Science.gov

Sample records for damage test specifications

  1. Large area damage testing of optics

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, L.; Kozlowski, M.; Stolz, C.

    1996-04-26

    The damage threshold specifications for the National Ignition Facility will include a mixture of standard small-area tests and new large-area tests. During our studies of laser damage and conditioning processes of various materials we have found that some damage morphologies are fairly small and this damage does not grow with further illumination. This type of damage might not be detrimental to the laser performance. We should therefore assume that some damage can be allowed on the optics, but decide on a maximum damage allowance of damage. A new specification of damage threshold termed {open_quotes}functional damage threshold{close_quotes} was derived. Further correlation of damage size and type to system performance must be determined in order to use this measurement, but it is clear that it will be a large factor in the optics performance specifications. Large-area tests have verified that small-area testing is not always sufficient when the optic in question has defect-initiated damage. This was evident for example on sputtered polarizer and mirror coatings where the defect density was low enough that the features could be missed by standard small- area testing. For some materials, the scale-length at which damage non-uniformities occur will effect the comparison of small-area and large-area tests. An example of this was the sub-aperture tests on KD*P crystals on the Beamlet test station. The tests verified the large-area damage threshold to be similar to that found when testing a small-area. Implying that for this KD*P material, the dominate damage mechanism is of sufficiently small scale-length that small-area testing is capable of determining the threshold. The Beamlet test station experiments also demonstrated the use of on-line laser conditioning to increase the crystals damage threshold.

  2. Urine specific gravity test

    MedlinePlus

    Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration of all chemical particles in the urine. ... changes to will tell the provider the specific gravity of your urine. The dipstick test gives only ...

  3. Urine specific gravity test

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  4. Spotsize effects in laser damage testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foltyn, S. R.

    1982-12-01

    An unconventional method was employed to plot damage data: ten sites are irradiated at each test fluence and the fraction of damaging sites is plotted as a function of peak fluence. The resulting curves slope from a fluence at which no damage was produced to a higher fluence at which all ten sites were damaged. Attempts to explain wide slope variations among a variety of tested samples have led to a simple model which correlates slope, defect density, and Gaussian spotsize of the test beam. Specifically, the model predicts steep slopes if the beam is large compared to the mean defect spacing. In contract to conventional notation, threshold is defined as the highest fluence at which the sample could not be damaged. Implicit in the model is that threshold thus defined is independent of spotsize while conventional thresholds have a calculable dependence. In the limit of large spotsize, the two thresholds are identical. Test results for various spotsizes are reported and analyses of published experimental data are presented in support of this model.

  5. Cylinder Test Specification

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Catanach; Larry Hill; Herbert Harry; Ernest Aragon; Don Murk

    1999-10-01

    The purpose of the cylinder testis two-fold: (1) to characterize the metal-pushing ability of an explosive relative to that of other explosives as evaluated by the E{sub 19} cylinder energy and the G{sub 19} Gurney energy and (2) to help establish the explosive product equation-of-state (historically, the Jones-Wilkins-Lee (JWL) equation). This specification details the material requirements and procedures necessary to assemble and fire a typical Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) cylinder test. Strict adherence to the cylinder. material properties, machining tolerances, material heat-treatment and etching processes, and high explosive machining tolerances is essential for test-to-test consistency and to maximize radial wall expansions. Assembly and setup of the cylinder test require precise attention to detail, especially when placing intricate pin wires on the cylinder wall. The cylinder test is typically fired outdoors and at ambient temperature.

  6. Laser induced damage testing: Equipment and techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, G. L.

    1993-07-01

    A laser damage test station was designed and built at the AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). The purpose of this effort was to establish the capability for testing polished optical fibers for high energy laser transmission to support the Direct Optical Initiation (DOI), optical firing-set program. A single shot, conditioned threshold type laser damage test was implemented. A flashlamp pumped, multimode, Q-switched, Nd:YAG laser was utilized as the test source. The test laser's operational parameters were extensively characterized. The pulse width, beam divergence, and polarization state of the laser were all held constant throughout the tests. A single plano-convex lens was utilized to focus the laser beam energy into the optical fibers. A focusing geometry was utilized which avoided bulk damage and minimized damage at the fiber's core/cladding interface. A special holding fixture was fabricated, which minimized the mechanical stresses on the fiber during testing. Several uncoated, step-index, multimode, optical fibers were damage tested to verify the functionality of the test station. The fibers all had a 400 micron diameter core of pure fused silica, a 440 micron diameter fluorine doped fused silica cladding, and a 15 micron thick polyimide buffer layer. The fibers were tested up to a fluence level greater than 55.7 J/cm(exp 2) or until damage was observed. Cleaning, inspection, and testing procedures were developed and documented.

  7. Specification of pyro shock tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trummel, M.

    1976-01-01

    Specifications of pyro shock tests are treated as the interconnection between raw measurements (or estimates) of the environment and the various test methods available. After a definition of the environment, various aspects of test method specification are discussed including one-sided pulses, test simulation parameters, and the effects of Q. Different test configurations are considered including rigid fixture tests, pseudo-real structure, and real structure.

  8. Specific construction tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcrae, W. V., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The technical feasibility of the Satellite Power System (SPS) is discussed. The development of feasible operational concepts and conceptualization of specific construction tasks are examined. The logic flow of functional analyses of both the rectenna and the satellite is illustrated. Constraints placed upon the construction processes and equipment by the satellite design are outlined. The construction tasks, when defined and combined into an integrated schedule establish, a time line for construction mass flow demands to be satisfied by the space transportation systems. An example of satellite constructive demands and HLLV delivery capabilities is given.

  9. Automotive Lubricant Specification and Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, M. F.

    This chapter concerns commercial lubricant specification and testing, drawing together the many themes of previous chapters. Military lubricant standards were a very strong initial influence during World War II and led to the separate historical development of the North American and European specification systems. The wide range of functions that a successful lubricant must satisfy is discussed, together with issues of balancing special or universal applications, single or multiple engine tests, the philosophy of accelerated testing and the question of 'who sets the standards?' The role of engine tests and testing organisations is examined.

  10. Specific test and evaluation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, W.H.

    1998-03-20

    The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made to the 241-AX-B Valve Pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system`s performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a lower tier document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP). Testing includes Validations and Verifications (e.g., Commercial Grade Item Dedication activities), Factory Acceptance Tests (FATs), installation tests and inspections, Construction Acceptance Tests (CATs), Acceptance Test Procedures (ATPs), Pre-Operational Test Procedures (POTPs), and Operational Test Procedures (OTPs). It should be noted that POTPs are not required for testing of the transfer line addition. The STEP will be utilized in conjunction with the TEP for verification and validation.

  11. Specific test and evaluation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, W.H.

    1997-12-09

    The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made to the 241-AN-A Valve Pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system`s performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a ``lower tier`` document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP) This STEP encompasses all testing activities required to demonstrate compliance to the project design criteria as it relates to the modifications of the AN-A valve pit. The Project Design Specifications (PDS) identify the specific testing activities required for the Project. Testing includes Validations and Verifications (e.g., Commercial Grade Item Dedication activities), Factory Acceptance Tests (FATs), installation tests and inspections, Construction Acceptance Tests (CATs), Acceptance Test Procedures (ATPs), Pre-Operational Test Procedures (POTPs), and Operational Test Procedures (OTPs). It should be noted that POTPs are not required for testing of the modifications to the 241-AN-A Valve Pit. The STEP will be utilized in conjunction with the TEP for verification and validation.

  12. SPECIFIC MOLDS ASSOCIATED WITH ASTHMA IN WATER-DAMAGED HOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objective: We sought to determine if specific molds were found in significantly higher concentrations in the water-damaged homes of asthmatic children compared to homes with no visible water damage. Methods: The mold concentrations in the dust in asthmatic children's bedrooms i...

  13. Testing the Effects of DL-Alpha-Tocopherol Supplementation on Oxidative Damage, Total Antioxidant Protection and the Sex-Specific Responses of Reproductive Effort and Lifespan to Dietary Manipulation in Australian Field Crickets (Teleogryllus commodus).

    PubMed

    Archer, C Ruth; Hempenstall, Sarah; Royle, Nick J; Selman, Colin; Willis, Sheridan; Rapkin, James; Blount, Jon D; Hunt, John

    2015-01-01

    The oxidative stress theory predicts that the accumulation of oxidative damage causes aging. More generally, oxidative damage could be a cost of reproduction that reduces survival. Both of these hypotheses have mixed empirical support. To better understand the life-history consequences of oxidative damage, we fed male and female Australian field crickets (Teleogryllus commodus) four diets differing in their protein and carbohydrate content, which have sex-specific effects on reproductive effort and lifespan. We supplemented half of these crickets with the vitamin E isoform DL-alpha-tocopherol and measured the effects of nutrient intake on lifespan, reproduction, oxidative damage and antioxidant protection. We found a clear trade-off between reproductive effort and lifespan in females but not in males. In direct contrast to the oxidative stress theory, crickets fed diets that improved their lifespan had high levels of oxidative damage to proteins. Supplementation with DL-alpha-tocopherol did not significantly improve lifespan or reproductive effort. However, males fed diets that increased their reproductive investment experienced high oxidative damage to proteins. While this suggests that male reproductive effort could elevate oxidative damage, this was not associated with reduced male survival. Overall, these results provide little evidence that oxidative damage plays a central role in mediating life-history trade-offs in T. commodus. PMID:26783958

  14. Testing the Effects of dl-Alpha-Tocopherol Supplementation on Oxidative Damage, Total Antioxidant Protection and the Sex-Specific Responses of Reproductive Effort and Lifespan to Dietary Manipulation in Australian Field Crickets (Teleogryllus commodus)

    PubMed Central

    Archer, C. Ruth; Hempenstall, Sarah; Royle, Nick J.; Selman, Colin; Willis, Sheridan; Rapkin, James; Blount, Jon D.; Hunt, John

    2015-01-01

    The oxidative stress theory predicts that the accumulation of oxidative damage causes aging. More generally, oxidative damage could be a cost of reproduction that reduces survival. Both of these hypotheses have mixed empirical support. To better understand the life-history consequences of oxidative damage, we fed male and female Australian field crickets (Teleogryllus commodus) four diets differing in their protein and carbohydrate content, which have sex-specific effects on reproductive effort and lifespan. We supplemented half of these crickets with the vitamin E isoform dl-alpha-tocopherol and measured the effects of nutrient intake on lifespan, reproduction, oxidative damage and antioxidant protection. We found a clear trade-off between reproductive effort and lifespan in females but not in males. In direct contrast to the oxidative stress theory, crickets fed diets that improved their lifespan had high levels of oxidative damage to proteins. Supplementation with dl-alpha-tocopherol did not significantly improve lifespan or reproductive effort. However, males fed diets that increased their reproductive investment experienced high oxidative damage to proteins. While this suggests that male reproductive effort could elevate oxidative damage, this was not associated with reduced male survival. Overall, these results provide little evidence that oxidative damage plays a central role in mediating life-history trade-offs in T. commodus. PMID:26783958

  15. Specification-Based Testing Via Domain Specific Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sroka, Michal; Nagy, Roman; Fisch, Dominik

    2014-12-01

    The article presents tCF (testCaseFramework) - a domain specific language with corresponding toolchain for specification-based software testing of embedded software. tCF is designed for efficient preparation of maintainable and intelligible test cases and for testing process automation, as it allows to generate platform specific test cases for various testing levels. The article describes the essential parts of the tCF meta-model and the applied concept of platform specific test cases generators.

  16. Spatially localized generation of nucleotide sequence-specific DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Dennis H.; King, Brett A.; Boxer, Steven G.; Hanawalt, Philip C.

    2001-01-01

    Psoralens linked to triplex-forming oligonucleotides (psoTFOs) have been used in conjunction with laser-induced two-photon excitation (TPE) to damage a specific DNA target sequence. To demonstrate that TPE can initiate photochemistry resulting in psoralen–DNA photoadducts, target DNA sequences were incubated with psoTFOs to form triple-helical complexes and then irradiated in liquid solution with pulsed 765-nm laser light, which is half the quantum energy required for conventional one-photon excitation, as used in psoralen + UV A radiation (320–400 nm) therapy. Target DNA acquired strand-specific psoralen monoadducts in a light dose-dependent fashion. To localize DNA damage in a model tissue-like medium, a DNA–psoTFO mixture was prepared in a polyacrylamide gel and then irradiated with a converging laser beam targeting the rear of the gel. The highest number of photoadducts formed at the rear while relatively sparing DNA at the front of the gel, demonstrating spatial localization of sequence-specific DNA damage by TPE. To assess whether TPE treatment could be extended to cells without significant toxicity, cultured monolayers of normal human dermal fibroblasts were incubated with tritium-labeled psoralen without TFO to maximize detectable damage and irradiated by TPE. DNA from irradiated cells treated with psoralen exhibited a 4- to 7-fold increase in tritium activity relative to untreated controls. Functional survival assays indicated that the psoralen–TPE treatment was not toxic to cells. These results demonstrate that DNA damage can be simultaneously manipulated at the nucleotide level and in three dimensions. This approach for targeting photochemical DNA damage may have photochemotherapeutic applications in skin and other optically accessible tissues. PMID:11572980

  17. Spatially localized generation of nucleotide sequence-specific DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Oh, D H; King, B A; Boxer, S G; Hanawalt, P C

    2001-09-25

    Psoralens linked to triplex-forming oligonucleotides (psoTFOs) have been used in conjunction with laser-induced two-photon excitation (TPE) to damage a specific DNA target sequence. To demonstrate that TPE can initiate photochemistry resulting in psoralen-DNA photoadducts, target DNA sequences were incubated with psoTFOs to form triple-helical complexes and then irradiated in liquid solution with pulsed 765-nm laser light, which is half the quantum energy required for conventional one-photon excitation, as used in psoralen + UV A radiation (320-400 nm) therapy. Target DNA acquired strand-specific psoralen monoadducts in a light dose-dependent fashion. To localize DNA damage in a model tissue-like medium, a DNA-psoTFO mixture was prepared in a polyacrylamide gel and then irradiated with a converging laser beam targeting the rear of the gel. The highest number of photoadducts formed at the rear while relatively sparing DNA at the front of the gel, demonstrating spatial localization of sequence-specific DNA damage by TPE. To assess whether TPE treatment could be extended to cells without significant toxicity, cultured monolayers of normal human dermal fibroblasts were incubated with tritium-labeled psoralen without TFO to maximize detectable damage and irradiated by TPE. DNA from irradiated cells treated with psoralen exhibited a 4- to 7-fold increase in tritium activity relative to untreated controls. Functional survival assays indicated that the psoralen-TPE treatment was not toxic to cells. These results demonstrate that DNA damage can be simultaneously manipulated at the nucleotide level and in three dimensions. This approach for targeting photochemical DNA damage may have photochemotherapeutic applications in skin and other optically accessible tissues. PMID:11572980

  18. Viral induction of site-specific chromosome damage.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Elizabeth A; Spector, Deborah H

    2003-01-01

    The advent of advanced cell culture and cytogenetics techniques in the 1950s opened a new avenue for research on the pathogenic interactions between animal viruses and their hosts. Studies of many viruses revealed their ability to nonspecifically induce cytogenetic damage to their host cell's chromosomes. However, only three viruses, the oncogenic adenoviruses, herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), have been found to cause non-random, site-specific chromosomal damage. Adenovirus (Ad) type 12 induces fragility at four distinct loci (RNU1, RNU2, RN5S and PSU1) in many different types of human cells. A common feature of these loci is that they contain a repeated array of transcriptionally active genes encoding small structural RNAs. Site-specific induction of breaks also requires the virally encoded E1B protein of M(r) 55000 and the C-terminus of the cellular p53 protein. Analysis of the induction of damage by HSV and HCMV necessitates consideration of several factors, including the strain of virus used, the timing of infection, the type of cell used, and the multiplicity of infection. Both HSV strains 1 and 2 are cytotoxic, although the former seems to be more proficient at inducing damage. At early times post infection, HSV induces breaks and specific uncoiling of the centromeres of chromosomes 1, 9 and 16. This is followed at later times by a more complete severing of all of the chromosomes, termed pulverisation. Damage by HSV requires viral entry and de novo viral protein synthesis, with immediate early viral proteins responsible for the induction of breaks and uncoiling and early gene products (most likely nucleases) involved in the extensive pulverisation seen later. HCMV has been studied primarily in permissive human fibroblasts. Its ability to induce specific damage in chromosome 1 at two loci, 1q21 and 1q42, was only recently revealed as the cells must be in S-phase when they are infected for the breaks to be observed. In contrast to

  19. Damage testing of sapphire and Ti: sapphire laser materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Diffusion bonded sapphire and Ti (Titanium). Sapphire laser materials that will be damage tested to determine if there is an increase in damage threshold. Photographed in building 1145, photographic studio.

  20. Specificity of damage recognition and catalysis of DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Osman, R; Fuxreiter, M; Luo, N

    2000-05-01

    A common feature of DNA repair enzymes is their ability to recognize the damage independently of sequence in which they are found. The presence of a flipped out base inserted into the protein in several DNA-enzyme complexes suggests a contribution to enzyme specificity. Molecular simulations of damaged DNA indicate that the damage produces changes in DNA structure and changes the dynamics of DNA bending. The reduced bending force constant can be used by the enzyme to induce DNA bending and facilitate base flipping. We show that a thymine dimer (TD) containing DNA requires less energy to bend, lowering the barrier for base flipping. On the other hand, bending in DNA with U-G mismatch is affected only by a small amount and flipping is not enhanced significantly. T4 endonuclease V (endoV), which recognizes TD, utilizes the reduced barrier for flipping as a specific recognition element. In uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG), which recognizes U-G mismatches, base flipping is not enhanced and recognition is encoded in a highly specific binding pocket for the flipped base. Simulations of UDG and endoV in complex with damaged DNA provide insight into the essential elements of the catalytic mechanism. Calculations of pKas of active site residues in endoV and endoV-DNA complex show that the pKa, of the N-terminus is reduced from 8.01 to 6.52 while that of Glu-23 increases from 1.52 to 7.82. Thus, the key catalytic residues are in their neutral form. The simulations also show that Glu-23 is also H-bonded to O4' of the 5'-TD enhancing the nucleophilic attack on Cl and that Arg-26 enhances the hydrolysis by electrostatic stabilization but does not participate in proton transfer. In the enzyme-substrate complex of UDG, the role of electrostatic stabilization is played by His-268, whose pKa increases to 7.1 from 4.9 in the free enzyme. The pKa of Asp-145, the other important catalytic residue, remains around 4.2 in the free enzyme and in the complex. Thus, it can not act as a proton

  1. LNG cascading damage study. Volume I, fracture testing report.

    SciTech Connect

    Petti, Jason P.; Kalan, Robert J.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) Cascading Damage Study, a series of structural tests were conducted to investigate the thermal induced fracture of steel plate structures. The thermal stresses were achieved by applying liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) onto sections of each steel plate. In addition to inducing large thermal stresses, the lowering of the steel temperature simultaneously reduced the fracture toughness. Liquid nitrogen was used as a surrogate for LNG due to safety concerns and since the temperature of LN{sub 2} is similar (-190 C) to LNG (-161 C). The use of LN{sub 2} ensured that the tests could achieve cryogenic temperatures in the range an actual vessel would encounter during a LNG spill. There were four phases to this test series. Phase I was the initial exploratory stage, which was used to develop the testing process. In the Phase II series of tests, larger plates were used and tested until fracture. The plate sizes ranged from 4 ft square pieces to 6 ft square sections with thicknesses from 1/4 inches to 3/4 inches. This phase investigated the cooling rates on larger plates and the effect of different notch geometries (stress concentrations used to initiate brittle fracture). Phase II was divided into two sections, Phase II-A and Phase II-B. Phase II-A used standard A36 steel, while Phase II-B used marine grade steels. In Phase III, the test structures were significantly larger, in the range of 12 ft by 12 ft by 3 ft high. These structures were designed with more complex geometries to include features similar to those on LNG vessels. The final test phase, Phase IV, investigated differences in the heat transfer (cooling rates) between LNG and LN{sub 2}. All of the tests conducted in this study are used in subsequent parts of the LNG Cascading Damage Study, specifically the computational analyses.

  2. 21 CFR 660.26 - Specificity tests and avidity tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Specificity tests and avidity tests. 660.26... (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.26 Specificity tests and avidity tests. Specificity and avidity tests shall be...

  3. 21 CFR 660.26 - Specificity tests and avidity tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Specificity tests and avidity tests. 660.26 Section...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.26 Specificity tests and avidity tests. Specificity and avidity tests shall be performed using...

  4. The neuropathology of alcohol-specific brain damage, or does alcohol damage the brain?

    PubMed

    Harper, C

    1998-02-01

    The aim of this review is to identify neuropathological changes that are directly related to the long-term use of excessive amounts of alcohol (ethanol). There is still debate as to whether alcohol per se causes brain damage. The main problem has been to identify those lesions caused by alcohol itself and those caused by other common alcohol-related factors, principally thiamin deficiency. Careful selection and classification of alcoholic cases into those with and without these complications, together with detailed quantitative neuropathological analyses, has provided us with useful data. There is brain shrinkage in uncomplicated alcoholics which can largely be accounted for by loss of white matter. Some of this damage appears to be reversible. However, alcohol-related neuronal loss has been documented in specific regions of the cerebral cortex (superior frontal association cortex), hypothalamus (supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei), and cerebellum. The data is conflicting for several regions: the hippocampus, amygdala and locus ceruleus. No change is found in the basal ganglia, nucleus basalis, or serotonergic raphe nuclei. Many of the regions that are normal in uncomplicated alcoholics are damaged in those with the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Dendritic and synaptic changes have been documented in uncomplicated alcoholics and these, together with receptor and transmitter changes, may explain functional changes and cognitive deficits that precede the more severe structural neuronal changes. The pattern of damage appears to be somewhat different and species-specific in animal models of alcohol toxicity. Pathological changes that have been found to correlate with alcohol intake include white matter loss and neuronal loss in the hypothalamus and cerebellum. PMID:9600202

  5. Lowering evaluation uncertainties in laser-induced damage testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Lars O.; Mrohs, Marius; Gyamfi, Mark; Mädebach, Heinrich; Ristau, Detlev

    2015-11-01

    As a consequence of the statistical nature of laser-induced damage threshold measurements in the nanosecond regime, the evaluation method plays a vital role. Within the test procedure outlined in the corresponding ISO standard, several steps of data reduction are required, and the resulting damage probability distribution as a function of laser fluence needs to be fitted either based on an empirical regression function or described by models for the respective damage mechanism.

  6. Diagnostic methods for CW laser damage testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Alan F.; Shah, Rashmi S.

    2004-06-01

    High performance optical coatings are an enabling technology for many applications - navigation systems, telecom, fusion, advanced measurement systems of many types as well as directed energy weapons. The results of recent testing of superior optical coatings conducted at high flux levels will be presented. The diagnostics used in this type of nondestructive testing and the analysis of the data demonstrates the evolution of test methodology. Comparison of performance data under load to the predictions of thermal and optical models shows excellent agreement. These tests serve to anchor the models and validate the performance of the materials and coatings.

  7. 35. Historic photo of Building 202 test stand with damage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Historic photo of Building 202 test stand with damage to twenty-thousand-pound-thrust rocket engine related to failure during testing, September 16, 1958. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA photo number C-48704. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  8. 34. Historic photo of Building 202 test cell with damage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Historic photo of Building 202 test cell with damage from fire or explosion during rocket engine testing, May 17, 1958. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA photo number C-47965. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, GRC Building No. 202, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  9. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Prostate-specific antigen; Prostate cancer screening test ... special steps are needed to prepare for this test. ... Reasons for a PSA test: This test may be done to screen for prostate cancer. It is also used to follow people after prostate cancer ...

  10. A continuous damage model based on stepwise-stress creep rupture tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, D. N.

    1985-01-01

    A creep damage accumulation model is presented that makes use of the Kachanov damage rate concept with a provision accounting for damage that results from a variable stress history. This is accomplished through the introduction of an additional term in the Kachanov rate equation that is linear in the stress rate. Specification of the material functions and parameters in the model requires two types of constituting a data base: (1) standard constant-stress creep rupture tests, and (2) a sequence of two-step creep rupture tests.

  11. Specificity of a Maximal Step Exercise Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darby, Lynn A.; Marsh, Jennifer L.; Shewokis, Patricia A.; Pohlman, Roberta L.

    2007-01-01

    To adhere to the principle of "exercise specificity" exercise testing should be completed using the same physical activity that is performed during exercise training. The present study was designed to assess whether aerobic step exercisers have a greater maximal oxygen consumption (max VO sub 2) when tested using an activity specific, maximal step…

  12. Second Language Tests for Specific Purpose: How Specific?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricciardi, Joseph S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses certain problems that can arise with respect to the selection of content in the preparation of a test to measure language proficiency for some specific purpose. Forty employees in a defense plant in Montreal, Canada were interviewed in order to specify language needs, to arrive at a precise interpretation of the required…

  13. Monte Carlo simulation of the R/1 automated damage test

    SciTech Connect

    Runkel, M

    1998-09-18

    In this paper, a Monte Carlo computer analysis of the R/l automated damage test procedure currently in use at LLNL is presented. This study was undertaken to quantify the intrinsic sampling errors of the R/l ADT method for various types of optical materials, particularly KDP and fused silica, and to provide a recommended minimum number of test sites. A gaussian/normal distribution of 10 J/cm2; average fluence (μ) was used as a damage distribution model. The standard deviation (σ) of the distribution was varied to control its shape. Distributions were simulated which correspond to the damage distributions of KDP (μ/σ = 5-10) and fused silica (μ/σ - 15). A measure of the variability in test results was obtained by random sampling of these distributions and construction of the cumulative failure probability "S" curves. The random samplings were performed in runs of 100 "tests" with the number of samples (i.e. sites) per test ranging from 2 to 500. For distributions with μ/σ = 5-10, the study found an intrinsic error of 3 to 5% in the maximum deviation from the distribution average when using 100 site tests. The computations also showed substantial variation in the form of the CFD for any given test. The simulation results were compared to actual data from eight 100 site R/l automated tests on a sample from rapidly grown KDP. It was found that while each 100 site damage probability curve could be fit to a gaussian distribution reasonably well, the 800 site cumulative damage probability curve was better modeled by a lognormal distribution. The differences observed in the individual CFD curves could be accounted for by sampling errors calculated from gaussian models.

  14. Preliminary tests of a damaged ship for CFD validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungkyun; You, Ji-Myoung; Lee, Hyun-Ho; Lim, Taegu; Rhee, Shin Hyung; Rhee, Key-Pyo

    2012-06-01

    One of the most critical issues in naval architecture these days is the operational safety. Among many factors to be considered for higher safety level requirements, the hull stability in intact and damaged conditions is the first to ensure for both commercial and military vessels. Unlike the intact stability cases, the assessment of the damaged ship stability is very complicated physical phenomena. Therefore it is widely acknowledged that computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods are one of most feasible approaches. In order to develop better CFD methods for damaged ship stability assessment, it is essential to perform well-designed model tests and to build a database for CFD validation. In the present study, free roll decay tests in calm water with both intact and damaged ships were performed and six degree-of-freedom (6DOF) motion responses of intact ship in regular waves were measured. Through the free roll decay tests, the effects of the flooding water on the roll decay motion of a ship were investigated. Through the model tests in regular waves, the database that provides 6DOF motion responses of intact ship was established

  15. Adapter assembly prevents damage to tubing during high pressure tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stinett, L. L.

    1965-01-01

    Portable adapter assembly prevents damage to tubing and injury to personnel when pressurizing a system or during high pressure tests. The assembly is capable of withstanding high pressure. It is securely attached to the tubing stub end and may be removed without brazing, cutting or cleaning the tube.

  16. Testing of Badminton-Specific Endurance.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Christian M; Højlyng, Mads; Nybo, Lars

    2016-09-01

    Madsen, CM, Højlyng, M, and Nybo, L. Testing of badminton-specific endurance. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2582-2590, 2016-In the present study, a novel intermittent badminton endurance (B-ENDURANCE) test was developed and tested in elite (n = 17) and skilled (n = 9) badminton players and in age-matched physically active men (nonbadminton players; n = 8). In addition, B-ENDURANCE test-retest reproducibility was evaluated in 9 badminton players. The B-ENDURANCE test is an incremental test where each level consists of repeated sequences of badminton-specific actions toward the 4 corners of the court. The subject starts in the center of the court in front of a computer screen and within each sequence, he must, in a randomized order, complete 8 actions as dictated by the computer, providing the audiovisual input and verifying that the appropriate sensor is activated within the allocated time. Recovery time between each sequence is 10 seconds throughout the test, but the time to complete each sequence is gradually decreased until the subjects cannot follow the dictated tempo. The B-ENDURANCE test performance for elite players was better (p ≤ 0.05) compared with the skilled players and nonbadminton players. In addition, the B-ENDURANCE test performance correlated (r = 0.8 and p < 0.0001) with elite players' national single rankings. Test-retest coefficient of variation was 7.9% between the first 2 trials (i.e., without a familiarization trial) but reduced to 2.5% when comparing the second and third trials. In conclusion, the B-ENDURANCE test is relevant for the evaluation of badminton-specific endurance but at least 1 familiarization trial is recommended if the test is used for evaluation of longitudinal changes, e.g., tracking training effects. PMID:26849789

  17. Task specificity of finger dexterity tests.

    PubMed

    Berger, Monique A M; Krul, Arno J; Daanen, Hein A M

    2009-01-01

    Finger dexterity tests are generally used to assess performance decrease due to gloves, cold and pathology. It is generally assumed that the O'Connor and Purdue Pegboard test yield similar results. In this experiment we compared these two tests for dry conditions without gloves, and for dry and wet conditions with two types of Nytril gloves. In line with previous observations, wearing gloves caused a decrease in performance of about 12% for the O'Connor test and 9% for the Purdue test. Wetting the gloves prior to the test had no effect on the Purdue score. However, wetting the gloves increased the O'Connor performance significantly by 11%. The results show that the O'Connor and Purdue tests do not yield similar results and should be used selectively for specific tasks. PMID:18339353

  18. Vibration testing of impact-damaged composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Meyn, Erwin H.

    1989-01-01

    A new test is described that can be used to measure changes in the vibration properties of impact damaged composite materials. Impact-induced delamination was observed to significantly affect natural frequencies of vibration and damping properties in cross-ply graphite/epoxy laminates. Natural frequencies are shown to drop by as much as half of their original value, and modal damping ratios can increase by a factor of up to eight when large amounts of damage are present. A simple finite element model of the damaged impact specimens was used to predict the effect of delamination on certain vibration properties. A comparison of the finite element calculations with the experimental measurements suggests that delamination was the dominant mechanism of flexural stiffness loss resulting from the transverse impact.

  19. Unusual plastic deformation and damage features in titanium: Experimental tests and constitutive modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revil-Baudard, Benoit; Cazacu, Oana; Flater, Philip; Chandola, Nitin; Alves, J. L.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we present an experimental study on plastic deformation and damage of polycrystalline pure HCP Ti, as well as modeling of the observed behavior. Mechanical characterization data were conducted, which indicate that the material is orthotropic and displays tension-compression asymmetry. The ex-situ and in-situ X-ray tomography measurements conducted reveal that damage distribution and evolution in this HCP Ti material is markedly different than in a typical FCC material such as copper. Stewart and Cazacu (2011) anisotropic elastic/plastic damage model is used to describe the behavior. All the parameters involved in this model have a clear physical significance, being related to plastic properties, and are determined from very few simple mechanical tests. It is shown that this model predicts correctly the anisotropy in plastic deformation, and its strong influence on damage distribution and damage accumulation. Specifically, for a smooth axisymmetric specimen subject to uniaxial tension, damage initiates at the center of the specimen, and is diffuse; the level of damage close to failure being very low. On the other hand, for a notched specimen subject to the same loading the model predicts that damage initiates at the outer surface of the specimen, and further grows from the outer surface to the center of the specimen, which corroborates with the in-situ tomography data.

  20. Melcor benchmarking against integral severe fuel damage tests

    SciTech Connect

    Madni, I.K.

    1995-09-01

    MELCOR is a fully integrated computer code that models all phases of the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants, and is being developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has a program with the NRC to provide independent assessment of MELCOR, and a very important part of this program is to benchmark MELCOR against experimental data from integral severe fuel damage tests and predictions of that data from more mechanistic codes such as SCDAP or SCDAP/RELAP5. Benchmarking analyses with MELCOR have been carried out at BNL for five integral severe fuel damage tests, namely, PBF SFD 1-1, SFD 14, and NRU FLHT-2, analyses, and their role in identifying areas of modeling strengths and weaknesses in MELCOR.

  1. Specificity of Chromosome Damage Caused by the Rex Element of Drosophila Melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, L. G.

    1996-01-01

    Rex is a multicopy genetic element that maps within an X-linked ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) array of D. melanogaster. Acting maternally, Rex causes recombination between rDNA arrays in a few percent of early embryos. With target chromosomes that contain two rDNA arrays, the exchanges either delete all of the material between the two arrays or invert the entire intervening chromosomal segment. About a third of the embryos produced by Rex homozygotes have cytologically visible chromosome damage, nearly always involving a single chromosome. Most of these embryos die during early development, displaying a characteristic apoptosis-like phenotype. An experiment that tests whether the cytologically visible damage is rDNA-specific is reported here. In this experiment, females heterozygous for Rex and an rDNA-deficient X chromosome were crossed to males of two genotypes. Some of the progeny from the experimental cross entirely lacked rDNA, while all of the progeny from the control cross had at least one rDNA array. A significantly lower frequency of early-lethal embryos in the experimental cross, proportionate to the fraction of rDNA-deficient embryos, demonstrates that Rex preferentially damages rDNA. PMID:8878677

  2. Growth arrest specific protein 6 participates in DOCA-induced target-organ damage.

    PubMed

    Park, Joon-Keun; Theuer, Stefanie; Kirsch, Torsten; Lindschau, Carsten; Klinge, Uwe; Heuser, Arnd; Plehm, Ralph; Todiras, Mihai; Carmeliet, Peter; Haller, Hermann; Luft, Friedrich C; Muller, Dominik N; Fiebeler, Anette

    2009-08-01

    Growth arrest-specific protein 6 (Gas 6) is involved in inflammatory kidney diseases, vascular remodeling, cell adhesion, and thrombus formation. We explored a role for Gas 6 in aldosterone-induced target organ damage. We observed that Gas 6 was upregulated in rats with high aldosterone levels. Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade prevented target organ damage and decreased the elevated Gas 6 expression. Vascular smooth muscle cells given aldosterone increased their Gas 6 expression in vitro. To test the pathophysiological relevance, we investigated the effects of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) on Gas 6 gene-deleted ((-/-)) mice. After 6 weeks DOCA, Gas 6(-/-) mice developed similar telemetric blood pressure elevations compared to wild-type mice but were protected from cardiac hypertrophy. Cardiac expression of interleukin 6 and collagen IV was blunted in Gas 6(-/-) mice, indicating reduced inflammation and fibrosis. Gas 6(-/-) mice also had an improved renal function with reduced albuminuria, compared to wild-type mice. Renal fibrosis and fibronectin deposition in the kidney were also reduced. Gas 6 deficiency reduces the detrimental effects of aldosterone on cardiac and renal remodeling independent of blood pressure reduction. Gas 6 appears to play a role in mineralocorticoid receptor-mediated target organ damage. Furthermore, because warfarin interferes with Gas 6 protein expression, the findings could be of clinical relevance for anticoagulant choices. PMID:19564549

  3. Static testing and proposed standard specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, E P

    1920-01-01

    Static tests fall into two groups, the first of which is designed to load all members of the structure approximately in accordance with the worst loads which they carry in flight, while the second is directed to the testing of specific members which are suspected of weakness and which are difficult to analyze mathematically. The nature of the loading in the second type is different for every different test, but the purpose of the first is defined clearly enough to permit the adoption of some standard set of loading specifications, at least for airplanes of normal design. Here, an attempt is made to carry through an analysis leading to such a standard, the goal being the determination of a load which will simultaneously impose on every member of the airplane structure a stress equal to the worst it will carry in flight.

  4. Inelastic Strain and Damage in Surface Instability Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Chu-Shu; Tarokh, Ali; Biolzi, Luigi; Labuz, Joseph F.

    2016-02-01

    Spalling near a free surface in laboratory experiments on two sandstones was characterized using acoustic emission and digital image correlation. A surface instability apparatus was used to reproduce a state of plane strain near a free surface in a modeled semi-infinite medium subjected to far-field compressive stress. Comparison between AE locations and crack trajectory mapped after the test showed good consistency. Digital image correlation was used to find the displacements in directions parallel (axial direction) and perpendicular (lateral direction) to the free surface at various stages of loading. At a load ratio, LR = current load/peak load, of approximately 30 %, elastic deformation was measured. At 70-80 % LR, the free-face effect started to appear in the displacement contours, especially for the lateral displacement measurements. As the axial compressive stress increased close to peak, extensional lateral strain started to show concentrations associated with localized damage. Continuum damage mechanics was used to describe damage evolution in the surface instability test, and it was shown that a critical value of extensional inelastic strain, on the order of -10-3 for the virgin sandstones, may provide an indicator for determining the onset of surface spalling.

  5. Tests in Print II: An Index to Tests, Test Reviews, and the Literature on Specific Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buros, Oscar K., Ed.

    Tests in Print II is a comprehensive, annotated bibliography of all in-print tests published as separates for use with English-speaking subjects. The 1,155 two-column pages list 2,467 tests in print as of early 1974; 16,574 references through 1971 on specific tests; a reprinting of the 1974 APA-AERA-NCME Standards for Educational andPsychological…

  6. Full-scale testing and progressive damage modeling of sandwich composite aircraft fuselage structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, Frank A., Jr.

    A comprehensive experimental and computational investigation was conducted to characterize the fracture behavior and structural response of large sandwich composite aircraft fuselage panels containing artificial damage in the form of holes and notches. Full-scale tests were conducted where panels were subjected to quasi-static combined pressure, hoop, and axial loading up to failure. The panels were constructed using plain-weave carbon/epoxy prepreg face sheets and a Nomex honeycomb core. Panel deformation and notch tip damage development were monitored during the tests using several techniques, including optical observations, strain gages, digital image correlation (DIC), acoustic emission (AE), and frequency response (FR). Additional pretest and posttest inspections were performed via thermography, computer-aided tap tests, ultrasound, x-radiography, and scanning electron microscopy. The framework to simulate damage progression and to predict residual strength through use of the finite element (FE) method was developed. The DIC provided local and full-field strain fields corresponding to changes in the state-of-damage and identified the strain components driving damage progression. AE was monitored during loading of all panels and data analysis methodologies were developed to enable real-time determination of damage initiation, progression, and severity in large composite structures. The FR technique has been developed, evaluating its potential as a real-time nondestructive inspection technique applicable to large composite structures. Due to the large disparity in scale between the fuselage panels and the artificial damage, a global/local analysis was performed. The global FE models fully represented the specific geometries, composite lay-ups, and loading mechanisms of the full-scale tests. A progressive damage model was implemented in the local FE models, allowing the gradual failure of elements in the vicinity of the artificial damage. A set of modifications

  7. Testing Damage Scenarios. From Historical Earthquakes To Silent Active Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, P.; Orsini, G.; Bosi, V.; di Pasquale, G.; Galadini, F.

    Italy is rich with historical scenarios of disruption and death that arrived up to us through the insight descriptions of hundreds of manuscripts, reports, treatises, letters and epigraphs. All these historical data constitute today one of the most powerful data-base of earthquake-induced effects. Moreover, it is now possible to relate many of these earthquakes to geological structures, the seismogenetic behavior of which has been investigated by means of paleoseismological studies. On the basis of these information and of those gathered through the national census (performed on popu- lation and dwellings by ISTAT, Italian Institute of Statistics in 1991) we developed a methodology (FaCES, Fault-Controlled Earthquake Scenario) which reproduce the damage scenario caused by the rupture of a defined fault, providing an estimate of the losses in terms of damages to building and consequences to population. The reliabil- ity of scenarios has been tested by comparing the historical damage distribution of an earthquake with that obtained applying FaCES to the responsible fault. Finally, we hypothesize the scenario related to three historically-silent faults of central Apennines (Mt. Vettore, Mt. Gorzano and Gran Sasso faults), the Holocene activity of which has been recently ascertained though paleoseimological analyses.

  8. An advanced test technique to quantify thermomechanical fatigue damage accumulation in composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castelli, Michael G.

    1993-01-01

    A mechanical test technique was developed to assist in quantifying the accumulation of damage in composite materials during thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) cycling. This was accomplished by incorporating definitive elastic mechanical property measurements into an ongoing load-controlled TMF test without disturbing the test specimen or significantly altering the test conditions. The technique allows two fundamental composite properties consisting of the isothermal elastic static moduli and the macroscopic coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) to be measured and collected as functions of the TMF cycles. The specific implementation was incorporated into the commonly employed idealized in-phase and out-of-phase TMF cycles. However, the techniques discussed could be easily implemented into any form of load-controlled TMF mission cycle. By quantifying the degradations of these properties, tremendous insights are gained concerning the progression of macroscopic composite damage and often times the progression of damage within a given constituent. This information should also be useful for the characterization and essential for the verification of analytical damage modeling methodologies. Several examples utilizing this test technique are given for three different fiber lay-ups of titanium metal matrix composites.

  9. Laser damage testing of optical components under cryogenic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oulehla, Jindrich; Pokorný, Pavel; Lazar, Josef

    2012-11-01

    In this contribution we present a technology for deposition and testing of interference coatings for optical components designed to operate in power pulsed lasers. The aim of the technology is to prepare components for high power laser facilities such as ELI (Extreme Light Infrastructure) or HiLASE. ELI is a part of the European plan to build a new generation of large research facilities selected by the European Strategy Forum for Research Infrastructures (ESFRI). These facilities rely on the use of diode pumped solid state lasers (DPSSL). The choice of the material for the lasers' optical components is critical. Some of the most important properties include the ability to be antireflection and high reflection coated to reduce the energy losses and increase the overall efficiency. As large amounts of heat need to be dissipated during laser operation, cryogenic cooling is necessary. The conducted experiments served as preliminary tests of laser damage threshold measurement methodology that we plan to use in the future. We designed a special apparatus consisting of a vacuum chamber and a cooling system. The samples were placed into the vacuum chamber which was evacuated and then the samples were cooled down to approximately 120K and illuminated by a pulsed laser. Pulse duration was in the nanosecond region. Multiple test sites on the sample's surface were used for different laser pulse energies. We used optical and electron microscopy and spectrophotometer measurements for coating investigation after the conducted experiments.

  10. 21 CFR 660.54 - Potency tests, specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. 660.54 Section 660.54 Food and Drugs..., specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. The...) Specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties....

  11. 21 CFR 660.54 - Potency tests, specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. 660.54 Section 660.54 Food and Drugs..., specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. The...) Specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties....

  12. 21 CFR 660.54 - Potency tests, specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. 660.54 Section 660.54 Food and Drugs..., specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. The...) Specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties....

  13. 21 CFR 660.54 - Potency tests, specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. 660.54 Section 660.54 Food and Drugs..., specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. The...) Specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties....

  14. 21 CFR 660.54 - Potency tests, specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. 660.54 Section 660.54 Food and Drugs..., specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. The...) Specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties....

  15. Filia is an ESC-specific regulator of DNA damage response and safeguards genomic stability

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bo; Zhang, Wei-dao; Duan, Ying-liang; Lu, Yong-qing; Cun, Yi-xian; Li, Chao-hui; Guo, Kun; Nie, Wen-hui; Li, Lei; Zhang, Rugang; Zheng, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Summary Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) hold great promise in cell-based therapy, but the genomic instability seen in culture hampers full application. Greater understanding of the factors that regulate genomic stability in PSCs could help address this issue. Here we describe the identification of Filia as a specific regulator of genomic stability in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Filia expression is induced by genotoxic stress. Filia promotes centrosome integrity and regulates DNA damage response (DDR) through multiple pathways, including DDR signaling, cell cycle checkpoints and damage repair, ESC differentiation and apoptosis. Filia depletion causes ESC genomic instability, induces resistance to apoptosis and promotes malignant transformation. As part of its role in the DDR, Filia interacts with PARP1 and stimulates its enzymatic activity. Filia also constitutively resides on centrosomes and translocates to DNA damage sites and mitochondria, consistent with its multifaceted roles in regulating centrosome integrity, damage repair and apoptosis. PMID:25936915

  16. Application of damage mechanism-specific NDE methods in support of risk-informed inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, S.M.; Ammirato, F.V.

    1996-12-01

    Risk-informed inservice inspection (RISI) programs effectively concentrate limited and costly examination resources on systems and locations most relevant to plant safety. The thought process used in the selection of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods and procedures in a RISI program is expected to change toward integrating NDE into integrity management, with a concentration on understanding failure mechanisms. Identifying which damage mechanisms may be operative in specific locations and applying appropriate NDE methods to detect the presence of these damage mechanisms is fundamental to effective RISI application. Considerable information is already available on inspection for damage mechanisms such as intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC), thermal fatigue, and erosion-corrosion. Similar procedures are under development for other damage mechanisms that may occur individually or in combination with other mechanisms. Guidance is provided on application of NDE procedures in an RISI framework to facilitate implementation by utility staff (Gosselin, 1996).

  17. Genotoxicity of refinery waste assessed by some DNA damage tests.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Amit Kumar; Ahmad, Irshad; Ahmad, Masood

    2015-04-01

    Refinery waste effluent is well known to contain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenols and heavy metals as potentially genotoxic substances. The aim of the present study was to assess the genotoxic potential of Mathura refinery wastewater (MRWW) by various in vitro tests including the single cell gel electrophoresis, plasmid nicking assay and S1 nuclease assay. Treatment of human lymphocytes to different MRWW concentrations (0.15×, 0.3×, 0.5× and 0.78×) caused the formation of comets of which the mean tail lengths increased proportionately and differed significantly from those of unexposed controls. The toxic effect of MRWW on DNA was also studied by plasmid nicking assay and S1 nuclease assay. Strand breaks formation in the MRWW treated pBR322 plasmid confirmed its genotoxic effect. Moreover, a dose dependent increase in cleavage of calf thymus DNA in S1 nuclease assay was also suggestive of the DNA damaging potential of MRWW. A higher level of ROS generation in the test water sample was recorded which might be contributing to its genotoxicity. Interaction between the constituents of MRWW and calf thymus DNA was also ascertained by UV-visible spectroscopy. PMID:24836934

  18. Testing and heat treating of beryllium for machine-damage removal

    SciTech Connect

    Corle, R R; Leslie, W W; Brewer, A W

    1981-09-10

    The work performed in this program was designed to develop a sensitive test for detecting machine damage in beryllium and to evaluate heat treatment as a means of removing that damage. An impact-shear test was developed which proved to be very discriminating for the detection of machine damage in beryllium. The validity of this test was verified by high strain rate tensile tests. The data revealed that heat treating is equally as effective as chemical etching in removing machine damage from commercial grades of beryllium. The impact-shear test is significantly more discriminating than tensile testing at normal strain rates.

  19. Automated Analysis of Cell Cycle Phase-Specific DNA Damage Reveals Phase-Specific Differences in Cell Sensitivity to Etoposide.

    PubMed

    Luzhin, Artem V; Velichko, Artem K; Razin, Sergey V; Kantidze, Omar L

    2016-10-01

    The comet assay is one of the most widely used approaches for detecting DNA damage; generally, it provides information on the cell population-averaged level of DNA damage. Here, we present an automatic technique for easy measurement of standard comet characteristics and an annotation of the cell cycle phase of each comet. The approach includes the modified neutral comet assay and a pipeline for CellProfiler software designed to analyze DNA damage-related characteristics and annotate the cell cycle phase of each comet. Using this technique we have performed cell cycle phase-specific analysis of DNA damage induced by the topoisomerase II poison etoposide and have shown that the sensitivity of cells to this drug dramatically differed according to their cell cycle phase. It became evident from our results that the proposed protocol provides important additional information that often remains hidden in a standard comet analysis of an asynchronous cell population. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2209-2214, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27240930

  20. 7 CFR 51.3417 - Optional test for specific gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Optional test for specific gravity. 51.3417 Section 51... § 51.3417 Optional test for specific gravity. Tests to determine specific gravity shall be made in... lot with respect to size and quality. The specific gravity for any lot of potatoes shall be...

  1. 7 CFR 51.3417 - Optional test for specific gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Optional test for specific gravity. 51.3417 Section 51... § 51.3417 Optional test for specific gravity. Tests to determine specific gravity shall be made in... lot with respect to size and quality. The specific gravity for any lot of potatoes shall be...

  2. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... test result cannot diagnose prostate cancer. Only a prostate biopsy can diagnose this cancer. Your provider will look ... infection Recent tests on your bladder (cystoscopy) or prostate (biopsy) Catheter tube recently placed into your bladder to ...

  3. Radiation damage calculations for the APT materials test program

    SciTech Connect

    Corzine, R.K.; Wechsler, M.S.; Dudziak, D.J.; Ferguson, P.D.; James, M.R.

    1999-09-01

    A materials irradiation was performed at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) in the fall of 1996 and spring of 1997 in support of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) program. Testing of the irradiated materials is underway. In the proposed APT design, materials in the target and blanket are to be exposed to protons and neutrons over a wide range of energies. The irradiation and testing program was undertaken to enlarge the very limited direct knowledge presently available of the effects of medium-energy protons ({approximately}1 GeV) on the properties of engineering materials. APT candidate materials were placed in or near the LANSCE accelerator 800-MeV, 1-mA proton beam and received roughly the same proton current density in the center of the beam as would be the case for the APT facility. As a result, the proton fluences achieved in the irradiation were expected to approach the APT prototypic full-power-year values. To predict accurately the performance of materials in APT, radiation damage parameters for the materials experiment must be determined. By modeling the experiment, calculations for atomic displacement, helium and hydrogen cross sections and for proton and neutron fluences were done for representative samples in the 17A, 18A, and 18C areas. The LAHET code system (LCS) was used to model the irradiation program, LAHET 2.82 within LCS transports protons > 1 MeV, and neutrons >20 MeV. A modified version of MCNP for use in LCS, HMCNP 4A, was employed to tally neutrons of energies <20 MeV.

  4. Damage Tolerance Testing of a NASA TransHab Derivative Woven Inflatable Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgecombe, John; delaFuente, Horacio; Valle, Gerald D.

    2008-01-01

    the structural support for the module when in a non-inflated state as well as resists a portion of the axial load when pressurized. The longitudinal members of the structural restraint layer are attached to the bulkheads using a series of clevises that are bolted to the bulkheads. Strain gages are placed on the clevises that can measure change in load when the structural restraint is inflated. The test module is 88 inches in diameter and 120 inches in height. The objectives of the DTT are to (1) verify the structural integrity of the assembled and pressurized structure when a section of the structural restraint layer is cut by a foreign object, and (2) verify the load distribution of the structural restraint layer during pressurization, before and after the structural restraint layer is severed. For this test, a longitudinal structural restraint strap will be severed using a linear shape charge. The linear shape charge was designed specifically for this application to cut only a single longitudinal strap, while not damaging the bladder. An array of strain gages were located at the bulkhead mounted clevises where the longitudinal restraint layer straps are attached. The DTT article was inflated to 45 psig, 25% of the ultimate design pressure, and one of the one-inch wide longitudinal structural members was severed. Strain gage measurements of loading in an array of longitudinal straps were taken throughout pressurization of the module to 45 psig, before firing of the linear shape charge, and after firing of the shape charge and separation of the strap. During testing not only were the original objectives met but better than expected results occurred. This paper will discuss space inflatable structures, damage tolerance analysis, test results, and applicability to the Lunar architecture.

  5. Acute Oxidative Effect and Muscle Damage after a Maximum 4 Min Test in High Performance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes Filho, José; Fernandes, Luiz Cláudio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine lipid peroxidation markers, physiological stress and muscle damage in elite kayakers in response to a maximum 4-min kayak ergometer test (KE test), and possible correlations with individual 1000m kayaking performances. The sample consisted of twenty-three adult male and nine adult female elite kayakers, with more than three years’ experience in international events, who voluntarily took part in this study. The subjects performed a 10-min warm-up, followed by a 2-min passive interval, before starting the test itself, which consisted of a maximum 4-min work paddling on an ergometer; right after the end of the test, an 8 ml blood sample was collected for analysis. 72 hours after the test, all athletes took part in an official race, when then it was possible to check their performance in the on site K1 1000m test (P1000m). The results showed that all lipoproteins and hematological parameters tested presented a significant difference (p≤0.05) after exercise for both genders. In addition, parameters related to muscle damage such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) presented significant differences after stress. Uric acid presented an inverse correlation with the performance (r = -0.76), while CK presented a positive correlation (r = 0.46) with it. Based on these results, it was possible to verify muscle damage and the level of oxidative stress caused by indoor training with specific ergometers for speed kayaking, highlighting the importance of analyzing and getting to know the physiological responses to this type of training, in order to provide information to coaches and optimize athletic performance. PMID:27111088

  6. Developing Content-Specific Reading Placement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, Edward H.

    This paper examines the efficacy of content-general reading tests used to place students into development courses. It argues that the discipline-generic model of comprehension supporting content-general reading tests is challenged by conclusions emerging from studies of schema theory, construction-integration theory, domain-knowledge theory, and…

  7. Fuel containment and damage tolerance for large composite primary aircraft structures. Phase 1: Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandifer, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    Technical problems associated with fuel containment and damage tolerance of composite material wings for transport aircraft were identified. The major tasks are the following: (1) the preliminary design of damage tolerant wing surface using composite materials; (2) the evaluation of fuel sealing and lightning protection methods for a composite material wing; and (3) an experimental investigation of the damage tolerant characteristics of toughened resin graphite/epoxy materials. The test results, the test techniques, and the test data are presented.

  8. Single Event Testing on Complex Devices: Test Like You Fly Versus Test-Specific Design Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Melanie D.; Label, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    We present a mechanism for evaluating complex digital systems targeted for harsh radiation environments such as space. Focus is limited to analyzing the single event upset (SEU) susceptibility of designs implemented inside Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices. Tradeoffs are provided between application-specific versus test-specific test structures.

  9. Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are some of the limitations and potential harms of the PSA test for prostate cancer screening? ... has been learned about both the benefits and harms of prostate cancer screening, a number of organizations ...

  10. 7 CFR 51.3417 - Optional test for specific gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Optional test for specific gravity. 51.3417 Section 51... specific gravity. Tests to determine specific gravity shall be made in accordance with the procedures set.... The specific gravity for any lot of potatoes shall be the average of at least 3 corrected readings...

  11. 7 CFR 51.3417 - Optional test for specific gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Optional test for specific gravity. 51.3417 Section 51... specific gravity. Tests to determine specific gravity shall be made in accordance with the procedures set.... The specific gravity for any lot of potatoes shall be the average of at least 3 corrected readings...

  12. 7 CFR 51.3417 - Optional test for specific gravity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Optional test for specific gravity. 51.3417 Section 51... specific gravity. Tests to determine specific gravity shall be made in accordance with the procedures set.... The specific gravity for any lot of potatoes shall be the average of at least 3 corrected readings...

  13. Power Burst Facility (PBF) severe fuel damage test 1-4 test results report

    SciTech Connect

    Petti, D.A.; Martinson, Z.R.; Hobbins, R.R.; Allison, C.M.; Carlson, E.R.; Hagrman, D.L.; Cheng, T.C.; Hartwell, J.K.; Vinjamuri, K.; Seifken, L.J.

    1989-04-01

    A comprehensive evaluation of the Severe Fuel Damage (SFD) Test 1-4 performed in the Power Burst Facility (PBF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is presented. Test SFD 1-4 was the fourth and final test in an internationally sponsored light water reactor severe accident research program, initiated by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The overall technical objective of the test was to contribute to the understanding of fuel and control rod behavior, aerosol and hydrogen generation, and fission product release and transport during a high-temperature, severe fuel damage transient. A test bundle, comprised of 26 previously irradiated (36,000 MWd/MtU) pressurized water-reactor-type fuel rods, 2 fresh instrumented fuel rods, and 4 silver-indium-cadmium control rods, was surrounded by an insulating shroud and contained in a pressurized in-pile tube. The experiment consisted of a 1.3-h transient at a coolant pressure of 6.95 MPa in which the inlet coolant flow to the bundle was reduced to 0.6 g/s while the bundle fission power was gradually increased until dryout, heatup, cladding rupture, and oxidation occurred. With sustained fission power and heat from oxidation, temperatures continued to rise rapidly, resulting in zircaloy and control rod absorber alloy melting, fuel liquefaction, material relocation, and the release of hydrogen, aerosols, and fission products. The transient was terminated over a 2100-s time span by slowly reducing the reactor power and cooling the damaged bundle with argon gas. A description and evaluation of the major phenomena, based upon the response of on-line instrumentation, analysis of fission product and aerosol data, postirradiation examination of the fuel bundle, and calculations using the SCDAP/RELAP5 computer code, are presented. 40 refs., 160 figs., 31 tabs.

  14. Culture-Specific Testing: Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Non-White Concerns in Personnel and Guidance, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Contains four articles focusing on the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) and Themes Concerning Blacks (TCB). Compared use of the TAT and TCB with Black children. Used the TCB and oral history to identify values of older Black adults. Compared TCB and TAT response characteristics in Black males and females. (RC)

  15. Specific welds for test blanket modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieth, Michael; Rey, Jörg

    2009-04-01

    Fabrication and assembling test blanket modules needs a variety of different welding techniques. Therefore, an evaluation of plate joining for breeder units by tungsten-inert-gas, laser, and electron beam welding was performed by qualification of relevant mechanical properties like hardness, charpy, and creep strength. The focus was laid on the study of post-weld heat treatments at lowest possible temperatures and for maximum recovery of the joints. The most important result is that thin EUROFER plates may be welded by EB or laser techniques without the necessity of post-welding heat treatments that include an austenitization step.

  16. Design, testing, and damage tolerance study of bonded stiffened composite wing cover panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madan, Ram C.; Sutton, Jason O.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented from the application of damage tolerance criteria for composite panels to multistringer composite wing cover panels developed under NASA's Composite Transport Wing Technology Development contract. This conceptual wing design integrated aeroelastic stiffness constraints with an enhanced damage tolerance material system, in order to yield optimized producibility and structural performance. Damage tolerance was demonstrated in a test program using full-sized cover panel subcomponents; panel skins were impacted at midbay between stiffeners, directly over a stiffener, and over the stiffener flange edge. None of the impacts produced visible damage. NASTRAN analyses were performed to simulate NDI-detected invisible damage.

  17. Shuttle/Centaur G-prime composite adapters damage tolerance/repair test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sollars, Teresa A.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Shuttle/Centaur Composite Adapters Damage Tolerance/Repair Test program had as its goals the determination of probable and potentially critical defects or damages on the adapters' strength and stability, as well as the adequacy of repairs on significantly damaged areas and the generation of NDT data for the upgrading of acceptance criteria. Such rational accept/reject criteria and repair methods reduce both engineering liason costs and any unnecessary parts-scrapping. Successful 'damage tolerant' design ensures that degradations of strength and stability due to undetected defects or damage will not be catastrophic.

  18. The BITCH-100: A Culture-Specific Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert L.

    The aim of this paper is to describe the rationale and evaluation of the Black Intelligence Scale of Cultural Homogeneity (BITCH). A "culture specific" test is used to determine the taker's ability to function symbolically or to think in terms of his own culture and environment. A combination of dialect specific and culture specific tests would…

  19. Dual wavelength laser damage testing for high energy lasers.

    SciTech Connect

    Atherton, Briggs W.; Rambo, Patrick K.; Schwarz, Jens; Kimmel, Mark W.

    2010-05-01

    As high energy laser systems evolve towards higher energies, fundamental material properties such as the laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) of the optics limit the overall system performance. The Z-Backlighter Laser Facility at Sandia National Laboratories uses a pair of such kiljoule-class Nd:Phosphate Glass lasers for x-ray radiography of high energy density physics events on the Z-Accelerator. These two systems, the Z-Beamlet system operating at 527nm/ 1ns and the Z-Petawatt system operating at 1054nm/ 0.5ps, can be combined for some experimental applications. In these scenarios, dichroic beam combining optics and subsequent dual wavelength high reflectors will see a high fluence from combined simultaneous laser exposure and may even see lingering effects when used for pump-probe configurations. Only recently have researchers begun to explore such concerns, looking at individual and simultaneous exposures of optics to 1064 and third harmonic 355nm light from Nd:YAG [1]. However, to our knowledge, measurements of simultaneous and delayed dual wavelength damage thresholds on such optics have not been performed for exposure to 1054nm and its second harmonic light, especially when the pulses are of disparate pulse duration. The Z-Backlighter Facility has an instrumented damage tester setup to examine the issues of laser-induced damage thresholds in a variety of such situations [2] . Using this damage tester, we have measured the LIDT of dual wavelength high reflectors at 1054nm/0.5ps and 532nm/7ns, separately and spatially combined, both co-temporal and delayed, with single and multiple exposures. We found that the LIDT of the sample at 1054nm/0.5ps can be significantly lowered, from 1.32J/cm{sup 2} damage fluence with 1054/0.5ps only to 1.05 J/cm{sup 2} with the simultaneous presence of 532nm/7ns laser light at a fluence of 8.1 J/cm{sup 2}. This reduction of LIDT of the sample at 1054nm/0.5ps continues as the fluence of 532nm/7ns laser light simultaneously

  20. Model-Based Practice Analysis and Test Specifications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Licensure and certification decisions are usually based on a chain of inference from results of a practice analysis to test specifications, the test, examinee performance, and a pass-fail decision. This article focuses on the design of practice analyses and translation of practice analyses results into test specifications. (SLD)

  1. Subsurface damage of single crystalline silicon carbide in nanoindentation tests.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jiwang; Gai, Xiaohui; Harada, Hirofumi

    2010-11-01

    The response of single crystalline silicon carbide (SiC) to a Berkovich nanoindenter was investigated by examining the indents using a transmission electron microscope and the selected area electron diffraction technique. It was found that the depth of indentation-induced subsurface damage was far larger than the indentation depth, and the damaging mechanism of SiC was distinctly different from that of single crystalline silicon. For silicon, a broad amorphous region is formed underneath the indenter after unloading; for SiC, however, no amorphous phase was detected. Instead, a polycrystalline structure with a grain size of ten nanometer level was identified directly under the indenter tip. Micro cracks, basal plane dislocations and possible cross slips were also found around the indent. These finding provide useful information for ultraprecision manufacturing of SiC wafers. PMID:21138038

  2. Selenite induces DNA damage and specific mitochondrial degeneration in human bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Řezáčová, K; Čáňová, K; Bezrouk, A; Rudolf, E

    2016-04-01

    We have investigated the cytotoxicity and specific effects of selenite in human bladder cancer cell line RT-112 and its clonogenic variant RT-112 HB. Selenite inhibited cell growth and proliferation in both cell lines. Treated cells developed extensive vacuolization which was dose independent but occurring in differing time frames. Ultrastructure analysis revealed that the observed vacuoles are damaged mitochondria and potentially other subcellular compartments. Selenite-specific effects on mitochondria were further confirmed by mitochondrial membrane potential analysis, changes in ATP production and generation of superoxide. Simultaneously, selenite induced DNA damage in treated cells with activation of p53, PARP-1 and JNK and suppressed autophagy. Cells ultimately died via a combination of apoptosis, necrosis and a distinct type of cell death featuring "vacuolar shrinkage", loss of adherence and absence of secondary necrosis as well as other classical markers of either apoptosis or autophagy. The significant presence of so called necroptosis was also not confirmed as the specific inhibitor necrostatin-1 could not prevent cell death. These results thus confirm the toxicity of selenite in bladder cancer cells while pointing at potentially new mechanism of action of this compound in this model. PMID:26718266

  3. Differential DNA damage signalling and apoptotic threshold correlate with mouse epiblast-specific hypersensitivity to radiation.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Audrey; Blasi, Francesco

    2015-11-01

    Between implantation and gastrulation, mouse pluripotent epiblast cells expand enormously in number and exhibit a remarkable hypersensitivity to DNA damage. Upon low-dose irradiation, they undergo mitotic arrest followed by p53-dependent apoptosis, whereas the other cell types simply arrest. This protective mechanism, active exclusively after E5.5 and lost during gastrulation, ensures the elimination of every mutated cell before its clonal expansion and is therefore expected to greatly increase fitness. We show that the insurgence of apoptosis relies on the epiblast-specific convergence of both increased DNA damage signalling and stronger pro-apoptotic balance. Although upstream Atm/Atr global activity and specific γH2AX phosphorylation are similar in all cell types of the embryo, 53BP1 recruitment at DNA breaks is immediately amplified only in epiblast cells after ionizing radiation. This correlates with rapid epiblast-specific activation of p53 and its transcriptional properties. Moreover, between E5.5 and E6.5 epiblast cells lower their apoptotic threshold by enhancing the expression of pro-apoptotic Bak and Bim and repressing the anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL. Thus, even after low-dose irradiation, the cytoplasmic priming of epiblast cells allows p53 to rapidly induce apoptosis via a partially transcription-independent mechanism. PMID:26395482

  4. Precision short-pulse damage test station utilizing optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Jovanovic, I; Brown, C; Wattellier, B; Nielsen, N; Molander, W; Stuart, B; Pennington, D; Barty, C J

    2004-03-22

    The next generation of high-energy petawatt (HEPW)-class lasers will utilize multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings for pulse compression, due to their high efficiency and high damage threshold for picosecond pulses. The peak power of HEPW lasers will be determined by the aperture and damage threshold of the final dielectric grating in the pulse compressor and final focusing optics. We have developed a short-pulse damage test station for accurate determination of the damage threshold of the optics used on future HEPW lasers. Our damage test station is based on a highly stable, high-beam-quality optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier (OPCPA) operating at 1053 nm at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. We present the design of our OPCPA system pumped by a commercial Q-switched pump laser and the results of the full system characterization. Initial short-pulse damage experiments in the far field using our system have been performed.

  5. From the Cover: Specific chemical and structural damage to proteins produced by synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weik, Martin; Ravelli, Raimond B. G.; Kryger, Gitay; McSweeney, Sean; Raves, Maria L.; Harel, Michal; Gros, Piet; Silman, Israel; Kroon, Jan; Sussman, Joel L.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation damage is an inherent problem in x-ray crystallography. It usually is presumed to be nonspecific and manifested as a gradual decay in the overall quality of data obtained for a given crystal as data collection proceeds. Based on third-generation synchrotron x-ray data, collected at cryogenic temperatures, we show for the enzymes Torpedo californica acetylcholinesterase and hen egg white lysozyme that synchrotron radiation also can cause highly specific damage. Disulfide bridges break, and carboxyl groups of acidic residues lose their definition. Highly exposed carboxyls, and those in the active site of both enzymes, appear particularly susceptible. The catalytic triad residue, His-440, in acetylcholinesterase, also appears to be much more sensitive to radiation damage than other histidine residues. Our findings have direct practical implications for routine x-ray data collection at high-energy synchrotron sources. Furthermore, they provide a direct approach for studying the radiation chemistry of proteins and nucleic acids at a detailed, structural level and also may yield information concerning putative "weak links" in a given biological macromolecule, which may be of structural and functional significance.

  6. Development of electrical test procedures for qualification of spacecraft against EID. Volume 2: Review and specification of test procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkenfeld, J. M.; Harlacher, B. L.; Mathews, D.

    1982-01-01

    A combined experimental and analytical program to develop system electrical test procedures for the qualification of spacecraft against damage produced by space-electron-induced discharges (EID) occurring on spacecraft dielectric outer surfaces is described. A review and critical evaluation of possible approaches to qualify spacecraft against space electron-induced discharges (EID) is presented. A variety of possible schemes to simulate EID electromagnetic effects produced in spacecraft was studied. These techniques form the principal element of a provisional, recommended set of test procedures for the EID qualification spacecraft. Significant gaps in our knowledge about EID which impact the final specification of an electrical test to qualify spacecraft against EID are also identified.

  7. Vascular nanomedicine: Site specific delivery of elastin stabilizing therapeutics to damaged arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Aditi

    improved resistance to elastolytic digestion. We further show that the same polyphenols interact with monomeric tropoelastin released by the vascular cells and dramatically increasing their self-assembly in-vitro. In addition, we demonstrate the elastogenic ability of these polyphenols in aiding the crosslinking of tropoelastin released by aneurysmal cells converting it into mature elastin. Finally, we developed a nanoparticle system functionalized with elastin antibody on the surface that, upon systemic delivery, can recognize and bind to sites of damaged elastin in the aorta. We are able to show that this nanoparticle system works in representative animal models for MAC and AAA. These nanoparticles demonstrated spatial and functional specificity for degraded elastin. In conclusion, our work is focused on understanding the role of elastin degradation in vascular calcification and aortic aneurysms. We tested approaches to halt elastin degradation and to regenerate elastin in arteries so that homeostasis can be achieved.

  8. A ruggedness evaluation of procedures for damage threshold testing optical materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Matthew W.; Thomas, Milfred E.; Wise, Stephanie A.; Tappan, Nina D.

    1995-01-01

    A ruggedness evaluation of approaches to damage threshold testing was performed to determine the influence of three procedural variables on damage threshold data. The differences between the number of test sites evaluated at an applied fluence level (1 site versus 10 sites), the number of laser pulses at each test site (1 pulse versus 200 pulses), and the beam diameter (0.35 mm versus 0.70 mm) were all found to significantly influence the damage threshold data over a 99-percent confidence interval.

  9. Interpretation of the Superpave IDT strength test using a viscoelastic-damage constitutive model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onifade, Ibrahim; Balieu, Romain; Birgisson, Bjorn

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a new interpretation for the Superpave IDT strength test based on a viscoelastic-damage framework. The framework is based on continuum damage mechanics and the thermodynamics of irreversible processes with an anisotropic damage representation. The new approach introduces considerations for the viscoelastic effects and the damage accumulation that accompanies the fracture process in the interpretation of the Superpave IDT strength test for the identification of the Dissipated Creep Strain Energy (DCSE) limit from the test result. The viscoelastic model is implemented in a Finite Element Method (FEM) program for the simulation of the Superpave IDT strength test. The DCSE values obtained using the new approach is compared with the values obtained using the conventional approach to evaluate the validity of the assumptions made in the conventional interpretation of the test results. The result shows that the conventional approach over-estimates the DCSE value with increasing estimation error at higher deformation rates.

  10. Interpretation of the Superpave IDT strength test using a viscoelastic-damage constitutive model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onifade, Ibrahim; Balieu, Romain; Birgisson, Bjorn

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a new interpretation for the Superpave IDT strength test based on a viscoelastic-damage framework. The framework is based on continuum damage mechanics and the thermodynamics of irreversible processes with an anisotropic damage representation. The new approach introduces considerations for the viscoelastic effects and the damage accumulation that accompanies the fracture process in the interpretation of the Superpave IDT strength test for the identification of the Dissipated Creep Strain Energy (DCSE) limit from the test result. The viscoelastic model is implemented in a Finite Element Method (FEM) program for the simulation of the Superpave IDT strength test. The DCSE values obtained using the new approach is compared with the values obtained using the conventional approach to evaluate the validity of the assumptions made in the conventional interpretation of the test results. The result shows that the conventional approach over-estimates the DCSE value with increasing estimation error at higher deformation rates.

  11. Liver-specific microRNAs as biomarkers of nanomaterial-induced liver damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagano, Takashi; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Kunieda, Akiyoshi; Iwahara, Yuki; Tanaka, Kota; Nagano, Kazuya; Abe, Yasuhiro; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Yoshikawa, Tomoaki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2013-10-01

    Although nanomaterials are being used in various fields, their safety is not yet sufficiently understood. We have been attempting to establish a nanomaterials safety-assessment system by using biomarkers to predict nanomaterial-induced adverse biological effects. Here, we focused on microRNAs (miRNAs) because of their tissue-specific expression and high degree of stability in the blood. We previously showed that high intravenous doses of silica nanoparticles of 70 nm diameter (nSP70) induced liver damage in mice. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of serum levels of liver-specific or -enriched miRNAs (miR-122, miR-192, and miR-194) with that of conventional hepatic biomarkers (alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)) as biomarkers for nSP70. After mice had been treated with nSP70, their serum miRNAs levels were measured by using quantitative RT-PCR. Serum levels of miR-122 in nSP70-treated mice were the highest among the three miRNAs. The sensitivity of miR-122 for liver damage was at least as good as those of ALT and AST. Like ALT and AST, miR-122 may be a useful biomarker of nSP70. We believe that these findings will help in the establishment of a nanomaterials safety-assessment system.

  12. 46 CFR 91.20-20 - Specific tests and inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CFR 95.15-15. For clean agent fire extinguishing piping, see 46 CFR 95.16-15. (c) For inspection... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Initial Inspection § 91.20-20 Specific tests and inspections. The applicable..., the following specific tests and inspections shall be made by the inspector. (a) For...

  13. 46 CFR 91.20-20 - Specific tests and inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CFR 95.15-15. For clean agent fire extinguishing piping, see 46 CFR 95.16-15. (c) For inspection... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Initial Inspection § 91.20-20 Specific tests and inspections. The applicable..., the following specific tests and inspections shall be made by the inspector. (a) For...

  14. 46 CFR 91.20-20 - Specific tests and inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CFR 95.15-15. For clean agent fire extinguishing piping, see 46 CFR 95.16-15. (c) For inspection... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Initial Inspection § 91.20-20 Specific tests and inspections. The applicable..., the following specific tests and inspections shall be made by the inspector. (a) For...

  15. Development of a Program Specific Locator Test. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benn, Robert J.

    A project was undertaken to develop a series of program-specific vocational locator tests (PSVLTs) that would consist of subject-specific questions in three academic disciplines--writing, reading, and mathematics--for use in predicting vocational students' success in their vocational programs. As a prelude to constructing the tests, project staff…

  16. Prostate-specific antigen testing accuracy in community practice

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Richard M; Gilliland, Frank D; Adams-Cameron, Meg; Hunt, William C; Key, Charles R

    2002-01-01

    Background Most data on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing come from urologic cohorts comprised of volunteers for screening programs. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of PSA testing for detecting prostate cancer in community practice. Methods PSA testing results were compared with a reference standard of prostate biopsy. Subjects were 2,620 men 40 years and older undergoing (PSA) testing and biopsy from 1/1/95 through 12/31/98 in the Albuquerque, New Mexico metropolitan area. Diagnostic measures included the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios. Results Cancer was detected in 930 subjects (35%). The area under the ROC curve was 0.67 and the PSA cutpoint of 4 ng/ml had a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 33%. The likelihood ratio for a positive test (LR+) was 1.28 and 0.42 for a negative test (LR-). PSA testing was most sensitive (90%) but least specific (27%) in older men. Age-specific reference ranges improved specificity in older men (49%) but decreased sensitivity (70%), with an LR+ of 1.38. Lowering the PSA cutpoint to 2 ng/ml resulted in a sensitivity of 95%, a specificity of 20%, and an LR+ of 1.19. Conclusions PSA testing had fair discriminating power for detecting prostate cancer in community practice. The PSA cutpoint of 4 ng/ml was sensitive but relatively non-specific and associated likelihood ratios only moderately revised probabilities for cancer. Using age-specific reference ranges and a PSA cutpoint below 4 ng/ml improved test specificity and sensitivity, respectively, but did not improve the overall accuracy of PSA testing. PMID:12398793

  17. Precision damage tests of multilayer dielectric gratings for high-energy petawatt lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Jovanovic, I; Brown, C G; Stuart, B C; Molander, W; Nielsen, N; Wattellier, B; Britten, J; Pennington, D M; Barty, C J

    2004-11-08

    The next generation of high-energy petawatt (HEPW)-class lasers will utilize multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings for pulse compression due to their high efficiency and high damage threshold for picosecond pulses. We have developed a short-pulse damage test station for accurate determination of the damage threshold of the optics used on future HEPW lasers. The design and performance of the damage test laser source, based on a highly stable, high-beam-quality optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier, is presented. Our short-pulse damage measurement methodology and results are discussed. The damage initiation is attributed to multiphoton-induced avalanche ionization, strongly dependent on the electric field enhancement in the grating groove structure and surface defects. Measurement results of the dependence of damage threshold on the pulse width, angular dependence of damage threshold of diffraction gratings, and an investigation of short-pulse conditioning effects are presented. We report record >4 J/cm{sup 2} right section surface damage thresholds obtained on multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings at 76.5 incidence angles for 10-ps pulses.

  18. Laser Damage Testing of Small Optics for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, R; Runkel, M; Taylor, J R

    2004-01-24

    A damage test procedure was established for optical components that have large incident beam footprints. The procedure was applied on coated samples for a high powered 1053 nm, 3-ns pulse length laser system.

  19. Laser damage testing of small optics for the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, Robert; Runkel, Mike; Taylor, John R

    2005-06-10

    A damage test procedure was established for optical components that have large incident beam footprints. The procedure was applied on coated samples for a high-powered 1053-nm, 3-ns pulse-length laser system.

  20. Ground vibration tests of a high fidelity truss for verification of on orbit damage location techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashangaki, Thomas A. L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a series of modal tests that were performed on a cantilevered truss structure. The goal of the tests was to assemble a large database of high quality modal test data for use in verification of proposed methods for on orbit model verification and damage detection in flexible truss structures. A description of the hardware is provided along with details of the experimental setup and procedures for 16 damage cases. Results from selected cases are presented and discussed. Differences between ground vibration testing and on orbit modal testing are also described.

  1. The BITCH-100: A Culture-Specific Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert L.

    1975-01-01

    A description of the rationale and the development of the BITCH-100 (Black Intelligence Test of Cultural Homogeneity), a culture specific test for the American black population. Experimental evidence is reported on the norming and validation of this instrument and suggestions made as to potential advantages over the traditional testing approach as…

  2. A Ratio Test of Interrater Agreement with High Specificity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cousineau, Denis; Laurencelle, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Existing tests of interrater agreements have high statistical power; however, they lack specificity. If the ratings of the two raters do not show agreement but are not random, the current tests, some of which are based on Cohen's kappa, will often reject the null hypothesis, leading to the wrong conclusion that agreement is present. A new test of…

  3. Classroom Test Construction: The Power of a Table of Specifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fives, Helenrose; DiDonato-Barnes, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Classroom tests provide teachers with essential information used to make decisions about instruction and student grades. A table of specification (TOS) can be used to help teachers frame the decision making process of test construction and improve the validity of teachers' evaluations based on tests constructed for classroom use. In this article…

  4. Full-length high-temperature severe fuel damage test No. 2. Final safety analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hesson, G.M.; Lombardo, N.J.; Pilger, J.P.; Rausch, W.N.; King, L.L.; Hurley, D.E.; Parchen, L.J.; Panisko, F.E.

    1993-09-01

    Hazardous conditions associated with performing the Full-Length High- Temperature (FLHT). Severe Fuel Damage Test No. 2 experiment have been analyzed. Major hazards that could cause harm or damage are (1) radioactive fission products, (2) radiation fields, (3) reactivity changes, (4) hydrogen generation, (5) materials at high temperature, (6) steam explosion, and (7) steam pressure pulse. As a result of this analysis, it is concluded that with proper precautions the FLHT- 2 test can be safely conducted.

  5. Roller Testing to Mimic Damage of the ISS SARJ Ring and Durability Test to Simulate Fifteen Years of SARJ Operation Using the Damaged Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krantz, Timothy L.; Elchert, Justin P.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Dube, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station's starboard Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) experienced a breakdown of the joint's race ring surface. The starboard SARJ mechanism was cleaned and lubricated with grease. To provide some guidance on the expected behavior of the damaged SARJ ring with continued operations, experiments were conducted using rollers and a vacuum roller test rig. The approach of the experimental work involved three main steps: (1) initiate damage using conditions representative of the SARJ with inadequate lubrication; (2) propagate the damage by operating the test rollers without lubrication; and (3) assess the durability of the roller by testing to simulate the equivalent of 15 years of SARJ operation on the damaged surface assuming adequate grease lubrication. During the rig testing, additional and/or replacement grease was introduced at regular intervals to maintain good lubrication in the rig. The damage to the nitride layer continued even after application of grease. The grease lubrication proved to be effective for limiting the value of the axial force that can be developed. Limiting the axial force on the SARJ mechanism is important since the larger the axial force the more concentrated the load pressure becomes on the blend-radius location on the SARJ roller. After the testing simulating 15 years of SARJ operations, the wear depths were the order of 0.2 mm for the nitrided 15-5 roller and the order of 0.06 mm for the mating 440C roller. Metallographic inspections were done to search for indications of impending fatigue or other fracture indications that might eventually propagate and cause structural failure. There were no indications or features found that could eventually compromise structural integrity.

  6. Simple go/no-go test for subcritical damage in body armor panels

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Jason; Chimenti, D. E.

    2011-06-23

    The development of a simple test for subcritical damage in body armor panels using pressure-sensitive dye-indicator film has been performed and demonstrated effective. Measurements have shown that static indicator levels are accurately reproduced in dynamic loading events. Impacts from hard blunt impactors instrumented with an accelerometer and embedded force transducer were studied. Reliable correlations between the indicator film and instrumented impact force are shown for a range of impact energies. Force and acceleration waveforms with corresponding indicator film results are presented for impact events onto damaged and undamaged panels. We find that panel damage can occur at impact levels far below the National Institute of Justice acceptance test standard.

  7. Aging, Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA), and high potential testing of damaged cables

    SciTech Connect

    Vigil, R.A.; Jacobus, M.J.

    1994-04-01

    Experiments were conducted to assess the effects of high potential testing of cables and to assess the survivability of aged and damaged cables under Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) conditions. High potential testing at 240 Vdc/mil on undamaged cables suggested that no damage was incurred on the selected virgin cables. During aging and LOCA testing, Okonite ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) cables with a bonded jacket experienced unexpected failures. The failures appear to be primarily related to the level of thermal aging and the presence of a bonded jacket that ages more rapidly than the insulation. For Brand Rex crosslinked polyolefin (XLPO) cables, the results suggest that 7 mils of insulation remaining should give the cables a high probability of surviving accident exposure following aging. The voltage necessary to detect when 7 mils of insulation remain on unaged Brand Rex cables is approximately 35 kVdc. This voltage level would almost certainly be unacceptable to a utility for use as a damage assessment tool. However, additional tests indicated that a 35 kvdc voltage application would not damage virgin Brand Rex cables when tested in water. Although two damaged Rockbestos silicone rubber cables also failed during the accident test, no correlation between failures and level of damage was apparent.

  8. Developmental stage- and DNA damage-specific functions of C. elegans FANCD2

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kyong Yun; Yang, Insil; Park, Jung-Eun; Baek, Ok-Ryun; Chung, Kee Yang; Koo, Hyeon-Sook . E-mail: kooh@yonsei.ac.kr

    2007-01-12

    In this study, we set out to investigate the role of Fanconi anemia complementation group D2 protein (FANCD2) in developmental stage-specific DNA damage responses in Caenorhabditis elegans. A mutant C. elegans strain containing a deletion in the gene encoding the FANCD2 homolog, FCD-2, exhibited egg-laying defects, precocious oogenesis, and partial defects in fertilization. The mutant strain also had a lower hatching rate than the wild-type after {gamma}-irradiation of embryos, but not after the irradiation of pachytene stage germ cells. This mutation sensitized pachytene stage germ cells to the genotoxic effects of photoactivated psoralen, as seen by a greatly reduced hatching rate and increased chromosomal aberrations. This mutation also enhanced physiological M-phase arrest and apoptosis. Taken together, our data reveal that the C. elegans FANCD2 homolog participates in the repair of spontaneous DNA damage and DNA crosslinks, not only in proliferating cells but also in pachytene stage cells, and it may have an additional role in double-stranded DNA break repair during embryogenesis.

  9. Myelin Basic Protein Induces Neuron-Specific Toxicity by Directly Damaging the Neuronal Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Sixin; Liu, Xiao; Jin, Jinghua; Ren, Yi; Luo, Jianhong

    2014-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) insults may cause massive demyelination and lead to the release of myelin-associated proteins including its major component myelin basic protein (MBP). MBP is reported to induce glial activation but its effect on neurons is still little known. Here we found that MBP specifically bound to the extracellular surface of the neuronal plasma membrane and induced neurotoxicity in vitro. This effect of MBP on neurons was basicity-dependent because the binding was blocked by acidic lipids and competed by other basic proteins. Further studies revealed that MBP induced damage to neuronal membrane integrity and function by depolarizing the resting membrane potential, increasing the permeability to cations and other molecules, and decreasing the membrane fluidity. At last, artificial liposome vesicle assay showed that MBP directly disturbed acidic lipid bilayer and resulted in increased membrane permeability. These results revealed that MBP induces neurotoxicity through its direct interaction with acidic components on the extracellular surface of neuronal membrane, which may suggest a possible contribution of MBP to the pathogenesis in the CNS disorders with myelin damage. PMID:25255088

  10. ASCIZ regulates lesion-specific Rad51 focus formation and apoptosis after methylating DNA damage.

    PubMed

    McNees, Carolyn J; Conlan, Lindus A; Tenis, Nora; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2005-07-01

    Nuclear Rad51 focus formation is required for homology-directed repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), but its regulation in response to non-DSB lesions is poorly understood. Here we report a novel human SQ/TQ cluster domain-containing protein termed ASCIZ that forms Rad51-containing foci in response to base-modifying DNA methylating agents but not in response to DSB-inducing agents. ASCIZ foci seem to form prior to Rad51 recruitment, and an ASCIZ core domain can concentrate Rad51 in focus-like structures independently of DNA damage. ASCIZ depletion dramatically increases apoptosis after methylating DNA damage and impairs Rad51 focus formation in response to methylating agents but not after ionizing radiation. ASCIZ focus formation and increased apoptosis in ASCIZ-depleted cells depend on the mismatch repair protein MLH1. Interestingly, ASCIZ foci form efficiently during G1 phase, when sister chromatids are unavailable as recombination templates. We propose that ASCIZ acts as a lesion-specific focus scaffold in a Rad51-dependent pathway that resolves cytotoxic repair intermediates, most likely single-stranded DNA gaps, resulting from MLH1-dependent processing of base lesions. PMID:15933716

  11. ASCIZ regulates lesion-specific Rad51 focus formation and apoptosis after methylating DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    McNees, Carolyn J; Conlan, Lindus A; Tenis, Nora; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear Rad51 focus formation is required for homology-directed repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), but its regulation in response to non-DSB lesions is poorly understood. Here we report a novel human SQ/TQ cluster domain-containing protein termed ASCIZ that forms Rad51-containing foci in response to base-modifying DNA methylating agents but not in response to DSB-inducing agents. ASCIZ foci seem to form prior to Rad51 recruitment, and an ASCIZ core domain can concentrate Rad51 in focus-like structures independently of DNA damage. ASCIZ depletion dramatically increases apoptosis after methylating DNA damage and impairs Rad51 focus formation in response to methylating agents but not after ionizing radiation. ASCIZ focus formation and increased apoptosis in ASCIZ-depleted cells depend on the mismatch repair protein MLH1. Interestingly, ASCIZ foci form efficiently during G1 phase, when sister chromatids are unavailable as recombination templates. We propose that ASCIZ acts as a lesion-specific focus scaffold in a Rad51-dependent pathway that resolves cytotoxic repair intermediates, most likely single-stranded DNA gaps, resulting from MLH1-dependent processing of base lesions. PMID:15933716

  12. Evaluating damage potential of cryogenic concrete using acoustic emission sensors and permeability testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogbara, Reginald B.; Parsaei, Boback; Iyengar, Srinath R.; Grasley, Zachary C.; Masad, Eyad A.; Zollinger, Dan G.

    2014-04-01

    This study evaluates the damage potential of concrete of different mix designs subjected to cryogenic temperatures, using acoustic emission (AE) and permeability testing. The aim is to investigate design methodologies that might be employed to produce concrete that resists damage when cooled to cryogenic temperatures. Such concrete would be suitable for primary containment of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and could replace currently used 9% Ni steel, thereby leading to huge cost savings. In the experiments described, concrete cubes, 150 mm x 150 mm x 150 mm, were cast using four different mix designs. The four mixes employed siliceous river sand as fine aggregate. Moreover, limestone, sandstone, trap rock and lightweight aggregate were individually used as coarse aggregates in the mixes. The concrete samples were then cooled from room temperature (20°C) to cryogenic temperature (-165°C) in a temperature chamber. AE sensors were placed on the concrete cubes during the cryogenic freezing process. The damage potential was evaluated in terms of the growth of damage as determined from AE, as a function of temperature and concrete mixture design. The damage potential observed was validated with water permeability testing. Initial results demonstrate the effects of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the aggregates on damage growth. Concrete damage (cracking) resistance generally decreased with increasing coarse aggregate CTE, and was in the order, limestone ≥ trap rock << lightweight aggregate ≥ sandstone. Work is in progress to fully understand thermal dilation and damage growth in concrete due to differential CTE of its components.

  13. Image dissector photocathode solar damage test program. [solar radiation shielding using a fast optical lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    Image dissector sensors of the same type which will be used in the NASA shuttle star tracker were used in a series of tests directed towards obtaining solar radiation/time damage criteria. Data were evaluated to determine the predicted level of operability of the star tracker if tube damage became a reality. During the test series a technique for reducing the solar damage effect was conceived and verified. The damage concepts are outlined and the test methods and data obtained which were used for verification of the technique's feasibility are presented. The ability to operate an image dissector sensor with the solar image focussed on the photocathode by a fast optical lens under certain conditions is feasible and the elimination of a mechanical protection device is possible.

  14. Site-specific AGE modifications in the ECM: a role for glyoxal in protein damage in diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Voziyan, Paul; Brown, Kyle L.; Chetyrkin, Sergei; Hudson, Billy

    2014-01-01

    Non-enzymatic modification of proteins in hyperglycemia is a major proposed mechanism of diabetic complications. Specifically, advanced glycation end products (AGEs) derived from hyperglycemia-induced reactive carbonyl species (RCS) can have pathogenic consequences when they target functionally critical protein residues. Modification of a small number of these critical residues, often undetectable by the methodologies relying on measurements of total AGE levels, can cause significant functional damage. Therefore, detection of specific sites of protein damage in diabetes is central to understanding molecular basis of diabetic complications and for identification of biomarkers which are mechanistically linked to the disease. The current paradigm of RCS-derived protein damage places the major focus on methylglyoxal (MGO), an intermediate of cellular glycolysis. We propose that glyoxal (GO) is a major contributor to extracellular matrix (ECM) damage in diabetes. Here, we review the current knowledge and provide new data about GO-derived site-specific ECM modification in experimental diabetes. PMID:23492568

  15. Evaluation of Creep-Fatigue Damage Based on Simplified Model Test Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yanli; Li, Tianlei; Sham, Sam; Jetter, Robert I

    2013-01-01

    Current methods used in the ASME Code, Subsection NH for the evaluation of creep-fatigue damage are based on the separation of elevated temperature cyclic damage into two parts, creep damage and fatigue damage. This presents difficulties in both evaluation of test data and determination of cyclic damage in design. To avoid these difficulties, an alternative approach was identified, called the Simplified Model Test or SMT approach based on the use of creep-fatigue hold time test data from test specimens with elastic follow-up conservatively designed to bound the response of general structural components of interest. A key feature of the methodology is the use of the results of elastic analysis directly in design evaluation similar to current methods in the ASME Code, Subsection NB. Although originally developed for current material included in Subsection NH, recent interest in the application of Alloy 617 for components operating at very high temperatures has caused renewed interest in the SMT approach because it provides an alternative to the proposed restriction on the use of current Subsection NH simplified methods at very high temperatures. A comprehensive review and assessment of five representative simplified methods for creep-fatigue damage evaluation is presented in Asayama [1]. In this review the SMT methodology was identified as the best long term approach but the need for test data precluded its near term implementation. Asayama and Jetter [2] is a summary of the more comprehensive report by Asayama [1] with a summary of the SMT approach presented by Jetter [3].

  16. Specific fitness training and testing in competitive sports.

    PubMed

    Müller, E; Benko, U; Raschner, C; Schwameder, H

    2000-01-01

    Improvements of athletic capacity in high-performance sport are mainly achieved through an increase of the quality of training. In physical preparation, the quality of training can be improved by developing highly specific means of training. The aim of this paper is to present three examples of how highly specific means of fitness training of world class athletes can be developed. The first example presents a test profile of specific motor abilities of top class tennis players, the second one deals with the improvement of specific strength training methods for ski jumpers, and the third deals with the development of specific training devices of Alpine ski racers. PMID:10647552

  17. Cumulative-strain-damage model of ductile fracture: simulation and prediction of engineering fracture tests

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, M.L.; Streit, R.D.; Reaugh, J.E.

    1980-10-03

    A cumulative-strain-damage criterion is used to predict the initiation and propagation of fracture in ductile materials. The model is consistent with a model of ductile rupture that involves void growth and coalescence. Two- and three-dimensional finite difference computer codes, which use incremental-plasticity theory to describe large strains with rotation, are used to trace the history of damage in a material due to external forces. Fracture begins when the damage exceeds a critical value over a critical distance and proceeds as the critical-damage state is reached elsewhere. This unified approach to failure prediction can be applied to an arbitrary geometry if the material behavior has been adequately characterized. The damage function must be calibrated for a particular material using various material property tests. The fracture toughness of 6061-T651 aluminum is predicted.

  18. Structural and Mutational Analysis of Escherichia coli AlkB Provides Insight into Substrate Specificity and DNA Damage Searching

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, P.; Hollis, T

    2010-01-01

    In Escherichia coli, cytotoxic DNA methyl lesions on the N1 position of purines and N3 position of pyrimidines are primarily repaired by the 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) iron(II) dependent dioxygenase, AlkB. AlkB repairs 1-methyladenine (1-meA) and 3-methylcytosine (3-meC) lesions, but it also repairs 1-methylguanine (1-meG) and 3-methylthymine (3-meT) at a much less efficient rate. How the AlkB enzyme is able to locate and identify methylated bases in ssDNA has remained an open question. We determined the crystal structures of the E. coli AlkB protein holoenzyme and the AlkB-ssDNA complex containing a 1-meG lesion. We coupled this to site-directed mutagenesis of amino acids in and around the active site, and tested the effects of these mutations on the ability of the protein to bind both damaged and undamaged DNA, as well as catalyze repair of a methylated substrate. A comparison of our substrate-bound AlkB-ssDNA complex with our unliganded holoenzyme reveals conformational changes of residues within the active site that are important for binding damaged bases. Site-directed mutagenesis of these residues reveals novel insight into their roles in DNA damage recognition and repair. Our data support a model that the AlkB protein utilizes at least two distinct conformations in searching and binding methylated bases within DNA: a 'searching' mode and 'repair' mode. Moreover, we are able to functionally separate these modes through mutagenesis of residues that affect one or the other binding state. Finally, our mutagenesis experiments show that amino acid D135 of AlkB participates in both substrate specificity and catalysis.

  19. Automated damage test facilities for materials development and production optic quality assurance at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Battersby, C; Dickson, R; Jennings, R; Kimmons, J; Kozlowski, M R; Maricle, S; Mouser, R; Runkel, M; Schwartz, S; Sheehan, L M; Weinzapfel, C

    1998-12-22

    The Laser Program at LLNL has developed automated facilities for damage testing optics up to 1 meter in diameter. The systems were developed to characterize the statistical distribution of localized damage performance across large-aperture National Ignition Facility optics. Full aperture testing is a key component of the quality assurance program for several of the optical components. The primary damage testing methods used are R:1 mapping and raster scanning. Automation of these test methods was required to meet the optics manufacturing schedule. The automated activities include control and diagnosis of the damage-test laser beam as well as detection and characterization of damage events.

  20. 46 CFR 126.350 - Specific tests and inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Initial Inspection § 126.350 Specific tests and inspections. (a) The applicable tests and inspections set forth in subpart D of this part must be made during the initial inspection. (b) The...

  1. 46 CFR 126.350 - Specific tests and inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Initial Inspection § 126.350 Specific tests and inspections. (a) The applicable tests and inspections set forth in subpart D of this part must be made during the initial inspection. (b) The...

  2. 46 CFR 126.350 - Specific tests and inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Initial Inspection § 126.350 Specific tests and inspections. (a) The applicable tests and inspections set forth in subpart D of this part must be made during the initial inspection. (b) The...

  3. 46 CFR 126.350 - Specific tests and inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Initial Inspection § 126.350 Specific tests and inspections. (a) The applicable tests and inspections set forth in subpart D of this part must be made during the initial inspection. (b) The...

  4. 46 CFR 126.350 - Specific tests and inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Initial Inspection § 126.350 Specific tests and inspections. (a) The applicable tests and inspections set forth in subpart D of this part must be made during the initial inspection. (b) The...

  5. Locating Damaged Members in a Truss Structure Using Modal Test Data: a Demonstration Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Suzanne Weaver; Mcgowan, Paul E.

    1989-01-01

    On-orbit assessment of large flexible space truss structures can be accomplished, in principle, with dynamic response information, structural identification methods, and model correlation techniques which produce an adjusted mathematical model. In a previously developed approach for damage location, an optimal update of the structure model is formed using the response data, then examined to locate damaged members. An experiment designed to demonstrate and verify the performance of the on-orbit assessment approach uses a laboratory scale model truss structure which exhibits characteristics expected for large space truss structures. Vibration experiments were performed to generate response data for the damaged truss. The damage location approach, analytical work performed in support of the vibration tests, the measured response of the test article, and some preliminary results are described.

  6. 5. "TEST STAND 13, CONCRETE STRUCTURAL SECTIONS AND DETAILS." Specifications ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. "TEST STAND 1-3, CONCRETE STRUCTURAL SECTIONS AND DETAILS." Specifications No. OC12-50-10; Drawing No. 60-09-06; no sheet number within title block. D.O. SERIES 1109/17, Rev. A. Stamped: AS BUILT; NO CHANGES. Date of Revision A: 11/1/50. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-3, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  7. 9. "TEST STAND; STRUCTURAL; CABLE TUNNEL, PLAN, SECTIONS, DETAILS." Specifications ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. "TEST STAND; STRUCTURAL; CABLE TUNNEL, PLAN, SECTIONS, DETAILS." Specifications No. OC1-55-72-(Rev.); Drawing No. 60-09-12; sheet 43 of 148; file no. AF 1320/94, Rev. A. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, no change. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  8. 8. "TEST STAND, ARCHITECTURAL, FLOOR PLANS AND SCHEDULES." Specifications No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. "TEST STAND, ARCHITECTURAL, FLOOR PLANS AND SCHEDULES." Specifications No. ENG-04-353-55-72; Drawing No. 60-0912; sheet 22 of 148; file no. 1320/73. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, no change. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A Terminal Room, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  9. Nondestructive determination of fatigue crack damage in composites using vibration tests.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dibenedetto, A. T.; Gauchel, J. V.; Thomas, R. L.; Barlow, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The vibration response of glass reinforced epoxy and polyester laminates was investigated. The complex modulus and the damping capacity were measured as fatigue crack damage accumulated. Changes in the Young's modulus as well as the damping capacity correlated with the amount of crack damage. The damping was especially sensitive to debonding of the reinforcement from the resin matrix. Measurement of these vibration response changes shows promise as a means to nondestructively test the structural integrity of filament-reinforced composite structural members.

  10. Testing and numerical modeling of hypervelocity impact damaged Space Station multilayer insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rule, William K.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented of experiments measuring the degradation of the insulating capabilities of the multilayer insulation (MLI) of the Space Station Freedom, when subjected to hypervelocity impact damage. A simple numerical model was developed for use in an engineering design environment for quick assessment of thermal effect of the impact. The model was validated using results from thermal vacuum tests on MLI with simulated damage. The numerical model results agreed with experimental data.

  11. Item Specifications, Science Grade 8. Blue Prints for Testing Minimum Performance Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    These item specifications were developed as a part of the Arkansas "Minimum Performance Testing Program" (MPT). There is one item specification for each instructional objective included in the MPT. The purpose of an item specification is to provide an overview of the general content and format of test items used to measure an instructional…

  12. Item Specifications, Science Grade 6. Blue Prints for Testing Minimum Performance Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    These item specifications were developed as a part of the Arkansas "Minimum Performance Testing Program" (MPT). There is one item specification for each instructional objective included in the MPT. The purpose of an item specification is to provide an overview of the general content and format of test items used to measure an instructional…

  13. Minimum Performance Test: Reading Grade 3, Item Specifications. Blue Prints for Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    Developed as part of the Arkansas Minimum Performance Testing Program (MPT), these item specifications relate to the third grade reading minimum performance test. There is one item specification for each instructional objective included in the MPT. Item specifications are intended to provide an overview of the general content and format of test…

  14. Assessing a Critical Aspect of Construct Continuity when Test Specifications Change or Test Forms Deviate from Specifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jinghua; Dorans, Neil J.

    2013-01-01

    We make a distinction between two types of test changes: inevitable deviations from specifications versus planned modifications of specifications. We describe how score equity assessment (SEA) can be used as a tool to assess a critical aspect of construct continuity, the equivalence of scores, whenever planned changes are introduced to testing…

  15. Eulerian laser Doppler vibrometry: Online blade damage identification on a multi-blade test rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberholster, A. J.; Heyns, P. S.

    2011-01-01

    Laser Doppler vibrometry enables the telemetry-free measurement of online turbomachinery blade vibration. Specifically, the Eulerian or fixed reference frame implementation of laser vibrometry provides a practical solution to the condition monitoring of rotating blades. The short data samples that are characteristic of this measurement approach do however negate the use of traditional frequency domain signal processing techniques. It is therefore necessary to employ techniques such as time domain analysis and non-harmonic Fourier analysis to obtain useful information from the blade vibration signatures. The latter analysis technique allows the calculation of phase angle trends which can be used as indicators of blade health deterioration, as has been shown in previous work for a single-blade rotor. This article presents the results from tests conducted on a five-blade axial-flow test rotor at different rotor speeds and measurement positions. With the aid of artificial neural networks, it is demonstrated that the parameters obtained from non-harmonic Fourier analysis and time domain signal processing on Eulerian laser Doppler vibrometry signals can successfully be used to identify and quantify blade damage from among healthy blades. It is also shown that the natural frequencies of individual blades can be approximated from the Eulerian signatures recorded during rotor run-up and run-down.

  16. 3. "TEST STAND NO. 13, EXCAVATION PLAN & SECTIONS." Specifications ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. "TEST STAND NO. 1-3, EXCAVATION PLAN & SECTIONS." Specifications No. ENG 04-353-50-10; Drawing No. 60-0906; no sheet number within title block; D.O. SERIES 1109/10. Stamped: AS BUILT. No revisions or revision dates. Last work date on this drawing "Checked by EAG, 1/31/49." Though this drawing is specific to Test Stand 1-3, it also illustrates the general methods used for excavation design and retaining wall construction at Test Stand 1-5. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-3, Test Area 1-115, northwest end of Saturn Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  17. A high accuracy femto-/picosecond laser damage test facility dedicated to the study of optical thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Mangote, B.; Gallais, L.; Zerrad, M.; Lemarchand, F.; Gao, L. H.; Commandre, M.; Lequime, M.

    2012-01-15

    A laser damage test facility delivering pulses from 100 fs to 3 ps and designed to operate at 1030 nm is presented. The different details of its implementation and performances are given. The originality of this system relies the online damage detection system based on Nomarski microscopy and the use of a non-conventional energy detection method based on the utilization of a cooled CCD that offers the possibility to obtain the laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) with high accuracy. Applications of this instrument to study thin films under laser irradiation are presented. Particularly the deterministic behavior of the sub-picosecond damage is investigated in the case of fused silica and oxide films. It is demonstrated that the transition of 0-1 damage probability is very sharp and the LIDT is perfectly deterministic at few hundreds of femtoseconds. The damage process in dielectric materials being the results of electronic processes, specific information such as the material bandgap is needed for the interpretation of results and applications of scaling laws. A review of the different approaches for the estimation of the absorption gap of optical dielectric coatings is conducted and the results given by the different methods are compared and discussed. The LIDT and gap of several oxide materials are then measured with the presented instrument: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, HfO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}, Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and ZrO{sub 2}. The obtained relation between the LIDT and gap at 1030 nm confirms the linear evolution of the threshold with the bandgap that exists at 800 nm, and our work expands the number of tested materials.

  18. A Statistical Approach to Establishing Subsystem Environmental Test Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keegan, W. B.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented of a research task to evaluate structural responses at various subsystem mounting locations during spacecraft level test exposures to the environments of mechanical shock, acoustic noise, and random vibration. This statistical evaluation is presented in the form of recommended subsystem test specifications for these three environments as normalized to a reference set of spacecraft test levels and are thus suitable for extrapolation to a set of different spacecraft test levels. The recommendations are dependent upon a subsystem's mounting location in a spacecraft, and information is presented on how to determine this mounting zone for a given subsystem.

  19. Evaluation of damage models by finite element prediction of fracture in cylindrical tensile test.

    PubMed

    Eom, Jaegun; Kim, Mincheol; Lee, Seongwon; Ryu, Hoyeun; Joun, Mansoo

    2014-10-01

    In this research, tensile tests of cylindrical specimens of a mild steel are predicted via the finite element method, with emphasis on the fracture predictions of various damage models. An analytical model is introduced for this purpose. An iterative material identification procedure is used to obtain the flow stress, making it possible to exactly predict a tensile test up to the fracture point, in the engineering sense. A node-splitting technique is used to generate the cracks on the damaged elements. The damage models of McClintock, Rice-Tracey, Cockcroft-Latham, Freudenthal, Brozzo et al. and Oyane et al. are evaluated by comparing their predictions from the tensile test perspective. PMID:25942914

  20. Vibration testing of the I-40 bridge before and after the introduction of damage

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C.R.; Cone, K.M.

    1994-11-01

    Because the bridges over the Rio Grande were to be razed, the investigators were able to introduce simulated cracks in four stages of increasing length into the structure. This paper summarizes the results of ambient and conventional, measured-input, modal analyses, performed on the undamaged structure. Also summarized are the results of conventional modal analyses performed after each stage of damage had been introduced. These tests were intended to quantify the amount of damage necessary to produce changes in the global dynamic properties of the bridge and to form a data base that can be used by other investigators to develop damage identification algorithms. Conventional modal analysis identified changes in the global dynamic properties of the structure only after the final stage of a damage.

  1. Subsurface barrier demonstration test strategy and performance specification

    SciTech Connect

    Treat, R.L.; Cruse, J.M.

    1994-05-01

    This document was developed to help specify a major demonstration test project of subsurface barrier systems supporting the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program. The document focuses discussion on requirements applicable to demonstration of three subsurface barrier concepts: (1) Injected Material, (2) Cryogenic, and (3) Desiccant. Detailed requirements are provided for initial qualification of a technology proposal followed by the pre-demonstration and demonstration test requirements and specifications. Each requirement and specification is accompanied by a discussion of the rationale for it. The document also includes information on the Hanford Site tank farms and related data; the related and currently active technology development projects within the DOE`s EM-50 Program; and the overall demonstration test strategy. Procurement activities and other preparations for actual demonstration testing are on hold until a decision is made regarding further development of subsurface barriers. Accordingly, this document is being issued for information only.

  2. Higher certainty of the laser-induced damage threshold test with a redistributing data treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Lars; Mrohs, Marius; Gyamfi, Mark; Mädebach, Heinrich; Ristau, Detlev

    2015-10-01

    As a consequence of its statistical nature, the measurement of the laser-induced damage threshold holds always risks to over- or underestimate the real threshold value. As one of the established measurement procedures, the results of S-on-1 (and 1-on-1) tests outlined in the corresponding ISO standard 21 254 depend on the amount of data points and their distribution over the fluence scale. With the limited space on a test sample as well as the requirements on test site separation and beam sizes, the amount of data from one test is restricted. This paper reports on a way to treat damage test data in order to reduce the statistical error and therefore measurement uncertainty. Three simple assumptions allow for the assignment of one data point to multiple data bins and therefore virtually increase the available data base.

  3. Higher certainty of the laser-induced damage threshold test with a redistributing data treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, Lars; Mrohs, Marius; Gyamfi, Mark; Mädebach, Heinrich; Ristau, Detlev

    2015-10-15

    As a consequence of its statistical nature, the measurement of the laser-induced damage threshold holds always risks to over- or underestimate the real threshold value. As one of the established measurement procedures, the results of S-on-1 (and 1-on-1) tests outlined in the corresponding ISO standard 21 254 depend on the amount of data points and their distribution over the fluence scale. With the limited space on a test sample as well as the requirements on test site separation and beam sizes, the amount of data from one test is restricted. This paper reports on a way to treat damage test data in order to reduce the statistical error and therefore measurement uncertainty. Three simple assumptions allow for the assignment of one data point to multiple data bins and therefore virtually increase the available data base.

  4. Field Testing of Energy-Efficient Flood-Damage-Resistant Residential Envelope Systems Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Aglan, H.

    2005-08-04

    The primary purpose of the project was to identify materials and methods that will make the envelope of a house flood damage resistant. Flood damage resistant materials and systems are intended to be used to repair houses subsequent to flooding. This project was also intended to develop methods of restoring the envelopes of houses that have been flooded but are repairable and may be subject to future flooding. Then if the house floods again, damage will not be as extensive as in previous flood events and restoration costs and efforts will be minimized. The purpose of the first pair of field tests was to establish a baseline for typical current residential construction practice. The first test modules used materials and systems that were commonly found in residential envelopes throughout the U.S. The purpose of the second pair of field tests was to begin evaluating potential residential envelope materials and systems that were projected to be more flood-damage resistant and restorable than the conventional materials and systems tested in the first pair of tests. The purpose of testing the third slab-on-grade module was to attempt to dry flood proof the module (no floodwater within the structure). If the module could be sealed well enough to prevent water from entering, then this would be an effective method of making the interior materials and systems flood damage resistant. The third crawl space module was tested in the same manner as the previous modules and provided an opportunity to do flood tests of additional residential materials and systems. Another purpose of the project was to develop the methodology to collect representative, measured, reproducible (i.e. scientific) data on how various residential materials and systems respond to flooding conditions so that future recommendations for repairing flood damaged houses could be based on scientific data. An additional benefit of collecting this data is that it will be used in the development of a standard test

  5. An attempt to validate the ultra-accelerated microbar and the concrete performance test with the degree of AAR-induced damage observed in concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Leemann, Andreas; Merz, Christine

    2013-07-15

    There is little knowledge about the relation between AAR-induced damage observed in structures and the expansion potential obtained with accelerated tests. In this study, aggregates used in structures damaged by AAR were tested with the microbar test (MBT/AFNOR XP 18-594) and the concrete performance test (CPT/AFNOR P18-454). After the tests, the samples were examined using optical and scanning electron microscopy. Based on the results, the significance of the microbar test has to be examined very critically. The agreement of measured expansion, reacted rock types and the composition of the reaction products between the on-site concrete and the reproduced concrete subjected to the CPT clearly indicates that the reaction mechanisms in the structure and in the concrete performance test are comparable. As such, the concrete performance test seems to be an appropriate tool to test the potential reactivity of specific concrete mixtures.

  6. Inspection of Impact Damage in Honeycomb Composite by Espi, Thermography and Ultrasonic Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Manyong; Park, Jeonghak; Kim, Wontae; Kang, Kisoo

    Honeycomb composites are now fairly widely used in civilian and military aircraft structures. Common defects found in these materials are delaminations by impact damage and their presence will lead to structural weaknesses which could lead failure of the airframe structures. It is important to develop effective non-destructive testing procedures to identify these defects and increase the safety of aircraft travel. This paper describes the detection technique of impact damage defect using thermography and ESPI. The results obtained with the two techniques are compared with ultrasonic C-scan testing. The investigation shows that both imaging NDT methods are able to identify the presence of artificial defect and impact damage. The adoption of the thermography allowed significant advantages in inspection condition, and gives smaller error in quantitative estimation of defects.

  7. Locating damaged members in a truss structure using modal test data - A demonstration experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Suzanne Weaver; Mcgowan, Paul E.

    1989-01-01

    An experiment is designed to demonstrate and verify the performance of the on-orbit assessment approach for large flexible space truss structures. The on-orbit assessment approach can be accomplished, in principle, with dynamic response information, structural identification methods, and model correlation techniques which produce an adjusted mathematical model. An optimal update of the structure model is formed using the response data, then examined to locate damaged members. The experiment uses a laboratory scale model truss structure which exhibits characteristics expected for large space truss structures. Vibration experiments are performed to generate response data for the damaged truss. The damage location approach is described, as well as analytical work performed in support of the vibration tests, the measured response of the test article, and some preliminary results.

  8. Empirically Derived Test Specifications for the Certified Rehabilitation Counselor Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Michael J.; Chan, Fong; Sung, Connie; Kim, Muwoong

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the major job functions and knowledge domains required for effective rehabilitation counseling practice in today's rapidly changing practice environment to revise and update the test specifications for the Commission on Rehabilitation Counselor Certification examination. This report describes the methodology used in this…

  9. Variable-Temperature Cryostat For Radiation-Damage Testing Of Germanium Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, Samuel R.; Puc, Bernard P.

    1992-01-01

    Variable-temperature cryostats developed to study radiation damage to, and annealing of, germanium gamma-ray detectors. Two styles: one accommodates large single detector and one accommodates two medium-sized detectors. New cryostats allow complete testing of large-volume germanium gamma-ray detectors without breaking cryostat vacuum and removing detectors for annealing.

  10. Displacement Damage Effects in Solar Cells: Mining Damage From the Microelectronics and Photonics Test Bed Space Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardage, Donna (Technical Monitor); Walters, R. J.; Morton, T. L.; Messenger, S. R.

    2004-01-01

    The objective is to develop an improved space solar cell radiation response analysis capability and to produce a computer modeling tool which implements the analysis. This was accomplished through analysis of solar cell flight data taken on the Microelectronics and Photonics Test Bed experiment. This effort specifically addresses issues related to rapid technological change in the area of solar cells for space applications in order to enhance system performance, decrease risk, and reduce cost for future missions.

  11. Full-Scale Test and Analysis of a PRSEUS Fuselage Panel to Assess Damage-Containment Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergan, Andrew; Bakuckas, John G.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Jegley, Dawn C.; Linton, Kim A.; Korkosz, Gregory; Awerbuch, Jonathan; Tan, Tein-Min

    2011-01-01

    Stitched composite technology has the potential to substantially decrease structural weight through enhanced damage containment capabilities. The most recent generation of stitched composite technology, the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept, has been shown to successfully arrest damage at the sub-component level through tension testing of a three stringer panel with damage in the form of a two-bay notch. In a joint effort undertaken by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Boeing Company, further studies are being conducted to characterize the damage containment features of the PRSEUS concept. A full-scale residual strength test will be performed on a fuselage panel to determine if the load capacity will meet strength, deformation, and damage tolerance requirements. A curved panel was designed, fabricated, and prepared for residual strength testing. A pre-test Finite Element Model (FEM) was developed using design allowables from previous test programs to predict test panel deformation characteristics and margins of safety. Three phases of testing with increasing damage severity include: (1) as manufactured; (2) barely visible impact damage (BVID) and visible impact damage (VID); and (3) discrete source damage (DSD) where the panel will be loaded to catastrophic failure. This paper presents the background information, test plan, and experimental procedure. This paper is the first of several future articles reporting the test preparations, results, and analysis conducted in the test program.

  12. [Sensitivity and specificity of new commercial tests for the detection of specific Echinococcus antibodies].

    PubMed

    Auer, Herbert; Stöckl, Cornelia; Suhendra, Susanne; Schneider, Renate

    2009-10-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by Echinococcus granulosus, and alveolar echinococcosis (AE), caused by E. multilocularis belong to the most serious parasitic diseases. Both forms of echinococcosis occur in Austria; in addition, imported cases are diagnosed and treated regularly in Austria. Diagnosis of echinococcosis is based on clinical symptoms, imaging techniques and particularly on the detection of specific antibodies in serum specimens of patients. For decades several companies have been providing commercial Echinococcus antigens and echinococcosis tests based on different methods, i.e. complement fixation test (CFT) and electrophoretic methods (CIEP, IEP) in the past and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), western blot assays (WB) and indirect haemagglutination assays (IHA) in recent years. During the last years two studies have been carried out in our laboratory in order to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of two commercial E. granulosus antigens (the synthetic p176 antigen, arc 5 antigen) and three commercial testkits (IHA from Dade Behring, IHA from Fumouze, ELISA from Novagnost-Dade Behring). Sera of patients with histologically and/or molecular biologically confirmed cystic or alveolar echinococcosis, of patients with other parasitic infections and of healthy people were tested comparatively for specific Echinococcus antibodies. The synthetic p176 antigen proved to be a highly specific but a insensitive antigen, whereas both the indirect haemagglutination assay as well as the Novagnost-ELISA showed a much higher sensitivity but only moderate specificity. Our studies demonstrated that neither the commercial antigens nor the test kits tested should be used as a primary test in a routine laboratory for the diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis or of alveolar echinococcosis. PMID:19915815

  13. Damage Tolerance Testing of a NASA TransHab Derivative Woven Inflatable Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgecombe, John; delaFuente, Horacio; Valle, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    Current options for Lunar habitat architecture include inflatable habitats and airlocks. Inflatable structures can have mass and volume advantages over conventional structures. However, inflatable structures carry different inherent risks and are at a lower Technical Readiness Level (TRL) than more conventional metallic structures. One of the risks associated with inflatable structures is in understanding the tolerance to induced damage. The Damage Tolerance Test (DTT) is designed to study the structural integrity of an expandable structure. TransHab (Figure 1) was an experimental inflatable module developed at the NASA/Johnson Space Center in the 1990 s. The TransHab design was originally envisioned for use in Mars Transits but was also studied as a potential habitat for the International Space Station (ISS). The design of the TransHab module was based on a woven design using an Aramid fabric. Testing of this design demonstrated a high level of predictability and repeatability with analytical predictions of stresses and deflections. Based on JSC s experience with the design and analysis of woven inflatable structures, the Damage Tolerance Test article was designed and fabricated using a woven design. The DTT article was inflated to 45 psig, representing 25% of the ultimate burst pressure, and one of the one-inch wide longitudinal structural members was severed by initiating a Linear Shaped Charge (LSC). Strain gage measurements, at the interface between the expandable elements (straps) and the nonexpandable metallic elements for pre-selected longitudinal straps, were taken throughout pressurization of the module and strap separation. Strain gage measurements show no change in longitudinal strap loading at the bulkhead interface after strap separation indicating loads in the restraint layer were re-distributed local to the damaged area due to the effects of friction under high internal pressure loading. The test completed all primary objectives with better than

  14. Ultraviolet radiation-specific DNA damage and embryonic viability in sea urchins from Kasitsna Bay, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Theodorakis, C.; Anderson, S.; Shugart, L.R.

    1995-12-31

    Ripe ova and sperm were obtained from Green Sea Urchins (Strongvlocentrotus drochbachiensis) collected from Kasitsna Bay, Alaska, and ova were fertilized in vitro. Embryos were immediately placed in plastic bags secured to floating racks deployed in the bay. The bags were suspended just below the surface of the water and at 1 and 2 meter depths for up to 120 hours. Bags were either left uncovered, covered with Mylar plastic (which blocks out UV-B but not UV-A radiations), or covered with dark plastic. The number of damaged DNA sites was determined by digesting the DNA with enzymes isolated from the bacterium Micrococcus luteus which cleave the DNA at damaged sites. It was found that DNA damage was present in a dose-dependent fashion with the amount of damage in embryos from the uncovered bags > Mylar covered bags > dark covered bags. No dimers were detected from embryos at 1 or 2 m. depths. Also, the number of damaged sites varied from day to day. Finally, the number of damaged sites was positively correlated with percent abnormal embryos in each bag. The results are discussed with relation to monitoring UV-B effects and ecological consequences of enhanced UV-B radiation.

  15. Development of a specific anaerobic field test for aerobic gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Alves, Christiano Robles Rodrigues; Borelli, Marcello Tadeu Caetano; Paineli, Vitor de Salles; Azevedo, Rafael de Almeida; Borelli, Claudia Cristine Gomes; Lancha Junior, Antônio Herbert; Gualano, Bruno; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini

    2015-01-01

    The current investigation aimed to develop a valid specific field test to evaluate anaerobic physical performance in Aerobic Gymnastics athletes. We first designed the Specific Aerobic Gymnast Anaerobic Test (SAGAT), which included gymnastics-specific elements performed in maximal repeated sprint fashion, with a total duration of 80-90 s. In order to validate the SAGAT, three independent sub-studies were performed to evaluate the concurrent validity (Study I, n=8), the reliability (Study II, n=10) and the sensitivity (Study III, n=30) of the test in elite female athletes. In Study I, a positive correlation was shown between lower-body Wingate test and SAGAT performance (Mean power: p = 0.03, r = -0.69, CI: -0.94 to 0.03 and Peak power: p = 0.02, r = -0.72, CI: -0.95 to -0.04) and between upper-body Wingate test and SAGAT performance (Mean power: p = 0.03, r = -0.67, CI: -0.94 to 0.02 and Peak power: p = 0.03, r = -0.69, CI: -0.94 to 0.03). Additionally, plasma lactate was similarly increased in response to SAGAT (p = 0.002), lower-body Wingate Test (p = 0.021) and a simulated competition (p = 0.007). In Study II, no differences were found between the time to complete the SAGAT in repeated trials (p = 0.84; Cohen's d effect size = 0.09; ICC = 0.97, CI: 0.89 to 0.99; MDC95 = 0.12 s). Finally, in Study III the time to complete the SAGAT was significantly lower during the competition cycle when compared to the period before the preparatory cycle (p < 0.001), showing an improvement in SAGAT performance after a specific Aerobic Gymnastics training period. Taken together, these data have demonstrated that SAGAT is a specific, reliable and sensitive measurement of specific anaerobic performance in elite female Aerobic Gymnastics, presenting great potential to be largely applied in training settings. PMID:25876039

  16. Development of a Specific Anaerobic Field Test for Aerobic Gymnastics

    PubMed Central

    Paineli, Vitor de Salles; Azevedo, Rafael de Almeida; Borelli, Claudia Cristine Gomes; Lancha Junior, Antônio Herbert; Gualano, Bruno; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini

    2015-01-01

    The current investigation aimed to develop a valid specific field test to evaluate anaerobic physical performance in Aerobic Gymnastics athletes. We first designed the Specific Aerobic Gymnast Anaerobic Test (SAGAT), which included gymnastics-specific elements performed in maximal repeated sprint fashion, with a total duration of 80-90 s. In order to validate the SAGAT, three independent sub-studies were performed to evaluate the concurrent validity (Study I, n=8), the reliability (Study II, n=10) and the sensitivity (Study III, n=30) of the test in elite female athletes. In Study I, a positive correlation was shown between lower-body Wingate test and SAGAT performance (Mean power: p = 0.03, r = -0.69, CI: -0.94 to 0.03 and Peak power: p = 0.02, r = -0.72, CI: -0.95 to -0.04) and between upper-body Wingate test and SAGAT performance (Mean power: p = 0.03, r = -0.67, CI: -0.94 to 0.02 and Peak power: p = 0.03, r = -0.69, CI: -0.94 to 0.03). Additionally, plasma lactate was similarly increased in response to SAGAT (p = 0.002), lower-body Wingate Test (p = 0.021) and a simulated competition (p = 0.007). In Study II, no differences were found between the time to complete the SAGAT in repeated trials (p = 0.84; Cohen’s d effect size = 0.09; ICC = 0.97, CI: 0.89 to 0.99; MDC95 = 0.12 s). Finally, in Study III the time to complete the SAGAT was significantly lower during the competition cycle when compared to the period before the preparatory cycle (p < 0.001), showing an improvement in SAGAT performance after a specific Aerobic Gymnastics training period. Taken together, these data have demonstrated that SAGAT is a specific, reliable and sensitive measurement of specific anaerobic performance in elite female Aerobic Gymnastics, presenting great potential to be largely applied in training settings. PMID:25876039

  17. Benchmark specifications for EBR-II shutdown heat removal tests

    SciTech Connect

    Sofu, T.; Briggs, L. L.

    2012-07-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is hosting an IAEA-coordinated research project on benchmark analyses of sodium-cooled fast reactor passive safety tests performed at the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II). The benchmark project involves analysis of a protected and an unprotected loss of flow tests conducted during an extensive testing program within the framework of the U.S. Integral Fast Reactor program to demonstrate the inherently safety features of EBR-II as a pool-type, sodium-cooled fast reactor prototype. The project is intended to improve the participants' design and safety analysis capabilities for sodium-cooled fast reactors through validation and qualification of safety analysis codes and methods. This paper provides a description of the EBR-II tests included in the program, and outlines the benchmark specifications being prepared to support the IAEA-coordinated research project. (authors)

  18. Efficient Noninferiority Testing Procedures for Simultaneously Assessing Sensitivity and Specificity of Two Diagnostic Tests.

    PubMed

    Shan, Guogen; Amei, Amei; Young, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Sensitivity and specificity are often used to assess the performance of a diagnostic test with binary outcomes. Wald-type test statistics have been proposed for testing sensitivity and specificity individually. In the presence of a gold standard, simultaneous comparison between two diagnostic tests for noninferiority of sensitivity and specificity based on an asymptotic approach has been studied by Chen et al. (2003). However, the asymptotic approach may suffer from unsatisfactory type I error control as observed from many studies, especially in small to medium sample settings. In this paper, we compare three unconditional approaches for simultaneously testing sensitivity and specificity. They are approaches based on estimation, maximization, and a combination of estimation and maximization. Although the estimation approach does not guarantee type I error, it has satisfactory performance with regard to type I error control. The other two unconditional approaches are exact. The approach based on estimation and maximization is generally more powerful than the approach based on maximization. PMID:26366190

  19. Design, analysis, and fabrication of a pressure box test fixture for tension damage tolerance testing of curved fuselage panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. J.; Bodine, J. B.; Preuss, C. H.; Koch, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    A pressure box test fixture was designed and fabricated to evaluate the effects of internal pressure, biaxial tension loads, curvature, and damage on the fracture response of composite fuselage structure. Previous work in composite fuselage tension damage tolerance, performed during NASA contract NAS1-17740, evaluated the above effects on unstiffened panels only. This work extends the tension damage tolerance testing to curved stiffened fuselage crown structure that contains longitudinal stringers and circumferential frame elements. The pressure box fixture was designed to apply internal pressure up to 20 psi, and axial tension loads up to 5000 lb/in, either separately or simultaneously. A NASTRAN finite element model of the pressure box fixture and composite stiffened panel was used to help design the test fixture, and was compared to a finite element model of a full composite stiffened fuselage shell. This was done to ensure that the test panel was loaded in a similar way to a panel in the full fuselage shell, and that the fixture and its attachment plates did not adversely affect the panel.

  20. Full-length high-temperature severe fuel damage test No. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Lanning, D.D.; Lombardo, N.J.; Hensley, W.K.; Fitzsimmons, D.E.; Panisko, F.E.; Hartwell, J.K.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes and presents data from a severe fuel damage test that was conducted in the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL), Ontario, Canada. The test, designated FLHT-5, was the fourth in a series of full-length high-temperature (FLHT) tests on light-water reactor fuel. The tests were designed and performed by staff from the US Department of Energy`s Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), operated by Battelle Memorial Institute. The test operation and test results are described in this report. The fuel bundle in the FLHT-5 experiment included 10 unirradiated full-length pressurized-water reactor (PWR) rods, 1 irradiated PWR rod and 1 dummy gamma thermometer. The fuel rods were subjected to a very low coolant flow while operating at low fission power. This caused coolant boilaway, rod dryout and overheating to temperatures above 2600 K, severe fuel rod damage, hydrogen generation, and fission product release. The test assembly and its effluent path were extensively instrumented to record temperatures, pressures, flow rates, hydrogen evolution, and fission product release during the boilaway/heatup transient. Post-test gamma scanning of the upper plenum indicated significant iodine and cesium release and deposition. Both stack gas activity and on-line gamma spectrometer data indicated significant ({approximately}50%) release of noble fission gases. Post-test visual examination of one side of the fuel bundle revealed no massive relocation and flow blockage; however, rundown of molten cladding was evident.

  1. Identification of characteristic frequencies of damaged railway tracks using field hammer test measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oregui, M.; Li, Z.; Dollevoet, R.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the feasibility of the Frequency Response Function (FRF)-based statistical method to identify the characteristic frequencies of railway track defects is studied. The method compares a damaged track state to a healthy state based on non-destructive field hammer test measurements. First, a study is carried out to investigate the repeatability of hammer tests in railway tracks. By changing the excitation and measurement locations it is shown that the variability introduced by the test process is negligible. Second, following the concepts of control charts employed in process monitoring, a method to define an approximate healthy state is introduced by using hammer test measurements at locations without visual damage. Then, the feasibility study includes an investigation into squats (i.e. a major type of rail surface defect) of varying severity. The identified frequency ranges related to squats agree with those found in an extensively validated vehicle-borne detection system. Therefore, the FRF-based statistical method in combination with the non-destructive hammer test measurements has the potential to be employed to identify the characteristic frequencies of damaged conditions in railway tracks in the frequency range of 300-3000 Hz.

  2. 14. "SITE WORK, CIVIL, SITE PLAN." Test Area 1120. Specifications ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. "SITE WORK, CIVIL, SITE PLAN." Test Area 1-120. Specifications No. OC2-55-72; Drawing No. 60-09-12; sheet 7 of 148; file no. 1320/58, Rev. C. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338 Rev. C, Date: 16 April 1957. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Leuhman Ridge near Highways 58 & 395, Boron, Kern County, CA

  3. A Simple Method for Determining Specific Yield from Pumping Tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramsahoye, L.E.; Lang, Solomon Max

    1961-01-01

    A simpler solution which greatly reduces the time necessary to compute the specific yield by the pumping-test method of Remson and Lang (1955) is presented. The method consists of computing the volume of dewatered material in the cone of depression and comparing it with the total volume of discharged water. The original method entails the use of a slowly converging series to compute the volume of dewatered material. The solution given herein is derived directly from Darcy's law.

  4. Relation of test-specific motivation and anxiety to test performance.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lisa F; Smith, Jeffrey K

    2002-12-01

    The relations between consequence of test scores and motivation, anxiety, and test performance were studied with 112 persons in four undergraduate educational psychology courses. Students were given two versions of an hourly course examination that varied in consequence, with one counting for part of their grade and the other not counting. Each student completed the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory prior to taking the examination. Afterwards students completed a measure of test anxiety and test motivation specific to the examination they had just taken. Significant main effects were found for consequence of test with scores for test anxiety, test performance, and test motivation. Also, the subscales showed a consistent pattern of relations with test performance and test anxiety across the two conditions, but not for test motivation for which few relations were found under the condition with no consequence. PMID:12530760

  5. Experimental research on thermal damage of Yingcheng Mine rock salt with ultrasonic wave testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Tang, H.; Yang, C.

    2009-12-01

    Because of the special mechanical properties (creep behavior, damage and healing, low permeability), rock salt formation can be used for the high level radioactive waste disposal, and the thermal damage property of rock salt is important issue for the stability and sealing of the cavern. For investigation of the thermal damage characteristic of Yingcheng Mine rock salt (Hubei Provence, P.R. China), a series of ultrasonic wave velocity testing during rising temperature (without confining pressure, 20-270 centigrade) were carried out. From the experimental data,the ultrasonic wave velocity, the dynamical modulus (Young's modulus, shear modulus and bulk modulus ) and the dynamical Poisson's (calculated from the ultrasonic wave velocity) ratio decrease during rising temperature. The relationship of the ultrasonic wave velocity and the dynamical modulus between temperature can be expressed by exponential functions. Experimental phenomenon and the ultrasonic wave velocity, especially the spectrum analysis reveals that the thermal damage evolves with the temperature. But there is no phenomena indicates the “critical temperature” and damage self-healing due to the temperature.

  6. Fatigue testing and damage development in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1989-01-01

    A general overview of the fatigue behavior of metal matrix composites (MMC) is presented. The first objective is to present experimental procedures and techniques for conducting a meaningful fatigue test to detect and quantify fatigue damage in MMC. These techniques include interpretation of stress-strain responses, acid etching of the matrix, edge replicas of the specimen under load, radiography, and micrographs of the failure surfaces. In addition, the paper will show how stiffness loss in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites can be a useful parameter for detecting fatigue damage initiation and accumulation. Second, numerous examples of how fatigue damage can initiate and grow in various MMC are given. Depending on the relative fatigue behavior of the fiber and matrix, and the interface properties, the failure modes of MMC can be grouped into four categories: (1) matrix dominated, (2) fiber dominated, (3) self-similar damage growth, and (4) fiber/matrix interfacial failures. These four types of damage will be discussed and illustrated by examples with the emphasis on the fatigue of unnotched laminates.

  7. Fatigue testing and damage development in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1988-01-01

    A general overview of the fatigue behavior of metal matrix composites (MMC) is presented. The first objective is to present experimental procedures and techniques for conducting a meaningful fatigue test to detect and quantify fatigue damage in MMC. These techniques include interpretation of stress-strain responses, acid etching of the matrix, edge replicas of the specimen under load, radiography, and micrographs of the failure surfaces. In addition, the paper will show how stiffness loss in continuous fiber reinforced metal matrix composites can be a useful parameter for detecting fatigue damage initiation and accumulation. Second, numerous examples of how fatigue damage can initiate and grow in various MMC are given. Depending on the relative fatigue behavior of the fiber and matrix, and the interface properties, the failure modes of MMC can be grouped into four categories: (1) matrix dominated, (2) fiber dominated, (3) self-similar damage growth, and (4) fiber/matrix interfacial failures. These four types of damage will be discussed and illustrated by examples with the emphasis on the fatigue of unnotched laminates.

  8. Multiloop Integral System Test (MIST): MIST Facility Functional Specification

    SciTech Connect

    Habib, T F; Koksal, C G; Moskal, T E; Rush, G C; Gloudemans, J R

    1991-04-01

    The Multiloop Integral System Test (MIST) is part of a multiphase program started in 1983 to address small-break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCAs) specific to Babcock and Wilcox designed plants. MIST is sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Babcock Wilcox Owners Group, the Electric Power Research Institute, and Babcock and Wilcox. The unique features of the Babcock and Wilcox design, specifically the hot leg U-bends and steam generators, prevented the use of existing integral system data or existing integral facilities to address the thermal-hydraulic SBLOCA questions. MIST was specifically designed and constructed for this program, and an existing facility -- the Once Through Integral System (OTIS) -- was also used. Data from MIST and OTIS are used to benchmark the adequacy of system codes, such as RELAP5 and TRAC, for predicting abnormal plant transients. The MIST Functional Specification documents as-built design features, dimensions, instrumentation, and test approach. It also presents the scaling basis for the facility and serves to define the scope of work for the facility design and construction. 13 refs., 112 figs., 38 tabs.

  9. Phase Startup Initiative Phases 3 and 4 Test Plan and Test Specification ( OCRWM)

    SciTech Connect

    PAJUNEN, A.L.; LANGEVIN, M.J.

    2000-08-07

    Construction for the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project facilities is continuing per the Level III Baseline Schedule, and installation of the Fuel Retrieval System (FRS) and Integrated Water Treatment System (IWTS) in K West Basin is now complete. In order to accelerate the project, a phased start up strategy to initiate testing of the FRS and IWTS early in the overall project schedule was proposed (Williams 1999). Wilkinson (1999) expands the definition of the original proposal into four functional testing phases of the Phased Startup Initiative (PSI). Phases 1 and 2 are based on performing functional tests using dummy fuel. This test plan provides overall guidance for Phase 3 and 4 tests, which are performed using actual irradiated N fuel assemblies. The overall objective of the Phase 3 and 4 testing is to verify how the FRS and IWTS respond while processing actual fuel. Conducting these tests early in the project schedule will allow identification and resolution of equipment and process problems before they become activities on the start-up critical path. The specific objectives of this test plan are to: Define the Phase 3 and 4 test scope for the FRS and IWTS; Provide detailed test requirements that can be used to write the specific test procedures; Define data required and measurements to be taken. Where existing methods to obtain these do not exist, enough detail will be provided to define required additional equipment; and Define specific test objectives and acceptance criteria.

  10. Depth position recognition-related laser-induced damage test method based on initial transient damage features.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bin; Lu, Menglei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Li; Jiao, Hongfei; Cheng, Xinbin; Wang, Zhanshan

    2016-08-01

    Even absorptive defects or inner cracks hiding several micrometers to a few dozen micrometers beneath the top surface can induce damage to transmission elements in the ultraviolet band. The extremely small size and disordered state of such defects or cracks hinder their detection using conventional methods. Therefore, the diagnosis of factors that limit damage resistance performance is a key technique for improving the fabrication technology of optical elements. With a focus on laser damage to third-harmonic transmission elements, this study establishes a micron space-resolved and nanosecond time-resolved imaging system on the basis of the pump-probe detection technique. The changes in the properties of defect-induced laser damage in the time domain are clarified. A diagnostic method for original damage depth in micron precision is proposed according to damage behaviors. This method can retrieve initial information on damage inducement and depth position. The recognition and diagnostic capabilities of such a technique are calibrated with artificial samples and then used to analyze real samples. PMID:27505738

  11. Non-Coding RNA: Sequence-Specific Guide for Chromatin Modification and DNA Damage Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Francia, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin conformation shapes the environment in which our genome is transcribed into RNA. Transcription is a source of DNA damage, thus it often occurs concomitantly to DNA damage signaling. Growing amounts of evidence suggest that different types of RNAs can, independently from their protein-coding properties, directly affect chromatin conformation, transcription and splicing, as well as promote the activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA repair. Therefore, transcription paradoxically functions to both threaten and safeguard genome integrity. On the other hand, DNA damage signaling is known to modulate chromatin to suppress transcription of the surrounding genetic unit. It is thus intriguing to understand how transcription can modulate DDR signaling while, in turn, DDR signaling represses transcription of chromatin around the DNA lesion. An unexpected player in this field is the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery, which play roles in transcription, splicing and chromatin modulation in several organisms. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) and several protein factors involved in the RNAi pathway are well known master regulators of chromatin while only recent reports show their involvement in DDR. Here, we discuss the experimental evidence supporting the idea that ncRNAs act at the genomic loci from which they are transcribed to modulate chromatin, DDR signaling and DNA repair. PMID:26617633

  12. Purification of a novel UV-damaged-DNA binding protein highly specific for (6-4) photoproduct.

    PubMed

    Wakasugi, M; Abe, Y; Yoshida, Y; Matsunaga, T; Nikaido, O

    1996-03-15

    UV damage-specific binding proteins are considered to play important roles in early responses of cells irradiated with UV, including damage recognition in the DNA repair process. We have surveyed nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins which bind selectively to UV-irradiated DNA using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. We detected four distinct binding activities with different mobilities in fractions separated from HeLa cells by heparin chromatography. Three of them were found in nuclear extracts and one in cytoplasmic extracts. We purified one of the binding factors from nuclear extracts to homogeneity, which was designated NF-10 (the 10th fraction of nuclear extract on heparin chromatography). It migrated as a 40 kDa polypeptide in SDS-PAGE, and bound to UV-irradiated double- stranded DNA but not to unirradiated DNA. The binding pattern of the NF-10 protein to DNA irradiated with UV corresponded to the induction kinetics of (6-4) photoproduct. Removal of (6-4) photoproducts from UV- irradiated DNA by (6-4) photoproduct-specific photolyase diminished the binding of NF-10 protein. These results suggest that the NF-10 protein binds to UV-damaged DNA through (6-4) photoproduct. Immunoblot analysis using a monoclonal antibody revealed that the NF-10 protein was expressed in cell lines from all complementation groups of xeroderma pigmentosum, indicating that the NF-10 protein is a novel UV-damaged-DNA binding protein. PMID:8604344

  13. Specific responses in rat small intestinal epithelial mRNA expression and protein levels during chemotherapeutic damage and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Verburg, Melissa; Renes, Ingrid B; Van Nispen, Danielle J P M; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Jorritsma, Marieke; Büller, Hans A; Einerhand, Alexandra W C; Dekker, Jan

    2002-11-01

    The rapidly dividing small intestinal epithelium is very sensitive to the cytostatic drug methotrexate. We investigated the regulation of epithelial gene expression in rat jejunum during methotrexate-induced damage and regeneration. Ten differentiation markers were localized on tissue sections and quantified at mRNA and protein levels relative to control levels. We analyzed correlations in temporal expression patterns between markers. mRNA expression of enterocyte and goblet cell markers decreased significantly during damage for a specific period. Of these, sucrase-isomaltase (-62%) and CPS (-82%) were correlated. Correlations were also found between lactase (-76%) and SGLT1 (-77%) and between I-FABP (-52%) and L-FABP (-45%). Decreases in GLUT5 (-53%), MUC2 (-43%), and TFF3 (-54%) mRNAs occurred independently of any of the other markers. In contrast, lysozyme mRNA present in Paneth cells increased (+76%). At the protein level, qualitative and quantitative changes were in agreement with mRNA expression, except for Muc2 (+115%) and TFF3 (+81%), which increased significantly during damage, following independent patterns. During regeneration, expression of each marker returned to control levels. The enhanced expression of cytoprotective molecules (Muc2, TFF3, lysozyme) during damage represents maintenance of goblet cell and Paneth cell functions, most likely to protect the epithelium. Decreased expression of enterocyte-specific markers represents decreased enterocyte function, of which fatty acid transporters were least affected. PMID:12417619

  14. Investigation of Spiral Bevel Gear Condition Indicator Validation Via AC-29-2C Using Damage Progression Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the results of spiral bevel gear rig tests performed under a NASA Space Act Agreement with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to support validation and demonstration of rotorcraft Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) for maintenance credits via FAA Advisory Circular (AC) 29-2C, Section MG-15, Airworthiness Approval of Rotorcraft (HUMS) (Ref. 1). The overarching goal of this work was to determine a method to validate condition indicators in the lab that better represent their response to faults in the field. Using existing in-service helicopter HUMS flight data from faulted spiral bevel gears as a "Case Study," to better understand the differences between both systems, and the availability of the NASA Glenn Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue Rig, a plan was put in place to design, fabricate and test comparable gear sets with comparable failure modes within the constraints of the test rig. The research objectives of the rig tests were to evaluate the capability of detecting gear surface pitting fatigue and other generated failure modes on spiral bevel gear teeth using gear condition indicators currently used in fielded HUMS. Nineteen final design gear sets were tested. Tables were generated for each test, summarizing the failure modes observed on the gear teeth for each test during each inspection interval and color coded based on damage mode per inspection photos. Gear condition indicators (CI) Figure of Merit 4 (FM4), Root Mean Square (RMS), +/- 1 Sideband Index (SI1) and +/- 3 Sideband Index (SI3) were plotted along with rig operational parameters. Statistical tables of the means and standard deviations were calculated within inspection intervals for each CI. As testing progressed, it became clear that certain condition indicators were more sensitive to a specific component and failure mode. These tests were clustered together for further analysis. Maintenance actions during testing were also documented. Correlation coefficients were

  15. Sub-picosecond laser induced damage test facility for petawatt reflective optical components characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sozet, Martin; Néauport, Jérôme; Lavastre, Eric; Roquin, Nadja; Gallais, Laurent; Lamaignère, Laurent

    2015-05-01

    While considering long pulse or short pulse high power laser facilities, optical components performances and in particular laser damage resistance are always factors limiting the overall system performances. Consequently, getting a detailed knowledge of the behavior of these optical components under irradiations with large beam in short pulse range is of major importance. In this context, a Laser Induced Damage Threshold test facility called DERIC has been developed at the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, Bordeaux. It uses an Amplitude Systemes laser source which delivers Gaussian pulses of 500 fs at 1053 nm. 1-on-1, S-on-1 and RasterScan test procedures are implemented to study the behavior of monolayer and multilayer dielectric coatings.

  16. Damage Detection and Impact Testing on Laminated and Sandwich Composite Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Derke R.; Craft, William J.; Schulz, Mark J.; Naser, Ahmad S.; Martin, William N.

    1998-01-01

    This research investigates health monitoring of sandwich shell composites to determine if the Transmittance Functions (TF) are effective in determining the present of damage. The health monitoring test was conducted on the sandwich plates before and after low velocity impacts using the health monitoring technique given in TFs are a NDE (Nondestructive Evaluation) technique that utilizes the ratios of cross-spectrums to auto-spectrums between two response points on the sandwich composites. The test for transmittance was conducted on the same density foam core throughout the experiment. The test specimens were 17.8 cm by 25.4 cm in dimension. The external sheets (face sheets) were created from graphite/epoxy laminate with dimension of 1.58 mm thick. The polymethacrylide (Rohacell) foam core was 12.7 mm thick. These samples experienced a transformation in the TF that was considered the low velocity impact damage. The low velocity damage was observed in the TFs for the sandwich composites.

  17. Determining equivalent damage loading for full-scale wind turbine blade fatigue tests

    SciTech Connect

    Freebury, G.; Musial, W.

    2000-03-13

    This paper describes a simplified method for converting wind turbine rotor design loads into equivalent-damage, constant-amplitude loads and load ratios for both flap and lead-lag directions. It is an iterative method that was developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) using Palmgren-Miner's linear damage principles. The general method is unique because it does not presume that any information about the materials or blade structural properties is precisely known. According to this method, the loads are never converted to stresses. Instead, a family of M-N curves (moment vs. cycles) is defined with reasonable boundaries for load-amplitude and slope. An optimization program iterates and converges on the constant amplitude test load and load ratio that minimizes the sensitivity to the range of M-N curves for each blade section. The authors constrained the general method to match the NedWind 25 design condition for the Standards, Measurements, and Testing (SMT) blade testing pro gram. SMT participants agreed to use the fixed S-N slope of m = 10 from the original design to produce consistent test-loads among the laboratories. Unconstrained, the general method suggests that slightly higher test loads should be used for the NedWind 25 blade design spectrum. NedWind 25 blade test loads were computed for lead-lag and flap under single-axis and two-axis loading.

  18. 29. "TEST TRACK, STATION '0' THROUGH '200' AREA." Specifications No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. "TEST TRACK, STATION '0' THROUGH '200' AREA." Specifications No. ENG-OC-1-57-75, Drawing No. AF-6009-15, sheet 53 of 96, D.O. Series No. AF 1394/73, Rev. C. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 5296 Rev. C, Date: 19 NOV 59. Drawing includes plan, section, and details of track. - Edwards Air Force Base, South Base Sled Track, Edwards Air Force Base, North of Avenue B, between 100th & 140th Streets East, Lancaster, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. DNA-damaging agents stimulate gene expression at specific loci in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Kenyon, C.J.; Walker, G.C.

    1988-05-01

    Operon fusions in Escherichia coli were obtained that showed increased beta-galactosidase expression in response to treatment with the DNA-damaging agent mitomycin C. These fusions were generated by using the Mud(ApR, lac) vector to insert the lactose structural genes randomly into the bacterial chromosome. Induction of beta-galactosidase in these strains, which carried fusions of lac to these din (damage-inducible) loci, was (i) triggered by UV light as well as by mitomycin C and (ii) abolished by either a recA- or a lexA- mutation. Similar characteristics of induction were observed when the lactose genes were fused to a prophage lambda promoter by using Mud(ApR, lac). These results indicate that E. coli contains a set of genes that, like prophage lambda genes, are expressed in response to DNA-damaging agents and regulated by the recA and lexA gene products. These din genes map at five bacterial loci. One din::Mud(ApR, lac) insertion results in a UV-sensitive phenotype and may be within the uvrA transcriptional unit.

  20. Structural damage claims resulting from acoustic environments developed during static test firing of rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guest, S. H.; Slone, R. M., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    During static testing of multi-million pound thrust rocket engines areas adjacent to the test site have been subjected to the noise generated by rocket engines. Structural damage claims and subjective complaints were filed by those who alleged that the noise levels were excessive. The statistical analysis of these claims and complaints which were filed during these rocket engine development programs led to the determination of a relationship between claims and overall sound pressure level. Community exposure criteria are then assessed based on what can be considered allowable acoustic environments from large rocket engines.

  1. Test station development for laser-induced optical damage performance of broadband multilayer dielectric coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafka, K. R. P.; Chowdhury, E. A.; Negres, R. A.; Stolz, C. J.; Bude, J. D.; Bayramian, A. J.; Marshall, C. D.; Spinka, T. M.; Haefner, C. L.

    2015-11-01

    Laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT) testing was performed on commercially-available multilayer dielectric coatings to qualify for use in the High Repetition-Rate Advanced Petawatt Laser System (HAPLS) for Extreme Light Infrastructure Beamlines. Various tests were performed with uncompressed pulses (150 ps) from a 780 nm-centered Ti:Sapphire regenerative ampliflier, and the raster scan method was used to determine the best-performing coatings. Performance varied from 2-8 J/cm2 across samples from 6 different manufacturers.

  2. Towards sensible toxicity testing for nanomaterials: proposal for the specification of test design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potthoff, Annegret; Weil, Mirco; Meißner, Tobias; Kühnel, Dana

    2015-12-01

    During the last decade, nanomaterials (NM) were extensively tested for potential harmful effects towards humans and environmental organisms. However, a sound hazard assessment was so far hampered by uncertainties and a low comparability of test results. The reason for the low comparability is a high variation in the (1) type of NM tested with regard to raw material, size and shape and (2) procedures before and during the toxicity testing. This calls for tailored, nanomaterial-specific protocols. Here, a structured approach is proposed, intended to lead to test protocols not only tailored to specific types of nanomaterials, but also to respective test system for toxicity testing. There are existing standards on single procedures involving nanomaterials, however, not all relevant procedures are covered by standards. Hence, our approach offers a detailed way of weighting several plausible alternatives for e.g. sample preparation, in order to decide on the procedure most meaningful for a specific nanomaterial and toxicity test. A framework of several decision trees (DT) and flow charts to support testing of NM is proposed as a basis for further refinement and in-depth elaboration. DT and flow charts were drafted for (1) general procedure—physicochemical characterisation, (2) choice of test media, (3) decision on test scenario and application of NM to liquid media, (4) application of NM to the gas phase, (5) application of NM to soil and sediments, (6) dose metrics, (S1) definition of a nanomaterial, and (S2) dissolution. The applicability of the proposed approach was surveyed by using experimental data retrieved from studies on nanoscale CuO. This survey demonstrated the DT and flow charts to be a convenient tool to systematically decide upon test procedures and processes, and hence pose an important step towards harmonisation of NM testing.

  3. Finite Elements Analysis of a Composite Semi-Span Test Article With and Without Discrete Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Jegley, Dawn C. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    AS&M Inc. performed finite element analysis, with and without discrete damage, of a composite semi-span test article that represents the Boeing 220-passenger transport aircraft composite semi-span test article. A NASTRAN bulk data file and drawings of the test mount fixtures and semi-span components were utilized to generate the baseline finite element model. In this model, the stringer blades are represented by shell elements, and the stringer flanges are combined with the skin. Numerous modeling modifications and discrete source damage scenarios were applied to the test article model throughout the course of the study. This report details the analysis method and results obtained from the composite semi-span study. Analyses were carried out for three load cases: Braked Roll, LOG Down-Bending and 2.5G Up-Bending. These analyses included linear and nonlinear static response, as well as linear and nonlinear buckling response. Results are presented in the form of stress and strain plots. factors of safety for failed elements, buckling loads and modes, deflection prediction tables and plots, and strainage prediction tables and plots. The collected results are presented within this report for comparison to test results.

  4. Testing and Analysis of a Composite Non-Cylindrical Aircraft Fuselage Structure . Part II; Severe Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Rouse, Marshall; Wu, Hsi-Yung T.

    2016-01-01

    The Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project aimed to develop aircraft technologies enabling significant fuel burn and community noise reductions. Small incremental changes to the conventional metallic alloy-based 'tube and wing' configuration were not sufficient to achieve the desired metrics. One airframe concept identified by the project as having the potential to dramatically improve aircraft performance was a composite-based hybrid wing body configuration. Such a concept, however, presented inherent challenges stemming from, among other factors, the necessity to transfer wing loads through the entire center fuselage section which accommodates a pressurized cabin confined by flat or nearly flat panels. This paper discusses a finite element analysis and the testing of a large-scale hybrid wing body center section structure developed and constructed to demonstrate that the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure concept can meet these challenging demands of the next generation airframes. Part II of the paper considers the final test to failure of the test article in the presence of an intentionally inflicted severe discrete source damage under the wing up-bending loading condition. Finite element analysis results are compared with measurements acquired during the test and demonstrate that the hybrid wing body test article was able to redistribute and support the required design loads in a severely damaged condition.

  5. Domain-specific functional software testing: A progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nonnenmann, Uwe

    1992-01-01

    Software Engineering is a knowledge intensive activity that involves defining, designing, developing, and maintaining software systems. In order to build effective systems to support Software Engineering activities, Artificial Intelligence techniques are needed. The application of Artificial Intelligence technology to Software Engineering is called Knowledge-based Software Engineering (KBSE). The goal of KBSE is to change the software life cycle such that software maintenance and evolution occur by modifying the specifications and then rederiving the implementation rather than by directly modifying the implementation. The use of domain knowledge in developing KBSE systems is crucial. Our work is mainly related to one area of KBSE that is called automatic specification acquisition. One example is the WATSON prototype on which our current work is based. WATSON is an automatic programming system for formalizing specifications for telephone switching software mainly restricted to POTS, i.e., plain old telephone service. Our current approach differentiates itself from other approaches in two antagonistic ways. On the one hand, we address a large and complex real-world problem instead of a 'toy domain' as in many research prototypes. On the other hand, to allow such scaling, we had to relax the ambitious goal of complete automatic programming, to the easier task of automatic testing.

  6. Fuel containment and damage tolerance in large composite primary aircraft structures. Phase 2: Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandifer, J. P.; Denny, A.; Wood, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Technical issues associated with fuel containment and damage tolerance of composite wing structures for transport aircraft were investigated. Material evaluation tests were conducted on two toughened resin composites: Celion/HX1504 and Celion/5245. These consisted of impact, tension, compression, edge delamination, and double cantilever beam tests. Another test series was conducted on graphite/epoxy box beams simulating a wing cover to spar cap joint configuration of a pressurized fuel tank. These tests evaluated the effectiveness of sealing methods with various fastener types and spacings under fatigue loading and with pressurized fuel. Another test series evaluated the ability of the selected coatings, film, and materials to prevent fuel leakage through 32-ply AS4/2220-1 laminates at various impact energy levels. To verify the structural integrity of the technology demonstration article structural details, tests were conducted on blade stiffened panels and sections. Compression tests were performed on undamaged and impacted stiffened AS4/2220-1 panels and smaller element tests to evaluate stiffener pull-off, side load and failsafe properties. Compression tests were also performed on panels subjected to Zone 2 lightning strikes. All of these data were integrated into a demonstration article representing a moderately loaded area of a transport wing. This test combined lightning strike, pressurized fuel, impact, impact repair, fatigue and residual strength.

  7. Reliability of the Ekblom soccer-specific endurance test.

    PubMed

    Williams, Morgan D; Wiltshire, Huw D; Lorenzen, Christian; Wilson, Cameron J; Meehan, Daniel L; Cicioni Kolsky, Daniel J

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore and quantify measurement reliability of the Ekblom endurance test. Experienced university soccer players (n = 19; age = 20.5 +/- 2.5 years; mass = 80.4 +/- 9.8 kg; and stature = 179.0 +/- 6.0 cm) completed the Ekblom endurance test on 3 separate occasions. Time to complete trial 1 (549 +/- 26 seconds) and trial 2 (547 +/- 26 seconds) was analyzed, and despite no significant difference (F1,18 = 4.119, p = 0.057, etaP = 0.186) between trials, some evidence of systematic bias was observed in the data. Therefore, trial 2 data were compared with those of trial 3 (548 +/- 27 seconds), with trial 1 data removed. The subsequent analysis (F1,18 = 0.740, p = 0.401, etaP = 0.039) showed a reduction in the risk of making a type II error when compared with the previous analysis. From the reliability analyses (3,1 intraclass correlation = 0.983, SEM = +/-3 seconds, smallest worthwhile change = 5 seconds, standard error of prediction [95% confidence intervals] = +/- 9 seconds), a high level of measurement reliability was observed and the sensitivity of the test to monitor changes was "good." In summary, it was shown that a test that involves a variety of soccer-specific forms of locomotion can be highly reliable and sensitive to detect change. In light of the systematic bias found, we do, however, recommend a familiarization session to be scheduled before the introduction of this test. PMID:19593222

  8. Differential expression and glycative damage affect specific mitochondrial proteins with aging in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Bakala, Hilaire; Ladouce, Romain; Baraibar, Martin A; Friguet, Bertrand

    2013-12-01

    Aging is accompanied by the gradual deterioration of cell functions. Particularly, mitochondrial dysfunction, associated with an accumulation of damaged proteins, is of key importance due to the central role of these organelles in cellular metabolism. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms involved in such impairment have not been completely elucidated. In the present study, proteomic analyses looking at both changes at the expression level as well as to glycative modifications of the mitochondrial proteome were performed. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis analysis revealed 16 differentially expressed proteins with aging. Thirteen exhibited a decreased expression and are crucial enzymes related to OXPHOS chain complex I/V components, TCA cycle or fatty acid β-oxidation reaction. On the other hand, 2 enzymes involved in fatty acid β-oxidation cycle were increased in aged mitochondria. Immunodetection and further identification of glycated proteins disclosed a set of advanced glycation end product-modified proteins, including 6 enzymes involved in the fatty acid β-oxidation process, and 2 enzymes of the TCA/urea cycles. A crucial antioxidant enzyme, catalase, was among the most strongly glycated proteins. In addition, several AGE-damaged enzymes (aldehyde dehydrogenase 2, medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and 3-ketoacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) exhibited a decreased activity with age. Taken together, these data suggest that liver mitochondria in old rats suffer from a decline in their capacity for energy production, due to (i) decreased expression of OXPHOS complex I/V components and (ii) glycative damage to key fatty acid β-oxidation and TCA/urea cycle enzymes. PMID:23906978

  9. Criterion Related Validity of Karate Specific Aerobic Test (KSAT)

    PubMed Central

    Chaabene, Helmi; Hachana, Younes; Franchini, Emerson; Tabben, Montassar; Mkaouer, Bessem; Negra, Yassine; Hammami, Mehrez; Chamari, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Karate is one the most popular combat sports in the world. Physical fitness assessment on a regular manner is important for monitoring the effectiveness of the training program and the readiness of karatekas to compete. Objectives: The aim of this research was to examine the criterion related to validity of the karate specific aerobic test (KSAT) as an indicator of aerobic level of karate practitioners. Patients and Methods: Cardiorespiratory responses, aerobic performance level through both treadmill laboratory test and YoYo intermittent recovery test level 1 (YoYoIRTL1) as well as time to exhaustion in the KSAT test (TE’KSAT) were determined in a total of fifteen healthy international karatekas (i.e. karate practitioners) (means ± SD: age: 22.2 ± 4.3 years; height: 176.4 ± 7.5 cm; body mass: 70.3 ± 9.7 kg and body fat: 13.2 ± 6%). Results: Peak heart rate obtained from KSAT represented ~99% of maximal heart rate registered during the treadmill test showing that KSAT imposes high physiological demands. There was no significant correlation between KSAT’s TE and relative (mL/min kg) treadmill maximal oxygen uptake (r = 0.14; P = 0.69; [small]). On the other hand, there was a significant relationship between KSAT’s TE and the velocity associated with VO2max (vVO2max) (r = 0.67; P = 0.03; [large]) as well as the velocity at VO2 corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold (vVO2 VAT) (r = 0.64; P = 0.04; [large]). Moreover, significant relationship was found between TE’s KSAT and both the total distance covered and parameters of intermittent endurance measured through YoYoIRTL1. Conclusions: The KSAT has not proved to have indirect criterion related validity as no significant correlations have been found between TE’s KSAT and treadmill VO2max. Nevertheless, as correlated to other aerobic fitness variables, KSAT can be considered as an indicator of karate specific endurance. The establishment of the criterion related validity of the KSAT

  10. An Experimental Test of Insect-Mediated Colonisation of Damaged Pinus radiata Trees by Sapstain Fungi

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, James K.; Brockerhoff, Eckehard G.; Didham, Raphael K.

    2013-01-01

    Vector-pathogen dynamics play a central role in understanding tree health and forest dynamics. There is substantial evidence that bark beetles act as spore vectors for many species of fungi that cause ‘sapstain’ discolouration of damaged trees and timber. However, the direct quantitative link between vector-mediated spore dispersal and subsequent sapstain colonisation of wood is not fully understood. Here, we used caged versus uncaged experimental logs to test whether the exclusion of bark beetles quantitatively alters the distribution and intensity of sapstain fungal spread within damaged trees. Using generalised linear mixed models, we tested the effect of bark beetle exclusion on sapstain intensity within and among cut logs at two plantation forest sites. Overall, sapstain was found on all logs regardless of caging treatment, indicating that sapstain colonisation can occur (to some degree) without arthropod vectors, probably via wind, rain-splash and, potentially, latent endophytic development. This was supported by the dominance of Diplodia pinea in fungal isolations taken from trees felled at the site, as this fungal species is known to disperse independently of bark beetles. However, the intensity of sapstain within and among experimental logs was significantly greater in uncaged than in caged logs, where beetle colonisation was significantly greater. This appeared to be driven by a significant within-log association between the intensity of staining and the intensity of beetle, and other arthropod, tunnelling and feeding activities. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that the dominant mechanism underlying the role of bark beetles in sapstain development in this study system is not vector-mediated spore dispersal, per se, but rather the facilitation of spore entry and hyphal development through tunnelling and feeding activities. We discuss the implications of these findings for forest management and the effective salvage-harvest of trees

  11. Disorganized behavior on Link's cube test is sensitive to right hemispheric frontal lobe damage in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Bruno; Rösser, Nina; Tabeling, Sandra; Stürenburg, Hans Jörg; de Haan, Bianca; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Wessel, Karl

    2014-01-01

    One of Luria's favorite neuropsychological tasks for challenging frontal lobe functions was Link's cube test (LCT). The LCT is a cube construction task in which the subject must assemble 27 small cubes into one large cube in such a manner that only the painted surfaces of the small cubes are visible. We computed two new LCT composite scores, the constructive plan composite score, reflecting the capability to envisage a cubical-shaped volume, and the behavioral (dis-) organization composite score, reflecting the goal-directedness of cube construction. Voxel-based lesion-behavior mapping (VLBM) was used to test the relationship between performance on the LCT and brain injury in a sample of stroke patients with right hemisphere damage (N = 32), concentrated in the frontal lobe. We observed a relationship between the measure of behavioral (dis-) organization on the LCT and right frontal lesions. Further work in a larger sample, including left frontal lobe damage and with more power to detect effects of right posterior brain injury, is necessary to determine whether this observation is specific for right frontal lesions. PMID:24596552

  12. The current state of prostate-specific antigen testing.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ryan; Hornberger, Brad

    2016-09-01

    Since prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing was approved in 1994, the incidence of metastasis and mortality from prostate cancer have significantly decreased. However, PSA screening for prostate cancer has limitations and few large randomized controlled trials have been conducted to determine the mortality benefit of PSA screening. Two studies that have been conducted are the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) screening trial and the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC). These were the two main studies the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) used in its recommendation against prostate cancer screening in 2012. However, new evidence has demonstrated that the PLCO trial had significant limitations and the results of the ERSPC trial were more significant than previously thought. This article describes the strengths and weaknesses of the USPSTF's recommendation, along with current guidelines for prostate cancer screening. PMID:27575906

  13. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 52 - Performance Specifications and, Specification Test Procedures for Monitoring Systems for Effluent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....7Reference method. Method 2 as delineated in 40 CFR Part 60. 4. Measurement system performance specifications... tube which uses the flow direction of the test gas, then the following test shall be followed and a..., Specification Test Procedures for Monitoring Systems for Effluent Stream Gas Volumetric Flow Rate E Appendix...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 52 - Performance Specifications and, Specification Test Procedures for Monitoring Systems for Effluent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....7Reference method. Method 2 as delineated in 40 CFR Part 60. 4. Measurement system performance specifications... tube which uses the flow direction of the test gas, then the following test shall be followed and a..., Specification Test Procedures for Monitoring Systems for Effluent Stream Gas Volumetric Flow Rate E Appendix...

  15. Timelapse ultrasonic tomography for measuring damage localization in geomechanics laboratory tests.

    PubMed

    Tudisco, Erika; Roux, Philippe; Hall, Stephen A; Viggiani, Giulia M B; Viggiani, Gioacchino

    2015-03-01

    Variation of mechanical properties in materials can be detected non-destructively using ultrasonic measurements. In particular, changes in elastic wave velocity can occur due to damage, i.e., micro-cracking and particles debonding. Here the challenge of characterizing damage in geomaterials, i.e., rocks and soils, is addressed. Geomaterials are naturally heterogeneous media in which the deformation can localize, so that few measurements of acoustic velocity across the sample are not sufficient to capture the heterogeneities. Therefore, an ultrasonic tomography procedure has been implemented to map the spatial and temporal variations in propagation velocity, which provides information on the damage process. Moreover, double beamforming has been successfully applied to identify and isolate multiple arrivals that are caused by strong heterogeneities (natural or induced by the deformation process). The applicability of the developed experimental technique to laboratory geomechanics testing is illustrated using data acquired on a sample of natural rock before and after being deformed under triaxial compression. The approach is then validated and extended to time-lapse monitoring using data acquired during plane strain compression of a sample including a well defined layer with different mechanical properties than the matrix. PMID:25786951

  16. Hollow Cylinder Tests on Boom Clay: Modelling of Strain Localization in the Anisotropic Excavation Damaged Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    François, Bertrand; Labiouse, Vincent; Dizier, Arnaud; Marinelli, Ferdinando; Charlier, Robert; Collin, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Boom Clay is extensively studied as a potential candidate to host underground nuclear waste disposal in Belgium. To guarantee the safety of such a disposal, the mechanical behaviour of the clay during gallery excavation must be properly predicted. In that purpose, a hollow cylinder experiment on Boom Clay has been designed to reproduce, in a small-scale test, the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) as experienced during the excavation of a disposal gallery in the underground. In this article, the focus is made on the hydro-mechanical constitutive interpretation of the displacement (experimentally obtained by medium resolution X-ray tomography scanning). The coupled hydro-mechanical response of Boom Clay in this experiment is addressed through finite element computations with a constitutive model including strain hardening/softening, elastic and plastic cross-anisotropy and a regularization method for the modelling of strain localization processes. The obtained results evidence the directional dependency of the mechanical response of the clay. The softening behaviour induces transient strain localization processes, addressed through a hydro-mechanical second grade model. The shape of the obtained damaged zone is clearly affected by the anisotropy of the materials, evidencing an eye-shaped EDZ. The modelling results agree with experiments not only qualitatively (in terms of the shape of the induced damaged zone), but also quantitatively (for the obtained displacement in three particular radial directions).

  17. Damage Characterization of EBC-SiCSiC Ceramic Matrix Composites Under Imposed Thermal Gradient Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, Matthew P.; Morscher, Gregory N.; Zhu, Dongming

    2014-01-01

    Due to their high temperature capabilities, Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) components are being developed for use in hot-section aerospace engine applications. Harsh engine environments have led to the development of Environmental Barrier Coatings (EBCs) for silicon-based CMCs to further increase thermal and environmental capabilities. This study aims at understanding the damage mechanisms associated with these materials under simulated operating conditions. A high heat-flux laser testing rig capable of imposing large through-thickness thermal gradients by means of controlled laser beam heating and back-side air cooling is used. Tests are performed on uncoated composites, as well as CMC substrates that have been coated with state-of-the-art ceramic EBC systems. Results show that the use of the EBCs may help increase temperature capability and creep resistance by reducing the effects of stressed oxidation and environmental degradation. Also, the ability of electrical resistance (ER) and acoustic emission (AE) measurements to monitor material condition and damage state during high temperature testing is shown; suggesting their usefulness as a valuable health monitoring technique. Micromechanics models are used to describe the localized stress state of the composite system, which is utilized along with ER modeling concepts to develop an electromechanical model capable of characterizing material behavior.

  18. Test simulation of neutron damage to electronic components using accelerator facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, D. B.; Fleming, R. M.; Bielejec, E. S.; McDonald, J. K.; Vizkelethy, G.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this work is to demonstrate equivalent bipolar transistor damage response to neutrons and silicon ions. We report on irradiation tests performed at the White Sands Missile Range Fast Burst Reactor, the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Annular Core Research Reactor, the SNL SPHINX accelerator, and the SNL Ion Beam Laboratory using commercial silicon npn bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) and III-V Npn heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). Late time and early time gain metrics as well as defect spectra measurements are reported.

  19. Local strain and damage mapping in single trabeculae during three-point bending tests.

    PubMed

    Jungmann, R; Szabo, M E; Schitter, G; Tang, Raymond Yue-Sing; Vashishth, D; Hansma, P K; Thurner, P J

    2011-05-01

    The use of bone mineral density as a surrogate to diagnose bone fracture risk in individuals is of limited value. However, there is growing evidence that information on trabecular microarchitecture can improve the assessment of fracture risk. One current strategy is to exploit finite element analysis (FEA) applied to 3D image data of several mm-sized trabecular bone structures obtained from non-invasive imaging modalities for the prediction of apparent mechanical properties. However, there is a lack of FE damage models, based on solid experimental facts, which are needed to validate such approaches and to provide criteria marking elastic-plastic deformation transitions as well as microdamage initiation and accumulation. In this communication, we present a strategy that could elegantly lead to future damage models for FEA: direct measurements of local strains involved in microdamage initiation and plastic deformation in single trabeculae. We use digital image correlation to link stress whitening in bone, reported to be correlated to microdamage, to quantitative local strain values. Our results show that the whitening zones, i.e. damage formation, in the presented loading case of a three-point bending test correlate best with areas of elevated tensile strains oriented parallel to the long axis of the samples. The average local strains along this axis were determined to be (1.6±0.9)% at whitening onset and (12±4)% just prior to failure. Overall, our data suggest that damage initiation in trabecular bone is asymmetric in tension and compression, with failure originating and propagating over a large range of tensile strains. PMID:21396601

  20. Local strain and damage mapping in single trabeculae during three-point bending tests

    PubMed Central

    Jungmann, R.; Szabo, M.E.; Schitter, G.; Tang, Raymond Yue-Sing; Vashishth, D.; Hansma, P.K.; Thurner, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    The use of bone mineral density as a surrogate to diagnose bone fracture risk in individuals is of limited value. However, there is growing evidence that information on trabecular microarchitecture can improve the assessment of fracture risk. One current strategy is to exploit finite element analysis (FEA) applied to 3D image data of several mm-sized trabecular bone structures obtained from non-invasive imaging modalities for the prediction of apparent mechanical properties. However, there is a lack of FE damage models, based on solid experimental facts, which are needed to validate such approaches and to provide criteria marking elastic–plastic deformation transitions as well as microdamage initiation and accumulation. In this communication, we present a strategy that could elegantly lead to future damage models for FEA: direct measurements of local strains involved in microdamage initiation and plastic deformation in single trabeculae. We use digital image correlation to link stress whitening in bone, reported to be correlated to microdamage, to quantitative local strain values. Our results show that the whitening zones, i.e. damage formation, in the presented loading case of a three-point bending test correlate best with areas of elevated tensile strains oriented parallel to the long axis of the samples. The average local strains along this axis were determined to be (1.6 ± 0.9)% at whitening onset and (12 ± 4)% just prior to failure. Overall, our data suggest that damage initiation in trabecular bone is asymmetric in tension and compression, with failure originating and propagating over a large range of tensile strains. PMID:21396601

  1. Multi-laboratory evaluation of SkinEthic HCE test method for testing serious eye damage/eye irritation using solid chemicals and overall performance of the test method with regard to solid and liquid chemicals testing.

    PubMed

    Alépée, N; Adriaens, E; Grandidier, M H; Meloni, M; Nardelli, L; Vinall, C J; Toner, F; Roper, C S; Van Rompay, A R; Leblanc, V; Cotovio, J

    2016-08-01

    A prospective multicentre study of the reconstructed human corneal epithelial tissue-based in vitro test method (SkinEthic™ HCE) was conducted to evaluate its usefulness to identify chemicals as either not classified for serious eye damage/eye irritation (No Cat.) or as classified (Cat. 1/Cat. 2) within UN GHS. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the transferability and reproducibility of the SkinEthic™ HCE EITS protocol for solids and define its predictive capacity. Briefly, 60 chemicals were three times tested (double blinded) in 3 laboratories and 35 additional chemicals were tested three times in one laboratory. Good within laboratory reproducibility was achieved of at least 95% (57/60) and 96.8% (92/95) for the extended data set. Furthermore, the overall concordance between the laboratories was 96.7% (58/60). The accuracy of the SkinEthic™ HCE EITS for the extended dataset, based on bootstrap resampling, was 81.0% (95% CI: 78.9% to 83.2%) with a sensitivity of 90.5% (95% CI: 88.1% to 92.9%) and specificity of 73.6% (95% CI: 71.7% to 75.5%). Overall, 200 chemicals were tested (105 liquids (EITL protocol) and 95 solids (EITS protocol)) resulting in a sensitivity of 95.2%, specificity of 72.1% and accuracy of 83.7%, thereby meeting all acceptance criteria for predictive capacity. PMID:26989001

  2. Phasing in the presence of severe site-specific radiation damage through dose-dependent modelling of heavy atoms.

    PubMed

    Schiltz, M; Dumas, P; Ennifar, E; Flensburg, C; Paciorek, W; Vonrhein, C; Bricogne, G

    2004-06-01

    The case of a brominated RNA crystal structure determination in which standard three-wavelength MAD phasing was unsuccessful because of fast X-ray-induced debromination was reinvestigated [Ennifar et al. (2002), Acta Cryst. D58, 1262-1268]. It was found that if the data are kept unmerged and if a dose-stamp is associated with each reflection measurement, dose-dependent occupancies can be refined for the Br atoms. Such a parametrization has been implemented in the macromolecular phasing program SHARP. Refining such dose-dependent occupancies on an unmerged data set gave a dramatic improvement, even for SAD phases from only the first wavelength (peak), and resulted in a good electron-density map after solvent flattening. The adverse effect of radiation damage has been turned into a beneficial one. The crucial difference is made by the use of unmerged data: phasing power is generated through the intensity differences of symmetry-related reflections recorded at different doses, i.e. corresponding to different states of the X-ray-induced debromination. This approach should prove useful in all situations of experimental phasing where site-specific radiation damage occurs unavoidably and undesirably and not only in cases in which radiation damage is purposely being created in order to demonstrate its potential usefulness. PMID:15159561

  3. Pilot test specific test plan for the removal of arsenic Socorro, New Mexico.

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Sue S.; Aragon, Malynda Jo; Everett, Randy L.; Siegel, Malcolm Dean; Aragon, Alicia R.; Dwyer, Brian P.; Marbury, Justin Luke

    2006-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is conducting pilot scale evaluations of the performance and cost of innovative drinking water treatment technologies designed to meet the new arsenic maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 10 {micro}g/L (effective January 2006). As currently envisioned, pilots tests may include multiple phases. Phase I tests will involve side-by-side comparisons of several commercial technologies primarily using design parameters suggested by the Vendors. Subsequent tests (Phase II) may involve repeating some of the original tests, testing the same commercial technologies under different conditions and testing experimental technologies or additional commercial technologies. This Pilot Test Specific Test Plan (PTSTP) was written for Phase I of the Socorro Springs Pilot. The objectives of Phase I include evaluation of the treatment performance of five adsorptive media under ambient pH conditions (approximately 8.0) and assessment of the effect of contact time on the performance of one of the media. Addenda to the PTSTP may be written to cover Phase II studies and supporting laboratory studies. The Phase I demonstration began in the winter of 2004 and will last approximately 9 months. The information from the test will help the City of Socorro choose the best arsenic treatment technology for the Socorro Springs well. The pilot demonstration is a project of the Arsenic Water Technology Partnership program, a partnership between the American Water Works Association (AWWA) Research Foundation, SNL, and WERC (A Consortium for Environmental Education and Technology Development).

  4. Odor-Specific Loss of Smell Sensitivity with Age as Revealed by the Specific Sensitivity Test.

    PubMed

    Seow, Yi-Xin; Ong, Peter K C; Huang, Dejian

    2016-07-01

    The perception of odor mixtures plays an important role in human food intake, behavior, and emotions. Decline of smell acuity with normal aging could impact food perception and preferences at various ages. However, since the landmark Smell Survey by National Geographic, little has been elucidated on differences in the onset and extent of loss in olfactory sensitivity toward single odorants. Here, using the Specific Sensitivity test, we show the onset and extent of loss in both identification and detection thresholds of odorants with age are odorant-specific. Subjects of Chinese descent in Singapore (186 women, 95 men), aged 21-80 years, were assessed for olfactory sensitivity of 10 odorants from various odor groups. Notably, subjects in their 70s required 179 times concentration of rose-like odorant (2-phenylethanol) than subjects in the 20s, while thresholds for onion-like 2-methyloxolane-3-thiol only differed by 3 times between the age groups. In addition, identification rate for 2-phenylethanol was negatively correlated with age throughout adult life whereas mushroom-like oct-1-en-3-ol was equally identified by subjects across all ages. Our results demonstrated the girth of differentiated olfactory loss due to normal ageing, which potentially affect overall perception and preferences of odor mixtures with age. PMID:27001718

  5. Accelerated radiation damage test facility using a 5 MV tandem ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wady, P. T.; Draude, A.; Shubeita, S. M.; Smith, A. D.; Mason, N.; Pimblott, S. M.; Jimenez-Melero, E.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a new irradiation facility that allows to perform accelerated damage tests of nuclear reactor materials at temperatures up to 400 °C using the intense proton (<100 μA) and heavy ion (≈10 μA) beams produced by a 5 MV tandem ion accelerator. The dedicated beam line for radiation damage studies comprises: (1) beam diagnosis and focusing optical components, (2) a scanning and slit system that allows uniform irradiation of a sample area of 0.5-6 cm2, and (3) a sample stage designed to be able to monitor in-situ the sample temperature, current deposited on the sample, and the gamma spectrum of potential radio-active nuclides produced during the sample irradiation. The beam line capabilities have been tested by irradiating a 20Cr-25Ni-Nb stabilised stainless steel with a 3 MeV proton beam to a dose level of 3 dpa. The irradiation temperature was 356 °C, with a maximum range in temperature values of ±6 °C within the first 24 h of continuous irradiation. The sample stage is connected to ground through an electrometer to measure accurately the charge deposited on the sample. The charge can be integrated in hardware during irradiation, and this methodology removes uncertainties due to fluctuations in beam current. The measured gamma spectrum allowed the identification of the main radioactive nuclides produced during the proton bombardment from the lifetimes and gamma emissions. This dedicated radiation damage beam line is hosted by the Dalton Cumbrian Facility of the University of Manchester.

  6. Damaged-self recognition in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) shows taxonomic specificity and triggers signaling via reactive oxygen species (ROS)

    PubMed Central

    Duran-Flores, Dalia; Heil, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Plants require reliable mechanisms to detect injury. Danger signals or “damage-associated molecular patterns” (DAMPs) are released from stressed host cells and allow injury detection independently of enemy-derived molecules. We studied the response of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) to the application of leaf homogenate as a source of DAMPs and measured the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as an early response and the secretion of extrafloral nectar (EFN) as a jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent late response. We observed a strong taxonomic signal in the response to different leaf homogenates. ROS formation and EFN secretion were highly correlated and responded most strongly to leaf homogenates produced using the same cultivar or closely related accessions, less to a distantly related cultivar of common bean or each of the two congeneric species, P. lunatus and P. coccineus, and not at all to homogenates prepared from species in different genera, not even when using other Fabaceae. Interestingly, leaf homogenates also reduced the infection by the bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, when they were applied directly before challenging, although the same homogenates exhibited no direct in vitro inhibitory effect in the bacterium. We conclude that ROS signaling is associated to the induction of EFN secretion and that the specific blend of DAMPs that are released from damaged cells allows the plant to distinguish the “damaged-self” from the damaged “non-self.” The very early responses of plants to DAMPs can trigger resistance to both, herbivores and pathogens, which should be adaptive because injury facilitates infection, independently of its causal reason. PMID:25400650

  7. Aquaporin 4-specific T cells and NMO-IgG cause primary retinal damage in experimental NMO/SD.

    PubMed

    Zeka, Bleranda; Hastermann, Maria; Kaufmann, Nathalie; Schanda, Kathrin; Pende, Marko; Misu, Tatsuro; Rommer, Paulus; Fujihara, Kazuo; Nakashima, Ichiro; Dahle, Charlotte; Leutmezer, Fritz; Reindl, Markus; Lassmann, Hans; Bradl, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Neuromyelitis optica/spectrum disorder (NMO/SD) is a severe, inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). In the majority of patients, it is associated with the presence of pathogenic serum autoantibodies (the so-called NMO-IgGs) directed against the water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4), and with the formation of large, astrocyte-destructive lesions in spinal cord and optic nerves. A large number of recent studies using optical coherence tomography (OCT) demonstrated that damage to optic nerves in NMO/SD is also associated with retinal injury, as evidenced by retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning and microcystic inner nuclear layer abnormalities. These studies concluded that retinal injury in NMO/SD patients results from secondary neurodegeneration triggered by optic neuritis.However, the eye also contains cells expressing AQP4, i.e., Müller cells and astrocytes in the retina, epithelial cells of the ciliary body, and epithelial cells of the iris, which raised the question whether the eye can also be a primary target in NMO/SD. Here, we addressed this point in experimental NMO/SD (ENMO) induced in Lewis rat by transfer of AQP4268-285-specific T cells and NMO-IgG.We show that these animals show retinitis and subsequent dysfunction/damage of retinal axons and neurons, and that this pathology occurs independently of the action of NMO-IgG. We further show that in the retinae of ENMO animals Müller cell side branches lose AQP4 reactivity, while retinal astrocytes and Müller cell processes in the RNFL/ganglionic cell layers are spared. These changes only occur in the presence of both AQP4268-285-specific T cells and NMO-IgG.Cumulatively, our data show that damage to retinal cells can be a primary event in NMO/SD. PMID:27503347

  8. Sequence-specific DNA damage induced by ultraviolet A-irradiated folic acid via its photolysis product.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Kazutaka; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Oikawa, Shinji; Kawanishi, Shosuke

    2003-02-15

    DNA damage mediated by photosensitizers participates in solar carcinogenesis. Fluorescence measurement and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis demonstrated that photoirradiated folic acid, one of the photosensitizers in cells, generates pterine-6-carboxylic acid (PCA). Experiments using 32P-labeled DNA fragments obtained from a human gene showed that ultraviolet A-irradiated folic acid or PCA caused DNA cleavage specifically at consecutive G residues in double-stranded DNA after Escherichia coli formamidopyrimidine-DNA glycosylase or piperidine treatment. The amount of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2(')-deoxyguanosine formed through this DNA photoreaction in double-stranded DNA exceeded that in single-stranded DNA. Kinetic studies suggested that DNA damage is caused mainly by photoexcited PCA generated from folic acid rather than by folic acid itself. In conclusion, photoirradiated folic acid generates PCA, which induces DNA photooxidation specifically at consecutive G residues through electron transfer. Excess intake of folic acid supplements may increase a risk of skin cancer by solar ultraviolet light. PMID:12573286

  9. The use of experimental bending tests to more accurate numerical description of TBC damage process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadowski, T.; Golewski, P.

    2016-04-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) have been extensively used in aircraft engines to protect critical engine parts such as blades and combustion chambers, which are exposed to high temperatures and corrosive environment. The blades of turbine engines are additionally exposed to high mechanical loads. These loads are created by the high rotational speed of the rotor (30 000 rot/min), causing the tensile and bending stresses. Therefore, experimental testing of coated samples is necessary in order to determine strength properties of TBCs. Beam samples with dimensions 50×10×2 mm were used in those studies. The TBC system consisted of 150 μm thick bond coat (NiCoCrAlY) and 300 μm thick top coat (YSZ) made by APS (air plasma spray) process. Samples were tested by three-point bending test with various loads. After bending tests, the samples were subjected to microscopic observation to determine the quantity of cracks and their depth. The above mentioned results were used to build numerical model and calibrate material data in Abaqus program. Brittle cracking damage model was applied for the TBC layer, which allows to remove elements after reaching criterion. Surface based cohesive behavior was used to model the delamination which may occur at the boundary between bond coat and top coat.

  10. 40 CFR 798.5200 - Mouse visible specific locus test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... test species. (5) Test report. In addition to the reporting requirements as specified under 40 CFR part... significance desired. (iv) Assignment to groups. Animals shall be randomized and assigned to treatment...

  11. 40 CFR 798.5200 - Mouse visible specific locus test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... test species. (5) Test report. In addition to the reporting requirements as specified under 40 CFR part... significance desired. (iv) Assignment to groups. Animals shall be randomized and assigned to treatment...

  12. 40 CFR 798.5200 - Mouse visible specific locus test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... test species. (5) Test report. In addition to the reporting requirements as specified under 40 CFR part... significance desired. (iv) Assignment to groups. Animals shall be randomized and assigned to treatment...

  13. 40 CFR 798.5200 - Mouse visible specific locus test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... test species. (5) Test report. In addition to the reporting requirements as specified under 40 CFR part... significance desired. (iv) Assignment to groups. Animals shall be randomized and assigned to treatment...

  14. 40 CFR 798.5200 - Mouse visible specific locus test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... test species. (5) Test report. In addition to the reporting requirements as specified under 40 CFR part... significance desired. (iv) Assignment to groups. Animals shall be randomized and assigned to treatment...

  15. Initial stages of cavitation damage and erosion on copper and brass tested in a rotating disk device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, P. V.; Rao, B. C. S.; Rao, N. S. L.

    1982-01-01

    In view of the differences in flow and experimental conditions, there has been a continuing debate as to whether or not the ultrasonic method of producing cavitation damage is similar to the damage occurring in cavitating flow systems, namely, venturi and rotating disk devices. In this paper, the progress of cavitation damage during incubation periods on polycrystalline copper and brass tested in a rotating disk device is presented. The results indicate several similarities and differences in the damage mechanism encountered in a rotating disk device (which simulates field rotary devices) and a magnetostriction apparatus. The macroscopic erosion appears similar to that in the vibratory device except for nonuniform erosion and apparent plastic flow during the initial damage phase.

  16. A novel approach for organelle-specific DNA damage targeting reveals different susceptibility of mitochondrial DNA to the anticancer drugs camptothecin and topotecan

    PubMed Central

    de la Loza, M. C. Díaz; Wellinger, R. E.

    2009-01-01

    DNA is susceptible of being damaged by chemicals, UV light or gamma irradiation. Nuclear DNA damage invokes both a checkpoint and a repair response. By contrast, little is known about the cellular response to mitochondrial DNA damage. We designed an experimental system that allows organelle-specific DNA damage targeting in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. DNA damage is mediated by a toxic topoisomerase I allele which leads to the formation of persistent DNA single-strand breaks. We show that organelle-specific targeting of a toxic topoisomerase I to either the nucleus or mitochondria leads to nuclear DNA damage and cell death or to loss of mitochondrial DNA and formation of respiration-deficient ‘petite’ cells, respectively. In wild-type cells, toxic topoisomerase I–DNA intermediates are formed as a consequence of topoisomerase I interaction with camptothecin-based anticancer drugs. We reasoned that targeting of topoisomerase I to the mitochondria of top1Δ cells should lead to petite formation in the presence of camptothecin. Interestingly, camptothecin failed to generate petite; however, its derivative topotecan accumulates in mitochondria and induces petite formation. Our findings demonstrate that drug modifications can lead to organelle-specific DNA damage and thus opens new perspectives on the role of mitochondrial DNA-damage in cancer treatment. PMID:19151088

  17. ROS-activated anticancer prodrugs: a new strategy for tumor-specific damage

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xiaohua; Gandhi, Varsha

    2013-01-01

    Targeting tumor cells is an important strategy to improve the selectivity of cancer therapies. With the advanced studies in cancer biology, we know that cancer cells are usually under increased oxidative stress. The high level of reactive oxygen species in cancer cells has been exploited for developing novel therapeutic strategies to preferentially kill cancer cells. Our group, amongst others, have used boronic acids/esters as triggers for developing ROS-activated anticancer prodrugs that target cancer cells. The selectivity was achieved by combining a specific reaction between boronates and H2O2 with the efficient masking of drug toxicity in the prodrug via boronates. Prodrugs activated via ferrocene-mediated oxidation have also been developed to improve the selectivity of anticancer drugs. We describe how the strategies of ROS-activation can be used for further development of new ROS-targeting prodrugs, eventually leading to novel approaches and/or combined technology for more efficient and selective treatment of cancers. PMID:22900465

  18. End User Acceptance - Requirements or Specifications, Certification, Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Judith

    2013-01-01

    NASA follows top level safety requirement of two-failure tolerance (t hree levels of controls or design for minimum risk) to all catastroph ic hazards in the design of safe li-ion batteries for space use. ? R igorous development testing at appropriate levels to credible offnominal conditions and review of test data. ? Implement robust design con trols based on test results and test again to confirm safety at the a ppropriate levels. ? Stringent testing of all (100%) flight batteries (from button cells to large batteries).

  19. Laser Damage Lab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Optical Damage Threshold Testing Instrumentation at NASA Langley Research Center. This work was sanctioned and funded by Code Q, R, & AE to develop a new standard for damage testing various types of optical materials and coatings. Laser Induced Damage Threshold (LIDT) testing is a destructive test procedure to determine the minimum applied laser energy level that will result in damage and is referred to as the damage threshold. The damage threshold is often the critical limitation in the section of optical materials for use in high-energy laser systems.The test station consists of diagnostic equipment, beam conditioning optical elements, an inspection microscope and three lasers: a high energy pulsed ND: Yag, which develops 650mJ at 10 hz and outputs three wavelengths which include 1.06m, 532nm and 355 nm; a Ti:sapphire laser which produces a continuum of laser output from 790nm to 900nm; and a alignment HeNe, which looks yellow when mixed with the 2nd harmonic ND:Yag laser. Laser sources are used to perform damage threshold testing at the specific wavelength of interest.

  20. γ-Oryzanol protects against acute cadmium-induced oxidative damage in mice testes.

    PubMed

    Spiazzi, Cristiano C; Manfredini, Vanusa; Barcellos da Silva, Fabiana E; Flores, Erico M M; Izaguirry, Aryele P; Vargas, Laura M; Soares, Melina B; Santos, Francielli W

    2013-05-01

    Cadmium is a non-essential heavy metal that is present at low levels mainly in food and water and also in cigar smoke. The present study evaluated the testicular damage caused by acute cadmium exposure and verified the protective role of γ-oryzanol (ORY). Mice were administrated with a single dose of 2.5mg/kg of CdCl2, and then treated with ORY (50mM in canola oil, 5mL/kg). Testes were removed after 24h and tested for lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein carbonylation, DNA breakage, ascorbic acid, cadmium and non-proteic thiols contents, and for the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and δ-aminolevulic acid dehydratase (δ-ALA-D). Cadmium presented a significant alteration in all parameters, except GPx and CAT activities. Therapy reduced in a slight degree cadmium concentration in testes (around 23%). ORY restored SOD and GST activities as well as TBARS production to the control levels. Furthermore, ORY partially recovered δ-ALA-D activity inhibited by cadmium. This study provides the first evidence on the therapeutic properties of ORY in protecting against cadmium-induced testicular toxicity. PMID:23395783

  1. 40 CFR 86.1375-2007 - Equipment specifications for field testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-Exceed test procedures, use the test procedures and equipment specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart J. ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equipment specifications for field... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1375-2007 Equipment specifications for field testing. For testing...

  2. 40 CFR 86.1375-2007 - Equipment specifications for field testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-Exceed test procedures, use the test procedures and equipment specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart J. ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment specifications for field... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1375-2007 Equipment specifications for field testing. For testing...

  3. 40 CFR 86.1375-2007 - Equipment specifications for field testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-Exceed test procedures, use the test procedures and equipment specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart J. ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equipment specifications for field... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1375-2007 Equipment specifications for field testing. For testing...

  4. Investigation of Ductile Damage in DP980 Steel Sheets Using Mechanical Tests and X-ray Micro-Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, A.; Leguen, C.; Thuillier, S.; Maire, E.

    2011-05-01

    This study is part of a broader research project on the prediction of formability limits in bending on radius of the order of the sheet thickness, based on ductile damage. As a first step, ductile damage in DP980 steel sheet was investigated by means of micro-tomography and mechanical testing, including tensile and simple shear tests. The local strain in tension was measured with a digital image correlation device up to rupture, on macroscopic samples of standard dimensions. Moreover, interrupted tensile tests on smaller specimen were also performed, in order to analyze the void distribution by X-ray micro-tomography. The final aim is to perform numerical simulation of the tests, with Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman model, to take into account the influence of ductile damage on the mechanical behavior. A fair description of the void volume fraction was obtained as well as the stress level, in the case of small-size specimen.

  5. Multi-laboratory validation of SkinEthic HCE test method for testing serious eye damage/eye irritation using liquid chemicals.

    PubMed

    Alépée, N; Leblanc, V; Adriaens, E; Grandidier, M H; Lelièvre, D; Meloni, M; Nardelli, L; Roper, C S; Santirocco, E; Toner, F; Van Rompay, A; Vinall, J; Cotovio, J

    2016-03-01

    A prospective multicentric study of the reconstructed human corneal epithelial tissue-based in vitro test method (SkinEthic™ HCE) was conducted to evaluate its usefulness to identify chemicals as either not classified for serious eye damage/eye irritation (No Cat.) or as classified (Cat. 1/Cat. 2) within UN GHS. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the transferability and reproducibility of the SkinEthic™ HCE EITL protocol for liquids and define its predictive capacity. Briefly, 60 chemicals were three times tested (double blinded) in 3 laboratories and 45 additional chemicals were tested three times in one laboratory. Good within laboratory reproducibility was achieved of at least 88.3% (53/60) and 92.4% (97/105) for the extended data set. Furthermore, the overall concordance between the laboratories was 93.3% (56/60). The accuracy of the SkinEthic™ HCE EITL for the extended dataset, based on bootstrap resampling, was 84.4% (95% CI: 81.9% to 87.6%) with a sensitivity of 99.0% (95% CI: 96.4% to 100%) and specificity of 68.5% (95% CI: 64.0% to 74.0%), thereby meeting all acceptance criteria for predictive capacity. This efficient transferable and reproducible assay is a promising tool to be integrated within a battery of assays to perform an eye irritation risk assessment. PMID:26612353

  6. Hemispheric specificity for proprioception: Postural control of standing following right or left hemisphere damage during ankle tendon vibration.

    PubMed

    Duclos, Noémie C; Maynard, Luc; Abbas, Djawad; Mesure, Serge

    2015-11-01

    Right brain damage (RBD) following stroke often causes significant postural instability. In standing (without vision), patients with RBD are more unstable than those with left brain damage (LBD). We hypothesised that this postural instability would relate to the cortical integration of proprioceptive afferents. The aim of this study was to use tendon vibration to investigate whether these changes were specific to the paretic or non-paretic limbs. 14 LBD, 12 RBD patients and 20 healthy subjects were included. Displacement of the Centre of Pressure (CoP) was recorded during quiet standing, then during 3 vibration conditions (80 Hz - 20s): paretic limb, non-paretic limb (left and right limbs for control subjects) and bilateral. Vibration was applied separately to the peroneal and Achilles tendons. Mean antero-posterior position of the CoP, variability and velocity were calculated before (4s), during and after (24s) vibration. For all parameters, the strongest perturbation was during Achilles vibrations. The Achilles non-paretic condition induced a larger backward displacement than the Achilles paretic condition. This condition caused specific behaviour on the velocity: the LBD group was perturbed at the onset of the vibrations, but gradually recovered their stability; the RBD group was significantly perturbed thereafter. After bilateral Achilles vibration, RBD patients required the most time to restore initial posture. The reduction in use of information from the paretic limb may be a central strategy to deal with risk-of-fall situations such as during Achilles vibration. The postural behaviour is profoundly altered by lesions of the right hemisphere when proprioception is perturbed. PMID:26358149

  7. Comparison of the Bender Gestalt Test for Both Black and White Brain-Damaged Patients Using Two Scoring Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Oliver T.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This study tested for cultural bias in the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test. Subjects were 72 black and white patients diagnosed as either brain damaged or psychiatric. Bender protocols were scored by Pascal-Suttell and Hain systems. No race effect appeared except for the Pascal-Suttell system for which blacks scored significantly better. (Author)

  8. Flight Test of an Adaptive Controller and Simulated Failure/Damage on the NASA NF-15B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buschbacher, Mark; Maliska, Heather

    2006-01-01

    The method of flight-testing the Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) Second Generation (Gen-2) project on the NASA NF-15B is herein described. The Gen-2 project objective includes flight-testing a dynamic inversion controller augmented by a direct adaptive neural network to demonstrate performance improvements in the presence of simulated failure/damage. The Gen-2 objectives as implemented on the NASA NF-15B created challenges for software design, structural loading limitations, and flight test operations. Simulated failure/damage is introduced by modifying control surface commands, therefore requiring structural loads measurements. Flight-testing began with the validation of a structural loads model. Flight-testing of the Gen-2 controller continued, using test maneuvers designed in a sequenced approach. Success would clear the new controller with respect to dynamic response, simulated failure/damage, and with adaptation on and off. A handling qualities evaluation was conducted on the capability of the Gen-2 controller to restore aircraft response in the presence of a simulated failure/damage. Control room monitoring of loads sensors, flight dynamics, and controller adaptation, in addition to postflight data comparison to the simulation, ensured a safe methodology of buildup testing. Flight-testing continued without major incident to accomplish the project objectives, successfully uncovering strengths and weaknesses of the Gen-2 control approach in flight.

  9. The Table of Specifications: Insuring Accountability in Teacher Made Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notar, Charles E.; Zuelke, Dennis C.; Wilson, Janell D.; Yunker, Barbara D.

    2004-01-01

    Teachers have been in the era of accountability for some time. There is an increased demand for accountability and the use of non-referenced testing with President Bush's "No Child Left Behind" initiatives. However, there is a growing demand for less reliance on standardized tests. Admission decisions to colleges and universities are being made…

  10. Visual Testing: An Experimental Assessment of the Encoding Specificity Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMelo, Hermes T.; And Others

    This study of 96 high school biology students investigates the effectiveness of visual instruction composed of simple line drawings and printed words as compared to printed-words-only instruction, visual tests, and the interaction between visual or non-visual mode of instruction and mode of testing. The subjects were randomly assigned to be given…

  11. Overview of reduced enrichment fuels: Development, testing, and specification

    SciTech Connect

    Snelgrove, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The US Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program was established in 1978 to provide the technical means to operate research and test reactors with low enrichment uranium (LEU) fuels without significant penalty in experiment performance, operation costs, component modifications, or safety characteristics. This paper discusses relevant developments in fuel developments. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Metabolic activation of tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate to reactive intermediates. II. Covalent binding, reactive metabolite formation, and differential metabolite-specific DNA damage in vivo.

    PubMed

    Pearson, P G; Omichinski, J G; Holme, J A; McClanahan, R H; Brunborg, G; Søderlund, E J; Dybing, E; Nelson, S D

    1993-02-01

    Analogs of tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate (Tris-BP) either labeled at specific positions with carbon-14 and phosphorus-32 or dual-labeled with both deuterium and tritium were administered to male Wistar rats at a nephrotoxic dose of 360 mumol/kg. The covalent binding of Tris-BP metabolites to hepatic, renal, and testicular proteins was determined after 9 and 24 hr, and plasma concentrations of bis(2,3-dibromopropyl)-phosphate (Bis-BP) formed metabolically from Tris-BP were measured at intervals throughout the initial 9-hr postdosing period. The covalent binding of 14C-Tris-BP metabolites in the kidney (2495 +/- 404 pmol/mg protein) was greater than that in the liver (476 +/- 123 pmol/mg protein) or testes (94 +/- 11 pmol/mg protein); the extent of renal covalent protein binding of Tris-BP metabolites was decreased by 82 and 84% when deuterium was substituted at carbon-2 and carbon-3, respectively. Substitution of Tris-BP with deuterium at carbon-2 or carbon-3 also decreased the mean area under the curve for Bis-BP plasma concentration by 48 and 57%, respectively. The mechanism of Tris-BP-induced renal and hepatic DNA damage was evaluated in Wistar rats by an automated alkaline elution procedure after the administration of analogs of Tris-BP or Bis-BP labeled at specific positions with deuterium. Renal DNA damage was decreased when Tris-BP was substituted with deuterium at either carbon-2 or carbon-3; the magnitude of the change correlated with both a decrease in the area under the Bis-BP plasma curve and a decrease in renal covalent binding of Tris-BP metabolites for each of the deuterated analogs. In marked contrast, analogs of Bis-BP labeled with deuterium at carbon-2 or carbon-3 did not show a decrease in the severity of renal DNA damage compared to unlabeled Bis-BP. On the basis of these observations a metabolic scheme for hepatic P-450-mediated oxidation at either carbon-2 or carbon-3 of Tris-BP affording Bis-BP by two alternate pathways that are susceptible

  13. Finite element prediction with experimental validation of damage distribution in single trabeculae during three-point bending tests.

    PubMed

    Ridha, Hambli; Thurner, Philipp J

    2013-11-01

    There is growing evidence that information on trabecular microarchitecture can improve the assessment of fracture risk. One current strategy is to exploit finite element (FE) analysis applied to experimental data of mechanically loaded single trabecular bone tissue obtained from non-invasive imaging techniques for the investigation of the damage initiation and growth of bone tissue. FE analysis of this type of bone has mainly focused on linear and non-linear analysis to evaluate the bone's failure properties. However, there is a lack of experimentally validated FE damage models at trabecular bone tissue level allowing for the simulation of the progressive damage process (initiation and growth) till complete fracture. Such models are needed to perform enhanced prediction of the apparent failure mechanical properties needed to assess the fracture risk of bone organs. In the current study, we develop a FE model based on a continuum damage mechanics (CDM) approach to simulate the damage initiation and propagation of a single trabecula till complete facture in quasi-static regime. Three-point bending experiments were performed on single bovine trabeculae and compared to FE results. In order to validate the proposed FE mode, (i) the force displacement curve was compared to the experimental one and (ii) the damage distribution was correlated to the measured one obtained by digital image correlation based on stress whitening in bone, reported to be correlated to microdamage. A very good agreement was obtained between the FE and experimental results, indicating that the proposed damage investigation protocol based on FE analysis and testing is reliable to assess the damage behavior of bone tissue and that the current damage model is able to accurately simulate the damaging and fracturing process of single trabeculae under quasi static load. PMID:23890577

  14. Damage Assessment of Creep Tested and Thermally Aged Metallic Alloys Using Acousto-Ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Kautz, Harold E.; Baaklini, George Y.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years emphasis has been placed on the early detection of material changes experienced in turbine powerplant components. During the scheduled overhaul of a turbine, the current techniques of examination of various hot section components aim to find flaws such as cracks, wear, and erosion, as well as excessive deformations. Thus far, these localized damage modes have been detected with satisfactory results. However, the techniques used to find these flaws provide no information on life until the flaws are actually detected. Major improvements in damage assessment, safety, as well as more accurate life prediction could be achieved if nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques could be utilized to sense material changes that occur prior to the localized defects mentioned. Because of elevated temperatures and excessive stresses, turbine components may experience creep behavior. As a result, it is desirable to monitor and access the current condition of such components. Research at the NASA Glenn Research Center involves developing and utilizing an NDE technique that discloses distributed material changes that occur prior to the localized damage detected by the current methods of inspection. In a recent study, creep processes in a nickel-base alloy were the life-limiting condition of interest, and the NDE technique was acousto-ultrasonics (AU). AU is an NDE technique that utilizes two ultrasonic transducers to interrogate the condition of a test specimen. The sending transducer introduces an ultrasonic pulse at a point on the surface of the specimen while a receiving transducer detects the signal after it has passed through the material. The goal of the method is to correlate certain parameters of the detected waveform to characteristics of the material between the two transducers. Here, the waveform parameter of interest is the attenuation due to internal damping for which information is being garnered from the frequency domain. The parameters utilized to

  15. Full-Scale Test and Analysis Results of a PRSEUS Fuselage Panel to Assess Damage Containment Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergan, Andrew; Bakuckas, John G., Jr.; Lovejoy, Andrew; Jegley, Dawn; Linton, Kim; Neal, Bert; Korkosz, Gregory; Awerbuch, Jonathan; Tan, Tein-Min

    2012-01-01

    Integrally stitched composite technology is an area that shows promise in enhancing the structural integrity of aircraft and aerospace structures. The most recent generation of this technology is the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept. The goal of the PRSEUS concept relevant to this test is to provide damage containment capability for composite structures while reducing overall structural weight. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and The Boeing Company have partnered in an effort to assess the damage containment features of a full-scale curved PRSEUS panel using the FAA Full-Scale Aircraft Structural Test Evaluation and Research (FASTER) facility. A single PRSEUS test panel was subjected to axial tension, internal pressure, and combined axial tension and internal pressure loads. The test results showed excellent performance of the PRSEUS concept. No growth of Barely Visible Impact Damage (BVID) was observed after ultimate loads were applied. With a two-bay notch severing the central stringer, damage was contained within the two-bay region well above the required limit load conditions. Catastrophic failure was well above the ultimate load level. Information describing the test panel and procedure has been previously presented, so this paper focuses on the experimental procedure, test results, nondestructive inspection results, and preliminary test and analysis correlation.

  16. Defending the leaf surface: intra- and inter-specific differences in silicon deposition in grasses in response to damage and silicon supply

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Sue E.; Fitt, Rob N.; McLarnon, Emma L.; Wade, Ruth N.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding interactions between grasses and their herbivores is central to the conservation of species-rich grasslands and the protection of our most important crops against pests. Grasses employ a range of defenses against their natural enemies; silicon-based defenses have been shown to be one of the most effective. Silicon (Si) is laid down on the leaf surface as spines and other sharp bodies, known as phytoliths, making grasses abrasive and their foliage indigestible to herbivores. Previous studies on Si defenses found that closely related species may have similar levels of Si in the leaves but differ markedly in abrasiveness. Here we show how the number, shape and distribution of Si-rich phytoliths and spines differ within and between different grass species and demonstrate that species also differ in their ability to change the deposition and distribution of these defenses in response to damage or increases in Si supply. Specifically, we tested the response of two genotypes of Festuca arundinacea known to differ in their surface texture and three different grass species (F. ovina, F. rubra, and Deschampsia cespitosa) differing in their abrasiveness to combined manipulation of leaf damage and Si supply. F. arundinacea plants with a harsh leaf surface had higher Si content and more spines on their leaf surface than soft varieties. F. ovina and D. cespitosa plants increased their leaf Si concentration and produced an increase in the number of leaf spines and phytoliths on the leaf surface in response to Si addition. F rubra also increased leaf Si content in response to treatments, particularly in damaged leaves, but did not deposit this in the form of spines or increased densities of phytoliths. We discuss how the form in which grasses deposit Si may affect their anti-herbivore characteristics and consider the ecological and agricultural implications of the differences in allocation to Si-based defenses between grass species. PMID:25717331

  17. Lessons from two field tests on pipeline damage detection using acceleration measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinozuka, Masanobu; Lee, Sungchil; Kim, Sehwan; Chou, Pai H.

    2011-04-01

    Early detection of pipeline damages has been highlighted in water supply industry. Water pressure change in pipeline due to a sudden rupture causes pipe to vibrate and the pressure change propagates through the pipeline. From the measurement of pipe vibration the rupture can be detected. In this paper, the field test results and observations are provided for implementing next generation of SCADA system for pipeline rupture detection. Two field tests were performed on real buried plastic and metal pipelines for rupture detection. The rupture was simulated by introducing sudden water pressure drop caused by water blow-off and valve control. The measured acceleration data at the pipe surfaces were analyzed in both time and frequency domain. In time domain, the sudden narrow increase of acceleration amplitude was used as an indication of rupture event. For the frequency domain analysis, correlation function and the short time Fourier Transform technique were adopted to trace the dominant frequency shift. The success of rupture detection was found to be dependent on several factors. From the frequency analysis, the dominant frequency of metal water pipe was shifted by the water pressure drop, however, it was hard to identify from the plastic pipeline. Also the influence of existing facility such as airvac on pipe vibrations was observed. Finally, several critical lessons learned in the viewpoint of field measurement are discussed in this paper.

  18. Objective instrumental memory and performance tests for evaluation of patients with brain damage: a search for a behavioral diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Harness, B Z; Bental, E; Carmon, A

    1976-03-01

    Cognition and performance of patients with localized and diffuse brain damage was evaluated through the application of objective perceptual testing. A series of visual perceptual and verbal tests, memory tests, as well as reaction time tasks were administered to the patients by logic programming equipment. In order to avoid a bias due to communicative disorders, all responses were motor, and achievement was scored in terms of correct identification and latencies of response. Previously established norms based on a large sample of non-brain-damaged hospitalized patients served to standardize the performance of the brain-damaged patient since preliminary results showed that age and educational level constitute an important variable affecting performance of the control group. The achievement of brain-damaged patients, corrected for these factors, was impaired significantly in all tests with respect to both recognition and speed of performance. Lateralized effects of brain damage were not significantly demonstrated. However, when the performance was analyzed with respect to the locus of visual input, it was found that patients with right hemispheric lesions showed impairment mainly on perception of figurative material, and that this deficit was more apparent in the left visual field. Conversely, patients with left hemispheric lesions tended to show impairment on perception of visually presented verbal material when the input was delivered to the right visual field. PMID:931718

  19. 30 CFR 7.86 - Test equipment and specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... tunnel shall have the following specifications: (i) Be small enough in diameter to cause turbulent flow... exhaust pipe. (i) The probe length shall be at least 80 percent of the diameter of the exhaust pipe. (ii... feet (0.5 meters) or 3 times the diameter of the exhaust pipe, whichever is the larger, from...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 52 - Performance Specifications and, Specification Test Procedures for Monitoring Systems for Effluent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Performance Specifications and, Specification Test Procedures for Monitoring Systems for Effluent Stream Gas Volumetric Flow Rate E Appendix E to Part 52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 52 - Performance Specifications and, Specification Test Procedures for Monitoring Systems for Effluent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Performance Specifications and, Specification Test Procedures for Monitoring Systems for Effluent Stream Gas Volumetric Flow Rate E Appendix E to Part 52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION...

  2. Assessment of impact damage in Kevlar{reg_sign}-epoxy, filament-wound spherical test specimens by acoustic emission techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, J.W.; Brosey, W.D.; Hamstad, M.A.

    1996-09-26

    The results of a study of the acoustic emission (AE) behavior of impact-damaged, spherical, composite test specimens subjected to thermal cycling and biaxial mechanical loading are presented. Seven Kevlar{reg_sign}-epoxy, filament-wound, spherical composite test specimens were subjected to different levels of impact damage. The seven specimens were a subset of a group of 77 specimens made with simulated fabrication-induced flaws. The specimens were subjected to two or three cycles of elevated temperature and then hydraulically pressurized to failure. The pressurization regime consisted of two cycles to different intermediate levels with a hold at each peak pressure level; a final pressurization to failure followed. The thermal and pressurization cycles were carefully designed to stimulate AE production under defined conditions. Both impacted and nonimpacted specimens produced thermo-AE (the term given to emission stimulated by thermal loading), but impacted specimens produced significantly more. Thermo-AE was produced primarily by damaged composite material. Damaged material produced emission as a function of both rising and falling temperature, but the effect was not repeatable. More seriously damaged specimens produced very large quantities of emission. Emission recorded during the static portion of the hydraulic loading cycles varied with load, time, and degree of damage. Static load AE behavior was quantified using a newly developed concept, the event-rate moment, and various correlations with residual strength were attempted. Correlations between residual strength, long-duration events, and even-rate moments were developed with varying degrees of success.

  3. Innovative Technology For Testing Of Protective Gloves Specific Performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Păun, Florin Adrian; Părăian, Mihaela; Jurca, Adrian; Lupu, Leonard; Berzan, Muntean Florina

    2015-07-01

    Presence of hazards along carrying on the work tasks by operators require making use of personal protective equipment, adequate from ensuring protection standpoint. Protecting workers against hazards implies the personal protective equipment to fulfill certain constructional and safety requirements which are very important for the level of protection that should be ensured. This paperwork aims at identifying the constructional and safety requirements for hand protection equipment, as well as the applicable test methods whose results would allow their farther characterization regarding the protection ensured. Innovative solutions are presented, regarding the test stand for determining the blade cut resistance of protective gloves.

  4. Residual strength and crack propagation tests on C-130 airplane center wings with service-imposed fatigue damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snider, H. L.; Reeder, F. L.; Dirkin, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Fourteen C-130 airplane center wings, each containing service-imposed fatigue damage resulting from 4000 to 13,000 accumulated flight hours, were tested to determine their fatigue crack propagation and static residual strength characteristics. Eight wings were subjected to a two-step constant amplitude fatigue test prior to static testing. Cracks up to 30 inches long were generated in these tests. Residual static strengths of these wings ranged from 56 to 87 percent of limit load. The remaining six wings containing cracks up to 4 inches long were statically tested as received from field service. Residual static strengths of these wings ranged from 98 to 117 percent of limit load. Damage-tolerant structural design features such as fastener holes, stringers, doublers around door cutouts, and spanwise panel splices proved to be effective in retarding crack propagation.

  5. Test validation of environmental barrier coating (EBC) durability and damage tolerance modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Najafi, Ali; Abdi, Frank; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Grady, Joseph E.

    2014-03-01

    Protection of Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs) is rather an important element for the engine manufacturers and aerospace companies to help improve the durability of their hot engine components. The CMC's are typically porous materials which permits some desirable infiltration that lead to strength enhancements. However, they experience various durability issues such as degradation due to coating oxidation. These concerns are being addressed by introducing a high temperature protective system, Environmental Barrier Coating (EBC) that can operate at temperature applications1, 3 In this paper, linear elastic progressive failure analyses are performed to evaluate conditions that would cause crack initiation in the EBC. The analysis is to determine the overall failure sequence under tensile loading conditions on different layers of material including the EBC and CMC in an attempt to develop a life/failure model. A 3D finite element model of a dogbone specimen is constructed for the analyses. Damage initiation, propagation and final failure is captured using a progressive failure model considering tensile loading conditions at room temperature. It is expected that this study will establish a process for using a computational approach, validated at a specimen level, to predict reliably in the future component level performance without resorting to extensive testing.

  6. A test of the oxidative damage hypothesis for discontinuous gas exchange in the locust Locusta migratoria.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Philip G D; Snelling, Edward P; Seymour, Roger S; White, Craig R

    2012-08-23

    The discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC) is a breathing pattern displayed by many insects, characterized by periodic breath-holding and intermittently low tracheal O(2) levels. It has been hypothesized that the adaptive value of DGCs is to reduce oxidative damage, with low tracheal O(2) partial pressures (PO(2) ≈ 2-5 kPa) occurring to reduce the production of oxygen free radicals. If this is so, insects displaying DGCs should continue to actively defend a low tracheal PO(2) even when breathing higher than atmospheric levels of oxygen (hyperoxia). This behaviour has been observed in moth pupae exposed to ambient PO(2) up to 50 kPa. To test this observation in adult insects, we implanted fibre-optic oxygen optodes within the tracheal systems of adult migratory locusts Locusta migratoria exposed to normoxia, hypoxia and hyperoxia. In normoxic and hypoxic atmospheres, the minimum tracheal PO(2) that occurred during DGCs varied between 3.4 and 1.2 kPa. In hyperoxia up to 40.5 kPa, the minimum tracheal PO(2) achieved during a DGC exceeded 30 kPa, increasing with ambient levels. These results are consistent with a respiratory control mechanism that functions to satisfy O(2) requirements by maintaining PO(2) above a critical level, not defend against high levels of O(2). PMID:22491761

  7. Errors on the Trail Making Test Are Associated with Right Hemispheric Frontal Lobe Damage in Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Bruno; Rösser, Nina; Tabeling, Sandra; Stürenburg, Hans Jörg; de Haan, Bianca; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Wessel, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Measures of performance on the Trail Making Test (TMT) are among the most popular neuropsychological assessment techniques. Completion time on TMT-A is considered to provide a measure of processing speed, whereas completion time on TMT-B is considered to constitute a behavioral measure of the ability to shift between cognitive sets (cognitive flexibility), commonly attributed to the frontal lobes. However, empirical evidence linking performance on the TMT-B to localized frontal lesions is mostly lacking. Here, we examined the association of frontal lesions following stroke with TMT-B performance measures (i.e., completion time and completion accuracy measures) using voxel-based lesion-behavior mapping, with a focus on right hemispheric frontal lobe lesions. Our results suggest that the number of errors, but not completion time on the TMT-B, is associated with right hemispheric frontal lesions. This finding contradicts common clinical practice-the use of completion time on the TMT-B to measure cognitive flexibility, and it underscores the need for additional research on the association between cognitive flexibility and the frontal lobes. Further work in a larger sample, including left frontal lobe damage and with more power to detect effects of right posterior brain injury, is necessary to determine whether our observation is specific for right frontal lesions. PMID:26074673

  8. Specification and testing for power by wire aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.; Kenney, Barbara H.

    1993-01-01

    A power by wire aircraft is one in which all active functions other than propulsion are implemented electrically. Other nomenclature are 'all electric airplane,' or 'more electric airplane.' What is involved is the task of developing and certifying electrical equipment to replace existing hydraulics and pneumatics. When such functions, however, are primary flight controls which are implemented electrically, new requirements are imposed that were not anticipated by existing power system designs. Standards of particular impact are the requirements of ultra-high reliability, high peak transient bi-directional power flow, and immunity to electromagnetic interference and lightning. Not only must the electromagnetic immunity of the total system be verifiable, but box level tests and meaningful system models must be established to allow system evaluation. This paper discusses some of the problems, the system modifications involved, and early results in establishing wiring harness and interface susceptibility requirements.

  9. Specification and testing for power by wire aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Irving G.; Kenney, Barbara H.

    1993-08-01

    A power by wire aircraft is one in which all active functions other than propulsion are implemented electrically. Other nomenclature are 'all electric airplane,' or 'more electric airplane.' What is involved is the task of developing and certifying electrical equipment to replace existing hydraulics and pneumatics. When such functions, however, are primary flight controls which are implemented electrically, new requirements are imposed that were not anticipated by existing power system designs. Standards of particular impact are the requirements of ultra-high reliability, high peak transient bi-directional power flow, and immunity to electromagnetic interference and lightning. Not only must the electromagnetic immunity of the total system be verifiable, but box level tests and meaningful system models must be established to allow system evaluation. This paper discusses some of the problems, the system modifications involved, and early results in establishing wiring harness and interface susceptibility requirements.

  10. The 24-2 Visual Field Test Misses Central Macular Damage Confirmed by the 10-2 Visual Field Test and Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Grillo, Lola M.; Wang, Diane L.; Ramachandran, Rithambara; Ehrlich, Alyssa C.; De Moraes, Carlos Gustavo; Ritch, Robert; Hood, Donald C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the extent to which the 24-2 visual field (VF) misses macular damage confirmed with both 10-2 VF and optical coherence tomography (OCT) tests and to evaluate the patterns of damage missed. Methods One hundred forty-one eyes of 141 glaucoma patients or suspects underwent 24-2 VF (mean deviation [MD] better than −6 dB), 10-2 VF, and OCT testing. Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and retinal ganglion cell plus inner plexiform (RGC+) probability plots were combined with 10-2 VF probability plots. Eyes were classified as “abnormal macula” if abnormal regions on both the 10-2 VF and OCT plots agreed. The number of abnormal eyes missed (i.e., false negatives) was determined for the following 24-2 VF metrics: MD; pattern standard deviation (PSD); glaucoma hemifield test (GHT); cluster criteria (CC); and abnormal points within ± 10°. Eyes that were missed on one or more of the 24-2 metrics were classified by damage type based upon circumpapillary RNFL thickness plots. Results Fifty-nine (41.8%) eyes were classified as “abnormal macula,” and comprised the reference standard. Of the 59, 31 (52.5%) were missed by one or more of the 24-2 metrics. The individual 24-2 metrics missed between 7 (CC) and 20 (MD) eyes. The eyes missed had widespread macular damage, as well as both shallow and deep local defects. Conclusions Eyes with macular glaucomatous damage may be classified as normal based on the 24-2 VF alone. Translational Relevance To detect macular damage with perimetry, the 10-2 VF test (or a modified 24-2 VF test) is essential. PMID:27134774

  11. 21 CFR 866.5550 - Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system. 866.5550 Section 866.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Test Systems § 866.5550 Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system....

  12. 21 CFR 866.5550 - Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system. 866.5550 Section 866.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Test Systems § 866.5550 Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system....

  13. 21 CFR 866.5550 - Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system. 866.5550 Section 866.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Test Systems § 866.5550 Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system....

  14. 21 CFR 866.5550 - Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system. 866.5550 Section 866.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Test Systems § 866.5550 Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system....

  15. 21 CFR 866.5550 - Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system. 866.5550 Section 866.5550 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Test Systems § 866.5550 Immunoglobulin (light chain specific) immunological test system....

  16. The lack of target specificity of small molecule anticancer kinase inhibitors is correlated with their ability to damage myocytes in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Hasinoff, Brian B. Patel, Daywin

    2010-12-01

    Many new targeted small molecule anticancer kinase inhibitors are actively being developed. However, the clinical use of some kinase inhibitors has been shown to result in cardiotoxicity. In most cases the mechanisms by which they exert their cardiotoxicity are not well understood. We have used large scale profiling data on 8 FDA-approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors and 10 other kinase inhibitors to a panel of 317 kinases in order to correlate binding constants and kinase inhibitor binding selectivity scores with kinase inhibitor-induced damage to neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. The 18 kinase inhibitors that were the subject of this study were: canertinib, dasatinib, dovitinib, erlotinib, flavopiridol, gefitinib, imatinib, lapatinib, midostaurin, motesanib, pazopanib, sorafenib, staurosporine, sunitinib, tandutinib, tozasertib, vandetanib and vatalanib. The combined tyrosine kinase and serine-threonine kinase selectivity scores were highly correlated with the myocyte-damaging effects of the kinase inhibitors. This result suggests that myocyte damage was due to a lack of target selectivity to binding of both tyrosine kinases and serine-threonine kinases, and was not due to binding to either group specifically. Finally, the strength of kinase inhibitor binding for 290 kinases was examined for correlations with myocyte damage. Kinase inhibitor binding was significantly correlated with myocyte damage for 12 kinases. Thus, myocyte damage may be multifactorial in nature with the inhibition of a number of kinases involved in producing kinase inhibitor-induced myocyte damage.

  17. The lack of target specificity of small molecule anticancer kinase inhibitors is correlated with their ability to damage myocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hasinoff, Brian B; Patel, Daywin

    2010-12-01

    Many new targeted small molecule anticancer kinase inhibitors are actively being developed. However, the clinical use of some kinase inhibitors has been shown to result in cardiotoxicity. In most cases the mechanisms by which they exert their cardiotoxicity are not well understood. We have used large scale profiling data on 8 FDA-approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors and 10 other kinase inhibitors to a panel of 317 kinases in order to correlate binding constants and kinase inhibitor binding selectivity scores with kinase inhibitor-induced damage to neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. The 18 kinase inhibitors that were the subject of this study were: canertinib, dasatinib, dovitinib, erlotinib, flavopiridol, gefitinib, imatinib, lapatinib, midostaurin, motesanib, pazopanib, sorafenib, staurosporine, sunitinib, tandutinib, tozasertib, vandetanib and vatalanib. The combined tyrosine kinase and serine-threonine kinase selectivity scores were highly correlated with the myocyte-damaging effects of the kinase inhibitors. This result suggests that myocyte damage was due to a lack of target selectivity to binding of both tyrosine kinases and serine-threonine kinases, and was not due to binding to either group specifically. Finally, the strength of kinase inhibitor binding for 290 kinases was examined for correlations with myocyte damage. Kinase inhibitor binding was significantly correlated with myocyte damage for 12 kinases. Thus, myocyte damage may be multifactorial in nature with the inhibition of a number of kinases involved in producing kinase inhibitor-induced myocyte damage. PMID:20832415

  18. Thermography inspection for detection and tracking of composite cylinder damage during load testing

    SciTech Connect

    Zalameda, J. N.; Winfree, W. P.; Johnston, P. H.; Seebo, J. P.

    2011-06-23

    Two thermography techniques, passive and active, are used to detect damage initiation and progression in a cyclically loaded composite cylinder. The passive thermography tracks damage progression in real time during cyclic loading. Active flash thermography, using a flash tube enclosed within the cylinder, images delaminations. A differential thermography processing technique eliminates normal material variations and improves sensitivity to and sizing of delaminations. The thermography results were compared to non-immersion ultrasonic results.

  19. Damage testing of critical optical components for high power ultra-fast lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Enam; Poole, Patrick; Jiang, Sheng; Taylor, Brittany; Daskalova, Rebecca; Van Woerkom, Linn; Freeman, Richard; Smith, Douglas

    2010-11-01

    Mirrors and gratings used in high power ultra fast lasers require a broad bandwidth and high damage fluence, which is essential to the design and construction of petawatt class short pulse lasers. Damage fluence of several commercially available high energy broad band dielectric mirrors with over 100 nm bandwidth at 45 degree angle of incidence, and pulse compression reflection gratings with gold coating with varying processing conditions is studied using a 25 femtosecond ultra-fast laser.

  20. Thermography Inspection for Detection and Tracking of Composite Cylinder Damage During Load Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, J. N.; Winfree, W. P.; Seebo, J. P.; Johnston, P. H.

    2010-01-01

    Two thermography techniques, passive and active, are used to detect damage initiation and progression in a cyclically loaded composite cylinder. The passive thermography tracks damage progression in real time during cyclic loading. Active flash thermography, using a flash tube enclosed within the cylinder, images delaminations in a cylinder under different loads. A differential thermography processing technique eliminates normal material variations and improves sensitivity to and sizing of delaminations. The thermography results were compared to nonimmersion ultrasonic results.

  1. Fluence Thresholds for Laser-Induced Damage of Optical Components in the Injector Laser of the SSRL Gun Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Boton, P

    2005-01-31

    Damage threshold fluences for several optical components were measured at three wavelengths using the injector laser at SSRL's Gun Test Facility. Measurements were conducted using the fundamental ir wavelength at 1053 nanometers and harmonics at 526 nm and 263 nm with 3.4ps pulses (1/e{sup 2} full width intensity); ir measurements were also conducted with 850 ps pulses. Practical surfaces relevant to the laser system performance are emphasized. Damage onset was evidenced by an alteration of the specular reflection of a cw probe laser (650 nm) from the irradiated region of the target surface. For the case of stretched ir pulses, damage to a Nd:glass rod was observed to begin at a site within the bulk material and to progress back toward the incident surface.

  2. Proceedings of the Advisory Committee on Standardization of Carbon-Phenolic Test Methods and Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, W.B.

    1990-04-01

    Topics addressed include: Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) activity; low fired PAN fiber program review; carbon fabric oxidation mass loss; gel permeation chromatography (GPC) test methodology; carbon assay testing; and NAR rayon yarn specifications.

  3. Dimethylarginine Dimethylaminohydrolase1 Is an Organ-Specific Mediator of End Organ Damage in a Murine Model of Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sydow, Karsten; Schmitz, Christine; von Leitner, Eike-Christin; von Leitner, Robin; Klinke, Anna; Atzler, Dorothee; Krebs, Christian; Wieboldt, Hartwig; Ehmke, Heimo; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Meinertz, Thomas; Blankenberg, Stefan; Böger, Rainer H.; Magnus, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Background The endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular and overall mortality. Moreover, elevated ADMA plasma concentrations are associated with the extent of hypertension. However, data from small-sized clinical trials and experimental approaches using murine transgenic models have revealed conflicting results regarding the impact of ADMA and its metabolizing enzyme dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Methodology/Principal Findings Therefore, we investigated the role of ADMA and DDAH1 in hypertension-induced end organ damage using the uninephrectomized, deoxycorticosterone actetate salt, and angiotensin II-induced hypertension model in human DDAH1 (hDDAH1) overexpressing and wild-type (WT) mice. ADMA plasma concentrations differed significantly between hDDAH1 and WT mice at baseline, but did not significantly change during the induction of hypertension. hDDAH1 overexpression did not protect against hypertension-induced cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy. In addition, the hypertension-induced impairment of the endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of aortic segments ex vivo was not significantly attenuated by hDDAH1 overexpression. However, hDDAH1 mice displayed an attenuated hypertensive inflammatory response in renal tissue, resulting in less hypertensive renal injury. Conclusion/Significance Our data reveal that hDDAH1 organ-specifically modulates the inflammatory response in this murine model of hypertension. The lack of protection in cardiac and aortic tissues may be due to DDAH1 tissue selectivity and/or the extent of hypertension by the used combined model. However, our study underlines the potency of hDDAH1 overexpression in modulating inflammatory processes as a crucial step in the pathogenesis of hypertension, which needs further experimental and clinical investigation. PMID:23110194

  4. Damage Characterization of Glass/Epoxy Composite Under Three-Point Bending Test Using Acoustic Emission Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashmforoush, Farzad; Fotouhi, Mohamad; Ahmadi, Mehdi

    2012-07-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) technique is an efficient non-destructive method for detection and identification of various damage mechanisms in composite materials. Discrimination of AE signals related to different damage modes is of great importance in the use of this technique. For this purpose, integration of k-means algorithm and genetic algorithm (GA) was used in this study to cluster AE events of glass/epoxy composite during three-point bending test. Performing clustering analysis, three clusters with separate frequency ranges were obtained, each one representing a distinct damage mechanism. Furthermore, time-frequency analysis of AE signals was performed based on wavelet packet transform (WPT). In order to find the dominant components associated with different damage mechanisms, the energy distribution criterion was used. The frequency ranges of the dominant components were then compared with k-means genetic algorithm (KGA) outputs. Finally, SEM observation was utilized to validate the results. The obtained results indicate good performance of the proposed methods in the damage characterization of composite materials.

  5. Evaluating Specification Tests in the Context of Value-Added Estimation. Working Paper #38

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Reckase, Mark D.; Stacy, Brian W.; Wooldridge, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    We study the properties of two specification tests that have been applied to a variety of estimators in the context of value-added measures (VAMs) of teacher and school quality: the Hausman test for choosing between random and fixed effects and a test for feedback (sometimes called a "falsification test"). We discuss theoretical…

  6. Evaluating Specification Tests in the Context of Value-Added Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Reckase, Mark D.; Stacy, Brian W.; Wooldridge, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    We study the properties of two specification tests that have been applied to a variety of estimators in the context of value-added measures (VAMs) of teacher and school quality: the Hausman test for choosing between student-level random and fixed effects, and a test for feedback (sometimes called a "falsification test"). We discuss…

  7. Effect of mechanical damage on emission of volatile organic compounds from plant leaves and implications for evaluation of host plant specificity of prospective biological control agents of weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessment of host plant specificity is a critical step in the evaluation of classical biological control agents of weeds, which is necessary for avoiding possible damage to nontarget plants. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted by plants likely play an important role in determining which plant...

  8. STAGE-SPECIFIC DAMAGE TO SYNAPTONEMAL COMPLEXES AND METAPHASE CHROMOSOME INDUCED BY X RAYS IN MALE MOUSE GERM CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Synaptonemal complexes (SCs) reveal mutagen-induced effects in germ cell meiotic chromosomes. his study was aimed at characterizing relationships between SC and metaphase I chromosome damage following radiation exposure at various stages of spermatogenesis. Male mice were irradia...

  9. The cardiotoxicity and myocyte damage caused by small molecule anticancer tyrosine kinase inhibitors is correlated with lack of target specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Hasinoff, Brian B.

    2010-04-15

    The use of the new anticancer tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) has revolutionized the treatment of certain cancers. However, the use of some of these results in cardiotoxicity. Large-scale profiling data recently made available for the binding of 7 of the 9 FDA-approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors to a panel of 317 kinases has allowed us to correlate kinase inhibitor binding selectivity scores with TKI-induced damage to neonatal rat cardiac myocytes. The tyrosine kinase selectivity scores, but not the serine-threonine kinase scores, were highly correlated with the myocyte damaging effects of the TKIs. Additionally, we showed that damage to myocytes gave a good rank order correlation with clinical cardiotoxicity. Finally, strength of TKI binding to colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) was highly correlated with myocyte damage, thus possibly implicating this kinase in contributing to TKI-induced cardiotoxicity.

  10. Analysis of the Deformation and Damage Mechanisms of Pearlitic Steel by EBSD and "in-situ" SEM Tensile Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidhom, Habib; Yahyaoui, H.; Braham, C.; Gonzalez, G.

    2015-07-01

    The processes governing the deformation and damage of C70 pearlitic steel were investigated in nanometer and micrometer scales using electron backscatter diffraction technique and "in-situ" scanning electron microscope tensile testing. The ferrite behavior was identified by "in-situ" x-ray tensile tests. Investigations were carried out on annealed microstructure with two interlamellar spacings of Sp = 170 and Sp = 230 nm. It is shown that pearlite yielding is controlled by the deformation mechanisms occurring in ferrite. Deformation and damage mechanisms were proposed. At low strain, pearlite deforms homogeneously with low misorientation (<5°) inside the pearlite colonies and elongates the cementite plates. At high strain, pearlite deforms heterogeneously in intense localized shear bands inside the more favorably oriented pearlite colonies. Misorientation reaches values up to 15°. Cementite deforms by an offset of lamella along the shear bands. The nucleation of these shear bands occurs at strain level of E 11 = 7% for coarse pearlite and at a higher value for fine pearlite. Damage occurs by brittle fracture of the elongated cementite lamellae parallel to the tensile axis and which are developed by shear micro-cracks along the slip bands. The plastic-induced damage is thus delayed by the fine pearlite structure.

  11. Physics-based damage predictions for simulating testing and evaluation (T and E) experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Addessio, F.L.; Schraad, M.W.; Lewis, M.W.

    1999-03-01

    This is the final report of a two-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This report addresses the need to develop computational techniques and physics-based material models for simulating damage to weapons systems resulting from ballistic threats. Modern weapons systems, such as fighter aircraft, are becoming more dependent upon composite materials to reduce weight, to increase strength and stiffness, and to resist adverse conditions resulting from high temperatures and corrosion. Unfortunately, damaged components can have severe and detrimental effects, as evidenced by statistics from Desert Storm indicating that 75% of aircraft losses were attributable to fuel system vulnerability with hydrodynamic ram being the primary kill mechanism. Therefore, this project addresses damage predictions for composite systems that are subjected to ballistic threats involving hydrodynamic ram. A computational technique for simulating fluid-solid interaction phenomena and physics-based material models have been developed for this purpose.

  12. Damage evolution in GLARE fibre-metal laminate under repeated low-velocity impact tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morinière, Freddy; Alderliesten, René; Tooski, Mehdi; Benedictus, Rinze

    2012-12-01

    An experimental study was performed on the repeated low-velocity impact behaviour of GLARE. Damage evolution in the material constituents was characterised with successive number of impacts. Records were correlated with visual inspection, ultrasound C-scan and chemical etching. The stiffness of the plate varied when cumulating the number of impacts. Damage accumulation was limited thanks to the synthesis of unidirectional composite and metal. The glass/epoxy plies with high elastic tensile strength could withstand several impacts before perforation despite delamination growth in the vicinity of the impacted area. The damage tolerant aluminium layers prevented the penetration of the projectile and avoided the expansion of delamination. This efficient mechanism preserved the structural integrity of GLARE until first aluminium cracking at the non-impacted side. Among the different failure modes, plate deformation absorbed most of the impact energy. The findings will support the development of a generic quasi-static analytical model and numerical methods.

  13. Project W-314 Specific Test and Evaluation Plan 241-AN-B Valve Pit

    SciTech Connect

    HAMMERS, J.S.

    1999-08-25

    This Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) defines the test and evaluation activities performed on the 241-AN-B Valve Pit for the W-314 Project. The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made to the 241-AN-A Valve Pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system's performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a lower tier document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP).

  14. Project W-314 specific test and evaluation plan for 241-AY-01A pump pit upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, W.H.

    1998-05-19

    This Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) defines the test and evaluation activities encompassing the upgrade of the 241-AY-0IA Pump Pit for the W-314 Project. The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made to the 241-AY-01A Pump Pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system`s performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a lower tier document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP).

  15. Project W-314 specific test and evaluation plan for 241-AY-02A pump pit upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, W.H.

    1998-05-19

    This Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) defines the test and evaluation activities encompassing the upgrade of the 241-AY-02A Pump Pit for the W-314 Project. The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made to the 241-AY-02A Pump Pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system`s performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a lower tier document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP).

  16. Second IEA Mathematics Study. Suggested Tables of Specifications for the IEA Mathematics Tests. Working Paper I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Wellington (New Zealand).

    This working paper presents specifications for the test items to be used in the second mathematics study to be conducted by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). A content-by-behaviors grid is presented for two population levels, with specifics for each dimension outlines and examples of test items…

  17. Acoustic Emission and Damage Accumulation for Various Woven C/SiC Composites Tested in Tension at Room Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.; Petko, Jeanne; Kiser, James D.; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Modal acoustic emission (AE) has proven to be an excellent technique to monitor damage accumulation in ceramic matrix composites. In this study, AE was used to monitor tensile load-unload-reload hysteresis tests for a variety of C fiber reinforced, SiC matrix composites. C/SiC composites were reinforced with T300 and IM7 fibers, had C, multilayer, or pseudo-porous C interphases, and had chemical vapor infiltrated SiC or melt-infiltrated SiC matrices. All of the composites exhibited considerable AE during testing. The extent and nature of the AE activity will be analyzed and discussed in light of matrix cracking and the variety of composite constituents. It is hoped that understanding the nature of stress dependent damage accumulation in these materials can be of use in life modeling for these types of composites.

  18. Acoustic Emission and Damage Accumulation for Various Woven C/SiC Composites Tested in Tension at Room Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory; Petko, Jeanne; Kiser, James D.

    2002-01-01

    Modal acoustic emission (AE) has proven to be an excellent technique to monitor damage accumulation in ceramic matrix composites. In this study, AE was used to monitor tensile load-unload-reload hysteresis tests for a variety of C fiber reinforced, Sic matrix composites. C/SiC composites were reinforced with T-300 and IM7 fibers, had C, multilayer, or pseudo-porous C interphases, and had chemical vapor infiltrated Sic or melt-infiltrated SiC matrices. All of the composites exhibited considerable AE during testing. The extent and nature of the AE activity will be analyzed and discussed in light of matrix cracking and the variety of composite constituents. It is hoped that understanding the nature of stress-dependent damage accumulation in these materials can be of use in life-modeling for these types of composites.

  19. FANCJ helicase uniquely senses oxidative base damage in either strand of duplex DNA and is stimulated by replication protein A to unwind the damaged DNA substrate in a strand-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Suhasini, Avvaru N; Sommers, Joshua A; Mason, Aaron C; Voloshin, Oleg N; Camerini-Otero, R Daniel; Wold, Marc S; Brosh, Robert M

    2009-07-01

    FANCJ mutations are genetically linked to the Fanconi anemia complementation group J and predispose individuals to breast cancer. Understanding the role of FANCJ in DNA metabolism and how FANCJ dysfunction leads to tumorigenesis requires mechanistic studies of FANCJ helicase and its protein partners. In this work, we have examined the ability of FANCJ to unwind DNA molecules with specific base damage that can be mutagenic or lethal. FANCJ was inhibited by a single thymine glycol, but not 8-oxoguanine, in either the translocating or nontranslocating strands of the helicase substrate. In contrast, the human RecQ helicases (BLM, RECQ1, and WRN) display strand-specific inhibition of unwinding by the thymine glycol damage, whereas other DNA helicases (DinG, DnaB, and UvrD) are not significantly inhibited by thymine glycol in either strand. In the presence of replication protein A (RPA), but not Escherichia coli single-stranded DNA-binding protein, FANCJ efficiently unwound the DNA substrate harboring the thymine glycol damage in the nontranslocating strand; however, inhibition of FANCJ helicase activity by the translocating strand thymine glycol was not relieved. Strand-specific stimulation of human RECQ1 helicase activity was also observed, and RPA bound with high affinity to single-stranded DNA containing a single thymine glycol. Based on the biochemical studies, we propose a model for the specific functional interaction between RPA and FANCJ on the thymine glycol substrates. These studies are relevant to the roles of RPA, FANCJ, and other DNA helicases in the metabolism of damaged DNA that can interfere with basic cellular processes of DNA metabolism. PMID:19419957

  20. A neuropsychological test of belief and doubt: damage to ventromedial prefrontal cortex increases credulity for misleading advertising.

    PubMed

    Asp, Erik; Manzel, Kenneth; Koestner, Bryan; Cole, Catherine A; Denburg, Natalie L; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We have proposed the False Tagging Theory (FTT) as a neurobiological model of belief and doubt processes. The theory posits that the prefrontal cortex is critical for normative doubt toward properly comprehended ideas or cognitions. Such doubt is important for advantageous decisions, for example in the financial and consumer purchasing realms. Here, using a neuropsychological approach, we put the FTT to an empirical test, hypothesizing that focal damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) would cause a "doubt deficit" that would result in higher credulity and purchase intention for consumer products featured in misleading advertisements. We presented 8 consumer ads to 18 patients with focal brain damage to the vmPFC, 21 patients with focal brain damage outside the prefrontal cortex, and 10 demographically similar healthy comparison participants. Patients with vmPFC damage were (1) more credulous to misleading ads; and (2) showed the highest intention to purchase the products in the misleading advertisements, relative to patients with brain damage outside the prefrontal cortex and healthy comparison participants. The pattern of findings was obtained even for ads in which the misleading bent was "corrected" by a disclaimer. The evidence is consistent with our proposal that damage to the vmPFC disrupts a "false tagging mechanism" which normally produces doubt and skepticism for cognitive representations. We suggest that the disruption increases credulity for misleading information, even when the misleading information is corrected for by a disclaimer. This mechanism could help explain poor financial decision-making when persons with ventromedial prefrontal dysfunction (e.g., caused by neurological injury or aging) are exposed to persuasive information. PMID:22787439

  1. Structural changes and damage of single-crystal turbine blades during life tests of an aviation gas turbine engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ospennikova, O. G.; Orlov, M. R.; Kolodochkina, V. G.; Nazarkin, R. M.

    2015-04-01

    The irreversible structural changes of the single-crystal ZhS32-VI nickel superalloy blades of a high-pressure turbine that occur during life tests of a gas turbine engine are studied. The main operation damages in the hottest section of the blade airfoil are found to be the fracture of the heat-resistant coating in the leading edge and the formation of thermomechanical fatigue cracks. The possibility of reconditioning repair of the blades is considered.

  2. Spectral and temperature-dependent infrared emissivity measurements of painted metals for improved temperature estimation during laser damage testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Sean M.; Keenan, Cameron; Marciniak, Michael A.; Perram, Glen P.

    2014-10-01

    A database of spectral and temperature-dependent emissivities was created for painted Al-alloy laser-damage-testing targets for the purpose of improving the uncertainty to which temperature on the front and back target surfaces may be estimated during laser-damage testing. Previous temperature estimates had been made by fitting an assumed gray-body radiance curve to the calibrated spectral radiance data collected from the back surface using a Telops Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS). In this work, temperature-dependent spectral emissivity measurements of the samples were made from room temperature to 500 °C using a Surface Optics Corp. SOC-100 Hemispherical Directional Reflectometer (HDR) with Nicolet FTS. Of particular interest was a high-temperature matte-black enamel paint used to coat the rear surfaces of the Al-alloy samples. The paint had been assumed to have a spectrally flat and temperatureinvariant emissivity. However, the data collected using the HDR showed both spectral variation and temperature dependence. The uncertainty in back-surface temperature estimation during laser-damage testing made using the measured emissivities was improved from greater than +10 °C to less than +5 °C for IFTS pixels away from the laser burn-through hole, where temperatures never exceeded those used in the SOC-100 HDR measurements. At beam center, where temperatures exceeded those used in the SOC-100 HDR, uncertainty in temperature estimates grew beyond those made assuming gray-body emissivity. Accurate temperature estimations during laser-damage testing are useful in informing a predictive model for future high-energy-laser weapon applications.

  3. Dynamic changes in hypermnesia across early and late tests: a relational/item-specific account.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, M A; Moore, B A; Whiteman, H L

    1998-01-01

    Two experiments tested predictions derived from R. R. Hunt and M. A. McDaniel's (1993) relational/item-specific account of hypermnesia. According to this framework, participants encoding relational information should show greater hypermnesia on early test trials than on later test trials. In contrast, participants encoding item-specific information should show greater hypermnesia on later test trials than on early test trials. These predictions were not anticipated by other accounts but were confirmed by the results. Further, the patterns of reminiscence and intertest forgetting supported the theoretical underpinnings of these predictions. A 3rd experiment examined some factors by which item-specific encoding might enhance reminiscence (and thus hypermnesia) on later test trials. These results suggested that a richer set of encoded attributes rather than a fluctuating retrieval plan supported the beneficial effects of item-specific encoding on reminiscence. PMID:9438958

  4. Slow Crack Growth Analysis of Advanced Structural Ceramics Under Combined Loading Conditions: Damage Assessment in Life Prediction Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2000-01-01

    Slow crack growth analysis was performed with three different loading histories including constant stress-rate/constant stress-rate testing (Case I loading), constant stress/constant stress-rate testing (Case II loading), and cyclic stress/constant stress-rate testing (Case III loading). Strength degradation due to slow crack growth arid/or damage accumulation was determined numerically as a Function of percentage of interruption time between the two loading sequences for a given loading history. The numerical solutions were examined with the experimental data determined at elevated temperatures using four different advanced ceramic materials, two silicon nitrides, one silicon carbide and one alumina for the Case I loading history, and alumina for the Case II loading history. The numerical solutions were in reasonable agreement with the experimental data, indicating that notwithstanding some degree of creep deformation presented for some test materials slow crack growth was a governing mechanism associated with failure for all the test material&

  5. Slow Crack Growth Analysis of Advanced Structural Ceramics Under Combined Loading Conditions: Damage Assessment in Life Prediction Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Sung R.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2000-01-01

    Slow crack growth analysis was performed with three different loading histories including constant stress-rate/constant stress-rate testing (Case 1 loading), constant stress/constant stress-rate testing (Case 2 loading), and cyclic stress/constant stress-rate testing (Case 2 loading). Strength degradation due to slow crack growth and/or damage accumulation was determined numerically as a function of percentage of interruption time between the two loading sequences for a given loading history. The numerical solutions were examined with the experimental data determined at elevated temperatures using four different advanced ceramic materials, two silicon nitrides, one silicon carbide and one alumina for the Case 1 loading history, and alumina for the Case 3 loading history. The numerical solutions were in reasonable agreement with the experimental data, indicating that notwithstanding some degree of creep deformation presented for some test materials slow crack growth was a governing mechanism associated with failure for all the test materials.

  6. Assessment of Damage Containment Features of a Full-Scale PRSEUS Fuselage Panel Through Test and Teardown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergan, Andrew C.; Bakuckas, John G., Jr.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Jegley, Dawn C.; Awerbuch, Jonathan; Tan, Tein-Min

    2012-01-01

    An area that shows promise in enhancing structural integrity of aircraft and aerospace structures is the integrally stitched composite technology. The most recent generation of this technology is the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept developed by Boeing Research and Technology and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. A joint test program on the assessment of damage containment capabilities of the PRSEUS concept for curved fuselage structures was conducted recently at the Federal Aviation Administration William J. Hughes Technical Center. The panel was subjected to axial tension, internal pressure, and combined axial tension and internal pressure load conditions up to fracture, with a through-the-thickness, two-bay notch severing the central stiffener. For the purpose of future progressive failure analysis development and verification, extensive post failure nondestructive and teardown inspections were conducted. Detailed inspections were performed directly ahead of the notch tip where stable damage progression was observed. These examinations showed: 1) extensive delaminations developed ahead of the notch tip, 2) the extent and location of damage, 3) the typical damage mechanisms observed in composites, and 4) the role of stitching and warp-knitting in the failure mechanisms. The objective of this paper is to provide a summary of results from these posttest inspections.

  7. Negative and Positive Testing Effects in Terms of Item-Specific and Relational Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Though retrieving information typically results in improved memory on a subsequent test (the testing effect), Peterson and Mulligan (2013) outlined the conditions under which retrieval practice results in poorer recall relative to restudy, a phenomenon dubbed the "negative testing effect." The item-specific-relational account proposes…

  8. Simplification of Fatigue Test Requirements for Damage Tolerance of Composite Interstage Launch Vehicle Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nettles, A. T.; Hodge, A. J.; Jackson, J. R.

    2010-01-01

    The issue of fatigue loading of structures composed of composite materials is considered in a requirements document that is currently in place for manned launch vehicles. By taking into account the short life of these parts, coupled with design considerations, it is demonstrated that the necessary coupon level fatigue data collapse to a static case. Data from a literature review of past studies that examined compressive fatigue loading after impact and data generated from this experimental study are presented to support this finding. Damage growth, in the form of infrared thermography, was difficult to detect due to rapid degradation of compressive properties once damage growth initiated. Unrealistically high fatigue amplitudes were needed to fail 5 of 15 specimens before 10,000 cycles were reached. Since a typical vehicle structure, such as the Ares I interstage, only experiences a few cycles near limit load, it is concluded that static compression after impact (CAI) strength data will suffice for most launch vehicle structures.

  9. Recent development in the design, testing and impact-damage tolerance of stiffened composite panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. G.; Anderson, M. S.; Rhodes, M. D.; Starnes, J. H., Jr.; Stroud, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    Structural technology of laminated filamentary-composite stiffened-panel structures under combined inplane and lateral loadings is discussed. Attention is focused on: (1) methods for analyzing the behavior of these structures under load and for determining appropriate structural proportions for weight-efficient configurations; and (2) effects of impact damage and geometric imperfections on structural performance. Recent improvements in buckling analysis involving combined inplane compression and shear loadings and transverse shear deformations are presented. A computer code is described for proportioning or sizing laminate layers and cross-sectional dimensions, and the code is used to develop structural efficiency data for a variety of configurations, loading conditions, and constraint conditions. Experimental data on buckling of panels under inplane compression is presented. Mechanisms of impact damage initiation and propagation are described.

  10. Development of a force specification for a force-limited random vibration test

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, R.R.

    1996-02-01

    Vibration testing, techniques have been developed and employed that reduce the overtesting caused by the essentially infinite mechanical impedance of the shaker in conventional vibration tests. With these ``force-limiting`` techniques, two vibration test specifications are used: the conventional acceleration specification, and an interface force specification. The vibration level of the shake table is controlled such that neither the table acceleration nor the force transmitted to the test item exceeds its specification, hence the name ``dual control`` vibration test. The effect of limiting the shake table vibration to the force specification is to reduce (``notch``) the shaker acceleration near some of the test item`s resonance frequencies. Several methods of deriving the force specification have been described in the literature. A new method is proposed in this paper that is based on a modal method of coupling two dynamic systems, in this case the ``source`` or launch vehicle, and the ``load`` or payload. The only information that is required is an experimentally-measurable frequency-response function (FRF) called the dynamic mass for both the source and the load. The method, referred to as the coupled system, modal approach (CSMA) method, is summarized and compared to an existing method of determining the force specification for force-limited vibration testing.

  11. Negative and positive testing effects in terms of item-specific and relational information.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Neil W; Peterson, Daniel J

    2015-05-01

    Though retrieving information typically results in improved memory on a subsequent test (the testing effect), Peterson and Mulligan (2013) outlined the conditions under which retrieval practice results in poorer recall relative to restudy, a phenomenon dubbed the negative testing effect. The item-specific-relational account proposes that this occurs when retrieval disrupts interitem relational encoding despite enhancing item-specific information. Four experiments examined the negative testing effect, showing the following: (a) The basic phenomenon is replicable in free recall; (b) it extends to category-cued recall; (c) it converts to a positive testing effect when the final test is recognition, a test heavily reliant on item-specific information; (d) the negative testing effect in recall, robust in a pure list design, reverses to a positive testing effect in a mixed-list design; and (e) more generally, the present testing manipulation interacts with experimental design, such that an initially negative effect becomes positive or an initially positive effect becomes larger as the design changes from pure-list to mixed-list. The breadth of results fits well within the item-specific-relational framework and provides evidence against 2 alternative accounts. Finally, this research indicates that the testing effect shares important similarities with the generation effect and other similar memory phenomena. PMID:25181496

  12. Project W-314 specific test and evaluation plan for AZ tank farm upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, W.H.

    1998-08-12

    The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made by the addition of the SN-631 transfer line from the AZ-O1A pit to the AZ-02A pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system`s performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a lower tier document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation P1 an (TEP). Testing includes Validations and Verifications (e.g., Commercial Grade Item Dedication activities, etc), Factory Tests and Inspections (FTIs), installation tests and inspections, Construction Tests and Inspections (CTIs), Acceptance Test Procedures (ATPs), Pre-Operational Test Procedures (POTPs), and Operational Test Procedures (OTPs). The STEP will be utilized in conjunction with the TEP for verification and validation.

  13. Quasi-Static 3-Point Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Bend Test and Analysis for Shuttle Orbiter Wing Leading Edge Impact Damage Thresholds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.; Sotiris, Kellas

    2006-01-01

    Static 3-point bend tests of Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) were conducted to failure to provide data for additional validation of an LS-DYNA RCC model suitable for predicting the threshold of impact damage to shuttle orbiter wing leading edges. LS-DYNA predictions correlated well with the average RCC failure load, and were good in matching the load vs. deflection. However, correlating the detectable damage using NDE methods with the cumulative damage parameter in LS-DYNA material model 58 was not readily achievable. The difficulty of finding internal RCC damage with NDE and the high sensitivity of the mat58 damage parameter to the load near failure made the task very challenging. In addition, damage mechanisms for RCC due to dynamic impact of debris such as foam and ice and damage mechanisms due to a static loading were, as expected, not equivalent.

  14. Slow Crack Growth Analysis of Advanced Structural Ceramics Under Combined Loading Conditions: Damage Assessment in Life Prediction Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, S. R.; Gyekenyesi, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    Slow crack growth analysis was performed with three different loading histories including constant stress- rate/constant stress-rate testing (Case I loading), constant stress/constant stress-rate testing (Case II loading), and cyclic stress/constant stress-rate testing (Case III loading). Strength degradation due to slow crack growth and/or damage accumulation was determined numerically as a function of percentage of interruption time between the two loading sequences for a given loading history. The numerical solutions were examined with the experimental data determined at elevated temperatures using four different advanced ceramic materials, two silicon nitrides, one silicon carbide and one alumina for the Case I loading history, and alumina for the Case II loading history. The numerical solutions were in reasonable agreement with the experimental data, indicating that notwithstanding some degree of creep deformation presented for some test materials slow crack growth was a governing mechanism associated with failure for all the rest materials.

  15. Hydrogen test of a small, low specific speed centrifugal pump stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A small, low specific speed centrifugal pump stage with a 2 inch tip diameter, .030 inch tip width shrouded impeller and volute collector was tested with liquid hydrogen as the pumped fluid. The hydrodynamic design of the pump stage is summarized and the noncavitating and cavitating performance results are presented. Test speeds were 60 and 80 percent of the 77,000 rpm design speed. Liquid hydrogen test results are compared with data from previous tests of the stage in water.

  16. Project W-314 Specific Test and Evaluation Plan 241-AN-A Valve Pit

    SciTech Connect

    HAMMERS, J.S.

    1999-08-25

    The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made to the 241-AN-A Valve Pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system's performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a lower tier document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP).

  17. Project W-314 specific test and evaluation plan for 241-AN-A valve pit

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, W.H.

    1998-06-25

    The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made to the 241-AN-A Valve Pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system`s performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a lower tier document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP).

  18. Project W-314 specific test and evaluation plan 241-AN-B valve pit

    SciTech Connect

    Hays, W.H.

    1998-04-08

    The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of modifications made to the 241-AN-B Valve Pit by the W-314 Project. The STEP develops the outline for test procedures that verify the system`s performance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a lower tier document based on the W-314 Test and Evaluation Plan (TEP).

  19. Project W-314 Specific Test and Evaluation Plan for 200E Waste Transfer System

    SciTech Connect

    HAMMERS, J.S.

    2000-02-25

    The purpose of this Specific Test and Evaluation Plan (STEP) is to provide a detailed written plan for the systematic testing of the newly constructed 200E Waste Transfer System in the W-314 Project. The STEP provides the outline for test and evaluation methods that verify the system's performance and compliance to the established Project design criteria. The STEP is a ''lower tier'' document based on the W-314 Test & Evaluation Plan (TEP).

  20. [Usefulness of the integration between the values of the 1-hour blood xylose test and the hydrogen breath-test after xylose oral load for the indirect evaluation of mucosa damage].

    PubMed

    Zaniboni, M G; Lambertini, A; Romeo, N; Albini, P; Pozzi, M

    1985-01-01

    Considering 50 children affected by sub-acute gastrointestinal diseases by severe growth disorders, we have compared the "one-hour blood xylose test" with the "xylose and lactose H2 breath test, looking for a relationship with the duodeno-jejunal mucosal damage. Finally the integration between the "one hour blood xylose test" and the "xylose H2 breath test" may be useful in order to compare more exactly the results of both xylose tests with the mucosal damage. Lactose H2 breath test seems less reliable for our purposes because of the possible presence of children with lactase deficiences, hardly comparable with the mucosal damage. PMID:4094911

  1. Development of composite material test methodology for fractue toughness/damage tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, M. V.

    1986-01-01

    Fracture toughness testing techniques for composite materials are reviewed for simplicity, applicability to filament wound systems, and correlation with fracture mechanics preinciples. Toughness test results are repesented for homogeneous epoxy and graphite reinforced epoxy.

  2. NDE Evidence for the Damage Arrestment Performance of PRSEUS Composite Cube During High-Pressure Load Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Patrick H.; Parker, F. Raymond

    2013-01-01

    As an approach to light-weight, cost-effective and manufacturable structures required to enable the hybrid wing body aircraft, The Boeing Company, Inc. and NASA have developed the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept. A PRSEUS pressure cube was developed as a risk reduction test article to examine a new integral cap joint concept as part of a building block approach for technology development of the PRSEUS concept. The overall specimen strength exceeded the 18.4 psi load requirement as testing resulted in the cube reaching a final pressure load of around 48 psi prior to catastrophic failure. The cube pressure test verified that the joints and structure were capable of sustaining the required loads, and represented the first testing of joined PRSEUS structure. This paper will address the damage arrestment performance of the stitched PRSEUS structure. Following catastrophic failure of the cube, ultrasonic pulse-echo inspection found that the localized damage, surrounding a barely-visible impact damage site, did not change noticeably between just after impact and catastrophic failure of the cube, and did not play a role in the catastrophic failure event. Ultrasonic inspection of the remaining intact cube panels presented three basic types of indications: delaminations between laminae parallel to the face sheets, lying between face sheet and tear strap layers, or between tear strap and flange layers; delaminations above the noodles of stringers, frames or integral caps, lying within face sheet or tear strap layers; and delaminations between the laminae in the inner fillets of the integral caps, where pulloff stresses were expected to be highest. Delaminations of all three types were predominantly contained by the first row of stitches encountered. For the small fraction of delaminations extending beyond the first row of stitches, all were contained by the second stitch row.

  3. NDE evidence for the damage arrestment performance of PRSEUS composite cube during high-pressure load test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Patrick H.; Parker, F. Raymond

    2014-02-01

    As an approach to light-weight, cost-effective and manufacturable structures required to enable the hybrid wing body aircraft, The Boeing Company, Inc. and NASA have developed the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept. A PRSEUS pressure cube was developed as a risk reduction test article to examine a new integral cap joint concept as part of a building block approach for technology development of the PRSEUS concept. The overall specimen strength exceeded the 18.4 psi load requirement as testing resulted in the cube reaching a final pressure load of around 48 psi prior to catastrophic failure. The cube pressure test verified that the joints and structure were capable of sustaining the required loads, and represented the first testing of joined PRSEUS structure. This paper will address the damage arrestment performance of the stitched PRSEUS structure. Following catastrophic failure of the cube, ultrasonic pulse-echo inspection found that the localized damage, surrounding a barely-visible impact damage site, did not change noticeably between just after impact and catastrophic failure of the cube, and did not play a role in the catastrophic failure event. Ultrasonic inspection of the remaining intact cube panels presented three basic types of indications: delaminations between laminae parallel to the face sheets, lying between face sheet and tear strap layers, or between tear strap and flange layers; delaminations above the noodles of stringers, frames or integral caps, lying within face sheet or tear strap layers; and delaminations between the laminae in the inner fillets of the integral caps, where pulloff stresses were expected to be highest. Delaminations of all three types were predominantly contained by the first row of stitches encountered. For the small fraction of delaminations extending beyond the first row of stitches, all were contained by the second stitch row.

  4. Specific features of corrosion damage to heat-transfer tubes of steam generators used at nuclear power stations equipped with VVER-1000 reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemytov, D. S.; Tyapkov, V. F.

    2009-07-01

    Specific features of corrosion damage occurring to the heat-transfer tubes of steam generators used at nuclear power stations equipped with VVER-1000 reactors are considered. The results obtained from metallographic studies of flaws found in samples cut out from steam-generator tubes are analyzed. Regularities with which flaws of steam-generator tubes are distributed over the tube bundle volume are discussed. Approaches for assessing the technical state and remaining service life of steam-generator tubes are presented.

  5. Communicative Language Testing: Implications for Computer Based Language Testing in French for Specific Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García Laborda, Jesús; López Santiago, Mercedes; Otero de Juan, Nuria; Álvarez Álvarez, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Current evolutions of language testing have led to integrating computers in FSP assessments both in oral and written communicative tasks. This paper deals with two main issues: learners' expectations about the types of questions in FSP computer based assessments and the relation with their own experience. This paper describes the experience…

  6. Claims, Evidence and Achievement Level Descriptors as a Foundation for Item Design and Test Specifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Amy; Huff, Kristen; Luecht, Ric

    2009-01-01

    [Slides] presented at the Annual Meeting of National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME) in San Diego, CA in April 2009. This presentation describes how the vehicles for gathering student evidence--task models and test specifications--are developed.

  7. Geologic Assessment of the Damage Zone from the Second Test at Source Physics Experiment-Nevada (SPE-N)

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, M. J.; Huckins-Gang, H. E.; Prothro, L. B.; Reed, D. N.

    2012-12-01

    The National Center for Nuclear Security, established by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), is conducting a series of explosive tests at the Nevada National Security Site that are designed to increase the understanding of certain basic physical phenomena associated with underground explosions. These tests will aid in developing technologies that might be used to detect underground nuclear explosions in support of verification activities for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. The initial project is a series of explosive tests, known collectively as the Source Physics Experiment-Nevada (SPE-N), being conducted in granitic rocks. The SPE-N test series is designed to study the generation and propagation of seismic waves. The results will help advance the seismic monitoring capability of the United States by improving the predictive capability of physics-based modeling of explosive phenomena. The first SPE N (SPE-N-1) test was conducted in May 2011, using 100 kg of explosives at the depth of 54.9 m in the U 15n source hole. SPE-N-2 was conducted in October 2011, using 1,000 kg of explosives at the depth of 45.7 m in the same source hole. The SPE-N-3 test was conducted in the same source hole in July 2012, using the same amount and type of explosive as for SPE-N-2, and at the same depth as SPE-N-2, within the damage zone created by the SPE-N-2 explosion to investigate damage effects on seismic wave propagation. Following the SPE-N-2 shot and prior to the SPE-N-3 shot, the core hole U-15n#10 was drilled at an angle from the surface to intercept the SPE-N-2 shot point location to obtain information necessary to characterize the damage zone. The objective was to determine the position of the damage zone near the shot point, at least on the northeast, where the core hole penetrated it, and obtain information on the properties of the damaged medium. Geologic characterization of the post-SPE-N-2 core hole included

  8. Deficiency of the oxidative damage-specific DNA glycosylase NEIL1 leads to reduced germinal center B cell expansion

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Hiromi; Ouchida, Rika; Hijikata, Atsushi; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Ohara, Osamu; Li, Yingqian; Gao, Xiang; Yasui, Akira; Lloyd, R. Stephen; Wang, Ji-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian cells possess multiple DNA glycosylases, including OGG1, NTH1, NEIL1, NEIL2 and NEIL3, for the repair of oxidative DNA damage. Among these, NEIL1 and NEIL2 are able to excise oxidized bases on single stranded or bubble-structured DNA and has been implicated in repair of oxidative damage associated with DNA replication or transcription. We found that Neil1 was highly constitutively expressed in the germinal center (GC) B cells, a rapidly dividing cell population that is undergoing immunoglobulin (Ig) gene hypermutation and isotype switching. While Neil1−/− mice exhibited normal B and T cell development and maturation, these mice contained a significantly lower frequency of GC B cells than did WT mice after immunization with a T-dependent antigen. Consistent with the reduced expansion of GC B cells, Neil1−/− mice had a decreased frequency of Ig gene hypermutation and produced less antibody against a T-dependent antigen during both primary and secondary immune responses. These results suggest that repair of endogenous oxidative DNA damage by NEIL1 is important for the rapid expansion of GC B cells and efficient induction of humoral immune responses. PMID:19782007

  9. Structure-specific DNA endonuclease Mus81/Eme1 generates DNA damage caused by Chk1 inactivation.

    PubMed

    Forment, Josep V; Blasius, Melanie; Guerini, Ilaria; Jackson, Stephen P

    2011-01-01

    The DNA-damage checkpoint kinase Chk1 is essential in higher eukaryotes due to its role in maintaining genome stability in proliferating cells. CHK1 gene deletion is embryonically lethal, and Chk1 inhibition in replicating cells causes cell-cycle defects that eventually lead to perturbed replication and replication-fork collapse, thus generating endogenous DNA damage. What is the cause of replication-fork collapse when Chk1 is inactivated, however, remains poorly understood. Here, we show that generation of DNA double-strand breaks at replication forks when Chk1 activity is compromised relies on the DNA endonuclease complex Mus81/Eme1. Importantly, we show that Mus81/Eme1-dependent DNA damage--rather than a global increase in replication-fork stalling--is the cause of incomplete replication in Chk1-deficient cells. Consequently, Mus81/Eme1 depletion alleviates the S-phase progression defects associated with Chk1 deficiency, thereby increasing cell survival. Chk1-mediated protection of replication forks from Mus81/Eme1 even under otherwise unchallenged conditions is therefore vital to prevent uncontrolled fork collapse and ensure proper S-phase progression in human cells. PMID:21858151

  10. Statistical analysis and ground-based testing of the on-orbit Space Shuttle damage detection sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Brian H.; Tanner, Elizabeth A.; Carter, John P.; Kamerman, Gary W.; Schwartz, Robert

    2005-05-01

    The loss of Space Shuttle Columbia and her crew led to the creation of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB), which concluded that a piece of external fuel tank insulating foam impacted the Shuttle"s wing leading edge. The foam created a hole in the reinforced carbon/carbon (RCC) insulating material which gravely compromised the Shuttle"s thermal protection system (TPS). In response to the CAIB recommendation, the upcoming Return to Flight Shuttle Mission (STS-114) NASA will include a Shuttle deployed sensor suite which, among other sensors, will include two laser sensing systems, Sandia National Lab"s Laser Dynamic Range Imager (LDRI) and Neptec"s Laser Camera System (LCS) to collect 3-D imagery of the Shuttle"s exterior. Herein is described a ground-based statistical testing procedure that will be used by NASA as part of a damage detection performance assessment studying the performance of each of the two laser radar systems in detecting and identifying impact damage to the Shuttle. A statistical framework based on binomial and Bayesian statistics is used to describe the probability of detection and associated statistical confidence. A mock-up of a section of Shuttle wing RCC with interchangeable panels includes a random pattern of 1/4" and 1" diameter holes on the simulated RCC panels and is cataloged prior to double-blind testing. A team of ladar sensor operators will acquire laser radar imagery of the wing mock-up using a robotic platform in a laboratory at Johnson Space Center to execute linear image scans of the wing mock-up. The test matrix will vary robotic platform motion to simulate boom wobble and alter lighting and background conditions at the 6.5 foot and 10 foot sensor-wing stand-off distances to be used on orbit. A separate team of image analysts will process and review the data and characterize and record the damage that is found. A suite of software programs has been developed to support hole location definition, damage disposition

  11. Verification of force and acceleration specifications for random vibration tests of Cassini spacecraft equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Kurng Y.; Scharton, Terry D.

    1996-01-01

    The use of force limiting in the random vibration testing of the Cassini spacecraft's subsystems is reported on. A verification of the Cassini equipment random vibration test acceleration and force specifications is provided by interface acceleration and force data measured in acoustic tests of the Cassini spacecraft development test model (DTM). Acoustic tests were performed on the DTM structure with different structural and equipment configurations. The acceleration and force spectra at the interface between the equipment items and the spacecraft DTM structure were measured in the acoustic tests and compared with the equipment random vibration test specifications. The spacecraft's apparent masses were measured at the equipment mounting points and used in force limit predictions.

  12. A closure test for time-specific capture-recapture data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, T.R.; Burnham, K.P.

    1999-01-01

    The assumption of demographic closure in the analysis of capture-recapture data under closed-population models is of fundamental importance. Yet, little progress has been made in the development of omnibus tests of the closure assumption. We present a closure test for time-specific data that, in principle, tests the null hypothesis of closed-population model M(t) against the open-population Jolly-Seber model as a specific alternative. This test is chi-square, and can be decomposed into informative components that can be interpreted to determine the nature of closure violations. The test is most sensitive to permanent emigration and least sensitive to temporary emigration, and is of intermediate sensitivity to permanent or temporary immigration. This test is a versatile tool for testing the assumption of demographic closure in the analysis of capture-recapture data.

  13. Further observations on the specific red cell adherence test: effects of radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Richie, J.P.; Yap, W.T.

    1981-04-01

    To assess the effects of radiation therapy on the specific red cell adherence test we have evaluated 33 patients who underwent cystectomy for bladder cancer and in whom radiotherapy had been used. With this test negative tumors were found in 32 of the 33 cases. In a second series of 10 patients histologic examinations were done by biopsy before radiotherapy and by subsequent microscopic examination of the cystectomy specimen. The specific red cell adherence test results remained constant in all of these cases. These findings strongly suggest that 1) the specific red cell adherence test does remain negative after radiotherapy and 2) this test is a valuable prognosticator of the future likelihood of invasion in all patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder.

  14. Geologic Assessment of the Damage Zone from the Second Test at Source Physics Experiment-Nevada (SPE-N)

    SciTech Connect

    ,

    2012-09-18

    The National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS), established by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, is conducting a series of explosive tests at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS; formerly the Nevada Test Site) that are designed to increase the understanding of certain basic physical phenomena associated with underground explosions. These tests will aid in developing technologies that might be used to detect underground nuclear explosions in support of verification activities for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The initial NCNS project is a series of explosive tests, known collectively as the Source Physics Experiment at the NNSS (SPE-N), being conducted in granitic rocks at the Climax stock in northern Yucca Flat. The SPE-N test series is designed to study the generation and propagation of seismic waves. The data will be used to improve the predictive capability of calculational models for detecting and characterizing underground explosions. The first SPE-N test (SPE-N-1) was a “calibration” shot conducted in May 2011, using 100 kilograms (kg) of explosives at the depth of 54.9 meters (m) (180 feet [ft]) in the U-15n source hole. SPE-N-2 was conducted in October 2011, using 1,000 kg of explosives at the depth of 45.7 m (150 ft) in the same source hole. Following the SPE-N-2 test, the core hole U-15n#10 was drilled at an angle from the surface to intercept the SPE-N-2 shot point location to obtain information necessary to characterize the damage zone. The desire was to determine the position of the damage zone near the shot point, at least on the northeast side, where the core hole penetrated it. The three-dimensional shape and symmetry of the damage zone are unknown at this time. Rather than spherical in shape, the dimensions of the damage zone could be influenced by the natural fracture sets in the vicinity. Geologic characterization of the borehole included geophysical logging, a directional survey

  15. The Psychological Construct of Encoding Specificity and Its Relationship to Designing Instruction and Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canelos, James; And Others

    The effects of encoding specificity were evaluated for learners: (1) in a typical classroom group learning environment, (2) receiving an audiovisual presentation on an academic subject, and (3) in a group testing environment. Encoding specificity involves the interaction between the encoding phase of memory or the learning context, the stored…

  16. 49 CFR 180.509 - Requirements for inspection and test of specification tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... specification tank cars. 180.509 Section 180.509 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND MAINTENANCE OF PACKAGINGS Qualification and Maintenance of Tank Cars § 180.509 Requirements for inspection and test of specification tank cars. (a) General. Each tank car owner must...

  17. 49 CFR 180.509 - Requirements for inspection and test of specification tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... specification tank cars. 180.509 Section 180.509 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation...) CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND MAINTENANCE OF PACKAGINGS Qualification and Maintenance of Tank Cars § 180.509 Requirements for inspection and test of specification tank cars. (a) General. Each tank car owner must...

  18. Testing Time-Invariance of Variable Specificity in Repeated Measure Designs Using Structural Equation Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Amemiya, Yasuo

    2008-01-01

    A structural equation modeling method for examining time-invariance of variable specificity in longitudinal studies with multiple measures is outlined, which is developed within a confirmatory factor-analytic framework. The approach represents a likelihood ratio test for the hypothesis of stability in the specificity part of the residual term…

  19. On the Use of a Test to Exhaustion Specific to Tennis (TEST) with Ball Hitting by Elite Players

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to a) introduce a new Test to Exhaustion Specific to Tennis (TEST) and compare performance (test duration) and physiological responses to those obtained during the 20-m multistage shuttle test (MSST), and b) determine to which extent those variables correlate with performance level (tennis competitive ranking) for both test procedures. Methods Twenty-seven junior players (8 males, 19 females) members of the national teams of the French Tennis Federation completed MSST and TEST, including elements of the game (ball hitting, intermittent activity, lateral displacement), in a randomized order. Cardiorespiratory responses were compared at submaximal (respiratory compensation point) and maximal loads between the two tests. Results At the respiratory compensation point oxygen uptake (50.1 ± 4.7 vs. 47.5 ± 4.3 mL.min-1.kg-1, p = 0.02), but not minute ventilation and heart rate, was higher for TEST compared to MSST. However, load increment and physiological responses at exhaustion did not differ between the two tests. Players’ ranking correlated negatively with oxygen uptake measured at submaximal and maximal loads for both TEST (r = -0.41; p = 0.01 and -0.55; p = 0.004) and MSST (r = -0.38; P = 0.05 and -0.51; p = 0.1). Conclusion Using TEST provides a tennis-specific assessment of aerobic fitness and may be used to prescribe aerobic exercise in a context more appropriate to the game than MSST. Results also indicate that VO2 values both at submaximal and maximal load reached during TEST and MSST are moderate predictors of players competitive ranking. PMID:27035342

  20. Application of nondestructive testing methods to study the damage zone underneath impact craters of MEMIN laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Dorothee; Poelchau, Michael H.; Stark, Florian; Grosse, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Within the framework of the Multidisciplinary Experimental and Modeling Impact Research Network (MEMIN) research group, the damage zones underneath two experimentally produced impact craters in sandstone targets were investigated using several nondestructive testing (NDT) methods. The 20 × 20 × 20 cm sandstones were impacted by steel projectiles with a radius of 1.25 mm at approximately 5 km s-1, resulting in craters with approximately 6 cm diameter and approximately 1 cm depth. Ultrasound (US) tomography and vibrational analysis were applied before and after the impact experiments to characterize the damage zone, and micro-computer tomography (μ-CT) measurements were performed to visualize subsurface fractures. The newly obtained experimental data can help to quantify the extent of the damage zone, which extends to about 8 cm depth in the target. The impacted sandstone shows a local p-wave reduction of 18% below the crater floor, and a general reduction in elastic moduli by between approximately 9 and approximately 18%, depending on the type of elastic modulus. The results contribute to a better empirical and theoretical understanding of hypervelocity events and simulations of cratering processes.

  1. Arterial damages in acute elbow dislocations: which diagnostic tests are required?

    PubMed

    Lutter, Christoph; Pfefferkorn, Ronny; Schoeffl, Volker

    2016-01-01

    Blunt vessel injuries of peripheral arteries caused by a direct trauma are rare. Studies have described the frequency of arterial ruptures following closed elbow dislocations in 0.3-1.7% of all cases. However, arterial damage does not always necessarily appear as a complete rupture of the vessel with a loss of peripheral circulation and ischaemic symptoms; a relatively strong periarticular system of collaterals can maintain circulation. Furthermore, the traumatic dislocation can also cause intimal tears, arterial dissections and aneurysms or thrombosis. In all cases of vessel injury, including total disruption, a peripheral pulse might still be palpable. 3 weeks after an acute elbow dislocation, we have diagnosed a patient with a long-segment stenosis of the brachial artery and a thrombosis of the radial artery. Therefore, the close anatomic proximity to the neurovascular structures should always be considered in cases of elbow dislocations, even if peripheral pulses are traceable. PMID:27436035

  2. Protease Activity of PprI Facilitates DNA Damage Response: Mn(2+)-Dependence and Substrate Sequence-Specificity of the Proteolytic Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Huiming; Lin, Lin; Wang, Liangyan; Xu, Hong; Cui, Xianyan; Zhang, Hui; Li, Tingting; Hua, Yuejin

    2015-01-01

    The extremophilic bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans exhibits an extraordinary resistance to ionizing radiation. Previous studies established that a protein named PprI, which exists only in the Deinococcus-Thermus family, acts as a general switch to orchestrate the expression of a number of DNA damage response (DDR) proteins involved in cellular radio-resistance. Here we show that the regulatory mechanism of PprI depends on its Mn(2+)-dependent protease activity toward DdrO, a transcription factor that suppresses DDR genes’ expression. Recognition sequence-specificity around the PprI cleavage site is essential for DNA damage repair in vivo. PprI and DdrO mediate a novel DNA damage response pathway differing from the classic LexA-mediated SOS response system found in radiation-sensitive bacterium Escherichia coli. This PprI-mediated pathway in D. radiodurans is indispensable for its extreme radio-resistance and therefore its elucidation significantly advances our understanding of the DNA damage repair mechanism in this amazing organism. PMID:25811789

  3. Protease activity of PprI facilitates DNA damage response: Mn2+-dependence and substrate sequence-specificity of the proteolytic reaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunguang; Xu, Qiang; Lu, Huiming; Lin, Lin; Wang, Liangyan; Xu, Hong; Cui, Xianyan; Zhang, Hui; Li, Tingting; Hua, Yuejin

    2015-01-01

    The extremophilic bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans exhibits an extraordinary resistance to ionizing radiation. Previous studies established that a protein named PprI, which exists only in the Deinococcus-Thermus family, acts as a general switch to orchestrate the expression of a number of DNA damage response (DDR) proteins involved in cellular radio-resistance. Here we show that the regulatory mechanism of PprI depends on its Mn(2+)-dependent protease activity toward DdrO, a transcription factor that suppresses DDR genes' expression. Recognition sequence-specificity around the PprI cleavage site is essential for DNA damage repair in vivo. PprI and DdrO mediate a novel DNA damage response pathway differing from the classic LexA-mediated SOS response system found in radiation-sensitive bacterium Escherichia coli. This PprI-mediated pathway in D. radiodurans is indispensable for its extreme radio-resistance and therefore its elucidation significantly advances our understanding of the DNA damage repair mechanism in this amazing organism. PMID:25811789

  4. Ubiquitin-specific Peptidase 10 (USP10) Deubiquitinates and Stabilizes MutS Homolog 2 (MSH2) to Regulate Cellular Sensitivity to DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mu; Hu, Chen; Tong, Dan; Xiang, Shengyan; Williams, Kendra; Bai, Wenlong; Li, Guo-Min; Bepler, Gerold; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2016-05-13

    MSH2 is a key DNA mismatch repair protein, which plays an important role in genomic stability. In addition to its DNA repair function, MSH2 serves as a sensor for DNA base analogs-provoked DNA replication errors and binds to various DNA damage-induced adducts to trigger cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Loss or depletion of MSH2 from cells renders resistance to certain DNA-damaging agents. Therefore, the level of MSH2 determines DNA damage response. Previous studies showed that the level of MSH2 protein is modulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, and histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) serves as an ubiquitin E3 ligase. However, the deubiquitinating enzymes, which regulate MSH2 remain unknown. Here we report that ubiquitin-specific peptidase 10 (USP10) interacts with and stabilizes MSH2. USP10 deubiquitinates MSH2 in vitro and in vivo Moreover, the protein level of MSH2 is positively correlated with the USP10 protein level in a panel of lung cancer cell lines. Knockdown of USP10 in lung cancer cells exhibits increased cell survival and decreased apoptosis upon the treatment of DNA-methylating agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and antimetabolite 6-thioguanine (6-TG). The above phenotypes can be rescued by ectopic expression of MSH2. In addition, knockdown of MSH2 decreases the cellular mismatch repair activity. Overall, our results suggest a novel USP10-MSH2 pathway regulating DNA damage response and DNA mismatch repair. PMID:26975374

  5. Toward a mechanistic understanding of the damage evolution of SnAgCu solder joints in accelerated thermal cycling test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahin Shirazi, Sam

    Accelerated thermal cycling (ATC) tests are the most commonly used tests for the thermo-mechanical performance assessment of microelectronics assemblies. Currently used reliability models have failed to incorporate the microstructural dependency of lead free solder joint behavior and its microstructure evolution during cycling. Thus, it is essential to have a mechanistic understanding of the effect of cycling parameters on damage evolution and failure of lead free solder joints in ATC. Recrystallization has been identified as the damage rate controlling mechanism in ATC. Usually it takes 1/3 of life for completion of recrystallization regardless of cycling parameters. Thus, the life of the solder joints can be predicted by estimating global recrystallization. The objective of the first part of the study was to examine whether the damage scenario applies in service is the same as the harsh thermal cycling tests (i.e. 0/100 °C and -40/125 °C) commonly used in industry. Microstructure analysis results on a variety of lead free solder SnAgCu assemblies subjected to the both harsh (0/100 °C) and mild (20/80 °C) ATC confirmed similar failure mechanism under the both testing conditions. Sn grain morphology (interlaced versus beach ball) has a significant effect on the thermo-mechanical performance (and thus the model) of the lead free solder joints. The longer thermal cycling lifetime observed in the interlaced solder joints subjected to the ATC compared to the beach ball structure was correlated to the different initial microstructure and the microstructure evolution during cycling. For the modeling proposes, the present study was focused on Sn-Ag-Cu solder joints with either a single Sn grain or beach ball structure. Microstructural analysis results of the simulated thermal cycling experiment revealed that, the life can be approximated as determined by the accumulation of a certain amount of work during the high temperature dwells. Finally the effect of precipitates

  6. Comparison of Severity Ratings on Norm-Referenced Tests for Children with Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spaulding, Tammie J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the consistency in severity classifications for children with language impairment on tests of child language. Methods: The TELD-3 and the UTLD-4 were administered to 16 preschool children with specific language impairment (SLI) and 16 typical controls. The boundaries described in the test manuals were used to assign…

  7. Specific Resistance. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooley, John F.

    A commonly used test for determining filterability of conditioned sludge is the specific resistance (Buchner funnel) test. The sludge is filtered through filter paper using a Buchner funnel, and the time needed to obtain a given volume of filtrate (or for cake residue to begin to crack) is measured. The shorter the time, the better the…

  8. Proceedings: Nozzle Initiative Industry Advisory Committee on Standardization of Carbon-Phenolic Test Methods and Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The proceedings of the meeting is presented in conversational form. Some areas of discussion are as follow: resin advancement at NASA Marshall new technologies studies; NMR studies; SPIP/PAN development summary; computer modeling support; composite testing; carbon assay testing; activity and aerospace computer database; alternate rayon yarn sizing; fiber morphology; and carbon microballoons specifications.

  9. Mutations in the Dimer Interface of Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase Promote Site-specific Oxidative Damages in Yeast and Human Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Vaubel, Rachael A.; Rustin, Pierre; Isaya, Grazia

    2011-01-01

    Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLD) is a multifunctional protein well characterized as the E3 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complexes. Previously, conditions predicted to destabilize the DLD dimer revealed that DLD could also function as a diaphorase and serine protease. However, the relevance of these cryptic activities remained undefined. We analyzed human DLD mutations linked to strikingly different clinical phenotypes, including E340K, D444V, R447G, and R460G in the dimer interface domain that are responsible for severe multisystem disorders of infancy and G194C in the NAD+-binding domain that is typically associated with milder presentations. In vitro, all of these mutations decreased to various degrees dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase activity, whereas dimer interface mutations also enhanced proteolytic and/or diaphorase activity. Human DLD proteins carrying each individual mutation complemented fully the respiratory-deficient phenotype of yeast cells lacking endogenous DLD even when residual dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase activity was as low as 21% of controls. However, under elevated oxidative stress, expression of DLD proteins with dimer interface mutations greatly accelerated the loss of respiratory function, resulting from enhanced oxidative damage to the lipoic acid cofactor of pyruvate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and other mitochondrial targets. This effect was not observed with the G194C mutation or a mutation that disrupts the proteolytic active site of DLD. As in yeast, lipoic acid cofactor was damaged in human D444V-homozygous fibroblasts after exposure to oxidative stress. We conclude that the cryptic activities of DLD promote oxidative damage to neighboring molecules and thus contribute to the clinical severity of DLD mutations. PMID:21930696

  10. Problem-Solving Test: Analysis of DNA Damage Recognizing Proteins in Yeast and Human Cells

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2013-01-01

    The experiment described in this test was aimed at identifying DNA repair proteins in human and yeast cells. Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: DNA repair, germline mutation, somatic mutation, inherited disease, cancer, restriction endonuclease, radioactive labeling, [alpha-[superscript 32]P]ATP, [gamma-[superscript…

  11. 26. "TEST STAND, STRUCTURAL, FOUNDATION PLAN." Specifications No. ENG043535572; Drawing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. "TEST STAND, STRUCTURAL, FOUNDATION PLAN." Specifications No. ENG-04-353-55-72; Drawing No. 60-0912; sheet 25 of 148; file no. 1320/76. Stamped: RECORD DRAWING - AS CONSTRUCTED. Below stamp: Contract no. 4338, no change. - Edwards Air Force Base, Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory, Test Stand 1-A, Test Area 1-120, north end of Jupiter Boulevard, Boron, Kern County, CA

  12. Proceedings of the Advisory Committee on standardization of carbon-phenolic test methods and specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, William B.

    1991-01-01

    Proceedings of the Advisory Committee on Standardization of carbon-phenolic test methods and specifications are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: ashing procedures and alkali metal content of carbon fiber and fabrics; SPIP product identification code; SPIP initiative to adopt a water-soluble rayon yarn lubricant/size for weaving; fabric oxidation mass loss test; shelf life limit for prepregs, industry standard; silicon contamination update; resin, filler, and fabric content in prepreg; carbon assay testing calibration; thiokol rayon specifications; and SPIP low conductivity PAN program.

  13. Domain-General and Domain-Specific Creative-Thinking Tests: Effects of Gender and Item Content on Test Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Eunsook; Peng, Yun; O'Neil, Harold F., Jr.; Wu, Junbin

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the effects of gender and item content of domain-general and domain-specific creative-thinking tests on four subscale scores of creative-thinking (fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration). Chinese tenth-grade students (234 males and 244 females) participated in the study. Domain-general creative thinking was measured…

  14. Using X-ray absorption spectra to monitor specific radiation damage to anomalously scattering atoms in macromolecular crystallography.

    PubMed

    Oliéric, V; Ennifar, E; Meents, A; Fleurant, M; Besnard, C; Pattison, P; Schiltz, M; Schulze-Briese, C; Dumas, P

    2007-07-01

    Radiation damage in macromolecular crystals is not suppressed even at 90 K. This is particularly true for covalent bonds involving an anomalous scatterer (such as bromine) at the 'peak wavelength'. It is shown that a series of absorption spectra recorded on a brominated RNA faithfully monitor the extent of cleavage. The continuous spectral changes during irradiation preserve an 'isosbestic point', each spectrum being a linear combination of 'zero' and 'infinite' dose spectra. This easily yields a good estimate of the partial occupancy of bromine at any intermediate dose. The considerable effect on the near-edge features in the spectra of the crystal orientation versus the beam polarization has also been examined and found to be in good agreement with a previous study. Any significant influence of the (C-Br bond/beam polarization) angle on the cleavage kinetics of bromine was also searched for, but was not detected. These results will be useful for standard SAD/MAD experiments and for the emerging 'radiation-damage-induced phasing' method exploiting both the anomalous signal of an anomalous scatterer and the 'isomorphous' signal resulting from its cleavage. PMID:17582167

  15. Nozzle Initiative Industry Advisory Committee on Standardization of Carbon-Phenolic Test Methods and Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, William B. (Compiler); Pinoli, Pat C. (Compiler); Upton, Cindy G. (Compiler); Day, Tony (Compiler); Hill, Keith (Compiler); Stone, Frank (Compiler); Hall, William B.

    1994-01-01

    This report is a compendium of the presentations of the 12th biannual meeting of the Industry Advisory Committee under the Solid Propulsion Integrity Program. A complete transcript of the welcoming talks is provided. Presentation outlines and overheads are included for the other sessions: SPIP Overview, Past, Current and Future Activity; Test Methods Manual and Video Tape Library; Air Force Developed Computer Aided Cure Program and SPC/TQM Experience; Magneto-Optical mapper (MOM), Joint Army/NASA program to assess composite integrity; Permeability Testing; Moisture Effusion Testing by Karl Fischer Analysis; Statistical Analysis of Acceptance Test Data; NMR Phenolic Resin Advancement; Constituent Testing Highlights on the LDC Optimization Program; Carbon Sulfur Study, Performance Related Testing; Current Rayon Specifications and Future Availability; RSRM/SPC Implementation; SRM Test Methods, Delta/Titan/FBM/RSRM; and Open Forum on Performance Based Acceptance Testing -- Industry Experience.

  16. Nozzle Initiative Industry Advisory Committee on Standardization of Carbon-Phenolic Test Methods and Specifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, William B.; Pinoli, Pat C.; Upton, Cindy G.; Day, Tony; Hill, Keith; Stone, Frank; Hall, William B.

    1994-12-01

    This report is a compendium of the presentations of the 12th biannual meeting of the Industry Advisory Committee under the Solid Propulsion Integrity Program. A complete transcript of the welcoming talks is provided. Presentation outlines and overheads are included for the other sessions: SPIP Overview, Past, Current and Future Activity; Test Methods Manual and Video Tape Library; Air Force Developed Computer Aided Cure Program and SPC/TQM Experience; Magneto-Optical mapper (MOM), Joint Army/NASA program to assess composite integrity; Permeability Testing; Moisture Effusion Testing by Karl Fischer Analysis; Statistical Analysis of Acceptance Test Data; NMR Phenolic Resin Advancement; Constituent Testing Highlights on the LDC Optimization Program; Carbon Sulfur Study, Performance Related Testing; Current Rayon Specifications and Future Availability; RSRM/SPC Implementation; SRM Test Methods, Delta/Titan/FBM/RSRM; and Open Forum on Performance Based Acceptance Testing -- Industry Experience.

  17. Preclinical and Clinical Performance of the Efoora Test, a Rapid Test for Detection of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Specific Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Arens, Max Q.; Mundy, Linda M.; Amsterdam, Daniel; Barrett, J. Tom; Bigg, Dan; Bruckner, David; Hanna, Bruce; Prince, Harry; Purington, Timothy; Hanna, Todd; Hewitt, Ross; Kalinka, Carolyn; Koppes, Thomas; Maxwell, Sarz; Moe, Ardis; Doymaz, Mehmet; Poulter, Melinda; Saber-Tehrani, Maryam; Simard, Lorenzo; Wilkins-Carmody, Donna; Vidaver, John; Berger, Cheryl; Davis, Alan H.; Alzona, Mortimer T.

    2005-01-01

    Barriers to effective diagnostic testing for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection can be reduced with simple, reliable, and rapid detection methods. Our objective was to determine the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of a new rapid, lateral-flow immunochromatographic HIV-1 antibody detection device. Preclinical studies were performed using seroconversion, cross-reaction, and interference panels, archived clinical specimens, and fresh whole blood. In a multicenter, prospective clinical trial, a four-sample matrix of capillary (fingerstick) whole-blood specimens and venous whole blood, plasma, and serum was tested for HIV-1 antibodies with the Efoora HIV rapid test (Efoora Inc., Buffalo Grove, IL) and compared with an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Abbott Laboratories) licensed by the Food and Drug Administration. Western blot and nucleic acid test supplemental assays were employed to adjudicate discordant samples. Preclinical testing of seroconversion panels showed that antibodies were often detected earlier by the rapid test than by a reference EIA. No significant interference or cross-reactions were observed. Testing of 4,984 archived specimens yielded a sensitivity of 99.2% and a specificity of 99.7%. A prospective multicenter clinical study with 2,954 adult volunteers demonstrated sensitivity and specificity for the Efoora HIV rapid test of 99.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 99.3 and 99.98%) and 99.0% (95% CI, 98.5 and 99.4%), respectively. Reactive rapid HIV-1 antibody detection was confirmed in 99.6% of those with a known HIV infection (n = 939), 5.2% of those in the high-risk group (n = 1,003), and 0.1% of those in the low-risk group (n = 1,012). For 21 (0.71%) patients, there was discordance between the results of the rapid test and the confirmatory EIA/Western blot tests. We conclude that the Efoora HIV rapid test is a simple, rapid assay for detection of HIV-1 antibodies, with high sensitivity and specificity compared to a standardized

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF BURN TEST SPECIFICATIONS FOR FIRE PROTECTION MATERIALS IN RAM PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, N.

    2010-03-03

    The regulations in 10 CFR 71 require that the radioactive material (RAM) packages must be able to withstand specific fire conditions given in 10 CFR 71.73 during Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC). This requirement is normally satisfied by extensive testing of full scale test specimens under required test conditions. Since fire test planning and execution is expensive and only provides a single snapshot into a package performance, every effort is made to minimize testing and supplement tests with results from computational thermal models. However, the accuracy of such thermal models depends heavily on the thermal properties of the fire insulating materials that are rarely available at the regulatory fire temperatures. To the best of authors knowledge no test standards exist that could be used to test the insulating materials and derive their thermal properties for the RAM package design. This paper presents a review of the existing industry fire testing standards and proposes testing methods that could serve as a standardized specification for testing fire insulating materials for use in RAM packages.

  19. Brain-Specific Cytoskeletal Damage Markers in Cerebrospinal Fluid: Is There a Common Pattern between Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis?

    PubMed

    Abdelhak, Ahmed; Junker, Andreas; Brettschneider, Johannes; Kassubek, Jan; Ludolph, Albert C; Otto, Markus; Tumani, Hayrettin

    2015-01-01

    Many neurodegenerative disorders share a common pathophysiological pathway involving axonal degeneration despite different etiological triggers. Analysis of cytoskeletal markers such as neurofilaments, protein tau and tubulin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may be a useful approach to detect the process of axonal damage and its severity during disease course. In this article, we review the published literature regarding brain-specific CSF markers for cytoskeletal damage in primary progressive multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in order to evaluate their utility as a biomarker for disease progression in conjunction with imaging and histological markers which might also be useful in other neurodegenerative diseases associated with affection of the upper motor neurons. A long-term benefit of such an approach could be facilitating early diagnostic and prognostic tools and assessment of treatment efficacy of disease modifying drugs. PMID:26263977

  20. Damage parameter comparison for candidate intense neutron test facilities for fusion materials

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, D.G.; Greenwood, L.R. ); Mann, F.M. )

    1990-07-31

    It is recognized worldwide that an intense source of fusion energy neutrons is needed to evaluate candidate fusion materials. At an International Energy Agency (IEA) workshop held in San Diego in February 1989, an Evaluation Panel recommended that three neutron source concepts be developed further. The panel also recommended that further comparisons were needed of their irradiation environments. In this paper, a comparison is made of damage parameters for beryllium, carbon, silicon, vanadium, iron, copper, molybdenum, and tungsten irradiated in spectra characteristic of di-Li, spallation, and beam-plasma (d-t) neutron sources and in a reference DEMO first wall spectrum. The treatment of neutron-induced displacement reactions is confined to the region below 20 MeV and transmutation reactions to below 50 MeV by the limited availability of calculational tools. The spallation spectrum is relatively soft; less than 2% of the neutrons are above 50 MeV. The transmutation results emphasize the need to define the neutron spectra at low, as well as high, energies; only the DEMO spectrum is adequate in this respect. Recommendations are given for further work to be performed under an international working group. 12 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Damage Assessment of Creep Tested and Thermally Aged Udimet 520 Using Acousto-Ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Kautz, Harold E.; Cao, Wei

    2001-01-01

    Due to elevated temperatures and excessive stresses, turbine components may experience creep behavior. As a result, it is desirable to monitor and assess the current condition of such components. This study employed the Acousto-Ultrasonics (AU) method in an effort to monitor the state of the material at various percentages of used up creep life in the nickel base alloy, Udimet 520. A stepped specimen (i.e., varying cross sectional area) was employed which allowed for a postmortem nondestructive evaluation (NDE) analysis of the various levels of used up life. The overall objectives here were two fold: First, a user friendly, graphical interface AU system was developed, and second the new AU system was applied as an NDE tool to assess distributed damage resulting from creep. The experimental results demonstrated that the AU method shows promise as an NDE tool capable of detecting material changes as a function of used up creep life. Furthermore, the changes in the AU parameters were mainly attributed to the case of combined load and elevated temperature (i.e., creep) and not simply because of a timed exposure at elevated temperature (i.e., heat treatment or thermal aging).

  2. Testing NMDA receptor block as a therapeutic strategy for reducing ischaemic damage to CNS white matter.

    PubMed

    Bakiri, Yamina; Hamilton, Nicola B; Káradóttir, Ragnhildur; Attwell, David

    2008-01-15

    Damage to oligodendrocytes caused by glutamate release contributes to mental or physical handicap in periventricular leukomalacia, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and stroke, and has been attributed to activation of AMPA/kainate receptors. However, glutamate also activates unusual NMDA receptors in oligodendrocytes, which can generate an ion influx even at the resting potential in a physiological [Mg2+]. Here, we show that the clinically licensed NMDA receptor antagonist memantine blocks oligodendrocyte NMDA receptors at concentrations achieved therapeutically. Simulated ischaemia released glutamate which activated NMDA receptors, as well as AMPA/kainate receptors, on mature and precursor oligodendrocytes. Although blocking AMPA/kainate receptors alone during ischaemia had no effect, combining memantine with an AMPA/kainate receptor blocker, or applying the NMDA blocker MK-801 alone, improved recovery of the action potential in myelinated axons after the ischaemia. These data suggest NMDA receptor blockers as a potentially useful treatment for some white matter diseases and define conditions under which these blockers may be useful therapeutically. Our results highlight the importance of developing new antagonists selective for oligodendrocyte NMDA receptors based on their difference in subunit structure from most neuronal NMDA receptors. PMID:18046734

  3. Identification and characteristics of the testes-specific gene, Ccdc38, in mice.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shou-Ren; Li, Yu-Chi; Luo, Man-Ling; Guo, Huan; Wang, Tian-Tian; Chen, Jian-Bo; Ma, Qian; Gu, Yan-Li; Jiang, Zhi-Mao; Gui, Yao-Ting

    2016-08-01

    Distinguishing the testes-specific genes in different species may disclose key genes associated with testes-specific functions and provide sufficient information for the study and treatment of male infertility. A testes‑specific gene, coiled-coil domain containing 38 (Ccdc38), was identified by screening UniGene libraries. Systematic bioinformatics analysis demonstrated that the CCDC38 protein was conserved in various mammalian species. It was determined that CCDC38 was exclusively expressed in testes and its expression increased from 2‑8 weeks of age. Additional immunohistochemical analysis indicated that CCDC38 was mainly expressed in spermatogonia and spermatocytes. It is of note that, immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that CCDC38 interacted with ubiquitinated histone H2A in mouse testes. Therefore, these results suggest that Ccdc38 is a testes-specific gene, which may be important for mouse spermatogenesis. PMID:27278724

  4. Use of a Canal-Drawdown Test to Calculate the Specific Yield of the Biscayne Aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolster, C. H.; Genereux, D. P.; Saiers, J. E.

    2002-05-01

    Data from a large-scale canal-drawdown test were used to estimate the specific yield (sy) of the Biscayne Aquifer. The drawdown test involved dropping the water level in a nearby canal by about 30 cm and monitoring the response of hydraulic head in the surrounding aquifer. Specific yield was determined by analyzing data from the unsteady portion of the drawdown test using an analytical stream-aquifer interaction model. Specific yield values computed from drawdown at individual piezometers ranged from 0.050 to 0.57, with a mean value of 0.15. The mean value for specific yield was incorporated into a large scale two-dimensional numerical MODFLOW-based groundwater flow model and predictions of head were made during a 183-day period at 4 wells located 337-2546 m from the canal. There was good agreement between the observed and predicted heads, indicating our estimate of specific yield is representative of the large portion of the Biscayne Aquifer studied here. This work represents a practical and novel approach to the determination of a key hydrogeological parameter for a highly transmissive limestone aquifer, in which execution of a traditional pump test would be impractical. Accurate estimates of specific yield and other hydrogeological parameters are critical for management of water supply, Everglades environmental restoration, flood control, and other issues related to the groundwater hydrology of the Biscayne Aquifer.

  5. Are multiple choice tests fair to medical students with specific learning disabilities?

    PubMed

    Ricketts, Chris; Brice, Julie; Coombes, Lee

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of multiple choice tests of medical knowledge is to estimate as accurately as possible a candidate's level of knowledge. However, concern is sometimes expressed that multiple choice tests may also discriminate in undesirable and irrelevant ways, such as between minority ethnic groups or by sex of candidates. There is little literature to establish whether multiple choice tests may also discriminate against students with specific learning disabilities (SLDs), in particular those with a diagnosis of dyslexia, and whether the commonly-used accommodations allow such students to perform up to their capability. We looked for evidence to help us determine whether multiple choice tests could be relied upon to test all medical students fairly, regardless of disability. We analyzed the mean scores of over 900 undergraduate medical students on eight multiple-choice progress tests containing 1,000 items using a repeated-measures analysis of variance. We included disability, gender and ethnicity as possible explanatory factors, as well as year group. There was no significant difference between mean scores of students with an SLD who had test accommodations and students with no SLD and no test accommodation. Virtually all students were able to complete the tests within the allowed time. There were no significant differences between the mean scores of known minority ethnic groups or between the genders. We conclude that properly-designed multiple-choice tests of medical knowledge do not systematically discriminate against medical students with specific learning disabilities. PMID:19763855

  6. Oxidative damage to specific proteins in replicative and chronological-aged Saccharomyces cerevisiae: common targets and prevention by calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Reverter-Branchat, Gemma; Cabiscol, Elisa; Tamarit, Jordi; Ros, Joaquim

    2004-07-23

    Oxidative modifications of cellular components have been described as one of the main contributions to aged phenotype. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two distinct life spans can be considered, replicative and chronological. The relationship between both aging models is still not clear despite suggestions that these phenomena may be related. In this work, we show that replicative and chronological-aged yeast cells are affected by an oxidative stress situation demonstrated by increased protein carbonylation when compared with young cells. The data on the identification of these oxidatively modified proteins gives clues to better understand cellular dysfunction that occurs during aging. Strikingly, although in both aging models metabolic differences are important, major targets are almost the same. Common targets include stress resistance proteins (Hsp60 and Hsp70) and enzymes involved in glucose metabolism such as enolase, glyceraldehydes-3-P dehydrogenase, fructose-1,6-biphosphate aldolase, pyruvate decarboxylase, and alcohol dehydrogenase. In both aging models, calorie restriction results in decreased damage to these proteins. In addition, chronological-aged cells grown under glucose restriction displayed lowered levels of lipid peroxidation product lipofuscin. Intracellular iron concentration is kept almost unchanged, whereas in non-restricted cells, the values increase up 4-5 times. The pro-oxidant effects of such increased iron concentration would account for the damage observed. Also, calorie-restricted cells show undamaged catalase, which clearly appears carbonylated in cells grown at a high glucose concentration. These results may explain lengthening of the viability of chronological-aged cells and could have an important role in replicative life span extension by calorie restriction. PMID:15166233

  7. Assessment of NDE methods for detecting cracks and damage in environmental barrier coated CMC tested under tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Aziz, Ali; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Bhatt, Ramakrishna T.; Jaskowiak, Martha H.; Gorican, Daniel; Rauser, Richard W.

    2015-03-01

    For validating physics based analytical models predicting spallation life of environmental barrier coating (EBC) on fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites, the fracture strength of EBC and kinetics of crack growth in EBC layers need to be experimentally determined under engine operating conditions. In this study, a multi layered barium strontium aluminum silicate (BSAS) based EBC-coated, melt infiltrated silicon carbide fiber reinforced silicon carbide matrix composite (MI SiC/SiC) specimen was tensile tested at room temperature. Multiple tests were performed on a single specimen with increasing predetermined stress levels until final failure. During loading, the damage occurring in the EBC was monitored by digital image correlation (DIC). After unloading from the predetermined stress levels, the specimen was examined by optical microscopy and computed tomography (CT). Results indicate both optical microscopy and CT could not resolve the primary or secondary cracks developed during tensile loading until failure. On the other hand, DIC did show formation of a primary crack at ~ 50% of the ultimate tensile strength and this crack grew with increasing stress and eventually led to final failure of the specimen. Although some secondary cracks were seen in the DIC strain plots prior to final failure, the existence of these cracks were not confirmed by other methods. By using a higher resolution camera, it is possible to improve the capability of DIC in resolving secondary cracks and damage in coated specimen tested at room temperature, but use of DIC at high temperature requires significant development. Based on the current data, it appears that both optical microscopy and CT do not offer any hope for detecting crack initiation or determining crack growth in EBC coated CMC tested at room or high temperatures after the specimen has been unloaded. Other methods such as, thermography and optical/SEM of the polished cross section of EBC coated CMC specimens stressed to

  8. Prostate-specific antigen testing in inner London general practices: are those at higher risk most likely to get tested?

    PubMed Central

    Nderitu, Paul; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Ashworth, Mark; Mathur, Rohini; Hull, Sally; Dudek, Alexandra; Chowdhury, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between factors influencing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing prevalence including prostate cancer risk factors (age, ethnicity, obesity) and non-risk factors (social deprivation and comorbidity). Setting A cross-sectional database of 136 inner London general practices from 1 August 2009 to 31 July 2014. Participants Men aged ≥40 years without prostate cancer were included (n=150 481). Primary outcome Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the association between PSA testing and age, ethnicity, social deprivation, body mass index (BMI) and comorbidity while adjusting for age, benign prostatic hypertrophy, prostatitis and tamsulosin or finasteride use. Results PSA testing prevalence was 8.2% (2013–2014), and the mean age was 54 years (SD 11). PSA testing was positively associated with age (OR 70–74 years compared to 40–44 years: 7.34 (95% CI 6.82 to 7.90)), ethnicity (black) (OR compared to white: 1.78 (95% CI 1.71 to 1.85)), increasing BMI and cardiovascular comorbidity. Testing was negatively associated with Chinese ethnicity and with increasing social deprivation. Conclusions PSA testing among black patients was higher compared to that among white patients, which differs from lower testing rates seen in previous studies. PSA testing was positively associated with prostate cancer risk factors and non-risk factors. Association with non-risk factors may increase the risk of unnecessary invasive diagnostic procedures. PMID:27406644

  9. Honey and metformin ameliorated diabetes-induced damages in testes of rat; correlation with hormonal changes

    PubMed Central

    Nasrolahi, Ozra; Khaneshi, Fereshteh; Rahmani, Fatemeh; Razi, Mazdak

    2013-01-01

    Background: The global prevalence of diabetes mellitus is on rise. Diabetes-induced oxidative stress has been known to affect liver, pancreas, kidney and reproductive organs pathologically. Honey is a natural product of bee with antioxidant properties. Objective: Current study aimed to analyze the protective effects of Metformin (MF) alone and MF+ natural honey co-administration on diabetes-induced histological derangements in testis of rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty six, mature male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups including; control, honey-dosed non-diabetic, diabetes-induced (65 mg/kg, single dose), honey-administrated diabetic (1.0 g/kg/day), Metformin-received diabetic (100 mg/kg/day), Metformin and honey-co-treated diabetic which were followed 40 days. The animals were anesthetized by diethyl ether and the blood samples were collected. The serum levels of testosterone, Insulin, LH and FSH analyzed using antibody enzyme immunoassay method. The testicular tissues were dissected out and underwent to histological analyses. Results: The biochemical analyses revealed that the diabetes resulted in significantly reduced testosterone (p<0.01), LH and FSH (P<0.01, 0.001) levels in serum. Light microscopic analyses showed remarkable (p<0.01) reduction in seminiferous tubules diameter (STD), spermiogenesis index (SPI) and thickness of the epithelium in the diabetic group versus control and co-treated groups. Simultaneous administration of the honey with MF could fairly up-regulate testosterone, LH and FSH levels. The animals in metformin and honey-treated group exhibited with improved tubules atrophy, elevated spermiogenesis index and germinal epithelium thickness. Conclusion: Our data indicated that co-administration of Metformin and honey could inhibit the diabetes-induced damages in testicular tissue. Moreover, the simultaneous administration of metformin and honey up-regulated the diabetes-reduced insulin, LH, FSH and testosterone levels. This

  10. A Rapid In-Clinic Test Detects Acute Leptospirosis in Dogs with High Sensitivity and Specificity.

    PubMed

    Kodjo, Angeli; Calleja, Christophe; Loenser, Michael; Lin, Dan; Lizer, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    A rapid IgM-detection immunochromatographic test (WITNESS® Lepto, Zoetis) has recently become available to identify acute canine leptospirosis at the point of care. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the test were evaluated by comparison with the microscopic agglutination assay (MAT), using a positive cut-off titer of ≥800. Banked serum samples from dogs exhibiting clinical signs and suspected leptospirosis were selected to form three groups based on MAT titer: (1) positive (n = 50); (2) borderline (n = 35); and (3) negative (n = 50). Using an analysis to weight group sizes to reflect French prevalence, the sensitivity and specificity were 98% and 93.5% (88.2% unweighted), respectively. This test rapidly identifies cases of acute canine leptospirosis with high levels of sensitivity and specificity with no interference from previous vaccination. PMID:27110562

  11. A Rapid In-Clinic Test Detects Acute Leptospirosis in Dogs with High Sensitivity and Specificity

    PubMed Central

    Kodjo, Angeli; Calleja, Christophe; Loenser, Michael; Lin, Dan; Lizer, Joshua

    2016-01-01

    A rapid IgM-detection immunochromatographic test (WITNESS® Lepto, Zoetis) has recently become available to identify acute canine leptospirosis at the point of care. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the test were evaluated by comparison with the microscopic agglutination assay (MAT), using a positive cut-off titer of ≥800. Banked serum samples from dogs exhibiting clinical signs and suspected leptospirosis were selected to form three groups based on MAT titer: (1) positive (n = 50); (2) borderline (n = 35); and (3) negative (n = 50). Using an analysis to weight group sizes to reflect French prevalence, the sensitivity and specificity were 98% and 93.5% (88.2% unweighted), respectively. This test rapidly identifies cases of acute canine leptospirosis with high levels of sensitivity and specificity with no interference from previous vaccination. PMID:27110562

  12. [Efficiency and specificity of the KAT-test for rapid diagnosis of falciparum malaria].

    PubMed

    Cong, Le Dinh; Sergiev, V P; Rabinovich, S A; Nhah, Doan Hanh; Huong, Nguyen Van; Morozov, E N; Kukina, I V; Thinh, Ta Thi; Maksakovskaia, E V; Dao, Le Minh; Chalyĭ, V F; To, Dang Thi; Fandeev, V A; Hoa, Ngo Viet; Due, Nguyen Thi

    2002-01-01

    A new rapid KAT Quick Malaria test for the diagnosis of falciparum malaria, which is based on the detection of a monoclonal antibody-antigen complex of malaria parasites, has been worked out by the KAT Medical CC in South Africa. The efficiency and specificity of the KAT test were compared with those of the microscopic method and with the ICT test for rapid diagnosis of P. falciparum and P. vivax. The polymerase chain reaction was used as a control test. Testing for malaria was performed on 98 blood samples from feverish patients in Vietnam and Tadjikistan and among the persons who had returned to Moscow from endemic regions. The efficiency of the KAT test for falciparum-malaria was found to be 100% versus 90.5% with ICT. The absence of cross-reactions with P. vivax and the presence of pseudopositive results of the KAT test for fever cases of non-malaria origin indicate its high specificity. There was no correlation between the rate of test line colouring and the level of parasitemia. The KAT test yielded positive results only when gametocytes were found in blood specimens. PMID:12214515

  13. Development of a Sports Specific Aerobic Capacity Test for Karate - A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Nunan, David

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to develop an aerobic fitness assessment test for competitive Karate practitioners and describe the preliminary findings. Five well-trained, competitive Karate practitioners participated in this study. A protocol simulating common attack strikes used in competition Karate sparring was developed from video analysis. In addition, pilot testing established a specific sequence of strikes and timings to be used in the test. The time to perform the strike sequence remained the same, whilst the time between strike sequence performances was progressively reduced. The aim of the test was to increase intensity of exercise through a decrease in recovery. On two separate occasions, absolute and relative peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), peak ventilation (VEpeak), maximum heart rate (HRM), and time to exhaustion (TE) obtained during the test were recorded. Subjective feedback provided by the participants was positive in that participants felt the test accurately simulated actions of a competitive sparring situation, and as a result athletes felt more motivated to perform well on this test. There was no significant between test difference in absolute VO2peak, relative VO2peak, HRM and TE (p > 0.05), indicating a potentially high reproducibility with the new test for these variables (test 1-test 2 difference of 0.04 L·min-1, 1 ml·kg-1·min-1, -3 beats·min-1, and 28 s; respectively). However, VEpeak displayed potentially less reproducibility due to a significant difference observed between tests (test 1- test 2 difference of -2.8 L·min-1, p < 0.05). There was a significant relationship between TE and relative VO2peak (R2 = 0.77, p < 0.001). Further developments to the test will need to address issues with work rate/force output assessment/monitoring. The new test accurately simulates the actions of competitive Karate sparring. Key Points This is the first attempt at an aerobic fitness test specific to competitive Karate practitioners Anecdotal reports

  14. Structural Damage Prediction and Analysis for Hypervelocity Impact. UDRI Light Gas Gun Test Data Summaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The HEX bumper was originally developed for use with the Defensive Shields Demonstration (DSD) Program. The University of Dayton Research Institute was a subcontractor to the Martin Marietta Astronautics Group in Denver Colorado at the time the HEX bumper was designed for use on the DSD Program. The design originated at the University and was essentially made available to interested parties. All HEX bumpers used in the DSD Program were fabricated at the University by rolling sheet stock through a special set of rollers. Two pieces of 3003-H14 aluminum sheet were rolled to produce the bumpers evaluated in Shots 4-1302 and 4-1304. A brief summary of the results of these tests is given in below. Contact prints of the multiple-exposure, orthogonal view radiographs of the debris clouds produced by the tests are attached. A sketch of the HEX bumper design is also attached.

  15. [Evaluating new tests for liver damage: still a long way to go].

    PubMed

    Bossuyt, P M M

    2007-07-01

    Because of its limitations and risks, alternatives are being developed for liver biopsy as the first-line method for evaluating liver injury. Many markers and several imaging methods have been developed as non-invasive alternatives. Although these methods have been evaluated in studies published in peer-reviewed journals, the methodological rigor of the design, execution and analysis of these studies leaves much to be desired. In addition, some of the inventors of these methods, who have become shareholders of the companies that market these tests, can be found frequently in the list of authors. The way in which new medical tests are evaluated can be improved, as well as the level of independence from conflicting interests. PMID:17763807

  16. Sensitivity and specificity of parallel or serial serological testing for detection of canine Leishmania infection

    PubMed Central

    de Arruda, Mauro Maciel; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Marcelino, Andreza Pain; Barbosa, José Ronaldo; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Noronha, Elza Ferreira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil, human and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) caused byLeishmania infantum has undergone urbanisation since 1980, constituting a public health problem, and serological tests are tools of choice for identifying infected dogs. Until recently, the Brazilian zoonoses control program recommended enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA) as the screening and confirmatory methods, respectively, for the detection of canine infection. The purpose of this study was to estimate the accuracy of ELISA and IFA in parallel or serial combinations. The reference standard comprised the results of direct visualisation of parasites in histological sections, immunohistochemical test, or isolation of the parasite in culture. Samples from 98 cases and 1,327 noncases were included. Individually, both tests presented sensitivity of 91.8% and 90.8%, and specificity of 83.4 and 53.4%, for the ELISA and IFA, respectively. When tests were used in parallel combination, sensitivity attained 99.2%, while specificity dropped to 44.8%. When used in serial combination (ELISA followed by IFA), decreased sensitivity (83.3%) and increased specificity (92.5%) were observed. Serial testing approach improved specificity with moderate loss in sensitivity. This strategy could partially fulfill the needs of public health and dog owners for a more accurate diagnosis of CVL. PMID:26910354

  17. Sensitivity and specificity of parallel or serial serological testing for detection of canine Leishmania infection.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Mauro Maciel de; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Marcelino, Andreza Pain; Barbosa, José Ronaldo; Werneck, Guilherme Loureiro; Noronha, Elza Ferreira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra

    2016-03-01

    In Brazil, human and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) caused by Leishmania infantum has undergone urbanisation since 1980, constituting a public health problem, and serological tests are tools of choice for identifying infected dogs. Until recently, the Brazilian zoonoses control program recommended enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA) as the screening and confirmatory methods, respectively, for the detection of canine infection. The purpose of this study was to estimate the accuracy of ELISA and IFA in parallel or serial combinations. The reference standard comprised the results of direct visualisation of parasites in histological sections, immunohistochemical test, or isolation of the parasite in culture. Samples from 98 cases and 1,327 noncases were included. Individually, both tests presented sensitivity of 91.8% and 90.8%, and specificity of 83.4 and 53.4%, for the ELISA and IFA, respectively. When tests were used in parallel combination, sensitivity attained 99.2%, while specificity dropped to 44.8%. When used in serial combination (ELISA followed by IFA), decreased sensitivity (83.3%) and increased specificity (92.5%) were observed. Serial testing approach improved specificity with moderate loss in sensitivity. This strategy could partially fulfill the needs of public health and dog owners for a more accurate diagnosis of CVL. PMID:26910354

  18. Influence of sporophore development, damage, storage, and tissue specificity on the enzymic formation of volatiles in mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus).

    PubMed

    Combet, Emilie; Henderson, Janey; Eastwood, Daniel C; Burton, Kerry S

    2009-05-13

    The enzymic oxidation of the polyunsaturated fatty acid-linoleic acid leads, in fungi, to the formation of a unique class of nonconjugated hydroperoxides, which are cleaved to form eight-carbon volatiles characteristic of mushroom and fungal flavor. However, the enzymes involved in this biosynthetic pathway, the bioavailability of the fatty acid substrate, and the occurrence of the reaction products (hydroperoxides and eight-carbon volatiles) are not fully understood. This study investigated the lipids, fatty acids, and hydroperoxide levels, as well as eight-carbon volatile variations in the fungal model Agaricus bisporus, according to four parameters: sporophore development, postharvest storage, tissue type, and damage. Eight-carbon volatiles were measured using solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Tissue disruption had a major impact on the volatile profile, both qualitatively and quantitatively; 3-octanone was identified as the main eight-carbon volatile in whole and sliced sporophore, an observation overlooked in previous studies due to the use of tissue disruption and solvent extraction for analysis. Fatty acid oxidation and eight-carbon volatile emissions decreased with sporophore development and storage, and differed according to tissue type. The release of 1-octen-3-ol and 3-octanone by incubation of sporophore tissue homogenate with free linoleic acid was inhibited by acetylsalicylic acid, providing evidence for the involvement of a heme-dioxygenase in eight-carbon volatile production. PMID:19326947

  19. METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR TESTING THE PRESENCE OF SPECIFIC ATOMIC ELEMENTS IN A SUBSTANCE

    DOEpatents

    Putman, J.L.

    1960-01-26

    Detection of specific atomic elements in a substance and particularly the applicability to well logging are discussed. The principal novelty resides in the determination of several of the auxiliary energy peaks in addition to the main energy peak of the gamma-ray energy spectrum of a substance and comparison of such peaks to the spectrum of the specific atomic element being tested for. thus resulting in identification of same. The invention facilitates the identification of specific elements even when in the presence of other elements having similar gamma energy spectra as to the main energy peaks.

  20. Beam test evaluation of electromagnetic calorimeter modules made from proton-damaged PbWO4 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, T.; Adzic, P.; Ahuja, S.; Anderson, D.; Andrews, M. B.; Antropov, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Arcidiacono, R.; Arenton, M. W.; Argirò, S.; Askew, A.; Attikis, A.; Auffray, E.; Baccaro, S.; Baffioni, S.; Bailleux, D.; Baillon, P.; Barney, D.; Barone, L.; Bartoloni, A.; Bartosik, N.; Becheva, E.; Bein, S.; Silva, C. Beirāo Da Cruz E.; Bell, K. W.; Benaglia, A.; Bendavid, J.; Berry, D.; Besancon, M.; Betev, B.; Bialas, W.; Bianchini, L.; Biino, C.; Bitioukov, S.; Bornheim, A.; Brianza, L.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Brown, R. M.; Brummitt, A.; Busson, P.; Candelise, V.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Cartiglia, N.; Cavallari, F.; Chang, Y. W.; Chen, K. F.; Chevenier, G.; Chipaux, R.; Clement, E.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Corpe, L.; Couderc, F.; Courbon, B.; Cox, B.; Cucciati, G.; Cussans, D.; D'imperio, G.; Da Silva Di Calafiori, D. R.; Dafinei, I.; Daguin, J.; Daskalakis, G.; Tinoco Mendes, A. D.; De Guio, F.; Degano, A.; Dejardin, M.; Del Re, D.; Della Ricca, G.; Denegri, D.; Depasse, P.; Dev, N.; Deyrail, D.; Di Marco, E.; Diamond, B.; Diemoz, M.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Djambazov, L.; Doan, T. H.; Dobrzynski, L.; Dolgopolov, A.; Donegà, M.; Dordevic, M.; Dröge, M.; Durkin, T.; Dutta, D.; El Mamouni, H.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Elmalis, E.; Fabbro, B.; Fasanella, G.; Faure, J.; Fay, J.; Fedorov, A.; Ferri, F.; Francis, B.; Frank, N.; Franzoni, G.; Funk, W.; Ganjour, S.; Gascon, S.; Gastal, M.; Geerebaert, Y.; Gelli, S.; Gerosa, R.; Ghezzi, A.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Givernaud, A.; Gninenko, S.; Godinovic, N.; Goeckner-Wald, N.; Golubev, N.; Govoni, P.; Gras, P.; Guilloux, F.; Haller, C.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Hansen, M.; Hansen, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Heath, H. F.; Hill, J.; Hirosky, R.; Hobson, P. R.; Holme, O.; Honma, A.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y.; Iiyama, Y.; Ille, B.; Ingram, Q.; Jain, S.; Jarry, P.; Jessop, C.; Jovanovic, D.; Kachanov, V.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, K. Y.; Kellams, N.; Kesisoglou, S.; Khatiwada, A.; Konoplyannikov, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Korzhik, M.; Kovac, M.; Kubota, Y.; Kucher, I.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, A.; Kuo, C.; Kyberd, P.; Kyriakis, A.; Latyshev, G.; Lecoq, P.; Ledovskoy, A.; Lei, Y. J.; Lelas, D.; Lethuillier, M.; Li, H.; Lin, W.; Liu, Y. F.; Locci, E.; Longo, E.; Loukas, D.; Lu, R.-S.; Lucchini, M. T.; Lustermann, W.; Mackay, C. K.; Magniette, F.; Malcles, J.; Malhotra, S.; Mandjavidze, I.; Maravin, Y.; Margaroli, F.; Marinelli, N.; Marini, A. C.; Martelli, A.; Marzocchi, B.; Massironi, A.; Matveev, V.; Mechinsky, V.; Meng, F.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Milosevic, J.; Mousa, J.; Musella, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Neu, C.; Newman, H.; Nicolaou, C.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Obertino, M. M.; Organtini, G.; Orimoto, T.; Paganini, P.; Paganis, E.; Paganoni, M.; Pandolfi, F.; Panov, V.; Paramatti, R.; Parracho, P.; Pastrone, N.; Paulini, M.; Pauss, F.; Pauwels, K.; Pellegrino, F.; Pena, C.; Perniè, L.; Peruzzi, M.; Petrakou, E.; Petyt, D.; Pigazzini, S.; Piroué, P.; Planer, M.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Prosper, H.; Ptochos, F.; Puljak, I.; Quittnat, M.; Ragazzi, S.; Rahatlou, S.; Rander, J.; Ranjan, K.; Rasteiro Da Silva, J.; Razis, P. A.; Romanteau, T.; Rosowsky, A.; Rovelli, C.; Rusack, R.; Salerno, R.; Santanastasio, F.; Santra, A.; Schönenberger, M.; Seez, C.; Sharma, V.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.; Shiu, J. G.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Singovsky, A.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sirois, Y.; Smiljkovic, N.; Soffi, L.; Sun, M.; Symonds, P.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Tambe, N.; Tarasov, I.; Taroni, S.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Thea, A.; Theofilatos, K.; Thiant, F.; Titov, M.; Torbet, M.; Trapani, P. P.; Tropea, P.; Tsai, J. f.; Tsirou, A.; Turkewitz, J.; Tyurin, N.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Uzunian, A.; Valls, N.; Varela, J.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Verdini, P. G.; Vichoudis, P.; Vlassov, E.; Wang, J.; Wang, T.; Weinberg, M.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Zabi, A.; Zahid, S.; Zelepoukine, S.; Zghiche, A.; Zhang, L.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, R.; Zuyeuski, R.

    2016-04-01

    The performance of electromagnetic calorimeter modules made of proton-irradiated PbWO4 crystals has been studied in beam tests. The modules, similar to those used in the Endcaps of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL), were formed from 5×5 matrices of PbWO4 crystals, which had previously been exposed to 24 GeV protons up to integrated fluences between 2.1× 1013 and 1.3× 1014 cm‑2. These correspond to the predicted charged-hadron fluences in the ECAL Endcaps at pseudorapidity η = 2.6 after about 500 fb‑1 and 3000 fb‑1 respectively, corresponding to the end of the LHC and High Luminosity LHC operation periods. The irradiated crystals have a lower light transmission for wavelengths corresponding to the scintillation light, and a correspondingly reduced light output. A comparison with four crystals irradiated in situ in CMS showed no significant rate dependence of hadron-induced damage. A degradation of the energy resolution and a non-linear response to electron showers are observed in damaged crystals. Direct measurements of the light output from the crystals show the amplitude decreasing and pulse becoming faster as the fluence increases. The latter is interpreted, through comparison with simulation, as a side-effect of the degradation in light transmission. The experimental results obtained can be used to estimate the long term performance of the CMS ECAL.

  1. Remote handling equipment and techniques used in the postirradiation examination of the severe fuel damage tests

    SciTech Connect

    Van Deusen, L.C.; Cook, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    Two, 32-rod, experimental fuel bundles from a pressurized water reactor have been subjected to severe reactor operation conditions in the Power Burst Facility. After testing, the fuel bundles were examined in a shielded, remotely handling facility to determine the condition of the bundles after a severe reactor transient. Special handling equipment and techniques were developed for unique application in the postirradiation examination of these large irradiated fuel bundles. This equipment was required to remotely handle the heavy, highly radioactive fuel bundles without disruption of the bundle geometry.

  2. Sport-Specific Motor Fitness Tests in Water Polo: Reliability, Validity and Playing Position Differences

    PubMed Central

    Uljevic, Ognjen; Spasic, Miodrag; Sekulic, Damir

    2013-01-01

    Sport-specific motor fitness tests are not often examined in water polo. In this study we examined the reliability, factorial and discriminative validity of 10 water-polo-specific motor-fitness tests, namely: three tests of in-water jumps (thrusts), two characteristic swimming sprints (10 and 20 metres from the water start), three ball-throws (shoots), one test of passing precision (accuracy), and a test of the dynamometric force produced while using the eggbeater kick. The sample of subjects consisted of 54 young male water polo players (15 to 17 years of age; 1.86 ± 0.07 m, and 83.1 ± 9.9 kg). All tests were applied over three testing trials. Reliability analyses included Cronbach Alpha coefficients (CA), inter-item- correlations (IIR) and coefficients of the variation (CV), while an analysis of variance was used to define any systematic bias between the testing trials. All tests except the test of accuracy (precision) were found to be reliable (CA ranged from 0.83 to 0.97; IIR from 0.62 to 0.91; CV from 2% to 21%); with small and irregular biases between the testing trials. Factor analysis revealed that jumping capacities as well as throwing and sprinting capacities should be observed as a relatively independent latent dimensions among young water polo players. Discriminative validity of the applied tests is partially proven since the playing positions significantly (p < 0.05) differed in some of the applied tests, with the points being superior in their fitness capacities in comparison to their teammates. This study included players from one of the world’s best junior National leagues, and reported values could be used as fitness standards for such an age. Further studies are needed to examine the applicability of the proposed test procedures to older subjects and females. Key Points Here presented and validated sport specific water polo motor fitness tests are found to be reliable in the sample of young male water polo players. Factor analysis revealed

  3. Validity of critical frequency test for measuring table tennis aerobic endurance through specific protocol

    PubMed Central

    Zagatto, Alessandro M.; Papoti, Marcelo; Gobatto, Claudio A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate critical frequency specific test (critf) for the estimation of the aerobic endurance in table tennis players. Methods: Eight male international-level table tennis players participated of this study. Specific tests were applied by using a mechanical ball thrower to control the intensity of the exercise. The critf was determined by applying three or four series of exercises to exhaustion (Tlim). The critf was evaluated by using lactate steady state test (90, 100, and 106 % of critf intensity). The other specific test was an incremental protocol used to determine the anaerobic threshold (AnTBI) and the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA) using a ball thrower. Results: The critf (39.87 ± 3.31 balls·min-1) was not significantly different among AnTBI (48.11 ± 7.36 balls·min- 1) and OBLA3.5 (49.36 ± 12.04 balls·min-1) frequencies and it was correlated with AnTBI parameter (r = 0.78). At frequencies of the 90 and 100% of critf a dynamic equilibrium was verified in lactate concentration between the eighth and twentieth minutes. However, this dynamic equilibrium was not found at 106% intensity. Conclusion: The data indicate that in table tennis the critf model can be used for measuring the aerobic endurance. Key pointsIn table tennis is need the use of a specific protocol for evaluation of the aerobic endurance.The critical frequency test in table tennis seems to represent the intensity of maximal equilibrium of lactatemia.The critical frequency test can be used for measuring table tennis aerobic endurance through specific protocol. PMID:24149951

  4. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 75 - Specifications and Test Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... require) performing a flow profile study following the procedures in 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, method, 1... 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, Test Method 1, section 11.5 may be used even if the flow measurement... section 8.1.1 of Performance Specification 2 in appendix B to part 60 of this chapter, install...

  5. Development of USES Specific Aptitude Test Battery for Ticket Agent (any ind.) 238.367-026.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Dept. of Employment Security, Salt Lake City. Western Test Development Field Center.

    The United States Employment Service (USES) Specific Aptitude Test Battery (SATB) for Ticket Agent is evaluated from three points of view: (1) technical adequacy of the research; (2) fairness to minorities; and (3) usefulness of the battery to Employment Service staff and employers in selecting individuals for ticket agent positions. Research…

  6. Testing a Bilinear Domain-Specific Model of Acculturation and Enculturation across Generational Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    This study attempted to replicate Miller's (2007) finding that a bilinear domain-specific model of Asian American acculturation demonstrated superior model fit when compared to unilinear and bilinear domain-generic models. Current confirmatory factor analytic tests of competing acculturation models in a cross-validation sample of 306 participants…

  7. Development of USES Specific Aptitude Test Battery for Refinery Operator (petrol. refin.) 549.260-010.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1982

    The United States Employment Service (USES) Specific Aptitude Test Battery (SATB) for Refinery Operator is evaluated from three points of view: (1) technical adequacy of the research; (2) fairness to minorities; and (3) usefulness of the battery to Employment Service staff and employers in selecting individuals for training in refinery operator…

  8. 40 CFR 86.1375-2007 - Equipment specifications for field testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Equipment specifications for field testing. 86.1375-2007 Section 86.1375-2007 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New...

  9. 49 CFR 180.509 - Requirements for inspection and test of specification tank cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for inspection and test of specification tank cars. 180.509 Section 180.509 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CONTINUING QUALIFICATION...

  10. Interactions among Domain-Specific Expectancies, Values, and Gender: Predictors of Test Anxiety during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selkirk, Laura C.; Bouchey, Heather A.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2011-01-01

    This research focuses on the interaction between students' domain-specific expectancies and values as a predictor of test anxiety. A subsample of adolescents from the MSALT dataset are used in the current study; students complete measures during the spring of sixth grade and again during the spring of seventh grade. Overall, findings provide…

  11. California Verbal Learning Test Indicators of Malingered Neurocognitive Dysfunction: Sensitivity and Specificity in Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Kelly L.; Greve, Kevin W.; Bianchini, Kevin J.; Brennan, Adrianne

    2006-01-01

    The present study used well-defined traumatic brain injury (TBI) and mixed neurological (other than TBI) and psychiatric samples to examine the specificity and sensitivity to Malingered Neurocognitive Dysfunction (MND) of four individual California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) variables and eight composite CVLT malingering indicators. Participants…

  12. 21 CFR 866.5530 - Immunoglobulin G (Fc fragment specific) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Immunoglobulin G (Fc fragment specific) immunological test system. 866.5530 Section 866.5530 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... abnormalities, e.g., gamma heavy chain disease. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device...

  13. 21 CFR 866.5530 - Immunoglobulin G (Fc fragment specific) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Immunoglobulin G (Fc fragment specific) immunological test system. 866.5530 Section 866.5530 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... abnormalities, e.g., gamma heavy chain disease. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device...

  14. 21 CFR 866.5540 - Immunoglobulin G (Fd fragment specific) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Immunoglobulin G (Fd fragment specific) immunological test system. 866.5540 Section 866.5540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... fragment) of the heavy chain (a subunit) of the immunoglobulin antibody molecule in serum. Measurement...

  15. 21 CFR 866.5530 - Immunoglobulin G (Fc fragment specific) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunoglobulin G (Fc fragment specific) immunological test system. 866.5530 Section 866.5530 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... abnormalities, e.g., gamma heavy chain disease. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device...

  16. 21 CFR 866.5540 - Immunoglobulin G (Fd fragment specific) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Immunoglobulin G (Fd fragment specific) immunological test system. 866.5540 Section 866.5540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... fragment) of the heavy chain (a subunit) of the immunoglobulin antibody molecule in serum. Measurement...

  17. 21 CFR 866.5540 - Immunoglobulin G (Fd fragment specific) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunoglobulin G (Fd fragment specific) immunological test system. 866.5540 Section 866.5540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... fragment) of the heavy chain (a subunit) of the immunoglobulin antibody molecule in serum. Measurement...

  18. 21 CFR 866.5530 - Immunoglobulin G (Fc fragment specific) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Immunoglobulin G (Fc fragment specific) immunological test system. 866.5530 Section 866.5530 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... abnormalities, e.g., gamma heavy chain disease. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device...

  19. 21 CFR 866.5540 - Immunoglobulin G (Fd fragment specific) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Immunoglobulin G (Fd fragment specific) immunological test system. 866.5540 Section 866.5540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... fragment) of the heavy chain (a subunit) of the immunoglobulin antibody molecule in serum. Measurement...

  20. 21 CFR 866.5530 - Immunoglobulin G (Fc fragment specific) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Immunoglobulin G (Fc fragment specific) immunological test system. 866.5530 Section 866.5530 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... abnormalities, e.g., gamma heavy chain disease. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device...

  1. 21 CFR 866.5540 - Immunoglobulin G (Fd fragment specific) immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Immunoglobulin G (Fd fragment specific) immunological test system. 866.5540 Section 866.5540 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... fragment) of the heavy chain (a subunit) of the immunoglobulin antibody molecule in serum. Measurement...

  2. Using a Table of Specifications to Improve Teacher-Constructed Traditional Tests: An Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiDonato-Barnes, Nicole; Fives, Helenrose; Krause, Emily S.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated if instruction on a Table of Specifications (TOS) would influence the quality of classroom test construction. Results should prove informative for educational researchers, teacher educators, and practising teachers interested in evidenced-based strategies that may improve assessment-related practices. Fifty-three college…

  3. 75 FR 20832 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Nevada Test Site

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ...This notice announces a meeting of the Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board (EM SSAB), Nevada Test Site. The Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 86 Stat. 770) requires that public notice of this meeting be announced in the Federal...

  4. 40 CFR 53.51 - Demonstration of compliance with design specifications and manufacturing and test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Demonstration of compliance with design specifications and manufacturing and test requirements. 53.51 Section 53.51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR MONITORING REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENT METHODS Procedures for...

  5. Awareness and use of the prostate-specific antigen test among African-American men.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Louie E.; Uhler, Robert J.; Williams, Kymber N.

    2005-01-01

    Although African-American men have a greater burden of prostate cancer than whites and other racial and ethnic groups, few studies on the burden of prostate cancer have focused on African Americans specifically. We used a sample of African-American men (N = 736) who participated in the 2000 National Health Interview Survey to explore their awareness of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test. Among African-American men aged > or = 45 with no history of prostate cancer, 63% had heard of the PSA test and 48% had been tested. Bivariate analyses showed significant associations between sociodemographic, family composition, health status and perceived risk with having heard of the PSA test and having been tested. The multivariate model showed significant associations between having heard of the PSA test and age, level of education, living in an MSA, and having private or military health insurance. For ever being tested, the multivariate model showed significant associations for age, private or military health insurance, being in fair or poor health, and having a family history of prostate cancer. Some of the correlates, such as age, increased levels of education and being married, were consistent with previous studies, but other correlates, such as metropolitan statistical area, health status and perceived risk, differed from previous studies. PMID:16080666

  6. Modeling Spatial Structure of Rock Fracture Surfaces Before and After Shear Test: A Method for Estimating Morphology of Damaged Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babanouri, Nima; Karimi Nasab, Saeed

    2015-05-01

    This paper deals with the structural analysis of rock fracture roughness, and accordingly, a method is developed for estimating/predicting the post-shearing 3D geometry of the fracture surface. For this purpose, surfaces of three natural rock fractures were digitized and studied before and after the direct shear test. The variogram analysis of the surfaces indicated a strong non-linear trend in the topography data. Hence, the spatial variability of the rock fracture surfaces was decomposed to: one deterministic component, characterized by a high-order polynomial representing the large-scale undulations, and one stochastic component, described by the variogram of residuals representing the small-scale roughness. Using an image-processing technique, a total of 343 damage zones with different sizes, shapes, initial roughness characteristics, local stress fields, and/or asperity strength values were spatially located and clustered. In order to characterize the overall spatial structure of the degraded zones, the concept of the `pseudo-zonal variogram' was introduced. The results showed that the spatial continuity at the damage zones increases due to the asperity degradation. The increase in the variogram range is anisotropic and tends to be higher along the shearing. Consequently, the direction of maximum continuity rotates towards the shear direction. After modeling the evolution of the spatial structure with shearing and detecting boundaries of the degraded areas, a methodology was presented to provide a regression-kriging estimate of the morphology of sheared surfaces. The proposed method can be considered as a cost-free and reasonably accurate alternative to expensive techniques of scanning the rock fracture surface after the shear test.

  7. Comparison of the basophil activation test versus the nasal provocation test in establishing eligibility for specific immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Leśniak, Małgorzata; Dyga, Wojciech; Rusinek, Barbara; Mazur, Marcel; Czarnobilska, Ewa

    2016-08-25

    INTRODUCTION    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is the most common atopic disease. Specific immunotherapy (SIT) is the only effective treatment method for AR. In uncertain diagnostic cases, before establishing eligibility for SIT, nasal provocation tests (NPTs) should be performed. However, there are numerous contraindications to performing NPTs, and there is ongoing search for an alternative in vitro method. OBJECTIVES    The aim of the study was to determine whether a specific in vitro provocation, that is, the basophil activation test (BAT), may replace a specific in vivo provocation, that is, the NPT, in establishing patient's eligibility for SIT. PATIENTS AND METHODS    The study included 30 patients with AR caused by allergy to house dust mite or birch pollen, referred for SIT. The assessment of basophil activation by measuring CD63 antigen expression was performed using the Flow2 CAST test. Basophils were stimulated with allergen preparation (concentrations of 5000, 500, and 50 standardized biological units) used in NPTs. BAT results were expressed as stimulation index (SI) and basophil reactivity (BR). RESULTS    Allergen concentrations of 500 and 50 SBU proved to be appropriate for basophil stimulation. Median SI and BR were higher for positive NPT results than for negative NPT results (P <0.001). Sensitivity for SI and BR was in the range from 83% to 100%; specificity, from 78% to 89%; positive predictive value, from 75% to 87%; and negative predictive value, from 89% to 100%. We observed a high correlation of the analyzed parameters for the allergen concentrations of 500 and 50 SBU (range, 0.58-0.74; P <0.05). CONCLUSIONS    If there are contraindications to performing the NPT, BAT may be regarded as an alternative in establishing patients' eligibility for SIT. The optimal concentrations of allergen preparations are 500 and 50 SBU. Both SI and BR are good indicators of basophil activation. PMID:27578221

  8. Relationship between herpes simplex virus-1-specific antibody titers and cortical brain damage in Alzheimer’s disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Baglio, Francesca; Agostini, Simone; Agostini, Monia Cabinio; Laganà, Maria M.; Hernis, Ambra; Margaritella, Nicolò; Guerini, Franca R.; Zanzottera, Milena; Nemni, Raffaello; Clerici, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a multifactorial disease with a still barely understood etiology. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) has long been suspected to play a role in the pathogenesis of AD because of its neurotropism, high rate of infection in the general population, and life-long persistence in neuronal cells, particularly in the same brain regions that are usually altered in AD. The goal of this study was to evaluate HSV-1-specific humoral immune responses in patients with a diagnosis of either AD or amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), and to verify the possible relation between HSV-1-specific antibody (Ab) titers and cortical damage; results were compared to those obtained in a group of healthy controls (HC). HSV-1 serum IgG titers were measured in 225 subjects (83 AD, 68 aMCI, and 74 HC). HSV-specific Ab avidity and cortical gray matter volumes analyzed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were evaluated as well in a subgroup of these individuals (44 AD, 23 aMCI, and 26 HC). Results showed that, whereas HSV-1 seroprevalence and IgG avidity were comparable in the three groups, increased Ab titers (p < 0.001) were detected in AD and aMCI compared to HC. Positive significant correlations were detected in AD patients alone between HSV-1 IgG titers and cortical volumes in orbitofrontal (region of interest, ROI1 RSp0.56; p = 0.0001) and bilateral temporal cortices (ROI2 RSp0.57; p < 0.0001; ROI3 RSp0.48; p = 0.001); no correlations could be detected between IgG avidity and MRI parameters. Results herein suggest that a strong HSV-1-specific humoral response could be protective toward AD-associated cortical damage. PMID:25360113

  9. Cellular damages in the Allium cepa test system, caused by BTEX mixture prior and after biodegradation process.

    PubMed

    Mazzeo, Dânia Elisa Christofoletti; Fernandes, Thaís Cristina Casimiro; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida

    2011-09-01

    Petroleum and derivatives have been considered one of the main environmental contaminants. Among petroleum derivatives, the volatile organic compounds benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) represent a major concern due to their toxicity and easy accumulation in groundwater. Biodegradation methods seem to be suitable tools for the clean-up of BTEX contaminants from groundwater. Genotoxic and mutagenic potential of BTEX prior and after biodegradation process was evaluated through analyses of chromosomal aberrations and MN test in meristematic and F(1) root cells using the Allium cepa test system. Seeds of A. cepa were germinated into five concentrations of BTEX, non-biodegraded and biodegraded, in ultra-pure water (negative control), in MMS 4×10(-4)M (positive control) and in culture medium used in the biodegradation (blank biodegradation control). Results showed a significant frequency of both chromosomal and nuclear aberrations. The micronucleus (MN) frequency in meristematic cells was significant for most of tested samples. However, MN was not present in significant levels in the F(1) cells, suggesting that there was no permanent damage for the meristematic cell. The BTEX effects were significantly reduced in the biodegraded samples when compared to the respective non-biodegraded concentrations. Therefore, in this study, the biodegradation process showed to be a reliable and effective alternative to treat BTEX-contaminated waters. Based on our results and available data, the BTEX toxicity could also be related to a synergistic effect of its compounds. PMID:21741065

  10. Practice Effect and Normative Data of an HIV-specific Neuropsychological Testing Battery among Healthy Thais

    PubMed Central

    Sithinamsuwan, Pasiri; Hutchings, Nicholas; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Wendelken, Lauren; Saengtawan, Putthachard; Paul, Robert; Chomchey, Nitiya; Fletcher, James LK; Chalermchai, Thep; Valcour, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Objective A longitudinal cohort study was conducted in Bangkok, Thailand between 2008 and 2013 in order to determine the practice effect of serial neuropsychological testing and establish normative data among normal (HIV-uninfected) Thai volunteers. Material and Method The authors enrolled 511 cognitively healthy individuals (HIV-uninfected, no drug abuse or other previous/current neurological or psychological conditions) to assess baseline performance on a HIV-specific neuropsychological testing battery. Ninety-nine subjects were re-assessed at 6 and 12 months to evaluate practice effects. Results The mean age of the 99 subjects completing longitudinal visits was 49.2 years and 53 were male. The authors identified improved mean raw scores on most neuropsychological tests with repeated measurements; however, only change in WHO Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) scores (learning, attention, immediate and delayed recall tasks) met statistical significance, with larger differences seen between baseline and 6-month compared to 6 and 12 months follow-up. Older age correlated with poorer baseline raw score, and was a predictor of worse performance at 6 months and 12 months on several tasks. Level of education was associated with practice effects on several tests. No similar effects were observed with gender. Conclusion The authors identified improved performance after repeated measurements revealing a significant practice effect on an HIV-specific neuropsychological testing battery employed in Bangkok, Thailand. Main predictors were age and educational attainment. PMID:25518198

  11. Shake table tests of suspended ceilings to simulate the observed damage in the M s7.0 Lushan earthquake, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Duozhi; Dai, Junwu; Qu, Zhe; Ning, Xiaoqing

    2016-06-01

    Severe damage to suspended ceilings of metal grids and lay-in panels was observed in public buildings during the 2013 M s7.0 Lushan earthquake in China. Over the past several years, suspended ceilings have been widely used practice in public buildings throughout China, including government offices, schools and hospitals. To investigate the damage mechanism of suspended ceilings, a series of three-dimensional shake table tests was conducted to reproduce the observed damage. A full-scale reinforced concrete frame was constructed as the testing frame for the ceiling, which was single-story and infilled with brick masonry walls to represent the local construction of low-rise buildings. In general, the ceiling in the tests exhibited similar damage phenomena as the field observations, such as higher vulnerability of perimeter elements and extensive damage to the cross runners. However, it exhibited lower fragility in terms of peak ground/roof accelerations at the initiation of damage. Further investigations are needed to clarify the reasons for this behavior.

  12. Method for assaying clustered DNA damages

    DOEpatents

    Sutherland, Betsy M.

    2004-09-07

    Disclosed is a method for detecting and quantifying clustered damages in DNA. In this method, a first aliquot of the DNA to be tested for clustered damages with one or more lesion-specific cleaving reagents under conditions appropriate for cleavage of the DNA to produce single-strand nicks in the DNA at sites of damage lesions. The number average molecular length (Ln) of double stranded DNA is then quantitatively determined for the treated DNA. The number average molecular length (Ln) of double stranded DNA is also quantitatively determined for a second, untreated aliquot of the DNA. The frequency of clustered damages (.PHI..sub.c) in the DNA is then calculated.

  13. A novel agglutination test for antigen-specific detection of platelet antibodies.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Oliver; Agaylan, Ashraf; Borchert, Hans-Hubert; Aslan, Tunay; Bombard, Stéphane; Kiesewetter, Holger; Salama, Abdulgabar

    2006-10-15

    A simple and rapid antigen-specific assay for the identification antibodies to platelets is lacking, yet. Red-dyed polystyrene microbeads were coated with monoclonal antibodies to various platelet glycoprotein complexes, and used for the detection of platelet autoantibodies and alloantibodies. The results were largely identical with those obtained by monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of platelet antigen assay (MAIPA). The new test is reliable yet less complex and time-consuming than the currently available assays, and it can be implemented in any routine laboratory. PMID:16933262

  14. Thyroid Function Testing in Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease: Trimester-specific Reference Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Soldin, Offie P.

    2013-01-01

    During pregnancy the thyroid is hyperstimulated, resulting in changes in thyroid hormone concentrations. Accurate assessment of thyroid function during pregnancy is critical, for both the initiation of thyroid hormone therapy, and for the adjustment of thyroid hormone dose in those already receiving thyroid hormone. Trimester-specific intervals are especially important during pregnancy when thyroid insufficiency may be associated with adverse obstetric outcome and fetal neurodevelopmental deficits. Gestational age-specific reference intervals are now available for thyroid function tests. Knowing the expected normal changes in hormone concentrations throughout pregnancy allows individualized supplementation when necessary. PMID:16418685

  15. Specification, procurement and testing of passivated microwave semiconductor chips for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahn, Reinhold L.; Schumacher, Petra K.

    1991-03-01

    Employing passivated microwave semiconductor chip devices in space systems is a challenge for both applications engineeering and parts procurement. The use of chip devices results in miniature circuits as well as optimum circuit performance. The signal to noise ratio and power consumption are improved. With the demand for higher frequencies the dimensions become smaller with associated handling difficulties and problems with regard to chip assembly. The status of procurement specifications applicable to microwave semiconductor chip devices is reviewed, using the ESA/PSS-01-608. Key items for useful procurement specifications are highlighted. Results of testing and handling investigations on low noise microwave Field Effect Transistors (MESFET) chips are described.

  16. Sensitivity and specificity of rapid influenza testing of children in a community setting 1

    PubMed Central

    Stebbins, Samuel; Stark, James H.; Prasad, Ramakrishna; Thompson, William W.; Mitruka, Kiren; Rinaldo, Charles; Vukotich, Charles J.; Cummings, Derek A. T.

    2010-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Stebbins et al. (2011) Sensitivity and specificity of rapid influenza testing of children in a community setting. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 5(2), 104–109. Introduction  Rapid influenza testing (RFT) allows for a rapid point‐of‐care diagnosis of influenza. The Quidel QuickVue® Influenza A+B test (QuickVue) has a reported manufacturer’s sensitivity and specificity of 73% and 96%, respectively, with nasal swabs. However, investigators have shown sensitivities ranging from 22% to 77% in community settings. Methods  The QuickVue rapid influenza test was evaluated in a population of elementary (K‐5) school children, using testing in the home, as part of the Pittsburgh Influenza Prevention Project during the 2007–2008 influenza season. The QuickVue test was performed with nasal swab in full accordance with package instructions and compared with the results of nasal swab semi‐quantitative RT‐PCR. Results  Sensitivity of the QuickVue was found to be 27% in this sample. There was no statistically valid correlation between the semi‐quantitative PCR result and the QuickVue result. Conclusions  This study is consistent with the low sensitivity of the QuickVue test also reported by others. Viral load, technique, and the use of nasal swabs were examined as contributing factors but were not found to be explanations for this result. Community testing includes patients who are on the lower spectrum of illness which would not be the case in hospital or clinic samples. This suggests that RFT is less sensitive for patients at the lower spectrum of illness, with less severe disease. PMID:21306573

  17. Galactoxylomannan-mediated immunological paralysis results from specific B cell depletion in the context of widespread immune system damage

    PubMed Central

    De Jesus, Magdia; Nicola, André Moraes; Frases, Susana; Lee, Ian R.; Mieses, Steven; Casadevall, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for polysaccharide-induced immunological paralysis have remained unexplained almost a century after this phenomenon was first described. Cryptococcus neoformans capsular polysaccharides glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) and galactoxylomannan (GalXM) elicit little or no antibody responses. This study investigates the immunological and biological effects of GalXM in mice. GalXM immunization elicits a state of immunological paralysis in mice characterized by the disappearance of antibody-producing cells in the spleen. Immunological paralysis and lack of immunogenicity could not be overcome by immunization with GalXM conjugated to a protein carrier, Bacillus anthracis protective antigen. Additionally, immunization with GalXM in either complete or incomplete Freund's adjuvant was associated with spleen enlargement in Balb/c mice. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl Transferase Biotin-dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) and flow cytometry revealed widespread apoptosis in the spleen after GalXM administration. Administration of a cocktail of Caspase-3 Inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK and General Caspase Inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK or Fas-deficient mice abrogated the complete disappearance of antibody producing cells. Analysis of spleen cytokine expression in response to GalXM systemic injection revealed that GalXM down-regulated the production of inflammatory cytokines. Hence, we conclude that GalXM-induced immune paralysis is a result of specific B-cell depletion mediated by its pro-apoptotic properties in the context of widespread dysregulation of immune function. PMID:19684080

  18. BIOMEX Experiment: Ultrastructural Alterations, Molecular Damage and Survival of the Fungus Cryomyces antarcticus after the Experiment Verification Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacelli, Claudia; Selbmann, Laura; Zucconi, Laura; De Vera, Jean-Pierre; Rabbow, Elke; Horneck, Gerda; de la Torre, Rosa; Onofri, Silvano

    2016-04-01

    The search for traces of extinct or extant life in extraterrestrial environments is one of the main goals for astrobiologists; due to their ability to withstand stress producing conditions, extremophiles are perfect candidates for astrobiological studies. The BIOMEX project aims to test the ability of biomolecules and cell components to preserve their stability under space and Mars-like conditions, while at the same time investigating the survival capability of microorganisms. The experiment has been launched into space and is being exposed on the EXPOSE-R2 payload, outside of the International Space Station (ISS) over a time-span of 1.5 years. Along with a number of other extremophilic microorganisms, the Antarctic cryptoendolithic black fungus Cryomyces antarcticus CCFEE 515 has been included in the experiment. Before launch, dried colonies grown on Lunar and Martian regolith analogues were exposed to vacuum, irradiation and temperature cycles in ground based experiments (EVT1 and EVT2). Cultural and molecular tests revealed that the fungus survived on rock analogues under space and simulated Martian conditions, showing only slight ultra-structural and molecular damage.

  19. Correlation between Patent Foramen Ovale, Cerebral "Lesions" and Neuropsychometric Testing in Experienced Sports Divers: Does Diving Damage the Brain?

    PubMed

    Balestra, Costantino; Germonpré, Peter

    2016-01-01

    SCUBA diving exposes divers to decompression sickness (DCS). There has been considerable debate whether divers with a Patent Foramen Ovale of the heart have a higher risk of DCS because of the possible right-to-left shunt of venous decompression bubbles into the arterial circulation. Symptomatic neurological DCS has been shown to cause permanent damage to brain and spinal cord tissue; it has been suggested that divers with PFO may be at higher risk of developing subclinical brain lesions because of repeated asymptomatic embolization of decompression-induced nitrogen bubbles. These studies however suffer from several methodological flaws, including self-selection bias. We recruited 200 volunteer divers from a recreational diving population who had never suffered from DCS; we then randomly selected 50 of those for further investigation. The selected divers underwent brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging to detect asymptomatic brain lesions, contrast trans-oesophageal echocardiography for PFO, and extensive neuro-psychometric testing. Neuro-psychometry results were compared with a control group of normal subjects and a separate control group for subjects exposed to neurotoxic solvents. Forty two divers underwent all the tests and are included in this report. Grade 2 Patent Foramen Ovale was found in 16 (38%) of the divers; brain Unidentified Bright Objects (UBO's) were found in 5 (11.9%). There was no association between PFO and the presence of UBO's (P = 0.693) or their size (p = 0.5) in divers. Neuropsychometric testing in divers was significantly worse from controls in two tests, Digit Span Backwards (DSB; p < 0.05) and Symbol-Digit-Substitution (SDS; p < 0.01). Compared to subjects exposed to neurotoxic solvents, divers scored similar on DSB and SDS tests, but significantly better on the Simple Reaction Time (REA) and Hand-Eye Coordination (EYE) tests. There was no correlation between PFO, number of UBO's and any of the neuro-psychometric tests. We conclude that for

  20. Test and evaluation document for DOT Specification 7A Type A Packaging. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-30

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has been conducting, through several of its operating contractors, an evaluation and testing program to qualify Type A radioactive material packagings per US Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A (DOT-7A) of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 49, Part 178 (49 CFR 178). The program is currently administered by the DOE, Office of Facility Safety Analysis, DOE/EH-32, at DOE-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) in Germantown, Maryland. This document summarizes the evaluation and testing performed for all of the packagings successfully qualified in this program.

  1. Sensitivity and specificity of the functional hallux limitus test to predict foot function.

    PubMed

    Payne, Craig; Chuter, Vivienne; Miller, Kathryn

    2002-05-01

    Functional hallux limitus is an underrecognized entity that generally does not produce symptoms but can result in a variety of compensatory mechanisms that can produce symptoms. Clinically, hallux limitus can be determined by assessing the range of motion available at the first metatarsophalangeal joint while the first ray is prevented from plantarflexing. The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of this clinical test to predict abnormal excessive midtarsal joint function during gait. A total of 86 feet were examined for functional hallux limitus and abnormal pronation of the midtarsal joint during late midstance. The test had a sensitivity of 0.72 and a specificity of 0.66, suggesting that clinicians should consider functional hallux limitus when there is late midstance pronation of the midtarsal joint during gait. PMID:12015407

  2. Treponema-Specific Tests for Serodiagnosis of Syphilis: Comparative Evaluation of Seven Assays▿

    PubMed Central

    Binnicker, M. J.; Jespersen, D. J.; Rollins, L. O.

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis of syphilis is challenging and often relies on serologic tests to detect treponemal or nontreponemal antibodies. Recently, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Association of Public Health Laboratories proposed an update to the syphilis serology testing algorithm, in which serum samples are first tested using a treponema-specific test and positive samples are analyzed with a nontreponemal assay. The goal of this study was to compare the performance of seven treponemal assays (BioPlex 2200 syphilis IgG [Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA], fluorescent treponemal antibody [FTA] assay [Zeus Scientific, Raritan, NJ], Treponema pallidum particle agglutination [TP-PA; Fujirebio Diagnostics, Malvern, PA], Trep-Sure enzyme immunoassay [EIA; Phoenix Biotech, Oakville, Ontario, Canada], Trep-Chek EIA [Phoenix Biotech], Trep-ID EIA [Phoenix Biotech], and Treponema ViraBlot IgG [Viramed Biotech AG, Planegg, Germany]) using serum samples (n = 303) submitted to our reference laboratory. In addition to testing with these 7 assays, all samples were tested by a rapid plasma reagin (RPR) assay and a treponemal IgM Western blot assay (Viramed ViraBlot). Compared to the FTA assay as the gold standard, the evaluated treponemal tests demonstrated comparable levels of performance, with percent agreement ranging from 95.4% (95% confidence interval, 92.3 to 97.3) for the Trep-Sure EIA to 98.4% (96.1 to 99.4) for the Trep-ID EIA. Compared to a “consensus of the test panel” (defined as at least 4 of 7 treponemal tests being in agreement), the percent agreement ranged from 95.7% (92.7 to 97.5) for Trep-Sure to 99.3% (97.5 to 99.9) for Trep-ID. These data may assist clinical laboratories that are considering implementing a treponemal test for screening or confirmatory purposes. PMID:21346050

  3. Retesting The Validity Of A Specific Field Test For Judo Training

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Luis; González, Vicente; Iscar, Marta; Brime, Juan I.; Fernández-Río, Javier; Rodríguez, Blanca; Montoliu, Mª Ángeles

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this research project was to retest the validity of a specifically designed judo field test (Santos Test) in a different group of judokas. Eight (n=8) national-level male judokas underwent laboratory and field testing. The mean data (mean +/− SD) obtained in the laboratory tests was: HRmax: 200 ± 4.0 beats × min−1, VO2 max: 52.8 ± 7.9 ± ml × kg−1 × min−1, lactate max: 12 ± 2.5 mmol × l−1, HR at the anaerobic threshold: 174.2 ± 9.4 beats × min−1, percentage of maximum heart rate at which the anaerobic threshold appears: 87 ± 3.6 %, lactate threshold: 4.0 ± 0.2 mmol × l−1, and RPE: 17.2 ± 1.0. The mean data obtained in the field test (Santos) was: HRmax: 201.3 ± 4.1 beats × min−1, VO2 max: 55.6 ± 5.8 ml × kg−1 × min−1, lactate max: 15.6 ± 2.8 mmol × l−1, HR at the anaerobic threshold: 173.2 ± 4.3 beats × min−1, percentage of maximum heart rate at which the anaerobic threshold appears: 86 ± 2.5 %, lactate threshold: 4.0 ± 0.2 mmol × l−1, and RPE: 16.7 ± 1.0. There were no significant differences between the data obtained on both tests in any of the parameters, except for maximum lactate concentration. Therefore, the Santos test can be considered a valid tool specific for judo training. PMID:23486994

  4. Clinical relevance of multiple antibody specificity testing in anti-phospholipid syndrome and recurrent pregnancy loss

    PubMed Central

    Tebo, A E; Jaskowski, T D; Hill, H R; Branch, D W

    2008-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate whether testing for anti-phosholipid antibodies other than anti-cardiolipin (aCL) and anti-beta-2 glycoprotein I (aβ2GPI) immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM identifies patients with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) who may be positive for anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS). In a cross-sectional study comprising 62 patients with APS, 66 women with RPL, 50 healthy blood donors and 24 women with a history of successful pregnancies, we tested IgM and IgG antibodies to phosphatidic acid, phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, phosphatidyl glycerol, phosphatidyl inositol and phosphatidyl serine with and without beta-2 glycoprotein I (β2GPI) from a single manufacturer as well as aCL and aβ2GPI antibodies. Diagnostic accuracies of individual and combined anti-phospholipid (aPL) assays were assessed by computing sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values and negative predictive values together with their 95% confidence intervals. There was a general trend for increased sensitivities in the presence of β2GPI co-factor with significant effect for certain specificities. The overall combined sensitivity of the non-recommended aPL assays was not significantly higher than that of the aCL and aB2GPI tests. Multiple aPL specificities in RPL group is not significantly different from controls and therefore of no clinical significance. PMID:18826497

  5. Clinical relevance of multiple antibody specificity testing in anti-phospholipid syndrome and recurrent pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Tebo, A E; Jaskowski, T D; Hill, H R; Branch, D W

    2008-12-01

    We wanted to evaluate whether testing for anti-phosholipid antibodies other than anti-cardiolipin (aCL) and anti-beta-2 glycoprotein I (abeta2GPI) immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM identifies patients with recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) who may be positive for anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS). In a cross-sectional study comprising 62 patients with APS, 66 women with RPL, 50 healthy blood donors and 24 women with a history of successful pregnancies, we tested IgM and IgG antibodies to phosphatidic acid, phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl ethanolamine, phosphatidyl glycerol, phosphatidyl inositol and phosphatidyl serine with and without beta-2 glycoprotein I (beta2GPI) from a single manufacturer as well as aCL and abeta2GPI antibodies. Diagnostic accuracies of individual and combined anti-phospholipid (aPL) assays were assessed by computing sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values and negative predictive values together with their 95% confidence intervals. There was a general trend for increased sensitivities in the presence of beta2GPI co-factor with significant effect for certain specificities. The overall combined sensitivity of the non-recommended aPL assays was not significantly higher than that of the aCL and aB2GPI tests. Multiple aPL specificities in RPL group is not significantly different from controls and therefore of no clinical significance. PMID:18826497

  6. Engineering and specifications for HVAC systems relating to testing and balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, R.

    1999-07-01

    Over the past several years, there have been numerous performance problems relating to building mechanical systems. In evaluating the causes for this poor performance, there seemed to be a lack of commitment, lack of enforcement of specified items, and a lack of understanding of the design intent by the key participants. Communication between the architect, engineer, suppliers, and the contractors is essential. If any one of the participating members does not follow through with his responsibilities, the building's overall performance will suffer. The intent of this paper is to point out key areas that generally cause poor system performance and to expound on specific areas of ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 111-1988, Practices for Measuring, Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing of Building Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration Systems (ASHRAE 1998), and NEBB 1991, Procedural Standards for Testing, Adjusting, Balancing of Environmental Systems (NEBB 1991), thus creating a fluent, positive mechanical design specification that fills these gaps. This paper will also address the basic problems and concerns test and balance contractors face every day and, by emphasizing certain enforceable language in the specification, allow the system to be balanced properly and improve the overall building performance.

  7. Acoustic specifications for the design of jet engine test facilities on an airbase

    SciTech Connect

    Strumpf, F.M.

    1982-01-01

    The use of engine run up test arrangements was common in Israeli air-bases since the forties, when engines for the Mustang, Mosquito, Harward and other propellor powered planes were used. The era of jet engine propulsion boosted the noise levels, and the use of fighters with afterburners in the new engines of the 80's brought it up to unbearable levels. Thus, the growth of the Israeli Air Force demanded the use of efficient noise suppression devices. These were divided into engine run-up noise suppressors, and aircraft noise suppessors (Hush Houses). For both of the bove ground arrangements, acoustic specifications had to be given. They were, as well as design goals for the manufacturers, also needed to restrict noise levels on the air-base as well as its surroundings. The acoustic specifications discussed are based on measured data, and permitted noise levels in the homes on the base being as far as 2500 meters from the engine exhaust silencer. For the special air-base discussed, various criteria were tested, including US Military Specifications, none of which were acceptable, and a special specification was therefore prepared.

  8. Developing a Non-Language Related Span Test for the Use in Language-Specific and Cross-Language Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahnazari-Dorcheh, Mohammadtaghi; Roshan, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    Due to the lack of span test for the use in language-specific and cross-language studies, this study provides L1 and L2 researchers with a reliable language-independent span test (math span test) for the measurement of working memory capacity. It also describes the development, validation, and scoring method of this test. This test included 70…

  9. Hypothetical accident conditions, free drop and thermal tests: Specification 6M

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, R.W.

    1980-05-01

    The 30 gallon Specification 6M shipping container with rolled-top food pack cans as inner containers is evaluated under conditions required by 10 CFR 71.42. One kilogram of depleted uranium as UO/sub 2/ was packaged in each of the inner containers. After completion of a free drop test and a simulated thermal test, the maximum observed leakage of UO/sub 2/ for the following week was 3.2 ..mu..g. This leakage is well below the allowable leakage per week for most plutonium isotopic mixtures. Using the examples provided, any plutonium isotopic mixture can be easily compared with the allowable leakage per week. Test conditions and results are reported.

  10. ‘It's a maybe test’: men's experiences of prostate specific antigen testing in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Rhodri; Edwards, Adrian GK; Elwyn, Glyn; Watson, Eila; Grol, Richard; Brett, Jo; Austoker, Joan

    2007-01-01

    Background Prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing in primary care is an important and contentious issue. Due to concerns about the test and the value of early detection, countries such as the UK advocate ‘informed choice’ instead of population screening. It is not known whether this policy is actually adhered to in primary care. Furthermore, little is known of the experiences of men who face this decision. Aim To explore the experiences, understanding, and views of men who considered or undertook PSA testing in UK primary care. Design of study Qualitative interview-based study. Setting Primary care, Wales, UK. Method Semi-structured one-to-one interviews were conducted with 28 men, representing a range of clinical outcomes. Transcripts were coded and subjected to thematic analysis. Results Three themes were identified: the decision-making context, the locus of decision making, and uncertainty related to the PSA test. Conclusion The decision to undertake PSA testing was affected by both social and media factors and it did not appear to be a patient-led decision. The decision created considerable uncertainty for men and this uncertainty persisted after the test, even if the result was normal. Raised PSA led to further investigations and this exacerbated the uncertainty. Anxiety and regret were consequences of this uncertainty. PMID:17394734

  11. Status and specifications of a Project X front-end accelerator test facility at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Steimel, J.; Webber, R.; Madrak, R.; Wildman, D.; Pasquinelli, R.; Evans-Peoples, E.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes the construction and operational status of an accelerator test facility for Project X. The purpose of this facility is for Project X component development activities that benefit from beam tests and any development activities that require 325 MHz or 650 MHz RF power. It presently includes an H- beam line, a 325 MHz superconducting cavity test facility, a 325 MHz (pulsed) RF power source, and a 650 MHz (CW) RF power source. The paper also discusses some specific Project X components that will be tested in the facility. Fermilab's future involves new facilities to advance the intensity frontier. In the early 2000's, the vision was a pulsed, superconducting, 8 GeV linac capable of injecting directly into the Fermilab Main Injector. Prototyping the front-end of such a machine started in 2005 under a program named the High Intensity Neutrino Source (HINS). While the HINS test facility was being constructed, the concept of a new, more versatile accelerator for the intensity frontier, now called Project X, was forming. This accelerator comprises a 3 GeV CW superconducting linac with an associated experimental program, followed by a pulsed 8 GeV superconducting linac to feed the Main Injector synchrotron. The CW Project X design is now the model for Fermilab's future intensity frontier program. Although CW operation is incompatible with the original HINS front-end design, the installation remains useful for development and testing many Project X components.

  12. Use of Specific IgE and Skin Prick Test to Determine Clinical Reaction Severity.

    PubMed

    Ta, Von; Weldon, Brittany; Yu, Grace; Humblet, Olivier; Neale-May, Susan; Nadeau, Kari

    2011-01-01

    AIMS: To determine whether specific IgE and skin prick test correlate better in predicting reaction severity during a double-blinded placebo controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) for egg, milk, and multiple tree nut allergens. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, August 2009 and ongoing. METHODOLOGY: We examined the reaction severity of twenty-four subjects to nine possible food allergens: milk, egg, almond, cashew, hazelnut, peanut, sesame, pecan and walnut. Specific IgE and SPT were performed before each DBPCFC. DBPCFC results were classified into mild (1), moderate (2), or severe (3) reactions using a modified Bock's criteria. RESULTS: Twenty four subjects underwent a total of 80 DBPCFC. Eighty percent of all DBPCFCs resulted in a positive reaction. A majority, 71%, were classified as mild. No reactions occurred with a SPT of zero mm while three reactions occurred with a negative specific IgE. All reactions were reversible with medication. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that SPT and specific IgE levels are not associated with reaction severity (p<0.64 and 0.27, respectively). We also found that combining specific IgE and SPT improved specificity but did not help to achieve clinically useful sensitivity. For instance, an SPT > 5mm had a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 50%. Combining SPT > 5mm and IgE > 7 resulted in a reduced sensitivity of 64%. Unexpectedly, a history of anaphylaxis 70% (n=17) was not predictive of anaphylaxis on challenge 4% (n=2). PMID:22993721

  13. CPV-specific test procedures for evaluating on-grid inverters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez, César; Voarino, Philippe; Lazpita, Begoña; Bier, Anthony; Besson, Pierre; Baudrit, Mathieu

    2014-09-01

    A new protocol for testing on-grid inverters accounting for the operating conditions specific to CPV arrays is introduced. First, a CPV-specific weighted average for providing the static conversion efficiency according to typical frequency distributions of CPV yield throughout the year. Then, a set of representative scenarios for analyzing the dynamic MPPT efficiency of the inverter: slow ramp (clear sky), fast cloud passage, self-shading between arrays (typical of sunrise and sunset) and a wavering current response typical of imperfect tracking. The procedures have been applied to two different string-size inverters at the CEA inverter test bench, which have revealed strong differences in their dynamic MPPT efficiency. The CPV-specific weighted average proposed was found to provide lower performance figures than the classical European and CEC efficiencies for the two studied inverters. This protocol provides important information for CPV plant dimensioning and equipment selection, as the differences in performance revealed can result in significant deviation on the final energy yield.

  14. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of immunochromatographic strip test in diagnosis of childhood kala-azar.

    PubMed

    Rouf, M A; Rahman, M E; Islam, M N; Islam, M N; Ferdous, N N; Hossain, M A

    2009-01-01

    In Bangladesh, the total population at risk for kala-azar exceeds 20 million (18%) living in 88 Thana (19%) of 27 districts (42%). A confirmatory diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) is done by demonstration of the parasite (LD body) in organ aspirates or tissue biopsy sample, an invasive procedure with relatively low sensitivity. To assess the diagnostic usefulness of ICT for antibody against the leishmanial antigen rK39 & its feasibility for use under field conditions (rural areas). An experimental study conducted during January, 2003 to July, 2003 in pediatrics department of MMCH including 60 confirmedly diagnosed KA cases & 60 controls having diseases other than KA. One drop of peripheral blood is applied to the nitrocellulose strip & 3 drops of test buffer is added to the dried blood. Observing 2 visible bands indicates presence of IgG anti-K39. The rK39 strip test was positive in 57 out of 60 confirmed KA case diagnosed by LD body demonstration in splenic or bone marrow aspirate. The estimated sensitivity was 95%. One control diagnosed as other than KA had positive strip test but negative aspirate smear. The estimated specificity of the strip test was 98.3%. The predictive value of a positive result is 98.3% & that of a negative result is 93.5%. rK39 strip test is highly sensitive & specific in our situation & it can be used as a simple & the best method for diagnosis of KA in rural areas. PMID:19377416

  15. Factors affecting sensitivity and specificity of a diagnostic test: the exercise thallium scintigram

    SciTech Connect

    Detrano, R.; Janosi, A.; Lyons, K.P.; Marcondes, G.; Abbassi, N.; Froelicher, V.F.

    1988-04-01

    Technical and methodological factors might affect the reported accuracies of diagnostic tests. To assess their influence on the accuracy of exercise thallium scintigraphy, the medical literature (1977 to 1986) was non-selectively searched and meta-analysis was applied to the 56 publications thus retrieved. These were analyzed for year of publication, sex and mean age of patients, percentage of patients with angina pectoris, percentage of patients with prior myocardial infarction, percentage of patients taking beta-blocking medications, and for angiographic referral (workup) bias, blinding of tests, and technical factors. The percentage of patients with myocardial infarction had the highest correlation with sensitivity (0.45, p = 0.0007). Only the inclusion of subjects with prior infarction and the percentage of men in the study group were independently and significantly (p less than 0.05) related to test sensitivity. Both the presence of workup bias and publication year adversely affected specificity (p less than 0.05). Of these two factors, publication year had the strongest association by stepwise linear regression. This analysis suggests that the reported sensitivity of thallium scintigraphy is higher and the specificity lower than that expected in clinical practice because of the presence of workup bias and the inappropriate inclusion of post-infarct patients.

  16. Development of a Specific Latex Agglutination Test to Detect Antibodies of Enterovirus 71.

    PubMed

    Qin, Bo; Zhang, Jianhua; Xie, Wenhao; Liu, Xuehong; He, Tingting; Chen, Jinkun; Dong, Xuejun

    2015-10-01

    A latex agglutination test (LAT) was developed for the rapid detection of antibodies against the VP1 or VP1 proteins of Enterovirus 71 (EV71). The proteins of interest including prokaryotically expressed VP1 and two strains of anti-VP1 monoclonal antibody (McAb) against EV71 were covalently linked to carboxylated latex using ethyl-dimethyl-amino-propyl carbodiimide (EDC) to prepare sensitized latex beads. LAT was evaluated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as a reference test. The VP1-LAT showed a sensitivity of 87.0%, specificity of 88.9%, and an agreement ratio of 90.0% in detecting VP1 in 100 serum samples from experimentally infected mice, whereas these values were 86.8, 96.7, and 93.3%, respectively, for 608 clinical human serum samples. The VP1-LAT has advantages over other assays in terms of low cost, rapidity, chemical stability, high sensitivity, repeatability, and specificity. The LAT established in the present study is a rapid and simple test suitable for field monitoring of antibodies against VP1-EV71. PMID:26363276

  17. Development and testing of biosensors that quantitatively and specifically detect organic contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, P.; Keim, P.; Kuske, C.; Willardson, B.

    1996-07-01

    This is the final report of a two-year Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project sought to develop a more sensitive and less expensive method of detecting organic contaminants. Assaying complex environmental samples for organic contaminant content is costly and labor intensive. This often limits extensive testing. Sensitive microbial biosensors that detect specific organic contaminants in complex waste mixtures without prior separation from other waste components have been developed. Some soil microbes degrade organic compounds that contaminate the environment. These bacteria sense minute quantities of particular organic compounds then respond by activating genes encoding enzymes that degrade these molecules. Genetic manipulation of these gene regulatory processes has been employed to develop unique biosensors that detect specific organic compounds using standard biochemical assays. Such biosensors allow rapid, sensitive testing of environmental samples for selected organic contaminants. The cost of biosensor assays is at least 100-fold less than present methods, allowing more rapid and extensive testing and site characterization.

  18. A beverage-specific measure of expectancies for malt liquor: development and initial testing.

    PubMed

    Collins, R Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C; Bradizza, Clara M; Kubiak, Audrey J; Falco, Diana L

    2011-12-01

    Malt liquor (ML) is a unique, high alcohol content beverage marketed to encourage heavy drinking. We developed the Malt Liquor Expectancy Questionnaire (MLEQ), a beverage-specific measure of alcohol expectancies, and examined its association with typical weekly ML use, typical weekly alcohol use, and alcohol problems. Forty positive and 40 negative expectancy items were administered to a sample of 639 young adults who regularly consumed ML. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses led to the development of the 30-item MLEQ. The MLEQ consists of two positive (i.e., Social Facilitation and Enjoyment, Enhanced Sexuality) and two negative factors (i.e., Aggression and Negative Consequences; Impairment and Physical Symptoms) that possess good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity. The psychometrically sound MLEQ contributes to the limited research on beverage-specific expectancies and heavy drinking. PMID:21928870

  19. Preliminary study on the role of virtual touch tissue quantification combined with a urinary β2-microglobulin test on the early diagnosis of gouty kidney damage.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fei; Wang, Zheng-Bin; Meng, Dong-Mei; Liu, Rong-Gui; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Li, Hui-Ying; Lv, Fei-Fei

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the work described here was to evaluate the role of virtual touch tissue quantification (VTQ) combined with urinary β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) measurement in the early diagnosis of gouty kidney damage. Two hundred fifty-nine patients with gouty kidney damage and 200 healthy control subjects were tested. The shear wave velocity (SWV) of the renal parenchyma and sinus as determined with VTQ and the urinary β2-MG level of the two groups were analyzed. Although there were no significant differences in age, body mass index, creatinine level and blood urea nitrogen between the two groups (all p's > 0.05), the aforementioned parameters were higher in the group with gouty kidney damage than in the control group. Urinary β2-MG levels of the patients with kidney damage were significantly higher than those of the control subjects (t = 6.38, p < 0.01). The SWV of the renal parenchyma was higher than that of the sinus in both groups. Compared with controls, patients with kidney damage had significantly increased renal parenchyma and sinus SWVs (all p-values < 0.05). Urinary β2-MG level was positively linearly correlated with the SWV of renal parenchyma in patients with kidney damage (r = 0.442, p < 0.0001). However, there was no correlation between urinary β2-MG level and the SWV of the sinus in patients with kidney damage (r = 0). In the control group, there was no correlation between urinary β2-MG level and the SWV of the renal parenchyma or sinus. The elasticity of the kidney as determined with VTQ, combined with the urinary β2-MG level, may be helpful in the early diagnosis of gouty kidney damage. PMID:24642221

  20. Rabies Group-Specific Ribonucleoprotein Antigen and a Test System for Grouping and Typing of Rhabdoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, L. G.; Dietzschold, B.; Dierks, R. E.; Matthaeus, W.; Enzmann, P.-J.; Strohmaier, K.

    1973-01-01

    Cell-associated ribonucleoprotein (RNP) was isolated from BHK-21 cells infected with several strains of rabies and rabies-related viruses. The RNP-antigen from rabies and related viruses induced the formation of complement-fixing, precipitating, and immunofluorescent antibodies, and proved to be the group-specific antigen common to all rabies viruses. Antigens of the envelope which induce virus-neutralizing antibodies are apparently determinative for the serotype of a virus as evidenced by two-way neutralization tests. A combination of these methods seems to be a useful approach to the serological grouping and typing of rhabdoviruses. Images PMID:4196634

  1. Cellular oxidative damage is more sensitive to biosynthetic rate than to metabolic rate: A test of the theoretical model on hornworms (Manduca sexta larvae).

    PubMed

    Amunugama, Kaushalya; Jiao, Lihong; Olbricht, Gayla R; Walker, Chance; Huang, Yue-Wern; Nam, Paul K; Hou, Chen

    2016-09-01

    We develop a theoretical model from an energetic viewpoint for unraveling the entangled effects of metabolic and biosynthetic rates on oxidative cellular damage accumulation during animal's growth, and test the model by experiments in hornworms. The theoretical consideration suggests that most of the cellular damages caused by the oxidative metabolism can be repaired by the efficient maintenance mechanisms, if the energy required by repair is unlimited. However, during growth a considerable amount of energy is allocated to the biosynthesis, which entails tradeoffs with the requirements of repair. Thus, the model predicts that cellular damage is more influenced by the biosynthetic rate than the metabolic rate. To test the prediction, we induced broad variations in metabolic and biosynthetic rates in hornworms, and assayed the lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl. We found that the increase in the cellular damage was mainly caused by the increase in biosynthetic rate, and the variations in metabolic rate had negligible effect. The oxidative stress hypothesis of aging suggests that high metabolism leads to high cellular damage and short lifespan. However, some empirical studies showed that varying biosynthetic rate, rather than metabolic rate, changes animal's lifespan. The conflicts between the empirical evidence and the hypothesis are reconciled by this study. PMID:27296440

  2. 40 CFR Appendix E to Part 52 - Performance Specifications and, Specification Test Procedures for Monitoring Systems for Effluent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....7Reference method. Method 2 as delineated in 40 CFR Part 60. 4. Measurement system performance specifications... to Part 52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... corrective maintenance, repair, replacement or adjustment during the 168-hour performance and...

  3. p53 shapes genome-wide and cell type-specific changes in microRNA expression during the human DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Hiroyoshi; Janky, Rekin’s; Nietfeld, Wilfried; Aerts, Stein; Madan Babu, M; Venkitaraman, Ashok R

    2014-01-01

    The human DNA damage response (DDR) triggers profound changes in gene expression, whose nature and regulation remain uncertain. Although certain micro-(mi)RNA species including miR34, miR-18, miR-16 and miR-143 have been implicated in the DDR, there is as yet no comprehensive description of genome-wide changes in the expression of miRNAs triggered by DNA breakage in human cells. We have used next-generation sequencing (NGS), combined with rigorous integrative computational analyses, to describe genome-wide changes in the expression of miRNAs during the human DDR. The changes affect 150 of 1523 miRNAs known in miRBase v18 from 4–24 h after the induction of DNA breakage, in cell-type dependent patterns. The regulatory regions of the most-highly regulated miRNA species are enriched in conserved binding sites for p53. Indeed, genome-wide changes in miRNA expression during the DDR are markedly altered in TP53-/- cells compared to otherwise isogenic controls. The expression levels of certain damage-induced, p53-regulated miRNAs in cancer samples correlate with patient survival. Our work reveals genome-wide and cell type-specific alterations in miRNA expression during the human DDR, which are regulated by the tumor suppressor protein p53. These findings provide a genomic resource to identify new molecules and mechanisms involved in the DDR, and to examine their role in tumor suppression and the clinical outcome of cancer patients. PMID:25486198

  4. Repeated significance tests of linear combinations of sensitivity and specificity of a diagnostic biomarker.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mixia; Shu, Yu; Li, Zhaohai; Liu, Aiyi

    2016-08-30

    A sequential design is proposed to test whether the accuracy of a binary diagnostic biomarker meets the minimal level of acceptance. The accuracy of a binary diagnostic biomarker is a linear combination of the marker's sensitivity and specificity. The objective of the sequential method is to minimize the maximum expected sample size under the null hypothesis that the marker's accuracy is below the minimal level of acceptance. The exact results of two-stage designs based on Youden's index and efficiency indicate that the maximum expected sample sizes are smaller than the sample sizes of the fixed designs. Exact methods are also developed for estimation, confidence interval and p-value concerning the proposed accuracy index upon termination of the sequential testing. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. PMID:26947768

  5. Mission Control Center (MCC) System Specification for the Shuttle Orbital Flight Test (OFT) Timeframe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    System specifications to be used by the mission control center (MCC) for the shuttle orbital flight test (OFT) time frame were described. The three support systems discussed are the communication interface system (CIS), the data computation complex (DCC), and the display and control system (DCS), all of which may interfere with, and share processing facilities with other applications processing supporting current MCC programs. The MCC shall provide centralized control of the space shuttle OFT from launch through orbital flight, entry, and landing until the Orbiter comes to a stop on the runway. This control shall include the functions of vehicle management in the area of hardware configuration (verification), flight planning, communication and instrumentation configuration management, trajectory, software and consumables, payloads management, flight safety, and verification of test conditions/environment.

  6. The Reliability, Validity and Applicability of Two Sport-Specific Power Tests in Synchronized Swimming

    PubMed Central

    Peric, Mia; Zenic, Natasa; Mandic, Gordana Furjan; Sekulic, Damir; Sajber, Dorica

    2012-01-01

    Sport-specific tests are rarely investigated in synchronized swimming (synchro). The aim of this research was to study the reliability and the validity of two sport-specific tests that are based on synchro elements, namely, the Barracuda thrust (“Barracuda”) and the Boost. The Barracuda is a move in which the swimmer begins in the back pike position (head down with the legs perpendicular to the surface of the water) and then moves the legs and hips rapidly upward, unrolling the body to obtain a maximal vertical position above the surface of the water. The Boost occurs when the swimmer rises rapidly out of the water, head first, to bring as much of the body as possible above the surface of the water. Both patterns are considered power moves and are therefore theoretically related to explosive strength. This study involved 22 female competitive synchro swimmers aged 16–18 years. The variables examined included performance on the Barracuda, Boost and countermovement jump and anthropometric measures (body height, body weight and body composition). Statistical analyses showed appropriate reliability for all tests, with no systematic bias between trials. A factor analysis calculated for the Barracuda, Boost and countermovement jump revealed one significant factor based on the Guttmann-Kaiser criterion with all three tests significantly projected. The structure of the significant factor did not change if the results for the Boost and Barracuda were normalized for body height. The Boost and Barracuda, but not the countermovement jump, were significantly correlated with the competitive achievements of the swimmers. In conclusion, the Boost and Barracuda are reliable and valid measures of the explosive strength of synchronized swimmers and are significantly related to competitive achievement. PMID:23487473

  7. Comment on "football-specific fitness testing: adding value or confirming the evidence?".

    PubMed

    Carling, Christopher; Collins, Dave

    2014-01-01

    The recent point-counter-point exchange arising from the article by Mendez-Villanueva and Buchheit (2013) (Football-specific fitness testing: Adding value or confirming the evidence? Journal of Sports Sciences, 31, 1503-1508) has generated an interesting debate on the real-world utility of fitness testing in professional association football (soccer). In the present authors' opinion, this exchange could also have been placed more in the context of the physical testing and subsequent benchmark profiling of the youth player within elite academy talent identification and development processes. This point is further strengthened by the current media debate at the time of writing on the development of elite youth football players in England and the Elite Player Performance Plan or EPPP (The Premier League. (2011). Elite Player Performance Plan. London: Author) published by the English Premier League as part of a vision for the future development of youth football in the League and throughout the English professional game. The EPPP recommends the implementation of a national database to enable comparison of Academy player performances against national physical testing "benchmark" profiles. In continuing the above debate, this letter questions the real-world utility and potential pitfalls of nationwide athletic benchmark profiling programmes for elite youth football. PMID:24878103

  8. Performance and specificity rates in the Test of Memory Malingering: an investigation into pediatric clinical populations.

    PubMed

    Loughan, Ashlee R; Perna, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Symptom validity tests are becoming standard as an effort measure during pediatric neuropsychological assessment. An important component of symptom validity test use is understanding limitations of these measures and how select clinical groups may have difficulty with them. Research has begun to clarify the limits of the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) with diverse childhood diagnoses. This study compared TOMM scores of children (N = 86) classified with common childhood disorders. Findings suggest that a substantial proportion of children performed below the recommended cutoff score of 45 on Trial 2 and attained varied specificity rates. This included children with conduct disorders (85%), affective disorders (92%), traumatic brain injury (83%), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (93%), learning disabilities (100%), and pervasive developmental disorder (88%). The group with the most children scoring below the cutoff was children with intellectual disabilities (76%). This finding is consistent with some of the adult research suggesting that very limited cognitive ability may compromise TOMM performance. Caution may be necessary when drawing conclusions about test-taking effort based on the recommended TOMM cutoff scores when evaluating children with disabilities. PMID:24236938

  9. Comparison of test specific sediment effect concentrations with marine sediment quality assessment guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, R.S.; Biedenbach, J.M.; Long, E.R.; MacDonald, D.D.

    1995-12-31

    As part of NOAA`s National Status and Trends (NS and T) Bioeffects Assessment program and studies conducted by the National Biological Service, numerous sediment quality assessment surveys have recently been conducted along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the US using the sea urchin (Arbacia punctulata) fertilization and embryological development tests with pore water. Additional toxicity tests were also conducted in conjunction with most of these studies. The areas that have been sampled include Boston harbor, Massachusetts; Charleston Harbor, Winyah Bay, and Savannah River, South Carolina; St. Simon Sound, Georgia; Biscayne Bay, Tampa Bay, Choctawhatchee Bay, Apalachicola Bay, St. Andrew Bay, and Pensacola Bay, Florida; Galveston Bay, Lavaca Bay, and Sabine Lake, Texas, and 200 stations in the vicinity of offshore oil and gas production platforms in the Gulf of Mexico. Sufficient data are now available from this series of surveys to calculate test specific sediment effect concentrations (SECs). Based on these recent studies, SECs were developed for the sea urchin porewater and amphipod tests and compared with existing marine sediment quality assessment guidelines.

  10. Predicting Grades in Specific College Freshman Courses from ACT Test Scores and Self-Reported High School Grades. November 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Julie P.; Sawyer, Richard

    The validity of American College Testing Program (ACT) test scores and self-reported high school grades for predicting grades in specific college freshman courses was studied. Specific course grades are typically used to place students in remedial, standard, or advanced classes. These placement decisions, in turn, have immediate implications for…

  11. Development of a polymerase chain reaction test for specific identification of the urinary tract pathogen Aerococcus urinae.

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, M; Collins, M D

    1993-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction test was developed for identification of the gram-positive urinary tract pathogen Aerococcus urinae. Oligonucleotide primers were based on highly specific sequences within the small-subunit rRNA gene. A confirmatory test based on hybridization of the amplified products to a highly specific internal probe was also developed. Images PMID:7684752

  12. 2016 Focused Update: Clinical Recommendations for Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing Data Assessment in Specific Patient Populations.

    PubMed

    Guazzi, Marco; Arena, Ross; Halle, Martin; Piepoli, Massimo F; Myers, Jonathan; Lavie, Carl J

    2016-06-14

    In the past several decades, cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) has seen an exponential increase in its evidence base. The growing volume of evidence in support of CPX has precipitated the release of numerous scientific statements by societies and associations. In 2012, the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation and the American Heart Association developed a joint document with the primary intent of redefining CPX analysis and reporting in a way that would streamline test interpretation and increase clinical application. Specifically, the 2012 joint scientific statement on CPX conceptualized an easy-to-use, clinically meaningful analysis based on evidence-vetted variables in color-coded algorithms; single-page algorithms were successfully developed for each proposed test indication. Because of an abundance of new CPX research in recent years and a reassessment of the current algorithms in light of the body of evidence, a focused update to the 2012 scientific statement is now warranted. The purposes of this update are to confirm algorithms included in the initial scientific statement not requiring revision, to propose revisions to algorithms included in the initial scientific statement, to propose new algorithms based on emerging scientific evidence, to further clarify the application of oxygen consumption at ventilatory threshold, to describe CPX variables with an emerging scientific evidence base, to describe the synergistic value of combining CPX with other assessments, to discuss personnel considerations for CPX laboratories, and to provide recommendations for future CPX research. PMID:27143685

  13. Test and evaluation document for DOT Specification 7A type A packaging. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, D L

    1997-08-04

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has been conducting, through several of its operating contractors, an evaluation and testing program to qualify Type A radioactive material packagings per US Department of Transportation (DOT) Specification 7A (DOT-7A) of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 49, Part 178 (49 CFR 178). This document summarizes the evaluation and testing performed for all of the packagings successfully qualified in this program. This document supersedes DOE Evaluation Document for DOT-7A Type A Packaging (Edling 1987), originally issued in 1987 by Monsanto Research Corporation Mound Laboratory (MLM), Miamisburg, Ohio, for the Department of Energy, Security Evaluation Program (I)P-4. Mound Laboratory issued four revisions to the document between November 1988 and December 1989. In September 1989, the program was transferred to Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) in Richland, Washington. One additional revision was issued in March 1990 by Westinghouse Hanford. This revision reflects the earlier material and incorporates a number of changes. Evaluation and testing activities on 1208 three DOT-7A Program Dockets resulted in the qualification of three new packaging configurations, which are incorporated herein and summarized. This document presents approximately 300 different packagings that have been determined to meet the requirements for a DOT-7A, type A packaging per 49 CFR 178.350.

  14. Rat intra-hippocampal NMDA infusion induces cell-specific damage and changes in expression of NMDA and GABAA receptor subunits.

    PubMed

    Rambousek, Lukas; Kleteckova, Lenka; Kubesova, Anna; Jirak, Daniel; Vales, Karel; Fritschy, Jean-Marc

    2016-06-01

    Excessive stimulation of NMDA receptors with glutamate or other potent agonists such as NMDA leads to excitotoxicity and neural injury. In this study, we aimed to provide insight into an animal model of brain excitotoxic damage; single unilateral infusion of NMDA at mild dose into the hippocampal formation. NMDA infusion induced chronic, focal neurodegeneration in the proximity of the injection site. The lesion was accompanied by severe and progressive neuroinflammation and affected preferentially principal neurons while sparing GABAergic interneurons. Furthermore, the unilateral lesion did not cause significant impairment of spatial learning abilities. Finally, GluN1 and GluN2B subunits of NMDA receptor were significantly upregulated up to 3 days after the NMDA infusion, while GABAA α5 subunit was downregulated at 30 days after the lesion. Taken together, a single infusion of NMDA into the hippocampal formation represents an animal model of excitotoxicity-induced chronic neurodegeneration of principal neurons accompanied by severe neuroinflammation and subunit specific changes in NMDA and GABAA receptors. PMID:26930443

  15. Cardiomyocyte-specific conditional knockout of the histone chaperone HIRA in mice results in hypertrophy, sarcolemmal damage and focal replacement fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Nicolas; Fan, Qiying; Fa'ak, Faisal; Soibam, Benjamin; Nagandla, Harika; Liu, Yu; Schwartz, Robert J; McConnell, Bradley K; Stewart, M David

    2016-03-01

    HIRA is the histone chaperone responsible for replication-independent incorporation of histone variant H3.3 within gene bodies and regulatory regions of actively transcribed genes, and within the bivalent promoter regions of developmentally regulated genes. The HIRA gene lies within the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome critical region; individuals with this syndrome have multiple congenital heart defects. Because terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes have exited the cell cycle, histone variants should be utilized for the bulk of chromatin remodeling. Thus, HIRA is likely to play an important role in epigenetically defining the cardiac gene expression program. In this study, we determined the consequence of HIRA deficiency in cardiomyocytes in vivo by studying the phenotype of cardiomyocyte-specific Hira conditional-knockout mice. Loss of HIRA did not perturb heart development, but instead resulted in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and susceptibility to sarcolemmal damage. Cardiomyocyte degeneration gave way to focal replacement fibrosis and impaired cardiac function. Gene expression was widely altered in Hira conditional-knockout hearts. Significantly affected pathways included responses to cellular stress, DNA repair and transcription. Consistent with heart failure, fetal cardiac genes were re-expressed in the Hira conditional knockout. Our results suggest that transcriptional regulation by HIRA is crucial for cardiomyocyte homeostasis. PMID:26935106

  16. Cardiomyocyte-specific conditional knockout of the histone chaperone HIRA in mice results in hypertrophy, sarcolemmal damage and focal replacement fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, Nicolas; Fan, Qiying; Fa'ak, Faisal; Soibam, Benjamin; Nagandla, Harika; Liu, Yu; Schwartz, Robert J.; McConnell, Bradley K.; Stewart, M. David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIRA is the histone chaperone responsible for replication-independent incorporation of histone variant H3.3 within gene bodies and regulatory regions of actively transcribed genes, and within the bivalent promoter regions of developmentally regulated genes. The HIRA gene lies within the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome critical region; individuals with this syndrome have multiple congenital heart defects. Because terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes have exited the cell cycle, histone variants should be utilized for the bulk of chromatin remodeling. Thus, HIRA is likely to play an important role in epigenetically defining the cardiac gene expression program. In this study, we determined the consequence of HIRA deficiency in cardiomyocytes in vivo by studying the phenotype of cardiomyocyte-specific Hira conditional-knockout mice. Loss of HIRA did not perturb heart development, but instead resulted in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and susceptibility to sarcolemmal damage. Cardiomyocyte degeneration gave way to focal replacement fibrosis and impaired cardiac function. Gene expression was widely altered in Hira conditional-knockout hearts. Significantly affected pathways included responses to cellular stress, DNA repair and transcription. Consistent with heart failure, fetal cardiac genes were re-expressed in the Hira conditional knockout. Our results suggest that transcriptional regulation by HIRA is crucial for cardiomyocyte homeostasis. PMID:26935106

  17. Investigation of Spiral Bevel Gear Condition Indicator Validation via AC-29-2C Combining Test Rig Damage Progression Data with Fielded Rotorcraft Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.

    2015-01-01

    This is the final of three reports published on the results of this project. In the first report, results were presented on nineteen tests performed in the NASA Glenn Spiral Bevel Gear Fatigue Test Rig on spiral bevel gear sets designed to simulate helicopter fielded failures. In the second report, fielded helicopter HUMS data from forty helicopters were processed with the same techniques that were applied to spiral bevel rig test data. Twenty of the forty helicopters experienced damage to the spiral bevel gears, while the other twenty helicopters had no known anomalies within the time frame of the datasets. In this report, results from the rig and helicopter data analysis will be compared for differences and similarities in condition indicator (CI) response. Observations and findings using sub-scale rig failure progression tests to validate helicopter gear condition indicators will be presented. In the helicopter, gear health monitoring data was measured when damage occurred and after the gear sets were replaced at two helicopter regimes. For the helicopters or tails, data was taken in the flat pitch ground 101 rotor speed (FPG101) regime. For nine tails, data was also taken at 120 knots true airspeed (120KTA) regime. In the test rig, gear sets were tested until damage initiated and progressed while gear health monitoring data and operational parameters were measured and tooth damage progression documented. For the rig tests, the gear speed was maintained at 3500RPM, a one hour run-in was performed at 4000 in-lb gear torque, than the torque was increased to 8000 in-lbs. The HUMS gear condition indicator data evaluated included Figure of Merit 4 (FM4), Root Mean Square (RMS) or Diagnostic Algorithm 1(DA1), + 3 Sideband Index (SI3) and + 1 Sideband Index (SI1). These were selected based on their sensitivity in detecting contact fatigue damage modes from analytical, experimental and historical helicopter data. For this report, the helicopter dataset was reduced to

  18. Signal processing and display interface studies. [performance tests - design analysis/equipment specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Signal processing equipment specifications, operating and test procedures, and systems design and engineering are described. Five subdivisions of the overall circuitry are treated: (1) the spectrum analyzer; (2) the spectrum integrator; (3) the velocity discriminator; (4) the display interface; and (5) the formatter. They function in series: (1) first in analog form to provide frequency resolution, (2) then in digital form to achieve signal to noise improvement (video integration) and frequency discrimination, and (3) finally in analog form again for the purpose of real-time display of the significant velocity data. The formatter collects binary data from various points in the processor and provides a serial output for bi-phase recording. Block diagrams are used to illustrate the system.

  19. A dedicated system for topographical working memory: evidence from domain-specific interference tests.

    PubMed

    Piccardi, L; Nori, R; Boccia, M; Barbetti, S; Verde, P; Guariglia, C; Ferlazzo, F

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, we used single- and dual-task conditions to investigate the nature of topographical working memory to better understand what type of task can hamper performance during navigation. During dual-task conditions, we considered four different sources of interference: motor (M), spatial motor (SM), verbal (i.e. articulatory suppression AS) and spatial environmental (SE). In order to assess the nature of topographical working memory, we used the Walking Corsi Test, asking the participants to perform two tasks simultaneously (M, SM, AS and SE). Our results showed that only spatial-environmental interference hampers the execution of a topographical working memory task, suggesting a task-domain-specific effect. We also found general gender differences in the topographical working memory capabilities: men were more proficient than women, regardless of the type of interferences. However, like men, women performed worse when a spatial-environmental interference was present. PMID:26003128

  20. An extremely sensitive species-specific ARMS PCR test for the presence of tiger bone DNA.

    PubMed

    Wetton, Jon H; Tsang, Carol S F; Roney, Chris A; Spriggs, Adrian C

    2002-04-18

    The survival of the tiger (Panthera tigris) is seriously threatened by poaching to provide raw materials for traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). Most highly prized are the tiger's bones, which are used in combination with other animal and plant derivatives in pills and plasters for the treatment of rheumatism and other ailments. Hundreds of patent remedies have been produced which claim to contain tiger bone, but proof of its presence is needed if legislation prohibiting the trade in endangered species is to be enforced.A highly sensitive tiger-specific real-time PCR assay has been developed to address this problem. Using primers specific to the tiger mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, successful amplification has been reliably achieved from blood, hair and bone as well as from a range of TCMs spiked with 0.5% tiger bone. Although capable of detecting fewer than 10 substrate molecules, the seven varieties of TCM pills and plasters tested showed no detectable trace of tiger DNA before spiking. Furthermore, sequencing several "tiger bone" fragments seized from TCM shops has shown that they actually originated from cattle and pigs. The potential effects of traditional bone preparation methods, evidence that much lower concentrations are used than alleged on TCM packaging, and substitution of bones from other species all suggest a low likelihood of detecting tiger DNA in patent medicines. Despite this, the basic methods have been thoroughly proven and can be readily applied to derivatives from other Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) protected species, providing a rapid and highly sensitive forensic test for species of origin. Potential applications to the monitoring of wild populations are demonstrated by the successful identification of shed hairs and faecal samples. PMID:12084490

  1. Test Anxiety among College Students with Specific Reading Disability (Dyslexia): Nonverbal Ability and Working Memory as Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jason M.; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety and its correlates were examined with college students with and without specific reading disability (RD; n = 50 in each group). Results indicated that college students with RD reported higher test anxiety than did those without RD, and the magnitude of these differences was in the medium range on two test anxiety scales. Relative to…

  2. Retrospective analysis of the Draize test for serious eye damage/eye irritation: importance of understanding the in vivo endpoints under UN GHS/EU CLP for the development and evaluation of in vitro test methods.

    PubMed

    Adriaens, Els; Barroso, João; Eskes, Chantra; Hoffmann, Sebastian; McNamee, Pauline; Alépée, Nathalie; Bessou-Touya, Sandrine; De Smedt, Ann; De Wever, Bart; Pfannenbecker, Uwe; Tailhardat, Magalie; Zuang, Valérie

    2014-03-01

    For more than two decades, scientists have been trying to replace the regulatory in vivo Draize eye test by in vitro methods, but so far only partial replacement has been achieved. In order to better understand the reasons for this, historical in vivo rabbit data were analysed in detail and resampled with the purpose of (1) revealing which of the in vivo endpoints are most important in driving United Nations Globally Harmonized System/European Union Regulation on Classification, Labelling and Packaging (UN GHS/EU CLP) classification for serious eye damage/eye irritation and (2) evaluating the method's within-test variability for proposing acceptable and justifiable target values of sensitivity and specificity for alternative methods and their combinations in testing strategies. Among the Cat 1 chemicals evaluated, 36-65 % (depending on the database) were classified based only on persistence of effects, with the remaining being classified mostly based on severe corneal effects. Iritis was found to rarely drive the classification (<4 % of both Cat 1 and Cat 2 chemicals). The two most important endpoints driving Cat 2 classification are conjunctiva redness (75-81 %) and corneal opacity (54-75 %). The resampling analyses demonstrated an overall probability of at least 11 % that chemicals classified as Cat 1 by the Draize eye test could be equally identified as Cat 2 and of about 12 % for Cat 2 chemicals to be equally identified as No Cat. On the other hand, the over-classification error for No Cat and Cat 2 was negligible (<1 %), which strongly suggests a high over-predictive power of the Draize eye test. Moreover, our analyses of the classification drivers suggest a critical revision of the UN GHS/EU CLP decision criteria for the classification of chemicals based on Draize eye test data, in particular Cat 1 based only on persistence of conjunctiva effects or corneal opacity scores of 4. In order to successfully replace the regulatory in vivo Draize eye test, it will

  3. Degradation in PV Encapsulation Transmittance: An Interlaboratory Study Towards a Climate-Specific Test: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David C.; Annigoni, Eleonora; Ballion, Amal; Bokria, Jayesh G.; Bruckman, Laura S.; Burns, David M.; Chen, Xinxin; Elliott, Lamont; Feng, Jiangtao; French, Roger H.; Fowler, Sean; Gu, Xiaohong; Hacke, Peter L.; Honeker, Christian C.; Kempe, Michael D.; Khonkar, Hussam; Kohl, Michael; Perret-Aebi, Laure-Emmanuelle; Phillips, Nancy H.; Scott, Kurt P.; Sculati-Meillaud, Fanny; Shioda, Tsuyos

    2015-08-12

    Reduced optical transmittance of encapsulants resulting from ultraviolet (UV) degradation has frequently been identified as a cause of decreased PV module performance through the life of service in the field. The present module safety and qualification standards, however, apply short UV doses only capable of examining design robustness or 'infant mortality' failures. Essential information that might be used to screen encapsulation through product lifetime remains unknown. For example, the relative efficacy of xenon-arc and UVA-340 fluorescent sources or the typical range of activation energy for degradation is not quantified. We have conducted an interlaboratory experiment to provide the understanding that will be used towards developing a climate- and configuration-specific (UV) weathering test. Five representative, known formulations of EVA were studied in addition to one TPU material. Replicate laminated silica/polymer/silica specimens are being examined at 14 institutions using a variety of indoor chambers (including Xenon, UVA-340, and metal-halide light sources) or field aging. The solar-weighted transmittance, yellowness index, and the UV cut-off wavelength, determined from the measured hemispherical transmittance, are examined to provide understanding and guidance for the UV light source (lamp type) and temperature used in accelerated UV aging tests.

  4. Degradation in PV Encapsulation Transmittance: An Interlaboratory Study Toward a Climate-Specific Test

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David C.; Hacke, Peter L.; Kempe, Michael D.; Wohlgemuth, John H.; Annigoni, Eleonora; Sculati-Meillaud, Fanny; Ballion, Amal; Kohl, Michael; Bokria, Jayesh G.; Bruckman, Laura S.; French, Roger H.; Burns, David; Phillips, Nancy H.; Feng; Jiangtao; Elliott, Lamont; Scott, Kurt P.; Fowler, Sean; Gu, Xiaohong; Honeker, Christian C.; Khonkar, Hussam; Perret-Aebi, Laure-Emmanuelle; Shioda, Tsy

    2015-06-14

    Reduced optical transmittance of encapsulation resulting from ultraviolet (UV) degradation has frequently been identified as a cause of decreased PV module performance through the life of installations in the field. The present module safety and qualification standards, however, apply short UV doses only capable of examining design robustness or 'infant mortality' failures. Essential information that might be used to screen encapsulation through product lifetime remains unknown. For example, the relative efficacy of xenon-arc and UVA-340 fluorescent sources or the typical range of activation energy for degradation is not quantified. We have conducted an interlaboratory experiment to provide the understanding that will be used towards developing a climate- and configuration-specific (UV) weathering test. Five representative, known formulations of EVA were studied in addition to one TPU material. Replicate laminated silica/polymer/silica specimens are being examined at 14 institutions using a variety of indoor chambers (including Xe, UVA-340, and metal-halide light sources) or field aging. The solar-weighted transmittance, yellowness index, and the UV cut-off wavelength, determined from the measured hemispherical transmittance, are examined to provide understanding and guidance for the UV light source (lamp type) and temperature used in accelerated UV aging tests. Index Terms -- reliability, durability, thermal activation.

  5. Degradation in PV Encapsulation Transmittance: An Interlaboratory Study Towards a Climate-Specific Test

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David C.; Annigoni, Eleonora; Ballion, Amal; Bokria, Jayesh G.; Bruckman, Laura S.; Burns, David M.; Chen, Xinxin; Elliott, L.; Feng, J.; French, Roger H.; Fowler, S.; Gu, X.; Hacke, Peter L.; Honeker, C. C.; Kempe, Michael D.; Khonkar, H.; Kohl, M.; Perret-Aebi, Laure-Emmanuelle; Phillips, N. H.; Scott, K. P.; Sculati-Meillaud, F.; Shioda, T.; Suga, S.; Watanabe, S.; Wohlgemuth, John H.

    2015-06-14

    Reduced optical transmittance of encapsulants resulting from ultraviolet (UV) degradation has frequently been identified as a cause of decreased PV module performance through the life of service in the field. The present module safety and qualification standards, however, apply short UV doses only capable of examining design robustness or 'infant mortality' failures. Essential information that might be used to screen encapsulation through product lifetime remains unknown. For example, the relative efficacy of xenon-arc and UVA-340 fluorescent sources or the typical range of activation energy for degradation is not quantified. We have conducted an interlaboratory experiment to provide the understanding that will be used towards developing a climate- and configuration-specific (UV) weathering test. Five representative, known formulations of EVA were studied in addition to one TPU material. Replicate laminated silica/polymer/silica specimens are being examined at 14 institutions using a variety of indoor chambers (including Xenon, UVA-340, and metal-halide light sources) or field aging. The solar-weighted transmittance, yellowness index, and the UV cut-off wavelength, determined from the measured hemispherical transmittance, are examined to provide understanding and guidance for the UV light source (lamp type) and temperature used in accelerated UV aging tests.

  6. Spatio-Temporal Features of Visual Exploration in Unilaterally Brain-Damaged Subjects with or without Neglect: Results from a Touchscreen Test

    PubMed Central

    Rabuffetti, Marco; Farina, Elisabetta; Alberoni, Margherita; Pellegatta, Daniele; Appollonio, Ildebrando; Affanni, Paola; Forni, Marco; Ferrarin, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive assessment in a clinical setting is generally made by pencil-and-paper tests, while computer-based tests enable the measurement and the extraction of additional performance indexes. Previous studies have demonstrated that in a research context exploration deficits occur also in patients without evidence of unilateral neglect at pencil-and-paper tests. The objective of this study is to apply a touchscreen-based cancellation test, feasible also in a clinical context, to large groups of control subjects and unilaterally brain-damaged patients, with and without unilateral spatial neglect (USN), in order to assess disturbances of the exploratory skills. A computerized cancellation test on a touchscreen interface was used for assessing the performance of 119 neurologically unimpaired control subjects and 193 patients with unilateral right or left hemispheric brain damage, either with or without USN. A set of performance indexes were defined including Latency, Proximity, Crossings and their spatial lateral gradients, and Preferred Search Direction. Classic outcome scores were computed as well. Results show statistically significant differences among groups (assumed p<0.05). Right-brain-damaged patients with USN were significantly slower (median latency per detected item was 1.18 s) and less efficient (about 13 search-path crossings) in the search than controls (median latency 0.64 s; about 3 crossings). Their preferred search direction (53.6% downward, 36.7% leftward) was different from the one in control patients (88.2% downward, 2.1% leftward). Right-brain-damaged patients without USN showed a significantly abnormal behavior (median latency 0.84 s, about 5 crossings, 83.3% downward and 9.1% leftward direction) situated half way between controls and right-brain-damaged patients with USN. Left-brain-damaged patients without USN were significantly slower and less efficient than controls (latency 1.19 s, about 7 crossings), preserving a normal preferred search

  7. Specificity and false positive rates of the Test of Memory Malingering, Rey 15-item Test, and Rey Word Recognition Test among forensic inpatients with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Love, Christopher M; Glassmire, David M; Zanolini, Shanna Jordan; Wolf, Amanda

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the specificity and false positive (FP) rates of the Rey 15-Item Test (FIT), Word Recognition Test (WRT), and Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) in a sample of 21 forensic inpatients with mild intellectual disability (ID). The FIT demonstrated an FP rate of 23.8% with the standard quantitative cutoff score. Certain qualitative error types on the FIT showed promise and had low FP rates. The WRT obtained an FP rate of 0.0% with previously reported cutoff scores. Finally, the TOMM demonstrated low FP rates of 4.8% and 0.0% on Trial 2 and the Retention Trial, respectively, when applying the standard cutoff score. FP rates are reported for a range of cutoff scores and compared with published research on individuals diagnosed with ID. Results indicated that although the quantitative variables on the FIT had unacceptably high FP rates, the TOMM and WRT had low FP rates, increasing the confidence clinicians can place in scores reflecting poor effort on these measures during ID evaluations. PMID:24671735

  8. Testing the Language of German Cerebral Palsy Patients with Right Hemispheric Language Organization after Early Left Hemispheric Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwilling, Eleonore; Krageloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Konietzko, Andreas; Winkler, Susanne; Lidzba, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Language functions are generally represented in the left cerebral hemisphere. After early (prenatally acquired or perinatally acquired) left hemispheric brain damage language functions may be salvaged by reorganization into the right hemisphere. This is different from brain lesions acquired in adulthood which normally lead to aphasia. Right…

  9. How does a cadaver model work for testing ultrasound diagnostic capability for rheumatic-like tendon damage?

    PubMed

    Janta, Iustina; Morán, Julio; Naredo, Esperanza; Nieto, Juan Carlos; Uson, Jacqueline; Möller, Ingrid; Bong, David; Bruyn, George A W; D Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Filippucci, Emilio; Hammer, Hilde Berner; Iagnocco, Annamaria; Terslev, Lene; González, Jorge Murillo; Mérida, José Ramón; Carreño, Luis

    2016-06-01

    To establish whether a cadaver model can serve as an effective surrogate for the detection of tendon damage characteristic of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition, we evaluated intraobserver and interobserver agreement in the grading of RA-like tendon tears shown by US, as well as the concordance between the US findings and the surgically induced lesions in the cadaver model. RA-like tendon damage was surgically induced in the tibialis anterior tendon (TAT) and tibialis posterior tendon (TPT) of ten ankle/foot fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens. Of the 20 tendons examined, six were randomly assigned a surgically induced partial tear; six a complete tear; and eight left undamaged. Three rheumatologists, experts in musculoskeletal US, assessed from 1 to 5 the quality of US imaging of the cadaveric models on a Likert scale. Tendons were then categorized as having either no damage, (0); partial tear, (1); or complete tear (2). All 20 tendons were blindly and independently evaluated twice, over two rounds, by each of the three observers. Overall, technical performance was satisfactory for all items in the two rounds (all values over 2.9 in a Likert scale 1-5). Intraobserver and interobserver agreement for US grading of tendon damage was good (mean κ values 0.62 and 0.71, respectively), with greater reliability found in the TAT than the TPT. Concordance between US findings and experimental tendon lesions was acceptable (70-100 %), again greater for the TAT than for the TPT. A cadaver model with surgically created tendon damage can be useful in evaluating US metric properties of RA tendon lesions. PMID:26995000

  10. An investigation of tensile damage behavior of X5230/T800 polymer matrix composites through in-situ tensile testing in SEM

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S.J.; Zhang, H.Q.; Delale, F.; Liaw, B.M.; Bode, J.H.

    1994-12-31

    Dog bone tensile specimens made of 8-ply X5230/T800 polymer matrix composites with [0{degree}/+45{degree}/0{degree}/{minus}45{degree}]{sub s}, arrangement and 57% fiber volume fraction have been subjected to tensile loading either along or perpendicular to the 0{degree} fiber direction at various temperatures. The tests were conducted inside an enlarged specimen chamber of a Hitachi S-2400 scanning electron microscope (SEM). During the test, the upper surface of the specimen in the gage section area was closely monitored through the screen of the SEM and the images revealing the intermediate tensile damage events on the surface and the edge of the specimen were captured in-situ either by using a Polaroid camera or a thermal print processor. When loading was applied parallel to the 0{degree} fiber direction at room temperature, damage started in the 0{degree} ply in the form of fiber breaking, followed by multiple fiber braiding in the 0{degree} ply, delamination between O{degree} and {+-}45{degree} plies, matrix cracking along the fiber direction in the {+-}45{degree} plies and the eventual failure of the specimen. No matrix cracks in the 0{degree} ply were observed for tests in room temperature. However, when tested at 1OO C, interface cracks were found in the 0{degree} ply and the failure load decreases substantially. When the loading was applied perpendicular to the 0{degree} fiber direction, no damage was observed in the 0{degree} ply until failure. A finite element model which incorporates the observed damage progression and based on the microstructure of the composite was also developed.

  11. Testing chemotherapeutic agents in the feather follicle identifies a selective blockade of cell proliferation and a key role for sonic hedgehog signaling in chemotherapy-induced tissue damage.

    PubMed

    Xie, Guojiang; Wang, Hangwei; Yan, Zhipeng; Cai, Linyan; Zhou, Guixuan; He, Wanzhong; Paus, Ralf; Yue, Zhicao

    2015-03-01

    Chemotherapeutic agents induce complex tissue responses in vivo and damage normal organ functions. Here we use the feather follicle to investigate details of this damage response. We show that cyclophosphamide treatment, which causes chemotherapy-induced alopecia in mice and man, induces distinct defects in feather formation: feather branching is transiently and reversibly disrupted, thus leaving a morphological record of the impact of chemotherapeutic agents, whereas the rachis (feather axis) remains unperturbed. Similar defects are observed in feathers treated with 5-fluorouracil or taxol but not with doxorubicin or arabinofuranosyl cytidine (Ara-C). Selective blockade of cell proliferation was seen in the feather branching area, along with a downregulation of sonic hedgehog (Shh) transcription, but not in the equally proliferative rachis. Local delivery of the Shh inhibitor, cyclopamine, or Shh silencing both recapitulated this effect. In mouse hair follicles, those chemotherapeutic agents that disrupted feather formation also downregulated Shh gene expression and induced hair loss, whereas doxorubicin or Ara-C did not. Our results reveal a mechanism through which chemotherapeutic agents damage rapidly proliferating epithelial tissue, namely via the cell population-specific, Shh-dependent inhibition of proliferation. This mechanism may be targeted by future strategies to manage chemotherapy-induced tissue damage. PMID:25233072

  12. Oocyte-specific inactivation of Omcg1 leads to DNA damage and c-Abl/TAp63-dependent oocyte death associated with dramatic remodeling of ovarian somatic cells

    PubMed Central

    Vandormael-Pournin, S; Guigon, C J; Ishaq, M; Coudouel, N; Avé, P; Huerre, M; Magre, S; Cohen-Tannoudji, J; Cohen-Tannoudji, M

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant loss of oocytes following cancer treatments or genetic mutations leads to premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) associated with endocrine-related disorders in 1% of women. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms governing oocyte death is crucial for the preservation of female fertility. Here, we report the striking reproductive features of a novel mouse model of POI obtained through oocyte-specific inactivation (ocKO) of Omcg1/Zfp830 encoding a nuclear zinc finger protein involved in pre-mRNA processing. Genetic ablation of OMCG1 in early growing oocytes leads to reduced transcription, accumulation of DNA double-strand breaks and subsequent c-Abl/TAp63-dependent oocyte death, thus uncovering the key role of OMCG1 for oocyte genomic integrity. All adult Omcg1ocKO females displayed complete elimination of early growing oocytes and sterility. Unexpectedly, mutant females exhibited a normal onset of puberty and sexual receptivity. Detailed studies of Omcg1ocKO ovaries revealed that the ovarian somatic compartment underwent a dramatic structural and functional remodeling. This allowed the cooperation between oocyte-depleted follicles and interstitial tissue to produce estradiol. Moreover, despite early folliculogenesis arrest, mutant mice exhibited sexual cyclicity as shown by cyclical changes in estrogen secretion, vaginal epithelium cytology and genital tract weight. Collectively, our findings demonstrate the key role of Omcg1 for oocyte survival and highlight the contribution of p63 pathway in damaged oocyte elimination in adulthood. Moreover, our findings challenge the prevailing view that sexual cyclicity is tightly dependent upon the pace of folliculogenesis and luteal differentiation. PMID:25168238

  13. Correlation among skin prick test, total and specific IgE UniCAP tests in atopic patients from Zagreb, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Milavec-Puretić, Visnja; Lipozencić, Jasna; Zizić, Vesna; Milavec, Dinko

    2004-01-01

    The correlation of pollen allergens, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and animal dender was assessed during a two-year period. Results of skin prick test, total and specific IgE UniCAP tests were compared in atopic patients (AP) with the following diagnoses: atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, allergic bronchitis or asthma, allergic urticaria and angioedema. The study included total and specific IgE (in vitro) tests to allergen mixtures (grass, tree, weed) or to single allergens of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p), cat and dog fur, feather, etc. Comparison of skin prick test with total and specific IgE UniCAP immunoassay was done in 173 patients, i.e. 107 female and 66 male atopic patients aged 9-76 years. Allergies were most commonly recorded in the 25-35 age group. Total IgE ranged from 8.63 kU/l to >4000 kU/l, with specific IgE ranging from class 1 to class 5. Skin prick test showed high correlation with specific IgE for grass and weed pollen in patients with repiratory allergy (50.28%). Good correlation among all three tests was quite frequently observed. The results suggest that the study should be continued using these three tests in further cases of atopic dermatitis. PMID:15588558

  14. Hybrid lentivirus-phiC31-int-NLS vector allows site-specific recombination in murine and human cells but induces DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Grandchamp, Nicolas; Altémir, Dorothée; Philippe, Stéphanie; Ursulet, Suzanna; Pilet, Héloïse; Serre, Marie-Claude; Lenain, Aude; Serguera, Che; Mallet, Jacques; Sarkis, Chamsy

    2014-01-01

    Gene transfer allows transient or permanent genetic modifications of cells for experimental or therapeutic purposes. Gene delivery by HIV-derived lentiviral vector (LV) is highly effective but the risk of insertional mutagenesis is important and the random/uncontrollable integration of the DNA vector can deregulate the cell transcriptional activity. Non Integrative Lentiviral Vectors (NILVs) solve this issue in non-dividing cells, but they do not allow long term expression in dividing cells. In this context, obtaining stable expression while avoiding the problems inherent to unpredictable DNA vector integration requires the ability to control the integration site. One possibility is to use the integrase of phage phiC31 (phiC31-int) which catalyzes efficient site-specific recombination between the attP site in the phage genome and the chromosomal attB site of its Streptomyces host. Previous studies showed that phiC31-int is active in many eukaryotic cells, such as murine or human cells, and directs the integration of a DNA substrate into pseudo attP sites (pattP) which are homologous to the native attP site. In this study, we combined the efficiency of NILV for gene delivery and the specificity of phiC31-int for DNA substrate integration to engineer a hybrid tool for gene transfer with the aim of allowing long term expression in dividing and non-dividing cells preventing genotoxicity. We demonstrated the feasibility to target NILV integration in human and murine pattP sites with a dual NILV vectors system: one which delivers phiC31-int, the other which constitute the substrate containing an attB site in its DNA sequence. These promising results are however alleviated by the occurrence of significant DNA damages. Further improvements are thus required to prevent chromosomal rearrangements for a therapeutic use of the system. However, its use as a tool for experimental applications such as transgenesis is already applicable. PMID:24956106

  15. Damage Tolerance of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, Andy

    2007-01-01

    Fracture control requirements have been developed to address damage tolerance of composites for manned space flight hardware. The requirements provide the framework for critical and noncritical hardware assessment and testing. The need for damage threat assessments, impact damage protection plans, and nondestructive evaluation are also addressed. Hardware intended to be damage tolerant have extensive coupon, sub-element, and full-scale testing requirements in-line with the Building Block Approach concept from the MIL-HDBK-17, Department of Defense Composite Materials Handbook.

  16. Age- and time interval-specific gamma radiation-induced DNA damage in adult maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, assessed using comet assays.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Md Mahbub; Todoriki, Setsuko; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Imamura, Taro

    2012-01-24

    The gamma radiation-induced DNA damage in adult maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was assessed using single-cell electrophoresis (comet assay). Analysis of DNA damage following 0.5 and 1.0 kGy of gamma radiation was performed using cells from 1- and 15-day-old adults. Gamma-irradiated adults from both age groups showed typical DNA fragmentation, whereas cells from non-irradiated adults showed more intact DNA than young S. zeamais. Investigations using the comet assay showed that tail length, % tail DNA and % DNA damage all increased in adults of both age groups when compared to the control insects. A maximum comet length of 227.33 μm was recorded for 15-day-old adults at 24h after irradiation with 1.0 kGy and a minimum of 50.12 μm for 1-day-old adults at 0 h after irradiation with 0.5 kGy. The percentage of DNA damage increased up to 57.31% and 68.15% for 1- and 15-day-old adults, respectively, at 24h after irradiation with 1.0 kGy, whereas only 8.58% and 12.22% DNA damage were observed in the control batches. The results also showed that percentage of DNA damage increased at 24h after irradiation compared to that at 0 h. However, further studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:22142832

  17. Rare attributes in finite universe: Hypotheses testing specification and exact randomized upper confidence bounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T.

    1993-03-01

    When attributes are rare and few or none are observed in the selected sample from a finite universe, sampling statisticians are increasingly being challenged to use whatever methods are available to declare with high probability or confidence that the universe is near or completely attribute-free. This is especially true when the attribute is undesirable. Approximations such as those based on normal theory are frequently inadequate with rare attributes. For simple random sampling without replacement, an appropriate probability distribution for statistical inference is the hypergeometric distribution. But even with the hypergeometric distribution, the investigator is limited from making claims of attribute-free with high confidence unless the sample size is quite large using nonrandomized techniques. In the hypergeometric setting with rare attributes, exact randomized tests of hypothesis a,re investigated to determine the effect on power of how one specifies the null hypothesis. In particular, specifying the null hypothesis as zero attributes does not always yield maximum possible power. We also consider the hypothesis specification question under complex sampling designs including stratified random sampling and two-stage cluster sampling (one case involves random selection at first stage and another case involves probability proportional to size without replacement selection at first stage). Also under simple random sampling, this article defines and presents a simple algorithm for the construction of exact ``randomized`` upper confidence bounds which permit one to possibly report tighter bounds than those exact bounds obtained using ``nonrandomized`` methods.

  18. Rare attributes in finite universe: Hypotheses testing specification and exact randomized upper confidence bounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T.

    1993-03-01

    When attributes are rare and few or none are observed in the selected sample from a finite universe, sampling statisticians are increasingly being challenged to use whatever methods are available to declare with high probability or confidence that the universe is near or completely attribute-free. This is especially true when the attribute is undesirable. Approximations such as those based on normal theory are frequently inadequate with rare attributes. For simple random sampling without replacement, an appropriate probability distribution for statistical inference is the hypergeometric distribution. But even with the hypergeometric distribution, the investigator is limited from making claims of attribute-free with high confidence unless the sample size is quite large using nonrandomized techniques. In the hypergeometric setting with rare attributes, exact randomized tests of hypothesis a,re investigated to determine the effect on power of how one specifies the null hypothesis. In particular, specifying the null hypothesis as zero attributes does not always yield maximum possible power. We also consider the hypothesis specification question under complex sampling designs including stratified random sampling and two-stage cluster sampling (one case involves random selection at first stage and another case involves probability proportional to size without replacement selection at first stage). Also under simple random sampling, this article defines and presents a simple algorithm for the construction of exact randomized'' upper confidence bounds which permit one to possibly report tighter bounds than those exact bounds obtained using nonrandomized'' methods.

  19. Standardization of the carbon-phenolic materials and processes. Vol. 2: Test methods and specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, William B.

    1988-01-01

    Carbon-phenolic composite materials are used in the ablation process in the nozzles of the Space Shuttle Main Engine. The nozzle is lined with carbon cloth-phenolic resin composites. The extreme heat and erosion of the burning propellant are controlled by the carbon-phenolic composite by means of ablation, a heat and mass transfer process in which a large amount of heat is dissipated by sacrificailly removing material from a surface. Phenolic materials ablate with the initial formation of a char. The depth of the char is a function of the heat conduction coefficient of the composite. The char layer is a poor conductor so it protects the underlying phenolic composite from the high heat of the burning propellant. The nozzle component ablative liners (carbon cloth-phenolic resin composites) are tape wrapped, hydroclave and/or autoclave cured, machined and assembled. The tape consists of prepreg broadcloth. The materials flow sheet for the nozzle ablative liners is given. The prepreg is a three component system: phenolic resin, carbon cloth, and carbon filler. This is Volume 2 of the report, Test Methods and Specifications.

  20. 3(omega) Damage: Growth Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlowski, M; Demos, S; Wu, Z-L; Wong, J; Penetrante, B; Hrubesh, L

    2001-02-22

    The design of high power UV laser systems is limited to a large extent by the laser-initiated damage performance of transmissive fused silica optical components. The 3{omega} (i.e., the third harmonic of the primary laser frequency) damage growth mitigation LDRD effort focused on understanding and reducing the rapid growth of laser-initiated surface damage on fused silica optics. Laser-initiated damage can be discussed in terms of two key issues: damage initiated at some type of precursor and rapid damage growth of the damage due to subsequent laser pulses. The objective of the LDRD effort has been the elucidation of laser-induced damage processes in order to quantify and potentially reduce the risk of damage to fused silica surfaces. The emphasis of the first two years of this effort was the characterization and reduction of damage initiation. In spite of significant reductions in the density of damage sites on polished surfaces, statistically some amount of damage initiation should always be expected. The early effort therefore emphasized the development of testing techniques that quantified the statistical nature of damage initiation on optical surfaces. This work led to the development of an optics lifetime modeling strategy that has been adopted by the NIF project to address damage-risk issues. During FY99 interest shifted to the damage growth issue which was the focus of the final year of this project. The impact of the remaining damage sites on laser performance can be minimized if the damage sites did not continue to grow following subsequent illumination. The objectives of the final year of the LDRD effort were to apply a suite of state-of-the-art characterization tools to elucidate the nature of the initiated damage sites, and to identify a method that effectively mitigates further damage growth. Our specific goal is to understand the cause for the rapid growth of damage sites so that we can develop and apply an effective means to mitigate it. The

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF DAMAGED MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, P C; Dehaven, M; McClelland, M; Chidester, S; Maienschein, J L

    2006-06-23

    Thermal damage experiments were conducted on LX-04, LX-10, and LX-17 at high temperatures. Both pristine and damaged samples were characterized for their material properties. A pycnometer was used to determine sample true density and porosity. Gas permeability was measured in a newly procured system (diffusion permeameter). Burn rate was measured in the LLNL strand burner. Weight losses upon thermal exposure were insignificant. Damaged pressed parts expanded, resulting in a reduction of bulk density by up to 10%. Both gas permeabilities and burn rates of the damaged samples increased by several orders of magnitude due to higher porosity and lower density. Moduli of the damaged materials decreased significantly, an indication that the materials became weaker mechanically. Damaged materials were more sensitive to shock initiation at high temperatures. No significant sensitization was observed when the damaged samples were tested at room temperature.

  2. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test Concentration Ranges, Number of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications Pollutant Concentration...

  3. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test Concentration Ranges, Number of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications Pollutant Concentration...

  4. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test Concentration Ranges, Number of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications Pollutant Concentration...

  5. Weighting Tasks from Job Analysis Data To Derive Test Specifications for Licensure Examinations: Some Methodological and Statistical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Leslie; Kalohn, John C.

    Test specifications dictate the kind of content that should be included on each form of an examination, and the relative weight that each content domain should contribute to the determination of examinees' test scores by specifying the proportion of items to be included in each content area. This paper addresses a step in the development of…

  6. Language Learner Strategies and Linguistic Competence as Factors Affecting Achievement Test Scores in English for Specific Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurkovic, Violeta

    2010-01-01

    The article examines the effect of two factors on achievement test scores in English as a foreign language for specific purposes in higher education: preexisting linguistic competence and frequency of use of language learner strategies. The rationale for the analysis of language learner strategies as a factor affecting achievement test outcomes is…

  7. 40 CFR Table C-1 to Subpart C of... - Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test Concentration Ranges, Number of Measurements Required, and Maximum Discrepancy Specifications C Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-1 Table C-1 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Concentration...

  8. Unidimensional IRT Item Parameter Estimates across Equivalent Test Forms with Confounding Specifications within Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matlock, Ki Lynn; Turner, Ronna

    2016-01-01

    When constructing multiple test forms, the number of items and the total test difficulty are often equivalent. Not all test developers match the number of items and/or average item difficulty within subcontent areas. In this simulation study, six test forms were constructed having an equal number of items and average item difficulty overall.…

  9. [The specific features of the damage to the non-biological and biological simulators of the human body inflicted by the shots from a 9.0 mm pneumatic rifle].

    PubMed

    Raizberg, S A; Makarov, L Iu; Lorents, A S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the specific constructional features of a 9.0 mm pneumatic rifle designed to use three types of bullets differing in the head shape. Also, the morphological signs of the injuries inflicted by such bullets that can serve as the prerequisites for objective differentiation of the damages are considered. The study revealed peculiarities of experimental damage to the non-biological (plasticine blocks) and biological (bio-mannequins) simulators of homogeneous human tissues inflicted by the shots from the pneumatic rifle from different distances. PMID:26036065

  10. Observed physical processes in mechanical tests of PBX9501 and recomendations for experiments to explore a possible plasticity/damage threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Buechler, Miles A.

    2012-05-02

    This memo discusses observations that have been made in regards to a series of monotonic and cyclic uniaxial experiments performed on PBX9501 by Darla Thompson under Enhanced Surveilance Campaign support. These observations discussed in Section Cyclic compression observations strongly suggest the presence of viscoelastic, plastic, and damage phenomena in the mechanical response of the material. In Secton Uniaxial data analysis and observations methods are discussed for separating out the viscoelastic effects. A crude application of those methods suggests the possibility of a critical stress below which plasticity and damage may be negligible. The threshold should be explored because if it exists it will be an important feature of any constitutive model. Additionally, if the threshold exists then modifications of experimental methods may be feasible which could potentially simplify future experiments or provide higher quality data from those experiments. A set of experiments to explore the threshold stress are proposed in Section Exploratory tests program for identifying threshold stress.

  11. Power Supply System for the Atlas Experiment: Design Specifications, Implementation, Test and First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzaroni, M.; Citterio, M.; Latorre, S.; Lanza, A.; Cova, P.; Delmonte, N.; Giuliani, F.

    2014-06-01

    The planned upgrade of instrumentation sensitivity in the ATLAS experiment of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), at CERN, calls for a new type of power distribution architecture. Moreover, power supplies require DC-DC power converters able to work in very hostile environment and maintaining high level of Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety (denoted as RAMS requirements) during the experimental activity. Two main issues need to be discussed: first, electronic devices and equipment must operate in very high background of both charged and neutral particles and high static magnetic field and, second, the increase of the radiation background and the requirements of new front-end electronics are indeed incompatible with the current capability of the actual distribution system. The APOLLO R&D collaboration, funded by the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), aims to study dedicated topologies of both distribution system and DC-DC power converters and to design, build and test demonstrators, developing the needed technology for the industrialization phase. The collaboration has designed a 3kW, 280V-12V converter (MC) based on the Switch in Line architecture (SIL), a DC to DC phase-shifted converter characterized by a disposition in line of the MOSFETs with good soft switching performances, and in the last year many steps have been taken to enhance the power dissipation and the reliability and to improve the general features of the designed converter. In particular a new water heat sink was designed on the basis of TFD simulation accounting for the layout of the specific converter. Experimental activities in order to characterize both thermal and electrical features of the MC confirm the correctness of the adopted design criteria.

  12. Substrate specificity of proteolytic activity in the testes fluid and seminal plasma of the common carp Cyprinus carpio.

    PubMed

    Cejko, B I; Słowińska, M; Judycka, S; Kowalski, R K

    2016-05-01

    Substrate specificity in the seminal plasma and testes fluids of the common carp Cyprinus carpio was determined using gelatin, casein, albumin and haemoglobin. Proteolytic profiles of the testes and seminal plasma were compared. Different ranges of pH (5·5-9·5) and temperature (4-37° C) were used during incubations of seminal plasma proteinases. Differences in proteolytic activity between testes and seminal plasma may reflect specific functions of the testes and sperm ducts in semen production. Seminal plasma metalloproteinases were characterized by higher substrate specificity than were serine proteinases. Zymography optimization for seminal plasma indicated that pH 7·5 and 22° C were the optimal conditions for gel incubations. PMID:27001550

  13. Improving Flood Damage Assessment Models in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amadio, M.; Mysiak, J.; Carrera, L.; Koks, E.

    2015-12-01

    The use of Stage-Damage Curve (SDC) models is prevalent in ex-ante assessments of flood risk. To assess the potential damage of a flood event, SDCs describe a relation between water depth and the associated potential economic damage over land use. This relation is normally developed and calibrated through site-specific analysis based on ex-post damage observations. In some cases (e.g. Italy) SDCs are transferred from other countries, undermining the accuracy and reliability of simulation results. Against this background, we developed a refined SDC model for Northern Italy, underpinned by damage compensation records from a recent flood event. Our analysis considers both damage to physical assets and production losses from business interruptions. While the first is calculated based on land use information, production losses are measured through the spatial distribution of Gross Value Added (GVA). An additional component of the model assesses crop-specific agricultural losses as a function of flood seasonality. Our results show an overestimation of asset damage from non-calibrated SDC values up to a factor of 4.5 for tested land use categories. Furthermore, we estimate that production losses amount to around 6 per cent of the annual GVA. Also, maximum yield losses are less than a half of the amount predicted by the standard SDC methods.

  14. 49 CFR 180.407 - Requirements for test and inspection of specification cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 30.5 cm (12-inch) bottom leg (end bent to a 12.7 mm (0.5 inch) radius), or equally sensitive probe... and water, or using other equally sensitive methods. (2) When testing an insulated cargo tank, the... Delivery Tank Using Pressure-Vacuum Test,” as set forth in Appendix A to 40 CFR part 60. Test methods...

  15. Factors Influencing the Selection of Standardized Tests for the Diagnosis of Specific Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Stacy K.; Eickhoff, Jessica R.; Sullivan, Shanleigh F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Standardized tests are one of the primary assessment tools used by speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to diagnose child language impairment. Numerous child language tests are commercially available; however, it is unknown what factors lead clinicians to select particular tests to use in clinical practice. This study investigated whether…

  16. 49 CFR 180.407 - Requirements for test and inspection of specification cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Delivery Tank Using Pressure-Vacuum Test,” as set forth in Appendix A to 40 CFR part 60. Test methods and procedures and maximum allowable pressure and vacuum changes are in 40 CFR 63.425(e). The hydrostatic test... affecting § 180.407, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of...

  17. 49 CFR 180.407 - Requirements for test and inspection of specification cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Delivery Tank Using Pressure-Vacuum Test,” as set forth in Appendix A to 40 CFR part 60. Test methods and procedures and maximum allowable pressure and vacuum changes are in 40 CFR 63.425(e). The hydrostatic test... affecting § 180.407, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of...

  18. 49 CFR 180.407 - Requirements for test and inspection of specification cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Delivery Tank Using Pressure-Vacuum Test,” as set forth in Appendix A to 40 CFR part 60. Test methods and procedures and maximum allowable pressure and vacuum changes are in 40 CFR 63.425(e). The hydrostatic test... affecting § 180.407, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of...

  19. Block 4 solar cell module design and test specification for intermediate load center applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Requirements for performance of terrestrial solar cell modules intended for use in various test applications are established. During the 1979-80 time period, such applications are expected to be in the 20 to 500 kilowatt size range. A series of characterization and qualification tests necessary to certify the module design for production, and the necessary performance test for acceptance of modules are specified.

  20. 49 CFR 180.407 - Requirements for test and inspection of specification cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Delivery Tank Using Pressure-Vacuum Test,” as set forth in Appendix A to 40 CFR part 60. Test methods and procedures and maximum allowable pressure and vacuum changes are in 40 CFR 63.425(e). The hydrostatic test... affecting § 180.407, see the List of CFR Sections Affected which appears in the Finding Aids section of...

  1. Sensitivity of a hyperosmolar or "low"-osmolar test solution for sugar absorption in recognizing small intestinal mucosal damage in coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Uil, J J; van Elburg, R M; Janssens, P M; Mulder, C J; Heymans, H S

    2000-04-01

    Reliability of differential sugar absorption tests is hampered by a lack of standardization of the content and osmolarity of the test solutions. We evaluated the effect of osmolarity of the test solution of the sugar absorption test on the 5 hour urine excretion of orally administered lactulose and mannitol. A group of 28 controls and 14 coeliacs, with villous atrophy grade II to IV, ingested a hyperosmolar sugar absorption test solution and a "low"-osmolar solution, respectively. After an overnight fast, each subject ingested hyperosmolar sugar absorption test solution (2 g mannitol, 5 g lactulose and 40 g sucrose/100 ml (around 1,560 mmol/l)). After two days, this procedure was repeated with low-osmolar solution (2 g mannitol and 5 g lactulose/100 ml (around 375 mmol/l). The influence of the sequence of the tests on the results had previously been excluded. All urine from the 5 h-period following ingestion of the test solution was collected. To calculate the low-osmolar solution ratio, samples were analysed for lactulose and mannitol concentrations by gas chromatography The sensitivity of hyperosmolar SAT solution and low-osmolar solution for the detection of mucosal abnormalities in coeliacs was 64% and 43%, respectively. In conclusion, a hyperosmolar solution discriminates better between normal and damaged mucosa of the small bowel such as villous atrophy due to a relative increase in permeability for lactulose. PMID:10975768

  2. Short term feeding of a high fat diet exerts an additive effect on hepatocellular damage and steatosis in liver-specific PTEN knockout mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hepatospecific deletion of PTEN results in constitutive activation of Akt and increased lipogenesis. In mice, the addition of a high fat diet (HFD) downregulates lipogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a HFD on hepatocellular damage induced by deletion of PTEN. Twelve-week...

  3. DNA Strand Damage Product Analysis Provides Evidence that the Tumor Cell-Specific Cytotoxin Tirapazamine Produces Hydroxyl Radical and Acts as a Surrogate for O2

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Goutam; Junnotula, Venkatraman; Daniels, J. Scott; Greenberg, Marc M.; Gates, Kent S.

    2010-01-01

    The compound 3-amino-1,2,4-benzotriazine 1,4-dioxide (tirapazamine, TPZ) is a clinically-promising anticancer agent that selectively kills the oxygen-poor (hypoxic) cells found in solid tumors. It has long been known that, under hypoxic conditions, TPZ causes DNA strand damage that is initiated by the abstraction of hydrogen atoms from the deoxyribose phosphate backbone of duplex DNA but exact chemical mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. Here we describe detailed characterization of sugar-derived products arising from TPZ-mediated strand damage. We find that the action of TPZ on duplex DNA under hypoxic conditions generates 5-methylene-2-furanone (6), oligonucleotide 3′-phosphoglycolates (7), malondialdehyde equivalents (8 or 9), and furfural (10). These results provide evidence that TPZ-mediated strand damage arises via hydrogen atom abstraction from both the most hindered (C1′) and least hindered (C4′ and C5′) positions of the deoxyribose sugars in the double helix. The products observed are identical to those produced by hydroxyl radical. Additional experiments were conducted to better understand the chemical pathways by which TPZ generates the observed DNA-damage products. Consistent with previous work showing that TPZ can substitute for molecular oxygen in DNA damage reactions, it is found that, under anaerobic conditions, reaction of TPZ with a discrete, photogenerated C1′-radical in a DNA 2′-oligodeoxynucleotide cleanly generates the 2-deoxyribonolactone lesion (5) that serves as the precursor to 5-methylene-2-furanone (6). Overall, the results provide insight regarding the chemical structure of the DNA lesions that confront cellular repair, transcription, and replication machinery following exposure to TPZ and offer new information relevant to the chemical mechanisms underlying TPZ-mediated strand cleavage. PMID:17900117

  4. Prostate specific antigen testing in family practice: a cross sectional survey of self-reported rates of and reasons for testing participation and risk disclosure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite controversy about the benefits of routine prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing, rates of participation continue to rise. It is important to ensure that men are fully informed about the potential risks associated with this test. Little is known about the processes of shared decision making for PSA testing in the family practice setting. This study aimed to explore men’s experiences of PSA testing participation and risk disclosure for PSA testing. Methods A cross-sectional survey of male family practice attendees aged 40 years or older, with no previous history of prostate cancer, between June 2010 and November 2011. Questions related to whether participants had undertaken PSA testing or discussed this with their doctor over the past 5 years, whether the patient or doctor had initiated the discussion, reasons for undergoing testing, and whether their doctor had discussed particular risks associated with PSA testing. Results Sixty-seven percent (215/320) of men recalled having a PSA test in the past five years. Of the respondents who reported not having a test, 14% had discussed it with their doctor. The main reasons for having a PSA test were doctor recommendation and wanting to keep up to date with health tests. Thirty-eight percent or fewer respondents reported being advised of each potential risk. Conclusions Despite debate over the benefits of routine PSA testing, a high proportion of male family practice attendees report undertaking this test. Risks associated with testing appear to be poorly disclosed by general practitioners. These results suggest the need to improve the quality of informed consent for PSA testing in the family practice setting. PMID:24321004

  5. Failings of trauma-specific and related psychological tests in detecting post-traumatic stress disorder in forensic settings.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, Stuart B; Martell, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Judges and juries tend to be particularly impressed by test data, especially quantitative test data. Psychometric tests specific for assessing the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are commonly employed by forensic mental health evaluators. Most of these instruments, however, have been designed to detect PTSD in treatment or research, and not forensic, settings. Those who rely on these measures without adequate awareness of their often significant limits in correctly identifying malingering may induce finders of fact to inordinately confidently accept the presence of PTSD. This article reviews problematic structural and content components of trauma-specific and related instruments used to evaluate PTSD and discusses the utility of specific techniques liable to be used in forensic settings to "fool" these measures. PMID:25425278

  6. Physician-patient discussions about prostate-specific antigen test use among African-American men.

    PubMed Central

    Tannor, Bernice B.; Ross, Louie

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between physician-patient discussions, demographic and health-related variables, and PSA test use. Of the previous studies that examined physician-patient discussions about PSA test use, none focused on African-American men. METHODS: Using a sample of African-American men (N=739) aged > or = 40 years who had participated in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 2000, we assessed demographic, health status and other variables related to two PSA test use outcomes: 1) had a PSA test within the past year, and 2) had > or = 3 PSA tests within the past five years. RESULTS: More than three-fourths (76.6%) of our sample reported that their doctors had discussed with them the advantages and disadvantages of the PSA test before administering it. The bivariate analysis showed a number of variables positively associated with PSA test use including men aged > or = 50, having health insurance coverage and having participated in physician-patient discussions about the test. DISCUSSION: Despite the high percentage of men who had discussions with their doctor, there was a large number of men who had neither heard of nor undergone a PSA test. More efforts should be made by the healthcare community to promote prostate cancer screening education and physician-patient discussions. PMID:16623065

  7. Relation between occupational asthma case history, bronchial methacholine challenge, and specific challenge test in patients with suspected occupational asthma.

    PubMed

    Baur, X; Huber, H; Degens, P O; Allmers, H; Ammon, J

    1998-02-01

    Inhalative methacholine challenge (MC) was performed in 229 subjects presumed to suffer from occupational asthma due to exposure to airborne latex allergens (n = 62), flour (n = 28), isocyanates (n = 114), or irritants in hairdressers' salons (n = 25). They were also subjected to specific challenges with the occupational agents they were exposed to, completed a questionnaire using an abbreviated version of the ATS-DLD, and were interviewed by an experienced physician. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness in MC was defined by the results obtained in a previous study with 81 healthy volunteers. The threshold in these controls was set at a cumulative MC dose of 0.3 mg, corresponding to a sensitivity of 95%. The main purpose of the study was to investigate whether the MC and/or the occupational asthma case history are reliable predictors of the specific challenge test outcomes. In 40-72% of examined subjects, workplace-related asthma complaints occurred, with bronchial hyperreactivity in the MC ranging from 48% to 61%. However, only 12-25% demonstrated a significant bronchoconstructive reaction in the specific challenge test. MC results are only moderately associated with workplace-related asthma case histories. Positive outcomes of challenges with occupational agents are well correlated with positive MC results plus occupational asthma case histories. The combination of MC and occupational asthma case history shows a relatively high specificity (62%, 86%, 80%), but the sensitivity was moderately low (83%, 71%, 52%). MC sensitivities were 92%, 71%, and 62% (case histories of hairdressers were not available). We conclude that in most cases, occupational asthma (as defined by a specific challenge test response) is combined with bronchial hyperresponsiveness and workplace-related asthmatic symptoms. However, subjects of each exposure group demonstrated bronchial hyperresponsiveness and complained of workplace-related asthmatic symptoms, but occupational asthma could not be

  8. The Measurement of Mental Retardation by a Culture-Specific Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Peggie A.; Anthony, John J.

    1974-01-01

    This study determines whether Black students who have been placed in an EMR program on the basis of WISC full scale IQ scores as the primary criterion measure would be ruled out when tested on the BITCH. Results indicate that students obtain similar scores on both tests. (Author)

  9. Analyzing Student Performance in Specific Subject Area Indicators on the ETS Major Field Test in Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settlage, Daniel Murray; Wollscheid, Jim R.

    2015-01-01

    The Major Field Test is a commonly used assessment instrument, but little emphasis has been put on analyzing student-level subject area indicator scores. The Educational Testing Service recently made these data available to institutions, and it is analyzed here. This analysis builds on previous work by incorporating demographic and programmatic…

  10. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Risk-Based Capital Test Methodology and Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-Based Capital Test Methodology and... OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS CAPITAL Risk-Based Capital Pt. 1750, Subpt. B, App. A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 1750—Risk-Based Capital Test Methodology...

  11. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Risk-Based Capital Test Methodology and Specifications

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Risk-Based Capital Test Methodology and... OVERSIGHT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SAFETY AND SOUNDNESS CAPITAL Risk-Based Capital Pt. 1750, Subpt. B, App. A Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 1750—Risk-Based Capital Test Methodology...

  12. Item Banking for State and Local Test Development and Use: Specific Guidelines for Local Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Gary D.; Arter, Judith A.

    A project to assist with improving test efficiency in local school districts and state agencies is described. The report describes and defines the term "item banking." Considerations in selecting, developing, or managing an item bank are discussed. Testing purposes considered suitable for item banking include student selection for special…

  13. Are Multiple Choice Tests Fair to Medical Students with Specific Learning Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricketts, Chris; Brice, Julie; Coombes, Lee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of multiple choice tests of medical knowledge is to estimate as accurately as possible a candidate's level of knowledge. However, concern is sometimes expressed that multiple choice tests may also discriminate in undesirable and irrelevant ways, such as between minority ethnic groups or by sex of candidates. There is little literature…

  14. A Factor Analytic Study of Selected Tests of Specific Components of Academic Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Nancy

    A factor analytic study was designed to examine the factor structure of a battery of 17 tests administered to 100 students at the primary, intermediate, and advanced (grades 7-10) levels and to determine differences in factor structures for the three groups. The tests, measures of academic achievement, included the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for…

  15. Development of a grinding-specific performance test set-up.

    PubMed

    Olesen, C G; Larsen, B H; Andresen, E L; de Zee, M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a performance test set-up for America's Cup grinders. The test set-up had to mimic the on-boat grinding activity and be capable of collecting data for analysis and evaluation of grinding performance. This study included a literature-based analysis of grinding demands and a test protocol developed to accommodate the necessary physiological loads. This study resulted in a test protocol consisting of 10 intervals of 20 revolutions each interspersed with active resting periods of 50 s. The 20 revolutions are a combination of both forward and backward grinding and an exponentially rising resistance. A custom-made grinding ergometer was developed with computer-controlled resistance and capable of collecting data during the test. The data collected can be used to find measures of grinding performance such as peak power, time to complete and the decline in repeated grinding performance. PMID:25367077

  16. Application specific Tester-On-a-Resident-Chip (TORCH{trademark}) - innovation in the area of semiconductor testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bowles, M.; Peterson, T.; Savignon, D.; Campbell, D.

    1997-12-01

    Manufacturers widely recognize testing as a major factor in the cost, producability, and delivery of product in the $100 billion integrated circuit business: {open_quotes}The rapid development of VLSI using sub-micron CMOS technology has suddenly exposed traditional test techniques as a major cost factor that could restrict the development of VLSI devices exceeding 512 pins an operating frequencies above 200 MHz.{close_quotes} -- 1994 Semiconductor Industry Association Roadmap, Design and Test, Summary, pg. 43. This problem increases dramatically for stockpile electronics, where small production quantities make it difficult to amortize the cost of increasingly expensive testers. Application of multiple ICs in Multi-Chip Modules (MCM) greatly multiplies testing problems for commercial and defense users alike. By traditional test methods, each new design requires custom test hardware and software and often dedicated testing equipment costing millions of dollars. Also, physical properties of traditional test systems often dedicated testing equipment costing millions of dollars. Also, physical properties of traditional test systems limit capabilities in testing at-speed (>200 MHz), high-impedance, and high-accuracy analog signals. This project proposed a revolutionary approach to these problems: replace the multi-million dollar external test system with an inexpensive test system integrated onto the product wafer. Such a methodology enables testing functions otherwise unachievable by conventional means, particularly in the areas of high-frequency, at-speed testing, high impedance analog circuits, and known good die assessment. The techniques apply specifically to low volume applications, typical of Defense Programs, where testing costs represent an unusually high proportional of product costs, not easily amortized.

  17. Comparison of two dengue NS1 rapid tests for sensitivity, specificity and relationship to viraemia and antibody responses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dengue is a major public health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. Rapid and easy diagnosis of dengue can assist patient triage and care-management. The detection of DENV NS1 on rapid lateral flow tests offers a fast route to a presumptive dengue diagnosis but careful evaluations are urgently needed as more and more people use them. Methods The sensitivity and specificity of the Bio-Rad NS1 Ag Strip and SD Dengue Duo (NS1/IgM/IgG) lateral flow rapid tests were evaluated in a panel of plasma samples from 245 Vietnamese patients with RT-PCR confirmed dengue and 47 with other febrile illnesses. Results The NS1 rapid tests had similar diagnostic sensitivities (respectively 61.6% and 62.4%) in confirmed dengue cases but were 100% specific. When IgM/IgG results from the SD Dengue Duo were included in the test interpretation, the sensitivity improved significantly from 62.4% with NS1 alone to 75.5% when NS1 and/or IgM was positive and 83.7% when NS1 and/or IgM and/or IgG was positive. Both NS1 assays were significantly more sensitive for primary than secondary dengue. NS1 positivity was associated with the underlying viraemia as NS1-positive samples had a significantly higher viraemia than NS1-negative samples. Conclusions These data suggest that the NS1 test component of these assays are highly specific and have similar levels of sensitivity. The IgM parameter in the SD Duo test improved overall test sensitivity without compromising specificity. The SD Dengue Duo lateral flow rapid test deserves further prospective evaluation in dengue endemic settings. PMID:20509940

  18. Informed consent in direct-to-consumer personal genome testing: the outline of a model between specific and generic consent.

    PubMed

    Bunnik, Eline M; Janssens, A Cecile J W; Schermer, Maartje H N

    2014-09-01

    Broad genome-wide testing is increasingly finding its way to the public through the online direct-to-consumer marketing of so-called personal genome tests. Personal genome tests estimate genetic susceptibilities to multiple diseases and other phenotypic traits simultaneously. Providers commonly make use of Terms of Service agreements rather than informed consent procedures. However, to protect consumers from the potential physical, psychological and social harms associated with personal genome testing and to promote autonomous decision-making with regard to the testing offer, we argue that current practices of information provision are insufficient and that there is a place--and a need--for informed consent in personal genome testing, also when it is offered commercially. The increasing quantity, complexity and diversity of most testing offers, however, pose challenges for information provision and informed consent. Both specific and generic models for informed consent fail to meet its moral aims when applied to personal genome testing. Consumers should be enabled to know the limitations, risks and implications of personal genome testing and should be given control over the genetic information they do or do not wish to obtain. We present the outline of a new model for informed consent which can meet both the norm of providing sufficient information and the norm of providing understandable information. The model can be used for personal genome testing, but will also be applicable to other, future forms of broad genetic testing or screening in commercial and clinical settings. PMID:23137034

  19. Liver-Specific Deletion of Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog Deleted on Chromosome 10 Significantly Ameliorates Chronic EtOH-Induced Increases in Hepatocellular Damage.

    PubMed

    Shearn, Colin T; Orlicky, David J; McCullough, Rebecca L; Jiang, Hua; Maclean, Kenneth N; Mercer, Kelly E; Stiles, Bangyan L; Saba, Laura M; Ronis, Martin J; Petersen, Dennis R

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is a significant contributor to global liver failure. In murine models, chronic ethanol consumption dysregulates PTEN/Akt signaling. Hepatospecific deletion of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTENLKO) mice possess constitutive activation of Akt(s) and increased de novo lipogenesis resulting in increased hepatocellular steatosis. This makes PTENLKO a viable model to examine the effects of ethanol in an environment of preexisting steatosis. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of chronic ethanol consumption and the absence of PTEN (PTENLKO) compared to Alb-Cre control mice (PTENf/f) on hepatocellular damage as evidenced by changes in lipid accumulation, protein carbonylation and alanine amino transferase (ALT). In the control PTENf/f animals, ethanol significantly increased ALT, liver triglycerides and steatosis. In contrast, chronic ethanol consumption in PTENLKO mice decreased hepatocellular damage when compared to PTENLKO pair-fed controls. Consumption of ethanol elevated protein carbonylation in PTENf/f animals but had no effect in PTENLKO animals. In PTENLKO mice, overall hepatic mRNA expression of genes that contribute to GSH homeostasis as well as reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentrations were significantly elevated compared to respective PTENf/f counterparts. These data indicate that during conditions of constitutive Akt activation and steatosis, increased GSH homeostasis assists in mitigation of ethanol-dependent induction of oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage. Furthermore, data herein suggest a divergence in EtOH-induced hepatocellular damage and increases in steatosis due to polyunsaturated fatty acids downstream of PTEN. PMID:27124661

  20. Delivery of human mesenchymal adipose-derived stem cells restores multiple urological dysfunctions in a rat model mimicking radical prostatectomy damages through tissue-specific paracrine mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yiou, René; Mahrouf-Yorgov, Meriem; Trébeau, Céline; Zanaty, Marc; Lecointe, Cécile; Souktani, Richard; Zadigue, Patricia; Figeac, Florence; Rodriguez, Anne-Marie

    2016-02-01

    Urinary incontinence (UI) and erectile dysfunction (ED) are the most common functional urological disorders and the main sequels of radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy holds promise for repairing tissue damage due to RP. Because animal studies accurately replicating post-RP clinical UI and ED are lacking, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the urological benefits of MSC in this setting. To determine whether and by which mechanisms MSC can repair damages to both striated urethral sphincter (SUS) and penis in the same animal, we delivered human multipotent adipose stem cells, used as MSC model, in an immunocompetent rat model replicating post-RP UI and ED. In this model, we demonstrated by using noninvasive methods in the same animal from day 7 to day 90 post-RP injury that MSC administration into both the SUS and the penis significantly improved urinary continence and erectile function. The regenerative effects of MSC therapy were not due to transdifferentiation and robust engraftment at injection sites. Rather, our results suggest that MSC benefits in both target organs may involve a paracrine process with not only soluble factor release by the MSC but also activation of the recipient's secretome. These two effects of MSC varied across target tissues and damaged-cell types. In conclusion, our work provides new insights into the regenerative properties of MSC and supports the ability of MSC from a single source to repair multiple types of damage, such as those seen after RP, in the same individual. Stem Cells 2016;34:392-404. PMID:26439006