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1

Laws of Software Evolution Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data obtained during a 1968 study of the software process [leh69] led to an investigation of theevolution of OS\\/360 [leh85] and and, over a period of twenty years, to formulation of eight Laws ofSoftware Evolution.. The FEAST project recently initiated (see sections 4 - 6 below) is expected tothrow additional light on the phenomenology underlying these laws, to increase understanding

M. M. Lehman

1996-01-01

2

Evolution of the Second Law of Thermodynamics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the history surrounding the evolution of the second law of thermodynamics. Discusses Sadi Carnot's contributions, but also refers to those by Clapeyron, Thomson, Joule, Clausius, and Boltzman among others. (RR)

Raman, V. V.

1970-01-01

3

Are There Laws of Genome Evolution?  

PubMed Central

Research in quantitative evolutionary genomics and systems biology led to the discovery of several universal regularities connecting genomic and molecular phenomic variables. These universals include the log-normal distribution of the evolutionary rates of orthologous genes; the power law–like distributions of paralogous family size and node degree in various biological networks; the negative correlation between a gene's sequence evolution rate and expression level; and differential scaling of functional classes of genes with genome size. The universals of genome evolution can be accounted for by simple mathematical models similar to those used in statistical physics, such as the birth-death-innovation model. These models do not explicitly incorporate selection; therefore, the observed universal regularities do not appear to be shaped by selection but rather are emergent properties of gene ensembles. Although a complete physical theory of evolutionary biology is inconceivable, the universals of genome evolution might qualify as “laws of evolutionary genomics” in the same sense “law” is understood in modern physics. PMID:21901087

Koonin, Eugene V.

2011-01-01

4

Stochastic damage evolution in textile laminates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A probabilistic model utilizing random material characteristics to predict damage evolution in textile laminates is presented. Model is based on a division of each ply into two sublaminas consisting of cells. The probability of cell failure is calculated using stochastic function theory and maximal strain failure criterion. Three modes of failure, i.e. fiber breakage, matrix failure in transverse direction, as well as matrix or interface shear cracking, are taken into account. Computed failure probabilities are utilized in reducing cell stiffness based on the mesovolume concept. A numerical algorithm is developed predicting the damage evolution and deformation history of textile laminates. Effect of scatter of fiber orientation on cell properties is discussed. Weave influence on damage accumulation is illustrated with the help of an example of a Kevlar/epoxy laminate.

Dzenis, Yuris A.; Bogdanovich, Alexander E.; Pastore, Christopher M.

1993-01-01

5

Fatigue damage evolution in uni-directional metal matrix composites using a micro-mechanical damage model  

SciTech Connect

In recent years Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) have drawn wide attention as candidate materials for high temperature applications needed in aerospace and aeronautic industries. Especially the Titanium Matrix Composites (TMC) have been favored for such applications mainly due to their high strength to weight ratio and their ability to maintain their structural integrity even at elevated temperatures. Despite the increased use of these TMC`s for the last decade there is still a need for appropriate material models able to simulate the material behavior of such advanced MMC`s under severe loading conditions such as fatigue loading. Modeling fatigue behavior of MMC`s requires the prediction of material degradation during the material lifetime through the concept of damage and damage evolution. A micro-mechanical fatigue damage model is proposed here capable of modeling damage evolution at the constituent level. Damage criteria are defined for each individual constituent and appropriate damage evolution laws are derived. Furthermore damage evolution in the interface region is considered separately. The overall composite damage is obtained through the employment of a homogenization procedure such as the Mori-Tanaka averaging scheme. Numerical results are shown for high cycle fatigue with respect to a variation in various material and damage model parameters. Furthermore the damage evolution in the fiber, the matrix and the overall composite is presented for a complete fatigue simulation.

Echle, R.; Voyiadjis, G.Z. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1997-07-01

6

Plastic Strain Induced Damage Evolution and Martensitic Transformation in Ductile Materials at Cryogenic Temperatures  

E-print Network

The Fe-Cr-Ni stainless steels are well known for their ductile behaviour at cryogenic temperatures. This implies development and evolution of plastic strain fields in the stainless steel components subjected to thermo-mechanical loads at low temperatures. The evolution of plastic strain fields is usually associated with two phenomena: ductile damage and strain induced martensitic transformation. Ductile damage is described by the kinetic law of damage evolution. Here, the assumption of isotropic distribution of damage (microcracks and microvoids) in the Representative Volume Element (RVE) is made. Formation of the plastic strain induced martensite (irreversible process) leads to the presence of quasi-rigid inclusions of martensite in the austenitic matrix. The amount of martensite platelets in the RVE depends on the intensity of the plastic strain fields and on the temperature. The evolution of the volume fraction of martensite is governed by a kinetic law based on the accumulated plastic strain. Both of thes...

Garion, C

2002-01-01

7

Brittleness Effect on Rock Fatigue Damage Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The damage evolution mechanism of rocks is one of the most important aspects in studying of rock fatigue behavior. Fatigue damage evolution of three rock types (onyx marble, sandstone and soft limestone) with different brittleness were considered in the present study. Intensive experimental tests were conducted on the chosen rock samples and acoustic emission (AE) sensors were used in some of them to monitor the fracturing process. Experimental tests indicated that brittleness strongly influences damage evolution of rocks in the course of static and dynamic loading. AE monitoring revealed that micro-crack density induced by the applied loads during different stages of the failure processes increases as rock brittleness increases. Also, results of fatigue tests on the three rock types indicated that the rock with the most induced micro-cracks during loading cycles has the least fatigue life. Furthermore, the condition of failure surfaces of the studied rocks samples, subjected to dynamic and static loading, were evaluated and it was concluded that the roughness of failure surfaces is influenced by loading types and rock brittleness. Dynamic failure surfaces were rougher than static ones and low brittle rock demonstrate a smoother failure surface compared to high brittle rock.

Nejati, Hamid Reza; Ghazvinian, Abdolhadi

2014-09-01

8

Law's Evolution: Why Private Law Thrives in Western Europe and Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based on two chapters of a book-in-progress tentatively entitled Law's Evolution. The project is intended to build on ideas first articulated in Authority without Power: Law and the Japanese Paradox?. As in Authority without Power, the focus of the project is the means or manner of law enforcement rather than legal rules or norms of law. The

John O. Haley

9

Spall behavior and damage evolution in tantalum  

SciTech Connect

The authors conducted a number of plate impact experiments using an 80-mm launcher to study dynamic void initiation, linkup, and spall in tantalum. The tests ranged in shock pressure so that the transition from void initiation, incipient spall, and full spall could be studied. Wave profiles were measured using a velocity interferometry system (VISAR), and targets were recovered using soft recovery techniques. The authors utilized scanning electron microscopy, metallographic cross-sections, and plateau etching to obtain quantitative information concerning damage evolution in tantalum under spall conditions. The data (wave profiles and micrographs) are analyzed in terms of a new theory and model of dynamic damage cluster growth. They have developed a model of ductile damage based on void coalescence of initially nucleated voids, that leads to clusters of voids. At low loading strain rates, the biggest cluster has time to grow much more rapidly than smaller clusters to break the sample. At high loading strain rates, large clusters cannot grow any faster than smaller clusters so the sample breaks when enough clusters grow independently to form a fracture surface by random accumulation.

Zurek, A.K.; Thissell, W.R.; Tonks, D.L.

1995-09-01

10

Conservation laws and normal forms of evolution equations  

E-print Network

We study local conservation laws for evolution equations in two independent variables. In particular, we present normal forms for the equations admitting one or two low-order conservation laws. Examples include Harry Dym equation, Korteweg-de-Vries-type equations, and Schwarzian KdV equation. It is also shown that for linear evolution equations all their conservation laws are (modulo trivial conserved vectors) at most quadratic in the dependent variable and its derivatives.

Roman O. Popovych; Artur Sergyeyev

2010-03-08

11

A continuum theory of grain size evolution and damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithospheric shear localization, as occurs in the formation of tectonic plate boundaries, is often associated with diminished grain size (e.g., mylonites). Grain size reduction is typically attributed to dynamic recrystallization; however, theoretical models of shear localization arising from this hypothesis are problematic because (1) they require the simultaneous action of two creep mechanisms (diffusion and dislocation creep) that occur in different deformation regimes (i.e., in grain size stress space) and (2) the grain growth ("healing") laws employed by these models are derived from normal grain growth or coarsening theory, which are valid in the absence of deformation, although the shear localization setting itself requires deformation. Here we present a new first principles grained-continuum theory, which accounts for both coarsening and damage-induced grain size reduction in a monomineralic assemblage undergoing irrecoverable deformation. Damage per se is the generic process for generation of microcracks, defects, dislocations (including recrystallization), subgrains, nuclei, and cataclastic breakdown of grains. The theory contains coupled macroscopic continuum mechanical and grain-scale statistical components. The continuum level of the theory considers standard mass, momentum, and energy conservation, as well as entropy production, on a statistically averaged grained continuum. The grain-scale element of the theory describes both the evolution of the grain size distribution and mechanisms for both continuous grain growth and discontinuous grain fracture and coalescence. The continuous and discontinuous processes of grain size variation are prescribed by nonequilibrium thermodynamics (in particular, the treatment of entropy production provides the phenomenological laws for grain growth and reduction); grain size evolution thus incorporates the free energy differences between grains, including both grain boundary surface energy (which controls coarsening) and the contribution of deformational work to these free energies (which controls damage). In the absence of deformation, only two mechanisms that increase the average grain size are allowed by the second law of thermodynamics. One mechanism, involving continuous diffusive mass transport from small to large grains, captures the essential components of normal grain growth theories of Lifshitz-Slyosov and Hillert. The second mechanism involves the aggregation of grains and is described using a Smoluchovski formalism. With the inclusion of deformational work and damage, the theory predicts two mechanisms for which the thermodynamic requirement of entropy positivity always forces large grains to shrink and small ones to grow. The first such damage-driven mechanism involving continuous mass transfer from large to small grains tends to homogenize the distribution of grain size toward its initial mean grain size. The second damage mechanism favors the creation of small grains by discontinuous division of larger grains and reduces the mean grain size with time. When considered separately, most of these mechanisms allow for self-similar grain size distributions whose scales (i.e., statistical moments such as the mean, variance, and skewness) can all be described by a single grain scale, such as the mean or maximum. However, the combination of mechanisms, e.g., one that captures the competition between continuous coarsening and mean grain size reduction by breakage, does not generally permit a self-similar solution for the grain size distribution, which contradicts the classic assumption that grain growth laws allowing for both coarsening and recrystallization can be treated with a single grain scale such as the mean size.

Ricard, Y.; Bercovici, D.

2009-01-01

12

32 CFR 536.50 - Determination of damages-applicable law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Determination of damages—applicable law. (a) The Federal Tort Claims Act. The whole law...general principles of U.S. tort law will apply to property damage...general principles of U.S. tort law will apply. (c) The...

2010-07-01

13

On the Evolution of Lehman's Laws Michael W. Godfrey  

E-print Network

On the Evolution of Lehman's Laws Michael W. Godfrey David R. Cheriton School of Computer Science of the late Prof. Manny Lehman to the study of software evolution. We do so by means of a kind of evolutionary of software. I. LEHMAN'S INTELLECTUAL JOURNEY Meir "Manny" Lehman did not follow a traditional career path

Godfrey, Michael W.

14

General Entanglement Scaling Laws from Time Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We establish a general scaling law for the entanglement of a large class of ground states and dynamically evolving states of quantum spin chains: we show that the geometric entropy of a distinguished block saturates, and hence follows an entanglement-boundary law. These results apply to any ground state of a gapped model resulting from dynamics generated by a local Hamiltonian, as well as, dually, to states that are generated via a sudden quench of an interaction as recently studied in the case of dynamics of quantum phase transitions. We achieve these results by exploiting ideas from quantum information theory and tools provided by Lieb-Robinson bounds. We also show that there exist noncritical fermionic systems and equivalent spin chains with rapidly decaying interactions violating this entanglement-boundary law. Implications for the classical simulatability are outlined.

Eisert, Jens; Osborne, Tobias J.

2006-10-01

15

A three-dimensional elastic plastic damage constitutive law for bone tissue.  

PubMed

Motivated by mechanical analysis of bones and bone-implant systems, a 3D constitutive law describing the macroscopic mechanical behaviour of both cortical and trabecular bone in cyclic (not fatigue) overloads is developed. The proposed model which mathematical formulation is established within the framework of generalized standard materials accounts for three distinct material evolution modes where elastic, plastic and damage aspects are closely related. The anisotropic elasticity of bone is described by a morphology-based model and distinct damage behaviour in tension and compression by a halfspacewise generalized Hill criterion. The plastic criterion is based on the intact elastic compliance tensor. The algorithm applies three distinct projections based on the relationship between the internal variables and criteria. Their respective consistent tangent operators are presented. Numerical resolutions of several boundary value problems and a biomechanical application are presented to illustrate the potential of the constitutive model and demonstrate the expected quadratic convergence of the algorithm. PMID:18398628

Garcia, David; Zysset, Philippe K; Charlebois, Mathieu; Curnier, Alain

2009-04-01

16

The evolution of law in biopreparedness.  

PubMed

The decade following the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, and ensuing anthrax exposures that same fall has seen significant legal reforms designed to improve biopreparedness nationally. Over the past 10 years, a transformative series of legal changes have effectively (1) rebuilt components of federal, state, and local governments to improve response efforts; (2) created an entire new legal classification known as "public health emergencies"; and (3) overhauled existing legal norms defining the roles and responsibilities of public and private actors in emergency response efforts. The back story as to how law plays an essential role in facilitating biopreparedness, however, is pocked with controversies and conflicts between law- and policymakers, public health officials, emergency managers, civil libertarians, scholars, and others. Significant legal challenges for the next decade remain. Issues related to interjurisdictional coordination; duplicative legal declarations of emergency, disaster, and public health emergency; real-time legal decision making; and liability protections for emergency responders and entities remain unresolved. This article explores the evolving tale underlying the rise and prominence of law as a pivotal tool in national biopreparedness and response efforts in the interests of preventing excess morbidity and mortality during public health emergencies. PMID:22455677

Hodge, James G

2012-03-01

17

Plastic strain induced damage evolution and martensitic transformation in ductile materials at cryogenic temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fe-Cr-Ni stainless steels are well known for their ductile behavior at cryogenic temperatures. This implies development and evolution of plastic strain fields in the stainless steel components subjected to thermo-mechanical loads at low temperatures. The evolution of plastic strain fields is usually associated with two phenomena: ductile damage and strain induced martensitic transformation. Ductile damage is described by the kinetic law of damage evolution (cf. [1]). Here, the assumption of isotropic distribution of damage (microcracks and microvoids) in the Representative Volume Element (RVE) is made. Formation of the plastic strain induced martensite (irreversible process) leads to the presence of quasi-rigid inclusions of martensite in the austenitic matrix. The amount of martensite platelets in the RVE depends on the intensity of the plastic strain fields and on the temperature. The evolution of the volume fraction of martensite is governed by a kinetic law based on the accumulated plastic strain (cf. [2]). Both of these irreversible phenomena, associated with the dissipation of plastic power, are included into the constitutive model of stainless steels at cryogenic temperatures. The model is tested on the thin-walled corrugated shells (known as bellows expansion joints) used in the interconnections of the Large Hadron Collider, the new proton storage ring being constructed at present at CERN.

Garion, C.; Skoczen, B. T.

2002-05-01

18

The Evolution of Water Law and Policy in Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spain has old and complex legislation with regard to water, which has recently undergone some modification (the 1999 Act). The water market has been introduced, with emphasis on environmental protection aspects, while continuing traditional management through hydro basins. The current state of evolution in water law is one of vagueness, with contrasting lines of tension; in some, the old type

Antonio Embid

2002-01-01

19

The constructal law of design and evolution in nature  

PubMed Central

Constructal theory is the view that (i) the generation of images of design (pattern, rhythm) in nature is a phenomenon of physics and (ii) this phenomenon is covered by a principle (the constructal law): ‘for a finite-size flow system to persist in time (to live) it must evolve such that it provides greater and greater access to the currents that flow through it’. This law is about the necessity of design to occur, and about the time direction of the phenomenon: the tape of the design evolution ‘movie’ runs such that existing configurations are replaced by globally easier flowing configurations. The constructal law has two useful sides: the prediction of natural phenomena and the strategic engineering of novel architectures, based on the constructal law, i.e. not by mimicking nature. We show that the emergence of scaling laws in inanimate (geophysical) flow systems is the same phenomenon as the emergence of allometric laws in animate (biological) flow systems. Examples are lung design, animal locomotion, vegetation, river basins, turbulent flow structure, self-lubrication and natural multi-scale porous media. This article outlines the place of the constructal law as a self-standing law in physics, which covers all the ad hoc (and contradictory) statements of optimality such as minimum entropy generation, maximum entropy generation, minimum flow resistance, maximum flow resistance, minimum time, minimum weight, uniform maximum stresses and characteristic organ sizes. Nature is configured to flow and move as a conglomerate of ‘engine and brake’ designs. PMID:20368252

Bejan, Adrian; Lorente, Sylvie

2010-01-01

20

Emergence of Zipf's Law in the Evolution of Communication  

E-print Network

Zipf's law seems to be ubiquitous in human languages and appears to be a universal property of complex communicating systems. Following the early proposal made by Zipf concerning the presence of a tension between the efforts of speaker and hearer in a communication system, we introduce evolution by means of a variational approach to the problem based on Kullback's Minimum Discrimination of Information Principle. Therefore, using a formalism fully embedded in the framework of information theory, we demonstrate that Zipf's law is the only expected outcome of an evolving, communicative system under a rigorous definition of the communicative tension described by Zipf.

Bernat Corominas-Murtra; Jordi Fortuny; Ricard V. Solé

2010-08-05

21

Exact Conservation Laws and Exclusion Principle of Biological Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biological evolution is dynamics of diversity and complexity of living beings from cells to humans. Metabolism, which allows for entropy decrease, and mortality, which allows for natural selection, are its biological must. Their characteristics are known to yield approximate (and rather noisy) universal relations. I conjecture they are accurate for certain ("canonic") fractions of these characteristics. (The conjecture is verified with experimental tests of its counterintuitive predictions). A relation, which is conserved under (invariant to) transformations from one species in its living conditions to another, is a conservation law of biological evolution. Of course, all parameters of such transformations can hardly be comprehensively specified. However, when canonic fractions are additive, the very invariance of the law to an extraordinary wide class of transformations, with no other experimental data, in any given interval of canonic fraction values accurately predicts [1]: either their conservation law is linear, or the population is homogeneous with respect to their values (an "exclusion principle" of their heterogeneity in an otherwise heterogeneous population). To be specific. Metabolism conservation laws (e.g., the dependence of oxygen consumption at rest per heartbeat on the animal mass) are linear. They imply [2] the existence of fundamental biological constants, which are similar to those crucial in physics. Survivability conservation law (the relation between the probabilities to survive to any two given ages) is piecewise linear (with four linear intervals). At the intersections mortality is homogeneous, and its susceptibility to living conditions vanishes. The law predicts that a dominant canonic fraction of mortality in protected populations is reversible for species as different as humans and flies, and may be eliminated. All these predictions agree with experimental data. (For instance, mortality of Swedish females, born in 1916, at 48 years decreases to its value 28 years earlier). The law implies the existence of a new, reversible, kind of evolution, whose relaxation (i.e. adjustment to external conditions) time is small compared to the lifespan of an animal. The law suggests its universal mechanism which may be rapidly and biologically non-specifically regulated, and whose molecular nature may be established in specified physical and biological experiments. A crucial problem is to unravel a complete set of conservation laws of unique evolutionary dynamics and their physiological and physical nature. . [1] M.Ya. Azbel',Phys. Rev. E66, 016107 (2002), Exp. Geront. 37, 859 (2002); [2] M. Ya. Azbel', PNAS USA 91, 12453 (1994)

Azbel', Mark Ya.

2003-03-01

22

Permeability of WIPP Salt During Damage Evolution and Healing  

SciTech Connect

The presence of damage in the form of microcracks can increase the permeability of salt. In this paper, an analytical formulation of the permeability of damaged rock salt is presented for both initially intact and porous conditions. The analysis shows that permeability is related to the connected (i.e., gas accessible) volumetric strain and porosity according to two different power-laws, which may be summed to give the overall behavior of a porous salt with damage. This relationship was incorporated into a constitutive model, known as the Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which has been formulated to describe the inelastic flow behavior of rock salt due to coupled creep, damage, and healing. The extended model was used to calculate the permeability of rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site under conditions where damage evolved with stress over a time period. Permeability changes resulting from both damage development under deviatoric stresses and damage healing under hydrostatic pressures were considered. The calculated results were compared against experimental data from the literature, which indicated that permeability in damaged intact WIPP salt depends on the magnitude of the gas accessible volumetric strain and not on the total volumetric strain. Consequently, the permeability of WIPP salt is significantly affected by the kinetics of crack closure, but shows little dependence on the kinetics of crack removal by sintering.

BODNER,SOL R.; CHAN,KWAI S.; MUNSON,DARRELL E.

1999-12-03

23

Damage evolution ahead of sharp notches under cyclic loading  

Microsoft Academic Search

The evolution of cyclic damage ahead of sharp notches has been investigated experimentally. The results are analyzed in terms of a loading parameter ?Bvm which is derived from averaging the calculated local stress and strain distribution at the notch root over some microstructure related size scale. This loading parameter is suggested to bridge the gap between the stress controlled crack

S. Sähn; M. Schaper; V. B. Pham; B. Wurm; Th. Husert; E. Winschuh; G. Jaeger

1996-01-01

24

Fatigue Damage Evolution in Silicon Films for Micromechanical Applications  

E-print Network

"! \\' Fatigue Damage Evolution in Silicon Films for Micromechanical Applications by P. Shrotriya, S microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) structures. The surface topography evolu- tion that occurs during cyclic fatigue and Si layers. Finally, the implications of the results are discussed for the prediction of fatigue

Suo, Zhigang

25

Scaling law for the blue cheese model of damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the derivation of the scaling law for the stiffness of slit weakened two-dimensional continua. The derivation is based on fracture mechanics at the slit scale and is valid for elastic and elasto-plastic materials.

Krajcinovic, Dusan

1993-02-01

26

Dollo's law and the re-evolution of shell coiling.  

PubMed

Gastropods have lost the quintessential snail feature, the coiled shell, numerous times in evolution. In many cases these animals have developed a limpet morphology with a cap-shaped shell and a large foot. Limpets thrive in marginal habitats such as hydrothermal vents, the high-energy rocky intertidal areas and fresh water, but they are considered to be evolutionary dead-ends, unable to re-evolve a coiled shell and therefore unable to give rise to the diversity seen among coiled snails. The re-evolution of a coiled shell, or any complex character, is considered unlikely or impossible (Dollo's law) because the loss of the character is followed by the loss of the genetic architecture and developmental mechanisms that underlie that character. Here, we quantify the level of coiling in calyptraeids, a family of mostly uncoiled limpets, and show that coiled shells have re-evolved at least once within this family. These results are the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of the re-evolution of coiling in a gastropod, and show that the developmental features underlying coiling have not been lost during 20-100 Myr of uncoiled evolutionary history. This is the first example of the re-evolution of a complex character via a change in developmental timing (heterochrony) rather than a change in location of gene expression (heterotopy). PMID:14728776

Collin, Rachel; Cipriani, Roberto

2003-12-22

27

Scaling law for the blue cheese model of damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the derivation of the scaling law for the stiffness of slit weakened two-dimensional continua. The derivation is based on fracture mechanics at the slit scale and is valid for elastic and elasto-plastic materials. Member of the Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, USA.

Dusan Krajcinovic

1993-01-01

28

Time evolution of damage due to environmentally assisted aging in a fiber bundle model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Damage growth in composite materials is a complex process which is of interest in many fields of science and engineering. We consider this problem in a fiber bundle model where fibers undergo an aging process due to the accumulation of damage driven by the locally acting stress in a chemically active environment. By subjecting the bundle to a constant external load, fibers fail either when the load on them exceeds their individual intrinsic strength or when the accumulated internal damage exceeds a random threshold. We analyze the time evolution of the breaking process under low external loads where aging of fibers dominates. In the mean field limit, we show analytically that the aging system continuously accelerates in a way which can be characterized by an inverse power law of the event rate with a singularity that defines a failure time. The exponent is not universal; it depends on the details of the aging process. For localized load sharing, a more complex damage process emerges which is dominated by distinct spatial regions of the system with different degrees of stress concentration. Analytical calculations revealed that the final acceleration to global failure is preceded by a stationary accumulation of damage. When the disorder is strong, the accelerating phase has the same functional behavior as in the mean field limit. The analytical results are verified by computer simulations.

Lennartz-Sassinek, S.; Main, I. G.; Danku, Z.; Kun, F.

2013-09-01

29

Laser scanning technique for fatigue damage evolution detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metal components subjected to cyclic stress develop surface-evident defects (microcracks, slip bands, etc). Monitoring the formation and evolution of these fatigue damage precursors (FDPs) with increasing numbers of cycles can be an effective tool for determining the fatigue state of the component, which can be used in remaining fatigue life prognostics. In this paper a laser scanning technique (LST) for FDP detection is described and experimental results from examination of specimens made of nickel-based superalloy and aluminum are presented. The proposed detection technique is based on scanning a focused laser beam over the specimen surface and detecting variations in spatial characteristics of the scattered light signal. These variations indicate the presence of surface abnormalities and therefore can be associated with incremental fatigue damage formation. The studies performed show that the proposed LST can serve as a basis for design of a portable non-contact instrument for in situ structural health monitoring.

Markov, Vladimir B.; Buckner, Benjamin D.; Earthman, J. C.

2005-02-01

30

Chromosome damage evolution after low and high LET irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ionizing radiation induces DNA and chromatin lesions which are converted to chromosome lesions detected in the first post-irradiation mitosis by classic cytogenetic techniques as chromosomal aberrations (CAs). These techniques allow to monitor also delayed aberrations observed after many cell generations post-irradiation - the manifestation of chromosomal instability phenotype (CIN). The problem discussed is how to predict time evolution from initial to delayed DNA/chromosome damage. To address this question, in the present work a mechanistic model of CIN is elaborated which integrates pathways of (*) DNA damage induction and its conversion to chromosome lesions (aberrations), (**) lesion transmission and generation through cell cycles. Delayed aberrations in subsequent cycles are formed in the model owing to two pathways, DNA damage generation de novo as well as CA transmission from previous cycles. DNA damage generation rate is assumed to consist of bystander and non-bystander components. Bystander signals impact all cells roughly equally, whereas non-bystander DSB generation rate differs for the descendants of unirradiated and irradiated cells. Monte Carlo simulation of processes underlying CIN allows to predict the time evolution of initial radiation-induced damage - kinetics curve for delayed unstable aberrations (dicentrics) together with dose response and RBE as a function of time after high vs low LET irradiation. The experimental data for radiation-induced CIN in TK6 lymphoblastoid cells and human lymphocytes irradiated with low (gamma) and high (Fe, C) LET radiation are analyzed on the basis of the proposed model. One of the conclusions is that without bystander signaling, just taking into account the initial DNA damage and non-bystander DSB generation, it is impossible to describe the available experimental data for high-LET-induced CIN. The exact contribution of bystander effects for high vs low LET remains unknown, but the relative contribution may be assessed at large times after initial acute irradiation. RBE for delayed aberrations depends on LET, time and cell line, which probably reflects a genetic background for bystander component. The proposed modeling approach creates a basis for integration of complex network of bystander/inflammatory signaling in systems-level platform for quantification of radiation induced CIN.

Andreev, Sergey; Eidelman, Yuri

31

Scaling Laws for Convection with Temperature-dependent Viscosity and Grain-damage  

E-print Network

Numerical experiments of convection with grain-damage are used to develop scaling laws for convective heat flow, mantle velocity, and plate velocity across the stagnant lid and plate-tectonic regimes. Three main cases are presented in order of increasing complexity: a simple case wherein viscosity is only dependent on grainsize, a case where viscosity depends on temperature and grainsize, and finally a case where viscosity is temperature and grainsize sensitive, and the grain-growth (or healing) is also temperature sensitive. In all cases, convection with grain-damage scales differently than Newtonian convection due to the effects of grain-damage. For the fully realistic case, numerical results show stagnant lid convection, fully mobilized convection that resembles the temperature-independent viscosity case, and partially mobile or transitional convection, depending on damage to healing ratio, Rayleigh number, and the activation energies for viscosity and healing. Applying our scaling laws for the fully reali...

Foley, Bradford J

2014-01-01

32

Empirical laws of survival and evolution: Their universality and implications  

PubMed Central

Presented analysis of human and fly life tables proves that with the specified accuracy their entire survival and mortality curves are uniquely determined by a single point (e.g., by the birth mortality q0), according to the law, which is universal for species as remote as humans and flies. Mortality at any age decreases with the birth mortality q0. According to life tables, in the narrow vicinity of a certain q0 value (which is the same for all animals of a given species, independent of their living conditions), the curves change very rapidly and nearly simultaneously for an entire population of different ages. The change is the largest in old age. Because probability to survive to the mean reproductive age quantifies biological fitness and evolution, its universal rapid change with q0 (which changes with living conditions) manifests a new kind of an evolutionary spurt of an entire population. Agreement between theoretical and life table data is explicitly seen in the figures. Analysis of the data on basic metabolism reduces it to the maximal mean lifespan (for animals from invertebrates to mammals), or to the maximal mean fission time (for bacteria), and universally scales them with the total number of body atoms only. Phenomenological origin of this unification and universality of metabolism, survival, and evolution is suggested. Their implications and challenges are discussed. PMID:10611390

Azbel', Mark Ya.

1999-01-01

33

Observation of damage evolution in polymer bonded explosives using acoustic emission and digital image correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Acoustic Emission (AE) and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) methods have been combined to measure and evaluate the damage evolution of Polymer Bonded Explosives (PBXs) under uniaxial compression. The global damage evolution was measured by AE and the local (spatial) distribution of damage observed by DIC. It was found that a Dominant Localization Band (DLB) plays a key role in

Xian Wang; Shaopeng Ma; Yingtao Zhao; Zhongbin Zhou; Pengwan Chen

2011-01-01

34

Stochastic aspects of evolution of creep damage in austenitic stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stochastic model for the creep damage evolution and associated scatter in austenitic stainless steel has been developed in terms of a discontinuous Markov process. The magnitude of damage has been described in the form of a probability distribution function whose evolution in time characterizes the nondeterministic nature of the damage accumulation process. The long-term creep behavior on samples obtained

N. Roy; S. C. Bose; R. N. Ghosh

2010-01-01

35

Defect and damage evolution quantification in dynamically-deformed metals using orientation-imaging microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Orientation-imaging microscopy offers unique capabilities to quantify the defects and damage evolution occurring in metals following dynamic and shock loading. Examples of the quantification of the types of deformation twins activated, volume fraction of twinning, and damage evolution as a function of shock loading in Ta are presented. Electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) examination of the damage evolution in sweeping-detonation-wave shock loading to study spallation in Cu is also presented.

Gray, George T., III [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Livescu, Veronica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cerreta, Ellen K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-03-18

36

The Evolution of Health Care Advance Planning Law and Policy  

PubMed Central

Context: The legal tools of health care advance planning have substantially changed since their emergence in the mid-1970s. Thirty years of policy development, primarily at the state legislative level addressing surrogate decision making and advance directives, have resulted in a disjointed policy landscape, yet with important points of convergence evolving over time. An understanding of the evolution of advance care planning policy has important implications for policy at both the state and federal levels. Methods: This article is a longitudinal statutory and literature review of health care advance planning from its origins to the present. Findings: While considerable variability across the states still remains, changes in law and policy over time suggest a gradual paradigm shift from what is described as a “legal transactional approach” to a “communications approach,” the most recent extension of which is the emergence of Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment, or POLST. The communications approach helps translate patients’ goals into visible and portable medical orders. Conclusions: States are likely to continue gradually moving away from a legal transactional mode of advance planning toward a communications model, albeit with challenges to authentic and reliable communication that accurately translates patients’ wishes into the care they receive. In the meantime, the states and their health care institutions will continue to serve as the primary laboratory for advance care planning policy and practice. PMID:20579283

Sabatino, Charles P

2010-01-01

37

The public philosophy of John Dewey and the evolution of law enforcement  

E-print Network

This thesis identifies the convergence between John Dewey's ideas regarding the public and the evolution of law enforcement practices. There are four areas covered, those being responses to major shifts in cultural activities and assumptions...

Patterson, Michael Lewis

2004-09-30

38

Functionality, power-laws and defect evolution in software systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous paper, an intimate link between power-law distri- bution of component sizes and defect growth in maturing software systems, independently of their representation language, was revealed by the use of a variational method built on statistical mechanical ar- guments. Building on the above work, this paper first of all demonstrates ex- perimentally that power-law behaviour in component sizes

Les Hatton

39

Law, evolution and the brain: applications and open questions.  

PubMed Central

This paper discusses several issues at the intersection of law and brain science. It focuses principally on ways in which an improved understanding of how evolutionary processes affect brain function and human behaviour may improve law's ability to regulate behaviour. It explores sample uses of such 'evolutionary analysis in law' and also raises questions about how that analysis might be improved in the future. Among the discussed uses are: (i) clarifying cost-benefit analyses; (ii) providing theoretical foundation and potential predictive power; (iii) assessing comparative effectiveness of legal strategies; and (iv) revealing deep patterns in legal architecture. Throughout, the paper emphasizes the extent to which effective law requires: (i) building effective behavioural models; (ii) integrating life-science perspectives with social-science perspectives; (iii) considering the effects of brain biology on behaviours that law seeks to regulate; and (iv) examining the effects of evolutionary processes on brain design. PMID:15590611

Jones, Owen D

2004-01-01

40

Scaling laws for convection with temperature-dependent viscosity and grain-damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Numerical experiments of convection with grain-damage are used to develop scaling laws for convective heat flow, mantle velocity and plate velocity across the stagnant lid and plate-tectonic regimes. Three main cases are presented in order of increasing complexity: a simple case wherein viscosity is only dependent on grain size, a case where viscosity depends on temperature and grain size, and finally a case where viscosity is temperature and grain size sensitive, and the grain-growth (or healing) is also temperature sensitive. In all cases, convection with grain-damage scales differently than Newtonian convection; whereas the Nusselt number (Nu), typically scales with the reference Rayleigh number, Ra0, to the 1/3 power, for grain-damage this exponent is larger because increasing Ra0 also enhances damage. In addition, Nu, mantle velocity, and plate velocity are also functions of the damage to healing ratio, (D/H); increasing D/H increases Nu because more damage leads to more vigorous convection. For the fully realistic case, numerical results show stagnant lid convection, fully mobilized convection that resembles the temperature-independent viscosity case, and partially mobile or transitional convection, depending on D/H, Ra0, and the activation energies for viscosity and healing. Applying our scaling laws for the fully realistic case to Earth and Venus we demonstrate that increasing surface temperature dramatically decreases plate speed and heat flow, essentially shutting down plate tectonics, due to increased healing in lithospheric shear zones, as proposed previously. Contrary to many previous studies, the transitional regime between the stagnant lid and fully mobilized regimes is large, and the transition from stagnant lid to mobile convection is gradual and continuous. Thus planets could exhibit a full range of surface mobility, as opposed to the bimodal distribution of fully mobile lid planets and stagnant lid planets that is typically assumed.

Foley, Bradford J.; Bercovici, David

2014-10-01

41

Emergence of Zipf's Law in the Evolution of Communication Bernat Corominas-Murtra1  

E-print Network

#12;Emergence of Zipf's Law in the Evolution of Communication Bernat Corominas-Murtra1 , Jordi to be ubiquitous in human languages and appears to be a universal property of complex communicating systems of speaker and hearer in a communication system, we introduce evolution by means of a variational approach

42

Evolution Law of Quantum Observables from Classical Hamiltonian in Non-Commutative Phase Space  

E-print Network

The evolution equations of quantum observables are derived from the classical Hamiltonian equations of motion with the only additional assumption that the phase space is non-commutative. The demonstration of the quantum evolution laws is quite general; it does not rely on any assumption on the operator nature of x and p and is independent of the quantum mechanical formalism.

Daniela Dragoman

2006-04-11

43

On a new law of bone remodeling based on damage elasticity: a thermodynamic approach  

PubMed Central

Background Bone tissue is the main element of the human skeleton and is a dynamic tissue that is continuously renewed by bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts. The bone is also capable of repairing itself and adapting its structure to changes in its load environment through the process of bone remodeling. Therefore, this phenomenon has been gaining increasing interest in the last years and many laws have been developed in order to simulate this process. Results In this paper, we develop a new law of bone remodeling in the context of damaged elastic by applying the thermodynamic approach in the case of small perturbations. The model is solved numerically by a finite difference method in the one-dimensional bone structure of a n-unit elements model. Conclusion In addition, several numerical simulations are presented that confirm the accuracy and effectiveness of the model. PMID:23194460

2012-01-01

44

Metrics and Laws of Software Evolution - The Nineties View  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of E-type software development and evolution has proven most difficult to improve, possibly due to the fact that the process is a multi-input, multi-output system involving feedback at many levels. This observation, first recorded in the early 70s during an extended study of OS\\/360 evolution, was recently captured in a FEAST hypothesis; a hypothesis being studied in on-going

Meir M. Lehman; Juan F. Ramil; Paul Wernick; Dewayne E. Perry; Wladyslaw M. Turski

1997-01-01

45

THE ORIGINS OF ENVIRONMENTAL LAW: REGULATION AND EVOLUTION  

E-print Network

of proof, public participation, and judicial review. Environmental law shapes how environments problems. Method of Instruction Class time will combine lectures, class discussion and presentations from an occasional guest speaker. Assignments will reflect topics covered in the class lectures and discussions

46

Collateral damage: Evolution with displacement of fracture distribution and secondary fault strands in fault  

E-print Network

Collateral damage: Evolution with displacement of fracture distribution and secondary fault strands in fault damage zones Heather M. Savage1,2 and Emily E. Brodsky1 Received 22 April 2010; revised 10 faults is governed by the same process. Based on our own field work combined with data from

Savage, Heather M.

47

A continuum model for damage evolution in laminated composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The accumulation of matrix cracking is examined using continuum damage mechanics lamination theory. A phenomenologically based damage evolutionary relationship is proposed for matrix cracking in continuous fiber reinforced laminated composites. The use of material dependent properties and damage dependent laminate averaged ply stresses in this evolutionary relationship permits its application independently of the laminate stacking sequence. Several load histories are applied to crossply laminates using this model, and the results are compared to published experimental data. The stress redistribution among the plies during the accumulation of matrix damage is also examined. It is concluded that characteristics of the stress redistribution process could assist in the analysis of the progressive failure process in laminated composites.

Lo, D. C.; Allen, D. H.; Harris, C. E.

1991-01-01

48

Survival of the fittest: Law of evolution or law of probability?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a recent issue of Biology and Philosophy, Kenneth Waters argues that the principle of ”survival of the fittest” should be eliminated from the theory of natural selection, because it is an untestable law of probability, and as such, has no place in evolutionary theory. His argument is impressive, but it does not do justice to the practice of biology.

David B. Resnik

1988-01-01

49

The evolution of focal ischemic damage: A metabolic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Focal cerebral ischemia in the rat was induced by left middle cerebral artery occlusion. The area of ischemia was determined by infusion of a qualitative perfusion indicator, neutral red. The temporal evolution of alterations in regional energy metabolism was assessed by direct microquantitative histochemical analysis of high-energy phosphates, glucose, glycogen, and lactate content of the tissue. Perfusion analyses demonstrated a

Warren R. Selman; Anthony J. Ricci; Ralph C. Crumrine; Joseph C. LaManna; Robert A. Ratcheson; W. David Lust

1990-01-01

50

Evolution of damage during deformation in porous granular materials (Louis Néel Medal Lecture)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

'Crackling noise' occurs in a wide variety of systems that respond to external forcing in an intermittent way, leading to sudden bursts of energy release similar to those heard when crunching up a piece of paper or listening to a fire. In mineral magnetism ('Barkhausen') crackling noise occurs due to sudden changes in the size and orientation of microscopic ferromagnetic domains when the external magnetic field is changed. In rock physics sudden changes in internal stress associated with microscopically brittle failure events lead to acoustic emissions that can be recorded on the sample boundary, and used to infer the state of internal damage. Crackling noise is inherently stochastic, but the population of events often exhibits remarkably robust scaling properties, in terms of the source area, duration, energy, and in the waiting time between events. Here I describe how these scaling properties emerge and evolve spontaneously in a fully-dynamic discrete element model of sedimentary rocks subject to uniaxial compression at a constant strain rate. The discrete elements have structural disorder similar to that of a real rock, and this is the only source of heterogeneity. Despite the stationary loading and the lack of any time-dependent weakening processes, the results are all characterized by emergent power law distributions over a broad range of scales, in agreement with experimental observation. As deformation evolves, the scaling exponents change systematically in a way that is similar to the evolution of damage in experiments on real sedimentary rocks. The potential for real-time failure forecasting is examined by using synthetic and real data from laboratory tests and prior to volcanic eruptions. The combination of non-linearity and an irreducible stochastic component leads to significant variations in the precision and accuracy of the forecast failure time, leading to a significant proportion of 'false alarms' (forecast too early) and 'missed events' (forecast too late), as well as an over-optimistic assessments of forecasting power and quality when the failure time is known (the 'benefit of hindsight'). The evolution becomes progressively more complex, and the forecasting power diminishes, in going from ideal synthetics to controlled laboratory tests to open natural systems at larger scales in space and time.

Main, Ian

2014-05-01

51

Power-law behavior in the quantum-resonant evolution of the delta-kicked accelerator  

E-print Network

We consider the atom-optical delta-kicked accelerator when the initial momentum distribution is symmetric. We demonstrate the existence of quantum-resonant dynamics, and derive analytic expressions for the system evolution. In particular, we consider the dynamical evolution of the momentum moments and find that all even-ordered momentum moments exhibit a power law growth. In the ultracold (zero-temperature) limit the exponent is determined by the order of the moment, whereas for a broad, thermal initial momentum distribution the exponent is reduced by one. To demonstrate the power law behavior explicitly we consider the evolutions of the second- and fourth-order momentum moments, and cumulants, for an initially Gaussian momentum distribution corresponding to the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of an ideal gas at thermal equilibrium.

P. L. Halkyard; M. Saunders; S. A. Gardiner; K. J. Challis

2008-07-16

52

Systematic construction of infinitely many conservation laws for certain nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conservation law plays a vital role in the study of nonlinear evolution equations, particularly with regard to integrability, linearization and constants of motion. In the present paper, it is shown that infinitely many conservation laws for certain nonlinear evolution equations are systematically constructed with symbolic computation in a simple way from the Riccati form of the Lax pair. Note that the Lax pairs investigated here are associated with different linear systems, including the generalized Kaup-Newell (KN) spectral problem, the generalized Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur (AKNS) spectral problem, the generalized AKNS-KN spectral problem and a recently proposed integrable system. Therefore, the power and efficiency of this systematic method is well understood, and we expect it may be useful for other nonlinear evolution models, even higher-order and variable-coefficient ones.

Lü, Xing; Peng, Mingshu

2013-09-01

53

Power-law behavior in the quantum-resonant evolution of the ? -kicked accelerator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the atom-optical ? -kicked accelerator when the initial momentum distribution is symmetric. We demonstrate the existence of quantum-resonant dynamics, and derive analytic expressions for the system evolution. In particular, we consider the dynamical evolution of the momentum moments and find that all even-ordered momentum moments exhibit a power-law growth. In the ultracold (zero-temperature) limit the exponent is determined by the order of the moment, whereas for a broad, thermal initial momentum distribution the exponent is reduced by 1. To demonstrate the power-law behavior explicitly we consider the evolutions of the second- and fourth-order momentum moments, and cumulants, for an initially Gaussian momentum distribution corresponding to the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of an ideal gas at thermal equilibrium.

Halkyard, P. L.; Saunders, M.; Gardiner, S. A.; Challis, K. J.

2008-12-01

54

Fault scaling laws and the temporal evolution of fault systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Through an analysis of the temporal evolution of duplex fault systems, this contribution shows that it is unlikely that all faults in a deformed area will conform to a single frequency-size scaling relationship. The development of a duplex leads to different size—frequency relationships for the faults that compose the duplex and those confined to individual horses. The faults that compose the duplex define segments with relatively steep stopes on a log N (number of faults, i.e. frequency) vs log D (displacement magnitude, i.e. size) plot; faults within individual horses define segments with relatively shallow slopes on a log N vs log D plot. The distinction between these two types of faults in a duplex is akin to the distinction between large active faults, which cut the entire seismogenic layer, and small active faults, which do not extend across the seismogenic layer. If, as is often the case, the faults that compose a duplex do not extend across the seismogenic layer, the stepped nature of the resulting log N vs log D plot may make it particularly difficult to assess the contribution of these 'small' faults to regional deformation. Since duplex geometries result in part from anisotropies present in deforming rocks, the anisotropy present in nearly all crustal rocks will affect the size-frequency relationship observed for systems of faults. Different parts of a deforming rock mass are likely to have different initial anisotropies. Combining data on fault systems from markedly different portions of a deforming region may, then, obscure the unique characteristics of the size-frequency relationship in either area and may lead to inaccurate assessments of the relative contributions of 'small' and 'large' faults to regional fault-accommodated strains.

Wojtal, Steven F.

1994-04-01

55

Intrinsic dissipation of a modular anisotropic damage model : application to concrete under impact  

E-print Network

the damage evolution law [28] in order to satisfy the positivity of the dissipation. In case of anisotropic damage, two cases arise: a) the damage evolution law is written in the framework of standard generalized standard (case b), for which the proof of the positiv- ity of the dissipation can be mathematically given

56

Unification of Small and Large Time Scales for Biological Evolution: Deviations from Power Law  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We develop a unified model that describes both “micro” and “macro” evolutions within a single theoretical framework. The ecosystem is described as a dynamic network; the population dynamics at each node of this network describes the “microevolution” over ecological time scales (i.e., birth, ageing, and natural death of individual organisms), while the appearance of new nodes, the slow changes of the links, and the disappearance of existing nodes accounts for the “macroevolution” over geological time scales (i.e., the origination, evolution, and extinction of species). In contrast to several earlier claims in the literature, we observe strong deviations from power law in the regime of long lifetimes.

Chowdhury, Debashish; Stauffer, Dietrich; Kunwar, Ambarish

2003-02-01

57

Computational modeling of damage evolution in unidirectional fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites  

E-print Network

Computational modeling of damage evolution in unidirectional fiber reinforced ceramic matrix®cantly higher than the toughnesses of the individual constituents. For unidirectional ®ber reinforced ceramic mechanical re- sponse of a ceramic matrix composite is simulated by a numerical model for a ®ber-matrix unit

Ortiz, Michael

58

Damage Evolution and Recovery in 4H and 6H Silicon Carbide Irradiated with Aluminum Ions  

SciTech Connect

Damage evolution and isochronal recovery have been studied in single crystal 4H and 6H SiC irradiated with 1.1 MeV Al molecular ions at 150 K to ion fluences ranging from 0.15 to 2.85 Al+/nm. The damage evolution and recovery on both the Si and C sublattices were determined using a 0.94 MeV deuterium beam in ion channeling geometry by simultaneously measuring the scattering/reaction yield from Rutherford backscattering spectrometry combined with 12C(d,p)13C nuclear reaction analysis. The rate of damage evolution at 150 K is higher for 4H-SiC than for 6H-SiC. At low doses, the rate of C disordering is higher than that for Si, which is consistent with the lower displacement energy for C. Both 4H and 6H SiC exhibit only minor damage recovery below 300 K. Above 300 K, damage recovery on the Si and C sublattices is similar for both 4H and 6H SiC. Three distinct recovery stages are observed on each sublattice in 4H-SiC, and at high doses, where a buried amorphous layer is produced, an additional recovery stage is observed above 800 K.

Weber, William J.; Jiang, Weilin; Zhang, Yanwen; Hallen, Anders

2002-05-29

59

Synthetic AGB evolution. 3: The influence of different mass-loss laws  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Paper 1 of this series we presented a model to calculate in a synthetic way the evolution of thermal-pulsing asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars. The model was applied to the large magellanic cloud (LMC) and values were derived for the minimum core mass for third dredge-up and the dredge-up efficiency. In Paper 1 mass loss on the AGB was parameterized with a Reimers mass loss law with a best-fit value for the coefficient etaAGB of 5. In Paper 2 we showed that the best fitting model of Paper 1 could also reproduce the observed abundance patterns in planetary nebulae (PNe) in the LMC, under the assumption that there is no dredge-up after hot bottom burning (HBB) ceases. To investigate the sensitivity of the results in Papers 1 and 2 to the adopted mass loss law we repeat in this paper the analysis of Papers 1 and 2 for two recently proposed mass loss laws, viz. that of Vassiliadis & Wood (1993, VW) and that of Blocker 7 Schoenberner (1993, BS). We find that the BS-law with a scaling factor etaBS = 0.1 fits all observational constraints equally well as the Reimers law. For the VW-law no combination of parameters could be found that fits all constraints simultaneously. This is probably due to the extreme luminosity dependence (M(dot) approximately Lalpha, alpha = 6) implied by the VW-law. We conclude that synthetic AGB models with mass loss laws that are moderately luminosity dependent) 1 less than alpha less than or approximately 4) can be made to fit all presently available observational constraints.

Groenewegen, M. A. T.; de Jong, T.

1994-03-01

60

Oxidative DNA damage is important to the evolution of antibiotic resistance: evidence of mutation bias and its medicinal implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have revealed that the reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by antibacterial stimulation accelerates the evolution of antibiotic resistance, which uncovered new links between oxygen rise and evolution and inspired new strategies to prevent antibiotic resistance. Considering many other mechanisms cause DNA mutations aside from ROS damage, evaluating the significance of oxidative DNA damage in the development of antibiotic

Zhong-Yi Wang; Min Xiong; Liang-Yu Fu; Hong-Yu Zhang

2012-01-01

61

Damage and permiability evolution in creep-failed microgranite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of crack generation during deformation is now becoming widely recognized as one of the key factors that control important processes involving fluid flow in rocks of low permeability e.g., hydro-thermal circulation at mid-ocean ridges, energy recovery from geothermal reservoirs, and accelerating deformation preceding volcanic eruptions. Here we describe experiments that extend the study of Meredith et al. (2000) by examining the relationship between slow deformation, the growth of micro-fractures, and permeability in Ailsa Craig microgranite (ACM) close to the fracture interconnection percolation threshold. To examine the inter-relationship between the above factors we have undertaken creep experiments on cores of ACM during which we have measured acoustic emissions, solute breakthrough curves, and electrical impedance (EI), at a strain rate of 10e(-6). The initial network of distributed damage was generated in a 38mm-diameter core of ACM by heating at 1°C/hr to 900°C then cooling to room temperature at the same rate. The treated core was then placed in a Hasler cell with integral acoustic emission and electrical impedance sensors and initially loaded to 20MPa. To measure breakthrough curves, solutions of deionized/distilled/degassed water was alternated with a degassed 1M NaCl solution at a flow rate of 1cc/hr. Differential fluid pressures were monitored by piezoelectric pressure gauges and the strain in the sample was monitored by LVDTs attached to the pistons. Initial 'breakthrough' tests under hydrostatic conditions show that the EI response detects first a linear change in impedance as the solute front advances through the core followed by a more gradual decrease as the front ‘breaks out’ of the core end. The EI response, therefore, describes both the advection and dispersion terms associated with the solute front in the core. The data allow the inter-relationship between crack generation/growth, effective cumulative aperture, permeability and hydraulic dispersion to be examined during the process of creep deformation. Of particular interest is the behaviour of the system close to failure, where rapid changes in fracture network characteristics occur.

Odling, N.; Elphick, S.; Main, I.; Meredith, P.; Ngwenya, B.

2003-04-01

62

Dynamic damage model of crevasse opening and application to glacier calving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theory and applications of continuum damage mechanics for ice are discussed, and on this basis, an ice damage model, valid at low stresses, is proposed. The model describes the damage itself, the rheology of the damaged ice, and the damage evolution. A local damaging and healing law is considered, and its parameterization is motivated. The model parameters are inferred from

A. Pralong; M. Funk

2005-01-01

63

The Influence of Grain Boundary Type upon Damage Evolution at Grain Boundary Interfaces  

SciTech Connect

In a prior work, it was found that grain boundary structure strongly influences damage evolution at grain boundaries in copper samples subjected to either shock compression or incipient spall. Here, several grain boundaries with different grain boundary structures, including a {Sigma}3 (10-1) boundary, are interrogated via conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) to investigate the effects of atomic-scale structural differences on grain boundary strength and mobility. Boundaries are studied both before and after shock compression at a peak shock stress of 10 GPa. Results of the TEM and HRTEM work are used in conjunction with MD modeling to propose a model for shock-induced damage evolution at grain boundary interfaces that is dependent upon coincidence.

Perez-Bergquist, Alejandro G [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brandl, Christian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Escobedo, Juan P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Trujillo, Carl P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cerreta, Ellen K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gray III, George T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Germann, Timothy C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-09

64

Analysis of WWER-440 and PWR RPV welds surveillance data to compare irradiation damage evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is known that for Russian-type and Western water reactor pressure vessel steels there is a similar degradation in mechanical properties during equivalent neutron irradiation. Available surveillance results from WWER and PWR vessels are used in this article to compare irradiation damage evolution for the different reactor pressure vessel welds. The analysis is done through the semi-mechanistic model for radiation embrittlement developed by JRC-IE. Consistency analysis with BWR vessel materials and model alloys has also been performed within this study. Globally the two families of studied materials follow similar trends regarding the evolution of irradiation damage. Moreover in the high fluence range typical of operation of WWER the radiation stability of these vessels is greater than the foreseen one for PWR.

Debarberis, L.; Acosta, B.; Zeman, A.; Sevini, F.; Ballesteros, A.; Kryukov, A.; Gillemot, F.; Brumovsky, M.

2006-04-01

65

Cumulative creep-fatigue damage evolution in an austenitic stainless steel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model of cumulative creep-fatigue damage has been developed which is based on the use of damage curve equations to describe the evolution of creep-fatigue damage for four basic creep-fatigue cycle types. These cycle types correspond to the four fundamental cycles of the Strain Range Partitioning Life Prediction approach of Manson, Halford, and Hirschberg. A concept referred to as Damage Coupling is introduced to analytically account for the differences in the nature of the damage introduced by each cycle type. For application of this model, the cumulative creep-fatigue damage behavior of type 316 stainless steel at 816 C has been experimentally established for the two-level loading cases involving fatigue and creep-fatigue, in various permutations. The tests were conducted such that the lower life (high strain) cycling was applied first, for a controlled number of cycles, and the higher life (lower strain) cycling was conducted at the second level, to failure. The proposed model correlated the majority of the observed cumulative creep-fatigue data.

Mcgaw, Michael A.

1992-01-01

66

Damage Evolution and Fault reactivation during Stimulation of a Geothermal Reservoir  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many geothermal projects the generation of additional fluid pathways, for example by injecting fluid into the geothermal well under high pressure, is necessary to achieve the required rate of fluid flow. Because in a number of geological setting pre-existing faults are the prefered target structures for geothermal wells, the interaction between the faults and fluid pressures generated during the stimulation needs to be considered as well as the influence of the faults of fluid flow. Therefore a good understanding of the interaction and feedback between permeability, porous flow and damage evolution is needed. In this study we are using numerical simulations of the coupled hydro-mechanical processes to investigate the relation between fluid injection, damage evolution and possible fault reactivation in a simplified model of a geothermal reservoir. The simulations are based on a Finite Element model including the damage evolution procedure developed by Karrech et al. 2014 [1]. The geometry, material properties and stress conditions used in the models are based on the available data from the geothermal site in Soultz-sous-Forets (France). The dominant geometrical structure in the model is a steeply dipping fault zone. Otherwise the rock is considered homogeneous. The geometry of the fault zone and its location relative to the well is simplified from Evans et al. 2005 [2]. The stress boundary conditions are taken from Cornet et al. 2007 [3]. Initial results show that the evolution of the damage, and therefore the permeability, in the model is strongly dependent on the material parameters, in particular the amount of pre-existing damage in fault zone. Under the injection pressures considered in this study a reactivation of the fault appears to be feasible only if the fault is already very weak prior to the stimulation. [1] A.Karrech, C.Schrank, R.Freij-Ayoub and K.Regenauer-Lieb, 2014, A multi-scaling approach to predict hydraulic damage of poromaterials, Int. J. Mech. Sci., v. 78, p. 1-7 [2] K.F.Evans, A.Genter and J. Sausse, 2005, Permeability creation and damage due to massive fluid injections into granite at 3.5 km at Soultz: 1. Borehole observations, J. Geophys. Res., v. 110, B04203 [3] F.H. Cornet, Th. Berard and S. Bourouis, 2007, How close to failure is a granite rock mass at a 5km depth?, Int. J. Rock. Mech. Min. Sci., v. 44, p. 47-66

Abe, Steffen; Karrech, Ali; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus; Deckert, Hagen

2014-05-01

67

Microscale damage evolution and stress redistribution in Ti–SiC fiber composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local damage evolution in a composite is the primary micromechanical process determining its fracture toughness, strength, and lifetime. In this study, high energy X-ray microdiffraction was used to measure the lattice strains of both phases in a Ti–SiC fiber composite laminate. The data provided in situ load transfer information under applied tensile stress at the scale of the microstructure. To

Jay C. Hanan; Ersan Üstündag; Irene J. Beyerlein; Geoffrey A. Swift; Jonathan D. Almer; Ulrich Lienert; Dean R. Haeffner

2003-01-01

68

Interlaminar Shear Fatigue Damage Evolution of 2-D Carbon-Carbon Composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-cycle and high-cycle bending fatigue experiments were conducted on 2-D woven carbon-carbon composites at room temperature to evaluate the possible evolution of damage within their complex microstructure. Since carbon-carbons are known to be weak in interlaminar shear, a 3-point bending geometry was chosen to produce high interlaminar shear stresses. This paper extends previous work by focusing on interlaminar shear fatigue,

J. C. Williams; S. W. Yurgartis; J. C. Moosbrugger

1996-01-01

69

Damage evolution in GLARE fibre-metal laminate under repeated low-velocity impact tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study was performed on the repeated low-velocity impact behaviour of GLARE. Damage evolution in the material constituents was characterised with successive number of impacts. Records were correlated with visual inspection, ultrasound C-scan and chemical etching. The stiffness of the plate varied when cumulating the number of impacts. Damage accumulation was limited thanks to the synthesis of unidirectional composite and metal. The glass/epoxy plies with high elastic tensile strength could withstand several impacts before perforation despite delamination growth in the vicinity of the impacted area. The damage tolerant aluminium layers prevented the penetration of the projectile and avoided the expansion of delamination. This efficient mechanism preserved the structural integrity of GLARE until first aluminium cracking at the non-impacted side. Among the different failure modes, plate deformation absorbed most of the impact energy. The findings will support the development of a generic quasi-static analytical model and numerical methods.

Morinière, Freddy D.; Alderliesten, René C.; Tooski, Mehdi Yarmohammad; Benedictus, Rinze

2012-12-01

70

Stable and unstable damage evolution in rocks with implications to fracturing of granite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address the relation between the rock rigidity and crack density by comparing predictions of a viscoelastic damage rheology model to laboratory data that include direct microscopic mapping of cracks. The damage rheology provides a generalization of Hookean elasticity to a non-linear continuum mechanics framework incorporating degradation and recovery of the effective elastic properties, transition from stable to unstable fracturing, and gradual accumulation of irreversible deformation. This approach is based on the assumption that the density of microcracks is uniform over a length scale much larger than the length of a typical crack, yet much smaller than the size of the entire deforming domain. For a system with a sufficiently large number of cracks, one can define a representative volume in which the crack density is uniform and introduce an intensive damage variable for this volume. We tested our viscoelastic damage rheology against sets of laboratory experiments done on Mount Scott granite. Based on fitting the entire stress-strain records the damage variable is constrained, and found to be a linear function of the crack density. An advantage of these sets experiments is that they were preformed with different loading paths and explicitly demonstrated the existence of stable and unstable fracturing regimes. We demonstrate that the viscoelastic damage rheology provides an adequate quantitative description of the brittle rock deformation and simulates both the stable and unstable damage evolution under various loading conditions. Comparison between the presented data analysis of experiments with Mount Scott granite and previous results with Westerly granite and Berea sandstone indicates that granular or porous rocks have lower seismic coupling. This implies that the portion of elastic strain released during a seismic cycle as brittle deformation depends on the lithology of the region. Hence, upper crustal regions with thick sedimentary cover, or fault zones with high degree of damage are expected to undergo a more significant inelastic deformation in the interseismic period compared to `intact' crystalline rocks.

Hamiel, Yariv; Katz, Oded; Lyakhovsky, Vladimir; Reches, Ze'ev; Fialko, Yuri

2006-11-01

71

Frictional response to velocity steps and 1-D fault nucleation under a state evolution law with stressing-rate dependence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new state evolution law has recently been proposed by Nagata et al. (2012) that includes a dependence upon stressing rate through a laboratory derived proportionality constant c. It has been claimed that this law, while retaining the time-dependent healing of the Dieterich (or Aging) law, can also match the symmetric response of the Ruina (or Slip) law to velocity step tests. We show through analytical approximations and numerical results that the new law transitions between the responses of the traditional Aging and Slip laws in velocity step-up/step-down experiments when the value of c is tuned properly. Particularly, for c=0, the response is pure Aging, while for finite, nonzero c one observes Slip law type behavior for small velocity jumps but Aging law type response for larger jumps. The magnitude of the velocity jump required to see this transition between aging and slip behaviors increases as c increases. In the limit of c?1 the response becomes purely Slip law type for all geologically plausible velocity jumps. We also present results from detailed analytical and numerical studies of the mechanism of rupture nucleation on 1-D faults under this new state evolution law to demonstrate that the style of nucleation can also be made to switch from Aging-type (expanding cracks) to Slip-type (slip pulses) by adjusting the value of c as indicated by the velocity step results.

Bhattacharya, P.; Rubin, A. M.

2014-03-01

72

Evolution Law of the Optical Field of Degenerate Parametric Amplifier in Dissipative Channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the time-evolution law of the optical field of degenerate parametric amplifier (DPA) in dissipative channel. It turns out that its density operator at initial time ? 0 = A exp( E ? a †2) exp( a † aln ?) exp( E a 2) evolves into where ? is the damping constant of the channel, T = 1 - e -2 ?t , and We employ the method of integration (or summation) within an ordered (normally ordered or antinormally ordered) of operators to overcome the obstacles in the process of calculation.

Chen, Feng; Fang, Bao-long; He, Rui; Fan, Hong-yi

2014-08-01

73

Mathematical modeling of genome evolution: Where do the power laws come from  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Power law distributions appear in numerous biological, physical, social and other contexts, which appear to be fundamentally different. In biology, power laws have been claimed to describe the distributions of the connections of enzymes and metabolites in metabolic networks, the number of interaction partners of a given protein, the number of members in paralogous families, and other quantities. In network analysis, power laws imply evolution of the network with preferential attachment, i.e. a greater likelihood of nodes being added to pre-existing hubs. Exploration of different types of evolutionary models in an attempt to determine which of them lead to power law distributions has the potential of revealing non-trivial aspects of genome evolution. A simple model of evolution of the domain composition of proteomes was developed, with the following elementary processes: i) domain birth (duplication with divergence), ii) death (inactivation and/or deletion), and iii) innovation (emergence from non-coding or non-globular sequences or acquisition via horizontal gene transfer). This formalism can be described as a birth, death and innovation model (BDIM). The formulas for equilibrium frequencies of domain families of different size and the total number of families at equilibrium were derived for a general BDIM. All asymptotics of equilibrium frequencies of domain families possible for the given type of models were found and their appearance depending on model parameters was investigated. It was proved that the power law asymptotics appears if, and only if, the model is balanced, i.e., domain duplication (birth) and deletion (death) rates are asymptotically equal up to the second order. It was further proved that any power asymptotic with the degree not equal to -1 can appear only if the assumption of independence of the birth/death rates on the size of a domain family is rejected. Specific cases of BDIMs, namely simple, linear, polynomial and rational models, were explored in detail and the distributions of the equilibrium frequencies of domain families of different size were determined for each case. The BDIM formalism was applied to the analysis of the domain family size distributions in prokaryotic and eukaryotic proteomes and an excellent fit was observed between these empirical data and a particular form of the model, the second-order balanced linear BDIM. Calculation of the parameters of these models suggests surprisingly high innovation rates, comparable to the total domain birth (duplication) and death (elimination) rates, particularly for prokaryotic genomes. Thus, a straightforward model of genome evolution, which does not explicitly include selection, seems to be sufficient to explain the observed distributions of domain family sizes, in which power laws appear as asymptotic. However, for the model to be compatible with the data, there has to be a precise balance between domain birth, death and innovation rates, and this is likely to be maintained by selection. The developed approach is oriented at a mathematical description of evolution of domain composition of proteomes, but a simple reformulation could be applied to models of other evolving networks with preferential attachment.

Koonin, Eugene

2003-03-01

74

Measuring Compensation from Credit Reporting Damage: A Comparison of Islamic, Saudi, and American Law in Light of Credit Information Reporting Acts  

E-print Network

with reference to both Shariah and Saudi Arabia law. Consequently, legal and Shariah solutions should be provided. This dissertation is a comprehensive study of credit reporting damage and remedies. It tackles issues related to definitions, history...

Alhaidary, Mansour

2012-05-31

75

Frequency Analysis of Acoustic Emission Signal to Monitor Damage Evolution in Masonry Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A crucial aspect in damage evaluation of masonry structures is the analysis of long-term behaviour and for this reason fatigue analysis has a great influence on safety assessment of this structures. Acoustic Emission (AE) are very effective non-destructive techniques applied to identify micro and macro-defects and their temporal evolution in several materials. This technique permits to estimate the velocity of ultrasound waves propagation and the amount of energy released during fracture propagation to obtain information on the criticality of the ongoing process. By means of AE monitoring, an experimental analysis on a set of reinforced and unreinforced masonry walls under variable amplitude and static loading has been carried out. During these tests, the AE signals were recorded. The AE signals were analysed using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to examine the frequency distribution of the micro and macro cracking. It possible to evaluate the evolution of the wavelength of the AE signal through the two characteristic peak in the AE spectrum signals and the wave speed of the P or S waves. This wavelength evolution can be represent the microcrak and macrocrack evolution in masonry walls. This procedure permits to estimate the fracture dimension characteristic in several loading condition and for several masonry reinforced condition.

Masera, D.; Bocca, P.; Grazzini, A.

2011-07-01

76

26 CFR 1.162-22 - Treble damage payments under the antitrust laws.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...except that Z Co.'s claim for treble damages was based on a conspiracy to fix and maintain prices with respect to electrical insulators for high-tension power poles. Since the civil action was not based on the same violation of the Federal antitrust...

2012-04-01

77

26 CFR 1.162-22 - Treble damage payments under the antitrust laws.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...except that Z Co.'s claim for treble damages was based on a conspiracy to fix and maintain prices with respect to electrical insulators for high-tension power poles. Since the civil action was not based on the same violation of the Federal antitrust...

2013-04-01

78

26 CFR 1.162-22 - Treble damage payments under the antitrust laws.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...except that Z Co.'s claim for treble damages was based on a conspiracy to fix and maintain prices with respect to electrical insulators for high-tension power poles. Since the civil action was not based on the same violation of the Federal antitrust...

2011-04-01

79

Jurisdiction and applicable law in cases of damage from space in Europe—The advent of the most suitable choice—Rome II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liability for space activities is a much discussed subject and the advent of commercial space operations has only added to its importance. Articles VI and VII Outer Space Treaty, together with Articles II and III Liability Convention, remain the main entry level for state liability for damage arising from private space activities. Few space-faring nations have introduced national space statutes that include a flow down of their international obligations. The European Union (EU) Regulation on the law applicable to non-contractual obligations—hereinafter Rome II Regulation—could harbour developments for liability law in the context of damage resulting from space operations. Space activities were not the main focus of the Regulation but may well turn out to be an interesting spin-off. The Regulation prescribes general rules that will determine the law applicable to damage scenarios where more than one legal system applies. It is important for trans-national tort cases in that it does not limit the rules of applicable law to EU Member States only. This paper focuses on the common rules applicable to damage actions based on torts or other non-contractual obligations as they apply to damage caused by space activities. After an assessment of the relevant international and national law norms, the impact of the Rome II Regulation will be addressed.

Smith, Lesley Jane; Doldirina, Catherine

2010-01-01

80

Damage and Microstructure Evolution in GaN under Au Ion Irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Damage and microstructure evolution in gallium nitride (GaN) under Au+ ion irradiation has been investigated using complementary electron microscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry and ion beam analysis techniques. Epitaxially-grown GaN layers (2-um-thick) have been irradiated by 2.0 MeV Au ions to 1.0 × 1015 and 1.4 × 1015 cm-2 at 155 K and 7.3 × 1015 cm-2 at 200 K. The irradiation-induced damage has been analyzed by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy in a channeling direction (RBS/C). For a better determination of ion-induced disorder profile, an iterative procedure and a Monte Carlo code (McChasy) are combined to analyze the ion channeling spectra. With increasing irradiation dose, separated amorphous layers develop from the sample surface and near the damage peak region. Formation of large nitrogen bubbles with sizes up to 70 nm is observed in the buried amorphous layer, while the surface layer contains small bubbles with diameter of a few nanometers due to significant nitrogen loss from the surface. Volume expansion from 3% to 25% in the irradiated region is suggested by cross sectional transmission electron microscope and RBS/C measurement. The anomalous shape of the Au distributions under three irradiations indicates out-diffusion of Au toward sample surface. The results from the complementary techniques suggest that nitrogen is retained in the damaged GaN where the crystallinity is preserved. Once the amorphous state is reached in the surface region, GaN starts to decompose and nitrogen escapes from the surface. Furthermore, experimental results show considerable errors in both disorder profile and ion range predicted by the Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter code, indicating a significant overestimation of electronic stopping powers of Au ions in GaN.

Zhang, Yanwen; Ishimaru, Manabu; Jagielski, Jacek; Zhang, Weiming; Zhu, Zihua; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Jiang, Weilin; Thome, Lionel; Weber, William J.

2010-02-11

81

Characterization of damage evolution in an AM60 magnesium alloy by computed tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL) are collaborating on the development of new techniques to study damage evolution and growth in material specimens subjected to mechanical loading. These techniques include metallography, radiography, computed tomography (CT) and modeling. The material specimens being studied include cast magnesium and aluminum alloys, and forged stainless steel. We will concentrate on characterizing monotonically loaded magnesium alloy specimens using computed tomography. Several notched tensile specimens were uniaxially loaded to different percentages of the failure load. Specimens were initially characterized by radiography and computed tomography to determine the preloaded state. Subsequent CT scans were performed after the samples were loaded to different percentages of the load failure. The CT volumetric data are being used to measure void size, distribution and orientation in all three dimensions nondestructively to determine the effect of void growth on the mechanical behavior of the materials.

Waters, Amy; Martz, Harry; Dolan, Ken; Horstemeyer, Mark; Rikard, Derrill; Green, Robert

1999-12-01

82

Effect of heat treatments on mechanical properties and damage evolution of thixoformed aluminium alloys  

SciTech Connect

In the present work, the effects of heat treatments on mechanical properties, microstructure evolution and damage resulting from plastic deformation of thixoformed A319 and A356 aluminium alloys, are studied. The thixoforming process can lead to the production of components that are characterized by very good mechanical properties and low porosity with a globular microstructure which is fine and uniform. The mechanical properties can be further improved through heat treatments such as T5 and T6. The prime factor influencing the damage in the alloys belonging to the Al-Si system is represented by decohesion of silicon particles resulting from the stress concentration at the particle-matrix interfaces. A statistical analysis of fractured particles after tensile tests in the as-cast and as-treated condition has been carried out in the present work; optical and scanning electron microscopy techniques have been used to characterize the microstructure and fracture surfaces of the specimens and the results are fully presented.

Cavaliere, P. [INFM-Dept. of Ingegneria dell'Innovazione, Engineering Faculty, University of Lecce, Via per Arnesano, I-73100-Lecce (Italy)]. E-mail: pasquale.cavaliere@unile.it; Cerri, E. [INFM-Dept. of Ingegneria dell'Innovazione, Engineering Faculty, University of Lecce, Via per Arnesano, I-73100-Lecce (Italy); Leo, P. [INFM-Dept. of Ingegneria dell'Innovazione, Engineering Faculty, University of Lecce, Via per Arnesano, I-73100-Lecce (Italy)

2005-07-15

83

Evolution of damage fraction due to dense ionizing irradiation on TiO2 film  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of damage fraction during dense ionizing irradiation at various fluences using 100 MeV Ag ion is studied. Irradiation induced modification of surface roughness and surface potential of titanium dioxide nanocrystalline thin films are estimated. TiO2 thin films deposited on Si (1 0 0) substrate were irradiated by 100 MeV Ag ion beam with varying fluences. Ion bombardment generates point and extended defects in TiO2 thin films due to dense electronic excitation. The surface morphology and surface roughness of irradiated and pristine thin films were measured using atomic force microscopy. The changes in surface potential of pristine as well as Ag ion beam irradiated thin films were measured from contact potential difference between TiO2 thin film (one electrode) of unknown work function and Au (reference electrode) of known work function using scanning Kelvin probe microscopy. The defect size and damage fraction are calculated from exponential fitting of variation of both contact surface potential difference and roughness exponent with fluence.

Kumar, Avesh; Kanjilal, D.; Mohanty, T.

2013-10-01

84

Relating damage evolution of concrete cooled to cryogenic temperatures to permeability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Typically, 9% Ni steel is used for primary containment of liquefied natural gas (LNG). Utilization of concrete in place of 9% Ni steel for primary containment would lead to significant cost savings. Hence, this study investigates changes in the microstructure of concrete due to cryogenic freezing that would affect its relevant engineering properties for containment. The study also evaluates the effect of aggregate type on the damage potential of concrete subjected to cryogenic freezing. The aim is to investigate design methodologies to produce damage-resistant cryogenic concrete. The study employed four concrete mixture designs involving river sand as fine aggregate, and coarse aggregates with different coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) values. Specifically, the coarse aggregates were limestone, sandstone, trap rock and lightweight aggregate. Concrete cubes were cured under water for at least 28 days and thereafter frozen from ambient (20 °C) to cryogenic temperature (-165 °C). Acoustic emission (AE) sensors were placed on the concrete cubes during freezing. X-ray computed tomography (XRCT) was employed to study the microstructure of concrete cores, before and after cryogenic freezing. The impact of the microstructural evolution thus obtained from AE and XRCT on relevant engineering properties was determined via water and chloride permeability tests. Microcrack propagation determined from AE correlated with changes in permeability. There were no observable cracks in majority of the concrete mixtures after freezing. This implies that microcracks detected via AE and increased permeability was very well distributed and smaller than the XRCT's resolution. Damage (microcracking) resistance of the concrete with different aggregates was in the order limestone ? trap rock ? lightweight aggregate ? sandstone.

Kogbara, Reginald B.; Iyengar, Srinath R.; Grasley, Zachary C.; Rahman, Syeda; Masad, Eyad A.; Zollinger, Dan G.

2014-11-01

85

Uniaxial ratcheting and fatigue failure of tempered 42CrMo steel: Damage evolution and damage-coupled visco-plastic constitutive model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uniaxial ratcheting and fatigue failure of tempered 42CrMo steel were observed by the tests under the uniaxial stress-controlled cyclic loading with non-zero mean stress [G.Z. Kang, Y.J. Liu, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 472 (2008) 258–268]. Based on the obtained experimental results, the evolution features of whole-life ratcheting behavior and low-cycle fatigue (LCF) damage of the material were discussed first. Then,

Guozheng Kang; Yujie Liu; Jun Ding; Qing Gao

2009-01-01

86

Computational applications of a coupled plasticity-damage constitutive model for simulating plain concrete fracture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A coupled plasticity-damage model for plain concrete is presented in this paper. Based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM), an isotropic and anisotropic damage model coupled with a plasticity model is proposed in order to effectively predict and simulate plain concrete fracture. Two different damage evolution laws for both tension and compression are formulated for a more accurate prediction of the

Rashid K. Abu Al-Rub; Sun-Myung Kim

2010-01-01

87

Damage evolution of a SiC/Ti-15-3 metal matrix composite with different heat treatments  

E-print Network

The purpose of this thesis was to study the effects of heat treatments on the deformation mechanisms of a SiCi MMC. The damage evolution for a four ply unidirectional SiC sigma fiber/Ti 15-3 MMC was studied for a uniaxial tensile loading. Both 90...

Miller, David Arthur

2012-06-07

88

The discrepancies in multistep damage evolution of yttria-stabilized zirconia irradiated with different ions  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports a comprehensive investigation of structural damage in yttria-stabilized zirconia irradiated with different ions over a wide fluence range. A similar multistep damage accumulation exists for the irradiations of different ions, but the critical doses for occurrence of second damage step, characterized by a faster increase in damage fraction, and the maximum elastic strain at the first damage step are varied and depend on ion mass. For irradiations of heavier ions, the second damage step occurs at a higher dose with a lower critical elastic strain. Furthermore, larger extended defects were observed in the irradiations of heavy ions at the second damage step. Associated with other experiment results and multistep damage accumulation model, the distinct discrepancies in the damage buildup under irradiations of different ions were interpreted by the effects of electronic excitation, energy of primary knock-on atom and chemistry contributions of deposited ions.

Yang, Tengfei [Peking University; Taylor, Caitlin A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kong, Shuyan [Peking University; Wang, Chenxu [Peking University; Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL; Huang, Xuejun [Peking University; Xue, Jianming [Peking University; Yan, Sha [Peking University; Wang, Yugang [Peking University

2013-01-01

89

An experimental-computational approach to the investigation of damage evolution in discontinuously reinforced aluminum matrix composite  

SciTech Connect

A combined experimental-computational approach to study the evolution of microscopic damage to cause failure in commercial SiC particle reinforced DRAs is dealt with. Determination of aspects of microstructural geometry that are most critical for damage nucleation and evolution forms a motivation for this work. An interrupted testing technique is invoked where the load is halted in the material instability zone, following necking but prior to fracture. Sample microstructures in the severely necked region are microscopically examined in three dimensions using a serial sectioning method. The micrographs are then stacked sequentially on a computer to reconstruct three-dimensional microstructures. Computer simulated equivalent microstructures with elliptical or ellipsoidal particles and cracks are constructed for enhanced efficiency, which are followed by tessellation into meshes of two- and three-dimensional Voronoi cells. Various characterization functions of geometric parameters are generated and sensitivity analysis is conducted to explore the influence of morphological parameters on damage. Micro-mechanical modeling of two-dimensional micrographs are conducted with the Voronoi cell finite element method (VCFEM). Inferrences on the initiation and propagation of damage are made from the two-dimensional simulations. Finally, the effect of size and characteristic lengths of representative material element (RME) on the extent of damage in the model systems is investigated.

Li, M.; Ghosh, S.; Richmond, O.

1999-09-29

90

An innovative multi-component variate that reveals hierarchy and evolution of structural damage in a solid: application to acrylic bone cement.  

PubMed

A major limitation of solid mechanics is the inability to take into account the influence of hierarchy and evolution of the inherent microscopic structure on evaluating the performance of materials. Irreversible damage and fracture in solids, studied commonly as cracks, flaws, and conventional material properties, are by no means descriptive of the subsequent responses of the microstructures to the applied load. In this work, we addressed this limitation through the use of a novel multi-component variate. The essence of this variate is that it allows the presentation of the random damage in the amplitude spectrum, probability space, and probabilistic entropy. Its uniqueness is that it reveals the evolution and hierarchy of random damage in multi- and trans-scales, and, in addition, it includes the correlations among the various damage features. To better understand the evolution and hierarchy of random damage, we conducted a series of experiments designed to test three variants of a poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) bone cement, distinguished by the methods used to sterilize the cement powder. While analysis of results from conventional tension tests and scanning electron microscopy failed to pinpoint differences among these cement variants, our multi-component variate allowed quantification of the multi- and trans-scale random damage events that occurred in the loading process. We tested the statistical significance of damage states to differentiate the responses at the various loading stages and compared the damage states among the groups. We also interpreted the hierarchical and evolutional damage in terms of the probabilistic entropy (s), the applied stress (?), and the trajectory of damage state. We found that the cement powder sterilization method has a strong influence on the evolution of damage states in the cured cement specimens when subjected to stress in controlled mechanical tests. We have shown that in PMMA bone cements, our damage state variate has the unique ability to quantify and discern the history and evolution of microstructural damage. PMID:22071983

Qi, Gang; Fan, Ming; Lewis, Gladius; Wayne, Steven F

2012-02-01

91

A QUASISTATIC EVOLUTION MODEL FOR THE INTERACTION BETWEEN FRACTURE AND DAMAGE  

E-print Network

and healthy parts of the medium. The brutal character of the damage process is then replaced by a progressive of loading-unloading tests. In brutal damage, each point of the material is supposed to exhibit only two-dependent loading, where all rate dependent effects like viscosity or inertia are neglected, one can consider damage

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

92

Off-fault damage and acoustic emission distributions during the evolution of structurally complex faults over series of stick-slip events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in fault structure, for example, surface roughness and deformation zone width, influence the location and dynamics of large earthquakes as well as the distribution of small seismic events. In nature, changes in fault roughness and seismicity characteristics can rarely be studied simultaneously, so that little is known about their interaction and evolution. Here, we investigate the connection between fault structure and near-fault distributions of seismic events over series of stick-slip cycles in the laboratory. We conducted a set of experiments on rough faults that developed from incipient fracture surfaces. We monitored stress and seismic activity which occurred in the form of acoustic emissions (AEs). We determined AE density distributions as a function of fault normal distance based on high-accuracy hypocentre locations during subsequent interslip periods. The characteristics of these distributions were closely connected to different structural units of the faults, that is, the fault core, off-fault and background damage zone. The core deformation zone was characterized by consistently high seismic activity, whereas the off-fault damage zone displayed a power-law decay of seismic activity with increasing distance from the fault core. The exponents of the power-law-distributed off-fault activity increased with successive stick-slip events so that later interslip periods showed a more rapid spatial decay of seismic activity from the fault. The increase in exponents was strongest during the first one to three interslip periods and reached approximately constant values thereafter. The relatively rapid spatial decay of AE events during later interslip periods is likely an expression of decreasing fault zone complexity and roughness. Our results indicate a close relationship between fault structure, stress and seismic off-fault activity. A more extensive mapping of seismic off-fault activity-decay has the potential to significantly advance the understanding of fault zone properties including variations in fault roughness and stress.

Goebel, T. H. W.; Becker, T. W.; Sammis, C. G.; Dresen, G.; Schorlemmer, D.

2014-06-01

93

Features in chemical kinetics. I. Signatures of self-emerging dimensional reduction from a general format of the evolution law  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Simplification of chemical kinetics description through dimensional reduction is particularly important to achieve an accurate numerical treatment of complex reacting systems, especially when stiff kinetics are considered and a comprehensive picture of the evolving system is required. To this aim several tools have been proposed in the past decades, such as sensitivity analysis, lumping approaches, and exploitation of time scales separation. In addition, there are methods based on the existence of the so-called slow manifolds, which are hyper-surfaces of lower dimension than the one of the whole phase-space and in whose neighborhood the slow evolution occurs after an initial fast transient. On the other hand, all tools contain to some extent a degree of subjectivity which seems to be irremovable. With reference to macroscopic and spatially homogeneous reacting systems under isothermal conditions, in this work we shall adopt a phenomenological approach to let self-emerge the dimensional reduction from the mathematical structure of the evolution law. By transforming the original system of polynomial differential equations, which describes the chemical evolution, into a universal quadratic format, and making a direct inspection of the high-order time-derivatives of the new dynamic variables, we then formulate a conjecture which leads to the concept of an ``attractiveness'' region in the phase-space where a well-defined state-dependent rate function ? has the simple evolution ??=-?2 along any trajectory up to the stationary state. This constitutes, by itself, a drastic dimensional reduction from a system of N-dimensional equations (being N the number of chemical species) to a one-dimensional and universal evolution law for such a characteristic rate. Step-by-step numerical inspections on model kinetic schemes are presented. In the companion paper [P. Nicolini and D. Frezzato, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 234102 (2013)] this outcome will be naturally related to the appearance (and hence, to the definition) of the slow manifolds.

Nicolini, Paolo; Frezzato, Diego

2013-06-01

94

Does the universe obey the energy conservation law by a constant mass or an increasing mass with radius during its evolution?  

Microsoft Academic Search

How the energy conservation law is obeyed by the universe during its evolution is an important but not yet unanimously resolved question. Does the universe have a constant mass during its evolution or has its mass been increasing with its radius? Here, we evaluate the two contending propositions within the context of the Friedmann equations and the standard big bang

Akinbo Ojo

2008-01-01

95

Evolution of a hairpin vortex in a shear-thinning fluid governed by a power-law model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of a shear-thinning fluid governed by a power-law model on the evolution of a hairpin vortex in a wall-bounded flow was studied by means of direct numerical simulation. With a fixed Reynolds number and hairpin vortex strength, the effect of shear-thinning on vortex evolution could be isolated. The primary observation is that very early in time shear-thinning has the effect of reducing the production of vortex kinetic energy and dramatically increasing viscous dissipation. This leads to a delay in the transition of the flow to a turbulent state. Three-dimensional flow visualizations reveal that the increased dissipation is associated with an instability in which the hairpin vortex is broken down into small-scale structures. It is suggested that the finite amplitude of the hairpin creates a lowering of viscosity near the hairpin vortex core which leads to this instability.

Zhen, Ni; Handler, Robert A.; Zhang, Qi; Oeth, Cassandra

2013-10-01

96

The effect of stress rate on crack damage evolution in polystyrene and PEEK. Ph.D. Thesis  

SciTech Connect

The effects of stress rate on fatigue crack propagation (FCP) in polystyrene (PS) and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) were examined emphasizing damage evolution during fatigue fracture. Extruded and compression molded PS were studied. Craze distributions along trailing edges of successive process zone configurations in each material were self-similar. A core of dense crazing was observed in the extruded PS; no core was observed in the compression molded material. These results have important implications for the kinematics of process zone evolution in compression molded PS. Crack growth kinetics were treated as dl/dn and dl/dt. Consideration of the loading waveform and the load-time-area (LTA) revealed that LTA and rate effects couldn`t be decoupled. However, by treating the data as dl/dt the contribution of LTA constant, and the effect of stress rate was determined. Attempts were made to quantify the contributions of fatigue and creep LTA on total FCP kinetics by linear summation. While these failed, it was subsequently determined that two linear regimes separated by a characteristic period could approximate the data. The contributions of both stress rate and LTA varied above and below this characteristic period. From this analysis, the contributions of time and cycle reversal could be evaluated. Crack growth due to creep exhibited strong correlation with an exponential function compatible with stress-temperature activated processes. The crack damage evolution of PEEK as a function of stress rate during fatigue was also investigated. A brittle-ductile transition was observed characterized by a transformation at the crack tip from a rounded to a triangular (90 deg angle) crack front. The results showed that the damaged material ahead of the crack tip behaved as an elastic perfectly plastic material (plane stress conditions). This damage zone was further characterized as a volume of transformed material.

Gregory, B.L.

1993-01-01

97

Compaction localization in Saint-Maximin limestone: Spatial evolution of damage and acoustic emission activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of deformation and failure in many sedimentary settings hinges upon a fundamental understanding of inelastic behavior and failure mode of porous carbonate rocks. Previous laboratory studies on low to intermediate porosity limestone showed that even if porosity had several important effects on the overall mechanical behavior, a similar phenomenology of failure was observed in rocks with porosity ranging from 3 to 18%. Dilatancy and shear localization developed under low confining pressure, while strain hardening and shear-enhanced compaction were observed at elevated confining pressure. Samples deformed in the compactive regime failed by homogeneous cataclastic flow. However, recent field observations revealed the development of deformation bands in higher porosity carbonates. To investigate the development of compaction localization in carbonate rocks, we have conducted a systematic study of deformation and failure in Saint-Maximin limestone of 37% porosity. To investigate the development of compaction localization in carbonate rock, we have conducted a systematic study of deformation and failure in Saint-Maximin limestone of 37% porosity. Two series of conventional triaxial experiments were performed in parallel at room temperature, constant strain rate in both dry and wet conditions at confining pressures between 3 and 50 MPa. Wet experiments were carried out with water in drained conditions at 10 MPa of pore pressure. The first series of experiments were performed at IPG Strasbourg on relatively small samples. The failure modes and spatial distribution of damage were studied systematically in these samples. The second series of experiments were performed on larger samples at ENS Paris. Acoustic emission activity was recorded during these tests. The events were located via 12 piezoelectric transducers attached to the samples. The evolution of P-wave velocity in four directions was also recorded during these experiments. Shear enhanced compaction was observed at all pressures conditions. Compactive shear band developed at low effective pressures, while more complex failure modes involving deformation bands of variable orientations were observed at higher effective pressures. A significant weakening effect of water was also observed in Saint Maximin limestone. Our new data showed that the onset of inelastic compaction in Saint Maximin limestone was, like in porous sandstone, marked by a clear increase in acoustic emission activity both in dry and wet conditions. A relatively modest decrease of Vp was observed during the experiments. Strain gage data, acoustic emission and velocity data confirmed that compaction localization occurred in both dry and wet conditions. * Currently at Andra, Châtenay Malabry , France

Rolland, Alexandra; Schubnel, Alexandre; Baud, Patrick

2010-05-01

98

Study of the damage evolution function of tin silver copper in cycling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present research focused on the assessment of solder joint fatigue life in microelectronics assemblies. A general concern of any reliability engineer is whether accelerated tests are relevant to field conditions. The risk of this was minimized by developing an approach to reduce the duration of an accelerated thermal cycling test, thus allowing for the use of less accelerated test conditions. For this purpose the conventional dye and pry technique was improved and used together with artificial neural networks to measure and characterize very early stages of crack growth. The same work also demonstrated a quantitative link between thermal cycling induced recrystallization and a strong acceleration of the subsequent fatigue crack growth and failure. A new study was conducted in which different combinations of annealing and isothermal cycling provided a systematic characterization of the effects of a range of individual parameters on the recrystallization. Experiments showed the ongoing coarsening of secondary precipitates to have a clear effect on recrystallization. The rate of recrystallization was also shown not to scale with the inelastic energy deposition. This means that the most popular current thermal cycling model cannot apply to SnAgCu solder joints. Recrystallization of the Sn grains is usually not the rate limiting mechanism in isothermal cycling. The crack initiation stage often takes up a much greater fraction of the overall life, and the eventual failure of BGA joints tends to involve transgranular crack growth instead. Cycling of individual solder joints allowed for monitoring of the evolution of the solder properties and the rate of inelastic energy deposition. Both the number of cycles to crack initiation and the subsequent number of cycles to failure were shown to be determined by the inelastic energy deposition. This provides for a simple model for the extrapolation of accelerated test results to the much milder cycling amplitudes characteristic of long term service conditions based on conventional Finite Element Modeling. It also offers a critical basis for the ongoing development of a practical model to account for the often dramatic break-down of Miner's rule of linear damage accumulation under variable cycling amplitudes as expected in realistic applications.

Qasaimeh, Awni

99

Study on Law of Groundwater Evolution under Natural and Artificial Forcing with Case study of Haihe River Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of groundwater is one of the key problems of water cycle study. It is a result of joint effect of natural condition and human activities, but until now the driving forces of groundwater system evolution were not fully understood due to the complexity of groundwater system structures and the uncertainty of affecting factors. Geology, precipitation and human activity are the main factors affecting the groundwater system evolution and interact each other, but the influence of such three factors on groundwater system are not clarified clearly on a macroscopic scale. The precipitation changes the volume of water recharge and the groundwater pumping effect the discharge of groundwater. Another important factor influencing balance of groundwater storage is the underlaying that affects the renewablility of groundwater. The underlaying is decided mainly by geological attributes but also influenced by human activited. The macroscopic environment of groundwater evolves under the natural and anthropic factors. This paper study the general law of groundwater evolution among the factors based on the case study in Haihe River Basin, a typical area with dramatic groundwater change under natural precipitation attenuation and gradually increase of water suuply. Haihe River Basin is located in north-China, covers an area of 320,041 km2 with over 40% plain areas. The plain area of Haihe Basin is densely populated with many large and medium-sized cities, including metropolis of Beijing and Tianjin, and concentrated irrigated areas, playing important roles in China's economy and food production. It is the unique basin where groundwater occupies majority of total water supply in China. Long-term groundwater over-exploitation causes a series of ecological and environmental problems that threats the sustainable development. In this paper, the historical process of groundwater balance in Haihe Basin is divided into three phases by decrease of rainfall and increase of water pumping. The different problems caused by groundwater shrinkage are summarized. The volume of recharge from natural precipitation and artificial water cycle, natural evaporation and groundwater exploitation are analyzed based on water balance. Through the historical data analysis the changing trend of coefficients of groundwater balance discovers the evolution of groundwater. The general law is concluded with deeper analysis displays the contribution of natural and artificial factors causing deterioration of groundwater balance. A general law of groundwater evolution is put forward to describe the affection of both natural and anthropogenic factors with a relation curve. Considering the water demand of future socio-economic development in Haihe River Basin, the prospective of future vision of groundwater cycle is analyzed by the law of groundwater evolution. Iterated scenario analysis based on comparison of ameliorative function on groundwater balance to point out reasonable control on groundwater exploitation and rational water allocation under the condition of completion of South-to-North Water Transfer Project that could bring more than 7 billion m3 into Haihe River Basin from Yantze River. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages are concluded through the case study and the farther research in this field is pointed out.

You, Jinjun; Gan, Hong; Wang, Lin; Bi, Xue; Du, Sisi

2010-05-01

100

A QUASISTATIC EVOLUTION MODEL FOR THE INTERACTION BETWEEN FRACTURE AND DAMAGE  

E-print Network

and healthy parts of the medium. The brutal character of the damage process is then replaced by a progressive during a series of loading-unloading tests. In brutal damage, each point of the material is supposed is subjected to a time-dependent loading, where all rate dependent effects like viscosity or inertia

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

101

EVALUATION OF DAMAGE EVOLUTION UNDER REPEATED LOADING OF POST-TENSIONED CONCRETE BEAMS BY ACOUSTIC EMISSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent collapses of bridges have demonstrated once again the need for reliable tools for an early monitoring of damage progression. Damages due to deterioration processes, overload, bad design, poor material quality, can grow subcritically until final collapse of the structure. AE method has been successful used for more than 20 years in industry for monitoring metal equipments (pipelines, pressure vessels,

Edoardo Proverbio; Giuseppe Campanella; Vincenzo Venturi

102

Multistep damage evolution process in cubic zirconia irradiated with MeV ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reports the study, via the combination of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and channeling, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy experiments, of the damage formation in cubic yttria-stabilized zirconia single crystals irradiated with medium-energy (4 MeV) heavy (Au) ions. The damage buildup, which is accounted for in the framework of the multistep damage accumulation model, occurs in three steps. The first step at low fluences (up to 1015 cm-2), characterized by a regular increase in both the damage yield and the elastic strain, is related to the formation of small defect clusters. The second step in the intermediate fluence range (from 1015 to 5×1015 cm-2) leads to a sharp increase in the damage yield and to a large drop of the strain due to the formation of dislocation loops which collapse into a network of tangled dislocations. The third step at high fluences (above 5×1015 cm-2) exhibits a surprising decrease in the damage yield, which may be attributed to the reorganization of the dislocation network that leads to the formation of weakly damaged regions with a size of the order of 100 nm.

Moll, S.; Thomé, L.; Sattonnay, G.; Debelle, A.; Garrido, F.; Vincent, L.; Jagielski, J.

2009-10-01

103

Penetration and induced damage evolution of concrete and granite when subjected to multiple projectile impacts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental study was conducted to investigate the penetration process of multiple impacts into concrete targets. The concrete targets were subjected to repeated constant velocity impacts with an ogive nose projectile. The penetration and crater formation data were consistent with single impact penetration data from previous studies conducted at Sandia National Laboratories. In order to predict the depth of the multiple impact penetration, a single impact penetration model, developed by M. Forrestal at Sandia National Laboratories, was extended to account for the degradation of the target strength with each subsequent impact. The degradation of the target was determined empirically and included in the model as a strength-modifying factor. To further understand the multiple impact penetration process, a study was conducted to look at both the static and dynamic properties of concrete and granite as a function of induced damage. Both static and dynamic compression experiments were performed on concrete and granite specimens with various levels of induced damage. The static compressive strength of both materials decreased with increasing levels of damage due to the induced damage causing the activation and propagation of failure cracks in the specimens. In contrast, the dynamic compressive strength remained unchanged with increasing damage due to the inability of the fracture process zone to develop and relieve the strain energy before complete specimen failure. A series of dynamic and static tensile-splitting experiments were performed on concrete and granite specimens to investigate the effect of induced damage on their tensile strength. The experiments showed that the static splitting strength was highly dependent on the orientation of the induced damage with regard to the applied loading, however the dynamic tensile strength decreased with increasing damage with no apparent dependency on the random damage orientation. Photoelastic experiments have shown that the mechanism of failure changes for the dynamically tested damaged specimens, reducing their dependence on damage orientation. The photoelastic experiments also determined that the tensile splitting specimen was in equilibrium at the time of failure, and that the dynamic stress field closely resembles the static splitting stress field.

Gomez, Jason Thomas

104

Numerical simulation of serviceability, damage evolution and failure of reinforced concrete shells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper deals with FE-simulations of damage and failure processes in reinforced concrete structures, with emphasis on the description of suitable material models. For concrete, the generally accepted equivalent strain concept (pseudo-1D) is applied, which allows consideration of arbitrary concrete qualities. In the case of cyclic processes, elastic, plastic as well as micro-damage material phases are considered in an

Sam-Young Noh; Wilfried B. Krätzig; Konstantin Meskouris

2003-01-01

105

Simulation of damage evolution in ductile metals undergoing dynamic loading conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of constitutive equations for large rate-dependent elastic–plastic-damage materials at elevated temperatures is presented to be able to analyze adiabatic high strain rate deformation processes for a wide range of stress triaxialities. The model is based on the concepts of continuum damage mechanics. Since the material macroscopic thermo-mechanical response under large strain and high strain rate deformation loading is

Michael Brünig; Steffen Gerke

2011-01-01

106

A computational model for predicting damage evolution in laminated composite plates  

E-print Network

The feasibility of producing a model capable of predicting the evolution of interface degradation, matrix cracking, and delimitation at multiple sites in laminated continuous fiber composite plates subjected to monotonic loading, while still being...

Phillips, Mark Lane

2012-06-07

107

Comparing Monofractal and Multifractal Analysis of Corrosion Damage Evolution in Reinforcing Bars  

PubMed Central

Based on fractal theory and damage mechanics, the aim of this paper is to describe the monofractal and multifractal characteristics of corrosion morphology and develop a new approach to characterize the nonuniform corrosion degree of reinforcing bars. The relationship between fractal parameters and tensile strength of reinforcing bars are discussed. The results showed that corrosion mass loss ratio of a bar cannot accurately reflect the damage degree of the bar. The corrosion morphology of reinforcing bars exhibits both monofractal and multifractal features. The fractal dimension and the tensile strength of corroded steel bars exhibit a power function relationship, while the width of multifractal spectrum and tensile strength of corroded steel bars exhibit a linear relationship. By comparison, using width of multifractal spectrum as multifractal damage variable not only reflects the distribution of corrosion damage in reinforcing bars, but also reveals the influence of nonuniform corrosion on the mechanical properties of reinforcing bars. The present research provides a new approach for the establishment of corrosion damage constitutive models of reinforcing bars. PMID:22238682

Xu, Yidong; Qian, Chunxiang; Pan, Lei; Wang, Bingbing; Lou, Chi

2012-01-01

108

Helicopter rotor blade frequency evolution with damage growth and signal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural damage in materials evolves over time due to growth of fatigue cracks in homogenous materials and a complicated process of matrix cracking, delamination, fiber breakage and fiber matrix debonding in composite materials. In this study, a finite element model of the helicopter rotor blade is used to analyze the effect of damage growth on the modal frequencies in a qualitative manner. Phenomenological models of material degradation for homogenous and composite materials are used. Results show that damage can be detected by monitoring changes in lower as well as higher mode flap (out-of-plane bending), lag (in-plane bending) and torsion rotating frequencies, especially for composite materials where the onset of the last stage of damage of fiber breakage is most critical. Curve fits are also proposed for mathematical modeling of the relationship between rotating frequencies and cycles. Finally, since operational data are noisy and also contaminated with outliers, denoising algorithms based on recursive median filters and radial basis function neural networks and wavelets are studied and compared with a moving average filter using simulated data for improved health-monitoring application. A novel recursive median filter is designed using integer programming through genetic algorithm and is found to have comparable performance to neural networks with much less complexity and is better than wavelet denoising for outlier removal. This filter is proposed as a tool for denoising time series of damage indicators.

Roy, Niranjan; Ganguli, Ranjan

2005-05-01

109

Is Power Law Scaling a quantitative description of Darwin Theory of Evolution?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work, via computational simulation we study the statistical\\u000adistribution of people versus number of steps acquired by them in a learning\\u000aprocess, considering Darwin classical theory of evolution, i.e. competition,\\u000alearning and survival for the fittest. We consider that learning ability is\\u000anormally distributed. We found that the number of people versus step acquired\\u000aby them in

Hari Mohan Gupta; Dpto Física

2003-01-01

110

The evolution of damage and fracture in iron compacts with various initial porosities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the tensile and compressive mechanical properties of iron compacts of various initial porosities, and determined the effect of deformation on the evolution of porosity, pore size and pore shape. The loss in flow strength with porosity was considerably greater than predicted by Gurson's constitutive model for ductile porous materials, but it was in substantial agreement with recent

W. A. Spitzig; R. E. Smelser; O. Richmond

1988-01-01

111

Evolution of oxidation and creep damage mechanisms in HIPed silicon nitride materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several yttria-fluxed, hot-isostatically pressed (HIPed) silicon nitrides have been tensile creep tested at temperatures representative of gas turbine engines. Creep and oxidation assisted damage mechanisms concurrently evolve when these materials are tested at high temperatures and low stresses (i.e., long exposure times at temperature). Atmospheric creep testing results in creation of oxygen and yttrium gradients across the radial dimension. High

A. A. Wereszczak; M. K. Ferber; T. P. Kirkland; K. L. More

1994-01-01

112

THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION OF MICROSTRUCTURE EVOLUTION AND DEFORMATION OF ZIRCONIUM UNDER CASCADE DAMAGE CONDITIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work is based on our reaction-diffusion model of radiation growth of Zr-based materials proposed recently in [1]. In [1], the equations for the strain rates in unloaded pure crystal under cascade damage conditions of, e.g., neutron or heavy-ion irradiation were derived as functions of dislocation densities, which include contributions from dislocation loops, and spatial distribution of their Burgers vectors.

Alexander V Barashev; Stanislav I Golubov; Roger E Stoller

2012-01-01

113

Deformation Failure Characteristics of Coal Body and Mining Induced Stress Evolution Law  

PubMed Central

The results of the interaction between coal failure and mining pressure field evolution during mining are presented. Not only the mechanical model of stope and its relative structure division, but also the failure and behavior characteristic of coal body under different mining stages are built and demonstrated. Namely, the breaking arch and stress arch which influence the mining area are quantified calculated. A systematic method of stress field distribution is worked out. All this indicates that the pore distribution of coal body with different compressed volume has fractal character; it appears to be the linear relationship between propagation range of internal stress field and compressed volume of coal body and nonlinear relationship between the range of outburst coal mass and the number of pores which is influenced by mining pressure. The results provide theory reference for the research on the range of mining-induced stress and broken coal wall. PMID:24967438

Wen, Zhijie; Wen, Jinhao; Shi, Yongkui; Jia, Chuanyang

2014-01-01

114

Stochastic Damage Evolution under Static and Fatigue Loading in Composites with Manufacturing Defects  

E-print Network

&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved by: Chair of Committee, Ramesh Talreja Committee Members, Anastasia Muliana J. N. Reddy Vikram Kinra Head of Department, Dimitris Lagoudas... of China; M.S., Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Ramesh Talreja In this dissertation, experimental investigations and theoretical studies on the stochastic matrix cracking evolution under static and fatigue loading in composite...

Huang, Yongxin

2012-07-16

115

PREDICTION OF PROXIMAL FEMORAL FRACTURE BY USING MECHANICAL QUASI-BRITTLE DAMAGE COUPLED WITH ANISOTROPIC BEHAVIOUR LAW  

E-print Network

the fracture of cortical bone based on fracture mechanics concepts [4-7]. Fracture mechanics approach combines if if PREDICTION OF PROXIMAL FEMORAL FRACTURE BY USING MECHANICAL QUASI-BRITTLE DAMAGE COUPLED WITH ANISOTROPIC : abettamer2003@yahoo.com Introduction A femoral fracture caused by the osteoporosis becomes increasingly

Boyer, Edmond

116

Re-evolution of lost mandibular teeth in frogs after more than 200 million years, and re-evaluating Dollo's law.  

PubMed

Dollo's law states that structures that are evolutionarily lost will not be regained. Recent phylogenetic studies have revealed several potential examples in which Dollo's law seems to be violated, where lost structures appear to have been regained over evolutionary time. However, these examples have recently been questioned and suggested to be methodological artifacts. In this article, I document a striking and incontrovertible phylogenetic example of the re-evolution of a lost, complex structure: mandibular teeth in the frog genus Gastrotheca. I use a time-calibrated phylogeny for 170 amphibian species to show that mandibular teeth were lost in the ancestor of modern frogs at least 230 million years ago (Mya) and have been regained in the last ? 5-17 My. I review recent studies on trait re-evolution and show that this long period of trait absence prior to re-acquisition is largely unprecedented. I also argue that there are several methodological issues that may cause trait re-evolution to be hardest to detect under those conditions when it is most likely to occur, leading to erroneous failures to reject Dollo's law. Finally, I discuss a mechanism that may facilitate trait re-evolution, and the evolution of mandibular teeth in frogs as an example of developmental constraint. PMID:21521189

Wiens, John J

2011-05-01

117

Patterns of evolution of myocyte damage after human heart transplantation detected by indium-111 monoclonal antimyosin  

SciTech Connect

The indium-111 labeled Fab fragment of antimyosin monoclonal antibody was used to study cardiac rejection and the time course of myocyte damage after transplantation. Fifty-three studies were performed in 21 patients, 17 men and 4 women, aged 19 to 54 years (mean 37 +/- 8), from 7 to 40 months after transplantation. Repeat studies were available in 8, and 10 were studied after the first year of transplantation. A heart-to-lung ratio was used for quantitation of uptake (normal 1.46 +/- 0.04). Differences between absent (1.69 +/- 0.29) and moderate (1.90 +/- 0.36) rejection were significant (p less than 0.03). Antimyosin ratio at 1 to 3 months (1.89 +/- 0.35) differed from that at greater than 12 months (1.65 +/- 0.2) (p less than 0.01). Repeat studies revealed a decrease in antimyosin ratio in 5 patients with uneventful clinical course; 2 had persistent activity after transplantation and suffered heart failure from rejection. After 1 year of transplantation uptake was within normal limits in 7 of 10 patients, and high uptake was associated with vascular rejection in 1. Because they can define evolving patterns of myocardial lesion activity, antimyosin studies could be useful both in patient management and in concentrating resources for those patients who most require them. The heart-to-lung ratio is suggested to monitor sequentially the degree of myocyte damage after transplantation.

Ballester-Rodes, M.; Carrio-Gasset, I.; Abadal-Berini, L.; Obrador-Mayol, D.; Berna-Roqueta, L.; Caralps-Riera, J.M.

1988-09-15

118

An explicit finite element formulation for dynamic strain localization and damage evolution in metals  

SciTech Connect

An explicit finite element formulation, used to study the behavior and failure mechanisms of metallic materials under high strain rate loading, is presented. The formulation is based on the assumed-strain approach of Fish and Belytschko [1988], which allows localization bands to be embedded within an element, thereby alleviating mesh sensitivity and reducing the required computational effort. The behavior of the material outside localization bands (and of the virgin material prior to the onset of strain localization) is represented using a Gurson-type coupled plasticity-damage model based on the work of Johnson and Addessio [1988]. Assuming adiabatic conditions, the response of the localization band material is represented by a set of constitutive equations for large elasticviscoplastic deformations in metals at high strain rates and high homologous temperatures (see Brown et al. [1989]). Computational results are compared to experimental data for different metallic alloys to illustrate the advantages of the proposed modeling strategy.

Mourad, Hashem M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bronkhorst, Curt A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Addessio, Francis L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-16

119

Civil Law Glossary.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a glossary of civil law terms originally compiled for journalists by the American Bar Association. Defines many essential civil law concepts and practices including compensatory damages, jurisdiction, motion to dismiss, discovery, and remedy. (MJP)

Update on Law-Related Education, 1997

1997-01-01

120

Evolution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Traces the history of evolution theory from Lamarck and Darwin to the present. Discusses natural selection in detail. Suggests that, besides biological evolution, there is also a cultural evolution which is more rapid than the former. (MA)

Mayr, Ernst

1978-01-01

121

32 CFR 842.111 - Applicable law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...countries. The general principles of tort law common to the majority of American...of damages. (1) Normally, the law of the place where the act or omission...with general principles of American tort law. (2) Damages in suits...

2010-07-01

122

Genetic basis of a violation of Dollo's Law: re-evolution of rotating sex combs in Drosophila bipectinata.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic analyses suggest that violations of "Dollo's law"--that is, re-evolution of lost complex structures--do occur, albeit infrequently. However, the genetic basis of such reversals has not been examined. Here, we address this question using the Drosophila sex comb, a recently evolved, male-specific morphological structure composed of modified bristles. In some species, sex comb development involves only the modification of individual bristles, while other species have more complex "rotated" sex combs that are shaped by coordinated migration of epithelial tissues. Rotated sex combs were lost in the ananassae species subgroup and subsequently re-evolved, ?12 million years later, in Drosophila bipectinata and its sibling species. We examine the genetic basis of the differences in sex comb morphology between D. bipectinata and D. malerkotliana, a closely related species with a much simpler sex comb representing the ancestral condition. QTL mapping reveals that >50% of this difference is controlled by one chromosomal inversion that covers ?5% of the genome. Several other, larger inversions do not contribute appreciably to the phenotype. This genetic architecture suggests that rotating sex combs may have re-evolved through changes in relatively few genes. We discuss potential developmental mechanisms that may allow lost complex structures to be regained. PMID:23086218

Seher, Thaddeus D; Ng, Chen Siang; Signor, Sarah A; Podlaha, Ondrej; Barmina, Olga; Kopp, Artyom

2012-12-01

123

Genetic Basis of a Violation of Dollo's Law: Re-Evolution of Rotating Sex Combs in Drosophila bipectinata  

PubMed Central

Phylogenetic analyses suggest that violations of “Dollo’s law”—that is, re-evolution of lost complex structures—do occur, albeit infrequently. However, the genetic basis of such reversals has not been examined. Here, we address this question using the Drosophila sex comb, a recently evolved, male-specific morphological structure composed of modified bristles. In some species, sex comb development involves only the modification of individual bristles, while other species have more complex “rotated” sex combs that are shaped by coordinated migration of epithelial tissues. Rotated sex combs were lost in the ananassae species subgroup and subsequently re-evolved, ?12 million years later, in Drosophila bipectinata and its sibling species. We examine the genetic basis of the differences in sex comb morphology between D. bipectinata and D. malerkotliana, a closely related species with a much simpler sex comb representing the ancestral condition. QTL mapping reveals that >50% of this difference is controlled by one chromosomal inversion that covers ?5% of the genome. Several other, larger inversions do not contribute appreciably to the phenotype. This genetic architecture suggests that rotating sex combs may have re-evolved through changes in relatively few genes. We discuss potential developmental mechanisms that may allow lost complex structures to be regained. PMID:23086218

Seher, Thaddeus D.; Ng, Chen Siang; Signor, Sarah A.; Podlaha, Ondrej; Barmina, Olga; Kopp, Artyom

2012-01-01

124

Evolution of surface melt damage, its influence on plasma performance and prospects of recovery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments have been carried out in the TEXTOR, ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) and Alcator C-Mod (C-Mod) tokamaks to study melt-layer motion, macroscopic W-erosion from the melt as well as the changes of material properties such as grain-size and voids. In addition the effect of multiple exposures is studied to judge the potential amelioration of inflicted melt damage. The parallel heat flux at the radial position of the PFCs in the plasma ranges from around q? ˜ 45 MW/m2 at TEXTOR up to q? ˜ 500 MW/m2 at C-Mod which covers scenarios close to ITER parameters, allowing samples to be exposed and molten even at shallow divertor angles. Melt-layer motion perpendicular to the magnetic field is observed consistent with a Lorentz-force originating from thermoelectric emission of the hot sample. While melting in the limiter geometry at TEXTOR is rather quiescent causing no severe impact on plasma operation, exposure in the divertors of AUG and C-Mod shows significant impact on operation, leading to subsequent disruptions. The power-handling capabilities are severely degraded by forming exposed hill structures and changing the material structure by re-solidifying and re-crystallizing the original material. Melting of W seems highly unfavorable and needs to be avoided especially in light of uncontrolled transients and misaligned PFCs.

Coenen, J. W.; Krieger, K.; Lipschultz, B.; Dux, R.; Kallenbach, A.; Lunt, T.; Mueller, H. W.; Potzel, S.; Neu, R.; Terra, A.

2013-07-01

125

Does the universe obey the energy conservation law by a constant mass or an increasing mass with radius during its evolution?  

E-print Network

How the energy conservation law is obeyed by the universe during its evolution is an important but not yet unanimously resolved question. Does the universe have a constant mass during its evolution or has its mass been increasing with its radius? Here, we evaluate the two contending propositions within the context of the Friedmann equations and the standard big bang theory. We find that though both propositions appeal to the Friedmann equations for validity, an increasing mass with increasing radius is more in harmony with the thermal history of the big bang model. In addition, temperature and flatness problems that plague the constant mass proposal are mitigated by the increasing mass with radius proposal. We conclude that the universe has been increasing in mass and radius in obedience to the energy conservation law.

Akinbo Ojo

2008-10-09

126

An investigation of the effects of history dependent damage in time dependent fracture mechanics: nano-scale studies of damage evolution  

SciTech Connect

High-temperature operation of technical engineering systems is critical for system efficiency, and will be a key driver in the future US DOE energy policy. Developing an understanding of high-temperature creep and creep-fatigue failure processes is a key driver for the research work described here. The focus is on understanding the high-temperature deformation and damage development on the nano-scale (50 to 500 nm) level. The high-temperature damage development process, especially with regard to low and high cyclic loading, which has received little attention to date, is studied. Damage development under cyclic loading develops in a fashion quite different from the constant load situation. The development of analytical methodologies so that high-temperature management of new systems can be realized is the key goal of this work.

Brust, F.W. (Bud) Jr; Mohan, R.; Yang, Y.P.; Oh, J.; Katsube, N.

2002-12-01

127

The effects of shockwave profile shape and shock obliquity on spallation : studies of kinetics and stress state effects on damage evolution  

SciTech Connect

Shock-loading of a material in contact with a high explosive (HE) experiences a 'Taylor wave' (triangular wave) loading profile in contrast to the square-wave loading profile imparted via the impact of a flyer plate. Detailed metallographic and mlcrotextural analysis of the damage evolution in spalled Cu samples as a function of square/triangle and sweeping detonation-wave loading is presented.

Gray Iii, George T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hull, Larry M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Faulkner, J R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Briggs, M E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cerreta, E K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Addessio, F L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bourne, N K [AWE. ALDERMASTON UK

2009-01-01

128

Vortex Structure and Evolution within Bow Echoes. Part I: Single-Doppler and Damage Analysis of the 29 June 1998 Derecho  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-Doppler radar along with damage observations are examined to investigate the structural evolution of vortices observed within the 29 June 1998 derecho event that propagated through southeastern Iowa into central and eastern Illinois. A total of 13 meso-g-scale vortices observed primarily at low levels (0-3 km AGL) along the leading edge of the convective system were detected by the Weather

Nolan T. Atkins; Justin M. Arnott; Ron W. Przybylinski; Ray A. Wolf; Bradley D. Ketcham

2004-01-01

129

Ankle skeletal injury predictions using anisotropic inelastic constitutive model of cortical bone taking into account damage evolution.  

PubMed

The most severe ankle skeletal injury called pilon fractures can cause long term disability and impairment. Based on previous experimental studies, the pilon fractures are regarded as caused by a high-energy compressive force in the ankle joint and affected by a muscular tension force generated by emergency braking. However, quantitative injury criteria for the pilon fractures are still unknown. More accurate prediction of bone fractures in the distal tibia using a FE model of human lower leg can help us know the quantitative injury criteria. Therefore we newly proposed an anisotropic inelastic constitutive model of cortical bone including damage evolution and then implemented it to a FE code, LS-DYNA. The proposed model successfully reproduced most of anisotropy, strain rate dependency, and asymmetry of tension and compression on material and failure properties of human femoral cortical bone. However, the simplified model using an isotropic elasto-viscoplastic material, which has been used in previous studies, did not reproduce the characteristic features of the cortical bone. Two series of validation on axial impact cadaver tests for the foot and ankle indicate that the proposed model predicts the pilon fractures more accurately than the simplified model. Parametric studies on footwell impacts and pedal impacts for the foot using the proposed model show that the severity of the pilon fractures increases when the foot sustains normal and heel impacts with the impact velocity of 5 m/s and the pedal hits the forefoot with the impact velocity of 3 m/s regardless of the muscular tension force. PMID:17096272

Iwamoto, Masami; Miki, Kazuo; Tanaka, Eiichi

2005-11-01

130

Evolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This virtual evolution exhibit at the University of California at Berkeley (Museum of Paleontology) combines several of the best resources we've evaluated, such as Phylogenetic Systematics and the Talk Origins Archive, among others. In addition, the Evolution Website provides information on the Theory of Evolution (with links to further information including Timeline of Evolutionary Thought; Systematics; Dinosaur Discoveries; and Vertebrate Flight) and the History of Evolutionary Thought (including dozens of biographical summaries). For educators or students interested in reviewing or learning about evolution in a historical context, this Website will be of much use.

131

Evolution of the Governing Law for Loan Agreements of the World Bank and Other Multilateral Development Banks  

E-print Network

What is the governing law for loan agreements entered into by the World Bank and other multilateral development banks (MDBs) in carrying out their public sector lending? That question was first definitively addressed about thirty-five years ago...

Head, John W.

1996-01-01

132

Hypervelocity impacts and damage laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space debris are nowadays a recognized threat for any space mission. Hypervelocity impacts of space objects can degrade, or terminate prematurely, costly missions. It is, therefore, necessary to improve the survivability of spacecraft. The first step toward this goal is to characterize the behaviour of different materials and configurations under hypervelocity impacts. The purpose of this paper is to present

M. Lambert

1997-01-01

133

Characterizing Damage Evolution and Yield in Sandstone Under Triaxial Loading as a Function of Changing Effective Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental rock deformation was used to study 1) the accumulation of microscopic damage preceding macroscopic failure across the brittle-ductile transition (BDT) in granular porous rocks, 2) how damage induced at one effective pressure (P) affects failure at a different P, and 3) the appropriateness of single yield envelope versus multiple yield envelope models. Granular porous material is idealized as an

R. C. Choens; F. M. Chester

2009-01-01

134

Proposed damage evolution model for large-scale finite element modeling of the dual coolant US-ITER TBM  

E-print Network

-theory based radiation damage creep deformation code was integrated with the ABACUS FEM code. The advantage, incrementally changing material properties as a function of radiation dose and aging can be directly coupled wit of this approach is that time-dependent in-reactor deforma- tions and radiation damage can now be directly coupled

Ghoniem, Nasr M.

135

Comparison of Tensile Damage Evolution in Ti6A14V Joints Between Laser Beam Welding and Gas Tungsten Arc Welding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper studied the evolution of tensile damage in joints welded using laser beam welding (LBW) and gas tungsten arc welding (TIG) under a uniaxial tensile load. The damage evolution in the LBW joints and TIG-welded joints was studied by using digital image correlation (DIC) technology and monitoring changes in Young's modulus during tensile testing. To study the mechanism of void nucleation and growth in the LBW joints and TIG-welded joints, test specimens with various amounts of plastic deformation were analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Compared with TIG-welded joints, LBW-welded joints have a finer microstructure and higher microhardness in the fusion zone. The SEM analysis and DIC test results indicated that the critical strain of void nucleation was greater in the LBW-welded joints than in the TIG-welded joints, while the growth rate of voids was lower in the LBW-welded joints than in the TIG-welded joints. Thus, the damage ratio in the LBW joints was lower than that in the TIG-welded joints during tensile testing. This can be due to the coarser martensitic ?' and the application of TC-1 welding rods in the TIG-welded joint.

Gao, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Lin-Jie; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Jian-Xun

2014-09-01

136

Evolution of patients' complaints in a French university hospital: is there a contribution of a law regarding patients' rights?  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Legislative measures have been identified as one effective way of changing attitude or behaviour towards health care. The aim of this study was to describe trends in patients' complaints for medical issues; to evaluate the contribution of a law regarding patients' rights, and to identify factors associated to patients' perception of a medical error. METHODS: Patients with a complaint

Camila Giugliani; Nathalie Gault; Valia Fares; Jérémie Jegu; Sergio Trolli; Julie Biga; Gwenaelle Vidal-Trecan

2009-01-01

137

32 CFR 842.51 - Applicable law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...according to general principles of tort law common to the majority of American...possessions is determined according to the law of the place where the act or omission...to general principles of American tort law. (2) Apportion damages...

2010-07-01

138

Postbuckling Investigations of Piezoelectric Microdevices Considering Damage Effects  

PubMed Central

Piezoelectric material has been emerging as a popular building block in MEMS devices owing to its unique mechanical and electrical material properties. However, the reliability of MEMS devices under buckling deformation environments remains elusive and needs to be further explored. Based on the Talreja's tensor valued internal state damage variables as well as the Helmhotlz free energy of piezoelectric material, a constitutive model of piezoelectric materials with damage is presented. The Kachanvo damage evolution law under in-plane compressive loads is employed. The model is applied to the specific case of the postbuckling analysis of the piezoelectric plate with damage. Then, adopting von Karman's plate theory, the nonlinear governing equations of the piezoelectric plates with initial geometric deflection including damage effects under in-plane compressive loads are established. By using the finite difference method and the Newmark scheme, the damage evolution for damage accumulation is developed and the finite difference procedure for postbuckling equilibrium path is simultaneously employed. Numerical results show the postbuckling behaviors of initial flat and deflected piezoelectric plates with damage or no damage under different sets of electrical loading conditions. The effects of applied voltage, aspect ratio of plate, thick-span ratio of plate, damage as well as initial geometric deflections on the postbuckling behaviors of the piezoelectric plate are discussed. PMID:24618774

Sun, Zhigang; Wang, Xianqiao

2014-01-01

139

Postbuckling investigations of piezoelectric microdevices considering damage effects.  

PubMed

Piezoelectric material has been emerging as a popular building block in MEMS devices owing to its unique mechanical and electrical material properties. However, the reliability of MEMS devices under buckling deformation environments remains elusive and needs to be further explored. Based on the Talreja's tensor valued internal state damage variables as well as the Helmhotlz free energy of piezoelectric material, a constitutive model of piezoelectric materials with damage is presented. The Kachanvo damage evolution law under in-plane compressive loads is employed. The model is applied to the specific case of the postbuckling analysis of the piezoelectric plate with damage. Then, adopting von Karman's plate theory, the nonlinear governing equations of the piezoelectric plates with initial geometric deflection including damage effects under in-plane compressive loads are established. By using the finite difference method and the Newmark scheme, the damage evolution for damage accumulation is developed and the finite difference procedure for postbuckling equilibrium path is simultaneously employed. Numerical results show the postbuckling behaviors of initial flat and deflected piezoelectric plates with damage or no damage under different sets of electrical loading conditions. The effects of applied voltage, aspect ratio of plate, thick-span ratio of plate, damage as well as initial geometric deflections on the postbuckling behaviors of the piezoelectric plate are discussed. PMID:24618774

Sun, Zhigang; Wang, Xianqiao

2014-01-01

140

Application of Phase Space Warping on Damage Tracking for Bearing Fault  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, the significance of keeping equipment function properly each time is obvious. If equipment fails during its use, it may have disastrous consequences. Estimating remaining useful life (RUL) of equipment is a key to prevent such calamities, improve its reliability, provide security and reduce unnecessary maintenance and operational cost. The evolution and tracking of damage is the foundation of RUL predicting, and also is one of the most important content of mechanical fault diagnosis. Slow-time variable process of mechanical damage would lead the phase space reconstructed by fast-time variable vibrate signals warping. Search the dynamics characteristic law of damage evolution analysis in the phase space, and build the relationship between fast-time variable signals and slow-time variable damage, and then damage evolution tracking is possible. To validate the theory, simulation model of bearing damage evolution is built, the outer-race fault evolution signals is obtained, and the trend of evolution of degradation of bearing fault is described with Phase Space Warping (PSW) theory and Smooth Orthogonal Decomposition (SOD). The results proved the feasibility of the methodology of PSW in damage evolution tracking.

Fan, Bin; Hu, Niaoqing; Hu, Lei; Gu, Fengshou

2012-05-01

141

Lattice strain and damage evolution of 9-12/%Cr ferritic/martensitic steel during in situ tensile test by x-ray diffraction and small angle scattering.  

SciTech Connect

In situ X-ray diffraction and small angle scattering measurements during tensile tests were performed on 9-12% Cr ferritic/martensitic steels. The lattice strains in both particle and matrix phases, along two principal directions, were directly measured. The load transfer between particle and matrix was calculated based on matrix/particle elastic mismatch, matrix plasticity and interface decohesion. In addition, the void or damage evolution during the test was measured using small angle X-ray scattering. By combining stress and void evolution during deformation, the critical interfacial strength for void nucleation was determined, and compared with pre-existing void nucleation criteria. These comparisons show that models overestimate the measured critical strength, and require a larger particle size than measured to match the X-ray observations.

Pan, X.; Wu, X.; Mo, K.; Chen, X,; Almer, J. D.; Ilavsky, J.; Haeffner, D. R.; Stubbins, J. F.; X-Ray Science Division; Univ. of Illinois

2010-01-01

142

Evolution of patients' complaints in a French university hospital: is there a contribution of a law regarding patients' rights?  

PubMed Central

Background Legislative measures have been identified as one effective way of changing attitude or behaviour towards health care. The aim of this study was to describe trends in patients' complaints for medical issues; to evaluate the contribution of a law regarding patients' rights, and to identify factors associated to patients' perception of a medical error. Methods Patients with a complaint letter for medical issues in a French university hospital were included. Trends in complaint rates were analysed. Comparisons were made between a first (1998–2000) and a second (2001–2004) time period, before and after the diffusion of the law, and according to the perception of a medical error. Results Complaints for medical issues increased from 1998 to 2004. Of 164 complaints analysed, 66% were motivated by the perception of a medical error (47% during the first time period vs. 73% during the second time period; p = 0.001). Error or delay in diagnosis/treatment and surgical/medical complication were the main reasons for complaints. Surgical departments had the higher number of complaints. Second time period, substandard care, disability, and adverse effect of a health product were independently associated with the perception of a medical error, positively for the formers, and negatively for the latter. Conclusion This study revealed an increase with time in the number of complaints for medical issues in a university hospital, as well as an increase in the perception of a medical error after the passing of a law regarding patients' rights in France. PMID:19660131

Giugliani, Camila; Gault, Nathalie; Fares, Valia; Jegu, Jeremie; Trolli, Sergio Eleni dit; Biga, Julie; Vidal-Trecan, Gwenaelle

2009-01-01

143

Effects of grain refinement and strength on friction and damage evolution under repeated sliding contact in nanostructured metals  

E-print Network

previously been employed to study the wear behavior of plasma sprayed coatings and hard metals [13 evolution process has, in general, led only to empirical results without associated fundamental trends

Suresh, Subra

144

Law without Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a model for spacetime in which there is an ubiquitous background Dark Energy which is the Zero Point Field. This is further modeled in terms of a Weiner process that leads to a Random or Brownian characterization. Nevertheless we are able to recover meaningful physics, very much in the spirit of Wheeler's Law without Law, that is laws

B. G. Sidharth

2007-01-01

145

Investigation of a Novel NDE Method for Monitoring Thermomechanical Damage and Microstructure Evolution in Ferritic-Martensitic Steels for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems  

SciTech Connect

The main goal of the proposed project is the development of validated nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for in situ monitoring of ferritic-martensitic steels like Grade 91 9Cr-1Mo, which are candidate materials for Generation IV nuclear energy structural components operating at temperatures up to ~650{degree}C and for steam-generator tubing for sodium-cooled fast reactors. Full assessment of thermomechanical damage requires a clear separation between thermally activated microstructural evolution and creep damage caused by simultaneous mechanical stress. Creep damage can be classified as "negligible" creep without significant plastic strain and "ordinary" creep of the primary, secondary, and tertiary kind that is accompanied by significant plastic deformation and/or cavity nucleation and growth. Under negligible creep conditions of interest in this project, minimal or no plastic strain occurs, and the accumulation of creep damage does not significantly reduce the fatigue life of a structural component so that low-temperature design rules, such as the ASME Section III, Subsection NB, can be applied with confidence. The proposed research project will utilize a multifaceted approach in which the feasibility of electrical conductivity and thermo-electric monitoring methods is researched and coupled with detailed post-thermal/creep exposure characterization of microstructural changes and damage processes using state-of-the-art electron microscopy techniques, with the aim of establishing the most effective nondestructive materials evaluation technique for particular degradation modes in high-temperature alloys that are candidates for use in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) as well as providing the necessary mechanism-based underpinnings for relating the two. Only techniques suitable for practical application in situ will be considered. As the project evolves and results accumulate, we will also study the use of this technique for monitoring other GEN IV materials. Through the results obtained from this integrated materials behavior and NDE study, new insight will be gained into the best nondestructive creep and microstructure monitoring methods for the particular mechanisms identified in these materials. The proposed project includes collaboration with a national laboratory partner and the results will also serve as a foundation to guide the efforts of scientists in the DOE laboratory, university, and industrial communities concerned with the technological challenges of monitoring creep and microstructural evolution in materials planned to be used in Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems.

Nagy, Peter

2013-09-30

146

Adaptive Response to DNA-Damaging Agents in Natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae Populations from ``Evolution Canyon'', Mt. Carmel, Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundNatural populations of most organisms, especially unicellular microorganisms, are constantly exposed to harsh environmental factors which affect their growth. UV radiation is one of the most important physical parameters which influences yeast growth in nature. Here we used 46 natural strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from several natural populations at the “Evolution Canyon” microsite (Nahal Oren, Mt. Carmel, Israel). The

Gabriel A. Lidzbarsky; Tamar Shkolnik; Eviatar Nevo; Alexander Idnurm

2009-01-01

147

Damage evolution in SiC particle reinforced Al alloy matrix composites by X-ray synchrotron tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal matrix composites (MMCs) have a combination of high strength, high stiffness, and low density. The damage behavior of MMCs has been studied extensively by a combination of traditional mechanical testing, microstructural characterization, and post-experiment fractographic analysis. X-ray tomography is an excellent technique that eliminates destructive cross-sectioning, and allows for superior resolution and image quality with minimal sample preparation. In

J. J. Williams; Z. Flom; A. A. Amell; N. Chawla; X. Xiao; F. De Carlo

2010-01-01

148

Temperature activated absorption during laser-induced damage: The evolution of laser-supported solid-state absorption fronts  

SciTech Connect

Previously we have shown that the size of laser induced damage sites in both KDP and SiO{sub 2} is largely governed by the duration of the laser pulse which creates them. Here we present a model based on experiment and simulation that accounts for this behavior. Specifically, we show that solid-state laser-supported absorption fronts are generated during a damage event and that these fronts propagate at constant velocities for laser intensities up to 4 GW/cm{sup 2}. It is the constant absorption front velocity that leads to the dependence of laser damage site size on pulse duration. We show that these absorption fronts are driven principally by the temperature-activated deep sub band-gap optical absorptivity, free electron transport, and thermal diffusion in defect-free silica for temperatures up to 15,000K and pressures < 15GPa. In addition to the practical application of selecting an optimal laser for pre-initiation of large aperture optics, this work serves as a platform for understanding general laser-matter interactions in dielectrics under a variety of conditions.

Carr, C W; Bude, J D; Shen, N; Demange, P

2010-10-26

149

Modeling Fatigue Damage in Long-Fiber Thermoplastics  

SciTech Connect

This paper applies a fatigue damage model recently developed for injection-molded long-fiber thermoplastics (LFTs) to predict the modulus reduction and fatigue lifetime of glass/polyamide 6,6 (PA6,6) specimens. The fatigue model uses a multiscale mechanistic approach to describe fatigue damage accumulation in these materials subjected to cyclic loading. Micromechanical modeling using a modified Eshelby-Mori-Tanaka approach combined with averaging techniques for fiber length and orientation distributions is performed to establish the stiffness reduction relation for the composite as a function of the microcrack volume fraction. Next, continuum damage mechanics and a thermodynamic formulation are used to derive the constitutive relations and the damage evolution law. The fatigue damage model has been implemented in the ABAQUS finite element code and has been applied to analyze fatigue of the studied glass/PA6,6 specimens. The predictions agree well with the experimental results.

Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kunc, Vlastimil; Bapanapalli, Satish K.

2009-10-30

150

Temporal Variation of Aerosol Properties at a Rural Continental Site and Study of Aerosol Evolution through Growth Law Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aerosol size distributions were measured by a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) onboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft during 16 flights at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site in northern central Oklahoma as part of the Aerosol Intensive Operation period in May, 2003. During the same period a second SMPS was deployed at a surface station and provided continuous measurements. Combined with trace gas measurements at the SGP site and back-trajectory analysis, the aerosol size distributions provided insights into the sources of aerosols observed at the SGP site. High particle concentrations, observed mostly during daytime, were well correlated with the sulfur dioxide (SO2) mixing ratios, suggesting nucleation involving sulfuric acid is likely the main source of newly formed particles at the SGP. Aerosols within plumes originating from wildfires in Central America were measured at the surface site. Vertically compact aerosol layers, which can be traced back to forest fires in East Asia, were intercepted at altitudes over 3000 meters. Analyses of size dependent particle growth rates for four periods during which high cloud coverage was observed indicate growth dominated by volume controlled reactions. Sulfate accounts for 50% to 72% of the increase in aerosol volume concentration; the rest of the volume concentration increase was likely due to secondary organic species. The growth law analyses and meteorological conditions indicate that the sulfate was produced mainly through aqueous oxidation of SO2 in clouds droplets and hydrated aerosol particles.

Wang, Jian; Collins, Don; Covert, David; Elleman, Robert; Ferrare, Richard A.; Gasparini, Roberto; Jonsson, Haflidi; Ogren, John; Sheridan, Patrick; Tsay, Si-Chee

2006-01-01

151

Law without Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a model for spacetime in which there is an ubiquitous background\\u000aDark Energy which is the Zero Point Field. This is further modeled in terms of\\u000aa Weiner process that leads to a Random or Brownian characterization.\\u000aNevertheless we are able to recover meaningful physics, very much in the spirit\\u000aof Wheeler's Law without Law, that is laws

B. G. Sidharth; B. M. Birla; Adarsh Nagar

2007-01-01

152

An X-ray Radiography Study of the Effect of Thermal Cycling on Damage Evolution in Large-Area Sn-3.5Ag Solder Joints  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a need for next-generation, high-performance power electronic packages and systems utilizing wide-band-gap devices to operate at high temperatures in automotive and electricity transmission applications. Sn-3.5Ag solder is a candidate for use in such packages with potential maximum operating temperatures of about 200°C. However, there is a need to understand the thermal cycling reliability of Sn-3.5Ag solders subject to such high-temperature operating conditions. The results of a study on the damage evolution occurring in large-area Sn-3.5Ag solder joints between silicon dies and direct bonded copper substrates with Au/Ni-P metallization subject to thermal cycling between 200°C and 5°C are presented in this paper. Interface structure evolution and damage accumulation were followed using high-resolution X-ray radiography, cross-sectional optical and scanning electron microscopies, and X-ray microanalysis in these joints for up to 3000 thermal cycles. Optical and scanning electron microscopy results showed that the stresses introduced by the thermal cycling result in cracking and delamination at the copper-intermetallic compound interface. X-ray microanalysis showed that stresses due to thermal cycling resulted in physical cracking and breakdown of the Ni-P barrier layer, facilitating Cu-Sn interdiffusion. This interdiffusion resulted in the formation of Cu-Sn intermetallic compounds underneath the Ni-P layer, subsequently leading to delamination between the Ni-rich layer and Cu-Sn intermetallic compounds.

Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Kurumaddali, Kanth; Kercher, Andrew K.; Walker, Larry; Leslie, Scott G.

2013-02-01

153

A Note on Conservation Laws Stanly Steinberg  

E-print Network

that minimizes the energy E , then this motion will satisfy Newton's law for the force determined of these forms, for example Newton's law is a force balance law, but many laws that describe the time evolution's momentum is p(t) = m v(t) where v(t) = x 0 (t) is the velocity of the particle. Newton's law says

Steinberg, Stanly

154

A SMALL-SCALE DAMAGE APPROACH TO PREDICT FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH IN CERAMIC MATERIALS  

SciTech Connect

This paper proposes a small-scale damage modeling approach to predict fatigue crack growth in ceramic materials. A fatigue damage model is formulated that uses two variables. One variable is the scalar damage variable governing the reduction of stiffness, and the other is the number of cycles. The damage evolution law is obtained based on thermodynamics of continuous media and a damage criterion containing a damage threshold function that depends on the damage variable and the cyclic loading parameters. The model has been implemented into the ABAQUS finite element code via user-subroutines and has been used in a modified boundary layer (MBL) modeling approach to analyze fatigue crack growth in a small fracture process zone situated at an initial crack tip. The model application is illustrated through an analysis of fatigue crack growth in an yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia material.

Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Koeppel, Brian J.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

2006-05-19

155

DNA Damages as a Depolymerization Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The damage of DNA chains by environmental factors like radiation or chemical pollutants is a topic that has been frequently explored from an experimental and a theoretical perspective. Such damages, like the damage of the strands of a DNA chain, are toxic for the cell and can induce mutagenesis or apoptosis. Several models make strong assumptions for the distribution of damages; for instance a frequent supposition is that these damages are Poisson distributed. [L. Ma, J. J. Wagner, W. Hu, A. J. Levine and G. A. Stolovitzki, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.PNAS 102, 14266 (2005).] Only few models describe in detail the damage and the mechanisms associated to the formation and evolution of this damage distribution [H. Nikjoo, P. O'neill and D. T. Goodhead, Radiat. Res. 156, 577 (2001).] Nevertheless, such models do not include the repair processes which are continuously active inside the cell. In this work we present a novel model, based on a depolymerization process, describing the distribution of damages on DNA chains coupled to the dynamics associated to its repair processes. The central aim is not to give a final and comprehensive model, but a hint to represent in more detail the complex dynamics involved in the damage and repair of DNA. We show that there are critical parameters associated to this repair process, in particular we show how critical doses can be relevant in deciding whether the cell continues its repair process or starts apoptosis. We also find out that the damage concentration is related to the dose via a power law relation.

Ochoa, Juan G. Diaz; Wulkow, Michael

156

Water, law, science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryIn a world with water resources severely impacted by technology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end, this paper is an earth scientist's attempt to comprehend essential elements of water law, and to examine their connections to science. Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with a priori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science, observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while in law, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law in Europe and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago by Roman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason. Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the sea were governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that these elements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as private property. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jus gentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast, jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jus gentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in which science plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all. This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, follows their evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit of science inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving water and environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In a technological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of water law. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophical understanding of the relationships between science and law will contribute to their constructively coming together in the service of society.

Narasimhan, T. N.

2008-01-01

157

LAW, HISTORY, &LAW, HISTORY, &LAW, HISTORY, & CULTURECULTURECULTURE  

E-print Network

LAW, HISTORY, &LAW, HISTORY, &LAW, HISTORY, & CULTURECULTURECULTURE The Law, History, and Culture specific legal issues through a humanistic lens. Opportunities for Students Phi Alpha Theta: This history honor society seeks to bring students, teachers, and writers of history together for intellectual

Rohs, Remo

158

The evolution of the law of the sea. A study of resources and strategy with special regard to the polar areas  

SciTech Connect

This book provides a report on the current state of international legislation as well as a historical perspective. Contents: Introduction. The Revolution of the Law of the Sea. The Law of the Sea Convention of 1982. Some Important Points for the Development of the Law of the Sea. The New Law of the Sea-Effects on the Arctic. The Resource-Oriented International Law-its Effects on the Antarctic and the Southern Ocean Areas. Natural Resources in the Perspective of Conflicts. Annexes. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. The Treaty on Spitsbergen. The Antarctic Treaty. Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora. Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Seals. Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources. Special Consultative Meeting on Antarctic Mineral Resources.

Theutenberg, B.J.

1984-01-01

159

Water, law, science  

SciTech Connect

In a world with water resources severely impacted bytechnology, science must actively contribute to water law. To this end,this paper is an earth scientist s attempt to comprehend essentialelements of water law, and to examine their connections to science.Science and law share a common logical framework of starting with apriori prescribed tenets, and drawing consistent inferences. In science,observationally established physical laws constitute the tenets, while inlaw, they stem from social values. The foundations of modern water law inEurope and the New World were formulated nearly two thousand years ago byRoman jurists who were inspired by Greek philosophy of reason.Recognizing that vital natural elements such as water, air, and the seawere governed by immutable natural laws, they reasoned that theseelements belonged to all humans, and therefore cannot be owned as privateproperty. Legally, such public property was to be governed by jusgentium, the law of all people or the law of all nations. In contrast,jus civile or civil law governed private property. Remarkably, jusgentium continues to be relevant in our contemporary society in whichscience plays a pivotal role in exploiting vital resources common to all.This paper examines the historical roots of modern water law, followstheir evolution through the centuries, and examines how the spirit ofscience inherent in jus gentium is profoundly influencing evolving waterand environmental laws in Europe, the United States and elsewhere. In atechnological world, scientific knowledge has to lie at the core of waterlaw. Yet, science cannot formulate law. It is hoped that a philosophicalunderstanding of the relationships between science and law willcontribute to their constructively coming together in the service ofsociety.

Narasimhan, T.N.

2007-10-17

160

DNA Damage Checkpoint, Damage Repair, and Genome Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genomic DNA is under constant attack from both endogenous and exogenous sources of DNA damaging agents. Without proper care, the ensuing DNA damages would lead to alteration of genomic structure thus affecting the faithful transmission of genetic information. During the process of evolution, organisms have acquired a series of mechanisms responding to and repairing DNA damage, thus assuring the maintenance

Wei-Feng LIU; Shan-Shan YU; Guan-Jun CHEN; Yue-Zhong LI

2006-01-01

161

HRR fields for damaged materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an investigation of the interaction between a macroscopic crack and distributed damage in an elastic-plastic material based on the HRR field model for virgin materials. This is achieved by describing the mechanical effects of the distributed micro-cracks in terms of the damage variable D on the HRR fields. Damage evolution equation and the constitutive equations coupled with

J. Wang; C. L. Chow

1992-01-01

162

The Reflexive Relationship between Computer Games Technology and the Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer Games Technology (CGT) is an important phenomenon in the evolution of the relationship between Communications Technology (CT) and the law. CGT is reflexively linked with the evolution of law. Thus (for example) the development of CGT is conditioned, and will continue to be affected, by the evolution of law and legal principles. The legal domains of Intellectual Property (IP)

JAMES TUNNEY

163

Putting Law into Ethics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evolution of ethics in law is followed from the harshness of caveat emptor to the humanistic ethics of the 1970s, including a renewal of formal ethics in the post-Watergate era. The impact on universities and individual disciplines of legalizing ethical conduct is examined cautiously. (JMF)

Lieberman, Jethro K.

1979-01-01

164

Prediction of Damage in A Randomly Oriented Short-Fiber Composite Plate Containing A Central Hole  

SciTech Connect

A micro-macro approach to matrix cracking in randomly oriented short-fiber composites is used in this paper for the damage and failure analysis of a random glass/epoxy plate containing a central hole under tensile loading. At the micro-scale, the virgin and reduced elastic properties of the composite are computed using micromechanical models and are then averaged over all possible orientations and weighted by an orientation distribution function. Next, the macroscopic response is performed by means of a continuum damage mechanics formulation in which the damage evolution law is obtained using a damage threshold function and the concepts of thermodynamic of continuous media. Damage accumulations leading to initiation and propagation of a macroscopic crack are modeled using a vanishing element technique.

Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Khaleel, Mohammad A.; Bathe, K.-J.

2003-01-01

165

Heat transfer in damaged material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fully coupled thermo-mechanical analysis of civil engineering problems is studied. The mechanical analysis is based on damage mechanics which is useful for modeling of behaviour of quasi-brittle materials, especially in tension. The damage is assumed to be isotropic. The heat transfer is assumed in the form of heat conduction governed by the Fourier law and heat radiation governed by the Stefan-Boltzmann law. Fully coupled thermo-mechanical problem is formulated.

Kruis, J.

2013-10-01

166

Gas Laws  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students study gas laws at a molecular level. They vary the volume of a container at constant temperature to see how pressure changes (Boyle's Law), change the temperature of a container at constant pressure to see how the volume changes with temperature (Charlesâs Law), and experiment with heating a gas in a closed container to discover how pressure changes with temperature (Gay Lussac's Law). They also discover the relationship between the number of gas molecules and gas volume (Avogadro's Law). Finally, students use their knowledge of gas laws to model a heated soda can collapsing as it is plunged into ice water.

Consortium, The C.

2011-12-11

167

Helmet Laws  

MedlinePLUS

... universal motorcycle helmet laws to qualify for certain highway safety funds. By 1975, all but three had ... here. For more information, consult the appropriate State Highway Safety Office . State Motorcyclists Bicyclists Universal Helmet Law ( ...

168

32 CFR 537.5 - Applicable law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...extent and nature of the tort. However, as to what law of damages is applicable, Maryland or Virginia depecage (choice of law) theory may apply. For example, if the flight originated in Indiana and the destination was Virginia, the conflict law of both...

2013-07-01

169

32 CFR 537.5 - Applicable law.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...omissions must constitute a tort as determined by the law of place of occurrence...jurisdictions where the no-fault law permits recovery. Where the tort is not complete within...extent and nature of the tort. However, as to what law of damages is...

2010-07-01

170

Radiation Laws  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site lists physical laws that describe radiation. Topics covered include the Plank Radiation Law, and the Wien and Stefan-Boltzmann Laws. The site also features a table summarizing the blackbody temperatures necessary to give a peak for emitted radiation in various regions of the spectrum, and three Java applets illustrating important properties of blackbody radiation.

Astronomy, Department O.; Knoxville, University O.

171

MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF THE SPATIO-TEMPORAL EVOLUTION OF SOLAR FLARES WITH AIA/SDO. II. HYDRODYNAMIC SCALING LAWS AND THERMAL ENERGIES  

SciTech Connect

In this study we measure physical parameters of the same set of 155 M- and X-class solar flares observed with AIA/SDO as analyzed in Paper I, by performing a differential emission measure analysis to determine the flare peak emission measure EM{sub p} , peak temperature T{sub p} , electron density n{sub p} , and thermal energy E{sub th}, in addition to the spatial scales L, areas A, and volumes V measured in Paper I. The parameter ranges for M- and X-class flares are log (EM{sub p}) = 47.0-50.5, T{sub p} = 5.0-17.8 MK, n{sub p} = 4 × 10{sup 9}-9 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup –3}, and thermal energies of E{sub th} = 1.6 × 10{sup 28}-1.1 × 10{sup 32} erg. We find that these parameters obey the Rosner-Tucker-Vaiana (RTV) scaling law T{sub p}{sup 2}?n{sub p} L and H?T {sup 7/2} L {sup –2} during the peak time t{sub p} of the flare density n{sub p} , when energy balance between the heating rate H and the conductive and radiative loss rates is achieved for a short instant and thus enables the applicability of the RTV scaling law. The application of the RTV scaling law predicts power-law distributions for all physical parameters, which we demonstrate with numerical Monte Carlo simulations as well as with analytical calculations. A consequence of the RTV law is also that we can retrieve the size distribution of heating rates, for which we find N(H)?H {sup –1.8}, which is consistent with the magnetic flux distribution N(?)??{sup –1.85} observed by Parnell et al. and the heating flux scaling law F{sub H} ?HL?B/L of Schrijver et al.. The fractal-diffusive self-organized criticality model in conjunction with the RTV scaling law reproduces the observed power-law distributions and their slopes for all geometrical and physical parameters and can be used to predict the size distributions for other flare data sets, instruments, and detection algorithms.

Aschwanden, Markus J. [Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Org. ADBS, Bldg. 252, 3251 Hanover St., Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Shimizu, Toshifumi, E-mail: aschwanden@lmsal.com, E-mail: shimizu.toshifumi@isas.jaxa.jp [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan)

2013-10-20

172

Darwin's laws.  

PubMed

There is widespread agreement among contemporary philosophers of biology and philosophically-minded biologists that Darwin's insights about the intrusion of chance processes into biological regularities undermines the possibility of there being biological laws. Darwin made references to "designed laws." He also freely described some laws as having exceptions. This paper provides a philosophical analysis of the notion of scientific laws that was dominant in Darwin's time, and in all probability the one which he inherited. The analysis of laws is then used to show how it could have been natural for Darwin to believe in designed laws that had exceptions, and to highlight the continuity between the metaphysics of pre-Darwinian, Darwinian, and contemporary biological science. One important result is the removal of one motivation for the anti-laws sentiment in philosophy and biology. PMID:22326096

Haufe, Chris

2012-03-01

173

Violation of Dollo's law: evidence of muscle reversions in primate phylogeny and their implications for the understanding of the ontogeny, evolution, and anatomical variations of modern humans.  

PubMed

According to Dollo's law, once a complex structure is lost it is unlikely to be reacquired. In this article, we report new data obtained from our myology-based cladistic analyses of primate phylogeny, which provide evidence of anatomical reversions violating Dollo's law: of the 220 character state changes unambiguously optimized in the most parsimonious primate tree, 28 (13%) are evolutionary reversions, and of these 28 reversions six (21%) occurred in the nodes that lead to the origin of modern humans; nine (32%) violate Dollo's law. In some of these nine cases, the structures that were lost in adults of the last common ancestor and are absent in adults of most subgroups of a clade are actually present in early ontogenetic stages of karyotypically normal individuals as well as in later ontogenetic stages of karyotypically abnormal members of those subgroups. Violations of Dollo's law may thus result from the maintenance of ancestral developmental pathways during long periods of trait absence preceding the reacquisition of the trait through paedomorphic events. For instance, the presence of contrahentes and intermetacarpales in adult chimpanzees is likely due to a prolonged/delayed development of the hand musculature, that is, in this case chimpanzees are more neotenic than modern humans. PMID:23025614

Diogo, Rui; Wood, Bernard

2012-10-01

174

Law enforcement agencies have exploited biometrics for decades as key tools in forensic identification. With the evolution in information technology and the huge volume of  

E-print Network

Abstract Law enforcement agencies have exploited biometrics for decades as key tools in forensic to be investigated by forensic specialists, automation of forensic identification became inevitable. Postmortem (PM goals and objectives to its Automated Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS) but using dental

Abaza, Ayman

175

Interacting damage models mapped onto ising and percolation models  

SciTech Connect

The authors introduce a class of damage models on regular lattices with isotropic interactions between the broken cells of the lattice. Quasistatic fiber bundles are an example. The interactions are assumed to be weak, in the sense that the stress perturbation from a broken cell is much smaller than the mean stress in the system. The system starts intact with a surface-energy threshold required to break any cell sampled from an uncorrelated quenched-disorder distribution. The evolution of this heterogeneous system is ruled by Griffith's principle which states that a cell breaks when the release in potential (elastic) energy in the system exceeds the surface-energy barrier necessary to break the cell. By direct integration over all possible realizations of the quenched disorder, they obtain the probability distribution of each damage configuration at any level of the imposed external deformation. They demonstrate an isomorphism between the distributions so obtained and standard generalized Ising models, in which the coupling constants and effective temperature in the Ising model are functions of the nature of the quenched-disorder distribution and the extent of accumulated damage. In particular, they show that damage models with global load sharing are isomorphic to standard percolation theory, that damage models with local load sharing rule are isomorphic to the standard ising model, and draw consequences thereof for the universality class and behavior of the autocorrelation length of the breakdown transitions corresponding to these models. they also treat damage models having more general power-law interactions, and classify the breakdown process as a function of the power-law interaction exponent. Last, they also show that the probability distribution over configurations is a maximum of Shannon's entropy under some specific constraints related to the energetic balance of the fracture process, which firmly relates this type of quenched-disorder based damage model to standard statistical mechanics.

Toussaint, Renaud; Pride, Steven R.

2004-03-23

176

EFFECT OF CREVICE FORMER ON CORROSION DAMAGE PROPAGATION  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this report are: (1) To determine the effect of the crevice former on the localized corrosion damage propagation; (2) FOCUS on post initiation stage, crevice propagation and arrest processes; (3) Determine the evolution of damage--severity, shape, location/distribution, damage profile; and (4) Model of crevice corrosion propagation, i.e. the evolution of the crevice corrosion damage profile.

J.H. Payer; U. Landau; X. Shan; A.S. Agarwal

2006-03-01

177

Visco-Elastic Damage Rheology Model: Theory and Experimental Tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a visco-elastic damage rheology model that provides a generalization of Maxwell visco-elasticity to a non-linear continuum mechanics framework incorporating material degradation and recovery, transition from stable to unstable fracturing, and gradual accumulation of non-reversible deformation. The model is a further development to the damage rheology framework of Lyakhovsky et al. [1997] for evolving effective elasticity. Our approach provides a quantitative treatment for macroscopic effects of evolving distributed cracking with local density represented by an intensive state variable. This assumes a system with a large number of cracks where one can define a smooth distribution over a representative volume that is much larger than the size of a typical crack and much smaller than the size of the entire domain. The present formulation, based on thermodynamic principles, leads to a system of kinetic equations for the evolution of damage. We introduce an effective viscosity inversely proportional to the rate of damage increase to account for gradual accumulation of irreversible deformation due to dissipative processes. A proposed power-law relation between the damage variable and elastic moduli leads to a non-linear coupling between rate of damage evolution and the damage variable itself. This allows the model to reproduce a transition from stable to unstable fracturing of brittle rocks and hysteresis phenomena including the Kaiser effect. Analytical solutions and 3-D numerical simulations based on the model formulation account for the main features of rock behavior under large strain. Model parameters are constrained using triaxial laboratory experiments with low porosity Westerly granite and high porosity Berea sandstone samples. During three of the laboratory experiments, small loading-unloading cycles were carried out. Throughout all of these cycles, acoustic emissions were not recorded and irreversible strain was not accumulated. These and other features of the laboratory data are compatible with the model predictions and provide experimental support for the model.

Lyakhovsky, V.; Hamiel, Y.; Liu, Y.; Ben Zion, Y.; Lockner, D.

2003-12-01

178

Progressive Damage Analysis of Laminated Composite (PDALC)-A Computational Model Implemented in the NASA COMET Finite Element Code  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for analysis of progressive failure in the Computational Structural Mechanics Testbed is presented in this report. The relationship employed in this analysis describes the matrix crack damage and fiber fracture via kinematics-based volume-averaged variables. Damage accumulation during monotonic and cyclic loads is predicted by damage evolution laws for tensile load conditions. The implementation of this damage model required the development of two testbed processors. While this report concentrates on the theory and usage of these processors, a complete list of all testbed processors and inputs that are required for this analysis are included. Sample calculations for laminates subjected to monotonic and cyclic loads were performed to illustrate the damage accumulation, stress redistribution, and changes to the global response that occur during the load history. Residual strength predictions made with this information compared favorably with experimental measurements.

Lo, David C.; Coats, Timothy W.; Harris, Charles E.; Allen, David H.

1996-01-01

179

Law 302.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication outlines a law course intended as part of a business education program in the secondary schools of Manitoba, Canada. The one credit course of study should be taught over a period of 110-120 hours of instruction. It provides students with an introduction to the principles, practices, and consequences of law with regard to torts,…

Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

180

Newton's Laws  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page provides a lesson plan for middle or high school students studying Newton's laws and its corollaries. The page provides, foremost, a series of activities for students to perform, as well as basic descriptions of the laws behind the activities.

Hatch, Robert

2005-01-04

181

School Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The New Jersey law permitting a period of silence in schools was struck down by a federal court judge who held that the law was intended to circumvent the proscription against government entanglement in religion. The New York Supreme Court has upheld the competency test for obtaining high school diplomas. (MLF)

Splitt, David A.

1984-01-01

182

Evolution and Ethics Introduction to Evolution  

E-print Network

of evolution and their religion. #12;www.carlwozniak.com Basic premises for this discussion Evolution is not a belief system. It is a scientific concept. It has no role in defining religion or religious beliefs definitions Fact: an observation that has been repeatedly confirmed Law: a descriptive generalization about

Mittal, Aditya

183

Progressive Damage Analysis of Laminated Composite (PDALC) (A Computational Model Implemented in the NASA COMET Finite Element Code). 2.0  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for analysis of progressive failure in the Computational Structural Mechanics Testbed is presented in this report. The relationship employed in this analysis describes the matrix crack damage and fiber fracture via kinematics-based volume-averaged damage variables. Damage accumulation during monotonic and cyclic loads is predicted by damage evolution laws for tensile load conditions. The implementation of this damage model required the development of two testbed processors. While this report concentrates on the theory and usage of these processors, a complete listing of all testbed processors and inputs that are required for this analysis are included. Sample calculations for laminates subjected to monotonic and cyclic loads were performed to illustrate the damage accumulation, stress redistribution, and changes to the global response that occurs during the loading history. Residual strength predictions made with this information compared favorably with experimental measurements.

Coats, Timothy W.; Harris, Charles E.; Lo, David C.; Allen, David H.

1998-01-01

184

Employment Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ross Runkel is a retired professor of law, and given his long experience with employment and labor law, it seems quite natural that he would be the founder of the site, Employment Law. Along with a team of other equally qualified professionals, he has created this site to serve as a clearinghouse of material about the world of employment law and its many facets. First time visitors may wish to check out his employment law or arbitration blogs, then move on to one of the most popular features, a list of recent and pending cases in the field that have been heard before the US Supreme Court. Additionally, the âÂÂArticlesâ area contains pieces authored by Runkel and others, including a piece on how to find an employment lawyer and several timely pieces on the National Labor Relations Board.

Runkel, Ross, 1939-

185

Law Courses Coventry Law School  

E-print Network

taught LLMs in International Business Law and International Law are very popular attracting students from on any of the courses featured here, please visit the Coventry University website (www 28 FAQ's 29 Undergraduate Student Support at Coventry University 30 Postgraduate Student Support

Low, Robert

186

Materials Science and Engineering A 374 (2004) 1026 Modeling the elastic properties and damage evolution in TiAl3Ti  

E-print Network

). The MIL process [6] consists of stacking aluminum and titanium foils in alternating layers. and placing evolution in Ti­Al3Ti metal­intermetallic laminate (MIL) composites Tiezheng Lia,b, F. Grignona, D form 5 September 2003 Abstract The mechanical performance of Ti­Al3Ti metal­intermetallic laminate (MIL

Meyers, Marc A.

187

Guass's Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A Keynote Presentation exported as a clickable Quicktime movie. Gauss's Law is demonstrated in this presentation. Utilizing an insulated sphere enclosed in a spherical conducting shell. All equations are fully developed.

Dimauro, Mr. T.

2009-01-12

188

Anisotropic continuum damage modeling for single crystals at high temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In single crystals, the process of creep damage is generally anisotropic. Indeed, the damage evolution does not only depend on the loading conditions, but also on the lattice orientation. And the current state of damage has an anisotropic influence on the effective stress state, so that it is represented by a tensorial damage variable. Based on the continuum damage mechanics

Weidong Qi; Albrecht Bertram

1999-01-01

189

Newton's Laws  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of four educational wall-sheets includes Newton's Three Laws and the Law of Gravitation. They include activities that are designed to be displayed as a set on classroom walls. The pre-activity reading featuring the Swift satellite and most activities can be used in middle-school classrooms. Optional extension activities are suitable for advanced middle-school students and students in ninth grade.

Cominsky, Lynn

2010-01-01

190

Monitoring Microstructural Evolution, Crack Formation, and Damage Characteristics near Crack Tip in a Highly Filled Elastomer-Using Digital Radiography X-ray Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the change of microstructure, the formation of cracks, and the change of damage characteristics near the tip\\u000a of a propagating crack in a highly filled elastomer containing hard particles embedded in a rubbery matrix were investigated\\u000a using digital radiography X-ray techniques. Experimental findings reveal that the degree of inhomogeneity of the material's\\u000a microstructure and the number of

C. T. Liu

2007-01-01

191

MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF THE SPATIO-TEMPORAL EVOLUTION OF SOLAR FLARES WITH AIA/SDO. I. UNIVERSAL SCALING LAWS OF SPACE AND TIME PARAMETERS  

SciTech Connect

We extend a previous statistical solar flare study of 155 GOES M- and X-class flares observed with AIA/SDO to all seven coronal wavelengths (94, 131, 171, 193, 211, 304, and 335 Å) to test the wavelength dependence of scaling laws and statistical distributions. Except for the 171 and 193 Å wavelengths, which are affected by EUV dimming caused by coronal mass ejections (CMEs), we find near-identical size distributions of geometric (lengths L, flare areas A, volumes V, and fractal dimension D{sub 2}), temporal (flare durations T), and spatio-temporal parameters (diffusion coefficient ?, spreading exponent ?, and maximum expansion velocities v{sub max}) in different wavelengths, which are consistent with the universal predictions of the fractal-diffusive avalanche model of a slowly driven, self-organized criticality (FD-SOC) system, i.e., N(L)?L {sup –3}, N(A)?A {sup –2}, N(V)?V {sup –5/3}, N(T)?T {sup –2}, and D{sub 2} = 3/2, for a Euclidean dimension d = 3. Empirically, we find also a new strong correlation ??L {sup 0.94±0.01} and the three-parameter scaling law L?? T {sup 0.1}, which is more consistent with the logistic-growth model than with classical diffusion. The findings suggest long-range correlation lengths in the FD-SOC system that operate in the vicinity of a critical state, which could be used for predictions of individual extreme events. We find also that eruptive flares (with accompanying CMEs) have larger volumes V, longer flare durations T, higher EUV and soft X-ray fluxes, and somewhat larger diffusion coefficients ? than confined flares (without CMEs)

Aschwanden, Markus J. [Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center, Org. ADBS, Bldg. 252, 3251 Hanover St., Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Zhang, Jie; Liu, Kai, E-mail: aschwanden@lmsal.com, E-mail: jzhang7@gmu.edu [School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, George Mason University, 4400 University Dr., MSN 6A2, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

2013-09-20

192

Property Evaluation and Damage Evolution of Environmental Barrier Coatings and Environmental Barrier Coated SiC/SiC Ceramic Matrix Composite Sub-Elements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes recent development of environmental barrier coatings on SiC/SiC ceramic matrix composites. The creep and fatigue behavior at aggressive long-term high temperature conditions have been evaluated and highlighted. Thermal conductivity and high thermal gradient cyclic durability of environmental barrier coatings have been evaluated. The damage accumulation and complex stress-strain behavior environmental barrier coatings on SiCSiC ceramic matrix composite turbine airfoil subelements during the thermal cyclic and fatigue testing of have been also reported.

Zhu, Dongming; Halbig, Michael; Jaskowiak, Martha; Hurst, Janet; Bhatt, Ram; Fox, Dennis S.

2014-01-01

193

Boyle's Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive presentation, created by Terry Bartelt and hosted by the Electromechanical Digital Library, discusses the history and theory of Boyle's Law. The presentation offers two different variations of the concept. The first involves "a change in pressure exerted on a given quantity of gas causing an inverse effect on its volume." The second simply flips this first variation and shows how the change in quantity affects the pressure. The presentation is filled with helpful, and interactive, flash animations. This is not only aesthetically pleasing, but also helps the student engage with the topic. Once both variations are complete, a short quiz is provided to test the full understanding of Boyle's Law.

Bartelt, Terry L.

2009-04-16

194

Charles's Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive presentation, created by Terry Bartelt and hosted by the Electromechanical Digital Library, discusses the history and theory of Charles's Law, which states, "the volume of a given quantity of gas varies directly with its temperature." A series of interactive flash animations show the application of this theory and demonstrate how different heating elements, such as candles and even the Sun, affect the molecules in common things such as balloons and thermometers. Mathematical equations are provided to demonstrate the calculations. Once the presentation is complete, a short quiz is provided to test the full understanding of the Charles's Law.

Bartelt, Terry L.

2009-04-17

195

Newton's Laws  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Physics Classroom presents this tutorial on Newton's three laws of motion. The impulse-momentum change theorem and the law of conservation of momentum are introduced, explained and applied to the analysis of collisions of objects. Both exercises provide an activity and then an assessment exercise in order for students to check their understanding of the concept(s). Some of the key topics included here are: mass, motion, force (applied, gravity, normal, friction, air resistance, tensional, and spring), inertia, and terminal velocity. The tutorial is geared toward high school students, but it is also great review material for college physics students or anyone needing a refresher course in vectors.

2007-11-02

196

BA Philosophy, Politics and Law  

E-print Network

BA Philosophy, Politics and Law (PPL) Module Information 2013-2014 Arts and Humanities College of students to analyse and understand the foundations, emergence and evolution of European and broader Western to philosophical, political and legal thinking, from Plato's Republic through to humanity's ongoing quests

Harman, Neal.A.

197

Characterization of creep and creep damage by in-situ microtomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Application of in-situ microtomography to characterization of power law creep and creep damage in structural materials is presented. It is shown first that the successively reconstructed volumes are adequately monitoring the macroscopic sample shape and that microtomography is an optimal tool to characterize inhomogeneous specimen deformation. Based on a two-step image correlation technique the evolution of single voids is revealed and the basis of a pioneering approach to creep damage studies is presented. The method allows the unequivocal separation of three concurrent damage mechanisms: nucleation, growth, and coalescence of voids. The results indicate that growth rate of voids with equivalent diameters in the range of 2-5 mm is of about one order of magnitude higher than the prediction of continuum solid mechanics. Analysis of void coalescence points out the presence of two stable growth regimes related to coalescence between primary and secondary voids, respectively.

Borbély, András; Dzieciol, Krzysztof; Sket, Federico; Isaac, Augusta; di Michiel, Marco; Buslaps, Thomas; Kaysser-Pyzalla, Anke R.

2011-07-01

198

On the inverse power laws for accelerated random fatigue testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the usage of inverse power laws in accelerated fatigue testing under wide-band Gaussian random loading. The aim is not at predicting an absolute value of fatigue life but assessing the fatigue damage relative accumulation. The widely accepted inverse power scaling laws in fatigue damage assessment is discussed, reviewing the engineering standards and pointing out their inherent limitations.

G. Allegri; X. Zhang

2008-01-01

199

On the inverse power laws for accelerated random fatigue testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the usage of inverse power laws in accelerated fatigue testing under wide-band Gaussian random loading. The aim is not at predicting an ab- solute value of fatigue life but assessing the fatigue damage relative accumulation. The widely accepted inverse power scaling laws in fatigue damage assessment is discussed, reviewing the engineering standards and pointing out their inherent

G. Allegri; X. Zhang

2009-01-01

200

Faraday's Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Light a light bulb by waving a magnet. This simulation of a Faraday's Law is from the Physics Education Technology website of University of Colorado. It is accessible for teachers and students alike. Included are links to related topics and additional ideas and activities for teachers to use.

2008-11-05

201

World Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This consultant paper is intended to provide information useful to a goal of this curriculum development project in the war/peace field, that is to encourage students to search intelligently for alternatives to war. The most fundamental assumptions used in thinking about international law are described, including some assumptions about systemic…

Marvin, David

202

School Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The United States Supreme Court upheld a California state law requiring employers to allow a pregnant woman up to four months of unpaid maternity leave if she claims pregnancy as a disability. A bill before Congress addresses parental leave and job protection for parents caring for a new baby or a sick child. (MLH)

Splitt, David A.

1987-01-01

203

Full-Scale Prestress Loss Monitoring of Damaged RC Structures Using Distributed Optical Fiber Sensing Technology  

PubMed Central

For the safety of prestressed structures, prestress loss is a critical issue that will increase with structural damage, so it is necessary to investigate prestress loss of prestressed structures under different damage scenarios. Unfortunately, to date, no qualified techniques are available due to difficulty for sensors to survive in harsh construction environments of long service life and large span. In this paper, a novel smart steel strand based on the Brillouin optical time domain analysis (BOTDA) sensing technique was designed and manufactured, and then series of tests were used to characterize properties of the smart steel strands. Based on prestress loss principle analysis of damaged structures, laboratory tests of two similar beams with different damages were used to verify the concept of full-scale prestress loss monitoring of damaged reinforced concrete (RC) beams by using the smart steel strands. The prestress losses obtained from the Brillouin sensors are compared with that from conventional sensors, which provided the evolution law of prestress losses of damaged RC beams. The monitoring results from the proposed smart strand can reveal both spatial distribution and time history of prestress losses of damaged RC beams. PMID:22778590

Lan, Chunguang; Zhou, Zhi; Ou, Jinping

2012-01-01

204

Elastic-Plastic Constitutive Equation of WC-Co Cemented Carbides with Anisotropic Damage  

SciTech Connect

Elastic-plastic constitutive equation of WC-Co cemented carbides with anisotropic damage is proposed to predict a precise service life of cold forging tools. A 2nd rank symmetric tensor damage tensor is introduced in order to express the stress unilaterality; a salient difference in uniaxial behavior between tension and compression. The conventional framework of irreversible thermodynamics is used to derive the constitutive equation. The Gibbs potential is formulated as a function of stress, damage tensor, isotropic hardening variable and kinematic hardening variable. The elastic-damage constitutive equation, conjugate forces of damage, isotropic hardening and kinematic hardening variable is derived from the potential. For the kinematic hardening variable, the superposition of three kinematic hardening laws is employed in order to improve the cyclic behavior of the material. For the evolution equation of the damage tensor, the damage is assumed to progress by fracture of the Co matrix - WC particle interface and by the mechanism of fatigue, i.e. the accumulation of microscopic plastic strain in matrix and particles. By using the constitutive equations, calculation of uniaxial tensile and compressive test is performed and the results are compared with the experimental ones in the literature. Furthermore, finite element analysis on cold forward extrusion was carried out, in which the proposed constitutive equation was employed as die insert material.

Hayakawa, Kunio; Nakamura, Tamotsu; Tanaka, Shigekazu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)

2007-05-17

205

Damage mechanics in 2-D and 3-D microstructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of damage and strategies for assessing damage when it has occurred in structural materials is the primary focus of this research program. The research effort is a collaborative one on mesomechanics called 'Damage in 2D and 3D Microstructures.' What distinguishes this effort from others is the attempt to perform incisive model experiments to assist in evaluating stochastic models for constitutive laws (elasticity and conductivity), mechanical response plasticity, and hardness and associated damage processes. The theoretical models are designed to be elegant and efficient in the use of computing resources as opposed to brute force procedures which handle systems with different scales by scaling up the size of the computer. The essence of this work is to explore sample size microstructure relationships via stochastic models which reflect the same types of variability present in the response of real materials. This leads directly to concerns with effective properties of materials. Thus, research integrates the effects of microstructure and preferred orientation on the effective tensorial properties of polycrystalline materials.

Bowman, Keith J.; Ostoja-Starzewski, Martin

1993-02-01

206

Reversing opinions on Dollo's Law.  

PubMed

Dollo's Law, the idea that the loss of complex features in evolution is irreversible, is a popular concept in evolutionary biology. Here we review how application of recent phylogenetic methods, genomics and evo-devo approaches is changing our view of Dollo's Law and its underlying mechanisms. Phylogenetic studies have recently demonstrated cases where seemingly complex features such as digits and wings have been reacquired. Meanwhile, large genomics databases and evo-devo studies are showing how the underlying developmental pathways and genetic architecture can be retained after the loss of a character. With dwindling evidence for the law-like nature of Dollo's Law, we anticipate a return to Dollo's original focus on irreversibility of all kinds of changes, not exclusively losses. PMID:18814933

Collin, Rachel; Miglietta, Maria Pia

2008-11-01

207

32 CFR 750.33 - Damages.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...GENERAL CLAIMS REGULATIONS Federal Tort Claims Act § 750.33 Damages...measure of damages is determined by the law of the place where the act or omission...services as the result of the alleged tort. The cost of these services...

2010-07-01

208

Sun Damage  

MedlinePLUS

newsletter | contact Share | Sun Damage A A A The sun has a profound effect over years of exposure on the skin, causing premature ... changes. Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun accounts for most premature skin aging. Many skin ...

209

Appendix L Patent Laws CONSOLIDATED PATENT LAWS  

E-print Network

Appendix L Patent Laws __________________________________________________________________ CONSOLIDATED PATENT LAWS United States Code Title 35 - Patents Editor's Note (January 2007): The Patent Laws repro duced below supersede those reproduced in the last revision of the Manual of Patent Examining

Luryi, Serge

210

Bragg's Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It may be beneficial to have students perform the Wave Interference activity prior to engaging them in this activity. The following handouts are identical, with the exception that one is in Word format, while the other is in PDF format. The students should perform the exercise in a computer laboratory. Before proceeding through the questions, they should be given an opportunity to review the material on this web page. Bragg\\'s Law Activity Sheet (Acrobat (PDF) 73kB Mar2 10) Bragg\\'s Law Activity Sheet for Word (Microsoft Word 37kB Feb25 10) The following Powerpoint presentation can be used as an introduction to Bragg's Law. Bragg\\'s Law Powerpoint Presentation (PowerPoint 974kB Feb25 10) Wave Interference Activity Prior to investigating Bragg's law through this activity, it may be helpful to explore interference of sinusoidal waveforms by following the link below. Wave Interference Activity Bragg's Law Applet Java Applet created by Konstantin Lukin with supervision by Glenn A. Richard, Project Java Webmaster Original Bragg's Law Applet page on Mineral Physics Institute web server at Stony Brook University: Project Java - Bragg's Law and Diffraction: How waves reveal the atomic structure of crystals Bragg's Law refers to the simple equation: nà = 2d sinà derived by the English physicists Sir W.H. Bragg and his son Sir W.L. Bragg in 1913 to explain why the cleavage faces of crystals appear to reflect X-ray beams at certain angles of incidence (Ã, Ã). The variable d is the distance between atomic layers in a crystal, and the variable lambda is the wavelength of the incident X-ray beam (see applet); n is an integer. This observation is an example of X-ray wave interference (Roentgenstrahlinterferenzen), commonly known as X-ray diffraction (XRD), and was direct evidence for the periodic atomic structure of crystals postulated for several centuries. The Braggs were awarded the Nobel Prize in physics in 1915 for their work in determining crystal structures beginning with NaCl, ZnS and diamond. Although Bragg's law was used to explain the interference pattern of X-rays scattered by crystals, diffraction has been developed to study the structure of all states of matter with any beam, e.g., ions, electrons, neutrons, and protons, with a wavelength similar to the distance between the atomic or molecular structures of interest. How to Use this Applet The applet shows two rays incident on two atomic layers of a crystal, e.g., atoms, ions, and molecules, separated by the distance d. The layers look like rows because the layers are projected onto two dimensions and your view is parallel to the layers. The applet begins with the scattered rays in phase and interferring constructively. Bragg's Law is satisfied and diffraction is occurring. The meter indicates how well the phases of the two rays match. The small light on the meter is green when Bragg's equation is satisfied and red when it is not satisfied. The meter can be observed while the three variables in Bragg's are changed by clicking on the scroll-bar arrows and by typing the values in the boxes. The d and à variables can be changed by dragging on the arrows provided on the crystal layers and scattered beam, respectively. Bragg's Law Applet with details meter activated, but no constructive interference. Note that the peaks and troughs on the scattered beams are not aligned. Bragg's Law Applet with constructive interference and n = 2. Note that the peaks and troughs on the scattered beams are aligned. Deriving Bragg's Law by Paul Schields Bragg's Law can easily be derived by considering the conditions necessary to make the phases of the beams coincide when the incident angle equals and reflecting angle. The rays of the incident beam are always in phase and parallel up to the point at which the top beam strikes the top layer at atom z (Fig. 1). The second beam continues to the next layer where it is scattered by atom B. The second beam must travel the extra distance AB + BC if the two beams are to continue traveling adjacent and parallel. This extra distance must be an integral (n) multiple of the wavelength (Ã) for the phases of the two beams to be the same: nà = AB +BC (2). Fig. 1 Deriving Bragg's Law using the reflection geometry and applying trigonometry. The lower beam must travel the extra distance (AB + BC) to continue traveling parallel and adjacent to the top beam. Recognizing d as the hypotenuse of the right triangle Abz, we can use trigonometry to relate d and à to the distance (AB + BC). The distance AB is opposite à so, AB = d sinÃ(3). Because AB = BC eq. (2) becomes, nà = 2AB (4) Substituting eq. (3) in eq. (4) we have, nà = 2 d sinÃ, (1) and Bragg's Law has been derived. The location of the surface does not change the derivation of Bragg's Law. Experimental Diffraction Patterns The following figures show experimental x-ray diffraction patterns of cubic SiC using synchrotron radiation. Detail from previous image Players in the Discovery of X-ray Diffraction Friedrich and Knipping first observed Roentgenstrahlinterferenzen in 1912 after a hint from their research advisor, Max von Laue, at the University of Munich. Bragg's Law greatly simplified von Laue's description of X-ray interference. The Braggs used crystals in the reflection geometry to analyze the intensity and wavelengths of X-rays (spectra) generated by different materials. Their apparatus for characterizing X-ray spectra was the Bragg spectrometer. Laue knew that X-rays had wavelengths on the order of 1 Ã. After learning that Paul Ewald's optical theories had approximated the distance between atoms in a crystal by the same length, Laue postulated that X-rays would diffract, by analogy to the diffraction of light from small periodic scratches drawn on a solid surface (an optical diffraction grating). In 1918 Ewald constructed a theory, in a form similar to his optical theory, quantitatively explaining the fundamental physical interactions associated with XRD. Elements of Ewald's eloquent theory continue to be useful for many applications in physics. Kennedy Walker split cylinder apparatus in the Mineral Physics Institute High Pressure Laboratory at Stony Brook University Do We Have Diamonds? If we perform a high pressure experiment in a press, such as the Kennedy-Walker split cylinder apparatus, to convert graphite into diamonds, we can use X-ray diffraction techniques to determine whether we achieved the intended result. The carbon atoms in graphite are arranged into planes that are separated by d-spacings of 3.35Ã. If we use X-rays with a wavelength (Ã) of 1.54Ã, and we have diamonds in the material we are testing, we will find peaks on our X-ray pattern at à values that correspond to each of the d-spacings that characterize diamond. These d-spacings are 1.075Ã, 1.261Ã, and 2.06Ã. To discover where to expect peaks if diamond, graphite, or both are present, you can set à to 1.54à in the applet, and set distance to one of the d-spacings. Then start with à at 6 degrees, and vary it until you find a Bragg's condition. Do the same with each of the remaining d-spacings. Remember that in the applet, you are varying Ã, while on the X-ray pattern printout, the angles are given as 2Ã. Consequently, when the applet indicates a Bragg's condition at a particular angle, you must multiply that angle by 2 to locate the angle on the X-ray pattern printout where you would expect a peak. First stage anvils in the Kennedy Walker split cylinder apparatus

Richard, Glenn

211

State Highway Safety Laws  

MedlinePLUS

State Highway Safety Laws & Funding State Laws Each state and U.S. territory has enacted laws governing various driver behaviors, ... page contains charts for a specific type of highway safety law, listing the provisions for all U.S. ...

212

White settlers and the law in early colonial Kenya  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines settler attitudes toward the law and the legal system in early colonial Kenya. Settlers believed that English law was the culmination of centuries of evolution and was unsurpassed for its justice and logic. Nonetheless, they insisted English law and legal procedure were supremely ill-suited for the African context. When courts released Africans on “technicalities” it only encouraged

Brett Shadle

2010-01-01

213

Radiation damage  

E-print Network

a) Radiation damage in organic materials. This series of lectures will give an overview of radiation effects on materials and components frequently used in accelerator engineering and experiments. Basic degradation phenomena will be presented for organic materials with comprehensive damage threshold doses for commonly used rubbers, thermoplastics, thermosets and composite materials. Some indications will be given for glass, scintillators and optical fibres. b) Radiation effects in semiconductor materials and devices. The major part of the time will be devoted to treat radiation effects in semiconductor sensors and the associated electronics, in particular displacement damage, interface and single event phenomena. Evaluation methods and practical aspects will be shown. Strategies will be developed for the survival of the materials under the expected environmental conditions of the LHC machine and detectors. I will describe profound revolution in our understanding of black holes and their relation to quantum me...

Heijne, Erik H M; CERN. Geneva

1998-01-01

214

Plant evolution The Evolution  

E-print Network

Plant evolution The Evolution of Plants by Kathy J. Willis and Jenny C. McElwain. Oxford University Press, 2002. $40.00/£22.99 pbk (378 pages) ISBN 0 19 850065 3 Developmental Genetics and Plant Evolution is observed for treatments of evolution and development. Titles of major monographs on the subject imply

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Evolution Noonan Evolution 301  

E-print Network

Evolution Noonan Spring 08 Evolution 301 Instructor: Brice Noonan Office: 504 Shoemaker e-mail: bnoonan@olemiss.edu Class time: T,Th: 8:00 ­ 9:15 Office Hrs: T, Th: 9:15 ­ 10:45 Text: Evolution (Futuyma Week 3: Jan 29, 21 Chapter 3: Patterns of Evolution Week 4: Feb 5, 7 Chapter 4,5: Evolution

Goulet, Denis C.

216

The Second Law of Thermodynamics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Second Law of Thermodynamics can be stated as: Energy spontaneously tends to flow from being concentrated in one place to becoming diffused and spread out - or - disorder in a closed system will increase. This radio broadcast explains this law, its implications as to time and energy in the universe, and whether the Second Law tends to be refuted by the existence of life and the theory of evolution. The broadcast explains how the Sun-Earth system is like a steam engine where the Sun is the hot engine, the Earth is a cold sink, and the biosphere plays the part of the pistons by converting energy from the Sun into work needed to provide for life on Earth. There is discussion about the relation between the Second Law and the Big Bang, the expansion of the cosmos, and our inexorable passage through time towards the heat death of the universe; how gravity stores negative energy, which enables it to create order out of disorder; and why the Second Law may be the most fundamental law in all of science. The broadcast is 43 minutes in length.

217

Radiation damage  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The radiation damage workshop considered a variety of topics among which were the need for equivalent electron fluences in gallium arsenide, the possibility of 15 percent end-of-life efficiencies for silicon, increasing radiation resistance in gallium arsenide, annealing of radiation damage and the need for radiation damage studies in cascade cells. The workshop members agreed that a high priority should be assigned to obtaining equivalent electron fluences for gallium arsenide cells. It was suggested that 1 MeV would be a reasonable electron energy for this purpose. Special care should be given to proton irradiations particularly for energies below 1 MeV. In addition, omnidirectional rather than normal incidence protons should be used. It was also agreed that there was a need for obtaining damage coefficients in gallium arsenide. In silicon, there is a requirement for additional flight data, especially in proton dominated orbits. These data are needed to further check the accuracy of the 1 MeV equivalence fluences.

Weinberg, I.

1982-01-01

218

Study on mental damage of serious lakes pollution incidents from the perspective of accounting  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to safeguard the lawful rights of the lakes pollution victims, a study based on theories of the law and accounting were done for recognizing and measuring mental damage of serious lakes pollution, which can put forward a kind of measurement method to serve the judicial practice. Mental damage can be divided into three categories: the mental damage to

Rong Rong; Juqin Shen

2010-01-01

219

A continuum damage model of fatigue-induced damage in laminated composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A model is presented which predicts the stress-strain behavior of continuous fiber reinforced laminated composites in the presence of microstructural damage. The model is based on the concept of continuum damage mechanics and uses internal state variables to characterize the various damage modes. The associated internal state variable growth laws are mathematical models of the loading history induced development of microstructural damage. The model is demonstrated by using it to predict the response of damaged AS-4/3502 graphite/epoxy laminate panels.

Harris, Charles E.; Allen, David H.

1988-01-01

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Master-equation for cascade damage modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is a continuation of our effort to understand and model irradiation effects under cascade damage. The conventional master equation for the evolution of a void ensemble is reformulated to include the stochastic effects due to the random cascade initiation. Numerical solution of the modified master equations to model the evolution of an ensemble of voids explicitly shows that

A. M. Ovcharenko; C. H. Woo; A. A. Semenov

2005-01-01

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Demonstrating the Gas Laws.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a complete computer program demonstrating the relationship between volume/pressure for Boyle's Law, volume/temperature for Charles' Law, and volume/moles of gas for Avagadro's Law. The programing reinforces students' application of gas laws and equates a simulated moving piston to theoretical values derived using the ideal gas law.…

Holko, David A.

1982-01-01

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law, economic analysis of  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article surveys the economic analysis of five primary fields of law: property law; liability for accidents; contract law; litigation; and public enforcement and criminal law. It also briefly considers some criticisms of the economic analysis of law. Keywords adverse possession; asymmetric information; Becker, G.; Bentham, J.; bona fide purchase rule; Coase, R.; collective action; compensated takings; contract formation; contractual

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The temporal evolution of hypoglycemic brain damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of a study on the pathogenesis of neuronal necrosis in severe hypoglycemia, the morphological characteristics reflecting reversible and irreversible neuronal lesions were examined as a function of time following normalization of blood glucose. To that end, closely spaced time intervals were studied in the rat cerebral cortex before, during, and up to 1 year after standardized pure

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Microsoft Academic Search

Well protected human and laboratory animal populations with abundant\\u000aresources are evolutionary unprecedented, and their survival far beyond\\u000areproductive age may be a byproduct rather than tool of evolution. Physical\\u000aapproach, which takes advantage of their extensively quantified mortality,\\u000aestablishes that its dominant fraction yields the exact law, and suggests its\\u000aunusual mechanism. The law is universal for all animals,

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32 CFR 750.48 - Measure of damages in injury or death cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or possessions, determine the measure of damages under the law of the location where the injury arises. (b) Where...determined in accordance with general principles of American tort law. The following is provided as guidance. (1)...

2010-07-01

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Darwinian Evolution and Fractals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Did nature's beauty emerge by chance or was it intelligently designed? Richard Dawkins asserts that evolution is blind aimless chance. Michael Behe believes, on the contrary, that the first cell was intelligently designed. The scientific evidence is that nature's creativity arises from the interplay between chance AND design (laws). Darwin's ``Origin of the Species,'' published 150 years ago in 1859,

Paul H. Carr

2009-01-01

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Evolution towards Symmetry Ferdinand Verhulst and Richard Huveneers  

E-print Network

Evolution towards Symmetry Ferdinand Verhulst and Richard Huveneers Mathematisch Instituut those of today and will the laws of tomorrow still be the same? Henri Poincar´e in `The evolution of the laws', Derni`eres Pens´ees. Abstract The dynamics of time-dependent evolution towards symmetry

Verhulst, Ferdinand

228

Damage modelling in plasma facing components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plasma facing components of controlled fusion devices are submitted to high heat fluxes in operating conditions (from 10 to 20 MW/m 2). These components are made of a carbon/carbon composite tile bonded to a copper alloy heat sink. Due to the thermal expansion mismatch between the composite and the copper alloy, significant stresses may develop during fabrication and under heat load inducing damage in the composite material as well as at the copper/composite interface. The present study describes a modelling approach aimed at predicting damage development in plasma facing components. For this purpose, damage laws related to the non-linear behaviour of both the composite material and the copper/composite joint have been identified. These constitutive laws were then introduced in a numerical model representative of a plasma facing component. Results show the development of damage within the assembly submitted to a heat load.

Martin, E.; Camus, G.; Schlosser, J.; Chevet, G.

2009-04-01

229

Damage and fracture simulation during the extrusion processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to accurately predict the damage and failure evolution in the case of metal forming processes, such as stamping and extrusion, a finite element model valid for numerically describing of such processes has been developed. Damage and crack propagation have been taken into account by means of continuum damage mechanics concepts. To study the effects of variation of processes

Ridha Hambli; Daniel Badie-Levet

2000-01-01

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SIMULATION OF PROGRESSIVE DAMAGE IN BOLTED COMPOSITE JOINTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, a continuum based progressive damage model for fiber-reinforced composites became available in the commercial finite element code ABAQUS. The implemented model uses the Hashin damage initiation criteria (1,2) and damage evolution is based on the work of Matzenmiller (3) and Camanho and Davila (4). The \\

Hannes Koerber; Pedro P. Camanho

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Expertise Not Wanted: The Case of the Criminal Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

My examination of the research literature on expertise in its relation with law has led me to believe that the development of an integrated and comprehensive theory of expertise in law is problematic. Expert risk assessment in toxic tort, or in damage to the environment cases, may be a process so different from the prediction of behavior in criminal cases

Jean-Paul Brodeur

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Innovations in Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at historical and recent innovations in law. The first article examines the code of laws developed by the ancient Hebrews which influenced Roman law, English law, and the U.S. Declaration of Independence and Constitution. The second article explores Thomas Jefferson's writing of the Declaration of…

Martz, Carlton

2000-01-01

233

Hyperphysics: Kepler's Laws  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Hyperphysics page, from Georgia State University, provides detailed explanations for each of Kepler's Laws: the Law of Orbits, Law of Periods, and the Law of Areas. Each description offers appropriate formulas and equations as well as related images and graphics. Various links are provided throughout the article for related information.

Nave, Carl R.

2008-10-28

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[Teaching about Family Law].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Focus on Law Studies""contains a special emphasis on teaching about law and the family", in the form of the following three articles: "Teaching Family Law: Growing Pains and All" (Susan Frelich Appleton); "The Family Goes to Court: Including Law in a Sociological Perspective on the Family" (Mary Ann Lamanna); and Michael Grossberg's…

Ryan, John Paul, Ed.

1992-01-01

235

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E-print Network

to Islamic Jurisprudence 0410171 04101713Personal Status" Marriage & Divorce" 0410272 04101713Personal Status)0420262 ---------3Public Finance & Taxes0420263 ----------3Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law 0420245

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Microsoft Academic Search

The dependence of the friction on slip history is described by an experimentally motivated constitutive law where the friction is dependent on slip rate and state variables. The state variables are defined macroscopically by evolution equations for their rates of change in terms of their present values and slip rate. Experiments may strongly suggest that one state variables is adequate

Andy Ruina

1983-01-01

237

Nonlocal Damage Gradient Model for Fracture Characterization of Aluminum Alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the development of a generalized nonlocal damage-coupled material model. The model introduces the concept of cumulative damage gradient through a set of damage evolution equations within the irreversible thermodynamics framework. The conventional damage-coupled plasticity models require either self-developed finite element codes or the mandatory use of regular elements. The proposed material model is implemented in a commercial

Chi L. Chow; Jianghui Mao; Jie Shen

2011-01-01

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LIABILITY FOR DAMAGE CAUSED BY HAZARDOUS TREES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summarized are the general principles of law that courts use to determine who is liable when tree defects result in personal injury or property damage. Three procedures to minimize liability—tree inspection, documentation of inspec- tion, and adoption of other urban forestry practices—are discussed.

L. M. Anderson; Thomas A. Eaton

1986-01-01

239

Study on Lake Pollution Damage Based on Accounting Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to safeguard the lawful rights of the lakes pollution victims and serve the judicial practice, a study based on theories of the law and accounting were done for recognizing and measuring lakes pollution damage. With the principle of complete property compensation, Concentration attenuation model and loss - concentration relations function were used in this paper. Measurement about the

Rong Rong; Juqin Shen

2010-01-01

240

Life as a manifestation of the second law of thermodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the thermodynamic evolution of various evolving systems, from primitivephysical systems to complex living systems, and conclude that they involve similar processeswhich are phenomenological manifestations of the second law of thermodynamics. We take thereformulated second law of thermodynamics of Hatsopoulos and Keenan and Kestin and extendit to nonequilibrium regions, where nonequilibrium is described in terms of gradientsmaintaining systems at

Eric D. Schneider; James J. Kay

1994-01-01

241

The generalized second law of thermodynamics in generalized gravity theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the generalized second law of thermodynamics (GSL) in generalized theories of gravity. We examine the total entropy evolution with time including the horizon entropy, the non-equilibrium entropy production, and the entropy of all matter, field and energy components. We derive a universal condition to protect the generalized second law and study its validity in different gravity theories. In

Shao-Feng Wu; Bin Wang; Guo-Hong Yang; Peng-Ming Zhang

2008-01-01

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through an Examination of His View on Roman Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

At its broadest, this essay examines the effects of classical influences on early American history. More specifically, it looks at Thomas Jefferson's opinion and possible use of Roman law. I will attempt to establish that Thomas Jefferson deemed that Roman law had contemporary legitimacy and that it had more than indirect influence (through its evolution through European legal systems) upon

Matthew Nye

243

[Variation and evolution of meiosis].  

PubMed

Meiosis arose in the evolution of primitive unicellular organisms as a part of sexual process. One type of meiosis, the so-called classical type, predominates in all kingdoms of eukaryotes. Meiosis is controlled by hundreds of genes, both shared with mitosis and specifically meiotic ones. In a wide range of taxa, which in some cases include kingdoms, meiotic genes and features obey Vavilov's law of homologous variation series. Synaptonemal complexes (SCs) temporarily binding homologous chromosomes at prophase I, ensure precise and equal crossing over and interference. SC proteins have 60-80% homology within the class of mammals but differ from the corresponding proteins in fungi and plants. Thus, nonhomologous SC proteins perform similar functions in different taxa. Some recombination enzymes in fungi and insects have common epitopes. The molecular mechanism of recombination is inherited by eukaryotes from prokaryotes and operates in special compartments: SC recombination nodules. Chiasmata, i.e., physical crossovers of nonsister chromatids, are preserved in bivalents until metaphase I due to local cohesion of sister chromatids in the remaining SC fragments. Owing to chiasmata, homologous chromosomes participate in meiosis I in pairs rather than individually, which, along with unipolarity of kinetochores (only in meiosis 1), ensures segregation of homologous chromosomes. The appearance of SC and chiasmata played a key role in the evolution of unicellular organisms since it promoted the development of a progressive type of meiosis. Some lower eukaryotes retain primitive meiosis types. These primitive modes of meiosis also occur in the sex of some insects that is heterozygous for sex chromosomes. I suggest an explanation for these cases. Mutations at meiotic genes impair meiosis; however, due to the preservation of archaic meiotic genes in the genotype, bypass metabolic pathways arise, which provide partial rescue of the traits damaged by mutations. Individual blocks of genetic program of meiotic regulation have probably evolved independently. PMID:12760244

Bogdanov, Iu F

2003-04-01

244

Is International Law Really State Law?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Revisionist scholars have recently challenged the hornbook rule that United States federal courts shall determine questions of customary international law as federal law. The revisionists claim that the traditional rule violates constitutional history and doctrine, and offends fundamental principles of separation of powers, federalism, and democracy. Professor Koh rebuts the revisionist challenge, applying each of the revisionists' own stated criteria.

Harold Hongju Koh

1998-01-01

245

Gas evolution from spheres  

SciTech Connect

Gas evolution from spherical solids or liquids where no convective processes are active is analyzed. Three problem classes are considered: (1) constant concentration boundary, (2) Henry's law (first order) boundary, and (3) Sieverts' law (second order) boundary. General expressions are derived for dimensionless times and transport parameters appropriate to each of the classes considered. However, in the second order case, the non-linearities of the problem require the presence of explicit dimensional variables in the solution. Sample problems are solved to illustrate the method. 5 refs., 4 figs.

Longhurst, G.R.

1991-04-01

246

Damage Rheology as an Emergent Property of Sub-Critical Crack Growth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Griffith's nucleation theory can be combined with chemical kinetics at an atomic level to predict an exponential relationship between crack growth velocity V and the energy release rate G under sub-critical, quasi-static conditions. In turn this predicts an inverse logarithmic acceleration of crack length to a singularity at the failure time. However, laboratory experiments commonly report a power law relationship between V and G, implying a strong statistical mechanical overprint or geometrical constraint on the way in which a crack population can grow in a composite medium. This additional constraint results in an inverse power-law acceleration of crack growth to a singularity, equivalent to that found in the evolution of correlation length towards the critical point. A mean field damage model based on these observations predicts the observed form of the modified Omori law. By allowing for a combination of positive and negative feedback processes between crack length and G (e.g. chemically-assisted compaction followed by sub-critical crack growth), a power-law creep rheology emerges with a finite yield strength. We summarise a suite of laboratory data carried out at different strain rates that validates the predictions of the theory, and highlight the utility of simultaneous measurement of rheological (stress, strain) seismological (or acoustic emission) and chemical processes. The results also show that deformation at slow strain rate results in a sharper singularity at the failure time, implying a lower degree of predictability at low strain rate. Further work is required, particularly in the strain softening regime, to account for crack-crack interactions not included explicitly in the mean field theory presented, and to discriminate between competing damage hypotheses given the relative narrow bandwidth in space and time of much of the available data.

Main, I.; Ojala, I.; Ngwenya, B.; Elphick, S.

2005-12-01

247

Drunk Driving Laws  

MedlinePLUS

... first-time offenders . *We defer to our State Highway Safety Office members' interpretation of the law. Some ... is transferred to the state DOT or State Highway Safety Office. Alcohol exclusion laws allow insurance companies ...

248

Newton's First Law (Inertia)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is a classroom investigation where students gather information from observing Newton's first law, develop a definition of Newton's first law and force, and apply to real life situations.

Schilling, Nikki

249

Fundamental Laws of Algebra  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

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Blohowiak, Chad; Jensen, Douglas; Reed, Allen

2005-01-01

250

Law Enforcement Executive Forum 2006 6(5) 189 Essays on Terrorism  

E-print Network

Law Enforcement Executive Forum · 2006 · 6(5) 189 Essays on Terrorism Benjamin Kuipers, Ph people. This, by the way, is why police brutality is so damaging to law and order in our society blue line" starts to feel very thin indeed. And criminals become bolder. #12;190 Law Enforcement

Kuipers, Benjamin

251

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NSDL National Science Digital Library

A generalized law for aftershock decay rates is provided through the combination of the Gutenberg-Richter frequency magnitude relation, Bath's law, and the modified Omori's law. Several large quakes with readily identified aftershocks were studied. Results indicate that aftershock decay rates depended on several parameters specific to each seismic region. It was found that the law can be used to forecast the rate of aftershock occurrence after specific information about the main shock's magnitude and the area's land is known.

Shcherbakov, Robert; Rundle, John B.; Turcotte, Donald L.; Agu

252

Advertising Law Internet Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Advertising Law Internet Site houses articles about the legal aspects of marketing products, with particular emphasis on infomercials, home shopping, and direct response TV. Other articles discuss 900 Number regulations, contest laws, business opportunity laws, and additional aspects of promotion law. The site also houses copies of FTC Guides and Speeches and FTC Rules and statutes. Consumer Advisories issued by the FTC will also be made available at the site.

253

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E-print Network

. received his law degree in 1964 and retired in 1974 as an Associate Justice of the SC Supreme Court. He received his law degree in 1934. He practiced law for a number of years, then in 1962 was elected to the Circuit Court, where he served until his retirement in 1979. He died in 1989. James Brailsford, Jr

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254

Newtonâs Laws of Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA website briefly explains the history of Sir Isaac Newton, concentrating mainly on his Three Laws of motion. It then applies these concepts to the principles of rockets. It thoroughly describes the concepts of force, momentum, acceleration and inertia via Newton's Three Laws and differential calculus. The website also goes indepth in the relationship between rocket thrust and Newton's Third Law.

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Microsoft Academic Search

The well-known law of quadratic reciprocity has over 150 proofs in print. We establish a relation between polynomial Jacobi symbols and resultants of polynomials over finite fields. Using this relation, we prove the polynomial reciprocity law and obtain a polynomial analogue of classical Burde's quartic reciprocity law. Under the use of our polynomial Poisson summation formula and the evaluation of

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2003-01-01

256

Kepler and his Laws  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson discusses the work of Tycho Brahe and his connection with Johannes Kepler. Students will receive an introduction to conic sections along with Kepler's laws and observe the mathematical formulation of the third law, and its explicit form for artificial Earth satellites. In addition, the student will confirm Kepler's third law by comparing orbital periods and mean distances for all major planets.

Stern, David

257

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Microsoft Academic Search

THERE is a point in connection with Newton's laws of motion which tha text-books on dynamics, which found the science upon those laws, seem to me to leave very inconveniently and unnecessarily mysterious. The point to which I allude is the meaning of the words ``rest or uniform motion in a straight line'' in the first law. The difficult words

1887-01-01

258

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E-print Network

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259

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ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The practitioner-oriented book provides objectives and goals, learning activities, resources, teaching techniques, and other sources helpful for K-12 teachers developing, planning, and implementing law education programs in the social studies classroom. The first chapter examines the role of the law and society, goals for instruction, and law for…

Gerlach, Ronald A.; Lamprecht, Lynne W.

260

Bicycle Law Enforcement Manual.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual is an attempt to draw together relevant resources and information for localities interested in developing a bicycle law enforcement operation. It is divided into five major sections. Section I explains the need for and importance of bicycle law enforcement. In section II are presented examples of past and current bicycle law

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261

Laws of accident causation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests that the influence of a number of important risk factors on road accidents can be described in terms of a few highly general statistical regularities that determine the shape of the relationship between the risk factors and accident occurrence. The statistical regularities are referred to as “laws of accident causation”. The following “laws” are proposed:1.The universal law

Rune Elvik

2006-01-01

262

How Law Protects Dignity  

Microsoft Academic Search

One way in which law protects dignity is by enforcing human rights provisions that explictly or implicitly involve the protection of dignity or the prevention of degradation. But law's connection with dignity is also much deeper and more pervasive than this. In the way that it operates, in the way that it presents its requirements, in the way law expects

Jeremy J Waldron

2012-01-01

263

Laws and Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

J. J. C Smart (1963) once argued that biology is unlike the physical sciences because there are no laws in biology. While physics and chemistry can construct general theories centered on genuine laws, biology is limited to case studies that make use of the laws of physics and chemistry: biology is more like engineering than it is like the physical

David Resnik

1997-01-01

264

Law of Empires.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores issues raised by empires and imperial law. The first article, "Clash of Empires: The Fight for North America," looks at the clash of empires and the fight for North America during the 18th century. The second article, "When Roman Law Ruled the Western World," examines Roman Law, which helped hold…

Martz, Carlton

2001-01-01

265

Women, Law and Politics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the comparative underrepresentation of women practicing law and holding elective public office, the pattern and pace of female entry along career paths to elective offices, and the prospects for increasing female representation in law and politics. The data are collected by state and region in five year intervals from 1955 to 1985. Law and first professional degree

Christine B. Williams

1990-01-01

266

European tax law  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book is intended as a textbook for students reading tax law or EC law. It offers a systematic survey of the tax implications of the EC Treaty and of European integration and of the EC tax harmonization policy, a discussion of the Community tax rules in force, and a discussion of the EC Court's case law in tax matters.

B. J. M. Terra; P. J. Wattel

2008-01-01

267

Utah Marriage Divorce Laws  

E-print Network

) if the people being married are of the same sex.4 Foreign marriages are valid even if they would be prohibited and void under Utah law, so long as it does not result in a same-sex marriage, a bigamous marriageUtah Marriage & Divorce Laws By Steve Averett J. Reuben Clark Law School Brigham Young University

Seamons, Kent E.

268

A theoretical model of grainsize evolution during deformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithospheric shear localization, as occurs in the formation of tectonic plate boundaries, is often associated with diminished grainsize (e.g., mylonites). Grainsize reduction is typically attributed to dynamic recrystallization; however, theoretical models of shear-localization arising from this hypothesis are problematic since (1) they require the simultaneous action of two exclusive creep mechanisms (diffusion and dislocation creep), and (2) the grain-growth ("healing") laws employed by these models are derived from static grain-growth or coarsening theory, although the shear-localization setting itself is far from static equilibrium. We present a new first-principles grained-continuum theory which accounts for both coarsening and damage-induced grainsize reduction. Damage per se is the generic process for generation of microcracks, defects, dislocations (including recrystallization), subgrains, nucleii and cataclastic breakdown of grains. The theory contains coupled statistical grain-scale and continuum macroscopic components. The grain-scale element of the theory prescribes both the evolution of the grainsize distribution, and a phenomenological grain-growth law derived from non-equilibrium thermodynamics; grain-growth thus incorporates the free energy differences between grains, including both grain-boundary surface energy (which controls coarsening) and the contribution of deformational work to these free energiesconservation and positivity of entropy production provide the phenomenological law for the statistical grain-growth law. We identify four potential mechanisms that affect the distribution of grainsize; two of them conserve the number of grains but change their relative masses and two of them change the number of grains by sticking them together or breaking them. In the limit of static equilibrium, only the two mechanisms that increase the average grainsize are allowed by the second law of thermodynamics. The first one is a diffusive mass transport from small grains to large grains that captures the essential component of normal grain-growth theories. The second one is the aggregation of grains. With the inclusion of nonstatic/nonequilibrium conditions, the theory predicts two mechanisms for which the thermodynamic requirement of entropy positivity always imposes large grains to shrink and small ones to grow. A first damage mechanism opposite to diffusion, tends to homogenize the distribution of grainsize around its initial average grainsize. A second damage mechanism favors the creation of small grains by division of larger grains. This second mechanism reduces the average grainsize with time. The competition between the two coarsening mechanisms, the damage-induced grain homogenization and the damage-induced grain reduction controls the general evolution of the grainsize population. Under uniform and constant shear, and assuming than grains cannot stick together, the average grainsize is related to the energy dissipated during the deformation (in agreement with Austin and Evans, 2007). The prediction of this theory fits satisfactorily with the available observations and we will discuss the implications of this model for large scale geodynamics.

Ricard, Y.; Bercovici, D.; Rozel, A.

2007-12-01

269

University of Virginia School of Law Law School Foundation  

E-print Network

Martha Lubin Karsh, Law '81 University of Virginia '78 Edward J. Kelly III, Law '81 Princeton University Samuel B. Witt, III, Law '64 Virginia Military Institute '58 Other Officers Luis Alvarez, Jr., Law '88

Whittle, Mark

270

94 University of Virginia School of Law law school foundation  

E-print Network

University of Virginia '62 elizabeth s. scott, Law '77 William & Mary '67 william M. slaughter, Law '66 James e. coleman, Jr., Law '51 Georgia Institute of Technology '48 wallace l. cook, Law '64 Harvard

Acton, Scott

271

Ballistic impact damage and penetration mechanics of fiber-reinforced composite laminates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental and theoretical studies were performed to characterize and model the processes of damage evolution and resulting penetration failure of graphite fiber-reinforced epoxy resin composite laminates (\\

Henry Michael Patts

2000-01-01

272

The Normativity of Law in Law and Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Normativity of Law in Law and Economics Péter Cserne* 1. Introduction This paper is about some theoretical and methodological problems of law and economics (economic analysis of law, EAL). More specifically, I will use game theoretical insights to answer the question, relevant both for law and economics and legal philosophy, how should a social scientific analysis of law account

Péter Cserne

273

EDUCATION LAW A Career Guide  

E-print Network

EDUCATION LAW A Career Guide Written By: Dan Ahearn, Attorney Advisor & Ross MacConnell, Summer.law.harvard.edu/current/careers/opia/ #12;Education Law Guide 2009, page 1 Table of Contents Introduction..........................................................................................12 Education Law at Harvard

Wolfe, Patrick J.

274

Scaling Law in Sizes of Protein Sequence Families: From Super-Families to Orphan Genes  

E-print Network

;51:569­576. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Key words: protein families; size distribution; scal- ing; power-law; evolution) follows a power-law behavior with similar scaling exponents, which is characteristic of self- organizing of a scale-free power-law distribution for representa- tive quantities such as size, length, time, etc

Unger, Ron

275

Power-Law Entropic Corrections to Newton's Law and Friedmann Equations  

E-print Network

A possible source of black hole entropy could be the entanglement of quantum fields in and out the horizon. The entanglement entropy of the ground state obeys the area law. However, a correction term proportional to a fractional power of area results when the field is in a superposition of ground and excited states. Inspired by the power-law corrections to entropy and adopting the viewpoint that gravity emerges as an entropic force, we derive modified Newton's law of gravitation as well as the corrections to Friedmann equations. In a different approach, we obtained power-law corrected Friedmann equation by starting from the first law of thermodynamics at apparent horizon of a FRW universe, and assuming that the associated entropy with apparent horizon has a power-law corrected relation. Our study shows a consistency between the obtained results of these two approaches. We also examine the time evolution of the total entropy including the power-law corrected entropy associated with the apparent horizon together with the matter field entropy inside the apparent horizon and show that the generalized second law of thermodynamics is fulfilled in a region enclosed by the apparent horizon.

Ahmad Sheykhi; Seyed Hossein Hendi

2010-11-02

276

Damage accumulation in quasibrittle fracture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The strength of quasibrittle materials depends on the ensemble of defects inside the sample and on the way damage accumulates before failure. Using large-scale numerical simulations of the random fuse model, we investigate the evolution of the microcrack distribution as the applied load approaches the fracture point. We find that the distribution broadens mostly due to a tendency of cracks to coalesce in a way that increases with system size. We study how the observed behavior depends on the disorder present in the sample and relate the results with fracture size effects.

Manzato, Claudio; Alava, Mikko J.; Zapperi, Stefano

2014-07-01

277

Capillary Network, Cancer and Kleiber Law  

E-print Network

We develop a heuristic model embedding Kleiber and Murray laws to describe mass growth, metastasis and vascularization in cancer. We analyze the relevant dynamics using different evolution equations (Verhulst, Gompertz and others). Their extension to reaction diffusion equation of the Fisher type is then used to describe the relevant metastatic spreading in space. Regarding this last point, we suggest that cancer diffusion may be regulated by Levy flights mechanisms and discuss the possibility that the associated reaction diffusion equations are of the fractional type, with the fractional coefficient being determined by the fractal nature of the capillary evolution.

Dattoli, G; Licciardi, S; Guiot, C; Deisboeck, T S

2014-01-01

278

Newton's Second Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson introduces students to Sir Isaac Newton's Second Law of Motion. Topics include the two ways to study the dynamics of a system in which there is motion, a brief description of Newton's work in studying and measuring the motion of objects, and a summary of his three laws of motion. The lesson includes an activity in which students test Newton's Second Law by measuring the acceleration of a cart which is being pulled by increasingly larger masses.

Pratte, John

279

Law.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Describing itself as "a single, comprehensive destination for legal information, e-law services and legal products on the Web," this Website offers law students, legal professionals, business firms, and the general public news and information on the law. Lawyers will find here such items as the complete text of the latest edition of the American Lawyer with its listing of the top 100 law firms in the country. Law students can take advantage of features about schools, transferring, and recruiting, as well as links to professional associations. Businesses can find news and analysis of recent issues in business law as well as updated, annotated links to business law sites. For the public, the site offers news and analysis on prominent legal issues, such as recent Supreme Court decisions and the Wisconsin suit against the EPA over formulated gasoline. In addition, an online Real Life Dictionary of the Law gives accessible definitions to over 3,000 common legal terms. The search engine for the site draws on a surprisingly extensive archive -- for instance, we received more than 350 returns for "bankruptcy" -- making this site also a manageable resource for legal research, especially for practicing lawyers, journalists, and the general public. While this is a commercial site offering to sell law books, pamphlets, multimedia materials, and various online services, there is a considerable collection of free materials for users.

280

Federal Law Enforcement Statistics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Supplies census statistics about federal employees with law enforcement authority. Provides additional information about the functionality, budget, expenditures, and staffing of federal crime labs and police departments.

Justice, U. S.

281

Bullying Policies and Laws  

MedlinePLUS

... Policies & Laws | Español Search Stopbullying.gov WHAT IS BULLYING Definition The Roles Kids Play Related Topics CYBER BULLYING What is Cyberbullying? Prevent Cyberbullying Report Cyberbullying WHO ...

282

Newton's Law of Gravitation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The two activities included in this guide introduce students to the principles behind Newton's Law of Gravitation and help students learn aspects of the law in an interesting and engaging way. This guide provides teachers with background information pertaining to the activities, preparation suggestions for each activity, as well as material lists, and demonstrations. The activity guide assumes knowledge of Newton's Second Law of Motion, can be tailored for the level of the students, and can be completed individually or in groups. This is the last of four posters on Newton's Laws and a copy of the wallsheet intended to accompany these activities is available on this website.

283

Diffusion processes satisfying a conservation law constraint  

E-print Network

We investigate coupled stochastic differential equations governing N non-negative continuous random variables that satisfy a conservation principle. In various fields a conservation law requires that a set of fluctuating variables be non-negative and (if appropriately normalized) sum to one. As a result, any stochastic differential equation model to be realizable must not produce events outside of the allowed sample space. We develop a set of constraints on the drift and diffusion terms of such stochastic models to ensure that both the non-negativity and the unit-sum conservation law constraint are satisfied as the variables evolve in time. We investigate the consequences of the developed constraints on the Fokker-Planck equation, the associated system of stochastic differential equations, and the evolution equations of the first four moments of the probability density function. We show that random variables, satisfying a conservation law constraint, represented by stochastic diffusion processes, must have di...

Bakosi, J

2014-01-01

284

Characteristics of Creep Damage for 60Sn40Pb Solder Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a viscoplasticity model taking into account the effects of change in grain or phase size and damage on the characterization of creep damage in 60Sn-40Pb solder. Based on the theory of damage mechanics, a two-scalar damage model is developed for isotropic materials by introducing the free energy equivalence principle. The damage evolution equations are derived in terms

Y. Wei; C. L. Chow; H. E. Fang; M. K. Neilsen

1999-01-01

285

Newton's 3 Laws of Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn about Sir Isaac Newton's 3 laws of motion and see how you experience these laws every day! Today you are going to be learning about Sir Isaac Newton's three laws of motion. A. Newton s 3 Laws of Motion On this first site click on the different links and learn about the following: About Sir Isaac Newton The 1st law of motion The 2nd law of motion The 3rd law of motion Make sure to write down what ...

Friske, Miss

2010-04-21

286

Technology, property, and law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between 1975 and 1986 forty-eight states passed laws specifically criminalizing unauthorized access to computer-based information. Thirty of these states passed their computer crime laws between 1982 and 1985. This flurry of legislative activity occurred in a climate of concern for the need to stem what was characterized as a ‘wave of computer crime.’ The data presented here, however, indicate that

Raymond J. Michalowski; Erdwin H. Pfuhl

1991-01-01

287

Charles' Law of Gases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment that uses air to test Charles' law. Reinforces the student's intuitive feel for Charles' law with quantitative numbers they can see, introduces the idea of extrapolating experimental data to obtain a theoretical value, and gives a physical quantitative meaning to the concept of absolute zero. (JRH)

Petty, John T.

1995-01-01

288

The Rule of Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay explores the problem of establishing the rule of law in the developing world. Democracies in the developing world have regular elections yet lack the rule of law. The solution, it is believed, is that these democracies must adopt the “best practices” of Western democracies by reforming judicial systems and strengthening constitutional judicial review. This argument rests on the

Miguel Schor

2006-01-01

289

Law Education Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Course outlines and timelines for a junior high school elective, "Youth and the Law," and a senior high school elective, "Criminal and Civil Law," are provided. A sample brochure about a supplementary television series for the junior high course is also included. (SR)

Letwin, Alita Zurav

1983-01-01

290

TOPOGRAPHIES LAW / DROIT  

E-print Network

Riques FeATuRes sHORT TAKes 8 On LegaL educatiOn Martha Minow, Dean of the Harvard Law School, and this year's recipient of an honorary doctor of laws degree, reflects on the meaning of a McGill legal education 6 EP-state arbitration issues and on international trade, investment and litigation. Bjorklund's term at Mc

Fabry, Frederic

291

Reinventing Howard's Law School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes efforts by Alice Gresham Bullock, dean of the Howard University School of Law, to improve the school (including building a new library and improving relations with faculty) and restore Howard to its previous stature as a leader in civil rights law. (EV)

Glenn, Gwendolyn

2001-01-01

292

LawGuru.com  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

LawGuru.com is an exhaustive resource for free legal information. The site provides access to more than 430 legal search engines and databases, including a feature that allows parallel searching of multiple databases. The site also maintains the LawGuru.com BBS, a searchable database of legal questions posted by users accompanied by responses from one of the more than 320 practicing attorneys in the LawGuru.com network. Currently the BBS database contains over 4,000 legal questions divided into more than 25 categories. In addition, LawGuru.com provides a collection of fifteen FAQs written on various legal issues, links to over 500 legal Internet resources, and information on over 600 associated electronic mailing lists. Recently, LawGuru.com began hosting the Internet Law Library (see the May 3, 1996 Scout Report), a comprehensive resource formerly maintained by the US House of Representatives. LawGuru.com is operated by The Law Offices of Eslamboly & Barlavi (California).

293

Social Studies: Law Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews 11 series, texts, supplements, kits, and professional references for law instruction, including civil and criminal law, the Bill of Rights, and controversial legal issues: arson, gun control, capital punishment, and euthanasia. While all grade levels are covered, the emphasis is on secondary-level materials. (SJL)

Curriculum Review, 1979

1979-01-01

294

Law of Police Interrogation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay traces the history of the law of police interrogation in the United States, emphasizing that this body of law is largely a product of United States Supreme Court cases interpreting the United States Constitution. The essay reviews the three sections of the Constitution that regulate interrogation practices: the Fifth Amendment, the Due Process Clause of the Fifth and

Thomas George III; Richard Leo

2012-01-01

295

Law Studies Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This law studies curriculum guide describes a course designed to provide secondary students with the opportunity to acquire an understanding of the U.S. legal process. The law studies course is intended to develop corresponding concepts and skills in conjunction with the content presented. The content areas of the curriculum include: (1)…

Seminole County Board of Public Instruction, Sanford, FL. Dept. of Curriculum Services.

296

Drug Impaired Driving Laws  

MedlinePLUS

... Learn More About Impaired Driving Issue Brief 3 states – California, New York and Hawaii – separate driving under the influence of alcohol, under ... information, consult the appropriate State Highway Safety Office . State Per Se Laws for Drugs (Forbidding Prohibited Substances in Driver's Body) DEC/DRE Programs (Providing Law ... Idaho Yes Illinois Yes Yes Indiana Yes ...

297

Know Your Laws. Polish.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Polish language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three levels of the…

Watson, Joan Q.; Kopania, Margaret

298

Know Your Laws. French.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This French language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three levels of the…

Watson, Joan Q.; Ledun, Andree

299

Know Your Laws. Czechoslovakian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Czechoslovakian language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three…

Watson, Joan Q.; Ziembinski, Vera

300

Know Your Laws. German.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This German language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three levels of the…

Watson, Joan Q.; Karch, Hannelore

301

Know Your Laws. Italian.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Italian language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult students with law they will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three levels of the…

Watson, Joan Q.

302

LAW, RELIGION & EDUCATION  

E-print Network

LAW, RELIGION & EDUCATION: Religious Freedom in the Sphere of Education 8th & 9th October 2010. The Conference will examine the relationships between "Law, Religion and Education", addressing the accommodation of religious diversity as well as the content and meaning of education, notably religious education, in a human

Saunders, Mark

303

Law and Marine Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of Delaware Marine Studies has implemented courses in coastal zone law and policy and maritime law. The courses attempt to integrate the scientist's or engineer's work with public policy formation. The program emphasizes historical and current issues and the economic, cultural, and political forces operating in decision-making…

Bockrath, Joseph

1976-01-01

304

The Law of Elasticity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participants estimated the imagined elongation of a spring while they were imagining that a load was stretching the spring. This elongation turned out to be a multiplicative function of spring length and load weight--a cognitive law analogous to Hooke's law of elasticity. Participants also estimated the total imagined elongation of springs joined…

Cocco, Alberto; Masin, Sergio Cesare

2010-01-01

305

Physics Flashlets: Kepler's Laws  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This simulation illustrates Kepler's Second Law, that orbits sweep out equal areas during equal intervals of time, for any part of the orbit. The user can choose from three buttons between circular or increasingly elliptical orbits to observe that the law holds in all cases.

Fowler, Michael; Welch, Heather

2008-10-05

306

Law Related Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This journal edition focuses upon the many resources for teachers to draw upon in order to infuse law-related education (LRE) into their classrooms. Isidore Starr explains the reasons behind the LRE movement, while Mabel McKinney-Browning describes the existing American Bar Association's programs in LRE. Judith Zimmer covers the Street Law

Maslow, R., Ed.; Kirchgaessner, R., Ed.

1989-01-01

307

Language and the Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the language of law and its general interest to the field of applied linguistics. Specific focus is on legal language, the problems and remedies of legal communication (e.g., language and disadvantage before the law, improving legal communication) the legislation of language (e.g., language rights, language crimes), and forensic…

Gibbons, John

1999-01-01

308

Utah Marriage Divorce Laws  

E-print Network

in a same-sex marriage, a bigamous marriage, a marriage to a person under the age of 16 (except 15 year olds to receive judicial consent to be married), or (4) if the people being married are of the same sex.4 ForeignUtah Marriage & Divorce Laws By Steve Averett J. Reuben Clark Law School Brigham Young University

Seamons, Kent E.

309

Know Your Laws. Spanish.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This Spanish language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three levels of…

Watson, Joan Q.; Ackerson, Leonor

310

Acid mine drainage: Common law, SMCRA, and the Clean Water Act  

SciTech Connect

Acid mine drainage is a major problem related to coal mining which, if unabated, can severely damage the aquatic environment. Damage resulting from acid mine drainage was first addressed by common law and riparian principles. As societal laws changed, common law principles alone could not effectively control this problem. Preventing and controlling pollution including acid mine drainage are important goals of the Surface Mining Control Reclamation Act (SMCRA) and the Clean Water Act (CWA). This article examines how common law, SMCRA, and the CWA address the acid mine drainage issue independently, and how improvements in the control of acid mine drainage can be achieved.

Henrich, C.

1995-12-31

311

The Concept of ‘Law’ in Global Administrative Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

What constitutes ‘law’ in the efflorescent field of ‘global administrative law’? This article argues for a ‘social fact’ conception of law, emphasizing sources and recognition criteria, but it extends this Hartian positivism to incorporate requirements of ‘publicness’ in law. ‘Publicness’ is immanent in public law in national democratic jurisprudence, and increasingly in global governance, where it applies to public entities

Benedict Kingsbury

2009-01-01

312

Common Law Approaches to the Relationship Between Law and Morality  

Microsoft Academic Search

How are general relations of law and morality typically conceived in an environment of Anglo-saxon common law? This paper considers some classical common law methods and traditions as these have confronted and been overlaid with modern ideas of legal positivism. While classical common law treated a community and its morality as the cultural foundation of law, legal positivism's analytical separation

Roger Cotterrell

2000-01-01

313

Mechanism of lung damage in explosive decompression.  

PubMed

It is known that pressure equalization via the trachea may diminish or prevent lung damage in explosive decompression. In this report, evidence is presented which demonstrates that closure of the trachea does not affect lethality in mice exposed to maximally rapid decompression. This observation suggests that in maximally rapid decompression the lungs and thorax may be treated as a closed system to which Boyle's Law might be applicable. PMID:1275842

Topliff, E D

1976-05-01

314

Duke Law & Technology Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Law school students are well known for trying to "do good" whether it be through aiding wrongly accused persons, or by providing legal advice at any number of free clinics. This academic and policy-oriented online publication from the people at Duke University's Law School is another such endeavor, and one that is worth a closer look. The publication's general area of interest is in the intersection of law and technology, and as such it draws on the knowledge base of specialties that include business law and intellectual property. The school's Law & Technology Review consists primarily of short issues briefs that provide insight into a wide range of issues for both the legal community and professionals working in these areas more broadly. Visitors to the site can browse the different briefs through a listing of general thematic areas or merely scroll through the site's homepage.

315

Florida Law Collections  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Florida Law Collections document the laws and legal heritage of Florida through a wide range of texts digitized from the holdings of the University of Florida's Lawton Chiles Legal Information Center, the State Library, and Archives of Florida, and several other key institutions. Specifically, the collection includes issues of the Journal of the Florida House of Representatives, the Florida Historical Legal Documents collection, a Florida Water Law collection that is particularly noteworthy, as well as other general texts on Florida laws, the legislative process, and government. Given the debates over water rights and usage throughout the state, the Water Law collection is a real find, and visitors can search over 7300 documents within the collection. From the homepage, visitors can perform advanced searches and also look over recently added items. Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive their RSS feed and contact the site administrators with any additional queries they might have.

316

International resources law  

SciTech Connect

This book covers: Historical origins of civil code legal systems; Modern civil law practice for mineral lawyers; Treaties and agreements for protection of international investments; Europe 1992-toward a single energy market; Dispute resolution in international agreements; Assessment of political risk; Reducing political risk; Protecting mineral investments from upheaval in developing countries; Typical world petroleum arrangements; government take in the Pacific Rim - Papua New Guinea; Mineral base of the USSR and prospects of investment; International taxation for the mining practitioner; Tax considerations - branch versus subsidiary; Doing business in the host country - nontax considerations; Impact of host-country laws on operations and profits; Mineral development and native rights - New Zealand; Designing the investment vehicle: mining; International oil and gas joint ventures; Selected U.S. laws with extraterritorial effect; U.S. tax and securities laws applied to foreign joint venturers; and Extraterritorial effect of U.S. laws.

Not Available

1991-01-01

317

Bone Lesions and Damage  

MedlinePLUS

... NOW Home » About Multiple Myeloma » Symptoms » Bone Damage Bone Lesions and Damage Bone lesions from multiple myeloma ... have some degree of bone loss. Causes of bone destruction in myeloma Normally, osteoclasts function with bone- ...

318

Child Labor Laws in Mississippi.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Child labor laws have not attracted much attention in recent years. Much of the basic legislation and the case law dates from the early part of the 20th century. This paper discusses the Mississippi statutory law on the subject, compares that law with legislation in five other States, and discusses case law in Mississippi and in other States.…

Robbins, Jerry H.

319

Composite blade damaging under impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composites materials are now being used in primary aircraft structures, and other domains because of numerous advantages. A part of a continuous in-flight operating costs, gas turbine engine manufacturers are always looking for ways to decrease engine weight. This is the case of compressor blades which have to satisfy, for example, the standard bird strike or debris in order to measure the crashworthiness. Bird strike impacts are actually among the most challenging loads that composite blades must accommodate. Thus for the further development of composite structures, it becomes important to have available predictive tools for simulating the response of composite structures under crash or impact loads, which will allow to evaluate damage state in the structure in function of time. A composites damage model, without mesh dependency, is presented, and allows to obtain agreement with impact experiment. Examples of finite element simulations for the impact response of blade based on this materials model are developped. These numerical results correspond to a bird strike on an equivalent composites blade, and insists on damage evolution in structure.

Menouillard, T.; Réthoré, J.; Bung, H.; Suffis, A.

2006-08-01

320

Soviet Labor Law and Principles of Civil Law. A Textbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: The subject and system of soviet labor law; Fundamental principles of law in socialist public organization of labor; The sources of soviet labor law; Legal relationships of labor; The rights of soviet trade unions; Collective agreement; Labor ag...

K. S. Batygin

1972-01-01

321

94 University of Virginia School of Law Law School Foundation  

E-print Network

Vier Stanford University '65 Smith College '61 Wallace L. Cook, Law '64 Harvard University '61 Cameron L. Cowan '75 Gordon F. Rainey, Jr., Law '67 University of Virginia '62 Elizabeth S. Scott, Law '77 William

Acton, Scott

322

FindLaw Constitutional Law Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This offering from FindLaw (last discussed in the January 15, 1999 Scout Report) focuses on the US Constitution. The site is composed of two primary sections. The first offers an annotated Constitution, commentary on selected topics with links to key sections of the Constitution or The Federalist Papers, a history of the Constitution, and brief biographies of notable "Founding Fathers" and delegates to the Constitutional Convention. The second section highlights the Third Branch of government, with a history of the Supreme Court, landmark decisions regarding civil rights with the full opinions, a summary and analysis of the criminal law and procedure decisions of the October 1998 Supreme Court Term, and several links for current Supreme Court news and information. Both sections also feature a search engine. Additional resources at the site include a Town Hall section that explores Hot Topics (currently flag burning) and message boards on a wide variety of Constitutional issues.

1994-01-01

323

The Evolution and Development of the Universe  

E-print Network

This document is the Special Issue of the First International Conference on the Evolution and Development of the Universe (EDU 2008). Please refer to the preface and introduction for more details on the contributions. Keywords: acceleration, artificial cosmogenesis, artificial life, Big Bang, Big History, biological evolution, biological universe, biology, causality, classical vacuum energy, complex systems, complexity, computational universe, conscious evolution, cosmological artificial selection, cosmological natural selection, cosmology, critique, cultural evolution, dark energy, dark matter, development of the universe, development, emergence, evolution of the universe evolution, exobiology, extinction, fine-tuning, fractal space-time, fractal, information, initial conditions, intentional evolution, linear expansion of the universe, log-periodic laws, macroevolution, materialism, meduso-anthropic principle, multiple worlds, natural sciences, Nature, ontology, order, origin of the universe, particle hierarchy, philosophy, physical constants, quantum darwinism, reduction, role of intelligent life, scale relativity, scientific evolution, self-organization, speciation, specification hierarchy, thermodynamics, time, universe, vagueness.

Clement Vidal; Charles Auffray; Alex H. Blin; Jean Chaline; Louis Crane; Thomas Durt; Borje Ekstig; Horace Fairlamb; Jan Greben; Rob Hengeveld; Francis Heylighen; Gerard Jagers op Akkerhuis; Giuseppe Longo; Nicolas F. Lori; Denis Noble; Laurent Nottale; Franc Rottiers; Stanley Salthe; John Stewart; Ruediger Vaas; Gertrudis Van de Vijver; Nico M. van Straalen

2009-12-30

324

Subsurface damage on ground fused silica surfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The low surface laser damage threshold of fused silica components in high power laser systems such as NIF restricts the improvement of the output fluence of those systems. Once damage is initiated and grows under subsequent laser shots, the components will go unusable. Subsurface damage (SSD) introduced during manufacturing has been identified as a main damage initiator. A good knowledge of SSD and how manufacturing influences it is essential to optimize manufacturing processes for damage free optics. Using the magneto-rheological finishing (MRF) wedge technique of better accuracy attributed to a tip, we have characterized the subsurface damage on fused silica optical surfaces ground with loose Al2O3 abrasives of different sizes. Larger abrasives generates longer cracks and the number density of cracks decreases sharply with the depth for each size. Rogue particles account for the occurrence of trailing indent scratches. Addition of rogue abrasives into relatively small base abrasive extends SSD more deeply than that induced by rogue abrasives alone. The linear model, with the proportional coefficient 3.511, fits the relationship between SSD depth and surface roughness (SR) better than the quadratic polynomial one. We believe SSD depth relates to SR more statistically than following some specified physical law. The linear relationship between SSD depth and the abrasive size was also established. The abrasive size turned out not to be as a good indictor of SSD depth as SR.

Xu, Jiafeng; Xu, Xueke; Gao, Wenlan; Wei, Chaoyang; Yang, Minghong; Shao, Jianda

2014-08-01

325

Sexuality and Australian law.  

PubMed

The author describes the changing legal environment concerning same-sex relationships in the common law world with special reference to Australia. He refers to shifts in public opinion recorded in opinion polls; important decisions of human rights courts and tribunals; and changes in national law and court decisions. He then reviews the Australian constitutional setting which divides lawmaking responsibility on such subjects between the federal, State and Territory legislatures. He describes initiatives adopted in the States and Territories and the more modest changes effected in federal law and practice. He concludes on a note of optimism concerning Australia's future reforms affecting discrimination on the grounds of sexuality. PMID:15814500

Kirby, Michael

2005-01-01

326

Benford's Law in Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Benford's law predicts the occurrence of the n-th digit of numbers in datasets originating from various sources all over the world, ranging from financial data to atomic spectra. It is intriguing that although many features of Benford's law have been proven, it is still not fully understood mathematically. In this paper we investigate the distances of galaxies and stars by comparing the first, second and third significant digit probabilities with Benford's predictions. It is found that the distances of galaxies follow the first digit law reasonable well, and that the star distances agree very well with the first, second and third significant digit.

Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Leontsinis, Stefanos

2014-07-01

327

Kepler and His Laws  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a set of 7 illustrated web pages discussing Kepler's laws. Included are equations and properties of conic sections, the scale of the solar system, the energy equation for Keplerian motion, Newton's "Universal Gravitation" and derivation of the 3rd law for circular orbits. It is part of the collection "From Stargazers to Starships", with French, Italian and Spanish translations. Four sections have lesson plans (click top right), also provided is the text of a 1-hour talk to teachers on presenting Kepler's laws, with worked examples. No calculus is used.

Stern, David

2004-11-28

328

Ideal Gas Laws  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab manual contains descriptions of a series of laboratories covering the ideal gas laws and ideal gas processes. These experiments are designed for introductory high school and college introductory physics, chemistry, and engineering courses. Each experiment includes the intended audience, learning goals, and a short introduction to the physics. The experiments include Boyleâs Law, work done in an isothermal process, adiabatic processes, thermodynamic cycles, and the heat capacity of a gas. These labs are designed for an adiabatic gas law apparatus developed at Andrews University.

Kutzner, Mickey; Wong, Peter

2011-11-18

329

International Constitutional Law (ICL)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the University of Wuerzburg (Germany), International Constitutional Law (ICL) provides English texts of constitutional documents and links to background information on over seventy countries. Documents are cross-referenced for comparison of constitutional provisions. Also featured are links to Constitutional Court sites, a Model Constitutional Code, a section on German Case Law, a comprehensive list of international organizations, and a strong collection of links to constitutional and international law and constitution sites. The material available at ICL is widely applicable to fields such as political science, international relations, or government, and could be very useful for research projects in both secondary and university classrooms.

1997-01-01

330

A high accuracy femto-/picosecond laser damage test facility dedicated to the study of optical thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laser damage test facility delivering pulses from 100 fs to 3 ps and designed to operate at 1030 nm is presented. The different details of its implementation and performances are given. The originality of this system relies the online damage detection system based on Nomarski microscopy and the use of a non-conventional energy detection method based on the utilization of a cooled CCD that offers the possibility to obtain the laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) with high accuracy. Applications of this instrument to study thin films under laser irradiation are presented. Particularly the deterministic behavior of the sub-picosecond damage is investigated in the case of fused silica and oxide films. It is demonstrated that the transition of 0-1 damage probability is very sharp and the LIDT is perfectly deterministic at few hundreds of femtoseconds. The damage process in dielectric materials being the results of electronic processes, specific information such as the material bandgap is needed for the interpretation of results and applications of scaling laws. A review of the different approaches for the estimation of the absorption gap of optical dielectric coatings is conducted and the results given by the different methods are compared and discussed. The LIDT and gap of several oxide materials are then measured with the presented instrument: Al2O3, Nb2O5, HfO2, SiO2, Ta2O5, and ZrO2. The obtained relation between the LIDT and gap at 1030 nm confirms the linear evolution of the threshold with the bandgap that exists at 800 nm, and our work expands the number of tested materials.

Mangote, B.; Gallais, L.; Zerrad, M.; Lemarchand, F.; Gao, L. H.; Commandré, M.; Lequime, M.

2012-01-01

331

The LSU Law Center -- Canada Bijuralism Conference. Introduction: Global Law and the Law School Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces papers from a conference focused on the bijural programs of Louisiana State University Law Center and McGill University Faculty of Law. The programs educate all first-degree law students in both the common law and civil law traditions, preparing them for the increasing globalization of legal practice. (EV)

Costonis, John J.

2002-01-01

332

Damage control resuscitation: history, theory and technique  

PubMed Central

Damage control resuscitation (DCR) represents the natural evolution of the initial concept of damage control surgery. It currently includes early blood product transfusion, immediate arrest and/or temporization of ongoing hemorrhage (i.e., temporary intravascular shunts and/or balloon tamponade) as well as restoration of blood volume and physiologic/hematologic stability. As a result, DCR addresses the early coagulopathy of trauma, avoids massive crystalloid resuscitation and leaves the peritoneal cavity open when a patient approaches physiologic exhaustion without improvement. This concept also applies to severe injuries within anatomical transition zones as well as extremities. This review will discuss each of these concepts in detail. PMID:24461267

Ball, Chad G.

2014-01-01

333

Distracted Driving Laws  

MedlinePLUS

... here. For more information, consult the appropriate State Highway Safety Office . State Hand-held Ban All Cell ... driving in a school zone or in a highway construction zone. This law is secondarily enforced. 2 ...

334

What Are Newton's Laws?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through a series of three lessons and one activity, students are introduced to inertia, forces and Newton's three laws of motion. For each lesson, a combination of class demonstrations and PowerPoint® presentations are used to explain, show and relate the concepts to engineering. Lesson 1 starts with inertia, forces and Newton's first law of motion. Lesson 2 builds on lesson 1 with s review and then introduces Newton's second law of motion. Lesson 3 builds on the previous two lessons with a review and then introduces Newton's third law of motion. In a culminating activity, students apply their knowledge of forces, friction, acceleration and gravity in an experiment to measure the average acceleration of a textbook pulled along a table by varying weights, and then test the effects of friction on different surfaces.

RESOURCE GK-12 Program, College of Engineering,

335

Causal Newton Gravity Law  

E-print Network

The equations of the relativistic causal Newton gravity law for the planets of the solar system are studied in the approximation when the Sun rests at the coordinates origin and the planets do not iteract between each other.

Yury M. Zinoviev

2012-01-17

336

Consumer Law Guidance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Consumer problems are not unique to the civilian sector; military members often seek consumer advice from attorneys providing legal assistance. Perhaps the greatest challenge for military practitioners is the complexity of law with which they must deal. O...

1993-01-01

337

Consumer Law Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication is one of a series prepared and distributed to assist legal assistance attorneys in the delivery of legal assistance. The series cantinas summaries of law, guidance, and sample documents for handling common problems.

2000-01-01

338

Business Law Today  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Bar Association has recently begun to provide full text of this bimonthly magazine covering various aspects of business law. In addition to feature articles, there are five small sections with snippets of legal news and features.

1995-01-01

339

Sobriety Checkpoint Laws  

MedlinePLUS

... under federal Constitution Georgia Yes Weekly Upheld under state and federal Constitution Hawaii Yes Weekly Authorized by statute Idaho No Illiegal under state law Illinois Yes Several hundred per year Upheld ...

340

Coulomb's Law - Synthesis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A PhysLet based simulation using a graphical approach to explore Coulomb's law. In this interesting problem, the user has to identify three charges based on the trajectory that a test charge follows and based on the force graph.

Papadopoulos, Costas

2008-06-24

341

Symposium Issue "Law As . . ."  

E-print Network

in the Civil Rights Movement Christopher W. Schmidt 641 The Historical Consciousness of the Resistant Subject 543 The Peace: The Meaning and Production of Law in the Post-Revolutionary United States Laura F

Barrett, Jeffrey A.

342

Law Enforcement Technology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Serving as a sworn officer of the law continues to be one of the most demanding professions in the country, and those in the field will certainly appreciate the website of Law Enforcement Technology. This monthly magazine concentrates primarily on the emerging trends in the field of law enforcement technology, such as the use of computers, refined body armor designs, and of course, improvements in weaponry and forensics. On their website, visitors can read articles about new data management systems, mobile license plate readers, and innovative flashlights. Along with these feature articles, each issue contains information about funding opportunities for law enforcement technology initiatives and new developments in software technology. Finally, visitors can also sign up to receive email notifications about job opportunities and promotional offers.

343

Laws of Motion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts a truck with a ladder on its roof stopping quickly so that the ladder is thrown from the top of the truck. The representation is contained within a slide show explaining Newton's 1st Law of Motion.

344

Lessons In Environmental Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

From battling the entrance of an invasive species into Lake Michigan to investigating health- related problems of Detroit’s incinerator, a WSU law clinic is giving students a comprehensive understanding of what it takes to pursue some of the most pressing local, regional and state-level environmental cases in Michigan. The Environmental Law Clinic, taught by Nick Schroeck, adjunct professor in WSU’s

Amy Oprean

2010-01-01

345

Law-Free Zones  

E-print Network

as Director ofthe Paul E. Wilson Defender Project, the law school's prisoner legal assistance clinic. Professor Gottlieb's primary field ofexpertise is criminal law and procedure. He has written extensively on sentencing and death penalty issues, and he... that are a part of the Geneva Conventions. In addition, the Administration believes that it is not bound, outside of the United States, by the restraints that exist against cruel and inhumane treatment that are a part of the Convention Against Torture, a...

Gottlieb, David J.

2005-01-01

346

Law & Politics Internet guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This metasite of law and political resources is designed for legal professionals, academics, and the general public. About two dozen lists of annotated links cover topics such as Legal Portals, Legal Resources, Foreign & International Law, and Legal Research. Equipped with language translation software (which works well on some pages but seems to cause graphics problems on other pages), the site is well designed and easy to use.

1997-01-01

347

Laws, Morals and Politics  

E-print Network

. The point is that natural law theory rests upon an important methodological mistake, as does, I now will argue, the contrary position, legal positivism. 2. The Positivist Separability Thesis. Positivist legal theorists, from Benthamy and Austin.... 15 Hart's admission that in fact law and morality are not "necessarily unconnected" goes a long way toward strengthening the position of the legal positivists in the face of criticisms to the effect that positivism is an "abstracted, merely...

Burkhardt, Robert J.

1978-11-01

348

[Law, medicine and society (1/2). From scientific duty to scientific risk].  

PubMed

IF LAW IS SIMPLISTIC: Notably with regard to responsibility applied by the courts, it is also a mirror and enlightening. The medical corp's apprehension of law is rich in information on the evolution of medicine and society's opinion of it. THE MEDICAL CONTRACT IS UNIQUE: It concerns human beings and their dignity. It is a scientific, conscientious and moral (or ethical) contract. The physicians' duty is scientific, with an obligation to provide conscientious and appropriate care and treatment according to evidence-based science. IN THE PRECAUTIONARY PRINCIPLE: The question of whether the physician should attempt to prevent a disease, although the medical act itself may be risky, is raised. The example of the application of precautionary vaccination against hepatitis B has demonstrated the potentially damaging impact of such a public health policy and its impact on public opinion. The dangers of such an insufficiently thought out precautionary measure also exists in individual medicine. After serious discussion among the medical corps, the Medical Academy applied for a moratorium regarding the application of precautionary principle in the field of medicine. PMID:12148143

Sargos, Pierre; David, Georges

2002-06-01

349

Anisotropic Damage Analysis of HY100 Steel Under Quasistatic Loading Conditions  

SciTech Connect

The effect of MnS inclusion orientation on damage evolution and fracture toughness in HYlOO steel is investigated in the context of anisotropic damage modeling at the continuum level. Experimental notched-bar data sets are analyzed and modeled using finite element calculations with constitutive behavior that assumes isotropic elastoplastic behavior in conjunction with anisotropic damage.

Los Alamos National Laboratory

2001-01-01

350

Micromechanical modeling of short glass-fiber reinforced thermoplastics-Isotropic damage of pseudograins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A micromechanical damage modeling approach is presented to predict the overall elasto-plastic behavior and damage evolution in short fiber reinforced composite materials. The practical use of the approach is for injection molded thermoplastic parts reinforced with short glass fibers. The modeling is proceeded as follows. The representative volume element is decomposed into a set of pseudograins, the damage of which

S. Kammoun; L. Brassart; G. Robert; I. Doghri; L. Delannay

2011-01-01

351

Finite element simulation of fine blanking processes using a pressure-dependent damage model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to accurately simulate fine blanking processes, a finite element model valid for numerically describing of such operations has been developed. The numerical simulation of the damage evolution and crack initiation and propagation have been described by means of continuum damage approach. In this paper, two models for damage accumulation has been implemented in the finite element code ABAQUS

Ridha Hambli

2001-01-01

352

Damage monitoring of refractory wall in a generic entrained-bed slagging gasification system  

E-print Network

791 Damage monitoring of refractory wall in a generic entrained-bed slagging gasification system-bed slagging gasification systems is attributed to evolution of structural damage in the refractory walls. Early detection of such damage is necessary to avert unscheduled shutdown of a gasification plant

Ray, Asok

353

Evolution in the Multiverse  

E-print Network

In the {\\em Many Worlds Interpretation} of quantum mechanics, the range of possible worlds (or histories) provides variation, and the Anthropic Principle is a selective principle analogous to natural selection. When looked on in this way, the ``process'' by which the laws and constants of physics is determined not too different from the process that gave rise to our current biodiversity, i.e. Darwinian evolution. This has implications for the fields of SETI and Artificial Life, which are based on a philosophy of the inevitability of life.

Russell K. Standish

2000-01-10

354

Nonlocal conservation laws and related Bäcklund transformations via reciprocal transformations  

E-print Network

A set of infinitely many nonlocal conservation laws are revealed for (1+1)-dimensional evolution equations. For some special known integrable systems, say, the KdV and Dym equations, it is found that different nonlocal conservation laws can lead to same new integrable systems via reciprocal transformation. On the other hand, it can be considered as one solution of the new model obtained via reciprocal transformation(s) can be changed to different solutions of the original model. The fact indicates also that two or more different (local and nonlocal) conservation laws can be used to find implicit auto-B\\"acklund transformations via reciprocal transformation to other systems.

Sen-Yue Lou

2014-02-28

355

A Kinematic Conservation Law in Free Surface Flow  

E-print Network

The Green-Naghdi system is used to model highly nonlinear weakly dispersive waves propagating at the surface of a shallow layer of a perfect fluid. The system has three associated conservation laws which describe the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy due to the surface wave motion. In addition, the system features a fourth conservation law which is the main focus of this note. It is shown how this fourth conservation law can be interpreted in terms of a concrete kinematic quantity connected to the evolution of the tangent velocity at the free surface. The equation for the tangent velocity is first derived for the full Euler equations in both two and three dimensional flows, and in both cases, it gives rise to an approximate balance law in the Green-Naghdi theory which turns out to be identical to the fourth conservation law for this system.

Gavrilyuk, Sergey; Khorsand, Zahra

2014-01-01

356

A Kinematic Conservation Law in Free Surface Flow  

E-print Network

The Green-Naghdi system is used to model highly nonlinear weakly dispersive waves propagating at the surface of a shallow layer of a perfect fluid. The system has three associated conservation laws which describe the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy due to the surface wave motion. In addition, the system features a fourth conservation law which is the main focus of this note. It is shown how this fourth conservation law can be interpreted in terms of a concrete kinematic quantity connected to the evolution of the tangent velocity at the free surface. The equation for the tangent velocity is first derived for the full Euler equations in both two and three dimensional flows, and in both cases, it gives rise to an approximate balance law in the Green-Naghdi theory which turns out to be identical to the fourth conservation law for this system.

Sergey Gavrilyuk; Henrik Kalisch; Zahra Khorsand

2014-10-24

357

Mixture balance laws for fluid flows with phase transition  

E-print Network

Mixture balance laws for fluid flows with phase transition Maren Hantke, Otto. Cavitation: Francis turbine, cavitation damage and old repairs with stainless steel welding Mixture balance At this point homogenized approaches come into play. The modelling of such mixture equations can be done through

Helluy, Philippe

358

A Data Analysis for the Inverse Square Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

When first encountered, inverse square laws can damage the confidence of beginning physics students whose maths skills are uncertain. Engaging in practical exercises that help them work with the idea can be a great help. We have used the following apparatus for a number of years and our students understand and enjoy the exercise.

Russell Downie

2007-01-01

359

Kepler's Laws, Newton's Laws, and the Search for New Planets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. One of the high points of elementary calculus is the derivation of Ke- pler's empirically deduced laws of planetary motion from Newton's Law of Gravity and his second law of motion. However, the standard treatment of the subject in calcu- lus books is flawed for at least three reasons that I think are important. First, Newton's Laws are used

Robert Osserman

360

Rediscovering Kepler's laws using Newton's gravitation law and NASA data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kepler's three laws of planetary motion were originally discovered by using data acquired from Tycho Brache's naked eye observations of the planets. We show how Kepler's third law can be reproduced using planetary data from NASA. We will also be using Newton's Gravitational law to explain why Kepler's three laws exist as they do.

Paul Springsteen; Jason Keith

2010-01-01

361

Scherr & Redish Newton's Zeroth Law Newton's Zeroth Law  

E-print Network

Scherr & Redish Newton's Zeroth Law Newton's Zeroth Law: Learning from listening to our students "Newton's Zeroth Law" articulates important (but usually tacit) ideas underlying them. In this paper we explain our use of Newton's Zeroth Law in the introductory algebra-based course at the University

Maryland at College Park, University of

362

Damage Tolerance of Composites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fracture control requirements have been developed to address damage tolerance of composites for manned space flight hardware. The requirements provide the framework for critical and noncritical hardware assessment and testing. The need for damage threat assessments, impact damage protection plans, and nondestructive evaluation are also addressed. Hardware intended to be damage tolerant have extensive coupon, sub-element, and full-scale testing requirements in-line with the Building Block Approach concept from the MIL-HDBK-17, Department of Defense Composite Materials Handbook.

Hodge, Andy

2007-01-01

363

32 CFR 750.48 - Measure of damages in injury or death cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...law of the location where the injury arises. (b) Where an injury or death arises in a foreign...damages for overseas personal injury claims. Allowable compensation...decedent's spouse, parent, child, or dependent relative....

2013-07-01

364

32 CFR 750.48 - Measure of damages in injury or death cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...law of the location where the injury arises. (b) Where an injury or death arises in a foreign...damages for overseas personal injury claims. Allowable compensation...decedent's spouse, parent, child, or dependent relative....

2011-07-01

365

32 CFR 750.48 - Measure of damages in injury or death cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...law of the location where the injury arises. (b) Where an injury or death arises in a foreign...damages for overseas personal injury claims. Allowable compensation...decedent's spouse, parent, child, or dependent relative....

2012-07-01

366

The anomalous extinction law  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the calculations of anomalous interstellar extinction laws characterized by different values of the ratio of the total to selective extinction are presented. The calculation is based on the Mie theory of light scattering by small particles assuming a two-grain dust model of Mathis et al. (1977) and by adopting their particle size distribution, in which the minimum and maximum size is taken to be 0.005 and 0.22 micron, respectively. Furthermore, dielectric functions for both the graphite- and 'astronomical silicate'-type grains are used, as derived by Draine and Lee (1984). Following Mathis and Wallenhorst (1981), the anomalous extinction laws are then obtained by changing the upper size cutoff of the particles. A comparison shows that the calculated anomalous extinction laws agree quite well with the laws observationally derived using the color-difference method. A trial-and-error method for the determination of the law, based on a comparison of the observed extinction-free spectral energy distribution with the corresponding theoretical Kurucz (1979) model, is explained.

Steenman, H.; The, P. S.

1989-09-01

367

Military Law Review  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Library of Congress' Research Center of Military Legal Resources contains, among other publications, the Military Law Review. The Military Law Review has been published quarterly since 1958, and is meant to be used by military attorneys in their work and "'provides a forum for those interested in military law to share the products of their experience and research.'" Visitors should also note that most of the issues from 1958 to 2008 are available for general perusal. Each issue of the journal contains both articles and book reviews. An article in the Winter 2008 issue, entitled "Crossing the Line: Reconciling the Right to Picket Military Funerals With the First Amendment", is a very accessible article about the constitutionality of state and federal funeral picketing laws. Visitors interested in learning about the school that provides military legal education, and where the Military Law Review is published, should click on the link "The Judge Advocate General's Legal Center & School (JAGS), U.S. Army, Charlottesville, Virginia", in the first paragraph on the homepage

368

Environmental Crime: Law, Policy, Prosecution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this exciting addition to Aspen s Elective Series, Kathleen Brickey, a leading criminal law and white collar crime specialist and author of numerous scholarly publications, offers a unique perspective on the intersection of environmental law and criminal law. Using an interdisciplinary approach, the author covers major environmental and criminal law issues in a clear, concise style that is easily

Kathleen F. Brickey

2008-01-01

369

Roman and Canon Law Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historians interested in law and lawyers interested in history all find something of interest in both the civil law of classical Rome, the Corpus Juris Civilis, and the canon law of the Church of Rome, the Corpus Juris Canonici. This article describes the types of researchers who consult Roman and canon law sources, discusses the research needs of these researchers,

Lucia Diamond

2001-01-01

370

Law and economics in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

The European law and economics movement started early in Sweden. However, the dialogue between economists and lawyers has developed slowly, if at all. The reluctance toward economics in the law schools can be explained by the strong influence emanating from 'legal realism and positivism'. Moreover, scholars with a law degree have most limited training in social sciences. Although law and

Goran Skogh

1991-01-01

371

BERKELEY LAW CERTIFICATE IN ENVIRONMENTAL LAW Berkeley Law students have the option of earning a Certification of Specialization in  

E-print Network

Justice (3 units) LAW 272.3 Climate Change and the Law / Climate Change: Law and Policy (2 units) LAW1 BERKELEY LAW CERTIFICATE IN ENVIRONMENTAL LAW 2010-2011 Berkeley Law students have the option of earning a Certification of Specialization in Environmental Law. The Certificate gives students

Kammen, Daniel M.

372

Economic Observations Concerning Optimal Prevention and Compensation of Damage Caused by Medical Malpractice  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the economic analysis of law, damage is defined as an externality. The basic idea, therefore, is that legal rules should\\u000a give the health care providers, the physician or the hospital, incentives to invest in care in order to prevent damage. One\\u000a of the important questions in law and economics is, therefore, through what kind of legal rules the health

Michael Faure

2004-01-01

373

Newton's Third Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educational wallsheet illustrating Newton's Third Law of Motion is the third of a set of four. Each image on the front of the poster illustrates Newton's Third Law, and is described on the back. The wallsheet also provides teachers with background information, pre-activity reading for the students that relates the law to the action of the fuel being expelled from the rocket and its reaction on the rocket carrying the Swift satellite into orbit, as well as Swift's turning motions once in orbit, pre-activity discussion with optional questions that relate to the Swift satellite, a classroom-ready activity and assessment, and post-activity discussions that tie the classroom activity back to the Swift satellite.

2009-05-14

374

Physical Laws for Mechanobiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Higher-level physical laws applicable to biological tissues are presented that will permit the modeling of metabolic activity at the cellular level, including variations in the mass of a tissue. Here the tissue is represented as a fluid/solid mixture, wherein molecular solutes transport within the fluid, and cells can migrate throughout the porous solid. Variations in mass can arise via exchanges in mass between the constituent phases within a control volume such that mass is conserved in the tissue overall. The governing balance laws for mass, momentum, energy, and entropy are a special case of those describing a chemically reacting mixture with diffusion. Thermodynamic constraints on the constitutive structure are addressed. Biophysics; Biomechanics; Brownian motion; Cell migration; Mixture theory; Thermodynamic laws; Tissue mechanics

Freed, Alan D.

2007-01-01

375

A Quantitative Examination Whether Education Mitigates Stress Levels among Law Enforcement Officers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stress is damaging if it is continual, overwhelming. and prolonged. Law enforcement officers face stressful events daily. A relationship exists between stress levels and the physical and psychological effects to the human body. Although there is a general understanding of the damage stress can do physically and psychologically, many elements that…

Metts, Gary A.

2012-01-01

376

Microstructural evolution during dynamic deformation of cubic metals: copper  

SciTech Connect

Shockwave shape can influence dynamic damage evolution. Features such as rise time, pulse duration, peak shock pressure, pull back, and release rate are influenced as wave shape changes. However, their individual influence on dynamic damage evolution is not well understood. Specifically, changing from a square to triangular or Taylor wave loading profile can alter the release kinetics from peak shock pressure and the volume of material sampled during release. This creates a spatial influence. In high purity metals, because damage is often linked to boundaries within the microstructure (grain or twin), changing the volume of material sampled during release, can have a drastic influence on dynamic damage evolution as the number of boundaries or defects sampled is altered. In this study, model-driven dynamic experiments have been conducted on eu with four different grain sizes to examine, for a given shockwave shape, how the spatial effect of boundary distribution influences dynamic damage evolution. Both two and three dimensional damage characterization techniques have been utilized. This study shows the critical influence of spatial effects, in this case boundary density, on dynamic damage evolution. As the boundary density decreases, the damage evolution transitions from nucleation controlled to growth controlled. It also shows that specific boundaries, those with high Schmid factor orientations on either side, maybe a necessary condition for void formation.

Cerreta, Ellen K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Koller, Darcie D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bronkhorst, Curt A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Excobedo, Juan P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hansen, Benjamin L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patterson, Brian M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lebensohn, Ricardo A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Livescu, Veronica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tonks, Davis [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mourad, Hashem M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Germann, Timothy C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Perez - Bergquist, Alex [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gray Ill, George T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-12-22

377

International Water Law Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As clean water has increasingly become a resource subject to scarcity, international politics and law have become involved with the issues of access to and maintenance of water sources. This site provides comprehensive information on the subject, featuring full texts of the major diplomatic documents, including rules on international groundwaters and rivers agreed upon at UN conferences in Helsinki and Seoul, treaty drafts, regional agreements as well as international case law, an extensive bibliography, and links to related sites. The site was conceived and developed by Gabriel Eckstein in conjunction with The World's Water project of the Pacific Institute.

Eckstein, Gabriel.

378

Fatigue damage prognosis using affine arithmetic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among the essential steps to be taken in structural health monitoring systems, damage prognosis would be the field that is least investigated due to the complexity of the uncertainties. This paper presents the possibility of using Affine Arithmetic for uncertainty propagation of crack damage in damage prognosis. The structures examined are thin rectangular plates made of titanium alloys with central mode I cracks and a composite plate with an internal delamination caused by mixed mode I and II fracture modes, under a harmonic uniaxial loading condition. The model-based method for crack growth rates are considered using the Paris Erdogan law model for the isotropic plates and the delamination growth law model proposed by Kardomateas for the composite plate. The parameters for both models are randomly taken and their uncertainties are considered as defined by an interval instead of a probability distribution. A Monte Carlo method is also applied to check whether Affine Arithmetic (AA) leads to tight bounds on the lifetime of the structure.

Gbaguidi, Audrey; Kim, Daewon

2014-02-01

379

Damage-induced localized hypermutability  

PubMed Central

Genome instability continuously presents perils of cancer, genetic disease and death of a cell or an organism. At the same time, it provides for genome plasticity that is essential for development and evolution. We address here the genome instability confined to a small fraction of DNA adjacent to free DNA ends at uncapped telomeres and double-strand breaks. We found that budding yeast cells can tolerate nearly 20 kilobase regions of subtelomeric single-strand DNA that contain multiple UV-damaged nucleotides. During restoration to the double-strand state, multiple mutations are generated by error-prone translesion synthesis. Genome-wide sequencing demonstrated that multiple regions of damage-induced localized hypermutability can be tolerated, which leads to the simultaneous appearance of multiple mutation clusters in the genomes of UV-irradiated cells. High multiplicity and density of mutations suggest that this novel form of genome instability may play significant roles in generating new alleles for evolutionary selection as well as in the incidence of cancer and genetic disease. PMID:21406975

Sterling, Joan F; Roberts, Steven A; Chao, Frank G; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Leilei; Walsh, Jesse; Resnick, Michael A

2011-01-01

380

Measuring damages for lost enjoyment of life: the view from the bench and the jury box.  

PubMed

Civil jury instructions are inconsistent in defining what constitutes noneconomic damages, which may include pain, suffering, disability, disfigurement, and loss of enjoyment of life (LEL), among other injury sequelae. This inconsistency has been manifested recently in court decisions that have considered whether LEL should be treated as a separate element of noneconomic damages, distinct from pain and suffering. This paper reviews the case law on this issue and also describes a jury simulation experiment. Mock jurors awarded damages after they received instructions on noneconomic damages in which LEL was (1) not identified as a distinct element of damages; (2) defined as an element of damages distinct from pain and suffering, but participants awarded a single amount for noneconomic damages; or (3) defined as a distinct element of damages, and participants awarded separate amounts for LEL and pain and suffering. Instructions about LEL resulted in larger awards, but only when mock jurors also made a separate award for that element of damages. PMID:12647467

Poser, Susan; Bornstein, Brian H; McGorty, E Kiernan

2003-02-01

381

Human Evolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource from Bruce MacEvoy links to documents "summarizing the hominid fossil record and hypothesized lines of human evolution from 5 million years ago to the present." The site is divided into five parts: Chart of Human Evolution, Tour of the Human Fossil Record, The Hominid Brain, Hominid Tools, Hominid Fossil Sites and Patterns of Hominid Dispersal.

Macevoy, Bruce

1969-12-31

382

Evolution Lessons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This collection of lessons from the Evolution and the Nature of Science Institute (ENSI) focus on evolution. Each title is an active link to the named activity. The site also contains links to synopses for all of the lessons and a statement on the appropriate grade level for the lessons.

2007-12-12

383

Stellar Evolution  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Chandra X-Ray Observatory page links to several activities and articles on stellar evolution. It includes an interactive Flash activity featuring simulations of different-mass stars evolving and a detailed "story" of stellar evolution for the interested reader, available in PDF and HTML formats.

2010-05-28

384

43 CFR 9239.0-8 - Measure of damage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...resources, coal, oil, and other trespass in accordance with the decision of the Supreme Court of the United States in the case of Mason et al. v. United States (260 U.S. 545, 67 L. ed. 396), will be the measure of damages prescribed by the laws...

2012-10-01

385

43 CFR 9239.0-8 - Measure of damage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...resources, coal, oil, and other trespass in accordance with the decision of the Supreme Court of the United States in the case of Mason et al. v. United States (260 U.S. 545, 67 L. ed. 396), will be the measure of damages prescribed by the laws...

2013-10-01

386

43 CFR 9239.0-8 - Measure of damage.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...resources, coal, oil, and other trespass in accordance with the decision of the Supreme Court of the United States in the case of Mason et al. v. United States (260 U.S. 545, 67 L. ed. 396), will be the measure of damages prescribed by the laws...

2011-10-01

387

Teaching Diversity Skills in Law School: One School's Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evolution of a diversity education program at McGeorge School of Law (University of the Pacific, California) is chronicled and response to it is discussed. The program involved a lecture on cultural sensitivity and follow-up small-group discussion sessions involving faculty and students. While the program did not meet the expectations of all…

Davies, Julie

1995-01-01

388

Snell's law for Kerr bright and dark solitons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generalized nonlinear Helmholtz equation is used in this study to describe the evolution of solitons at the interface of two Kerr focusing media. Analytical results show that the relationship between transverse velocities and angles in the nonparaxial theory leads to a remarkably compact Helmholtz generalization of Snell's law.

J. Sanchez-Curto; P. Chamorro-Posada; G. S. McDonald

2007-01-01

389

Law of the Sea, Resource Use, and International Understanding.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An account of the evolution of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, which set aside a major portion of the world's oceans as a common heritage of mankind, is presented. An examination of the Convention's precepts illustrates discussion questions for use with secondary or college students. (RM)

Earney, Fillmore C. F.

1985-01-01

390

Non standard thermodynamics framework for robust computations with induced anisotropic damage  

E-print Network

-dissipation potential for the second one. The elasticity law and the strain energy release rate density YYY , variable of thermodynamics a pseudo-dissipation po- tential quadratic function of YYY is most often considered, the damage law taking the form DDD = JJJ : YYY (1) with a positive multiplier and JJJ a positive fourth order

391

Laws Hurricane Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) has recently been deselected from the Earth Observing System (EOS). A broad range of orbital altitudes and laser power are being considered for future wind lidar missions. As a result, as was anticipated in the pr...

J. Molinari

1995-01-01

392

The Gas Laws  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Inquires into the individual names and dates which are associated with the various perfect gas laws on the basis of published and historically researched works. Indicates the presence of eight features in giving a scientist credit for a scientific discovery. (CC)

Raman, V. V.

1973-01-01

393

UNIVERSAL ERROR PROPAGATION LAW  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an ubiquitous statistical theory, Gaussian Distribution (GD) or Gaussian Error Propagation Law (GEPL) has been widely used for modelling random errors in many engineering and application fields since 1809. In recent years, this theory has been extended to handle the uncertainties of spatial data in GIS, such as positional error modelling. But most of the results for spatial error

Xiaoyong CHEN; Shunji MURAI

394

Team Teaching School Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Graduate students preparing themselves for a career in school administration are typically apprehensive about the legal issues they will face in their first administrative position. After teaching school law for the first time, the author believed that there had to be a more effective way to reach these students rather than the traditional methods…

Vanko, John G.; Rogina, Raymond P.

2005-01-01

395

Equal before the law?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews empirically the relationship between politicians and decisions to prosecute or not to prosecute businesspeople who are suspected of fraud and of complicity in the supply of arms to Iraq, within the context of (a) conventional ideas about impartiality of the administration of law; and (b) the politics of bureaucratic survival. It discusses some key difficulties in ascertaining

Michael Levi

1995-01-01

396

Law in Outer Space.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of the current practice and fascinating future of legal issues involved in outer space exploration and colonization. Current space law, by necessity, addresses broad principles rather than specific incidents. Nonetheless, it covers a variety of issues including commercial development, rescue agreements, object registration,…

Schmidt, William G.

1997-01-01

397

Kepler's Third Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet shows the relative orbits of Earth and Mars as governed by Kepler's Laws. The purpose of the applet is to demonstrate why it takes approximately 2 years for a manned mission to Mars. To simulate other relative orbital mechanics, the orbits of the Earth and Mars can be changed to any arbitrary distance from the Sun.

Bothun, Greg

398

Newton's First Law Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formulations of Newton's first law in Newton's Principia and in modern textbooks are examined critically. A special effort is made to differentiate clearly between definitions and nontrivial facts of nature, and this is done in as primitive terms as possible, with emphasis on the projective structure. A somewhat novel characterization of the term ‘free particle’ is proprosed, and a

Herbert Pfister

2004-01-01

399

Boyle's Law Experiment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that ideal experiments fit into course time constraints and be meaningful, relevant to course content, safe, inexpensive, simple, reproducible, and easy to set up/maintain. Describes a Boyle's Law experiment that uses a minimum of equipment and meets the foregoing criteria. Apparatus used, procedures, and safety precautions are…

Hermens, Richard A.

1983-01-01

400

A Boyle's Law Demonstrator.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The usual apparatus for demonstrating Boyle's law produces reasonably accurate results, but is not impressive as a demonstration because students cannot easily appreciate the change in pressure. An apparatus designed to produce a more effective demonstration is described. Procedures employed are also described. (JN)

Sathe, Dileep V.

1984-01-01

401

Iranian Electronic Commerce Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently (2003) Iranian legislator authorize act about Electronic commerce in Iran and this Law consists of a set of rules and principles to be applied for easy and secure communication of information in electronic intermediaries using state of the art communication systems. Legislator state many phrase in this act that they don't exist before it. So I going to

Ehsan Zar Rokh

2007-01-01

402

Law, Endowment, and Finance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper assesses two theories regarding the historical determinants of international differences in financial development. The law and finance theory holds that legal traditions differ in terms of the priority they attach to protecting the rights of private investors vis-a-vis the State and this has important implications for financial development. The endowment theory argues that the disease and geographical environment

Thorsten Beck; Asli Demirguc-Kunt; Ross Levine

2002-01-01

403

Law, endowments, and finance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a sample of 70 former colonies, this paper assesses two theories regarding the historical determinants of financial development. The law and finance theory holds that legal traditions, brought by colonizers, differ in terms of protecting the rights of private investors vis-à-vis the state, with important implications for financial markets. The endowment theory argues that the disease environment encountered by

Thorsten Beck; Asli Demirgüç-Kunt; Ross Levine

2003-01-01

404

Training Law Enforcement Officers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an approach to cooperative efforts between a mental health center and a law enforcement agency. A series of programs were developed to provide human relations skills training to police officers. These cooperative training programs are designed to increase interpersonal sensitivity in dealing with citizens and fellow officers alike. (SJL)

Hipple, John L.; Hipple, Lee

1976-01-01

405

Demonstrating Newton's Second Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an apparatus for demonstrating the second law of motion. Provides sample data and discusses the merits of this method over traditional methods of supplying a constant force. The method produces empirical best-fit lines which convincingly demonstrate that for a fixed mass, acceleration is proportional to force. (DDR)

Fricker, H. S.

1994-01-01

406

Homogeneous Stabilizing Feedback Laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

. A machinery is developed for the explicit construction of locallyHolder continuous feedback laws that asymptotically stabilize highlynonlinear (single input) control systems. Actively employing symmetries --here families of dilations -- of nilpotent approximating systems, the problemis basically reduced to questions about relative locations and intersectionproperties of certain varieties in a lower dimensional space, typically (n \\\\Gamma 1)-dimensional projective space. Special...

Matthias Kawski

1990-01-01

407

LAW ENFORCEMENT VIOLENCE & DISASTER  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2005, images of thousands of New Orleans residents — the majority of whom were low income women of color and their children, elders, and others, unable, due to poverty, to leave the city before Hurricane Katrina struck, abandoned by our government — were quickly followed by images of law enforcement violence and abuse of individuals struggling to survive under

 POLICE BRUTALITY

408

Environment Law Review--1970.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first of several volumes to be published annually in the field of environmental law. It contains material from periodicals published in early 1970, 1969, and several articles of special significance which appeared in periodicals bearing 1968 dates. It has been collected primarily for lawyers so they may have, in convenient reference…

Sherrod, H. Floyd; And Others

409

Discipline and the Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some superintendents'"zero-tolerance" stance on guns, drugs, and disruptive student behavior conflicts with federal laws (Individuals with Disabilities Act and Americans with Disabilities Act), which apply a "zero-reject" policy to many categories of students with disabilities. Superintendents should revamp policies and practices and think twice…

Zirkel, Perry A.

1996-01-01

410

Stoke's Law Problem Set  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a problem set that involves the calculation of velocities from a Reynolds number, determination of Stoke's Law applicability, and calculation of settling velocities for a variety of grain sizes and materials. This can be used in conjunction with a lab but is itself just a problem set.

Headley, Rachel

411

Gauging Newton's Law  

E-print Network

We derive both Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics as gauge theories of Newtonian mechanics. Systematic development of the distinct symmetries of dynamics and measurement suggest that gauge theory may be motivated as a reconciliation of dynamics with measurement. Applying this principle to Newton's law with the simplest measurement theory leads to Lagrangian mechanics, while use of conformal measurement theory leads to Hamilton's equations.

James T. Wheeler

2003-05-01

412

Quantum Newton's law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the quantum Hamilton–Jacobi equation within the framework of the equivalence postulate, we construct a Lagrangian of a quantum system in one dimension and derive a third-order equation of motion representing a first integral of the quantum Newton's law. We then integrate this equation in the free particle case and compare our results to those of Floydian trajectories. Finally, we

A. Bouda; T. Djama

2001-01-01

413

Consumer Law Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication is one of a series prepared and distributed by the Legal Assistance Branch of the Administrative and Civil Law Department of The Judge Advocate General's School, U.S. Army (TJAGSA) to assist legal assistance attorneys in the delivery of l...

1998-01-01

414

Law and the Consumer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One of eleven modules developed for secondary school consumer education, this document emphasizes the need of the consumer, especially the disadvantaged consumer, to understand the law and the protection it can offer. The material is presented in three columns: understandings (usually formulated as questions followed by commentary), suggested…

Idleman, Hillis K.

415

Consumer Law Guide.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This publication is one of a series prepared and distributed by the Legal Assistance Branch of the Administrative and Civil Law Department of The Judge Advocate Generals School, U.S. Army (TJAGSA) to assist legal assistance attorneys in the delivery of le...

1999-01-01

416

Athletics and the Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book answers questions concerning athletics and the law. The chapters include trends in litigation, disruptive behavior, the changing attitude of the court toward married athletes, training rules, and good conduct codes. They include the problem of athletic travel, the changing role of state athletic associations with their diverse rules,…

Appenzeller, Herb

417

Students and the Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication consists of 29 articles that were published between April 1974 and June 1977 in the "Students and the Law" column of the National Association of Secondary School Principals' magazine, the "Student Advocate." In editing the articles, an attempt has been made to eliminate or update any suggestions or conclusions that may have been…

Gluckman, Ivan B.

418

Know Your Laws.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These 24 self-contained competency-based modules are designed to acquaint Florida adult students with laws they will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three levels of the Cognitive Domain and parallel the…

Watson, Joan Q.

419

ADHD and School Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A review of the research and legal literature summarizes the status of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) under school law. Following a brief introduction, discussion of ADHD as a disability notes the impact of ADHD on overall functioning and provides a table of diagnostic criteria for subtypes of ADHD. The following section focuses…

Gregg, Soleil

420

Law and Ecomanagement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article argues that environmental awareness has a substantial impact on law, both as a technical discipline and as a policy process. It further develops the concept of ecomanagement and reviews the role of environmental impact assessments in policy development. (JDH)

Mayda, Jaro

1986-01-01

421

Environmental Law II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are papers delivered at a 1976 Colorado environmental law conference. Included in the publication are the conference schedule, the text of nine papers, background information on authors, and bibliography listings for each paper. Titles and topics of the papers are the following: (1) Water Resources Development and the Environment…

Continuing Legal Education in Colorado, Inc., Denver.

422

The Laws List  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is a dictionary of physics and astronomy. Users can look up laws, rules, terms and constants related to physics in pages listed by letter. The site is not a complete reference, but it is a useful resource for introductory physics.

Francis, Erik

2004-11-28

423

Chinese Business Law Postgraduate  

E-print Network

writing · Methodologies · Methodologies for comparative legal research China's legal system 4 1 · Legal-Operate-Transfer) & variants · Entry modes Chinese tax law 6 2 · Corporate taxation · Individual taxation · VAT Chinese customs to unexpected circumstances. ** ECTS: European Credit Transfer and accumulation System *** SEM: Semester #12

Einmahl, Uwe

424

EU Taxation Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential purpose of the tax provisions of the EC Treaty is to contribute to the establishment of a common market that will ensure free trade in goods. The basic principle in this regard is one of non-discrimination between imported and similar or competing domestic goods. This book provides a practical overview of the law in this area and its

Laurence Gormley

425

Newton's Laws Demonstrations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this collection of demonstrations, learners explore Newton's Laws of Motion. These seventeen quick activities investigate air resistance, acceleration, terminal velocity, inertia, action-reaction, and other key concepts related to forces and motion. These demonstrations can be coupled together or conducted individually.

Rathjen, Don

2007-01-01

426

CRIMINAL LAW Stands Trial  

E-print Network

CRIMINAL LAW The Brain Stands Trial ETHNOLOGY Field Studies in the Family Album ASTRONOMY-years away ­ and proved for the first time the existence of giant ordered magnetic field structures in other galaxies, as well as the relativistic effect of geodetic precession outside the solar system and in strong

Falge, Eva

427

Lectures on Law Enforcement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three lectures on law enforcement are presented that were prepared for study purposes at Johnson County Community College. The first lecture examines the fundamental ideas of the Age of Enlightenment and discusses their influence on the American Revolution, the United States Constitution, and the Bill of Rights. Major provisions of the Bill of…

Nettleship, Lois

428

Space law - Current status and issues  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of space law over the past 25 years is surveyed, with attention also given to the procedures that were followed. The treaties now in existence are given, as are issues currently before the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. Projections that were made 25 years ago are discussed in the light of subsequent developments. It is noted that nearly all the technological advances in space activities forecast 25 years ago have come to pass. Various provisions of the 1967 Outer Space Principles Treaty relating to stricture against weapons and the militarization of space are discussed.

Hosenball, S. N.

1983-01-01

429

Thermodynamics of microstructure evolution: grain growth Victor L. Berdichevsky  

E-print Network

Thermodynamics of microstructure evolution: grain growth Victor L. Berdichevsky Mechanical thermodynamic parameters, entropy of microstructure and temperature of microstruc- ture. It was claimed that there is "one more law of thermodynamics": entropy of microstructure must decay in isolated thermodynamic stable

Berdichevsky, Victor

430

Clarifying Baker's Law  

PubMed Central

Background Baker's Law states that colonization by self-compatible organisms is more likely to be successful than colonization by self-incompatible organisms because of the ability for self-compatible organisms to produce offspring without pollination agents. This simple model has proved very successful in plant ecology and has been applied to various contexts, including colonizing or ruderal species, islands colonizers, invasive species or mating system variation across distribution ranges. Moreover, it is one of the only models in population biology linking two traits of major importance in ecology, namely dispersal and mating system. Although Baker's Law has stimulated a large number of empirical studies reporting the association of self-fertilization and colonizing ability in various contexts, the data have not established a general pattern for the association of traits. Scope In this paper, a critical position is adopted to discuss and clarify Baker's Law. From the literature referring to Baker's Law, an analysis made regarding how mating success is considered in such studies and discrepancies with population genetics theory of mating systems are highlighted. The data reporting the association of self-fertilization and colonizing ability are also briefly reviewed and the potential bias in interpretation is discussed. Lastly, a recent theoretical model analysing the link between colonizing ability and self-fertilization is considered. Conclusions Evolutionary predictions are actually more complex than Baker's intuitive arguments. It appears that Baker's Law encompasses a variety of ecological scenarios, which cannot be considered a priori as equivalent. Questioning what has been considered as self-evident for more than 50 years seems a reasonable objective to analyse in-depth dispersal and mating system traits. PMID:21685434

Cheptou, P.-O.

2012-01-01

431

Biodiversity laws: State experiences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Western Governors' Association (WGA) includes both the public lands states with their issues and the plains states, which are 98% privately owned. WGA deals with most legislation affecting biodiversity, whether the effect is direct or tangential. It will probably not be possible, or desirable, for one entity to be in charge of biodiversity conservation. The Endangered Species Act, public lands laws, agricultural laws, water law, environmental laws, and funding legislation all affect biodiversity conservation and the responsibility for it. None of them on their own are enough, and most can cause harmful unintended consequences for biodiversity. The experience of western states in developing consensus principles for reauthorization of the Endangered Species Act provides an example of common-sense ways to improve management of biodiversity, notwithstanding the complexity and large stakes involved. The WGA's proposed changes call for increasing the role of states, streamlining the act, and increasing certainty for landowners and water users. To achieve sustainable conservation for biodiversity, the better question is not “Who is/should be in charge?”, it is “How do we get this done?” To answer this, we need goals, guidance, and bottom lines from federal laws, and management and oversight at the state level, but they all need to support local on-the-ground partnerships. Sustainable conservation requires the active participation of those who live there. WGA's experience in coordinating the Great Plains Partnership as well as its work with watershed efforts shed light on what to expect. Multilevel partnerships are not easy and require a different way of doing business. The ad hoc, sitespecific processes that result do not lend themselves to being legislated, fit into organizational boxes, or scored on a budget sheet. They do require common sense and a longterm perspective.

Clark, Jo

1996-11-01

432

Microfracturing, damage, and failure of brittle granites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of stress-induced damage and the eventual brittle failure are experimentally analyzed for Mount Scott granite of Oklahoma. We quantify the damage intensity in two methods and directly compare model predictions and actual damage. The 14 samples of the medium-grain-size granite were loaded triaxially at dry conditions, room temperature, and under 41 MPa confining pressure. Microfractures were mapped in five samples, and the majority of them (80%) belong to two groups: tensile microfractures trending subparallel to the loading axis and shear microfractures trending 11°-40° off the loading axis. The tensile microfractures dominate the low-stress stage, and they remain intragranular with a stress increase. The relative density of shear microfractures increases with increasing stresses, and they formed elongated, intergranular zones of coalescing microfractures. We compared two independent values of damage intensity: (1) the macroscopic, experimentally measured reduction of the deformation modulus and (2) the expected reduction of this modulus calculated with several damage models for the density of the mapped microfractures. Our fracture density data best fit the model of noninteracting cracks of [1992].

Katz, Oded; Reches, Ze'ev

2004-01-01

433

Assessing tubal damage  

PubMed Central

The fallopian tube plays an important role in the mechanical transport and physiological sustenance of the gametes and early conceptus. Complex and coordinated neuromuscular activity, cilial action and endocrine secretions are required for successful tubal function. Compromised tubal damage can occur after external or internal injury, inhibiting the normal transport of gametes. The overall prognosis for fertility depends principally on the insult and the severity of the tissue damage; hence, assessment of tubal damage plays a major role in predicting occurrence of pregnancy and the likelihood of developing ectopic pregnancy. PMID:19562067

Patil, Madhuri

2009-01-01

434

DNA Damage Response  

PubMed Central

Structural changes to DNA severely affect its functions, such as replication and transcription, and play a major role in age-related diseases and cancer. A complicated and entangled network of DNA damage response (DDR) mechanisms, including multiple DNA repair pathways, damage tolerance processes, and cell-cycle checkpoints safeguard genomic integrity. Like transcription and replication, DDR is a chromatin-associated process that is generally tightly controlled in time and space. As DNA damage can occur at any time on any genomic location, a specialized spatio-temporal orchestration of this defense apparatus is required. PMID:20980439

Giglia-Mari, Giuseppina; Zotter, Angelika; Vermeulen, Wim

2011-01-01

435

Infant Safe Haven Laws: Summary of State Laws  

MedlinePLUS

... Training Workforce Systemwide Systemwide Home Assessment Courts Cultural Competence Domestic Violence Immigration and Child Welfare Laws & Policies ... System reform Training Workforce Systemwide Assessment Courts Cultural competence Domestic violence Immigration and Child Welfare Laws & policies ...

436

The Environmental Law Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Designed for conservation groups from laymen to lawyers, this handbook tells how polluters and despoilers of our environment can be brought to court in civil actions and compelled to desist and pay damages. It shows how to prepare a case and gives relevant information on pleadings and complaints, answers, motions and briefs; cites statutes and…

Landau, Norman J.; Rheingold, Paul D.

437

Economic analysis of environmental law: pollution control and nuisance law  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present an economic analysis of environmental law. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper focuses on pollution control and nuisance law. Findings – Regarding the efficiency analysis of nuisance remedies, the paper summarizes the various situations which may be covered by environmental law and their consequences. Originality\\/value – The paper offers insights into pollution

John E. Velentzas; Kyriaki K. Savvidou; Georgia K. Broni

2009-01-01

438

Screening the Law: Ideology and Law in American Popular Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article is an attempt to think critically about the pop cultural life of law, to investigate the legal and ideological messages that cultural images of law bear, and to explore how, why and to what extent television and film differ in their portrayals of law. While many legal scholars have addressed the legal content of popular culture in recent

Naomi Mezey; Mark C. Niles

2005-01-01

439

Vermont Law School's Unique Master of Studies in Environmental Law.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Vermont Law School offers a 1-year master of studies in environmental law for which the only prerequisite is a bachelor's degree. A fellowship program waives tuition and provides stipends for American Indians taking the program. Courses on federal Indian law complement the program. The Native community at nearby Dartmouth College provides social…

Suagee, Dean B.

2003-01-01

440

Controlling Mole Damage  

E-print Network

Moles can cause much damage to crops and livestock. This leaflet explains the proper way to set shocker loop traps and harpoon traps. Cultural controls and habitat modifications are discussed. Moles also can be controlled with toxicants...

Texas Wildlife Services

2007-03-13

441

Composite heat damage assessment  

SciTech Connect

The effects of heat damage were determined on the residual mechanical, physical, and chemical properties of IM6/3501-6 laminates, and potential nondestructive techniques to detect and assess material heat damage were evaluated. About one thousand preconditioned specimens were exposed to elevated temperatures, then cooled to room temperature and tested in compression, flexure, interlaminar shear, shore-D hardness, weight loss, and change in thickness. Specimens experienced significant and irreversible reduction in their residual properties when exposed to temperatures exceeding the material upper service temperature of this material (350{degrees}F). The Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform and Laser-Pumped Fluorescence techniques were found to be capable of rapid, in-service, nondestructive detection and quantitation of heat damage in IM6/3501- 6. These techniques also have the potential applicability to detect and assess heat damage effects in other polymer matrix composites.

Janke, C.J.; Wachter, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Philpot, H.E. [Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (United States); Powell, G.L. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States)

1993-12-31

442

Court Disallows Damage Claims  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In rejecting claims for damages, the Court finds that contract's "increase or decrease of cost" language is not applicable to added overhead costs and loss of labor efficiency resulting from delays over which the contractor has no control. (Author)

Tomson, Bernard; Coplan, Norman

1976-01-01

443

Composites Damage Tolerance Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Composite Damage Tolerance Workshop included participants from NASA, academia, and private industry. The objectives of the workshop were to begin dialogue in order to establish a working group within the Agency, create awareness of damage tolerance requirements for Constellation, and discuss potential composite hardware for the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) Upper Stage (US) and Crew Module. It was proposed that a composites damage tolerance working group be created that acts within the framework of the existing NASA Fracture Control Methodology Panel. The working group charter would be to identify damage tolerance gaps and obstacles for implementation of composite structures into manned space flight systems and to develop strategies and recommendations to overcome these obstacles.

Gregg, Wayne

2006-01-01

444

Time Evolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Moyal's equation (10) is formally solved by virtue of associative combinatoric operations essentially analogous to Hilbert space quantum mechanics, through definition of a ?-unitary evolution operator, a "?-exponential" [Imr67, GLS68, BFF78] ...

Curtright, Thomas L.; Fairlie, David B.; Zachos, Cosmas K.

2014-11-01

445

Controlling Opossum Damage  

E-print Network

damage; however, their pelts can be sold only during the furbearer season and with the proper licenses. Other furbearers include beaver, otter, mink, nutria, ringtailed cat, badger, skunk, weasel, raccoon, muskrat, fox and civet cat. Homeowners... damage; however, their pelts can be sold only during the furbearer season and with the proper licenses. Other furbearers include beaver, otter, mink, nutria, ringtailed cat, badger, skunk, weasel, raccoon, muskrat, fox and civet cat. Homeowners...

Texas Wildlife Services

2007-05-23

446

Rate Tornado Damage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

An interactive Flash animation that educates students about the Fujita scale for rating tornado wind speeds and the damage caused by tornados. After being presented with photographs of tornado damage, students are challenged to assign the tornado a rating on the F-scale. The interactive explains the different levels of the F-scale and provides instant feedback on whether or not the correct category was assigned to the tornado.

Krock, Lexi; Pbs

447

Rate Tornado Damage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Tornadoes can produce damage that ranges from broken tree limbs to a block of houses swept from their foundations. They can inflict utter devastation across a wide swath of land or, destroy one house and leave others on either side largely untouched. In this interactive feature from NOVA Online, sudents examine a series of photos of tornado damage and assign intensity ratings (on the Fulita scale) based on what they see.

2011-02-24

448

Controlling Beaver Damage  

E-print Network

Damage Controlling BEAVER B eavers (Castor canadensis) are the largest rodents in North America. Their range includes most of North America, from the northern parts of Canada and Alaska to northern Mexico. Beavers are aquatic rodents which live...Damage Controlling BEAVER B eavers (Castor canadensis) are the largest rodents in North America. Their range includes most of North America, from the northern parts of Canada and Alaska to northern Mexico. Beavers are aquatic rodents which live...

Texas Wildlife Services

2007-03-13

449

Rules and Tools for Software Evolution Planning and Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract When first formulated in the early seventies, the laws of software evolution were, for a number of reasons, not widely accepted as relevant to software,engineering practice. Over the years, however, they have gradually become recognised asproviding,useful inputs to understanding of the software process. Supplemented ,by an ,Uncertainty Principle and a FEAST Hypothesis, the eight laws have even found their

M. M. Lehman; Juan F. Ramil

2001-01-01

450

Simple model of self-organized biological evolution  

SciTech Connect

We give an exact solution of a recently proposed self-organized critical model of biological evolution. We show that the model has a power law distribution of durations of coevolutionary avalanches'' with a mean field exponent 3/2. We also calculate analytically the finite size effects which cut off this power law at times of the order of the system size.

de Boer, J.; Derrida, B.; Flyvbjerg, H.; Jackson, A.D.; Wettig, T. (Department of Physics, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York 11794-3800 (United States) The Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 20 Clarkson Road, Cambridge, CB4 0EH (United Kingdom) Laboratoire de Physique Statistique, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75005 Paris (France) Service de Physique Theorique, Centre de Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, F-91191, Gif-Sur-Yvette (France) CONNECT, The Niels Bohr Institute, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark))

1994-08-08

451

Biotech Law Web Server  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Biotech Law home page offers legal and scientific information of interest to researchers in biotechnology/pharmaceutical science. At this time, the site provides basic articles on methods of record keeping for inventors, an explanation of the U.S. legal standard for inventorship and an overview of patent application preparation. The Biotech law home page also includes more advanced articles on intellectual property licensing, parallel importing of patented products, and the effects of electronic publication on U.S. Patent rights. In addition to a "heads up" guide to recently-issued U.S. biotech patents, the home page provides links to additional sources of information on intellectual property protection, as well as links to selected scientific resources on Internet.

Foley & Lardner.

1996-01-01

452

Replication of damaged genomes.  

PubMed

Cellular DNA is continuously assaulted by chemical and physical agents that arise from both endogenous metabolic processes as well as exogenous insults. Commonly encountered environmental agents include polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic amines, the ultraviolet component of sunlight, and ionizing radiation, among many others. Although the kinds of damages and the mechanisms involved in their interaction with DNA vary widely, genotoxic agents alter the structure of DNA in ways that may result in permanent alterations in the DNA sequence or in cell death. To avoid these consequences, cells have evolved countermeasures to reduce the biological consequences of DNA damage. These mechanisms are highly conserved and are present in all eukaryotic cells. In general, cellular responses include the detection of damage, signal transduction to halt cell cycle progression, and the recruitment of repair mechanisms that are tailored to the specific kind of damage. If replication-blocking damage remains when cells enter S-phase, then tolerance mechanisms in the form of complex recombination mechanisms or translesion DNA synthesis using accessory DNA polymerases exist. These mechanisms complete the replication of damaged genomes and suppress cytotoxicity, but at the potential cost of mutagenesis and genomic instability. This review focuses on error-prone mechanisms, including a discussion of the Y-family of DNA polymerases, current concepts of DNA polymerase switching mechanisms, and their relevance to cancer and cancer prevention. PMID:22181702

Klarer, Alden C; McGregor, W

2011-01-01

453

ChemTeacher: Boyle's Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

ChemTeacher compiles background information, videos, articles, demonstrations, worksheets and activities for high school teachers to use in their classrooms. The Boyle's Law page includes resources for teaching students about the history and applications of Boyle's Law.

2011-01-01

454

A Guide to Scots Law  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From contemporary legislation passed in London or Brussels to Roman Law to Udal (old Norse) Law, Scottish Law has many influences and inheritances. This site, created by Evi C. Athanasekou of the University of Glasgow Department of Computer Science, attempts to present "basic knowledge about the Scottish legal system that ranges from what the sources of Scots Law are to practical solutions to common everyday legal problems." At the site, users can explore the history and sources of Scots Law and learn about the current legal system structure in Scotland (which remains distinct from the English one). The Scots Law Queries section provides answers to everyday legal questions in Scotland. Additional features include a Scottish legal yellow pages section, legal terms of Scots Law, Latin words, phrases and maxims in Scots Law, and related links.

Athanasekou, Evi C.

1997-01-01

455

Looking for Law in China  

E-print Network

appeared as well. New laws on taxation of Sino-foreign jointAdministration of Taxation, the State LOOKING FOR LAW INlaws appeared to deal with various FDI-related matters such as customs and taxation,

Lubman, Stanley

2007-01-01

456

Conditions Required by Law  

E-print Network

authority Yes Sto H No Yes 3 No Reporting a victim of abuse, neglect or domestic H 164.512 (c) No Sto Yes Crime on Emergency A victim of abuse or neglect Identification purposes A victim of a crime Initiates No No Sto H 2 NoIs it required by law "Violence on children"?164.512 (c) (1) H CE may disclose to government

Khan, Javed I.

457

The Quantum Newton's Law  

E-print Network

Using the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation within the framework of the equivalence postulate, we construct a Lagrangian of a quantum system in one dimension and derive a third order equation of motion representing a first integral of the quantum Newton's law. We then integrate this equation in the free particle case and compare our results to those of Floydian trajectories. Finally, we propose a quantum version of Jacobi's theorem.

A. Bouda; T. Djama

2001-03-14

458

Discretization of Conservation Laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the basic equations in atmospheric modeling are based on conservation laws. Conservation of mass constitutes the continuity\\u000a equation, and conservation of momentum establishes the momentum equations. When conservation properties are present in the\\u000a continuous equations, the numerical (discrete) counterparts should also have conservative properties. Examples for numerical\\u000a conservation of vorticity or other state variables can be found in

Jörn Behrens

459

SYSTEMS OF CONSERVATION LAWS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide class of difference equations is described for approximating ;\\u000a discontinuous time dependent solutions, with prescribed initial data, of ;\\u000a hyperbolic systems of nonlinear conservation laws. Among these schemes we ;\\u000a determine the best ones, i.e., these which have the smallest truncation error and ;\\u000a in which the discontinuities are confined to a narrow band of 2 to 3

P. Lax; B. Wendroff

1958-01-01

460

Enforcing pollution control laws  

SciTech Connect

The heightened environmental consciousness of the 1970s prompted passage of a multitude of ambitious and unprecedented laws designed to clean up the environment and protect it for future generations. But beyond the mere passing of laws lay the difficult tasks of implementing, monitoring, and enforcing them. The authors of this book describe the current state of air and water pollution monitoring and enforcement activity a decade later, within the context of relevant legal, technological, and statistical developments. They mediate between the concerns of the theoretical literature-where it is generally assumed that violations are discovered and punished-and the real world-where violations are rarely discovered and almost never punished. Monitoring and enforcement procedures to date have been aimed at achieving initial rather than continuing compliance with regulations. The authors contend that it is time for a new approach focusing on the enduring problems of compliance. Economic models are used to show the extent of the difficulties involved in monitoring and enforcing pollution control laws on a continuous basis.

Russell, C.S.; Harrington, W.; Vaughan, W.J.

1986-01-01

461

Laws of population growth  

PubMed Central

An important issue in the study of cities is defining a metropolitan area, because different definitions affect conclusions regarding the statistical distribution of urban activity. A commonly employed method of defining a metropolitan area is the Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs), based on rules attempting to capture the notion of city as a functional economic region, and it is performed by using experience. The construction of MSAs is a time-consuming process and is typically done only for a subset (a few hundreds) of the most highly populated cities. Here, we introduce a method to designate metropolitan areas, denoted “City Clustering Algorithm” (CCA). The CCA is based on spatial distributions of the population at a fine geographic scale, defining a city beyond the scope of its administrative boundaries. We use the CCA to examine Gibrat's law of proportional growth, which postulates that the mean and standard deviation of the growth rate of cities are constant, independent of city size. We find that the mean growth rate of a cluster by utilizing the CCA exhibits deviations from Gibrat's law, and that the standard deviation decreases as a power law with respect to the city size. The CCA allows for the study of the underlying process leading to these deviations, which are shown to arise from the existence of long-range spatial correlations in population growth. These results have sociopolitical implications, for example, for the location of new economic development in cities of varied size. PMID:19033186

Rozenfeld, Hernán D.; Rybski, Diego; Andrade, José S.; Batty, Michael; Stanley, H. Eugene; Makse, Hernán A.

2008-01-01

462

First Law Model  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The First Law model displays the dynamics of a ball subject to no net force. The initial conditions for the ball are an initial velocity in the x and y directions. The initial position of the ball can be changed by dragging it when the simulation is paused. You can modify this simulation if you have Ejs installed by right-clicking within the plot and selecting âOpen Ejs Modelâ from the pop-up menu item. Ejs First Law model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (Ejs) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_newton_FirstLaw.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. Ejs is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional Ejs models for Newtonian mechanics are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or Ejs.

Christian, Wolfgang

2008-06-03

463

Laws of population growth.  

PubMed

An important issue in the study of cities is defining a metropolitan area, because different definitions affect conclusions regarding the statistical distribution of urban activity. A commonly employed method of defining a metropolitan area is the Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs), based on rules attempting to capture the notion of city as a functional economic region, and it is performed by using experience. The construction of MSAs is a time-consuming process and is typically done only for a subset (a few hundreds) of the most highly populated cities. Here, we introduce a method to designate metropolitan areas, denoted "City Clustering Algorithm" (CCA). The CCA is based on spatial distributions of the population at a fine geographic scale, defining a city beyond the scope of its administrative boundaries. We use the CCA to examine Gibrat's law of proportional growth, which postulates that the mean and standard deviation of the growth rate of cities are constant, independent of city size. We find that the mean growth rate of a cluster by utilizing the CCA exhibits deviations from Gibrat's law, and that the standard deviation decreases as a power law with respect to the city size. The CCA allows for the study of the underlying process leading to these deviations, which are shown to arise from the existence of long-range spatial correlations in population growth. These results have sociopolitical implications, for example, for the location of new economic development in cities of varied size. PMID:19033186

Rozenfeld, Hernán D; Rybski, Diego; Andrade, José S; Batty, Michael; Stanley, H Eugene; Makse, Hernán A

2008-12-01

464

Sexuality and the law.  

PubMed

Federal, state, and local laws in the US now govern almost every aspect of sexuality. This includes sexuality at the workplace, sexuality education, adolescent sexuality, access to sexuality information and sexually explicit materials, sexual orientation, and sexually transmitted disease(STD)/HIV transmission. Almost 33% of the US Supreme Court's docket this past term concerned sexuality issues. In contrast to 50 years ago, when sexuality law was confined to the criminal arena, contemporary "sex crimes" primarily relate to nonconsensual and exploitative behaviors. It is time for lawmakers, judges, lawyers, policy analysts, lobbyists, and advocates to realize they cannot legislate or litigate how, when, or why people fall in love. Rather, the role of the law should be to create and preserve models of justice and equality that seek to preserve one's individual rights to privacy and freedom to choose in matters related to one's sexuality. This includes free access to age-appropriate sexuality information, the right to marriage and children regardless of sexual orientation, comprehensive sexuality education that encompasses information about avoiding unwanted pregnancies and HIV/STDs, access to contraception and abortion, protection from sexually abusive or exploitative relationships, and access to sexual health care. PMID:12295182

Portelli, C J

1998-01-01

465

What is Evolution? What is Molecular Evolution?  

E-print Network

? An Application: Lyme Disease An Example Weigang Qiu Introduction: What is Evolution? #12;What is Evolution? WhatWhat is Evolution? What is Molecular Evolution? An Application: Lyme Disease Introduction: What is Evolution? Weigang Qiu Department of Biological Sciences Hunter College BIOL 375 Molecular Evolution, Fall

Qiu, Weigang

466

What is Evolution? What is Molecular Evolution?  

E-print Network

is Evolution? What is Molecular Evolution? An Application: Lyme Disease An Example Weigang Qiu IntroductionWhat is Evolution? What is Molecular Evolution? An Application: Lyme Disease Introduction: What is Evolution? Weigang Qiu Department of Biological Sciences Hunter College BIOL 375 Molecular Evolution, Fall

Qiu, Weigang

467

New Developments in International Law  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fate of law is change. Change is the law of nature. Law goes on changing in accordance with the demands of society. International Law(Jus Gentium)does not form any exception to the above truth. The 20th Century has witnessed an ever-accelerating rhythm of change; the scientific and technological developments have unleashed political, economic, social and cultural forces which are transforming

Gholam Ali Nouri Babanari

1990-01-01

468

Law of Sines and Cosines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This math unit from Illuminations includes two lessons which help to teach the Law of Sines and the Law of Cosines. The first lesson asks students to use right triangle trigonometry to develop the law of sines. The second lesson uses right triangle trigonometry and the Pythagorean theorem to develop the law of cosines. The materials are intended for grades 9-12 and should require 2 class periods to complete.

2010-12-09

469

Law students academic excellence awarded  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excellence and academic achievement in Law studies were recently rewarded to students of The University of Notre Dame Australia, at its annual St Thomas More Law School Awards night, at the Fremantle Campus.\\u000aProminent Australian law firms sponsored the awards for Best Student in each year and outstanding achievements in all units, including Commercial Practice and Ethics, Criminal Law, Administrative

Andrea Barnard

2010-01-01

470

Modelling Multilayer Damage in Cross-ply Ceramic Matrix Composites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared with monolithic ceramics, continuous fibre reinforced ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) have higher fracture toughness, better fatigue resistance and damage tolerance, retaining their load carrying capacity in the presence of damage, Over the years, a large number of experimental and theoretical studies have been conducted on damage evolution and failure mechanisms of CMCs, see review by Birman and Byrd (2000). Much of this work has been concerned with unidirectional materials. However, if CMCs are to be applied under multi-axial stress conditions, multidirectional laminated or woven composites containing fibre reinforcement at more than one orientation need to be employed.

Kashtalyan, M.; Chandler, H. W.

471

On the effect of undercutting on calving rate using continuum damage mechanics.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several studies have shown that mechanical ice loss through calving is responsible for most of ice discharge from glaciers and ice sheets. However calving processes are complex and still poorly understood. Representation of calving into ice flow models is still limited and the estimation of future ice loss of Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets is therefore inaccurate: state-of-the-art in calving modelling is the result of strong approximations or empirically-based laws. Calving is the main mechanism controlling the position of the terminus, but melting at the front below the waterline can be seen as a second order process modulating the calving rate. Observations have shown that variation of frontal melting exists in Greenland as well as in Antarctica, and is an important factor in explaining the maximal advance and the short term variations of the glacier front. Here, we used a continuum damage mechanics (CDM) framework to investigate the response of a glacier terminus to submarine perturbation. This CMD model is implemented into the Elmer/Ice full-Stokes ice-flow model. This work is initiated in a two-dimensional flowline approach. The damage evolves depending on the stress field in the ice and propagates through the media thanks to an advection equation. As a consequence, the viscosity of the ice is modified via a change of an enhancement factor. In our simulation, an initial grounded-terminated glacier is perturbed by an increase in subaqueous melting. Melting of subaqueous part of the glacier front results in the development of a bloc of ice overhanging the waterline, leading to the calving of the aerial part: this phenomenon is called undercutting. The upper surface of the glacier and the vertical front are defined as free surfaces. Sensitivity in terms of stress and damage fields evolutions through time are investigated in response to the various melting perturbations. Implications on calving rate are discussed.

Krug, Jean; Durand, Gaël; Weiss, Jérôme; Gagliardini, Olivier

2013-04-01

472

Physical Evolution of Quasars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evolution of the quasar luminosity function is well described by pure luminosity evolution (PLE), in which the statistical luminosity, L^*(z), declines by a factor of ~100 from z = 3 to z sim 0.1 (Boyle et al. 1988a). If PLE is produced by the gradual dimming of a single generation of long-lived quasars, then the emitted continua of high redshift, younger, quasars are expected to differ from those of their low redshift, older, counterparts. This thesis aims to test this interpretation of PLE via a statistical comparison between the continua of sets of high and low redshift quasars which match in evolved luminosity, having similar L/L^ *(z).. Rest-frame ~ 1200A-5500A spectral energy distributions were constructed for 15 high redshift quasars and compared to those of 27 z sim 0.1 quasars (Elvis et al. 1994a). Optical/UV spectral indices, alpha (F_ nu ~nu^alpha), were determined by fitting single power laws through narrow (Deltalambda/lambda < 2%) continuum bands at 1285A, 1460A, 4200A, 4650A and 5100A. The mean spectral indices are -0.38 +/- 0.07 for the low and -0.32 +/- 0.07 for the high redshift samples. No significant evolution is found in the optical/UV continuum shapes. K-S tests give probabilities < 4% that the distributions of alpha for the high and low redshift samples differ. There is a significant range in continuum shapes within the low (alpha = -1.2 to +0.5) and high (alpha = { -}0.75 to +0.2) redshift samples. The spread is real, being about 20 times greater than the typical errors, sim 0.01 - 0.08. The distributions of spectral indices that result from fits using a power law plus SMC reddening model are not consistent with the hypothesis that the range is produced by intrinsic extinction. The predicted spectra from non-steady accretion disks, as would result from temperature redistribution due to irradiation or unstable mass accretion, can explain values of alpha from 1/3 down to at least - 1, and may account for the full range. The strengths of the FeII/Balmer continuum '3000A bump', as measured from the residuals from the power law fit at 2500A and 2660A, are weaker in the spectra of the high redshift quasars, with K-S probabilities greater than 99.5% that the distributions at high and low redshift differ.

Kuhn, Olga Patricia

1996-01-01

473

Numerical Simulation for Predicting Fatigue Damage Progress in Notched CFRP Laminates by Using Cohesive Elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study proposes the cohesive zone model (CZM) for predicting fatigue damage growth in notched carbon-fiber-reinforced composite plastic (CFRP) cross-ply laminates. In this model, damage growth in the fracture process of cohesive elements due to cyclic loading is represented by the conventional damage mechanics model. We preliminarily investigated whether this model can appropriately express fatigue damage growth for a circular crack embedded in isotropic solid material. This investigation demonstrated that this model could reproduce the results with the well-established fracture mechanics model plus the Paris' law by tuning adjustable parameters. We then numerically investigated the damage process in notched CFRP cross-ply laminates under tensile cyclic loading and compared the predicted damage patterns with those in experiments reported by Spearing et al. (Compos. Sci. Technol. 1992). The predicted damage patterns agreed with the experiment results, which exhibited the extension of multiple types of damage (e.g., splits, transverse cracks and delaminations) near the notches.

Okabe, Tomonaga; Yashiro, Shigeki

474

Walras's Law in Macroeconomic Disequilibrium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does Walras's Law hold in general disequilibrium? This note finds in the affirmative. Against a depression's unmistakably effective excess supplies of goods and services stands an effective excess demand for money. Expressed in terms of effective excess demands, Walras's Law, far from the equilibrium condition that some writers portray, is a tool of disequilibrium analysis. The Law reminds us how

ROBERT L. GREENFIELD

1986-01-01

475

Nebraska Law University of Nebraska  

E-print Network

Nebraska Law University of Nebraska Reciprocity Policy Updated: August 2010 The University to students/graduates of other law schools is as follows: 1). Requests for reciprocity must be received from at any time. 4). The requesting law school's career services office will be notified when reciprocity has

Farritor, Shane

476

Freedom under Law. Revised edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet identifies and explains Colorado laws as they apply to juveniles and adults. The handbook was specifically developed to help teenagers know how the laws protect them and how they are expected to comply with them. Two short sections discuss the necessity of having laws and give definitions of 12 legal terms such as felony and petty…

Denver Public Schools, CO.

477

A generalization of Snell's law  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis presents several derivations of Snell's Law of Refraction and one of the principle of reflection. In all of these, we place different constraints upon the problem and produce the familiar laws governing reflection and refraction. The main result of this research is the expression found for Snell's Law of Refraction in which the velocity of the light particles

Michael L. Hawkins

1990-01-01

478

The tides of customary law  

Microsoft Academic Search

This confusion surrounding the standing of customary law in the criminal justice system was a symptom of the disturbed state of an unfinished colonialism. 'Excuse of tribal law to be axed', blared a headline in The Australian newspaper, leading the charge. Three days later the same campaigning newspaper devoted an editorial to the subject: 'One Law for All: Our legal

Mark Finnane

479

Criminal Law Scholarship: Three Illusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper criticizes criminal law scholarship for helping to construct and failing to expose analytic structures that falsely claim a higher level of rationality and coherence than current criminal law theory deserves. It offers illustrations of three such illusions of rationality. First, it is common in criminal law discourse for scholars and judges to cite any of the standard litany

Paul H. Robinson

2003-01-01

480

Criminal Law Scholarship: Three Illusions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper criticizes criminal law scholarship for helping to construct and failing to expose analytic structures that falsely claim a higher level of rationality and coherence than current criminal law theory deserves. It offers illustrations of three such illusions of rationality. First, it is common in criminal law discourse for scholars and judges to cite any of the standard litany

Paul H. Robinson

2001-01-01

481

Practical Law in New Mexico.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book was written for teachers and students as a New Mexico supplement to "Street Law: A Course in Practical Law" (West Publishing Company, 1980), a text used in many high school law classes. The book may also be used as a teacher and student resource for civics, government, and other courses in the high school curriculum, or lay people might…

Smith, Melinda, Ed.

482

Immigration Law & the American Dream.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This magazine is designed to help high school teachers of civics, government, history, law, and law-related education program developers educate students about legal issues. This issue focuses on immigration law and the American Dream. It includes 11 articles: (1) "U.S. Immigration Policy and Globalization" (P. Martin; S. Martin) explains how the…

Parrini, Michelle, Ed.; Parins, Claire, Ed.; Kittlaus, Jennifer, Ed.; Bliss, Pam, Ed.

2001-01-01

483

Philadelphia University Faculty of law  

E-print Network

Trade Organization for organizing and unifying the norms of international trade through the committees/2008 Course Syllabus Course code: 410331 Course Title: International Trade Law Course prerequisite (s) and trade law Prerequisite: Introduction to commercial law Module number: 410331 Module number: 330270

484

Partner(s): Hooke's Law  

E-print Network

Name: Partner(s): Date: Hooke's Law 1. Purpose: The primary purpose of the lab is to study Hooke exceeds the elastic limit of the material). Hooke's Law states that if the distortion of an elastic body to the displacement of the body from the equilibrium position. If a body, which obeys Hooke's Law, is displaced from

Spalding, Gabriel Cooper

485

An approach to Hooke's law  

Microsoft Academic Search

The usefulness of Hooke's law extends from elementary to very advanced levels of physics. However, in many cases this law is not clearly presented at the school level. Indeed, sometimes it is simply misrepresented (Farrell 1976). When relating Hooke's law for bulk matter to the nature of interatomic forces, textbooks normally use the potential energy curve as a function of

J. Mwanje

1980-01-01

486

Whats Inside: Child Labor Laws  

E-print Network

Whats Inside: Child Labor Laws Annual Performance Review BDS Reminders All International Part- Time are under the age of eighteen (18). The Oklahoma Department of Labor has specific child labor laws work up to eight hours a day, 40 hours in any one week, and only between the hours of CHILD LABOR LAWS

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

487

Whats Inside: Child Labor Laws  

E-print Network

Whats Inside: · Child Labor Laws · Computer Training Update · Annual Performance Review · Meet the age of eighteen (18). The Oklahoma Department of Labor has specific child labor laws that apply. Below) 744-5373. CHILD LABOR LAWS ANNUAL PERFORMANCE REVIEW Policy and Procedures 3-0741, Performance

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

488

What's Inside: Child Labor Laws  

E-print Network

What's Inside: · Child Labor Laws · Attachments to Online Job Announcements · Hiring Officials child labor laws that apply. Below is a brief overview. 14 and 15 year olds: Departments must keep-year age groupmayworkatanytimeforunlimitedhoursinany non-hazardousposition. CHILD LABOR LAWS

Veiga, Pedro Manuel Barbosa

489

A Cosmic Coincidence: The Power-law Galaxy Correlation Function  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We model the evolution of galaxy clustering through cosmic time to investigate the nature of the power-law shape of ?(r), the galaxy two-point correlation function. While ?(r) at large scales is set by primordial fluctuations, departures from a power law are governed by galaxy pair counts at small scales, subject to nonlinear dynamics. We assume that galaxies reside within dark matter halos and subhalos. Therefore, the shape of the correlation function at small scales depends on the amount of halo substructure. We use a semi-analytic substructure evolution model to study subhalo populations within host halos. We find that tidal mass loss and, to a lesser extent, dynamical friction dramatically deplete the number of subhalos within larger host halos over time, resulting in a ~90% reduction by z = 0 compared to the number of distinct mergers that occur during the assembly of a host halo. We show that these nonlinear processes resulting in this depletion are essential for achieving a power law ?(r). We investigate how the shape of ?(r) depends on subhalo mass (or luminosity) and redshift. We find that ?(r) breaks from a power law at high masses, implying that only galaxies of luminosities <~ L * should exhibit power-law clustering. Moreover, we demonstrate that ?(r) evolves from being far from a power law at high redshift, toward a near power-law shape at z = 0. We argue that ?(r) will once again evolve away from a power law in the future. This is in large part caused by the evolving competition between the accretion and destruction rates of subhalos over time, which happen to strike just the right balance at z ? 0. We then investigate the conditions required for ?(r) to be a power law in a general context. We use the halo model, along with simple parameterizations of the halo occupation distribution, to probe galaxy occupation at various masses and redshifts. We show that the key ingredients determining the shape of ?(r) are the fraction of galaxies that are satellites, the relative difference in mass between the halos of isolated galaxies and halos that contain a single satellite on average, and the rareness of halos that host galaxies. These pieces are intertwined and we find no simple, universal rule for which a power law ?(r) will occur. However, we do show that the physics responsible for setting the galaxy content of halos do not care about the conditions needed to achieve a power law ?(r) and that these conditions are met only in a narrow mass and redshift range. We conclude that the power-law nature of ?(r) for L * and fainter galaxy samples at low redshift is a cosmic coincidence.

Watson, Douglas F.; Berlind, Andreas A.; Zentner, Andrew R.

2011-09-01

490

Law and family planning.  

PubMed

This discussion of law and family planning reviews some recent reports of the Australain Law Reform Commission (ALRC), the law as it affects family planning and the sexuality of young people with reference to the Irish dilemma, the law's approach in Ingland, Canada, and the US. The ALRC works only on references recived by it from the Federal Attorney General. No reference so far received has been specific to the issues of family planning, but some past and present projects are partly relevant. The most recent report of the ALRC, tabled in Federal Parliament in December 1983 related to privacy protection. An issue that arose in this inquiry related to the subject of the rights to privacy of young people. In a discussion paper the ALRC had suggestd that young persons between the ages of 12-16 should have certain defined legal protection of privacy, even against their parents. Specifically, the ALRC was thinking of medical advice and school counseling. Obviously the issue of contraceptive advice was raised in this context, and never has a tenative proposal of the ALRC engendered so much bitter criticism. The Commission modified its proposal on this topic and the details of the revised proposals are disclosed in its report. Clearly, the rights of young people in regard to sexual advice, education, and treatment are matters of great controversy and strongly divided community opinion. In Australia there are some who are totally opposed to family planning for themselves, their children, and even for others. Such opposition exists in the medical profession. Presumably, such people base their views on strongly held moral principles. They generally believe that contraception interferes in the ways of nature. Far from being promoted by open discussion and instruction in the schools, such matters are intimate concerns of a small circle, principally the family. In dealing with those aspects that concern the rights of parents in thes matters, attention turns to England's Gillick case. Because the Australian legal system is so similar to England's the resulting decision can offer instruction. Judge Woolf of Londons High Court of Justice dismissed M