absorption and thermally-induced biological tissue damage.  

PubMed

This work develops a model for thermally induced damage from high current flow through biological tissue. Using the first law of thermodynamics, the balance of energy produced by the current and the energy absorbed by the tissue are investigated. The tissue damage is correlated with an evolution law that is activated upon exceeding a temperature threshold. As an example, the Fung material model is used. For certain parameter choices, the Fung material law has the ability to absorb relatively significant amounts of energy, due to its inherent exponential response character, thus, to some extent, mitigating possible tissue damage. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the model's behavior. PMID:23589115

Zohdi, T I

2013-04-16

154

Continuum damage mechanics in piezoelectric ceramics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Continuum damage mechanics approach is used to predict the failure of piezoelectric ceramics which are widely used as actuators and sensors in smart structures. A continuum damage model is developed for piezoelectric ceramics, and the model is used to investigate the degradation of effective properties of the material due to damage growth. Effective properties of the material are obtained by extending the Mori-Tanaka method to piezoelectric materials. A damage evolution law is proposed to predict the growth of damage with respect to time, and the involved material parameters in the damage evolution law are obtained from the experiments of Tanimoto and Okazaki. The results are obtained assuming all the effective properties of the material degrade as the damage grow, and the degradation is independent of the load history. This degradation should be taken into account to calibrate the sensors, actuators and controllers for the better reliability, maintainability and controllability of smart structures. The effective properties of the material is related to some measurable electrical quantity such as capacitance. Therefore, the state of damage can be predicted just by measuring the capacitance of the embedded piezoelectric ceramics.

Jain, Adesh K.; Sirkis, James S.

1995-05-01

155

Adaptive Response to DNA-Damaging Agents in Natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae Populations from "Evolution Canyon", Mt. Carmel, Israel  

PubMed Central

Background Natural populations of most organisms, especially unicellular microorganisms, are constantly exposed to harsh environmental factors which affect their growth. UV radiation is one of the most important physical parameters which influences yeast growth in nature. Here we used 46 natural strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from several natural populations at the “Evolution Canyon” microsite (Nahal Oren, Mt. Carmel, Israel). The opposing slopes of this canyon share the same geology, soil, and macroclimate, but they differ in microclimatic conditions. The interslope differences in solar radiation (200%–800% more on the “African” slope) caused the development of two distinct biomes. The south-facing slope is sunnier and has xeric, savannoid “African” environment while the north-facing slope is represented by temperate, “European” forested environment. Here we studied the phenotypic response of the S. cerevisiae strains to UVA and UVC radiations and to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) in order to evaluate the interslope effect on the strains' ability to withstand DNA-damaging agents. Methodology/Principal Findings We exposed our strains to the different DNA-damaging agents and measured survival by counting colony forming units. The strains from the “African” slope were more resilient to both UVA and MMS than the strains from the “European” slope. In contrast, we found that there was almost no difference between strains (with similar ploidy) from the opposite slopes, in their sensitivity to UVC radiation. These results suggest that the “African” strains are more adapted to higher solar radiation than the “European” strains. We also found that the tetraploids strains were more tolerant to all DNA-damaging agents than their neighboring diploid strains, which suggest that high ploidy level might be a mechanism of adaptation to high solar radiation. Conclusions/Significance Our results and the results of parallel studies with several other organisms, suggest that natural selection appears to select, at a microscale, for adaptive complexes that can tolerate the higher UV radiation on the “African” slope.

Lidzbarsky, Gabriel A.; Shkolnik, Tamar; Nevo, Eviatar

2009-01-01

156

Creep in Thermally Cracked Granite: Physical, Mechanical and Damage Properties Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the effects of pervasive crack damage on the rupture processes of a fine-grained granite, under triaxial stress, in wet (H20) and dry (argon gas) saturated conditions, at room temperature. Eight samples of La Peyratte granite (a granodiorite with an average grain size of 200 microns) were cored with an initial porosity of <1%. Damage was introduced by heating four samples up to 700°C. These were then compared to the intact granite specimens. 4 samples were deformed at a constant strain rate of 2x10-6/s until brittle failure occurred. 4 other samples were deformed in creep conditions. During these 8 experiments, at each step, we recorded strains, elastic wave velocities and Acoustic Emissions (AE). Our main results are: 1. The brittle strength of the sample remained unchanged (approx. 500MPa deviatoric stress at 30MPa effective pressure), whether the sample was heat-treated or not. We did not observe any significant water weakening as well. However, the onset of dilatancy was observed at lower deviatoric stress in the heat-treated specimen than for the intact ones. 2. Acoustic emissions revealed useful in order to image the rupture processes. Indeed, AE locations and Focal mechanism were in good agreement with the post mortem analysis of sample. In intact specimen, failure occurred after a larger premonitory AE activity, while heat-treated specimen had a longer aftershocks activity. In creep conditions, we show that extreme damage localization is already initiated during the primary and secondary creep phases. 3. However, in all our experiments, we observed the development of an elastic fabric well before the onset of rupture. To be more precise, measuring the P wave velocities along two different horizontal travel paths - one perpendicular and one parallel to the eventual rupture plane, away from the nucleation zone - we showed that that both started to diverge as early as at 70% of the final rupture strength. This shows that quite early on during the experiment, the strain localization processes have started and the final fault orientation has already been selected.

Wang, X.; Schubnel, A. J.; Fortin, J.; Gueguen, Y.; Ge, H.

2011-12-01

157

The Protein Folds as Platonic Forms: New Support for the Pre-Darwinian Conception of Evolution by Natural Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before the Darwinian revolution many biologists considered organic forms to be determined by natural law like atoms or crystals and therefore necessary, intrinsic and immutable features of the world order, which will occur throughout the cosmos wherever there is life. The search for the natural determinants of organic form—the celebrated “Laws of Form”—was seen as one of the major tasks

MICHAEL J. DENTON; Craig J. Marshallw; Michael Leggew

2002-01-01

158

Evolution of Ar+-damaged graphite surface during annealing as investigated by scanning probe microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface evolution of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite irradiated with Ar+ ions of 1.0 keV at doses between 5 x1011 and 1 x1013 ions/cm2 during annealing was investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) in the tapping mode. Hillocks were observed by both STM and AFM after ion irradiation, where the height of a hillock measured by STM was larger than that measured by AFM. The ion-irradiated surface was recovered in three stages during annealing: the first stage at 473-873 K, the second stage at 873-1473 K, and the third stage at 1473-1873 K. In the first stage, many of the ion-induced hillocks recovered rapidly and irregular domelike protrusions were formed due to both the recombination of the mobile interstitial clusters with the immobile vacancies and the aggregation of interstitial clusters. In the second stage, the hillocks recovered slightly and domelike protrusions aggregated to larger domelike protrusions. In the third stage, the hillocks recovered completely and domelike protrusions changed from irregular shapes to regular circles with monatomic step height of graphite due to the change from irregular carbon interstitial clusters to complete extraplane in graphite. Hexagonal hollows were also formed and became larger circular hollows above 1623 K with monatomic step height of graphite due to the vacancy clusters formed by the migration of vacancies and the following collapse of the neighboring layers in graphite.

An, B.; Fukuyama, S.; Yokogawa, K.; Yoshimura, M.

2002-09-01

159

Modelling the effect of repositioning on the evolution of skeletal muscle damage in deep tissue injury.  

PubMed

Deep tissue injury (DTI) is a localized area of tissue necrosis that originates in the subcutaneous layers under an intact skin and tends to develop when soft tissue is compressed for a prolonged period of time. In clinical practice, DTI is particularly common in bedridden patients and remains a serious issue in todays health care. Repositioning is generally considered to be an effective preventive measure of pressure ulcers. However, limited experimental research and no computational studies have been undertaken on this method. In this study, a methodology was developed to evaluate the influence of different repositioning intervals on the location, size and severity of DTI in bedridden patients. The spatiotemporal evolution of compressive stresses and skeletal muscle viability during the first 48 h of DTI onset was simulated for repositioning schemes in which a patient is turned every 2, 3, 4 or 6 h. The model was able to reproduce important experimental findings, including the morphology and location of DTI in human patients as well as the discrepancy between the internal tissue loads and the contact pressure at the interface with the environment. In addition, the model indicated that the severity and size of DTI were reduced by shortening the repositioning intervals. In conclusion, the computational framework presented in this study provides a promising modelling approach that can help to objectively select the appropriate repositioning scheme that is effective and efficient in the prevention of DTI. PMID:22576902

Demol, Jan; Deun, Dorien Van; Haex, Bart; Oosterwyck, Hans Van; Sloten, Jos Vander

2012-05-11

160

Does Species Evolution Follow Scale Laws? First Applications of the Scale Relativity Theory to Fossil and Living-beings  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have demonstrated, using the Cantor dust method, that the statistical distribution of appearance and disappearance of rodents\\u000a species (Arvicolid rodent radiation in Europe) follows power laws strengthening the evidence for a fractal structure set.\\u000a Self-similar laws have been used as model for the description of a huge number of biological systems. With Nottale we have\\u000a shown that log-periodic behaviors

Jean Chaline

2010-01-01

161

Modeling Damage Growth in Oxidized High-Temperature Polymeric Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal oxidation is a major degradation mechanism for polymers and composites operating at high temperatures. Controlling the damage progression in oxidative environments is critical for enhancing the long-term durability of these materials. The surface oxidation of the material and the damage evolution in high-temperature polymer matrix composite materials (HTPMCs) are highly coupled mechanisms. In this article, three-dimensional, finite-element methods are used to simulate both oxidation layer and damage growth in polymers subjected to bending loads and laminated composites subjected to uniaxial tension. An oxygen diffusion-reaction model determines the changes in properties due to oxidation and chemical strains induced by oxidation. The damage growth is simulated using mesh-free extended finite-element techniques and suitable damage initiation laws. The damage evolution observed with simulations is seen to be consistent with experimental observations reported in the literature.

An, Nan; Pochiraju, Kishore

2013-02-01

162

Damage-induced nonassociated inelastic flow in rock salt  

SciTech Connect

The multi-mechanism deformation coupled fracture model recently developed by CHAN, et al. (1992), for describing time-dependent, pressure-sensitive inelastic flow and damage evolution in crystalline solids was evaluated against triaxial creep experiments on rock salt. Guided by experimental observations, the kinetic equation and the flow law for damage-induced inelastic flow in the model were modified to account for the development of damage and inelastic dilatation in the transient creep regime. The revised model was then utilized to obtain the creep response and damage evolution in rock salt as a function of confining pressure and stress difference. Comparison between model calculation and experiment revealed that damage-induced inelastic flow is nonassociated, dilatational, and contributes significantly to the macroscopic strain rate observed in rock salt deformed at low confining pressures. The inelastic strain rate and volumetric strain due to damage decrease with increasing confining pressures, and all are suppressed at sufficiently high confining pressures.

Chan, K.S.; Bodner, S.R. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Brodsky, N.S.; Fossum, A.F. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1993-06-01

163

Evolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual evolution exhibit at the University of California at Berkeley (Museum of Paleontology) combines several of the best resources we've evaluated, such as Phylogenetic Systematics and the Talk Origins Archive, among others. In addition, the Evolution Website provides information on the Theory of Evolution (with links to further information including Timeline of Evolutionary Thought; Systematics; Dinosaur Discoveries; and Vertebrate Flight) and the History of Evolutionary Thought (including dozens of biographical summaries). For educators or students interested in reviewing or learning about evolution in a historical context, this Website will be of much use.

164

The Evolution of Elastic Moduli With Increasing Crack Damage During Cyclic Stressing of Etna Basalt  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Volcanic edifices, such as Mt. Etna volcano, are commonly subject to cycles of pressurization and depressurization over extended periods of time due to repeated episodes of magma emplacement from deep reservoirs to shallow depths. Such repeated episodes of deformation can lead to an increase in the level of crack damage within the rocks of the edifice, and hence changes in their elastic properties. Importantly, a number of volcano monitoring techniques, such as seismic tomography and ground deformation modeling, rely on accurate knowledge of elastic properties. However, the effect of cyclic stressing on mechanical and elastic properties of volcanic rock remains unclear. To this end, we report results of changes in elastic moduli from stress-cycling experiments on samples of extrusive basalt from Mount Etna, Italy. The basalt contains an extensive pre-existing network of isotropic, interconnected microcracks caused by cooling. Both oven-dry and water-saturated samples were initially loaded to 20 MPa at a constant rate and then unloaded to 8 MPa. Samples were then sequentially reloaded and unloaded at the same rate with the peak stress in each subsequent cycle increased by 10 MPa. Stress-cycling was continued until each sample failed. Results from oven-dry samples showed a gradual reduction in sample stiffness with each increasing stress cycle that resulted in a total decrease in Young's modulus of approximately 30% and an increase in Poisson's ratio of approximately 60%. Results from water-saturated samples showed an almost identical trend. These changes in moduli are attributed to the growth of new cracks in each stress cycle and, hence, an increase in the total crack density. This is supported by the observation of increased acoustic emission (micro-seismic) output in each cycle. We also observed the Kaiser stress-memory effect, where acoustic emission on each cycle only occurs when the maximum stress in the previous cycle has been exceeded. During the deformation history of volcanic edifices, however, the stress in each pressurization cycle may not always exceed that of the previous cycle. In order to better understand this more realistic situation, we also report results from cyclic stressing experiments where the peak stress in each cycle has been randomly selected to be either higher or lower than that of the previous cycle. In this case we observed a more complex manifestation of the Kaiser effect, where AE output in any cycle was only observed when the stress in that cycle exceeded the maximum stress on any previous cycle.

Heap, M. J.; Meredith, P. G.; Vinciguerra, S.; Boon, S. A.

2007-12-01

165

Fatigue damage analysis of unidirectional metal matrix composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the non-linear analysis of industrial components subjected to strong thermo-mechanical cyclic loads. Two kinds of damages must be taken into account: the first one being a “constitutive damage” which will dominate the low cycle fatigue (LCF) regime and whose evolution law will be coupled to the elasto-viscoplastic model. The second one will be a “classical” fatigue

Serge Kruch; Nicolas Carrère; Jean-Louis Chaboche

2006-01-01

166

Computer simulation of creep damage at crack tip in short fibre composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creep damage at crack tip in short fibre composites has been simulated by using the finite element method (FEM). The well-known\\u000a Schapery non-linear viscoelastic constitutive relationship was used to characterize time-dependent behaviour of the material.\\u000a A modified recurrence equation was adopted to accelerate the iteration. Kachanov-Rabotnov's damage evolution law was employed.\\u000a The growth of the damage zone with time around

Zhang Shuangyin; L. W. Tsai

1994-01-01

167

Farmers, Ranchers, and the Railroad: The Evolution of Fence Law in the Great Plains, 1865-1900  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is divided into three parts. The first examines specific fencing policies in Kansas, Nebraska, and other Plains states, highlighting the transformation from the "fence-out" to "fence-in" (herd laws) policies. The second part discusses the coming of the railroads to the Great Plains and the farmers and the ranchers as beneficiaries who…

Kawashima, Yasuhide

2010-01-01

168

Social Architecture, Judicial Peer Effects and the Evolution of the Law: Toward a Positive Theory of Judicial Social Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building upon the themes of this symposium, as well as a growing extant literature demonstrating the common law displays properties of a complex system, we believe existing theories of judicial decision-making and legal change would benefit from the concepts and techniques typically reserved for the study of complexity. Among possible approaches, network analysis offers one manner of representing the interactions

Daniel Martin Katz; Derek K. Stafford; Eric Provins

2008-01-01

169

Evolution of patients' complaints in a French university hospital: is there a contribution of a law regarding patients' rights?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Legislative measures have been identified as one effective way of changing attitude or behaviour towards health care. The aim of this study was to describe trends in patients' complaints for medical issues; to evaluate the contribution of a law regarding patients' rights, and to identify factors associated to patients' perception of a medical error. METHODS: Patients with a complaint

Camila Giugliani; Nathalie Gault; Valia Fares; Jérémie Jegu; Sergio Trolli; Julie Biga; Gwenaelle Vidal-Trecan

2009-01-01

170

Farmers, Ranchers, and the Railroad: The Evolution of Fence Law in the Great Plains, 1865-1900  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article is divided into three parts. The first examines specific fencing policies in Kansas, Nebraska, and other Plains states, highlighting the transformation from the "fence-out" to "fence-in" (herd laws) policies. The second part discusses the coming of the railroads to the Great Plains and the farmers and the ranchers as beneficiaries…

Kawashima, Yasuhide

2010-01-01

171

Law of War Handbook (2005).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives are to: 1) Identify common historical themes that continue to support the validity of laws regulating warfare. 2) Identify the two 'prongs' of legal regulation of warfare. 3) Trace the historical 'cause and effect' evolution of laws related...

D. Grimes D. Wollschlaeger E. Jensen K. Puls R. Swansiger T. Hamilton

2009-01-01

172

Strain rate dependency of the shear properties of a highly oriented thermoplastic composite material using a contacting displacement measurement methodology—Part B: shear damage evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the second part of a two-part series on the strain rate dependency of the shear properties of a glass\\/polypropylene composite laminate material. In this study the Ladevéze composite material model is used to characterise the shear damage evolution for crosshead displacement rates varying over three orders of mag-nitude. The research was carried out as part of the

N. Papadakis; N. Reynolds; M. W. Pharaoh; P. K. C. Wood; G. F. Smith

2004-01-01

173

Vortex Structure and Evolution within Bow Echoes. Part I: Single-Doppler and Damage Analysis of the 29 June 1998 Derecho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-Doppler radar along with damage observations are examined to investigate the structural evolution of vortices observed within the 29 June 1998 derecho event that propagated through southeastern Iowa into central and eastern Illinois. A total of 13 meso-g-scale vortices observed primarily at low levels (0-3 km AGL) along the leading edge of the convective system were detected by the Weather

Nolan T. Atkins; Justin M. Arnott; Ron W. Przybylinski; Ray A. Wolf; Bradley D. Ketcham

2004-01-01

174

The effects of shockwave profile shape and shock obliquity on spallation : studies of kinetics and stress state effects on damage evolution  

SciTech Connect

Shock-loading of a material in contact with a high explosive (HE) experiences a 'Taylor wave' (triangular wave) loading profile in contrast to the square-wave loading profile imparted via the impact of a flyer plate. Detailed metallographic and mlcrotextural analysis of the damage evolution in spalled Cu samples as a function of square/triangle and sweeping detonation-wave loading is presented.

Gray Iii, George T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hull, Larry M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Faulkner, J R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Briggs, M E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cerreta, E K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Addessio, F L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bourne, N K [AWE. ALDERMASTON UK

2009-01-01

175

Development of a viscoelastic continuum damage model for cyclic loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A previously developed spectrum model for linear viscoelastic behavior of solids is used to describe the rate-dependent damage growth of a time dependent material under cyclic loading. Through the use of the iterative solution of a special Volterra integral equation, the cyclic strain history is described. The spectrum-based model is generalized for any strain rate and any uniaxial load history to formulate the damage function. Damage evolution in the body is described through the use of a rate-type evolution law which uses a pseudo strain to express the viscoelastic constitutive equation with damage. The resulting damage function is used to formulate a residual strength model. The methodology presented is demonstrated by comparing the peak values of the computed cyclic strain history as well as the residual strength model predictions to the experimental data of a polymer matrix composite.

Sullivan, R. W.

2008-12-01

176

More general theory of environmental policy with an application to the evolution of groundwater law in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the evolution of property-right systems in response to negative externalities by focusing on the interactions between, (1) the allocative and distributional consequences of regulation in private economic markets, and (2) collective decisions in the political marketplace. The study develops a general conceptual framework for the positive analysis of collective decisions on these public policy issues. This framework

1983-01-01

177

Hypervelocity impacts and damage laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space debris are nowadays a recognized threat for any space mission. Hypervelocity impacts of space objects can degrade, or terminate prematurely, costly missions. It is, therefore, necessary to improve the survivability of spacecraft. The first step toward this goal is to characterize the behaviour of different materials and configurations under hypervelocity impacts. The purpose of this paper is to present

M. Lambert

1997-01-01

178

Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When we are looking for intelligent life outside the Earth, there is a fundamental question: Assuming that life has formed on an extraterrestrial planet, will it also develop toward intelligence? As this is hotly debated, we will now describe the development of life on Earth in more detail in order to show that there are good reasons why evolution should culminate in intelligent beings.

Peter, Ulmschneider

179

State of the nation: therapeutic jurisprudence and the evolution of the right of self-determination in international law.  

PubMed

This article expands the scope of the therapeutic jurisprudence enterprise and applies the concept at a collective global level. The right of self-determination, arguably the most important and certainly the most controversial part of international law, is examined through the lens of therapeutic jurisprudence. By detailing the manner in which nations move towards their goal of statehood, this article opens up dialogue about collective healing, shared memory and alternative approaches to autonomy. The article poses the question of whether groups of people can share in common delusions, forms of folie a gens. PMID:10723102

Cooper, J M

1999-01-01

180

Deterrence in Competition Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a comprehensive discussion of the deterrence properties of a competition policy regime. On the basis of the economic theory of law enforcement we identify several factors that are likely to affect its degree of deterrence: 1) sanctions and damages; 2) financial and human resources; 3) powers during the investigation; 4) quality of the law; 5) independence and

Paolo Buccirossi; Lorenzo Ciari; Tomaso Duso; Giancarlo Spagnolo; Cristiana Vitale

2009-01-01

181

Deterrence in Competition Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a comprehensive discussion of the deterrence properties of a competition policy regime. On the basis of the economic theory of law enforcement we identify several factors that are likely to affect its degree of deterrence: 1) sanctions and damages; 2) financial and human resources; 3) powers during the investigation; 4) quality of the law; 5) independence; and

Paolo Buccirossi; Lorenzo Ciari; Tomaso Duso; Giancarlo Spagnolo; Cristiana Vitale

2009-01-01

182

The ecology of law  

Microsoft Academic Search

This theoretical paper is a plea for grafting yet another branch onto the flourishing tree of what may be called the social sciences of law: an ecology of law. In a nutshell, ecology deals with the evolution of (populations of) physical and social entities, well-known examples being animals and organizations. In the current paper, the argument is that the application

Arjen van Witteloostuijn

2003-01-01

183

32 CFR 842.111 - Applicable law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...foreign countries, the measure of damages is determined in accordance with...of American tort law. (2) Damages in suits against private persons...following are not payable: (i) Punitive damages. (ii) Cost of medical or...

2013-07-01

184

32 CFR 842.51 - Applicable law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...American tort law. (2) Apportion damages against the United States in the...Government associated source from the damages which may be awarded. Deduct sick... (5) Do not approve: (i) Punitive damages. (ii) Cost of medical or...

2013-07-01

185

Self-similar bumps and wiggles: Isolating the evolution of the BAO peak with power-law initial conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by cosmological surveys that demand accurate theoretical modeling of the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) feature in galaxy clustering, we analyze N-body simulations in which a BAO-like Gaussian bump modulates the linear theory correlation function ?L(r)=(r0/r)n+3 of an underlying self-similar model with initial power spectrum P(k)=Akn. These simulations test physical and analytic descriptions of BAO evolution far beyond the range of most studies, since we consider a range of underlying power spectra (n=-0.5, -1, -1.5) and evolve simulations to large effective correlation amplitudes (equivalent to ?8=4-12 for rbao=100h-1Mpc). In all cases, nonlinear evolution flattens and broadens the BAO bump in ?(r) while approximately preserving its area. This evolution resembles a diffusion process in which the bump width ?bao is the quadrature sum of the linear theory width and a length proportional to the rms relative displacement ?pair(rbao) of particle pairs separated by rbao. For n=-0.5 and n=-1, we find no detectable shift of the location of the BAO peak, but the peak in the n=-1.5 model shifts steadily to smaller scales, following rpeak/rbao=1-1.08(r0/rbao)1.5. The perturbation theory scheme of McDonald (2007) [P. McDonald, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 75, 043514 (2007).10.1103/PhysRevD.75.043514] and, to a lesser extent, standard 1-loop perturbation theory are fairly successful at explaining the nonlinear evolution of the Fourier power spectrum of our models. Analytic models also explain why the ?(r) peak shifts much more for n=-1.5 than for n?-1, though no ab initio model we have examined reproduces all of our numerical results. Simulations with Lbox=10rbao and Lbox=20rbao yield consistent results for ?(r) at the BAO scale, provided one corrects for the integral constraint imposed by the uniform density box.

Orban, Chris; Weinberg, David H.

2011-09-01

186

Characterizing Damage Evolution and Yield in Sandstone Under Triaxial Loading as a Function of Changing Effective Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental rock deformation was used to study 1) the accumulation of microscopic damage preceding macroscopic failure across the brittle-ductile transition (BDT) in granular porous rocks, 2) how damage induced at one effective pressure (P) affects failure at a different P, and 3) the appropriateness of single yield envelope versus multiple yield envelope models. Granular porous material is idealized as an

R. C. Choens; F. M. Chester

2009-01-01

187

Implications of the Power Law Cutoff Evolution in XTE J1550-564 to the Comptonization Regimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present spectral analysis of data collected using RXTE during two periods of X-ray activity in 1998 and 2000 from the Galactic X-ray black hole binary XTE J1550-564. We particularly concentrate on the behavior of the high energy cutoff (folding energy) of the power law part of the spectrum. The 1998 event was very powerful, showing a quick initial transition from low-hard state to very high state. The power law cutoff energy decreased from low-hard to intermediate states and increased again during transition to very high and high-soft states. For the 2000 outburst we also observe the decrease of the cutoff energy during the start of the state transition, similar to that in 1998 outburst, however the increase of the high energy cutoff is not apparent in this track because the source does not reach the real high-soft state in this event. We attribute this difference in the cutoff energy behavior to the different partial contributions of the thermal and non-thermal (bulk motion) Comptonization in photon upscattering. Namely, during the 1998 event higher accretion rate presumably provided more cooling to the Comptonizing media and thus reducing the effectiveness of the thermal upscattering process. Under these conditions the bulk motion should take a leading role in boosting the input soft photons. This observational behavior of the cutoff energy presents an additional evidence of the existence of the converging bulk motion region near the central objects and provides further support for the previously reported index saturations effect as a black hole signature.

Shaposhnikov, Nikolai; Titarchuk, L.

2010-05-01

188

Application of Phase Space Warping on Damage Tracking for Bearing Fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, the significance of keeping equipment function properly each time is obvious. If equipment fails during its use, it may have disastrous consequences. Estimating remaining useful life (RUL) of equipment is a key to prevent such calamities, improve its reliability, provide security and reduce unnecessary maintenance and operational cost. The evolution and tracking of damage is the foundation of RUL predicting, and also is one of the most important content of mechanical fault diagnosis. Slow-time variable process of mechanical damage would lead the phase space reconstructed by fast-time variable vibrate signals warping. Search the dynamics characteristic law of damage evolution analysis in the phase space, and build the relationship between fast-time variable signals and slow-time variable damage, and then damage evolution tracking is possible. To validate the theory, simulation model of bearing damage evolution is built, the outer-race fault evolution signals is obtained, and the trend of evolution of degradation of bearing fault is described with Phase Space Warping (PSW) theory and Smooth Orthogonal Decomposition (SOD). The results proved the feasibility of the methodology of PSW in damage evolution tracking.

Fan, Bin; Hu, Niaoqing; Hu, Lei; Gu, Fengshou

2012-05-01

189

Temporal variation of aerosol properties at a rural continental site and study of aerosol evolution through growth law analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol size distributions were measured by a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) on board the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft during 16 flights at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in northern central Oklahoma as part of the Aerosol Intensive Operation period in May 2003. During the same period a second SMPS was deployed at a surface station and provided continuous measurements. Combined with trace gas measurements at the SGP site and back trajectory analysis, the aerosol size distributions provided insights into the sources of aerosols observed at the SGP site. High particle concentrations, observed mostly during daytime, were well correlated with the sulfur dioxide (SO2) mixing ratios, suggesting nucleation involving sulfuric acid is likely the main source of newly formed particles at the SGP. Aerosols within plumes originating from wildfires in Central America were measured at the surface site. Vertically compact aerosol layers, which can be traced back to forest fires in East Asia, were intercepted at altitudes over 3000 m. Analyses of size-dependent particle growth rates for four periods during which high cloud coverage was observed indicate growth dominated by volume controlled reactions. Sulfate accounts for 50% to 72% of the increase in aerosol volume concentration; the rest of the volume concentration increase was likely due to secondary organic species. The growth law analyses and meteorological conditions indicate that the sulfate was produced mainly through aqueous oxidation of SO2 in clouds droplets and hydrated aerosol particles.

Wang, Jian; Collins, Don; Covert, David; Elleman, Robert; Ferrare, Richard A.; Gasparini, Roberto; Jonsson, Haflidi; Ogren, John; Sheridan, Patrick; Tsay, Si-Chee

2006-09-01

190

The primary damage state and its evolution over multiple length and time scales: Recent atomic-scale computer simulation studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

During his long and illustrious career, Professor Kiritani made many of the most significant and revealing observations regarding the nature of the primary damage state and the fate of the produced defects in irradiated metals and semiconductors. We present a review of recent results of molecular dynamics (MD) and kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations of defect production and annealing in

T. Diaz De La Rubia; M. J. Caturla; E. A. Alonso; N. Soneda; M. D. Johnson

1999-01-01

191

Influence of thermal damage on physical properties of a granite rock: Porosity, permeability and ultrasonic wave evolutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, parameters for characterization of connected porosity and overall damage in the thermally-cracked rock of granite in order to assess, respectively, its transport properties and its mechanical strength are identified and quantified. Samples were heated to a range of peak temperatures up to 600°C at ambient pressure. Characterizations were made by measurement of porosity, gas permeability, velocity and

S. Chaki; M. Takarli; W. P. Agbodjan

2008-01-01

192

Adaptive Response to DNA-Damaging Agents in Natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae Populations from ``Evolution Canyon'', Mt. Carmel, Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundNatural populations of most organisms, especially unicellular microorganisms, are constantly exposed to harsh environmental factors which affect their growth. UV radiation is one of the most important physical parameters which influences yeast growth in nature. Here we used 46 natural strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from several natural populations at the “Evolution Canyon” microsite (Nahal Oren, Mt. Carmel, Israel). The

Gabriel A. Lidzbarsky; Tamar Shkolnik; Eviatar Nevo; Alexander Idnurm

2009-01-01

193

A Dynamic Damage Mechanics Source Model for Explosions in Crystalline Rock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The micromechanical damage mechanics formulated by Ashby and Sammis [PAGEOPH, 1990] and generalized by Deshpande and Evans [J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 2008] has been extended to allow for a more generalized stress state and to incorporate an experimentally motivated crack growth (damage evolution) law that is valid over a wide range of loading rates. This law is sensitive to both the crack tip stress field and its time derivative, and thus produces strain-rate sensitivity in the constitutive response. The model is experimentally verified by predicting the failure strength of Dionysus-Pentelicon marble over strain rates ranging from to . This rate-dependent damage mechanics has been implemented in the ABAQUS dynamic finite element code and used to explore the effects of burn rate (loading rate) and lithostatic stress on the spatial extent of fracture damage and S waves generated by explosions in crystalline rock. Slower rise times and longer pressure pulses produce more damage and stronger S waves.

Mihaly, J. M.; Bhat, H. S.; Sammis, C. G.; Rosakis, A.

2011-12-01

194

International law and law enforcement firearms.  

PubMed

Several international agreements set constraints on the legitimate use of firearms as representing lethal force. Their meaning in terms of weapons technology must take into account their operational frame of reference, and legitimate warfare can be regarded as a law enforcement operation with similar principles on the use of force. Changes in weapons technology, such as new types of ammunition, transforming firearms into weapons with less-lethal and even humanitarian options, require new interpretations of the legislation. A division into lethal and non-lethal weapons is an oversimplification and the separation of international humanitarian law into military and law enforcement provisions can be questioned from the technical aspect. The type of technology acceptable for law enforcement use of firearms should be defined. An assessment for weapon injury should not be based on lethality, but rather on the potential for tissue damage and its reversibility. PMID:15015547

Jussila, Jorma; Normia, Pertti

195

In-Situ Monitoring of Damage Evolution in Glass Matrix Composites during Cyclic Loading using Nondestructive Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared thermography is a powerful non-destructive testing technique which can be used for the detection of damage in advanced materials such as ceramic matrix composites. The purpose of this study is to apply a non-destructive methodology for analyzing, in real-time, the thermal effects in ceramic matrix composites caused by cyclic loading. Mechanical stresses induced by cyclic loading cause heat release in the composite due to failure of the interface, which results in increasing the material's temperature. The heat waves, generated by the thermo-mechanical coupling, and the intrinsic energy dissipated during mechanical cyclic loading of the specimen, were detected by an infrared camera. The results were correlated with acoustic emission events that occurred during the damage accumulation process of the material.

Kordatos, E. Z.; Aggelis, D. G.; Dassios, K. G.; Matikas, T. E.

2013-10-01

196

Damage zone and slip-surface evolution over ?m to km scales in high-porosity Navajo sandstone, Utah  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed mapping of throw variations and deformation along twokm-scale normal faults in the high-porosity Navajo sandstone, Utah, has been used to investigate fault growth in this lithology. The faults consist of one or more through-going, striated, slip-surfaces, accommodating the greater part of the offset surrounded by a damage zone consisting of deformation band clusters and short, unconnected slip-surfaces. In contrast

Z. K. Shipton; P. A. Cowie

2001-01-01

197

Modeling KDP Bulk Damage Curves for Prediction of Large-Area Damage Performance  

SciTech Connect

Over the past two years extensive experimentation has been carded out to determine the nature of bulk damage in KDP. Automated damage testing with small beams has made it possible to rapidly investigate damage statistics and its connection to growth parameter Variation. Over this time we have built up an encyclopedia of many damage curves but only relatively few samples have been tested with large beams. The scarcity of data makes it difficult to estimate how future crystals will perform on the NIF, and the campaign nature of large beam testing is not suitable for efficient testing of many samples with rapid turn-around, it is therefore desirable to have analytical tools in place that could make reliable predictions of large-beam performance based on small-beam damage probability measurements. To that end, we discuss the application of exponential and power law damage evolution within the framework of Poisson statistics in this memo. We describe the results of fitting these models to various damage probability curves on KDP including the heavily investigated KDP214 samples. We find that both models are capable of fitting the damage probability S-curves quite well but there are multiple parameter sets for each model that produce comparable {chi}{sup 2} values. In addition, the fit parameters from the exponential model do not agree well with the measured evolution from large-beam OSL experiments where pinpoint density was shown to evolve according to n(F)=n{sub 0}exp(bF). The largest discrepancy is in determination of the b values. For the O'Connell formalism the power law case developed here, we find that the best-fit powers have approximately the same magnitude as the Weibull exponent of Feit's formalism, but it is difficult to extract information about the defect concentration using the O'Connell approach. In addition, we found that the power law case provides slightly better {chi}{sup 2} values in roughly half of the cases. We discuss these results in terms of fluence measurement precision and the observed fluctuation of damage density observed on OSL testing. We conclude that these two formalisms are not yet well-enough developed to provide reliable parameters for predicting large-scale damage performance of KDP. In outlining possible steps for refining the models, we also call for any future small-spot damage model to include the effects of laser conditioning.

Runkel, M.; Sharp, R.

1999-12-16

198

Temperature activated absorption during laser-induced damage: The evolution of laser-supported solid-state absorption fronts  

SciTech Connect

Previously we have shown that the size of laser induced damage sites in both KDP and SiO{sub 2} is largely governed by the duration of the laser pulse which creates them. Here we present a model based on experiment and simulation that accounts for this behavior. Specifically, we show that solid-state laser-supported absorption fronts are generated during a damage event and that these fronts propagate at constant velocities for laser intensities up to 4 GW/cm{sup 2}. It is the constant absorption front velocity that leads to the dependence of laser damage site size on pulse duration. We show that these absorption fronts are driven principally by the temperature-activated deep sub band-gap optical absorptivity, free electron transport, and thermal diffusion in defect-free silica for temperatures up to 15,000K and pressures < 15GPa. In addition to the practical application of selecting an optimal laser for pre-initiation of large aperture optics, this work serves as a platform for understanding general laser-matter interactions in dielectrics under a variety of conditions.

Carr, C W; Bude, J D; Shen, N; Demange, P

2010-10-26

199

Pyrolytic carbon free-radical evolution and irradiation damage of polyimide under low-energy proton irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionization and displacement effects are basic phenomena in damage processes of materials under space-particle irradiation. In this paper, the damage behaviors were investigated on the polyimide under proton irradiation using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra analysis and optical absorbance valuation. The results indicate that the proton irradiation induces the formation of pyrolytic carbon free-radical with a g value of 2.0025, and the population of free radicals increases with the irradiation fluence. The most important finding is that the irradiation-induced free-radical population increases linearly with the displacement damage dose, as does the optical degradation, whereas the ionization effect alone, during the irradiation, cannot induce the formation of pyrolytic carbon free radical. Furthermore, during the post storage, after irradiation, the free-radical population decreases following a sum of an exponential and a linear mode with the storage time. It is interesting that, during the post storage, the recovery of the degraded optical absorbance of the polyimide follows a similar mode to that of free radicals, and the characteristic time constant changes with the wavelength of the optical spectra.

Sun, Chengyue; Wu, Yiyong; Xiao, Jingdong; Li, Ruifeng; Yang, Dezhuang; He, Shiyu

2011-12-01

200

The Law of Higher Education 1980.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed to be used either independently or as a companion to "The Law of Higher Education" (1978), this book serves as a reference to current legal issues, as well as to primary and secondary materials concerning higher education law. Part One, Overview of Postsecondary Education Law, examines the evolution of law relating to postsecondary…

Kaplin, William A.

201

Helmet Laws  

MedlinePLUS

... Hampshire) do not have a motorcycle helmet law. Bicycle Helmets Learn More About Bicycle Safety Issue Brief Related Links Fewer states have enacted bicycle helmet laws. GHSA only tracks state laws. However, ...

202

A Global/Local Finite Element Approach for Predicting Interlaminar and Intralaminar Damage Evolution in Composite Stiffened Panels Under Compressive Load  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper addresses the prediction of intralaminar and interlaminar damage onset and evolution in composite structures through the use of a finite element based procedure. This procedure joins methodologies whose credibility has been already assessed in literature such as the Virtual Crack Closure Technique (for delamination) and the ply discount approach (for matrix/fiber failures). In order to establish the reliability of the procedure developed, comparisons with literature experimental results on a stiffened panel with an embedded delamination are illustrated. The methodology proposed, implemented in ANSYS as post-processing routines, is combined with a finite element model of the panel, built by adopting both shell and solid elements within the frame of an embedded global/local approach to connect differently modelled substructures.

Pietropaoli, Elisa; Riccio, Aniello

2011-04-01

203

The Evolving Second Law  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief historical review of the evolution of the Second Law from Sadi Carnot (1824) to present times is presented. The complex nature of irreversibility is used to identify three interrelated domains of thermodynamics, each having a different mathematical form and different types of application. In addition, a proposal is made to bring the nomenclature of the Second Law into parallel alignment with that of the First Law. Some of this material is excerpted from a paper by the author published in the July, 2007 issue of the Mechanical Engineering Magazine.

Butler, Howard W.

2008-08-01

204

Mechanical Response of Stitched T300 Mat/Urethane 420 IMR Composite Laminates: Property/Orientation Dependence and Damage Evolution  

SciTech Connect

This report presents experimental and analytical results of investigations on the mechanical response of stitched T300 mat/urethane 420 IMR composite laminates with three different lay-up configurations. Tensile tests and short-term creep and recovery tests were conducted on the laminate coupons at various orientations. The X-ray photographic technique was adopted to detect the internal damage due to external loading history. The tensile data of laminates with antisymmetric and symmetric lay-ups indicated that lay- up sequences of cross-ply laminates do not have much influence on their tensile properties. However, misalignments within the stitch-bonded plies disturb the symmetry of intended quasi-isotropic laminates and thereby cause the mechanical properties to exhibit a certain amount of angular dependence. Classic lamination theory was found to be able to provide a very good prediction of tensile properties for the stitched laminates within linear range. Creep and recovery response of laminate coupons is greatly dependent on loading angles and load levels. The internal damage of laminate coupons is also directly related to loading angles and load levels as well as loading history.

Deng, S.; Weitsman, Y.J.

2000-03-01

205

Ductile damage evolution assessment in high purity copper and stainless steel subjected to different shock-loading profiles using cohesive modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At continuum level, the triaxiality of the stress state has the major effect to reduce the ductility that the material can exhibit. As a result of this, ductile metals under uniaxial strain loading condition, such as that experienced in flyer plate impact experiment, should show a very limited ductility that is often in contrast with the energy dissipation estimated from the pull-back signal amplitude. In this paper, it is proposed that the developing of damage in form of voids causes a dramatic drop of the stress triaxiality giving the material the ability to sustain much larger deformation and consequent plastic work dissipation. Thus, a numerical model using cohesive elements has been developed to account for this dissipation in the energy balance. The model has been used to investigate the damage evolution and plastic strain accumulation in plate impact experiments with different loading profiles, for both high purity copper and stainless steel, in order to achieve a better comprehension of the processes related to spall fracture. Comparisons of numerical results with experimental data, available in term of both velocity profiles and optical metallography of soft-recovered samples, seem to confirm the capability of the proposed model to correctly capture distinctive features of spall event.

Ruggiero, Andrew; Bonora, Nicola; Esposito, Luca; Gray, III

2009-06-01

206

Damage Evolution and Recovery on both Si and C Sublattices in Al-implanted 4H-SiC Studied by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy and Nuclear Reaction Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Damage evolution in 4H-SiC epitaxial layers irradiated with 1.1 MeV Al molecular ions at 150 K to ion fluences from 0.15 to 2.25 Al/nm and subsequent damage recovery following isochronal annealing at temperatures up to 870 K were studied by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Using a 0.94 MeV D beam in channeling geometry, disorder on both the Si and C sublattices was characterized simultaneously by measuring scattering/reaction yields from RBS combined with 12C(d,p)13C NRA analysis. The relative disorder on the as-implanted sublattices follows a sigmoidal dependence on ion fluence and the relative disorder on the C sublattice is higher than that on the Si sublattice at low ion fluences. Isochronal recovery on both the Si and C sublattices exhibits similar nonlinear dependence on annealing temperature, with several step-like recovery regimes that are associated with different recovery processes.

Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.; Jiang, Weilin; Hallen, Anders; Possnert, Goran

2002-05-15

207

32 CFR 750.46 - Applicable law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Where the claim is for personal injury, death, or damage to or loss or destruction of real or personal...not include the principles of absolute liability and punitive damages. (d) Clarification of terms. Federal law...

2013-07-01

208

What's Law?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A guide for secondary school social studies teachers provides materials suitable for a 10-week course on law or individual lessons on specific topics which may be covered in the social studies curriculum. Material is organized according to topics. Topic I, "What Is Law?" contains lessons on defining law, reasons for writing laws, and the relation…

Cortland-Madison Board of Cooperative Educational Services, Cortland, NY.

209

Case Law versus Statute Law: An Evolutionary Comparison  

Microsoft Academic Search

Case law develops gradually through the rulings of appellate judges who have heterogeneous preferences but are partially bound by stare decisis. We show that its evolution converges toward more efficient and predictable legal rules. Since statutes do not share this evolutionary property, case law is the best system when the efficient rule is time invariant, even if the legislature is

2008-01-01

210

Computer simulation of creep damage at crack tip in short fibre composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Creep damage at crack tip in short fibre composites has been simulated by using the finite element method (FEM). The well-known Schapery non-linear viscoelastic constitutive relationship was used to characterize time-dependent behaviour of the material. A modified recurrence equation was adopted to accelerate the iteration. Kachanov-Rabotnov's damage evolution law was employed. The growth of the damage zone with time around the crack tip was calculated and the results were shown with the so-called “digit photo”, which was produced by the printer.

Shuangyin, Zhang; Tsai, L. W.

1994-08-01

211

Modeling KDP bulk damage curves for prediction of large-area damage performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past tow years extensive experiments has been carried out to determine the nature of bulk damage in KDP. Automated damage testing with small beams has made it possible to rapidly investigate damage statistics and its connection to growth parameter variation. Over this time we have built up an encyclopedia of many damage curves but only relatively few samples have been tested with large beams. The scarcity of data makes it difficult to estimate how future crystal will perform on the NIF, and the campaign nature of large beam testing is not suitable for efficient testing of many samples with rapid turn-around. It is therefore desirable to have analytical tools in place that could make reliable predictions of large-beam performance based on small-beam damage probability measurements. To that end, we discuss the application of exponential and power law damage evolution within the framework of Poisson statistics in this memo. We describe the result of fitting these models to various damage probability curves on KDP including the heavily investigated KDP214 samples.

Runkel, Michael; Sharp, Richard

2000-03-01

212

Prediction Of Formability In Sheet Metal Forming Processes Using A Local Damage Model  

SciTech Connect

The formability in sheet metal forming processes is mainly conditioned by ductile fracture resulting from geometric instabilities due to necking and strain localization. The macroscopic collapse associated with ductile failure is a result of internal degradation described throughout metallographic observations by the nucleation, growth and coalescence of voids and micro-cracks. Damage influences and is influenced by plastic deformation and therefore these two dissipative phenomena should be coupled at the constitutive level. In this contribution, Lemaitre's ductile damage model is coupled with Hill's orthotropic plasticity criterion. The coupling between damaging and material behavior is accounted for within the framework of Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM). The resulting constitutive equations are implemented in the Abaqus/Explicit code, for the prediction of fracture onset in sheet metal forming processes. The damage evolution law takes into account the important effect of micro-crack closure, which dramatically decreases the rate of damage growth under compressive paths.

Teixeira, P. [INEGI, Inst. of Mech. Engineering. and Indust. Management, R. Barroco 174, 4465-591 Leca do Balio (Portugal); Santos, Abel; Cesar Sa, J.; Andrade Pires, F. [FEUP, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, R. Dr. Roberta Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Barata da Rocha, A. [FEUP, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, R. Dr. Roberta Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); INEGI, Inst. of Mech. Engineering. and Indust. Management, R. Barroco 174, 4465-591 Leca do Balio (Portugal)

2007-05-17

213

Wetland Laws.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

State and Federal laws affecting coastal wetlands and the importance of these laws to the wetland areas are discussed. Wetlands usually include swamps, marshes, bogs, sloughs, mud flats, and natural ponds. The term 'wetland' encompasses a variety of envir...

F. Dennis

1982-01-01

214

Benford's Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benford's Law predicts the frequency of the lead- ing digit in numbers met in a wide range of natu- rally occurring phenomena. In data following Ben- ford's Law, numbers start with a small leading digit more often those with a large leading digit. Here we demonstrate that Benford's Law also describes a wide range of computational phenomena. In par- ticular,

Ian Gent; Toby Walsh

215

Radiation Laws  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site lists physical laws that describe radiation. Topics covered include the Plank Radiation Law, and the Wien and Stefan-Boltzmann Laws. The site also features a table summarizing the blackbody temperatures necessary to give a peak for emitted radiation in various regions of the spectrum, and three Java applets illustrating important properties of blackbody radiation.

Astronomy, Department O.; Knoxville, University O.

216

Environmental Laws  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has compiled a list of the seventeen major environmental laws which govern their agency and the programs they administer. Users can link to summaries or the full-text version of each law, provided, for the most part, by Cornell University. Those new to the subject may want to visit the Introduction to Laws and Regulations section, which explains how environmental laws come into being. Additional sections of the site--Regulations and Proposed Rules, Codified Regulations, and Current Legislation and Laws--link to further information such as Federal Register documents issued by EPA and the Code of Federal Regulations database.

Agency., United S.

217

Darwin's evolutionary philosophy: The laws of change  

Microsoft Academic Search

The philosophical or metaphysical architecture of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is analyzed and diflussed. It is argued that natural selection was for Darwin a paradigmatic case of a natural law of change — an exemplar of what Ghiselin (1969) has called selective retention laws. These selective retention laws lie at the basis of Darwin's revolutionary world view.

Edward S. Reed

1978-01-01

218

Multi-wavelength Observations of the Spatio-temporal Evolution of Solar Flares with AIA/SDO. II. Hydrodynamic Scaling Laws and Thermal Energies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we measure physical parameters of the same set of 155 M- and X-class solar flares observed with AIA/SDO as analyzed in Paper I, by performing a differential emission measure analysis to determine the flare peak emission measure EM p , peak temperature Tp , electron density np , and thermal energy E th, in addition to the spatial scales L, areas A, and volumes V measured in Paper I. The parameter ranges for M- and X-class flares are log (EM p ) = 47.0-50.5, Tp = 5.0-17.8 MK, np = 4 × 109-9 × 1011 cm–3, and thermal energies of E th = 1.6 × 1028-1.1 × 1032 erg. We find that these parameters obey the Rosner-Tucker-Vaiana (RTV) scaling law T_p^2 \\propto n_p L and HvpropT 7/2 L –2 during the peak time tp of the flare density np , when energy balance between the heating rate H and the conductive and radiative loss rates is achieved for a short instant and thus enables the applicability of the RTV scaling law. The application of the RTV scaling law predicts power-law distributions for all physical parameters, which we demonstrate with numerical Monte Carlo simulations as well as with analytical calculations. A consequence of the RTV law is also that we can retrieve the size distribution of heating rates, for which we find N(H)vpropH –1.8, which is consistent with the magnetic flux distribution N(?)vprop?–1.85 observed by Parnell et al. and the heating flux scaling law FH vpropHLvpropB/L of Schrijver et al.. The fractal-diffusive self-organized criticality model in conjunction with the RTV scaling law reproduces the observed power-law distributions and their slopes for all geometrical and physical parameters and can be used to predict the size distributions for other flare data sets, instruments, and detection algorithms.

Aschwanden, Markus J.; Shimizu, Toshifumi

2013-10-01

219

Continuum Damage Modeling of Short-Fiber Composites Subject to Matrix Cracking  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a continuum damage mechanics approach proposed by Renard et al. for continuous fiber composites subject to matrix cracking is extended to misoriented short-fiber composites. First, the associated damage variable is defined as a measure of the crack density, then the model by Laws et al. is used to determine the stiffness reduction of an aligned short-fiber composite. Considering moderate microcrack densities and assuming completely random and planar orientations of microcracks and fibers, the stiffness of a cracked misoriented fiber layer is obtained by averaging that of a cracked aligned fiber composite over all possible orientations and weighted by an orientation distribution function. The damage evolution law is obtained using the concepts of thermodynamics of continuum media.

Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Ahn, Byung K.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2002-09-01

220

HRR fields for damaged materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an investigation of the interaction between a macroscopic crack and distributed damage in an elastic-plastic material based on the HRR field model for virgin materials. This is achieved by describing the mechanical effects of the distributed micro-cracks in terms of the damage variable D on the HRR fields. Damage evolution equation and the constitutive equations coupled with

J. Wang; C. L. Chow

1992-01-01

221

Ohm's Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

See how the equation form of Ohm's law relates to a simple circuit. Adjust the voltage and resistance, and see the current change according to Ohm's law. The sizes of the symbols in the equation change to match the circuit diagram.

Simulations, Phet I.; Dubson, Michael; Gratny, Mindy

2004-06-01

222

LAW FACTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review article is not dedicated to a subject matter of research. Instead it outlines various kinds of facts commonly used to analyze the relations of law and society. To illustrate, it gives examples of eight distinct kinds of facts on how action departs from relevant laws on the books: actions in crusades; actions following deep norms when coordination norms

Arthur L. Stinchcombe

2005-01-01

223

Heat transfer in damaged material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fully coupled thermo-mechanical analysis of civil engineering problems is studied. The mechanical analysis is based on damage mechanics which is useful for modeling of behaviour of quasi-brittle materials, especially in tension. The damage is assumed to be isotropic. The heat transfer is assumed in the form of heat conduction governed by the Fourier law and heat radiation governed by the Stefan-Boltzmann law. Fully coupled thermo-mechanical problem is formulated.

Kruis, J.

2013-10-01

224

A model for high temperature creep of single crystal superalloys based on nonlocal damage and viscoplastic material behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model for high temperature creep of single crystal superalloys is developed, which includes constitutive laws for nonlocal damage and viscoplasticity. It is based on a variational formulation, employing potentials for free energy, and dissipation originating from plasticity and damage. Evolution equations for plastic strain and damage variables are derived from the well-established minimum principle for the dissipation potential. The model is capable of describing the different stages of creep in a unified way. Plastic deformation in superalloys incorporates the evolution of dislocation densities of the different phases present. It results in a time dependence of the creep rate in primary and secondary creep. Tertiary creep is taken into account by introducing local and nonlocal damage. Herein, the nonlocal one is included in order to model strain localization as well as to remove mesh dependence of finite element calculations. Numerical results and comparisons with experimental data of the single crystal superalloy LEK94 are shown.

Trinh, B. T.; Hackl, K.

2013-08-01

225

Courtside: A Damaging Lesson  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case presents a costly lesson for teachers and for districts that include a liquidated, or stipulated, damages clause in their teacher employment contracts. Although the court enforced the clause in this case, in this well-reasoned recent decision and in most of the much older, canvassed case law from other jurisdictions, the answer to the…

Zirkel, Perry A.

2004-01-01

226

Collateral Damage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Collateral damage is undesirable civilian materiel damage or personnel injuries produced by the effects of friendly nuclear weapons. For a nation on whose soil a nuclear weapon is detonated, any damage, other than damage to enemy military resources, may w...

F. W. Thornhill

1978-01-01

227

Florida Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fine collection from the University of Florida's George A. Smathers Libraries documents the laws and legal heritage of Florida. It has digitized texts from the holdings of the University of Florida's Lawton Chiles Legal Information Center and the P. K. Yonge Library of Florida History as well as other sources. This omnibus collection features the Journal of the Florida House of Representatives, a variety of general texts on Florida laws, and the Florida Water Law collection. This last collection is particularly fascinating as it brings together over 7,000 documents related to long-term water management plans across the Sunshine State. Moving on, the Florida Historical Legal Documents section of the site contains primary source materials that survey changes in Florida law from 1822 through 1845, when the area became a state. Finally, the House Journal section brings together the official record of actions taken by the House and its committees.

2011-01-01

228

An Experimental—Computational Approach to the Investigation of Tensile Properties and Damage Evolution in Woven GFRP Laminates at Cryogenic Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an experimental and analytical investigation of the effect of specimen geometry on the tensile properties and damage behavior of glass fiber reinforced polymer woven laminates at cryogenic temperatures. Cryogenic tensile tests were performed on three types of specimens, and acoustic emission monitoring was employed to characterize the damage development during loading. A two-dimensional finite element analysis was

Yasuhide Shindo; Satoru Takano; Fumio Narita; Katsumi Horiguchi

2007-01-01

229

Newton's Laws  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of four educational wall-sheets includes Newton's Three Laws and the Law of Gravitation. They include activities that are designed to be displayed as a set on classroom walls. The pre-activity reading featuring the Swift satellite and most activities can be used in middle-school classrooms. Optional extension activities are suitable for advanced middle-school students and students in ninth grade.

Cominsky, Lynn

2010-01-01

230

Constitutional Torts, Common Law Torts, and Due Process of Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Government officers may harm persons in many ways. When an official inflicts a physical injury, causes emotional distress, publishes defamatory statements, or initiates a malicious prosecution, the victim's traditional recourse is a tort suit brought under common law or statutory principles. But an alternative to ordinary tort may also be available. The growth of damage remedies for constitutional violations in

Michael L. Wells

1997-01-01

231

Interacting damage models mapped onto ising and percolation models  

SciTech Connect

The authors introduce a class of damage models on regular lattices with isotropic interactions between the broken cells of the lattice. Quasistatic fiber bundles are an example. The interactions are assumed to be weak, in the sense that the stress perturbation from a broken cell is much smaller than the mean stress in the system. The system starts intact with a surface-energy threshold required to break any cell sampled from an uncorrelated quenched-disorder distribution. The evolution of this heterogeneous system is ruled by Griffith's principle which states that a cell breaks when the release in potential (elastic) energy in the system exceeds the surface-energy barrier necessary to break the cell. By direct integration over all possible realizations of the quenched disorder, they obtain the probability distribution of each damage configuration at any level of the imposed external deformation. They demonstrate an isomorphism between the distributions so obtained and standard generalized Ising models, in which the coupling constants and effective temperature in the Ising model are functions of the nature of the quenched-disorder distribution and the extent of accumulated damage. In particular, they show that damage models with global load sharing are isomorphic to standard percolation theory, that damage models with local load sharing rule are isomorphic to the standard ising model, and draw consequences thereof for the universality class and behavior of the autocorrelation length of the breakdown transitions corresponding to these models. they also treat damage models having more general power-law interactions, and classify the breakdown process as a function of the power-law interaction exponent. Last, they also show that the probability distribution over configurations is a maximum of Shannon's entropy under some specific constraints related to the energetic balance of the fracture process, which firmly relates this type of quenched-disorder based damage model to standard statistical mechanics.

Toussaint, Renaud; Pride, Steven R.

2004-03-23

232

Law in Wyoming.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document is intended to give students an overview of laws in Wyoming. Subjects covered include civil and criminal law; courts in Wyoming; juvenile law, juvenile court procedure; rights of children; family law; employment law; automobile-related law; laws affecting the schools; and citizenship rights and responsibilities. The laws and courts…

Wyoming Law-Related Education Advisory Council, Cheyenne.

233

Charles's Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive presentation, created by Terry Bartelt and hosted by the Electromechanical Digital Library, discusses the history and theory of Charles's Law, which states, "the volume of a given quantity of gas varies directly with its temperature." A series of interactive flash animations show the application of this theory and demonstrate how different heating elements, such as candles and even the Sun, affect the molecules in common things such as balloons and thermometers. Mathematical equations are provided to demonstrate the calculations. Once the presentation is complete, a short quiz is provided to test the full understanding of the Charles's Law.

Bartelt, Terry L.

2009-04-17

234

Boyle's Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive presentation, created by Terry Bartelt and hosted by the Electromechanical Digital Library, discusses the history and theory of Boyle's Law. The presentation offers two different variations of the concept. The first involves "a change in pressure exerted on a given quantity of gas causing an inverse effect on its volume." The second simply flips this first variation and shows how the change in quantity affects the pressure. The presentation is filled with helpful, and interactive, flash animations. This is not only aesthetically pleasing, but also helps the student engage with the topic. Once both variations are complete, a short quiz is provided to test the full understanding of Boyle's Law.

Bartelt, Terry L.

2009-04-16

235

EFFECT OF CREVICE FORMER ON CORROSION DAMAGE PROPAGATION  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report are: (1) To determine the effect of the crevice former on the localized corrosion damage propagation; (2) FOCUS on post initiation stage, crevice propagation and arrest processes; (3) Determine the evolution of damage--severity, shape, location/distribution, damage profile; and (4) Model of crevice corrosion propagation, i.e. the evolution of the crevice corrosion damage profile.

J.H. Payer; U. Landau; X. Shan; A.S. Agarwal

2006-03-01

236

A damage mechanics based general purpose interface/contact element  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most of the microelectronics packaging structures consist of layered substrates connected with bonding materials, such as solder or epoxy. Predicting the thermomechanical behavior of these multilayered structures is a challenging task in electronic packaging engineering. In a layered structure the most complex part is always the interfaces between the strates. Simulating the thermo-mechanical behavior of such interfaces, is the main theme of this dissertation. The most commonly used solder material, Pb-Sn alloy, has a very low melting temperature 180sp°C, so that the material demonstrates a highly viscous behavior. And, creep usually dominates the failure mechanism. Hence, the theory of viscoplasticity is adapted to describe the constitutive behavior. In a multilayered assembly each layer has a different coefficient of thermal expansion. Under thermal cycling, due to heat dissipated from circuits, interfaces and interconnects experience low cycle fatigue. Presently, the state-of-the art damage mechanics model used for fatigue life predictions is based on Kachanov (1986) continuum damage model. This model uses plastic strain as a damage criterion. Since plastic strain is a stress path dependent value, the criterion does not yield unique damage values for the same state of stress. In this dissertation a new damage evolution equation based on the second law of thermodynamic is proposed. The new criterion is based on the entropy of the system and it yields unique damage values for all stress paths to the final state of stress. In the electronics industry, there is a strong desire to develop fatigue free interconnections. The proposed interface/contact element can also simulate the behavior of the fatigue free Z-direction thin film interconnections as well as traditional layered interconnects. The proposed interface element can simulate behavior of a bonded interface or unbonded sliding interface, also called contact element. The proposed element was verified against laboratory test data presented in the literature. The results demonstrate that the proposed element and the damage law perform very well. The most important scientific contribution of this dissertation is the proposed damage criterion based on second law of thermodynamic and entropy of the system. The proposed general purpose interface/contact element is another contribution of this research. Compared to the previous adhoc interface elements proposed in the literature, the new one is, much more powerful and includes creep, plastic deformations, sliding, temperature, damage, cyclic behavior and fatigue life in a unified formulation.

Yan, Chengyong

237

School Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Summarizes three current issues in school law, including school district suits over potentially carcinogenic asbestos insulation, a California judge's finding that captionless educational television discriminates against hearing-impaired students, and the federal government's attempt to keep the Fairfax (Virginia) school system from charging…

Splitt, David A.

1982-01-01

238

Faraday's Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Light a light bulb by waving a magnet. This simulation of a Faraday's Law is from the Physics Education Technology website of University of Colorado. It is accessible for teachers and students alike. Included are links to related topics and additional ideas and activities for teachers to use.

2008-11-05

239

Copyright Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the University of the Pacific purchased a new integrated library system there was a desire to make access to all types of materials more visible in the system. This required reviewing copyright law and determining the differences in the print and electronic environment. Licensing restrictions in the contracts for electronic databases and journals also influenced how the University of

Janice M. Krueger; Karen Matthews

2004-01-01

240

Employment Discrimination Litigation: The Availability of Damages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this comment is on the availability of damages under both Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and section 1981 with an analysis of the decisional law and theoretical rationales used by federal courts in allowing or disallowing damage awards. Consideration is given to compensatory versus punitive damages as well as those for…

Plax, Karen A.

1976-01-01

241

Punitive Damages, Retribution, and Due Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tort law provides awards of punitive damages for reasons of retribution and deterrence. In light of a recent decision by the U.S. Supreme Court in Phillip Morris USA v. Williams, the retributive rationale for punitive damages will inevitably come under heightened scrutiny. The case involves a punitive award of $79.5 million that is 97 times greater than the compensatory damages,

Mark Geistfeld

2008-01-01

242

Employment Discrimination Litigation: The Availability of Damages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The focus of this comment is on the availability of damages under both Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and section 1981 with an analysis of the decisional law and theoretical rationales used by federal courts in allowing or disallowing damage awards. Consideration is given to compensatory versus punitive damages as well as those for…

Plax, Karen A.

1976-01-01

243

Ductile Damage Evolution Assessment in High Purity Copper and Stainless Steel Subjected to Different Shock-Loading Profiles Using Cohesive Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The calculated energy dissipation associated with the pull-back signal amplitude in plate impact experiment is usually larger than that obtained by accounting the contributions of the estimated plastic work at continuum scale and that due to ductile damage. As a possible explanation, it is proposed that the drop in the stress triaxiality, due to the formation of free surfaces as a result of the first appearance of the damage in form of voids, allows the matrix material to exhibit much larger plastic deformation. In order to verify this proposition, a numerical investigation based on the use of cohesive finite elements has been performed. The proposed numerical model has been used to predict the damage development and the rear pressure profile in a flyer plate impact test on 99.99% Cu and 316 L SS under flat top and triangular pressure wave profile.

Ruggiero, A.; Bonora, N.; Esposito, L.; Gray, G. T.

2009-12-01

244

Cumulative damage theory in multiaxial fatigue of graphite/epoxy (+/-45)s composites and weight function theory for a rectilinear anisotropic body  

SciTech Connect

The phenomenological evolution laws of damage based on residual life and residual strength were critically examined. The failure of a specimen can be defined immediately before or after fracture. The former is called failure defined by approach II and the latter failure defined by approach I. Usually at failure there is discontinuity of forcing variables and, because of this, damage at failure is discontinuous. Therefore, the values of damage at failure by two different approaches are not the same. Based on this idea the sequence effects of the phenomenological evolution law of damage were studied. A multiaxial growth law of damage was proposed based on experimental data of axial, torsional, combined axial and torsional inphase, and step-loading fatigue in thin-walled graphite epoxy tubes consisting of four layers of (+-45)/sub s/ laminates. Interlaminar normal stress effect on the fatigue behavior of a tubular specimen was studied experimentally. In the second part of this thesis, Bueckner's weight function theory is extended to rectilinear anisotropic bodies for two-dimensional loading systems

An, D.M.

1986-01-01

245

On the inverse power laws for accelerated random fatigue testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the usage of inverse power laws in accelerated fatigue testing under wide-band Gaussian random loading. The aim is not at predicting an ab- solute value of fatigue life but assessing the fatigue damage relative accumulation. The widely accepted inverse power scaling laws in fatigue damage assessment is discussed, reviewing the engineering standards and pointing out their inherent

G. Allegri; X. Zhang

2009-01-01

246

Ampereâs Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The lesson begins with a demonstration introducing students to the force between two current carrying loops, comparing the attraction and repulsion between the loops to that between two magnets. After formal lecture on Ampereâs law, students begin to use the concepts to calculate the magnetic field around a loop. This is applied to determine the magnetic field of a toroid, imagining a toroid as a looped solenoid.

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering,

247

Hazardous waste and the common law theories of liability  

Microsoft Academic Search

A primer for chemical engineers, this review gives examples of cases involving hazardous waste and environmental pollution. It begins with the discussion of common law tort and its application. The review covers the statute of limitations and common law as it applies to negligence, trespass, nuisance, strict liability, and damages and remedies. Because of the complexity of common law, the

Charleston C. K. Wang; C. C. K

1985-01-01

248

Universal unification of life, death, evolution, post-evolution and extinction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general law of universal maximally rapid entropy decrease unifies metabolism, mortality and evolution, yields their quantitatively accurate universal laws and singularities, proves that accidental premature mortality is relatively small and quantifies it, predicts that evolution may be continuous or followed by “weak” and “strong” spurts, leads to a definition of post-evolution and considers its probability, suggests an absolute instability

Mark Ya. Azbel’

1999-01-01

249

Bragg's Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It may be beneficial to have students perform the Wave Interference activity prior to engaging them in this activity. The following handouts are identical, with the exception that one is in Word format, while the other is in PDF format. The students should perform the exercise in a computer laboratory. Before proceeding through the questions, they should be given an opportunity to review the material on this web page. Bragg\\'s Law Activity Sheet (Acrobat (PDF) 73kB Mar2 10) Bragg\\'s Law Activity Sheet for Word (Microsoft Word 37kB Feb25 10) The following Powerpoint presentation can be used as an introduction to Bragg's Law. Bragg\\'s Law Powerpoint Presentation (PowerPoint 974kB Feb25 10) Wave Interference Activity Prior to investigating Bragg's law through this activity, it may be helpful to explore interference of sinusoidal waveforms by following the link below. Wave Interference Activity Bragg's Law Applet Java Applet created by Konstantin Lukin with supervision by Glenn A. Richard, Project Java Webmaster Original Bragg's Law Applet page on Mineral Physics Institute web server at Stony Brook University: Project Java - Bragg's Law and Diffraction: How waves reveal the atomic structure of crystals Bragg's Law refers to the simple equation: nà = 2d sinà derived by the English physicists Sir W.H. Bragg and his son Sir W.L. Bragg in 1913 to explain why the cleavage faces of crystals appear to reflect X-ray beams at certain angles of incidence (Ã, Ã). The variable d is the distance between atomic layers in a crystal, and the variable lambda is the wavelength of the incident X-ray beam (see applet); n is an integer. This observation is an example of X-ray wave interference (Roentgenstrahlinterferenzen), commonly known as X-ray diffraction (XRD), and was direct evidence for the periodic atomic structure of crystals postulated for several centuries. The Braggs were awarded the Nobel Prize in physics in 1915 for their work in determining crystal structures beginning with NaCl, ZnS and diamond. Although Bragg's law was used to explain the interference pattern of X-rays scattered by crystals, diffraction has been developed to study the structure of all states of matter with any beam, e.g., ions, electrons, neutrons, and protons, with a wavelength similar to the distance between the atomic or molecular structures of interest. How to Use this Applet The applet shows two rays incident on two atomic layers of a crystal, e.g., atoms, ions, and molecules, separated by the distance d. The layers look like rows because the layers are projected onto two dimensions and your view is parallel to the layers. The applet begins with the scattered rays in phase and interferring constructively. Bragg's Law is satisfied and diffraction is occurring. The meter indicates how well the phases of the two rays match. The small light on the meter is green when Bragg's equation is satisfied and red when it is not satisfied. The meter can be observed while the three variables in Bragg's are changed by clicking on the scroll-bar arrows and by typing the values in the boxes. The d and à variables can be changed by dragging on the arrows provided on the crystal layers and scattered beam, respectively. Bragg's Law Applet with details meter activated, but no constructive interference. Note that the peaks and troughs on the scattered beams are not aligned. Bragg's Law Applet with constructive interference and n = 2. Note that the peaks and troughs on the scattered beams are aligned. Deriving Bragg's Law by Paul Schields Bragg's Law can easily be derived by considering the conditions necessary to make the phases of the beams coincide when the incident angle equals and reflecting angle. The rays of the incident beam are always in phase and parallel up to the point at which the top beam strikes the top layer at atom z (Fig. 1). The second beam continues to the next layer where it is scattered by atom B. The second beam must travel the extra distance AB + BC if the two beams are to continue traveling adjacent and parallel. This extra distance must be an integral (n) multiple of the wavelength (Ã) for the phases of the two beams to be the same: nà = AB +BC (2). Fig. 1 Deriving Bragg's Law using the reflection geometry and applying trigonometry. The lower beam must travel the extra distance (AB + BC) to continue traveling parallel and adjacent to the top beam. Recognizing d as the hypotenuse of the right triangle Abz, we can use trigonometry to relate d and à to the distance (AB + BC). The distance AB is opposite à so, AB = d sinÃ(3). Because AB = BC eq. (2) becomes, nà = 2AB (4) Substituting eq. (3) in eq. (4) we have, nà = 2 d sinÃ, (1) and Bragg's Law has been derived. The location of the surface does not change the derivation of Bragg's Law. Experimental Diffraction Patterns The following figures show experimental x-ray diffraction patterns of cubic SiC using synchrotron radiation. Detail from previous image Players in the Discovery of X-ray Diffraction Friedrich and Knipping first observed Roentgenstrahlinterferenzen in 1912 after a hint from their research advisor, Max von Laue, at the University of Munich. Bragg's Law greatly simplified von Laue's description of X-ray interference. The Braggs used crystals in the reflection geometry to analyze the intensity and wavelengths of X-rays (spectra) generated by different materials. Their apparatus for characterizing X-ray spectra was the Bragg spectrometer. Laue knew that X-rays had wavelengths on the order of 1 Ã. After learning that Paul Ewald's optical theories had approximated the distance between atoms in a crystal by the same length, Laue postulated that X-rays would diffract, by analogy to the diffraction of light from small periodic scratches drawn on a solid surface (an optical diffraction grating). In 1918 Ewald constructed a theory, in a form similar to his optical theory, quantitatively explaining the fundamental physical interactions associated with XRD. Elements of Ewald's eloquent theory continue to be useful for many applications in physics. Kennedy Walker split cylinder apparatus in the Mineral Physics Institute High Pressure Laboratory at Stony Brook University Do We Have Diamonds? If we perform a high pressure experiment in a press, such as the Kennedy-Walker split cylinder apparatus, to convert graphite into diamonds, we can use X-ray diffraction techniques to determine whether we achieved the intended result. The carbon atoms in graphite are arranged into planes that are separated by d-spacings of 3.35Ã. If we use X-rays with a wavelength (Ã) of 1.54Ã, and we have diamonds in the material we are testing, we will find peaks on our X-ray pattern at à values that correspond to each of the d-spacings that characterize diamond. These d-spacings are 1.075Ã, 1.261Ã, and 2.06Ã. To discover where to expect peaks if diamond, graphite, or both are present, you can set à to 1.54à in the applet, and set distance to one of the d-spacings. Then start with à at 6 degrees, and vary it until you find a Bragg's condition. Do the same with each of the remaining d-spacings. Remember that in the applet, you are varying Ã, while on the X-ray pattern printout, the angles are given as 2Ã. Consequently, when the applet indicates a Bragg's condition at a particular angle, you must multiply that angle by 2 to locate the angle on the X-ray pattern printout where you would expect a peak. First stage anvils in the Kennedy Walker split cylinder apparatus

Richard, Glenn

250

Finite element analysis on creep damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

An implicit, iterative semi-analytical integration scheme is proposed to integrate the Leckie-Hayhurst isotropic creep damage evolution equation as well as the Bailey-Norton creep constitutive equation. This scheme is incorporated to a finite element programme dealing with thermal elastic plastic creep problems. Creep damage evolution and rupture time in a high temperature structure can be predicted.

X. N. Wang; X. C. Wang

1996-01-01

251

White settlers and the law in early colonial Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines settler attitudes toward the law and the legal system in early colonial Kenya. Settlers believed that English law was the culmination of centuries of evolution and was unsurpassed for its justice and logic. Nonetheless, they insisted English law and legal procedure were supremely ill-suited for the African context. When courts released Africans on “technicalities” it only encouraged

Brett Shadle

2010-01-01

252

On Common Ground: Jost's (1897) Law of Forgetting and Ribot's (1881) Law of Retrograde Amnesia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|T. Ribot's (1881) law of retrograde amnesia states that brain damage impairs recently formed memories to a greater extent than older memories, which is generally taken to imply that memories need time to consolidate. A. Jost's (1897) law of forgetting states that if 2 memories are of the same strength but different ages, the older will decay more…

Wixted, John T.

2004-01-01

253

On Common Ground: Jost's (1897) Law of Forgetting and Ribot's (1881) Law of Retrograde Amnesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

T. Ribot's (1881) law of retrograde amnesia states that brain damage impairs recently formed memories to a greater extent than older memories, which is generally taken to imply that memories need time to consolidate. A. Jost's (1897) law of forgetting states that if 2 memories are of the same strength but different ages, the older will decay more slowly than

John T. Wixted

2004-01-01

254

Military Objective and Collateral Damage: Their Dynamics and Relationship.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The two most critical aspects of targeting are the concepts of military objective and collateral damage i.e. incidental loss of civilian life, injury to civilians and damage to civilian objects. The conventional international law definition of military ob...

J. C. Holland

2002-01-01

255

Bullard's Law  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first scientist to measure heat flow through the floor of the oceans systematically, Teddy Bullard had received his Ph D in the thirties as a nuclear physicist under Rutherford at Cambridge University. Immediately before WWII and then entirely thereafter, Teddy Bullard devoted himself to better understanding the Earth, ending his career as the Head of the Department of Geodesy and Geophysics at Cambridge. However, he sometimes regretted that he had had to abandon nuclear physics to find a job. He especially bemoaned the fact that unlike, most of his contemporaries from the Cavendish, he had had no important physical law named after him. To rectify this oversight Maurice Hill, the leader of the marine group at the Department, formulated what came to be known Bullard's Law - "Never take a second heat flow measurement within 20 km of the original for fear that it differ from the first by two orders of magnitude". In this presentation, I review the background information that led to Bullard's Law, to the realization that the early workers (1949 - 1965: Maxwell, Von Herzen, Bullard, Day, Langseth, Gerard, Uyeda, Yasui, Vacquier, Reitzel, Nason and Lee amongst others) had measured the heat flow correctly and that they had observed a large but real variability in heat flow near the crest of the mid-ocean ridges. I discuss the early attempts to explain the variability, and, the various sedimentary observations (Skornyakova, Arrhenius, Bonatti and Bostrom), magnetic measurements (Irving) and physical inferences (Elder and Lister) that led to the realization that fluid flowing through the oceanic crust might have created the variability. I finish by discussing an expedition to the Galapagos Spreading Center where NSF funded Dick Von Herzen and I to prove Lister wrong. Instead our graduate student Dave Williams, to my surprise but not Dick's, observed the first deep sea hydrothermal plume. The rest is history.

Sclater, J. G.

2002-12-01

256

The Role of Elastic and Plastic Anisotropy of Sn in Recrystallization and Damage Evolution During Thermal Cycling in SAC305 Solder Joints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because failures in lead-free solder joints occur at locations other than the most highly shear-strained regions, reliability prediction is challenging. To gain physical understanding of this phenomenon, physically based understanding of how elastic and plastic deformation anisotropy affect microstructural evolution during thermomechanical cycling is necessary. Upon solidification, SAC305 (Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu) solder joints are usually single or tricrystals. The evolution of microstructures and properties is characterized statistically using optical and orientation imaging microscopy. In situ synchrotron x-ray measurements during thermal cycling are used to examine how crystal orientation and thermal cycling history change strain history. Extensive characterization of a low-stress plastic ball grid array (PBGA) package design at different stages of cycling history is compared with preliminary experiments using higher-stress package designs. With time and thermal history, microstructural evolution occurs mostly from continuous recrystallization and particle coarsening that is unique to each joint, because of the specific interaction between local thermal and displacement boundary conditions and the strong anisotropic elastic, plastic, expansion, and diffusional properties of Sn crystals. The rate of development of recrystallized microstructures is a strong function of strain and aging. Cracks form at recrystallized (random) boundaries, and then percolate through recrystallized regions. Complications arising from electromigration and corrosion are also considered.

Bieler, Thomas R.; Zhou, Bite; Blair, Lauren; Zamiri, Amir; Darbandi, Payam; Pourboghrat, Farhang; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Liu, Kuo-Chuan

2012-02-01

257

Conservation Laws  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the case of the free particle, we interpreted various components of the energy-momentum-stress density as fluxes of energy and momentum. This interpretation can obviously be extended also to particle ensembles and gases. When we speak of fluxes we usually think of quantities that are conserved. In special relativity, energy and momentum are conserved. In general relativity, they are no longer generally conserved, at least if we do not include the energy and momentum of the gravitational field itself. Nevertheless, their densities and fluxes satisfy a covariant generalization of a true conservation law, which is quite easy to obtain.

Dewitt, Bryce; Christensen, Steven M.

258

Fractional order viscoelasticity and theoretical progress in rheological constitutive law for rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fractional calculus has recently become an important tool in the analysis of relaxation phenomena, such as stress-strain relationships in composite materials. This is because the memory effect, an essence of viscoelasticity, cannot be entirely described by the empirical constitutive equations with the integer-order time derivative. We derive a generalized viscoelastic constitutive equation from an energy function with fractional-order time derivatives. The constitutive equation reduces the empirical models of viscoelasticity such as Maxwell, Kelvin-Voigt and Zener models and represents the relaxation behavior of any kind of viscoelastic materials such as polymer, metal and rocks, enabling us to investigate the time-dependent property of relaxation and the origin of power-law dynamics. The constitutive equation is a differential equation with fractional order, and taking the Laplace transformations yield solutions with the Mittag-Leffler function having the asymptotic behavior of temporal power-law. The constitutive equation is hence equivalent to the Boltzmann superposition integral (a definition of the viscoelastic behavior) with power-law kernel, i.e., the Green’s function exhibiting temporal power-law relaxation, and in its special case, the kernel becomes an exponential function having a characteristic time. We also analyze experimental data sets on the deformation of rocks such as halite and lherzolite exhibiting the empirical flow-law (the power-law scaling between bulk stress and strain-rate) and show that the behaviors can be described by the viscoelastic constitutive equation with fractional-order derivatives as well. The order of fractional derivative is identical to the reciprocal of stress exponent of flow law reflecting the memory effect in viscoelasticity and the deformation mechanisms of rocks. It is also denoted that the power-law scaling in viscoelastic behavior of rocks is related to aspects of crustal fluid dynamics and change in atmospheric radon concentration associated with damage evolution prior to catastrophic failure (analogous to an earthquake).

Kawada, Y.; Yajima, T.; Nagahama, H.

2010-12-01

259

Administrative Law: The Hidden Comparative Law Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that the main contribution of the Administrative Law course to law students is that it presents problems which contrast with those of the standard court-centered curriculum and can illuminate other areas of law, repeatedly confronting students with doctrinal differences. Offers several examples from civil procedure, constitutional law, and…

Strauss, Peter L.

1996-01-01

260

43 CFR 9239.0-8 - Measure of damage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Measure of damage. 9239.0-8 Section 9239... Kinds of Trespass § 9239.0-8 Measure of damage. The rule of damages...545, 67 L. ed. 396), will be the measure of damages prescribed by the laws...

2012-10-01

261

Primary Radiation Damage Formation  

SciTech Connect

The physical processes that give rise to changes in the microstructure, and the physical and mechanical properties of materials exposed to energetic particles are initiated by essentially elastic collisions between atoms in what has been called an atomic displacement cascade. The formation and evolution of this primary radiation damage mechanism are described to provide an overview of how stable defects are formed by displacement cascades, as well as the nature and morphology of the defects themselves. The impact of the primary variables cascade energy and irradiation temperature are discussed, along with a range of secondary factors that can influence damage formation.

Stoller, Roger E [ORNL

2012-01-01

262

Punitive Damages  

Microsoft Academic Search

This entry concerns punitive damages. In considering the rationale for the award of punitive damages, we refer to two broad social goals: deterrence and punishment. In section 2 of the entry, we review the basic theory of deterrence, and in sections 3 through 6, we discuss the main deterrence-related justifications for punitive damages: the possibility of escaping sanctions; underestimation of

A. Mitchell Polinsky; Steven Shavell

263

Tornado Damage!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will learn about tornadoes, the damage they cause, and how to rate tornadoes. Specifically, students will investigate the Fujita Damage Scale of tornado intensity, and use it to complete a mock engineering analysis of damage caused by a tornado. Lastly, students will learn some basic tornado safety procedures.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

264

Full-scale prestress loss monitoring of damaged RC structures using distributed optical fiber sensing technology.  

PubMed

For the safety of prestressed structures, prestress loss is a critical issue that will increase with structural damage, so it is necessary to investigate prestress loss of prestressed structures under different damage scenarios. Unfortunately, to date, no qualified techniques are available due to difficulty for sensors to survive in harsh construction environments of long service life and large span. In this paper, a novel smart steel strand based on the Brillouin optical time domain analysis (BOTDA) sensing technique was designed and manufactured, and then series of tests were used to characterize properties of the smart steel strands. Based on prestress loss principle analysis of damaged structures, laboratory tests of two similar beams with different damages were used to verify the concept of full-scale prestress loss monitoring of damaged reinforced concrete (RC) beams by using the smart steel strands. The prestress losses obtained from the Brillouin sensors are compared with that from conventional sensors, which provided the evolution law of prestress losses of damaged RC beams. The monitoring results from the proposed smart strand can reveal both spatial distribution and time history of prestress losses of damaged RC beams. PMID:22778590

Lan, Chunguang; Zhou, Zhi; Ou, Jinping

2012-04-27

265

Elastic-Plastic Constitutive Equation of WC-Co Cemented Carbides with Anisotropic Damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elastic-plastic constitutive equation of WC-Co cemented carbides with anisotropic damage is proposed to predict a precise service life of cold forging tools. A 2nd rank symmetric tensor damage tensor is introduced in order to express the stress unilaterality; a salient difference in uniaxial behavior between tension and compression. The conventional framework of irreversible thermodynamics is used to derive the constitutive equation. The Gibbs potential is formulated as a function of stress, damage tensor, isotropic hardening variable and kinematic hardening variable. The elastic-damage constitutive equation, conjugate forces of damage, isotropic hardening and kinematic hardening variable is derived from the potential. For the kinematic hardening variable, the superposition of three kinematic hardening laws is employed in order to improve the cyclic behavior of the material. For the evolution equation of the damage tensor, the damage is assumed to progress by fracture of the Co matrix - WC particle interface and by the mechanism of fatigue, i.e. the accumulation of microscopic plastic strain in matrix and particles. By using the constitutive equations, calculation of uniaxial tensile and compressive test is performed and the results are compared with the experimental ones in the literature. Furthermore, finite element analysis on cold forward extrusion was carried out, in which the proposed constitutive equation was employed as die insert material.

Hayakawa, Kunio; Nakamura, Tamotsu; Tanaka, Shigekazu

2007-05-01

266

Full-Scale Prestress Loss Monitoring of Damaged RC Structures Using Distributed Optical Fiber Sensing Technology  

PubMed Central

For the safety of prestressed structures, prestress loss is a critical issue that will increase with structural damage, so it is necessary to investigate prestress loss of prestressed structures under different damage scenarios. Unfortunately, to date, no qualified techniques are available due to difficulty for sensors to survive in harsh construction environments of long service life and large span. In this paper, a novel smart steel strand based on the Brillouin optical time domain analysis (BOTDA) sensing technique was designed and manufactured, and then series of tests were used to characterize properties of the smart steel strands. Based on prestress loss principle analysis of damaged structures, laboratory tests of two similar beams with different damages were used to verify the concept of full-scale prestress loss monitoring of damaged reinforced concrete (RC) beams by using the smart steel strands. The prestress losses obtained from the Brillouin sensors are compared with that from conventional sensors, which provided the evolution law of prestress losses of damaged RC beams. The monitoring results from the proposed smart strand can reveal both spatial distribution and time history of prestress losses of damaged RC beams.

Lan, Chunguang; Zhou, Zhi; Ou, Jinping

2012-01-01

267

The Fourth Law of Thermodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. Classical thermodynamics, based on conservation of matter and en- ergy and on the increase of entropy accompanying every natural event, reliably predicts equilibrium properties of macroscopic systems, regardless of the complex- ity of those systems. Thermodynamic,theory historically has had little to say about the far-from-equilibrium evolution of systems. This is in part because the classical laws of thermodynamics, limited

R. e. Morel; George Fleck

1972-01-01

268

Evolution, Fundamentalism, and American Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes four court cases involving confrontation between the theory of evolution and the theory of creation: the Scopes trial, the Seagraves trial, Arkansas Act 590, and the Louisiana law. Provides 64 references on the issue. (YP)|

Doyle, James J.

1988-01-01

269

Probability Model of Surface Corrosion Damage Ratio of Aluminum Alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted on aluminum alloy specimens to observe the evolution of surface corrosion damage under controlled electrochemical conditions. After corrosion exposure, the optical microscope was used to measure the corrosion pits density and size on the surface of specimens. Based on the measured data sets of surface corrosion damage ratio, the probabilistic model of corrosion damage evolution was investigated.

Youhong Zhang; Xinlong Chang; Shiying Zhang; Kuan Hu; Wei Zhang

2009-01-01

270

Norm Evolution in EC Environmental Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Will the next generation experience the same quality of natural environmental beauty as that of former generations? Environmental protection is one of the most serious tasks to be dealt with in the days and years ahead, and in tackling this issue, the question of how environmental norms evolve is an essential topic for consideration. With regard to the above, the

Yoichiro Usui

2002-01-01

271

Collateral Damage: How Damage Zone Fracture Density Profiles Reflect Slip Distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fault zones contain a distribution of damage. The progression of damage as a function of distance from the fault contains information about the fault evolution and stress field. In this study, we aim to 1) measure the distribution of damage around small, isolated faults and 2) compare this damage distribution to faults with widely varying displacements. We measure multiple linear fracture density transects along small normal faults located in Santa Cruz, California. Both macroscopic joints and shear fractures are included in our measurements. These small faults have fracture densities that decay rapidly in space and are well-fit by a power law with a decay exponent of n ? -1. To investigate the damage distribution as a function of displacement, we compare fracture profiles collected from previously published studies to our own field study. The decay exponent from small faults remains approximately -1 until 100 m of displacement has been achieved. Fracture decay from larger faults is less continuous, and the average decay is less rapid in space. Additionally, we find that total fault zone width (as determined by where the fracture density falls to background levels) grows linearly with displacement until 100 m of displacement has been achieved, then the correlation of fault zone width with displacement is much less apparent. Although factors that affect fracture density including lithology, layer thickness, and depth of faulting can explain some of the scatter in our compiled dataset, we demonstrate that fault displacement is the primary control on fracture density decay and fault width. We interpret the change in fracture decay after ~100 m of displacement as a manifestation of increasing slip distribution onto secondary fault strands within the damage zone. Secondary faults have been shown to superpose their damage peaks onto the fracture density decay from the main fault (e.g. Chester and Logan, 1986). Although the fracture density decay from large faults is not as well-fit by a power law, the decrease in the decay exponent reflects the increasing number of secondary fault strands in the damage zone with increasing displacement. A simple stochastic model demonstrates that strand formation may be related to the number of fractures within the damage zone available to coalesce with their nearest neighbors. These results imply that the presence of a damage zone acts to distribute slip onto multiple surfaces as cracks coalesce into shear planes. Furthermore, this distribution of slip allows the fault to move with less damage to the host rock, as evidenced by the decrease in the growth of fault width at ~100 m of total displacement, when secondary strands are thought to begin forming. References Chester, F. M. and J. M. Logan, 1986. Implications for mechanical properties of brittle faults from observations of the Punchbowl Fault Zone, California. Pure and Applied Geophysics 124: 79-106.

Savage, H. M.; Brodsky, E. E.

2009-12-01

272

law, economic analysis of  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article surveys the economic analysis of five primary fields of law: property law; liability for accidents; contract law; litigation; and public enforcement and criminal law. It also briefly considers some criticisms of the economic analysis of law. Keywords adverse possession; asymmetric information; Becker, G.; Bentham, J.; bona fide purchase rule; Coase, R.; collective action; compensated takings; contract formation; contractual

A. Mitchell Polinsky; Steven Shavell

273

TORT LAW: GENERAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter gives a general overview of the economic literature on tort law. It discusses the legal definitions of tort law, the development of tort law, the fundamental economic rationale of tort law and the scope of tort liability. A brief overview of the main topics of the economic analysis of tort law is given.

Hans-Bernd Schäfer

274

A Grained Continuum Theory of Damage and Coarsening  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Formation of tectonic plate boundaries from mantle and lithosphere dynamics involves shear localization during deformation as well as remnant weak zones after deformation ceases. The requisite state variable that delineates the weak zone could be, for example, increased temperature or water content, although a well documented feature of lithospheric weak zones is reduced grainsize (i.e., mylonites). Grainsize reduction is typically attributed to dynamic recrystallization although the models arising from this hypothesis are problematic: grainsize reduction occurs during dislocation creep while the rheological effect of grainsize occurs in diffusion creep and these creep mechanisms exist in different stress regimes. Moreover, the grain-growth ("healing") laws employed for these models assume static grain-growth or coarsening, although the setting itself is far from static or equilibrium. Here we present a new grained-continuum theory for simultaneous and competing coarsening and grainsize reduction through a "damage" mechanics and nonequilibrium thermodynamics approach. The theory contains coupled grainsize/statistical and continuum/macroscopic components. The grainsize/statistical element of the theory prescribes the evolution of the grainsize distribution through space and time, and a kinetic phenomenological (i.e., nonequilibrium thermodynamic) law for how grainzize changes depending on free energy differences between grains, including both grain-boundary surface energy (which controls coarsening) and the contribution of deformational work to these free energies (which controls damage). The continuum level of the theory considers standard mass, momentum and energy conservation on the statistically averaged grained continuum; however, the continuum treatment of energy conservation and entropy-source positivity provide the phenomenological law for the statistical grain-growth law. A fundamental thermodynamic requirement arising from the theory is that deformational work must always cause large grains to shrink and small ones to grow, causing the grainsize distribution to propagate to smaller grainsizes and thus to mean grainsize reduction. The theory also captures the essential static-coarsening predictions of self-similar grainsize distributions from Lifshitz-Slyosov and Hillert theories. However, with the inclusion of nonstatic/nonequilibrium conditions such as damage and deformational work, the theory also predicts a range of self-similar and non-self-similar (even singular) grainsize distribution evolutions involving either coarsening or grainsize reduction and shear localization.

Bercovici, D.; Ricard, Y.

2005-12-01

275

Scaling laws and indications of self-organized criticality in urban systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evolution of urban systems has been considered to exhibit some form of self-organized criticality (SOC) in the literature. This paper provides further mathematical foundations and empirical evidences to support the supposition. The hierarchical structure of systems of cities can be formulated as three exponential functions: the number law, the population size law, and the area law. These laws are identical

Yanguang Chen; Yixing Zhou

2008-01-01

276

Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site discusses three of Kepler's laws of planetary motion: the law of ellipses, the equal areas law and the harmonic law. Each law is discussed in detail and includes an interactive animation that is helpful in understanding the law.

2010-04-29

277

Drug Impaired Driving Laws  

MedlinePLUS

Drug Impaired Driving Laws While all states have drunk driving laws, only some have enacted laws to address drug impairment. ... in control of the vehicle. Learn More About Impaired Driving Issue Brief 3 states – California, New York and ...

278

Congenital ureteropelvic junction obstruction: physiopathology, decoupling of tout court pelvic dilatation-obstruction semantic connection, biomarkers to predict renal damage evolution.  

PubMed

The widespread use of fetal ultrasonography results in a frequent antenatally observation of hydronephrosis, ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) accounting for the greatest fraction of congenital obstructive nephropathy. UPJO may be considered, in most cases, as a functional obstructive condition, depending on defective fetal smooth muscle/nerve development at this level, with lack of peristaltic wave propagation--aperistaltic segment--and, therefore, poor urine ejection from the renal pelvis into the ureter. The UPJO-related physiopathologic events are, at first, the compliant dilatation of renal pelvis that, acting as hydraulic buffer, protects the renal parenchyma from the rising intrapelvic pressure-related potential damages, and, subsequently, beyond such phase of dynamic balance, the tubular cell stretch-stress induced by increased intratubular pressure and following parenchymal inflammatory lesions: inflammatory infiltrates, fibroblast proliferation, activation of myofibroblasts, tubulo-interstitial fibrosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), several chemo- and cytokines, growth factors, prostaglandins and eicosanoids, angiotensin-II are the main pathogenetic mediators of the obstructive nephropathy. Apoptosis of tubular cells is the major cause of the tubular atrophy, together with epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation. Some criticisms on tout court semantic renal pelvis dilatation-obstruction connection have been raised considering that the renal pelvis expansion isn't, in any case, linked to an ostructive condition, as it may be verified by diuretic (furosemide) renogram together with scintiscan-based evaluation of differential renal function. In this regard, rather than repetitive invasive nuclear procedures that expose the children to ionizing radiations, an intriguing noninvasive strategy, based on the evaluation of urinary biomarkers and urinary proteome, can define the UPJO-related possible progress of parenchymal lesions, thus predicting which patients must require an obstruction correcting surgery and in which patients, instead, the hydronephrosis will spontaneously resolve. PMID:22428472

Alberti, C

2012-02-01

279

Punitive Damages, Retribution, and Due Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tort law provides awards of punitive damages for reasons of deterrence and retribution. In light of a recent decision by the U.S. Supreme Court in Phillip Morris USA v. Williams, the retributive rationale for punitive damages will inevitably come under heightened scrutiny. The case involves a punitive award of $79.5 million, which is ninety-seven times greater than the compensatory damages,

Mark Geistfeld

2008-01-01

280

Law Library of Congress Home Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Law Library of Congress Web site is an outstanding tribute to this nation's foremost legal library, which comprises more than two million volumes, including a 65,000 volume reference collection. The largest legal library in the world, the Law Library was established in 1832 as a separate branch of the Library of Congress, serving as the library of record and official repository of the Congress of the United States. Both historically and practically valuable, the Law Library site offers information on the library's vast holdings and a wealth of information about the great edifice constructed to house them. The site offers numerous links to electronic records made available by the Library, primarily through the Guide to Online Law and GLIN, the Global Legal Information Network. Also impressive are two presentations on the inscriptions and art gracing the library building, respectively entitled "On These Walls" and "And Sovereign Laws." While serving as a portal to the study of the American law, through such services as the Thomas Register and the Congressional Report, the Law Library Web site links information on the laws and legislative institutions of other lands as well, many presented in both native languages and English translations. A study in itself, the site is a great starting point for the study of law by both students and scholars, offering great historical perspective of the birth and evolution of American legal concepts and practices while maintaining up-to-the-minute information regarding challenges to and revisions of our great judicial heritage.

1999-01-01

281

Damage Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Damage control is an approach that has gained widespread popularity and acceptance in the management of severely injured patients. Although initially popularized in the trauma literature, this technique is being expanded to the management of a broad range of serious, often desperate surgical circumstances that may be encountered, including scenarios confronted by the colon and rectal surgeon. Damage-control surgery is

Kenneth J. McPartland; Neil H. Hyman

2003-01-01

282

Catastrophic Rupture Induced Damage Coalescence in Heterogeneous Brittle Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

In heterogeneous brittle media, the evolution of damage is strongly influenced by the multiscale coupling effect. To better\\u000a understand this effect, we perform a detailed investigation of the damage evolution, with particular ettention focused on\\u000a the catastrophe transition. We use an adaptive multiscale finite-element model (MFEM) to simulate the damage evolution and\\u000a the catastrophic failure of heterogeneous brittle media. Both

Feng Rong; Haiying Wang; Mengfen Xia; Fujiu Ke; Yilong Bai

283

Catastrophic Rupture Induced Damage Coalescence in Heterogeneous Brittle Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

In heterogeneous brittle media, the evolution of damage is strongly influenced by the multiscale coupling effect. To better\\u000a understand this effect, we perform a detailed investigation of the damage evolution, with particular attention focused on\\u000a the catastrophe transition. We use an adaptive multiscale finite-element model (MFEM) to simulate the damage evolution and\\u000a the catastrophic failure of heterogeneous brittle media. Both

Feng Rong; Haiying Wang; Mengfen Xia; Fujiu Ke; Yilong Bai

2006-01-01

284

Software evolution - Background, theory, practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a brief summary of a 35 years study of the software process and the software evolution phenomenon. It draws attention, inter alia, to the SPE program classification, a principle of software uncertainty and laws of software evolution. Recent studies have led to refinement of earlier conclusions and provided a basis for formation of a theory of software

Meir M. Lehman; Juan F. Ramil

2003-01-01

285

America's Anti-Evolution Movement  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Evolution is the cornerstone of biology and one of the most powerful, exciting, and well-supported laws in modern science. Evolution transforms biology from a collection of unrelated observations and definitions into a coherent discipline that, among other things, helps people understand life's history and predict answers to important research…

Moore, Randy

2002-01-01

286

Effect of Crevice Former on Corrosion Damage Propagation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this report are: (1) To determine the effect of the crevice former on the localized corrosion damage propagation; (2) FOCUS on post initiation stage, crevice propagation and arrest processes; (3) Determine the evolution of damage--severi...

2006-01-01

287

Evolution and Friendship  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1925, Williams Jennings Bryan, a former congressman from Nebraska and a former Secretary of State under Woodrow Wilson, spent two agonizing weeks defending his religious faith that cost him his life a month after. Bryan was a prosecutor of high school teacher John Scopes, who had violated Tennessee state law by teaching the theory of evolution.…

Mena-Werth, Jose

2005-01-01

288

Multiscale Damage Modeling for Composite Materials: Theory and Computational Framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nonlocal multiscale continuum damage model is developed for brittle composite materials. A triple-scale asymptotic analysis is generalized to account for the damage phenomena occur- ring at micro-, meso- and macro- scales. A closed form expressions relating microscopic, mesoscopic and overall strains and damage is derived. The damage evolution is stated on the smallest scale of interest and nonlocal weighted

Jacob Fish; Qing Yu

289

Statistical properties of systems with damage and defects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this dissertation we will examine the effect microscopic defects have on macroscopic properties of classical, many-body systems using simple models with many coupled degrees of freedom, where some of those degrees of freedom are quenched into a defective or damaged state. These simple models are constructed as cellular automata whose temporal evolution is controlled by a rule that depends only on the value of the cell evolving and the values of that cell's nearest q ˜ Rd neighbors, where R is the interaction range. Damaged or defective elements are then defined as cells that do not follow this evolution rule as the system is advanced in time. We concentrate on two classes of materials: building and support materials, and solid earth. In the case of the former, it is known these materials experience fatigue and thus become increasingly susceptible to catastrophic failure (e.g. the snapping of a support cable) over time. By first determining the steady-state properties of our models in the absence of damage, we measure whether or not the system remains in a metastable-equilibrium-like state as the catastrophic event is approached. We also consider the geometry of the catastrophic event and find it is controlled by the interaction range. Finally, in our examination of the onset of the catastrophic event, we find the dissipation parameter controls not only the failure rate, but also the number and amplitude of precursory events. In the case of solid earth, we focus on Gutenberg-Richter scaling: an empirical observation that the frequency of seismic events with a seismic scalar moment of at least mu on a fault system are power-law distributed as f ˜ mu-2 b/3. Our model fault system consists of individual faults with quenched damage whose frequency-moment statics scale as an exponentially suppressed power-law in mu. Scaling on the model fault system is then controlled by this distribution, as well as the relative frequency with which a fault with a given amount of damage occurs within the fault system. By varying this frequency, we can generate statistics with Gutenberg-Richter b-values consistent with seismological observations in the range 0.8 ?b? 1.3.

Serino, Christopher A.

290

A viscoplastic model including anisotropic damage for the time dependent behaviour of rock  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new constitutive model for the time dependent mechanical behaviour of rock which takes into account both viscoplastic behaviour and evolution of damage with respect to time. This model is built by associating a viscoplastic constitutive law to the damage theory. The main characteristics of this model are the account of a viscoplastic volumetric strain (i.e. contractancy and dilatancy) as well as the anisotropy of damage. The latter is described by a second rank tensor. Using this model, it is possible to predict delayed rupture by determining time to failure, in creep tests for example. The identification of the model parameters is based on experiments such as creep tests, relaxation tests and quasi-static tests. The physical meaning of these parameters is discussed and comparisons with lab tests are presented. The ability of the model to reproduce the delayed failure observed in tertiary creep is demonstrated as well as the sensitivity of the mechanical response to the rate of loading. The model could be used to simulate the evolution of the excavated damage zone around underground openings.

Pellet, F.; Hajdu, A.; Deleruyelle, F.; Besnus, F.

2005-08-01

291

Effects of damage and viscoelasticity on the constitutive behavior of fiber-reinforced composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Linear viscoelastic constitutive relationships incorporating the effects of distributed damage are developed for fiber reinforced composite materials. Micromechanics based analysis is presented to obtain the overall linear viscoelastic response of a matrix cracked cross-ply laminate. A 2-D lower bound solution and an approximate 3-D solution to the overall properties are obtained using the Laplace transform based elastic-viscoelastic correspondence principle. Since the micromechanics-based constitutive equations are specific to the considered laminate geometry and damage modes, they are not suitable for general purpose finite element based structural analysis codes. Further, micromechanics-based constitutive equations may be difficult to obtain when damage is such that no periodic representative volume element can be identified. Thus a more general internal variables based continuum damage model is developed. Using the Laplace transformed based elastic-viscoelastic correspondence principle, a pseudo strain energy function is defined in terms of Laplace transformed strain and damage internal variables. For the case of non-evolving damage, this pseudo strain energy function is expanded as a polynomial in its arguments in accordance with the orthotropic symmetry restriction imposed by the material. The time domain relationships are obtained by inverse Laplace transform. The approach is illustrated for the specific case of matrix cracked symmetric cross-ply laminates. The generality of the approach is illustrated by showing how transient temperature, moisture and physical aging effects can be incorporated. Evolution of damage in viscoelastic laminates is studied using a cohesive finite element approach. A two dimensional, four noded finite element is developed incorporating a rate-independent traction-displacement cohesive law. This element is used in conjunction with plane strain bulk elements behaving in a linear viscoelastic manner to simulate crack evolution between two existing transverse cracks in symmetric cross-ply laminates. The effects of loading strain-rate, ply constraints and initial crack density are studied.

Kumar, Rajesh Shyamraj

292

Three-dimensional cohesive modeling of impact damage of composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this work is to establish the applicability of cohesive theories of fracture in situations involving material interface, material heterogeneity (e.g., layered composites), material anisotropy (e.g., fiber-reinforced composites), shear cracks, intersonic dynamic crack growth and dynamic crack branching. The widely used cohesive model is extended to orthotropic range. The so-developed computational tool, completed by a self-adaptive fracture procedure and a frictional contact algorithm, is capable of following the evolution of three-dimensional damage processes, modeling the progressive decohesion of interfaces and anisotropic materials. The material parameters required by cohesive laws are directly obtained from static experiments. The ability of the methodology to simulate diverse problems such as delamination between fibers of graphite/epoxy composites, as well as sandwich structures and branching within brittle bulk materials has been demonstrated.

Yu, Chengxiang

293

Students and the Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Designed as a practical approach to the study of law, this publication offers seven lesson plans focusing on legal topics that have potential significance to high school students preparing to enter the world of work. Lesson plans address the following topics: minors and the law, automobile insurance, employment law, sports and the law, computer…

South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

294

Law As a Career.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Intended as a guide for people considering a career in law, this booklet addresses the following questions: (1) "What is the lawyer's role in society?" (2) "Should you be a lawyer?" (3) "What about jobs?" (4) "How much do lawyers make?" (5) "How do you choose a law school?" (6) "How to get into law school?" (7) "What is law school like?" (8) "How…

American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Public Education Div.

295

Innovations in Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at historical and recent innovations in law. The first article examines the code of laws developed by the ancient Hebrews which influenced Roman law, English law, and the U.S. Declaration of Independence and Constitution. The second article explores Thomas Jefferson's writing of the Declaration of…

Martz, Carlton

2000-01-01

296

Hyperphysics: Kepler's Laws  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Hyperphysics page, from Georgia State University, provides detailed explanations for each of Kepler's Laws: the Law of Orbits, Law of Periods, and the Law of Areas. Each description offers appropriate formulas and equations as well as related images and graphics. Various links are provided throughout the article for related information.

Nave, Carl R.

2008-10-28

297

FORENSIC ECONOMICS IN COMPETITION LAW ENFORCEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACTThis paper delineates the specialty field of forensic industrial organization (IO) as the application of theoretical and empirical industrial organization economics in the legal process of competition law enforcement. Four stages of that process that can benefit from forensic IO techniques are distinguished: detection and investigation; case development; decision-making and litigation; and remedies, sanctions, and damages. We survey the use

Maarten Pieter Schinkel

2008-01-01

298

Toxic torts and environmental law: Recent developments  

SciTech Connect

This article describes recent developments in environmental law including the following: in Toxic tort issues: standards for expert testimony; punitive damages; preemption; failure to warn and strict liability; the unavoidably unsafe defense; in Hazardous waste issues: joint and several liability; petroleum exclusion; recoverable costs; causation; owner or operator and successor liability; contribution; commerce; RCRA land bar; criminal conviction.

Mahoney, W.F. [ed.; Murphy, J.; Cross, A. [Segal, McCambridge, Singer & Mahoney, Ltd., Chicago, IL (United States)] [and others

1994-12-31

299

Damaged Goods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manufacturers may intentionally damage a portion of their goods in order to price discriminate. Many instances of this phenomenon are observed. It may result in a Pareto improvement. Copyright 1996 The Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Raymond J. Deneckere; R. Preston McAfee

1996-01-01

300

How International Law Works  

Microsoft Academic Search

How International Law Works presents a theory of international law, how it operates, and why it works. Though appeals to international law have grown ever more central to international disputes and international relations, there is no well-developed, comprehensive theory of how international law shapes policy outcomes.\\u000aFilling a conspicuous gap in the literature on international law, Andrew T. Guzman builds

Andrew T Guzman

2008-01-01

301

Power laws, Pareto distributions and Zipf's law  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When the probability of measuring a particular value of some quantity varies inversely as a power of that value, the quantity is said to follow a power law, also known variously as Zipf's law or the Pareto distribution. Power laws appear widely in physics, biology, earth and planetary sciences, economics and finance, computer science, demography and the social sciences. For instance, the distributions of the sizes of cities, earthquakes, forest fires, solar flares, moon craters and people's personal fortunes all appear to follow power laws. The origin of power-law behaviour has been a topic of debate in the scientific community for more than a century. Here we review some of the empirical evidence for the existence of power-law forms and the theories proposed to explain them.

Newman, Mej

2005-09-01

302

On the definition and efficiency of punitive damages  

Microsoft Academic Search

We construct a model of optimal deterrence to address the issue concerning the form and efficiency of punitive damages. Because the same amount of damages means less to wealthy injurers than to poor ones, without punitive damages, it might happen that poor injurers abide by the law while wealthy injurers do not. Thus the court can increase social welfare by

C. Y. Cyrus Chu; Chen-Ying Huang

2004-01-01

303

Numerical Simulation of Brittle Damage in Concrete Specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework for damage mechanics of concrete is applied to simulate the nonlinear elastic deformation behavior of concrete using finite element method (FEM). A rather simple isotropic damage model containing essentially no adjustable parameters is shown to produce results in remarkably good agreement with sample experimental data: the damage law requires only the fracture energy to be defined completely. The

Y. Labadi; N. E. Hannachi

2005-01-01

304

Multiple Equilibria in an Optimal Control Model for Law Enforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, Becker's (1968) economic approach to crime and punishment is extended by including intertemporal aspects. We an- alyze a one-state control model to determine the optimal dynamic trade-o between damages caused by oenders and law enforcement expenditures. By using Pontryagin's maximum principle we obtain interesting insight into the dynamical structure of optimal law en- forcement policies. It is

Gustav Feichtinger; Gernot Tragler

305

Law enforcement surveillance in the network society  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the evolution of telecommunications technology and the challenges to surveillance faced by law enforcement agencies. We focus on surveillance history in the United States. US government surveillance will have an increasing impact on the global civil society because of the globalization of packet-based communication networks-as a great deal of international traffic travels across American network wires. The bandwidth

Serena Chan; L. Jean Camp

2002-01-01

306

Towards corporate liability in international criminal law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Please note that the electronic publication of this dissertation through Igitur is subject to a 2-year embargo period! Seeking to address the problem of corporate involvement in genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, this study explores the desirability and feasibility of subjecting multinational corporations (MNCs) to regulation through international criminal law. It traces the evolution of the ‘collective criminality’

D. E. Stoitchkova

2010-01-01

307

Slip instability and state variable friction laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dependence of the friction on slip history is described by an experimentally motivated constitutive law where the friction is dependent on slip rate and state variables. The state variables are defined macroscopically by evolution equations for their rates of change in terms of their present values and slip rate. Experiments may strongly suggest that one state variables is adequate

Andy Ruina

1983-01-01

308

Community dynamics in an online law journal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Online communities are continuously evolving socio-technical systems. To provide them with better change management support, a systematic analysis of the norms that govern their evolution is required. In this paper, we present an approach that was used to analyze the community dynamics in an online law journal. Electronic journals in the legal domain are essential instruments in the validation and

Aldo de Moor; Sjef van Erp

2004-01-01

309

Sea shipment of Japanese plutonium under international law  

SciTech Connect

The Japanese government`s shipment of plutonium from France to Japan raises a number of significant questions under international law. The first shipment, which began in November 1992 on the Akatsuki Maru, violated international law in several respects. This article analyzes the international law that governs these shipments, focusing on the rules that govern navigation on the high seas and exclusive economic zones, territorial seas, and international straits, and also addresses the question of liability for damage. 281 refs.

Van Dyke, J.M. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1993-10-01

310

Subsidence: an emerging area of the law  

SciTech Connect

This Note surveys various legal theories courts could employ to compensate property owners injured by subsidence caused by groundwater pumping. Many courts have clouded the subsidence issue by applying water law to determine liability. Dissatisfied with the results of applying water law to subsidence, the Texas Supreme Court held, in the landmark Friendswood decision, that negligence would be a cause of action to redress future subsidence. The best theory of liability for subsidence damage, however, is loss of subjacent support. The prevailing rule under the law of support is that the defendant is strictly liable for damage resulting from withdrawal of support. The Restatement and several cases have finally recognized that there is no valid distinction between withdrawal of solid and fluid substances for purposes of imposing strict liability under subjacent support principles. Since subsidence may result from groundwater pumping even in the absence of negligence, strict liability is superior to a negligence theory. Unlike any water law theory, the law of support recognizes that the injury is to rights in land rather than to water rights. Until legislatures respond to the problem, adherence to the law of subjacent support is the best approach to internalizing the costs of subsidence.

Morris, J.

1981-01-01

311

Practicing What We Teach: The Importance of Emotion and Community Connection in Law Work and Law Teaching  

Microsoft Academic Search

Personal satisfaction and fine lawyering go hand in hand. Legal education and the legal system, however, do damage to that coupling. The author suggests that lawyers and law students can thwart personal dysfunction and professional dissatisfaction if we allow ourselves to express joy and sadness. To avoid being depleted by grief and rage, which cannot nourish satisfying law work over

Ann Juergens

2005-01-01

312

Life as a manifestation of the second law of thermodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the thermodynamic evolution of various evolving systems, from primitivephysical systems to complex living systems, and conclude that they involve similar processeswhich are phenomenological manifestations of the second law of thermodynamics. We take thereformulated second law of thermodynamics of Hatsopoulos and Keenan and Kestin and extendit to nonequilibrium regions, where nonequilibrium is described in terms of gradientsmaintaining systems at

Eric D. Schneider; James J. Kay

1994-01-01

313

The generalized second law of thermodynamics in generalized gravity theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the generalized second law of thermodynamics (GSL) in generalized theories of gravity. We examine the total entropy evolution with time including the horizon entropy, the non-equilibrium entropy production, and the entropy of all matter, field and energy components. We derive a universal condition to protect the generalized second law and study its validity in different gravity theories. In

Shao-Feng Wu; Bin Wang; Guo-Hong Yang; Peng-Ming Zhang

2008-01-01

314

32 CFR 536.29 - Compensation for property damage, personal injury, or death.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...determined in accordance with general principles of United States tort law. (2) Proof of damage. The information listed...in accordance with general principles of United States tort law. (2) The information listed in §...

2005-07-01

315

CONSTITUTIVE RELATIONSHIP OF TISSUE BEHAVIOR WITH DAMAGE ACCUMULATION OF HUMAN CORTICAL BONE  

PubMed Central

Microdamage accumulation has been identified as a major conduit for bone tissues to absorb fracture energy. Due to the poor understanding of its underlying mechanism, however, an adequate constitutive relationship between damage accumulation and the mechanical behavior of bone has not yet been established. In this study, the constitutive relationship between the damage accumulation induced by overload and the evolution of mechanical properties of bone with incremental deformation was established based on the experimental results obtained from a novel progressive loading protocol developed in our laboratory. First, a decayed exponential model was proposed to capture the damage accumulation (modulus loss) with increasing applied strain. Next, a power law function was proposed to represent the progression of plastic deformation with damage accumulation. Finally, a linear combination of the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts (KWW) function and Debye function was used to depict the viscoelastic behavior of bone associated with damage accumulation. The results of this study may help develop a constitutive model for predicting the mechanical behavior of cortical bone tissues.

Luo, Qing; Leng, Huijie; Acuna, Rae; Dong, Xuanliang; Rong, Qiguo; Wang, Xiaodu

2010-01-01

316

Generalization of Snell's Law  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis presents several derivations of Snell's Law of Refraction and one of the principle of reflection. In all of these, we place different constraints upon the problem and produce the familiar laws governing reflection and refraction. The main resu...

M. L. Hawkins

1990-01-01

317

Law-Related Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Identifies five "motives" behind law-related education. They are citizenship education, delinquency prevention, survival skills, critical thinking, and ethics education. Presents a brief survey designed to collect information about law-related education in the Michigan public schools. (JDH)|

Little, Timothy H.

1987-01-01

318

Criminal Law Study Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Naval Justice School lawyer course in military criminal law is to prepare military attorneys to develop competent legal analyses and solutions to substantive criminal law problems. Two basic legal skills will be developed in the course:...

1987-01-01

319

Criminal Law Study Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Naval Justice School lawyer course in military criminal law is to prepare military attorneys to develop competent legal analyses and solutions to substantive criminal law problems. Two basic legal skills will be developed in the course:...

1988-01-01

320

Criminal Law Study Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Naval Justice School lawyer course in military criminal law is to prepare military attorneys to develop competent legal analyses and solutions to substantive criminal law problems. Two basic legal skills will be developed in the course:...

1989-01-01

321

Criminal Law Study Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the Naval Justice School lawyer course in military criminal law is to prepare military attorneys to develop competent legal analyses and solutions to substantive criminal law problems. Two basic legal skills will be developed in the course:...

1986-01-01

322

Newton's 3rd Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video shows how Newton's Third Law of Motion can be demonstrated using a low-friction "sled" and two rubber bands. The video includes a brief description of Newton's third law and explains the reaction force on the sled.

Fix, Darren

2009-02-26

323

A continuum Damage Approach of Asphalt Concrete Fatigue Tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

To forecast pavement fatigue cracking, fatigue performances of asphalt mixtures are assessed us- ing laboratory cyclic fatigue tests. A damage model is implemented to predict the behavior of asphalt mixtures during these tests. Under sinusoidal loading, the evolution of the complex modulus of the ma- terial is defined as the damage variable associated to a microcracking mechanism. Its evolution during

Didier Bodin; Gilles Pijaudier-Cabot; Chantal de La Roche; Jean-Michel Piau

324

Generalized law for aftershocks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A generalized law for aftershock decay rates is provided through the combination of the Gutenberg-Richter frequency magnitude relation, Bath's law, and the modified Omori's law. Several large quakes with readily identified aftershocks were studied. Results indicate that aftershock decay rates depended on several parameters specific to each seismic region. It was found that the law can be used to forecast the rate of aftershock occurrence after specific information about the main shock's magnitude and the area's land is known.

Shcherbakov, Robert; Rundle, John B.; Turcotte, Donald L.; Agu

325

Advertising Law Internet Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advertising Law Internet Site houses articles about the legal aspects of marketing products, with particular emphasis on infomercials, home shopping, and direct response TV. Other articles discuss 900 Number regulations, contest laws, business opportunity laws, and additional aspects of promotion law. The site also houses copies of FTC Guides and Speeches and FTC Rules and statutes. Consumer Advisories issued by the FTC will also be made available at the site.

326

Health care law versus constitutional law.  

PubMed

National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status. PMID:23262771

Hall, Mark A

2012-12-21

327

Understanding Trademark Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding Trademark Law is a comprehensive and up-to-date guide to the law of trademarks and unfair competition. It provides a thorough introduction to the federal laws protecting registered trademarks and trade dress, as well as the broad array of federal and state unfair competition doctrines which protect unregistered trademarks and trade dress. Coverage includes the standards and procedures for obtaining

Mary LaFrance

2009-01-01

328

Wisconsin Environmental Law Handbook  

SciTech Connect

This book provides an analysis of business' obligations in sections on: Wisconsin's Environmental Policy Act; Surface Water Regulation and Zoning; Water Pollution Discharge Permits; Air Pollution Control; Solid Waste and Recycling; Hazardous Waste Management; Hazardous Substance Control and Reporting; Groundwater Law and Regulations; Mining Laws and Regulations; Common Law Liability and Insurance; and Environmental Enforcement.

Not Available

1990-01-01

329

Economic analysis of law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Economic analysis of law concerns predicting impacts of legislative rules on incentives and behaviour of individuals and judging social efficiency of alternative legislative rules. It applies price theory, welfare theory and public choice theory on creating and applying law. One of its main shortcomings however is the lack of criteria of social efficiency. Modern history of economic analysis of law

Robert Holman

2004-01-01

330

Newton's Laws of Motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

THERE is a point in connection with Newton's laws of motion which tha text-books on dynamics, which found the science upon those laws, seem to me to leave very inconveniently and unnecessarily mysterious. The point to which I allude is the meaning of the words ``rest or uniform motion in a straight line'' in the first law. The difficult words

1887-01-01

331

Employment and Labor Laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews and compares the employment and labor laws of three countries-US, South Africa, and Ghana. The methodology employed is a qualitative review of each countries employment and labor laws that are centered on collective bargaining, employment discrimination and other workplace standards, unemployment compensation, pensions, workplace safety, and workers compensation. Even though, the three countries have laws covering various

Jeffrey S. Siekpe; Walter E. Greene

2006-01-01

332

Soft Law As Delegation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines one of the most important trends in international legal governance since the end of the Cold War: the rise of “soft law,” or legally non-binding instruments that are given legal effect through domestic law or internationally binding agreements such as treaties. Scholars studying the design of international agreements have long puzzled over why states use soft law.

Timothy Meyer

2008-01-01

333

EC Customs Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

EC Customs Law places the law relating to customs duty in the context of the EC and international trade. This fully updated second edition covers significant changes in EC customs procedure, legislation, and case-law since the first edition. It includes coverage of the recently implemented 2005 amendments to the Community Customs Code, and an exploration the impact of major expansion

Timothy Lyons QC

334

Preventive School Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this chapter is to suggest outlines of a preventive law practice, raise issues, and provoke further thought and discussion concerning the application of preventive law principles and techniques to the management and operation of educational systems. The theory of preventive law and some of its premises are examined in order to…

Bednar, William C., Jr.

335

Operational Law Handbook,2007.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Operational Law Handbook is a 'how to' guide for judge advocates practicing operational law. It provides reference and describes tactics and techniques for the practice of operational law. It supports the doctrinal concepts and principles of FM 3-0 an...

2007-01-01

336

State Highway Safety Laws  

MedlinePLUS

... has enacted laws governing various driver behaviors, from distracted driving to motorcyle helmet use. GHSA maintains comprehensive information about these laws and publishes it online in two formats: By Type of Law ... phone 202.789.0942 , fax 202.789.0946, headquarters@ghsa.org

337

Law enforcement and transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a simple model to analyze law enforcement problems in transition economies. Law enforcement implies coordination problems and multiplicity of equilibria due to a law abidance and a fiscal externality. We analyze two institutional mechanisms for solving the coordination problem. A first mechanism, which we call “dualism”, follows the scenario of Chinese transition where the government keeps direct control

Gérard Roland; Thierry Verdier

2003-01-01

338

International Soft Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the concept of soft law has existed for years, scholars have not reached consensus on why states use soft law or even whether “soft law” is a coherent analytic category. In part, this confusion reflects a deep diversity in both the types of international agreements and the strategic situations that produce them. In this paper, we advance four complementary

Andrew T Guzman; Timothy L Meyer

2010-01-01

339

Zipf's law in multifragmentation  

SciTech Connect

We discuss the meaning of Zipf's law in nuclear multifragmentation. We remark that Zipf's law is a consequence of a power-law fragment size distribution with exponent {tau}{approx_equal}2. We also recall why the presence of such a distribution is not a reliable signal of a liquid-gas phase transition.

Campi, X.; Krivine, H. [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques Bat. 100, Universite de Paris XI, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

2005-11-01

340

Law of Empires.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores issues raised by empires and imperial law. The first article, "Clash of Empires: The Fight for North America," looks at the clash of empires and the fight for North America during the 18th century. The second article, "When Roman Law Ruled the Western World," examines Roman Law, which helped hold…

Martz, Carlton

2001-01-01

341

32 CFR 750.48 - Measure of damages in injury or death cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...cognizable and meritorious under this provision, damages will be determined in accordance with general principles of American tort law. The following is provided as guidance. (1) Measure of Damages for Overseas Personal Injury Claims....

2005-07-01

342

Hazardous waste and the common law theories of liability  

SciTech Connect

A primer for chemical engineers, this review gives examples of cases involving hazardous waste and environmental pollution. It begins with the discussion of common law tort and its application. The review covers the statute of limitations and common law as it applies to negligence, trespass, nuisance, strict liability, and damages and remedies. Because of the complexity of common law, the courts will render diverse and sometimes conflicting or confusing decisions. Given the explosive expansion of public awareness and scrutiny in the area of hazardous wastes, the chemical engineer should have a basic appreciation of common law. Professional assistance is advisable since the area is always changing.

Wang, C.C.K.

1985-02-01

343

Damage and fracture simulation during the extrusion processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to accurately predict the damage and failure evolution in the case of metal forming processes, such as stamping and extrusion, a finite element model valid for numerically describing of such processes has been developed. Damage and crack propagation have been taken into account by means of continuum damage mechanics concepts. To study the effects of variation of processes

Ridha Hambli; Daniel Badie-Levet

2000-01-01

344

SIMULATION OF PROGRESSIVE DAMAGE IN BOLTED COMPOSITE JOINTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, a continuum based progressive damage model for fiber-reinforced composites became available in the commercial finite element code ABAQUS. The implemented model uses the Hashin damage initiation criteria (1,2) and damage evolution is based on the work of Matzenmiller (3) and Camanho and Davila (4). The \\

Hannes Koerber; Pedro P. Camanho

345

Darwinian Evolution and Fractals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Did nature's beauty emerge by chance or was it intelligently designed? Richard Dawkins asserts that evolution is blind aimless chance. Michael Behe believes, on the contrary, that the first cell was intelligently designed. The scientific evidence is that nature's creativity arises from the interplay between chance AND design (laws). Darwin's ``Origin of the Species,'' published 150 years ago in 1859, characterized evolution as the interplay between variations (symbolized by dice) and the natural selection law (design). This is evident in recent discoveries in DNA, Madelbrot's Fractal Geometry of Nature, and the success of the genetic design algorithm. Algorithms for generating fractals have the same interplay between randomness and law as evolution. Fractal statistics, which are not completely random, characterize such phenomena such as fluctuations in the stock market, the Nile River, rainfall, and tree rings. As chaos theorist Joseph Ford put it: God plays dice, but the dice are loaded. Thus Darwin, in discovering the evolutionary interplay between variations and natural selection, was throwing God's dice!

Carr, Paul H.

2009-05-01

346

Numerical study of the influence of particle-cracking to the damage of MMC by the incremental damage theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the incremental damage theory, the influences of particle-cracking damage and its residue strengthening capacity on the stress–strain response of particle reinforced (metal matrix composite) MMC under uniaxial tension are carefully investigated in this paper. Two kinds of models are adopted in the numerical calculation to predict the damage evolution of MMC, one is modeling the broken particles as

Yunpeng Jiang; Hui Yang; Wanlin Guo

2008-01-01

347

Distinguishing between learning, growth and evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems are not expected to stay the same over many versions; if there were no change at all there would be no improvement or continued satisfaction with a system. Lehman's laws of software evolution look at how a system changes over time. The current set of laws is now accepted as fundamental to the teaching and understanding of software engineering.

Nigel Phillips; Sue Black

2005-01-01

348

Evolution of Clinical Military Psychology Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethical quandaries for military psychologists are a challenge. Effective military mental health providers must have a thorough understanding of their ethics code, pertinent military instructions, military law, and the mental health laws of the countries in which they practice. This article traces the evolution of clinical military psychology ethics from World War II to present day and serves to introduce

Carrie H. Kennedy; Bret A. Moore

2007-01-01

349

The Evolution of Citizenship: Economic and Institutional Determinants  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the evolution of the legal institution of citizenship from a political economy perspective. We first present a median-voter model of the determination of citizenship laws. Next we test the implications of the model on a new set of data on citizenship laws across countries. We show that citizenship laws respond to economic and institutional determinants endogenously. When facing

Graziella Bertocchi; Chiara Strozzi

2010-01-01

350

Cumulative creep damage for unidirectional composites under step loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The creep lifetime prediction of unidirectional composite materials under step loading, based on constant loading durability diagram, is analyzed for the two-step creep loading condition. For this purpose different nonlinear cumulative-damage laws are revisited and applied to predict creep lifetime. One possible approach to accounting for damage accumulation is provided by the continuum-damage mechanics (CDM). However, the CDM lifetime expression obtained for constant loading condition presents some drawbacks. Specifically, the upper stress range is not accommodated by CDM form. A modification of CDM is proposed, forcing the CDM to capture the short-term creep failure. It is proven that this modified CDM (MCDM) does not yield the same predictions as the Linear Cumulative-damage law (Miner's law). Predictions obtained from the nonlinear cumulative-damage laws are compared against synthetic lifetime generated by a micromechanical model that simulates unidirectional composites under two-step creep loading condition. Comparable deviations from Miner's law are obtained by the nonlinear cumulative-damage laws.

Guedes, Rui Miranda

2012-11-01

351

Newton's Second Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to Sir Isaac Newton's Second Law of Motion. Topics include the two ways to study the dynamics of a system in which there is motion, a brief description of Newton's work in studying and measuring the motion of objects, and a summary of his three laws of motion. The lesson includes an activity in which students test Newton's Second Law by measuring the acceleration of a cart which is being pulled by increasingly larger masses.

Pratte, John

352

Electrodynamic force law controversy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cavalleri et al. [Phys. Rev. E 52, 2505 (1998); Eur. J. Phys. 17, 205 (1996)] have attempted to resolve the electrodynamic force law controversy. This attempt to prove the validity of either the Ampère or Lorentz force law by theory and experiment has revealed only that the two are equivalent when predicting the force on part of a circuit due to the current in the complete circuit. However, in our analysis of internal stresses, only Ampère's force law agrees with experiment.

Graneau, Peter; Graneau, Neal

2001-05-01

353

Grain evolution during hot forging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review on grain evolution during hot forging is presented in this paper. The discussion focus is on the experimental law, the microscopic mechanism, the physical model and the evolution equations of grain refinement and growth. This is because the grain evolution is the most important microstructure evolution effecting on the part mechanical behaviors, and to establish reasonable grain evolution is a very important and difficult work for macro microscopic coupling constitutive equation. The following contents about constitutive equation and grain evolution are discussed. 1) The experimental phenomena and evolution laws of grain growth and grain refinement under differential working conditions (deformation, heating, cooling) in order to adapt to the needs of numerical simulation of whole forging process. 2) The advantages and disadvantages of the traditional empirical equations on grain growth, grain refinement and recrystallization process are analyzed. 3) The recent advances in physic models for dynamic recrystallizaton and dynamic grain growth are introduced in detail. Comparing to the empirical equations, these models are closer to the actual physical process. The models not only describe the details of grain changes, but also reveal the relationship between the accumulated dislocations energy and grain size evolution. In addition, the assumptions used in the models and their influences on prediction function are also discussed in order to improve the models.

Jin, Quanlin

2013-05-01

354

Bullying Policies and Laws  

MedlinePLUS

... Resources | Policies & Laws Search Stopbullying.gov WHAT IS BULLYING Definition The Roles Kids Play Related Topics CYBER BULLYING What is Cyberbullying? Prevent Cyberbullying Report Cyberbullying WHO ...

355

Federal Law Enforcement Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Supplies census statistics about federal employees with law enforcement authority. Provides additional information about the functionality, budget, expenditures, and staffing of federal crime labs and police departments.

Justice, U. S.

356

Heat Flow Scaling of Convection with Damage Theory and the Onset of Plate Tectonics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Damage theory, which uses the observation that mineral grains tend to shrink under deformation, making the material weaker, and grow in the absence of applied stress, making the material stronger, has been proposed as a possible mechanism for shear localization in the Earth. A theoretical description of this rheology for continuum models has been developed, and it has been shown capable of producing a plate-like style of convection in 2-D convection models with a low (4-6 order of magnitude) viscosity contrast due to temperature dependence. This rheology utilizes a temperature and grain-size dependent viscosity, where grain-size in turn depends on deformational work and temperature. This results from assuming that in a statistical distribution of grain sizes, dislocation creep dominates in the larger grains, decreasing their size through dynamic recrystallization, while smaller grains deform in a diffusion creep regime. The bulk viscosity of the material is then controled by its weakest component, the small grains deforming by grain-size sensitive diffusion creep. Grains grow faster at higher temperatures, tending to increase viscosity in competition with the effect from thermally activated creep processes. This competition can therefore cause convection on the Earth to undergo changes in convective style due to its thermal evolution. A simple thermal evolution model assuming that the Nusselt number (Nu) scales as the Rayleigh number (Ra) to the 1/3 shows that two convection states, a stagnant surface and mobile surface, exist depending on material properties and thermal conditions. However, a heat flow scaling law for our more complicated viscosity model is dependent on more non-dimensional parameters than Ra, and perhaps completely different from the classical law for isoviscous convection. An investigation of the heat flow scaling law through 2-D numerical convection experiments is presented, as well as an extension of the regime diagram to higher viscosity contrasts. These results have important implications for possible shifts in tectonic regimes due to the Earth’s thermal evolution.

Foley, B. J.; Bercovici, D.

2009-12-01

357

Scaling of fracture length and distributed damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The linear theory of elasticity formulated in terms of dimensionless strain components does not allow the introduction of any space scaling except linear relations between fracture length and displacements and thus the determination theoretically of the strength of a body or structure directly. Self-similarity of a fracture process means the existence of a universal faulting mechanism. However, the general applicability of universal scaling to field observations and rock mechanics measurements remains the subject of some debate. Complete self-similarity of a fracture process is hardly ever found experimentally, except in some aluminium alloys. At early stages of the loading, material degrades due to increasing microcrack concentrations. Later, these microcracks where distributed in the process zone localize into a subcritically growing macrocrack, and finally the fracture process accelerates and rupture runs away, producing dynamic fracture. The macroscopic effects of distributed cracking and other types of damage require treatment by constitutive models that include non-linear stress-strain relations together with material degradation and recovery. The present model treats two physical aspects of the brittle rock behaviour: (1) a mechanical aspect, that is, the sensitivity of the macroscopic elastic moduli to distributed cracks and to the type of loading, and (2) a kinetic aspect, that is, damage evolution (degradation/recovery of elasticity) in response to ongoing deformation. To analyse the scaling of a fracture process and the onset of the dynamic events, we present here the results of numerical modelling of mode I crack growth. It is shown that the distributed damage and the process zone created eliminate the stress-strain crack-tip singularities, providing a finite rate of quasi-static crack growth. The growth rate of these cracks fits well the experimentally observed power law, with the subcritical crack index depending on the ratio between the driving force and the confining pressure. The geometry of the process zone around a quasi-static crack has a self-similar shape identical to that predicted by universal scaling of the linear fracture mechanics. At a certain stage, controlled by dynamic weakening and approximated by the reduction of the critical damage level proportional to the rate of a damage increase, the self-similarity breaks down and crack velocity significantly deviates from that predicted by the quasi-static regime. The subcritical crack growth index increases steeply, crack growth accelerates, the size of the process zone decreases, and the rate of crack growth ceases to be controlled by the rate of damage increase. Furthermore, the crack speed approaches that predicted by the elastodynamic equation. The model presented describes transition from quasi-static crack propagation to the dynamic regime and gives proper time and length scales for the onset of the catastrophic dynamic process.

Lyakhovsky, Vladimir

2001-01-01

358

Environmental Law and Policy: Nature, Law and Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

This user-friendly book - noted for its comprehensive legal process approach to the depth and complexity of modern environmental law - gives students a solid doctrinal footing in the law and helps build their analytical skills. Environmental Law and Policy: Nature, Law, and Society, Fourth Edition, uses the legal process approach, building on a base of common law and constitutional

Zygmunt J. B. Plater; Robert H Abrams; Robert L Graham; Lisa Heinzerling; David A Wirth; Noah D Hall

2010-01-01

359

Nonlocal Damage Gradient Model for Fracture Characterization of Aluminum Alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the development of a generalized nonlocal damage-coupled material model. The model introduces the concept of cumulative damage gradient through a set of damage evolution equations within the irreversible thermodynamics framework. The conventional damage-coupled plasticity models require either self-developed finite element codes or the mandatory use of regular elements. The proposed material model is implemented in a commercial

Chi L. Chow; Jianghui Mao; Jie Shen

2011-01-01

360

Modeling history to analyze software evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The histories of software systems hold useful information when reasoning about the systems at hand or when reasoning about general laws of software evolution. Over the past 30 years more and more research has been spent on understanding software evolution. However, the approaches developed so far do not rely on an explicit meta- model, and thus, they make it

Tudor Gîrba; Stéphane Ducasse

2006-01-01

361

A model of laser-induced damage of KDP based on the coupling of statistics and heat transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By coupling statistics and heat transfer, we investigate numerically laser-induced KDP crystal damage by multi-gigawatt nanosecond pulses. Our model is based on the heating of nanometric absorbing defects that may cooperate when they are sufficiently aggregated. In such a case, they induce locally a strong increase of temperature that may lead to a subsequent damage. Statistics is used to evaluate the initial defect cluster size distribution. When the crystal is illuminated, by considering in addition heat transfer processes, this approach allows to predict damage probabilities and the evolution of the damaged sites density as a function of the laser fluence. We show that the scaling law exponent, linking the critical laser fluence to its pulse duration, takes a value close to 0.3 departing from the standard 0.5 value that is in a good agreement with recents experiments. Furthermore, these results indicate that absorbers involved in KDP damage may be associated with a collection of planar defects.

Duchateau, Guillaume; Dyan, Anthony

2008-01-01

362

International law and law enforcement firearms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several international agreements set constraints on the legitimate use of firearms as representing lethal force. Their meaning in terms of weapons technology must take into account their operational frame of reference, and legitimate warfare can be regarded as a law enforcement operation with similar principles on the use of force. Changes in weapons technology, such as new types of ammunition,

Jorma Jussila; Pertti Normia

2004-01-01

363

Science and the Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explaines the role of the Carnegie Commission which was formed to explore the relationship between the disciplines of science, technology, and the law. Discusses concerns about the individual right of privacy in projects such as the Human Genome Project. Focuses on the panel on Science, Technology, and Law which was established in 1999. (YDS)|

Kennedy, Donald; Merrill, Richard A.

2000-01-01

364

Law-Related Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Since its beginnings in the 1960s, precollegiate law-related education has proliferated. This author looks at suggested causes for this movement and at some of the results supporters of law-related education hope to accomplish. He examines program commonalities and problems and speculates on the future. (Author/SJL)

Magnon, Tony

1981-01-01

365

Physics Flashlets: Kepler's Laws  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation illustrates Kepler's Second Law, that orbits sweep out equal areas during equal intervals of time, for any part of the orbit. The user can choose from three buttons between circular or increasingly elliptical orbits to observe that the law holds in all cases.

Fowler, Michael; Welch, Heather

2008-10-05

366

Civil Law: 12 Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These learning activities on civil law are intended to supplement the secondary level Scholastic materials "Living Law." Case studies, simulations, and role-play activities are included. Information provided for each activity includes a brief overview, background information, teacher instructions and a description of each activity. Activities…

Dresbach, Debra

367

Images and Benford's Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benford's law had been proposed in the past as a way to modelize the probability distribution of the first digit in a set of natural numbers. We show in this paper that the magnitude of the gradient of an image obeys this law. We show, experimentally, that this also applies for the laplacian pyramid code. This yields to the field

Jean-michel Jolion

2001-01-01

368

The law and neuroscience.  

PubMed

Some of the implications for law of recent discoveries in neuroscience are considered in a new program established by the MacArthur Foundation. A group of neuroscientists, lawyers, philosophers, and jurists are examining issues in criminal law and, in particular, problems in responsibility and prediction and problems in legal decision making. PMID:18995814

Gazzaniga, Michael S

2008-11-01

369

Ohm's Law 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this extension to the Ohm's Law I activity, students observe just how much time it takes to use up the "juice" in a battery, and if it is better to use batteries in series or parallel. This extension is suitable as a teacher demonstration and may be started before students begin work on the Ohm's Law I activity.

K-12 Outreach Office,

370

School Law Update, 1986.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A wide variety of contemporary legal issues, involving all levels of public and private education, are addressed in the 20 separate chapters comprising this volume. The titles and authors of the chapters are as follows: (1) Due Process of Law: Loudermill v. Cleveland Board of Education (Hooker); (2) Schools, Technology and the Law (Helm); (3)…

Jones, Thomas N., Ed.; Semler, Darel P., Ed.

371

Social Studies: Law Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews 11 series, texts, supplements, kits, and professional references for law instruction, including civil and criminal law, the Bill of Rights, and controversial legal issues: arson, gun control, capital punishment, and euthanasia. While all grade levels are covered, the emphasis is on secondary-level materials. (SJL)

Curriculum Review, 1979

1979-01-01

372

Earthquakes and friction laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquakes have long been recognized as resulting from a stick–slip frictional instability. The development of a full constitutive law for rock friction now shows that the gamut of earthquake phenomena—seismogenesis and seismic coupling, pre- and post-seismic phenomena, and the insensitivity of earthquakes to stress transients—all appear as manifestations of the richness of this friction law.

Christopher H. Scholz

1998-01-01

373

Researching International Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for the undergraduate student who is doing research on public international law and graduate students in fields other than law, this guide is specifically addressed to students at San Francisco State University, although the resources discussed are typical of those to be found in a medium-sized academic library. The guide is divided into…

Kennedy, Ann

374

Charles' Law of Gases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment that uses air to test Charles' law. Reinforces the student's intuitive feel for Charles' law with quantitative numbers they can see, introduces the idea of extrapolating experimental data to obtain a theoretical value, and gives a physical quantitative meaning to the concept of absolute zero. (JRH)

Petty, John T.

1995-01-01

375

AI and law enforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Law inforcement has long been interested in intelligence. Although not necessarily artificial intelligence. In recent years, however, AI has been called to service. AI's exceptional capacity to gather and analyze seas of information has made its techniques ideal for solving a variety of crime-related problems. The author discusses some applications of AI in US law enforcement

J. Charles

1998-01-01

376

Law Studies Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This law studies curriculum guide describes a course designed to provide secondary students with the opportunity to acquire an understanding of the U.S. legal process. The law studies course is intended to develop corresponding concepts and skills in conjunction with the content presented. The content areas of the curriculum include: (1)…

Seminole County Board of Public Instruction, Sanford, FL. Dept. of Curriculum Services.

377

Social Studies: Law Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews 11 series, texts, supplements, kits, and professional references for law instruction, including civil and criminal law, the Bill of Rights, and controversial legal issues: arson, gun control, capital punishment, and euthanasia. While all grade levels are covered, the emphasis is on secondary-level materials. (SJL)|

Curriculum Review, 1979

1979-01-01

378

Laws for Young Mountaineers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet introduces secondary grade students to the criminal laws of West Virginia. It can easily be adapted and used by educators in other states. The authors believe that young people must recognize and understand these laws and the mechanisms which society uses to implement and enforce them if they are to function as an integral,…

Kanawha County Board of Education, Charleston, WV.

379

Language and the Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the language of law and its general interest to the field of applied linguistics. Specific focus is on legal language, the problems and remedies of legal communication (e.g., language and disadvantage before the law, improving legal communication) the legislation of language (e.g., language rights, language crimes), and forensic…

Gibbons, John

1999-01-01

380

Teaching Information Technology Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper we discuss an approach to the teaching of information technology law to higher education computing students that attempts to prepare them for professional computing practice. As information technology has become ubiquitous its interactions with the law have become more numerous. Information technology practitioners, and in…

Taylor, M. J.; Jones, R. P.; Haggerty, J.; Gresty, D.

2009-01-01

381

Pop Goes the Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Law School Admission Council recently reported that applications were heading toward a 30-year low, reflecting, as a "New York Times" article put it, "increased concern over soaring tuition, crushing student debt, and diminishing prospects of lucrative employment upon graduation." Since 2004 the number of law-school applicants has dropped…

Harper, Steven J.

2013-01-01

382

On Hack's law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hack's law is reviewed, emphasizing its implications for the elongation of river basins as well as its connections with their fractal characteristics. The relation between Hack's law and the internal structure of river basins is investigated experimentally through digital elevation models. It is found that Hack's exponent, elongation, and some relevant fractal characters are closely related. The self-affine character of

Riccardo Rigon; Ignacio Rodriguez-Iturbe; Amos Maritan; Achille Giacometti; David G. Tarboton; Andrea Rinaldo

1996-01-01

383

Know Your Laws. Polish.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This Polish language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three levels of…

Watson, Joan Q.; Kopania, Margaret

384

Know Your Laws. French.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This French language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three levels of…

Watson, Joan Q.; Ledun, Andree

385

Prostitution Laws in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subject of prostitution has long vexed criminal justice authorities in Australia, as in most other countries throughout the world. Law-makers are faced with the onerous task of attempting to appease the conflicting demands of various segments of society. On the one hand law-makers in Australia wish to uphold the principles of a liberal democratic society by allowing consenting adults

Susan Pinto; Paul Wilson

386

Laws for Young Mountaineers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet introduces secondary grade students to the criminal laws of West Virginia. It can easily be adapted and used by educators in other states. The authors believe that young people must recognize and understand these laws and the mechanisms which society uses to implement and enforce them if they are to function as an integral, important,…

Kanawha County Board of Education, Charleston, WV.

387

The Law of Elasticity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants estimated the imagined elongation of a spring while they were imagining that a load was stretching the spring. This elongation turned out to be a multiplicative function of spring length and load weight--a cognitive law analogous to Hooke's law of elasticity. Participants also estimated the total imagined elongation of springs joined…

Cocco, Alberto; Masin, Sergio Cesare

2010-01-01

388

Newton's law of cooling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textbooks on heat transfer generally refer to Newton's law of cooling but they give no details of Newton's experiment. The purpose of the first part of this paper is to give details of Newton's work. His explanation of why he thought the law was correct, and the experiment that he did to confirm it, are still of interest. It is

R. H. S. Winterton

1999-01-01

389

Combinatorics of Conservation Laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation laws in physics are numerical invariants of the dynamics of a system. This article concerns conservation laws in a fictitious universe of a cellular automaton. We give an overview of the subject, with particular attention to problems of combinatorial flavor.

Jarkko Kari; Siamak Taati

390

Accepting Evolution or Discarding Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Challenging basic principles of constitutional law, advocates of intelligent design are undermining educators' ability to teach evolution in their science classrooms. Because US Supreme Court rulings now prohibit creationist accounts of the origin of life in schools, arguments favoring divine intervention, known as intelligent design, have…

Sharpes, Donald K.; Peramas, Mary M.

2006-01-01

391

International resources law  

SciTech Connect

This book covers: Historical origins of civil code legal systems; Modern civil law practice for mineral lawyers; Treaties and agreements for protection of international investments; Europe 1992-toward a single energy market; Dispute resolution in international agreements; Assessment of political risk; Reducing political risk; Protecting mineral investments from upheaval in developing countries; Typical world petroleum arrangements; government take in the Pacific Rim - Papua New Guinea; Mineral base of the USSR and prospects of investment; International taxation for the mining practitioner; Tax considerations - branch versus subsidiary; Doing business in the host country - nontax considerations; Impact of host-country laws on operations and profits; Mineral development and native rights - New Zealand; Designing the investment vehicle: mining; International oil and gas joint ventures; Selected U.S. laws with extraterritorial effect; U.S. tax and securities laws applied to foreign joint venturers; and Extraterritorial effect of U.S. laws.

Not Available

1991-01-01

392

[Teaching about Law and Literature].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Focus on Law Studies" contains a special emphasis on teaching about law and literature, in the form of the following six articles: "Law and Literature: New Combinations in Teaching" (John Paul Ryan); "Teaching Law and American Literature" (Janet Eldred); "Teaching Law with Sacco, Vanzetti, and the Rosenbergs" (Susan N. Herman); Ann…

Ryan, John Paul, Ed.

1993-01-01

393

[Teaching about Law and Literature].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This issue of "Focus on Law Studies" contains a special emphasis on teaching about law and literature, in the form of the following six articles: "Law and Literature: New Combinations in Teaching" (John Paul Ryan); "Teaching Law and American Literature" (Janet Eldred); "Teaching Law with Sacco, Vanzetti, and the Rosenbergs" (Susan N. Herman); Ann…

Ryan, John Paul, Ed.

1993-01-01

394

Acid mine drainage: Common law, SMCRA, and the Clean Water Act  

SciTech Connect

Acid mine drainage is a major problem related to coal mining which, if unabated, can severely damage the aquatic environment. Damage resulting from acid mine drainage was first addressed by common law and riparian principles. As societal laws changed, common law principles alone could not effectively control this problem. Preventing and controlling pollution including acid mine drainage are important goals of the Surface Mining Control Reclamation Act (SMCRA) and the Clean Water Act (CWA). This article examines how common law, SMCRA, and the CWA address the acid mine drainage issue independently, and how improvements in the control of acid mine drainage can be achieved.

Henrich, C.

1995-12-31

395

Darwin's evolutionary philosophy: the laws of change.  

PubMed

The philosophical or metaphysical architecture of Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is analyzed and discussed. It is argued that natural selection was for Darwin a paradigmatic case of a natural law of change -- an exemplar of what Ghiselin (1969) has called selective retention laws. These selective retention laws lie at the basis of Darwin's revolutionary world view. In this essay special attention is paid to the consequences for Darwin's concept of species of his selective retention laws. Although Darwin himself explicity supported a variety of nominalism, implicit in the theory of natural selection is a solution to the dispute between nominalism and realism. It is argued that, although implicit, this view plays a very important role in Darwin's theory of natural selection as the means for the origin of species. It is in the context of these selective retention laws and their philosophical implications that Darwin's method is appraised in the light of recent criticisms, and the conclusion drawn that he successfully treated some philosophical problems by approaching them through natural history. Following this an outline of natural selection theory is presented in which all these philosophical issues are highlighted. PMID:107689

Reed, E S

1978-01-01

396

Optical monitoring for power law fluids during spin coating.  

PubMed

Optical monitoring is applied, in situ and in real time, to non-newtonian, power law fluids in the spin coating process. An analytical exact solution is presented for thickness evolution that well fits to most measurement data. As result, typical rheological parameters are obtained for several CMC (carboximetilcelullose) concentrations and rotation speeds. Optical monitoring thus precisely indicates applicability of the model to power law fluids under spin coating. PMID:22330554

Jardim, P L G; Michels, A F; Horowitz, F

2012-01-30

397

Form and Substance in the Law of Counterinsurgency Damages  

Microsoft Academic Search

On May 29, 2006, a Heavy Expanded Mobility Tactical Truck in an American convoy lost its brakes on the steep mountain road leading down from Bagram Air Force Base into Kabul. The twenty-ton armored truck crashed into the city, careening off of cars, trucks, and buildings. By the time the truck came to rest, it had injured dozens of people.

John F. Witt

2008-01-01

398

Kepler and His Laws  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a set of 7 illustrated web pages discussing Kepler's laws. Included are equations and properties of conic sections, the scale of the solar system, the energy equation for Keplerian motion, Newton's "Universal Gravitation" and derivation of the 3rd law for circular orbits. It is part of the collection "From Stargazers to Starships", with French, Italian and Spanish translations. Four sections have lesson plans (click top right), also provided is the text of a 1-hour talk to teachers on presenting Kepler's laws, with worked examples. No calculus is used.

Stern, David

2004-11-28

399

International Constitutional Law (ICL)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the University of Wuerzburg (Germany), International Constitutional Law (ICL) provides English texts of constitutional documents and links to background information on over seventy countries. Documents are cross-referenced for comparison of constitutional provisions. Also featured are links to Constitutional Court sites, a Model Constitutional Code, a section on German Case Law, a comprehensive list of international organizations, and a strong collection of links to constitutional and international law and constitution sites. The material available at ICL is widely applicable to fields such as political science, international relations, or government, and could be very useful for research projects in both secondary and university classrooms.

1997-01-01

400

The past, present, and future of software evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Change is an essential characteristic of software development, as software systems must respond to evolving requirements, platforms, and other environmental pressures. In this paper, we discuss the concept of software evolution from several perspectives. We examine how it relates to and differs from software maintenance. We discuss insights about software evolution arising from Lehmanpsilas laws of software evolution and the

Michael W. Godfrey; Daniel M. German

2008-01-01

401

A Damage Mechanics-Based Fatigue Life Prediction Model for Solder Joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thermomechanical fatigue life prediction model based on the theory of damage mechan- ics is presented. The damage evolution, corresponding to the material degradation under cyclic thermomechanical loading, is quantified thermodynamic framework. The damage, as an internal state variable, is coupled with unified viscoplastic constitutive model to characterize the response of solder alloys. The damage-coupled viscoplastic model with kinematic and

Hong Tang

2008-01-01

402

Ballistic impact damage and penetration mechanics of fiber-reinforced composite laminates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental and theoretical studies were performed to characterize and model the processes of damage evolution and resulting penetration failure of graphite fiber-reinforced epoxy resin composite laminates (\\

Henry Michael Patts

2000-01-01

403

Permeability in Damaged Porous Rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new damage model is proposed to assess permeability changes in deformable cracked porous rocks. It is assumed that cracks do not interact. The damage variable may thus be defined as the spectral decomposition of the second-order crack density tensor. Cracks do not intersect but they are connected to the natural porous network. Therefore, damage increases the intrinsic permeability of the porous medium at the scale of the Representative Elementary Volume (REV). A multi-scale approach is adopted to quantify the influence of anisotropic damage on the intrinsic permeability tensor. The thermodynamic framework encompasses both saturated and unsaturated porous media. In this latter case, three stress state variables are required to fully describe the material’s state. Assuming the solid phase to be incompressible makes it possible to resort to two stress state variables only. The stress/strain relationship is derived from Helmholtz free energy. The damage evolution function depends on tensile strains. The intrinsic permeability is split in a natural component and in a damaged component. This latter is first computed by assuming that the flow in cracks is laminar and oriented in the plane of the cracks. In a second stage, the permeability model is improved to account for flow occurring in the direction normal to the crack planes. Computations are presented for saturated rocks. Drained and undrained triaxial compression tests are simulated. Different materials are examined: granite, claystone and sandstone. The results are finally compared with the predictions of the THHMD model previously developed by the first author [1]. The models performance is discussed in the aim of assessing the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ).

Arson, C. F.; Pereira, J.

2010-12-01

404

What Is Benford's Law?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The surprising property of many data sets that their first significant digits follow Benford's Law provides examples that can pique and hold students' interest. Several ideas for student activities are presented.|

Bradley, Jonathan R.; Farnsworth, David L.

2009-01-01

405

Law Enforcement Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Serving as a sworn officer of the law continues to be one of the most demanding professions in the country, and those in the field will certainly appreciate the website of Law Enforcement Technology. This monthly magazine concentrates primarily on the emerging trends in the field of law enforcement technology, such as the use of computers, refined body armor designs, and of course, improvements in weaponry and forensics. On their website, visitors can read articles about new data management systems, mobile license plate readers, and innovative flashlights. Along with these feature articles, each issue contains information about funding opportunities for law enforcement technology initiatives and new developments in software technology. Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive email notifications about job opportunities and promotional offers.

406

The Abortion Law Homepage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This privately posted page offers extensive and highly credible information on legislation and jurisprudence relating to abortion in the US. The site offers thoroughly linked discussions of constitutional law, Roe v. Wade, Planned Parenthood v. Casey, state and federal abortion laws, including partial-birth abortion laws, and much more. The hypertext links are to primary documents including court decisions, texts of legislation, court briefs, and oral argument transcripts. There is also an index to primary documents for ease of access. We found the page to have no political agenda. As the author states, "this page is being constructed to help people, regardless of their political bent, understand the background and state of abortion law in America, and access related legal material--especially that which is less available and less well known."

407

Ohm's Law I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students work to increase the intensity of a light bulb by testing batteries in series and parallel circuits. They learn about Ohm's law, power, parallel and series circuits, and ways to measure voltage and current.

K-12 Outreach Office,

408

The "Natural Law Tradition."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of natural law outlines some of the theory and tradition surrounding it and examines its relationship to the social science and legal curriculum and to the teaching of jurisprudence. (MSE)

Finnis, John

1986-01-01

409

Civil Law Study Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study guide is intended to be a convenient reference for use by Navy and Marine Corps officers on civil law subjects. Those subjects include, inter alia, JAG Manual investigations, enlisted administrative separations, officer personnel matters, relat...

1986-01-01

410

Civil Law Study Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study guide is intended to be a convenient reference for use by Navy and Marine Corps personnel on civil law subjects. Those subjects include, inter alia, JAG Manual investigations, enlisted administrative separations, officer personnel matters, rela...

1987-01-01

411

Coulomb's Law - Synthesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A PhysLet based simulation using a graphical approach to explore Coulomb's law. In this interesting problem, the user has to identify three charges based on the trajectory that a test charge follows and based on the force graph.

Papadopoulos, Costas

2008-06-24

412

Distracted Driving Laws  

MedlinePLUS

... driving issue; New Hampshire enacted a comprehensive distracted driving law. 3 Texas has banned the use of hand-held phones and texting in school zones. Sources: Insurance Institute for Highway ...

413

AJ Ohm's Law Calculator  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The electrical relationships between resistance (R), current (I), power (P) and voltage (E) is defined by Ohm's Law. One ohm is defined as the resistance which allow the current of one ampere under a potential difference of 1 volt.

Raymond, Jimmy

414

Radiology and the law  

SciTech Connect

This book contains 12 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: The Law of Medical Malpractice: An Overview; The Radiologist as Defendant; The Radiologist as an Expert Witness; The Missed Diagnosis; Legalities of the Radiograph; and Angiography and Interventional Radiology.

Bundy, A.L.

1988-01-01

415

The law of the leading digits and the world religions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benford's law states that the occurrence of significant digits in many data sets is not uniform but tends to follow a logarithmic distribution such that the smaller digits appear as first significant digits more frequently than the larger ones. We investigate here numerical data on the country-wise adherent distribution of seven major world religions i.e. Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, Sikhism, Judaism and Baha'ism to see if the proportion of the leading digits occurring in the distribution conforms to Benford's law. We find that the adherent data of all the religions, except Christianity, excellently does conform to Benford's law. Furthermore, unlike the adherent data on Christianity, the significant digit distribution of the three major Christian denominations i.e. Catholicism, Protestantism and Orthodoxy obeys the law. Thus in spite of their complexity general laws can be established for the evolution of religious groups.

Mir, T. A.

2012-02-01

416

Chalcopyrite dissolution rate laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meta-analysis of 173 rate measurements from 21 publications was used to develop rate laws for chalcopyrite dissolution under environmentally relevant conditions. Multiple linear regression analysis of 28 data for nonoxidative chalcopyrite dissolution in the presence of O2 and Cl? produced the following rate law:r=10-1.52e-28200\\/RT[H+]1.68Here, r is the rate of chalcopyrite dissolution in units of molm?2s?1 where the surface area is

Bryn E. Kimball; J. Donald Rimstidt; Susan L. Brantley

2010-01-01

417

Vagueness and Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Vagueness in law is typically extravagant, in the sense that it is possible for two competent users of the language, who understand\\u000a the facts of each case, to take such different views as to the application of a vague law that there is not even any overlap\\u000a between the cases that each disputant would identify as borderline. Extravagant vagueness is

Timothy Endicott

418

A damage model for orthotropic metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes a ductile damage model for orthotropic metals. The ductile failure of metals is an important phenomena in crashworthiness, impact and shock problems, and therefore must be considered in structural simulations. The model is based on an orthotropic damage matrix which is incorporated in the constitutive equations for stress update and provides degradation of material properties. The evolution of the damage matrix assumes the growth and coalescence of voids. The implementation of the model for both continuum and shell elements is discussed. Finally the model is demonstrated on test problems.

Campbell, J. C.; Vignjevic, R.; Mirkovic, J.

2006-08-01

419

European Asylum Law : and its Relation to International Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Chapter 1 I introduce the question of enquiry, the relation between Community and international law on asylum. Further, I sketch the content of the Refugee Convention, other relevant international law, the historical background of current Community asylum law (i.e. the asylum acquis from before 2000), and discuss the rules of interpretation that apply to international and to Community law.

H. Battjes

2006-01-01

420

Consequences of Lotka's Law for the Law of Bradford.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|After discussion of the equivalency of the information laws of Bradford, Leimkuhler, Lotka, and Mandelbrot, aberrations from Leimkuhler's law (including "Groos droop" as encountered in practice) are studied. Other aberrations of Leimkuhler's law are explained, starting from generalization of verbal formulation of Bradford's Law. (18 references)…

Egghe, L.

1985-01-01

421

Kepler's Laws, Newton's Laws, and the Search for New Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. One of the high points of elementary calculus is the derivation of Ke- pler's empirically deduced laws of planetary motion from Newton's Law of Gravity and his second law of motion. However, the standard treatment of the subject in calcu- lus books is flawed for at least three reasons that I think are important. First, Newton's Laws are used

Robert Osserman

422

Rediscovering Kepler's laws using Newton's gravitation law and NASA data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kepler's three laws of planetary motion were originally discovered by using data acquired from Tycho Brache's naked eye observations of the planets. We show how Kepler's third law can be reproduced using planetary data from NASA. We will also be using Newton's Gravitational law to explain why Kepler's three laws exist as they do.

Paul Springsteen; Jason Keith

2010-01-01

423

Health Law and Administrative Law: A Marriage Most Convenient  

Microsoft Academic Search

This symposium explores the complex relationship between health law and administrative law. It is based on the observation that these two fields of law are peculiarly intertwined. It attempts to understand why this is so, as well as whether it is necessary and whether it is desirable. Would we as a society, that is, be better off if health law

Timothy Stoltzfus Jost

2004-01-01

424

A comparison study between scalar and multi-plane microcracking ceramic damage models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rajendran-Grove (RG) ceramic damage model is based on an elastic-plastic-cracking description. A crack density parameter ?(=No*a3) describes the scalar damage. The number of flaws No* is assumed to be constant and the crack size parameter ``a'' evolves according to a strain energy release based evolution law. Crack orientation is not considered in this model. However, Espinosa's multi-plane (MP) microcracking model considers crack orientations in nine pre-selected directions and computes damage by summing up the crack density contribution from all nine directions. Both models account for crack opening and sliding. These two models have been implemented in the 1995 version of the EPIC code. We simulated plate impact experiments in which a thin alumina flyer plate impacted a thick alumina plate. The experimental data consisted of particle velocities recorded at the back face of the target plate. This paper compares the results from the EPIC code simulations using the RG and MP ceramic models.

Grove, D. J.; Rajendran, A. M.

1998-07-01

425

A comparison study between scalar and multi-plane microcracking ceramic damage models  

SciTech Connect

The Rajendran-Grove (RG) ceramic damage model is based on an elastic-plastic-cracking description. A crack density parameter {gamma}(=N{sub o}*a{sup 3}) describes the scalar damage. The number of flaws N{sub o}* is assumed to be constant and the crack size parameter 'a' evolves according to a strain energy release based evolution law. Crack orientation is not considered in this model. However, Espinosa's multi-plane (MP) microcracking model considers crack orientations in nine pre-selected directions and computes damage by summing up the crack density contribution from all nine directions. Both models account for crack opening and sliding. These two models have been implemented in the 1995 version of the EPIC code. We simulated plate impact experiments in which a thin alumina flyer plate impacted a thick alumina plate. The experimental data consisted of particle velocities recorded at the back face of the target plate. This paper compares the results from the EPIC code simulations using the RG and MP ceramic models.

Grove, D. J.; Rajendran, A. M. [Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21005 (United States)

1998-07-10

426

Determinants of Noneconomic Damages in Medical Malpractice Settlements and Litigations: Evidence from Texas since 1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

There have long been claims that compensations for noneconomic damages are random because tort law does not provide clear guidance regarding these compensations. I investigate, in both settled and tried medical malpractice cases, whether noneconomic damage payments are arbitrary and what determines the probability and size of these payments. I find that payments for noneconomic damages are not completely random.

Jun Zhou

2010-01-01

427

32 CFR 750.48 - Measure of damages in injury or death cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Measure of damages in injury or death cases...REGULATIONS Military Claims Act § 750.48 Measure of damages in injury or death cases...commonwealth, or possessions, determine the measure of damages under the law of the...

2013-07-01

428

damage monitoring and restoration of cultural heritage  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present two uid dynamical models which arise in considering damage and restoring of ancient monuments. The rst model is about sulphation phenomena on the surface of marble stones. The second one describes the evolution of consolidants after their application on stones or walls. For both models, numerical approximations are introduced and discussed.

R. Natalini; C. Nitsch

429

Understanding Evolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides access to basic and advanced online resources for teaching the science and history of evolutionary biology. The resources are organized by topic: the mechanisms of evolution; the relevance of evolutionary theory to everyday life; lines of scientific evidence; and the history of ideas, research, and contributors in the study of evolution. For teachers, there are searchable databases of lesson plans, activities, and conceptual frameworks on the history of life, evidence for evolution, mechanisms of evolution, and the nature of science. Other materials include links to news items and highlighted features on specific evolution topics.

2004-02-06

430

Survival Distributions Satisfying Benford's Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hill stated that “An interesting open problem is to determine which common distributions (or mixtures thereof) satisfy Benford's law …”. This article quantifies compliance with Benford's law for several popular survival distributions. The traditional analysis of Benford's law considers its applicability to datasets. This article switches the emphasis to probability distributions that obey Benford's law.

Lawrence M. Leemis; Bruce W. Schmeiser; Diane L. Evans

2000-01-01

431

Popular Constitutionalism As Political Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article addresses some of the critical reviews of ‘The People Themselves’, focusing on how they respond to the proposition, which I believe to be correct and made in ‘The People Themselves’, that constitutional law is a distinctive or special kind of law. I call that kind of law political law. Both parts of the formulation are equally important. Constitutional

Mark V. Tushnet

2006-01-01

432

Methodology for Teaching Constitutional Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teaching constitutional law concepts has become more exciting, interesting, and thorough by utilizing Barron, Dienes, McCormack, and Redish's Constitutional Law: Principles and Policy. The authors of this casebook are full professors of law who are distinguished experts in the field of constitutional law. Barron and Dienes are also coauthors of two study aid texts designed to supplement the casebook: a

Constance Frisby Fain

1998-01-01

433

Technological innovation in law enforcement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using data from two studies an analysis was made of producers' involvement in marketing new law enforcement equipment and of how law enforcement organizations came to adopt\\/reject these products. In general, the new product system in law enforcement was seen as involving 1) producers using technologies developed in other sectors to make “new” products for law enforcement users who 2)

David A. Tansik; Michael Radnor

1979-01-01

434

Path dependency, law and development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article revisits the law and development movement. It notes that there is a renewed interest in law and development both amongst scholars and within the donor community. It seeks to examine whether there is a new law and development movement or whether the old ideas and approaches are merely being recycled. It examines recent literature on law and development

Patrick Mcauslan

2001-01-01

435

Nurturing Respect for the Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the content and methodology of elective courses which expand Soviet student's understanding of the Soviet state and the courts, the structure of power, and the basic rights and duties of the citizen. Courses in labor law, love and family law, criminal law, and constitutional law expand the current social studies curriculum. (KC)

Ioffe, M. G.

1978-01-01

436

Allometric scaling laws of metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most pervasive laws in biology is the allometric scaling, whereby a biological variable Y is related to the mass M of the organism by a power law, Y=YM, where b is the so-called allometric exponent. The origin of these power laws is still a matter of dispute mainly because biological laws, in general, do not follow from

Jafferson Kamphorst Leal da Silva; Guilherme J. M. Garcia; Lauro A. Barbosa

2006-01-01

437

Why Is Law Enforcement Decentralized?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Law enforcement is decentralized. It is so despite documented interjurisdictional externalities which would justify its centralization. To explain this fact, we construct a political economy model of law enforcement. Under decentralization, law enforcement in each region is in accord with the preferences of regional citizens, but interjurisdictional externalities are neglected. Under centralization, law enforcement for all regions is chosen by

Guillaume Cheikbossian; Nicolas Marceau

2007-01-01

438

Federal Communications Law Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There's a whole lot of material to cover within the world of communications law, and within their aegis, the Federal Communications Law Journal (FCLJ) covers everything from intellectual property to cable regulation. The Journal is published by Indiana University law students, and it also serves as the official journal for the Federal Communications Bar Association. This status also means that the Journal will occasionally feature pieces by members of Congress and commissioners in the Federal Communications Commission. First-time visitors to the site can browse through the contents of the most recent issues, or they can browse through archived issues all the way back to 1993. Also, visitors can view some of their short commentaries in the "Forum" area and learn about print subscriptions and submitting manuscripts for consideration.

439

Newton's Third Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational wallsheet illustrating Newton's Third Law of Motion is the third of a set of four. Each image on the front of the poster illustrates Newton's Third Law, and is described on the back. The wallsheet also provides teachers with background information, pre-activity reading for the students that relates the law to the action of the fuel being expelled from the rocket and its reaction on the rocket carrying the Swift satellite into orbit, as well as Swift's turning motions once in orbit, pre-activity discussion with optional questions that relate to the Swift satellite, a classroom-ready activity and assessment, and post-activity discussions that tie the classroom activity back to the Swift satellite.

2009-05-14

440

Annealing simulation of cascade damage in ?-Fe - Damage energy and temperature dependence analyses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, kinetic Monte Carlo method was applied to investigate the long time evolution of cascade damage prepared by molecular dynamics simulations in ?-Fe up to recoil energy of more than 200 keV. We conducted thorough investigation on how the surviving defects vary with cascade damage energy and annealing temperature. The results can be used for input parameters of rate equations to simulate microstructural evolution under irradiation. The study also suggested that neighboring sub-cascades evolves almost independently during annealing, and that the temperature dependence of the annealing results can be explained by the temperature dependence of vacancy-migration and vacancy-dissociation probabilities.

Suzudo, T.; Golubov, S. I.; Stoller, R. E.; Yamaguchi, M.; Tsuru, T.; Kaburaki, H.

2012-04-01

441

Snell's law for Kerr bright and dark solitons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generalized nonlinear Helmholtz equation is used in this study to describe the evolution of solitons at the interface of two Kerr focusing media. Analytical results show that the relationship between transverse velocities and angles in the nonparaxial theory leads to a remarkably compact Helmholtz generalization of Snell's law.

J. Sanchez-Curto; P. Chamorro-Posada; G. S. McDonald

2007-01-01

442

Living Dangerously--Changing Press Law in India.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An examination of the changes in press laws after India gained its independence in 1947 shows how a free press is shaped mostly by the structure and evolution of the democratic society that it is intended to serve. The most salient features that have characterized the Indian press, from the early nineteenth century to the present day, are…

Ryan, Timothy

443

Law Enforcement and Delphi: An Exercise in Strategic Intelligence Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategic intelligence is the product of various means to ascertain threat\\/s and action, including the evolution of responses to threats, perspectives of threats, and assessments of successes and failures of such actions. This article promotes the idea that good intelligence enables good policy, and examines how the Nevada Division of Investigation, a state-level investigative agency with general law enforcement responsibilities

Sean Evans

2005-01-01

444

Clearance of Nonlinear Flight Control Laws Using Hybrid Evolutionary Optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of two evolutionary optimisation methods, namely differential evolution and genetic algorithms, to t he clearance of nonlinear flight control laws for highly augmen ted aircraft is described. The algorithms are applied to the problem of evaluating a nonlinear handling qualities clearance cri terion for a simulation model of a high performance aircraft with a delta canard configuration and

Prathyush P. Menon; Jongrae Kim; Declan G. Bates; Ian Postlethwaite

2006-01-01

445

38 CFR 21.4274 - Law courses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...4274 Law courses. (a) Accredited. A law course in an accredited law school leading to a standard professional law degree...to legal practice, pursued in a nonaccredited law school which requires for admission to the...

2013-07-01

446

Investigation on fatigue-creep interaction damage model for solder  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well known, reliability and workability are the more important issues in the field of chip size package (CSP). Creep and fatigue behaviors are the main loads of the solder joints, the reliability of which should take account of those two main loads. Based on the theory of continuum damage mechanics (CDM), this paper focuses on damage evolution of

Na Liu; Xiaoyan Li; Yongchang Yan

2008-01-01

447

Kepler's Second Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to Kepler's second law; that planets (and satellites) move fastest at their closest approach to the center of attraction and slow down when far away. This is made evident by calculating the ratio of greatest and smallest orbital velocities and by invoking the concept of energy. Students should acquire an intuitive understanding for the way orbital velocities vary along each orbit according to Kepler's second law. They will review the concepts of potential energy and kinetic energy and understand that orbital motion also conserves energy, in a somewhat similar way, although the formulas look different. Students will also be introduced to the procedure for calculating orbital motion.

Stern, David

448

Thermography detection on the fatigue damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has always been a great temptation in finding new methods to in-situ "watch" the material fatigue-damage processes so that in-time reparations will be possible, and failures or losses can be minimized to the maximum extent. Realizing that temperature patterns may serve as fingerprints for stress-strain behaviors of materials, a state-of-art infrared (IR) thermography camera has been used to "watch" the temperature evolutions of both crystalline and amorphous materials "cycle by cycle" during fatigue experiments in the current research. The two-dimensional (2D) thermography technique records the surface-temperature evolutions of materials. Since all plastic deformations are related to heat dissipations, thermography provides an innovative method to in-situ monitor the heat-evolution processes, including plastic-deformation, mechanical-damage, and phase-transformation characteristics. With the understanding of the temperature evolutions during fatigue, thermography could provide the direct information and evidence of the stress-strain distribution, crack initiation and propagation, shear-band growth, and plastic-zone evolution, which will open up wide applications in studying the structural integrity of engineering components in service. In the current research, theoretical models combining thermodynamics and heat-conduction theory have been developed. Key issues in fatigue, such as in-situ stress-strain states, cyclic softening and hardening observations, and fatigue-life predictions, have been resolved by simply monitoring the specimen-temperature variation during fatigue. Furthermore, in-situ visulizations as well as qualitative and quantitative analyses of fatigue-damage processes, such as Luders-band evolutions, crack propagation, plastic zones, and final fracture, have been performed by thermography. As a method requiring no special sample preparation or surface contact by sensors, thermography provides an innovative and convenient method to in-situ monitor and analyze the mechanical-damage processes of materials and components.

Yang, Bing

449

On internal dissipation inequalities and finite strain inelastic constitutive laws: Theoretical and numerical comparisons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internal dissipation always occurs in irreversible inelastic deformation processes of materials. The internal dissipation inequalities (specific mathematical forms of the second law of thermodynamics) determine the evolution direction of inelastic processes. Based on different internal dissipation inequalities several finite strain inelastic constitutive laws have been formulated for instance by Simo [Simo, J.C., 1992. Algorithms for static and dynamic multiplicative plasticity

R. C. Lin; W. Brocks; J. Betten

2006-01-01

450

A Study of Damage during Impact in Zerodur  

Microsoft Academic Search

The damage evolution in the transparent glass-ceramic ZERODUR, when impacted by pointed and blunt steel cylinders, was investigated in a high-speed photographic study. The impact velocities were varied in the range from 50 ds to 1500 m\\/s. Crack velocities and damage velocities were measured by means of the sequences of shadowgraphs, taken with a Cranz-Schardin camera. The damage velocities and

H. Senf; E. Strassburger; H. Rothenhausler

1997-01-01

451

Viscoplastic regularization of local damage models: revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Local damage models are known to produce pathological mesh dependent results. Regularization techniques are therefore mandatory if local damage models are used for academic research or industrial applications. The viscoplastic framework can be used for regularization of local damage models. Despite of the easy implementation of viscoplasticity, this method of regularization did not gain much popularity in comparison to the non-local or gradient damage models. This work is an effort to further explore viscoplastic regularization for quasi-static problems. The focus of this work is on ductile materials. Two different types of strain rate hardening models i.e. the Power law (with a multiplicative strain rate part) and the simplified Bergström van Liempt (with an additive strain rate part) models are used in this study. The modified Lemaitre's anisotropic damage model with a strain rate dependency was used in this study. It was found that the primary viscoplastic length scale is a function of the hardening and softening (damage) parameters and does not depend upon the prescribed strain rate whereas the secondary length scale is a function of the strain rate. As damage grows, the effective regularization length gradually decreases. When the effective regularization length gets shorter than the element length numerical results become mesh dependent again. This loss of objectivity can not be solved but the effect can be minimized by selecting a very fine mesh or by prescribing high deformation velocities.

Niazi, M. S.; Wisselink, H. H.; Meinders, T.

2013-02-01

452

Mechanism of lung damage in explosive decompression.  

PubMed

It is known that pressure equalization via the trachea may diminish or prevent lung damage in explosive decompression. In this report, evidence is presented which demonstrates that closure of the trachea does not affect lethality in mice exposed to maximally rapid decompression. This observation suggests that in maximally rapid decompression the lungs and thorax may be treated as a closed system to which Boyle's Law might be applicable. PMID:1275842

Topliff, E D

1976-05-01

453

Damage coupled elasto-plastic finite element analysis of a Timoshenko layered beam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM), the paper presents a non-linear finite element formulation for a Timoshenko beam. A layered approach has been adopted to simulate the progressive growth of damage and plasticity from extreme fibers towards the neutral axis. An isotropic continuum damage 1-D model has been derived for damage evolution for material like Al 2024-T3. Coupling damage with

S. Chandrakanth; P. C. Pandey

1998-01-01

454

Creep–fatigue interaction damage model and its application in modified 9Cr–1Mo steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creep–fatigue interaction damage evolution of the nuclear engineering materials modified 9Cr–1Mo steel is studied with Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM) theory. Based on the Norton creep damage and fatigue dissipate potential theory, an effective stress controlled creep–fatigue interaction damage model has been developed in this paper, in which the creep and fatigue damage function are both considered as nonlinear variables. The

Guodong Zhang; Yanfen Zhao; Fei Xue; Jinna Mei; Zhaoxi Wang; Changyu Zhou; Lu Zhang

455

Women's Law Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Women'sLaw.org was founded in February 2000 by attorneys, educators, advocates, and web designers, with the aim of using the internet to facilitate help for survivors of domestic violence and sexual assault. The language of the website is written in an accessible style, which is most welcome. The menu tab called "Know the Law", across the top of any page, has information available under state, federal, tribal, and religious law, and addresses common issues like "parental kidnapping", "restraining orders", "divorce", and "suing your abuser", in a question-and-answer format. Helpfully, the text of the laws of each state that aid or effect domestic abuse survivors can be found on this site, under the "Legal Statutes" tab, at the far right hand side of the menu across the top of any page. "State Statutes", "Federal Statutes", and "Tribal Statutes" are available. The "Helping Others" tab offers information on such groups as "Lawyers", "Doctors and Healthcare Workers", "Religious Leaders", and "Salon Professionals". The last group may come as a surprise, but visitors can read an article entitled "Enlisting the Aid of Hairstylists as Sentinels for Domestic Abuse", to learn about CUT IT OUT, which teaches salon professionals to recognize abuse in their clients.

456

Wisconsin Law Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A substantial portion of this issue of the Wisconsin Law Review is devoted to collective negotiations in higher education. Articles included are: "The Status and Trends of Collective Negotiations for Faculty in Higher Education," by Donald H. Wollett; "The Scope of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education," by Michael H. Moskow; "Collective…

Wisconsin Univ., Madison. Law School.

457

Marketing a Law Firm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lawyers have become increasingly interested in the subject of marketing legal services since the U.S. Supreme Court found ethical bans on advertising unconstitutional. This article presents a discussion, including examples, of marketing concepts and techniques and their application to the development of market- ing lans by law firms. T R ~ interrelationships existing among tar ei market, market seg- mentation,

James G Helgeson; Nancy J. Brown; George Eddy Birrer

1990-01-01

458

Multinational Enterprises & the Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multinational Enterprises and the Law presents the only comprehensive contemporary and interdisciplinary account of the various techniques used to regulate multinational enterprises (MNEs) at the national, regional and multilateral levels. In addition it considers the effects of corporate self-regulation upon the development of the legal order in this area. Split into four parts the book firstly deals with the conceptual

Peter T. Muchlinski

459

Equal Justice Under Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This special theme issue of "Update on Law-Related Education""tells about the past, present, and future of equal legal representation for all in our society." It is dedicated to the history and heroes of legal aid for the poor and the need to further that cause if the United States hopes to achieve equal justice for all. In his foreword, Justice…

Johnson, Earl, Jr., Ed.

1994-01-01

460

Law in Outer Space.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of the current practice and fascinating future of legal issues involved in outer space exploration and colonization. Current space law, by necessity, addresses broad principles rather than specific incidents. Nonetheless, it covers a variety of issues including commercial development, rescue agreements, object registration,…

Schmidt, William G.

1997-01-01

461

Chevronizing Foreign Relations Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of judge-made doctrines attempt to promote international comity by reducing possible tensions between the United States and foreign sovereigns. For example, ambiguous statutes are usually interpreted to conform to international law, and statutes are usually not understood to apply outside of the nation's territorial boundaries. The international comity doctrines are best understood as a product of a judicial

Eric A. Posner; Cass R. Sunstein

462

Laws of Dispersion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two problems on the laws of dispersion for materials such as small particles and gas bubbles in turbulent streams are considered. After discussing the mechanisms of single-particle dispersion, a statistical approximation model is used to calculate two-par...

R. L. Peskin E. L. Krasnoff

1969-01-01

463

Laws of programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A complete set of algebraic laws is given for Dijkstra's nondeterministic sequential programming language. Iteration and recursion are explained in terms of Scott's domain theory as fixed points of continuous functionals. A calculus analogous to weakest preconditions is suggested as an aid to deriving programs from their specifications.

C. A. R. Hoare; Ian J. Hayes; He Jifeng; Carroll Morgan; A. W. Roscoe; Jeff W. Sanders; I. H. Sorensen; J. Michael Spivey; Bernard Sufrin

1987-01-01

464

AID and the law  

PubMed Central

The present state of the law is unsatisfactory. The exact effect on the marriage of the parties has not been decided although in English law if artificial insemination by donor (AID) takes place without consent that would appear to be a ground for divorce since 1969. The law regards a child born as a result of AID as illegitimate and draws no distinction between the case where the husband consents and where he does not. Theoretically, an offence is committed if the birth entry is falsified, presumably in cases where the husband consents. The AID child, like any other illegitimate child, has rights against the natural parents, but he is in a worse position than most illegitimate children, in that he may not have any information about his father. It is now possible to freeze sperm and so preserve it over longer periods. All the problems associated with AID are present also when sperm is preserved in banks, but if the law is in an unsatisfactory state in relation to AID this is even more true in relation to sperm banks. The main criticism of the Feversham Report (1960) could be that it recommended, broadly speaking, the `status quo' but scientific progress has now overtaken and left the Feversham findings well behind. What, therefore, is required is a full consideration of the subject of AID and, on the basis of that, some statutory code regulating all its aspects.

Cusine, D J

1975-01-01

465

Newton's Laws Demonstrations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this collection of demonstrations, learners explore Newton's Laws of Motion. These seventeen quick activities investigate air resistance, acceleration, terminal velocity, inertia, action-reaction, and other key concepts related to forces and motion. These demonstrations can be coupled together or conducted individually.

Rathjen, Don

2007-01-01

466

School Law Update, 1985.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A wide variety of contemporary legal issues, involving all levels of public and private education, are addressed in the 20 papers in this volume. Written in law review style and including legal citations, the papers and authors included are: (1) "Who Runs the Schools" (Flygare); (2) "Copyright Issues in Computer-Assisted Instruction" (Helm); (3)…

Jones, Thomas N., Ed.; Semler, Darel P., Ed.

467

Preventive Law Curriculum Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum guide presents a context for preservice education and/or professional development in education law for teachers. Section 1, "Teacher Liability," discusses "Duty to Supervise,""Providing Reasonable Care,""Duty,""Preventing Student-to-Student Sexual Harassment,""Reporting Child Abuse,""Issuing Permission Slips,""Defense for…

Henderson, Martha V.; Gullatt, David E.; Hardin, Dawn T.; Jannik, Catherine; Tollett, John R.

468

Consumer Law Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication is one of a series prepared and distributed by the Legal Assistance Branch of the Administrative and Civil Law Department of The Judge Advocate General's School, U.S. Army (TJAGSA) to assist legal assistance attorneys in the delivery of l...

1998-01-01

469

The laws of violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Working in an accident and emergency (A&E) department inevitably involves dealing with the consequences of violence, and a knowledge of the laws of violence is a useful adjunct to the clinical practice of A&E medicine. The police and the Crown Prosecution Service decide whether or not to charge a suspect, and which charge is appropriate. All criminal offences are initially

John Bache

2000-01-01

470

Law in Outer Space.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides an overview of the current practice and fascinating future of legal issues involved in outer space exploration and colonization. Current space law, by necessity, addresses broad principles rather than specific incidents. Nonetheless, it covers a variety of issues including commercial development, rescue agreements, object registration,…

Schmidt, William G.

1997-01-01

471

Environmental Law II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presented are papers delivered at a 1976 Colorado environmental law conference. Included in the publication are the conference schedule, the text of nine papers, background information on authors, and bibliography listings for each paper. Titles and topics of the papers are the following: (1) Water Resources Development and the Environment…

Continuing Legal Education in Colorado, Inc., Denver.

472

Space law conference 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many eminent space lawyers gathered in Singapore to attend the first space law conference to be held in South East Asia. Topics for discussion—which included commercialization of space activities and its effect on the needs of developing countries, and the legal issues of expanding communications and navigation satellite services—were of particular interest to the region. This report summarizes the presentations

Tanja Masson-Zwaan

2001-01-01

473

Sobriety Checkpoint Laws  

MedlinePLUS

... About Drunk Driving State Laws Drunk Driving Drug Impaired Driving Issue Brief Drive Sober or Get Pulled Over Related Links States with no explicit statutory authority may or may not conduct checkpoints. In many states, ... DC 20001-1534 phone 202.789.0942 , fax 202.789.0946, headquarters@ghsa.org

474

LAW ENFORCEMENT VIOLENCE & DISASTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2005, images of thousands of New Orleans residents — the majority of whom were low income women of color and their children, elders, and others, unable, due to poverty, to leave the city before Hurricane Katrina struck, abandoned by our government — were quickly followed by images of law enforcement violence and abuse of individuals struggling to survive under

 POLICE BRUTALITY

475

Second law of thermodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen historically significant papers are presented which portray the development of the second law of thermodynamics and the development of classical thermodynamics in general from its beginning in the 19th century to 1970. Introductions and commentaries are provided for each paper. The papers were written by S. Carnot, Clapeyron, Lord Kelvin, Clausius, J. W. Gibbs, Caratheodory, Planck, M. Born, and

J. Kestin

1976-01-01

476

LAW, INSTITUTIONS AND WOMEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historically, law has played an important role in defining the relations between men and women, in setting boundaries as to what women can and cannot do and in upholding the social roles and norms about men and women. The imposition of roles on the basis of anatomical and physiological differences between men and women is done by society and legal

Sadhna Arya

477

Labor Law After Legalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most important labor or employment law reform in a generation came within a few votes of enactment last spring. With due respect to the Employee Free Choice Act of 2007, which would have enacted numerous pro-worker amendments to the National Labor Relations Act, I refer to the Comprehensive Immigration Reform Act of 2007, a bill that the Bush administration

Michael J Wishnie

2008-01-01

478

Equal before the law?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews empirically the relationship between politicians and decisions to prosecute or not to prosecute businesspeople who are suspected of fraud and of complicity in the supply of arms to Iraq, within the context of (a) conventional ideas about impartiality of the administration of law; and (b) the politics of bureaucratic survival. It discusses some key difficulties in ascertaining

Michael Levi

1995-01-01

479

Environment Law Review--1970.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This is the first of several volumes to be published annually in the field of environmental law. It contains material from periodicals published in early 1970, 1969, and several articles of special significance which appeared in periodicals bearing 1968 dates. It has been collected primarily for lawyers so they may have, in convenient reference…

Sherrod, H. Floyd; And Others

480

European media law  

Microsoft Academic Search

European Union legislation concerning electronic communications media is firmly established as an essential part of the law in the field in Europe. From relevant provisions of the European Convention of Human Rights and the EC Treaty to numerous directives, the most recent being the Audiovisual Media Services Directive 2007, a supranational and interrelated regime lays an extensive groundwork on which

O. Castendyk; E. Dommering; A. Scheuer

2008-01-01