Science.gov

Sample records for dangerous temperature change

  1. Avoiding dangerous climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Hans Joachim Schellnhuber; Wolfgang Cramer; Nebojsa Nakicenovic; Tom Wigley; Gary Yohe

    2006-02-15

    In 2005 the UK Government hosted the Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change conference to take an in-depth look at the scientific issues associated with climate change. This volume presents the most recent findings from the leading international scientists that attended the conference. The topics addressed include critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, socioeconomic costs and benefits of emissions pathways, and technological options for meeting different stabilisation levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Contents are: Foreword from Prime Minister Tony Blair; Introduction from Rajendra Pachauri, Chairman of the IPCC; followed by 41 papers arranged in seven sections entitled: Key Vulnerabilities of the Climate System and Critical Thresholds; General Perspectives on Dangerous Impacts; Key Vulnerabilities for Ecosystems and Biodiversity; Socio-Economic Effects; Regional Perspectives; Emission Pathways; and Technological Options. Four papers have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

  2. Beyond 'dangerous' climate change: emission scenarios for a new world.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kevin; Bows, Alice

    2011-01-13

    The Copenhagen Accord reiterates the international community's commitment to 'hold the increase in global temperature below 2 degrees Celsius'. Yet its preferred focus on global emission peak dates and longer-term reduction targets, without recourse to cumulative emission budgets, belies seriously the scale and scope of mitigation necessary to meet such a commitment. Moreover, the pivotal importance of emissions from non-Annex 1 nations in shaping available space for Annex 1 emission pathways received, and continues to receive, little attention. Building on previous studies, this paper uses a cumulative emissions framing, broken down to Annex 1 and non-Annex 1 nations, to understand the implications of rapid emission growth in nations such as China and India, for mitigation rates elsewhere. The analysis suggests that despite high-level statements to the contrary, there is now little to no chance of maintaining the global mean surface temperature at or below 2°C. Moreover, the impacts associated with 2°C have been revised upwards, sufficiently so that 2°C now more appropriately represents the threshold between 'dangerous' and 'extremely dangerous' climate change. Ultimately, the science of climate change allied with the emission scenarios for Annex 1 and non-Annex 1 nations suggests a radically different framing of the mitigation and adaptation challenge from that accompanying many other analyses, particularly those directly informing policy. PMID:21115511

  3. Our contaminated atmosphere: The danger of climate change, phases 1 and 2. [effect of atmospheric particulate matter on surface temperature and earth's radiation budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimorelli, A. J.; House, F. B.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of increased concentrations of atmospheric particulate matter on average surface temperature and on the components of the earth's radiation budget are studied. An atmospheric model which couples particulate loading to surface temperature and to changes in the earth's radiation budget was used. A determination of the feasibility of using satellites to monitor the effect of increased atmospheric particulate concentrations is performed. It was found that: (1) a change in man-made particulate loading of a factor of 4 is sufficient to initiate an ice age; (2) variations in the global and hemispheric weighted averages of surface temperature, reflected radiant fluz and emitted radiant flux are nonlinear functions of particulate loading; and (3) a black satellite sphere meets the requirement of night time measurement sensitivity, but not the required day time sensitivity. A nonblack, spherical radiometer whose external optical properties are sensitive to either the reflected radiant fluz or the emitted radiant flux meets the observational sensitivity requirements.

  4. Dangerous climate change: the role for risk research.

    PubMed

    Lorenzoni, Irene; Pidgeon, Nick F; O'Connor, Robert E

    2005-12-01

    The notion of "dangerous climate change" constitutes an important development of the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It persists, however, as an ambiguous expression, sustained by multiple definitions of danger. It also implicitly contains the question of how to respond to the complex and multi-disciplinary risk issues that climate change poses. The invaluable role of the climate science community, which relies on risk assessments to characterize system uncertainties and to identify limits beyond which changes may become dangerous, is acknowledged. But this alone will not suffice to develop long-term policy. Decisions need to include other considerations, such as value judgments about potential risks, and societal and individual perceptions of "danger," which are often contested. This article explores links and cross-overs between the climate science and risk communication and perception approaches to defining danger. Drawing upon nine articles in this Special Issue of Risk Analysis, we examine a set of themes: limits of current scientific understanding; differentiated public perceptions of danger from climate change; social and cultural processes amplifying and attenuating perceptions of, and responses to, climate change; risk communication design; and new approaches to climate change decision making. The article reflects upon some of the difficulties inherent in responding to the issue in a coherent, interdisciplinary fashion, concluding nevertheless that action should be taken, while acknowledging the context-specificity of "danger." The need for new policy tools is emphasised, while research on nested solutions should be aimed at overcoming the disjunctures apparent in interpretations of climate change risks. PMID:16506969

  5. On Dangerous Anthropogenic Interference and Climate Change Risk (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, M. E.

    2009-12-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) commits signatory nations (which includes all major nations including the United States) to stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations at levels short of Dangerous Anthropogenic Interference (“ DAI”) with the climate. To properly define DAI, one must take into account issues that are not only scientific, but, economic, political, and ethical in nature. Defining DAI is furthermore complicated by the inter-generational and regionally-disaggregated nature of the risks associated with climate change. In this talk, I will explore the nature of anthropogenic climate change risks and the notion of DAI.

  6. Communicating the Need to Avoid Dangerous Climate Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Kharecha, P. A.; Sato, M.

    2013-12-01

    We describe our past, ongoing and planned efforts to communicate the need for humanity to avoid dangerous climate change. Communications with governments have been largely fruitless, with substantial indication that governments are more disposed to be responsive to financial interests rather than scientific information. Communication with the public is essential to create pressure on governments for appropriate policies, but it is made difficult by the massive resources of the fossil fuel industry. Communication with influential individuals can be effective in reaching both governments and the public.

  7. Global temperature change.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto; Lo, Ken; Lea, David W; Medina-Elizade, Martin

    2006-09-26

    Global surface temperature has increased approximately 0.2 degrees C per decade in the past 30 years, similar to the warming rate predicted in the 1980s in initial global climate model simulations with transient greenhouse gas changes. Warming is larger in the Western Equatorial Pacific than in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific over the past century, and we suggest that the increased West-East temperature gradient may have increased the likelihood of strong El Niños, such as those of 1983 and 1998. Comparison of measured sea surface temperatures in the Western Pacific with paleoclimate data suggests that this critical ocean region, and probably the planet as a whole, is approximately as warm now as at the Holocene maximum and within approximately 1 degrees C of the maximum temperature of the past million years. We conclude that global warming of more than approximately 1 degrees C, relative to 2000, will constitute "dangerous" climate change as judged from likely effects on sea level and extermination of species. PMID:17001018

  8. Potential forest fire danger over Northern Eurasia: Changes during the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherstyukov, B. G.; Razuvaev, V. N.; Groisman, P. Y.; Knight, R. W.; Enloe, J. G.

    2004-12-01

    Significant climatic changes over Northern Eurasia during the 20th century have been reflected in numerous variables of economic, social, and ecological interests, including the natural frequency of forest fires. For the former USSR, we are now using the Global Daily Climatology Network (Gleason et al. 2002) and a new Global Synoptic Data Network archive, GSDN, created jointly by NCDC an RIHMI. Data from these archives are employed to estimate systematic changes in indices used in the United States and Russia to assess potential forest fire danger. Within the boundaries of the former USSR, each of the archives, GHCN and GSDN, includes more than 2100 stations with only approximately 1500 of them having sufficiently long meteorological time series suitable for participation in our analyses. We use three indices: (1) Keetch-Byram Drought Index, (KBDI; this index uses only daily data on maximum temperature and precipitation and is developed and widely used in the United States); (2) Modified Nesterov, and (3) Zhdanko Indices (these indices are developed and widely used in Russia; their computation requires synoptic daytime data on temperature and humidity and daily precipitation and snow on the ground). Analyses show that after calibration, time series of the days with increased potential forest fire danger constructed using each of these three indices (a) are well correlated and (b) deliver similar conclusions about systematic changes in the weather conditions conducive to forest fires. Specifically, over the entire Eastern half of Northern Eurasia (Siberia and the Russian Far East) we found a statistically significant increase in indices that characterize the weather conditions conducive to forest fires. These areas coincide with the areas of most significant warming during the past several decades south of the Arctic Circle. West of the Ural Mountains, the same indices show a steady decrease in the frequency of the "dry weather summer days" during the past sixty years. This study supports and justifies our previous findings based on a data set five-times smaller (Groisman et al. 2003) and is corroborated with available statistics of forest fires (Korovin and Zukkert 2003) and with observed changes in characteristics of the forest phenology (Lapenis et al. 2004). Scenarios of the possible future climatic change in Northern Eurasia (IPCC 2001) indicate that the changes will be most prominent in the region. The superposition of these scenarios with the present characteristics of the potential forest fire danger in the Eastern half of Northern Eurasia, show that forest fires themselves may be an important feedback mechanism affecting both the rate and magnitude of the continental climatic changes. An unfortunate corollary is a need to reassess the existing scenarios of future climatic change in Northern Eurasia. These scenarios should include accounting for interactions with the biosphere and its changes.

  9. Living Dangerously--Changing Press Law in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Timothy

    An examination of the changes in press laws after India gained its independence in 1947 shows how a free press is shaped mostly by the structure and evolution of the democratic society that it is intended to serve. The most salient features that have characterized the Indian press, from the early nineteenth century to the present day, are…

  10. Changing Horses in Midstream: The Dangers of Unplanned Head Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinby, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Quick leadership transitions may succeed in other industries, but they don't usually work in the "business of relationships" we call school. Boards that respond to a solvable problem by firing the head may believe that action is necessary and good for the school. In truth, these abrupt changes almost always hurt schools, with devastating

  11. Changing Horses in Midstream: The Dangers of Unplanned Head Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinby, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Quick leadership transitions may succeed in other industries, but they don't usually work in the "business of relationships" we call school. Boards that respond to a solvable problem by firing the head may believe that action is necessary and good for the school. In truth, these abrupt changes almost always hurt schools, with devastating…

  12. Dangerous news: media decision making about climate change risk.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joe

    2005-12-01

    This article explores the role of broadcast news media decision makers in shaping public understanding and debate of climate change risks. It locates the media within a "tangled web" of communication and debate between sources, media, and publics. The article draws on new qualitative research in the British context. The main body of it focuses on media source strategies, on climate change storytelling in news, and the "myth of detachment" sustained by many news decision makers. The empirical evidence, gathered between 1997 and 2004, is derived primarily from recordings and notes drawn from a series of seminars that has brought together equal numbers of BBC news and television decision makers and environment/development specialists. The seminars have created a rare space for extended dialogue between media and specialist perspectives on the communication of complex climate change science and policy. While the article acknowledges the distinctive nature of the BBC as a public sector broadcaster, the evidence confirms and extends current understanding of the career of climate change within the media more broadly. The working group discussions have explored issues arising out of how stories are sourced and, in the context of competitive and time-pressured newsrooms, shaped and presented in short news pieces. Particularly significant is the disjuncture between ways of talking about uncertainty within science and policy discourse and media constructions of objectivity, truth, and balance. The article concludes with a summary of developments in media culture, technology, and practice that are creating opportunities for enhanced public understanding and debate of climate change risks. It also indicates the need for science and policy communities to be more active critics and sources of news. PMID:16506976

  13. Enzymatic temperature change indicator

    DOEpatents

    Klibanov, Alexander M.; Dordick, Jonathan S.

    1989-01-21

    A temperature change indicator is described which is composed of an enzyme and a substrate for that enzyme suspended in a solid organic solvent or mixture of solvents as a support medium. The organic solvent or solvents are chosen so as to melt at a specific temperature or in a specific temperature range. When the temperature of the indicator is elevated above the chosen, or critical temperature, the solid organic solvent support will melt, and the enzymatic reaction will occur, producing a visually detectable product which is stable to further temperature variation.

  14. Global Surface Temperature Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; Ruedy, R.; Sato, M.; Lo, K.

    2010-12-01

    We update the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) analysis of global surface temperature change, compare alternative analyses, and address questions about perception and reality of global warming. Satellite-observed night lights are used to identify measurement stations located in extreme darkness and adjust temperature trends of urban and periurban stations for nonclimatic factors, verifying that urban effects on analyzed global change are small. Because the GISS analysis combines available sea surface temperature records with meteorological station measurements, we test alternative choices for the ocean data, showing that global temperature change is sensitive to estimated temperature change in polar regions where observations are limited. We use simple 12 month (and n 12) running means to improve the information content in our temperature graphs. Contrary to a popular misconception, the rate of warming has not declined. Global temperature is rising as fast in the past decade as in the prior 2 decades, despite year-to-year fluctuations associated with the El Nio-La Nia cycle of tropical ocean temperature. Record high global 12 month running mean temperature for the period with instrumental data was reached in 2010.

  15. Dangerous climate change and the importance of adaptation for the Arctic's Inuit population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, James D.

    2009-04-01

    The Arctic's climate is changing rapidly, to the extent that 'dangerous' climate change as defined by the United Nations Framework on Climate Change might already be occurring. These changes are having implications for the Arctic's Inuit population and are being exacerbated by the dependence of Inuit on biophysical resources for livelihoods and the low socio-economic-health status of many northern communities. Given the nature of current climate change and projections of a rapidly warming Arctic, climate policy assumes a particular importance for Inuit regions. This paper argues that efforts to stabilize and reduce greenhouse gas emissions are urgent if we are to avoid runaway climate change in the Arctic, but unlikely to prevent changes which will be dangerous for Inuit. In this context, a new policy discourse on climate change is required for Arctic regions—one that focuses on adaptation. The paper demonstrates that states with Inuit populations and the international community in general has obligations to assist Inuit to adapt to climate change through international human rights and climate change treaties. However, the adaptation deficit, in terms of what we know and what we need to know to facilitate successful adaptation, is particularly large in an Arctic context and limiting the ability to develop response options. Moreover, adaptation as an option of response to climate change is still marginal in policy negotiations and Inuit political actors have been slow to argue the need for adaptation assistance. A new focus on adaptation in both policy negotiations and scientific research is needed to enhance Inuit resilience and reduce vulnerability in a rapidly changing climate.

  16. Assessing dangerous climate change through an update of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) “reasons for concern”

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joel B.; Schneider, Stephen H.; Oppenheimer, Michael; Yohe, Gary W.; Hare, William; Mastrandrea, Michael D.; Patwardhan, Anand; Burton, Ian; Corfee-Morlot, Jan; Magadza, Chris H. D.; Füssel, Hans-Martin; Pittock, A. Barrie; Rahman, Atiq; Suarez, Avelino; van Ypersele, Jean-Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change [United Nations (1992) http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/conveng.pdf. Accessed February 9, 2009] commits signatory nations to stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that “would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference (DAI) with the climate system.” In an effort to provide some insight into impacts of climate change that might be considered DAI, authors of the Third Assessment Report (TAR) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) identified 5 “reasons for concern” (RFCs). Relationships between various impacts reflected in each RFC and increases in global mean temperature (GMT) were portrayed in what has come to be called the “burning embers diagram.” In presenting the “embers” in the TAR, IPCC authors did not assess whether any single RFC was more important than any other; nor did they conclude what level of impacts or what atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases would constitute DAI, a value judgment that would be policy prescriptive. Here, we describe revisions of the sensitivities of the RFCs to increases in GMT and a more thorough understanding of the concept of vulnerability that has evolved over the past 8 years. This is based on our expert judgment about new findings in the growing literature since the publication of the TAR in 2001, including literature that was assessed in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), as well as additional research published since AR4. Compared with results reported in the TAR, smaller increases in GMT are now estimated to lead to significant or substantial consequences in the framework of the 5 “reasons for concern.” PMID:19251662

  17. Assessing dangerous climate change through an update of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) "reasons for concern".

    PubMed

    Smith, Joel B; Schneider, Stephen H; Oppenheimer, Michael; Yohe, Gary W; Hare, William; Mastrandrea, Michael D; Patwardhan, Anand; Burton, Ian; Corfee-Morlot, Jan; Magadza, Chris H D; Füssel, Hans-Martin; Pittock, A Barrie; Rahman, Atiq; Suarez, Avelino; van Ypersele, Jean-Pascal

    2009-03-17

    Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change [United Nations (1992) http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/conveng.pdf. Accessed February 9, 2009] commits signatory nations to stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that "would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference (DAI) with the climate system." In an effort to provide some insight into impacts of climate change that might be considered DAI, authors of the Third Assessment Report (TAR) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) identified 5 "reasons for concern" (RFCs). Relationships between various impacts reflected in each RFC and increases in global mean temperature (GMT) were portrayed in what has come to be called the "burning embers diagram." In presenting the "embers" in the TAR, IPCC authors did not assess whether any single RFC was more important than any other; nor did they conclude what level of impacts or what atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases would constitute DAI, a value judgment that would be policy prescriptive. Here, we describe revisions of the sensitivities of the RFCs to increases in GMT and a more thorough understanding of the concept of vulnerability that has evolved over the past 8 years. This is based on our expert judgment about new findings in the growing literature since the publication of the TAR in 2001, including literature that was assessed in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), as well as additional research published since AR4. Compared with results reported in the TAR, smaller increases in GMT are now estimated to lead to significant or substantial consequences in the framework of the 5 "reasons for concern." PMID:19251662

  18. Estimating live fuel status by drought indices: an approach for assessing local impact of climate change on fire danger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizzaro, Grazia; Dubrovsky, Martin; Bortolu, Sara; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Bachisio; Masia, Pierpaolo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2014-05-01

    Mediterranean shrubs are an important component of both Mediterranean vegetation communities and understorey vegetation. They also constitute the surface fuels primarily responsible for the ignition and the spread of wildland fires in Mediterranean forests. Although fire spread and behaviour are dependent on several factors, the water content of live fuel plays an important role in determining fire occurrence and spread, especially in the Mediterranean shrubland, where live fuel is often the main component of the available fuel which catches fire. According to projections on future climate, an increase in risk of summer droughts is likely to take place in Southern Europe. More prolonged drought seasons induced by climatic changes are likely to influence general flammability characteristics of fuel, affecting load distribution in vegetation strata, floristic composition, and live and dead fuel ratio. In addition, variations in precipitation and mean temperature could directly affect fuel water status, and consequently flammability, and length of critical periods of high ignition danger for Mediterranean ecosystems. The main aim of this work was to propose a methodology for evaluating possible impacts of future climate change on moisture dynamic and length of fire danger period at local scale. Specific objectives were: i) evaluating performances of meteorological drought indices in describing seasonal pattern of live fuel moisture content (LFMC), and ii) simulating the potential impacts of future climate changes on the duration of fire danger period. Measurements of LFMC seasonal pattern of three Mediterranean shrub species were performed in North Western Sardinia (Italy) for 8 years. Seasonal patterns of LFMC were compared with the Drought Code of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index and the Keetch-Byram Drought Index. Analysis of frequency distribution and cumulative distribution curves were carried out in order to evaluate performance of codes and to identify threshold values of indices useful to determine the end of the potential fire season due to fuel status. A weather generator linked to climate change scenarios derived from 17 available General Circulation Models (GCMs) was used to produce synthetic weather series, representing present and future climates, for four selected sites located in North Sardinia, Italy. Finally, impacts of future climate change on fire season length at local scale were simulated. Results confirmed that the projected climate scenarios over the Mediterranean area will determine an overall increase of the fire season length.

  19. Potential forest fire danger over Northern Eurasia: Changes during the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel Ya.; Sherstyukov, Boris G.; Razuvaev, Vyacheslav N.; Knight, Richard W.; Enloe, Jesse G.; Stroumentova, Nina S.; Whitfield, Paul H.; Førland, Eirik; Hannsen-Bauer, Inger; Tuomenvirta, Heikki; Aleksandersson, Hans; Mescherskaya, Anna V.; Karl, Thomas R.

    2007-04-01

    Significant climatic changes over Northern Eurasia during the 20th century have been reflected in numerous variables of economic, social, and ecological interest, including the natural frequency of forest fires. For the former USSR, we are now using the Global Daily Climatology Network and a new Global Synoptic Data Network archive, GSDN, created jointly by U.S. National Climatic Data Center and Russian Research Institute for Hydrometeorological Information. Data from these archives (approximately 1500 of them having sufficiently long meteorological time series suitable for participation in our analyses) are employed to estimate systematic changes in indices used in the United States and Russia to assess potential forest fire danger. We use four indices: (1) Keetch-Byram Drought Index, (KBDI; this index was developed and widely used in the United States); (2) Nesterov, (3) Modified Nesterov, and (4) Zhdanko Indices (these indices were developed and widely used in Russia). Analyses show that after calibration, time series of the days with increased potential forest fire danger constructed using each of these three indices (a) are well correlated and (b) deliver similar conclusions about systematic changes in the weather conditions conducive to forest fires. Specifically, over the Eastern half of Northern Eurasia (Siberia and the Russian Far East) statistically significant increases in indices that characterize the weather conditions conducive to forest fires were found. These areas coincide with the areas of most significant warming during the past several decades south of the Arctic Circle. West of the Ural Mountains, the same indices show a steady decrease in the frequency of "dry weather summer days" during the past 60 yr. This study is corroborated with available statistics of forest fires and with observed changes in drought statistics in agricultural regions of Northern Eurasia.

  20. Global temperature change

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto; Lo, Ken; Lea, David W.; Medina-Elizade, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Global surface temperature has increased ≈0.2°C per decade in the past 30 years, similar to the warming rate predicted in the 1980s in initial global climate model simulations with transient greenhouse gas changes. Warming is larger in the Western Equatorial Pacific than in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific over the past century, and we suggest that the increased West–East temperature gradient may have increased the likelihood of strong El Niños, such as those of 1983 and 1998. Comparison of measured sea surface temperatures in the Western Pacific with paleoclimate data suggests that this critical ocean region, and probably the planet as a whole, is approximately as warm now as at the Holocene maximum and within ≈1°C of the maximum temperature of the past million years. We conclude that global warming of more than ≈1°C, relative to 2000, will constitute “dangerous” climate change as judged from likely effects on sea level and extermination of species. PMID:17001018

  1. Dangers of predicting bird species distributions in response to land-cover changes.

    PubMed

    Vallecillo, Sara; Brotons, Lluís; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2009-03-01

    Land-cover changes from the last decades are leading to important declines in habitat quality, giving rise to changes in bird species distribution all over the world. However, land-cover changes result from a variety of different processes, and it is not clear how effective species distribution models are in capturing species responses to these changes. In this study, we evaluated our ability to predict the effects of land-cover changes on shifts in species distributions at large spatial and temporal scales using Mediterranean landscapes and early-successional, open-habitat birds as study models. Based on presence-absence data from the second Catalan Breeding Bird Atlas (1999-2002), we applied six different species distribution modeling techniques for 10 bird species using climate, topographic, and land-cover data as predictor variables. Then we back-projected the models on land-cover conditions from 1980 to evaluate the projections with field observation data from the first Catalan Breeding Bird Atlas (1975-1983). Finally, we assessed if, in addition to changes in habitat suitability resulting from land-cover shifts, descriptors of fire impact contributed to further explain species distribution dynamics: colonization and local extinction. We developed accurate model projections of current and past global patterns of species distribution, but our ability to predict species distribution dynamics was reduced. Colonization dynamics were generally more strongly related to fire descriptors than to changes in overall habitat suitability derived from land-cover changes. Our results warn of the dangers of projecting species distribution models onto future conditions if processes behind species distribution dynamics are not explicitly included. Consideration of ecologically meaningful processes for species (i.e., fire disturbance) when modeling species' distribution might contribute to a better explanation of species' colonization dynamics. PMID:19323209

  2. Change points of global temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Niamh; Rahmstorf, Stefan; Parnell, Andrew C.

    2015-08-01

    We aim to address the question of whether or not there is a significant recent hiatus, pause or slowdown of global temperature rise. Using a statistical technique known as change point (CP) analysis we identify the changes in four global temperature records and estimate the rates of temperature rise before and after these changes occur. For each record the results indicate that three CPs are enough to accurately capture the variability in the data with no evidence of any detectable change in the global warming trend since ?1970. We conclude that the term hiatus or pause cannot be statistically justified.

  3. Embedded Temperature-Change Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita; Thakoor, Anil; Karmon, Dan

    1995-01-01

    Transducers sensitive to rates of change of temperature embedded in integrated circuits and discrete electronic components damaged by overheating, according to proposal. Used to detect onset of rapid heating and to trigger shutoffs of power or other corrective actions before temperatures rise beyond safe limits. Sensors respond fast and reliably to incipient overheating because they are in direct thermal contact with vulnerable circuit elements.

  4. The Place of Children in Our Fast Changing Societies: Great Possibilities and Fatal Dangers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folster, Kay

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the negative effects of social and economic development on conditions for children and families. Focuses on worldwide cuts in funding of social services for families and the need to change the political culture toward a more sustainable one that allows for proper levels of care, play, and education of children. (JPB)

  5. The Danger of Selectively Changing the Rules in Youth Sport: The Case of the Strike Zone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Cesar R.

    2010-01-01

    Albeit well-intentioned, the practice of selectively changing the strike zone to promote young players' welfare is critically flawed. After discussing the central purpose of competitive sport, the duty of officials, and the significance of impartiality in officiating, this article demonstrates that this practice presents numerous practical…

  6. Phase Change Fabrics Control Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Originally featured in Spinoff in 1997, Outlast Technologies Inc. (formerly Gateway Technologies Inc.) has built its entire product line on microencapsulated phase change materials, developed in Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Johnson Space Center after initial development for the U.S. Air Force. The Boulder, Colorado-based company acquired the exclusive patent rights and now integrates these materials into textiles or onto finished apparel, providing temperature regulation in bedding materials and a full line of apparel for both ordinary and extreme conditions.

  7. [Dangerous aquaria].

    PubMed

    Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka; Szkolnicka, Beata; Mitrus, Małgorzata; Targosz, Dorota; Gwiazdowski, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    World trends for a home breeding of exotic freshwater and marine fishes did not miss Poland. There are almost all species of aquarium fishes available in Polish pet shops, but there is not enough information about threat given to customers. In some fish, there are masses of one-cell glands, mainly serous, in the proximity of the spines. In others, those one-cell glands may be grouped in larger aggregates of cells called venom glands, that may form organs resembling multicellular glands of terrestrial animals. They are usually located around the spines or hard rays of the fins. Even if covered with a connective tissue sheath, the aggregates of the venom cells do not have any common outlet; they are not, therefore, proper multicellular glands. The venom glands of the catfish are covered with a thin sheath and they release their contents when the fin ray is pressed. Spines are derived from fin rays. When the spine penetrates the body of its prey, it presses its base against the cells, squashes them and squeezes the venomous contents into the wound. Catfish, lionfish and stonefish have the venom glands producing secretion which could be dangerous. The eels and morays blood is also dangerous, as well as slime of reduced squamae. Poison information centers noted several cases of fishes' stings in Poland. PMID:16225137

  8. Dangerous directions

    SciTech Connect

    Arkin, W.M.; Kristensen, H.

    1998-03-01

    Even in the through-the-looking-glass world of nuclear deterrence, the current situation is bizarre: Although the United States and Russia are friends, and are both cutting back the numbers of strategic weapons, the United States is more able than ever to deliver a devastating, decapitating, first-strike blow against Russia, should US-Russian relations ever sour. Russian nuclear survivability is not assured, creating - at least on paper - a uniquely dangerous hair trigger. After several rounds of nuclear reductions and almost a decade of declared peace, how is it that US strategic nuclear forces have, been enhanced rather than diminished? The answer is partly Russia`s inability to fulfill the unwritten contract underlying US-Russian strategic arms reductions - that both sides maintain high levels of alert. Russia`s day-to-day nuclear readiness is miserable. Its missile force is in a state of flux, with even its land-based missiles severely challenged by technological weaknesses and insurmountable maintenance problems. Its mobile forces - particularly its SS-25 road-mobile missiles and its ballistic missile submarines - are at a virtual standstill. Apparently flawed, Russia`s newest submarines, those of the Typhoon class, are being prematurely retired. The intercontinental bomber force is essentially nonexistent. Russia cannot afford to modernize its nuclear forces, and thus faces the physical reality of forced disarmament. The imbalance vis-a-vis the United States will grow wider after the turn of the century, as the majority of Russia`s current systems reach the end of their service lives.

  9. Measuring Seawater Temperatures with Global Climate Change

    Researchers are experimentally determining the mechanisms corals will use to acclimatize to warmer seawater temperatures with global climate change. To determine the biochemical changes in corals, Dan did reciprocal transplant experiments between the forereef slope (benign environment, always around...

  10. Temperature Changes During Photoablation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmetz, M.

    1988-12-01

    The results of current microscopic investigations show that during the process of athermal photoablation the material surrounding the target is thermally stressed. In order to get more information of the target's thermal behaviour during light interaction and, furthermore, about the process itself, we developed a microthermocouple device with high spatial (um) and temporal (us) resolution. So far temperature measurements were carried out during excimer laser (351nm) irradiation with 250 to 1600 mJ/cm2 in single and repetition pulse mode. The measurements in polymers and in biological material gave the following results: 1) typical thermal effects like melting zones at polymer crater walls and tissue discoloration and smoke generation in biologic material. 2) In polymers as well as in biological materials the surface temperature increases with increasing energy density in single laser mode once the removal threshold is reached or exceeded. 3) The removal threshold depends on the heat capacity of the samples. The results indicate that photoablation of polymers and biological material (obtained with 351 nm short pulsed laser light wavelength of nearly 1000 mJ/cm2) is predominantly a photothermal process.

  11. Probes For Measuring Changing Internal Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, S. B.; Durtschi, J.; Smith, D.; Maw, Joel; Sakaguchi, M.; Smart, L.; Blake, B.

    1995-01-01

    Improved thermocouple probes devised for measuring rapidly changing temperatures within layers of solid materials. In original application, layers in question are carbon-cloth phenolic liners in solid-rocket motor nozzles, and probes inserted in layers to various depths of order of 0.5 in. measure changing temperatures in layers during hot-fire tests. Probe concept adapted to measurements of temperatures inside various other layers, materials, and components, including material test specimens.

  12. Dangerous myths.

    PubMed

    Donovan, P

    1992-01-01

    Humanity has perpetuated myths against breast feeding for millennia, e.g., milk substitutes were sought as early as the 8th century B.C. when mythology claimed a wolf nursed the twin founders of Rome. A wet nurse fed Moses and Mohammed. Women wore corsets for 200 years even though they disfigured them and did not allow them to breast feed. Society considered breast feeding in bed a sin. Despite the fact that science has proved breast feeding's remarkable benefits, several myths continue. For example, in many developing countries, it is taboo to offer a newborn the colostrum which is full of maternal antibodies. In developed countries, some health workers continue to make new mothers doubt their ability to produce enough breast milk. Yet the milk supply is dependent on the demand for milk. An infant sucking at the breast or a mother expressing milk signals the body to produce milk. If mothers supplement with infant formula the demand diminishes so the body does not receive signals to increase milk production which in turn reduces the milk supply. Another myth is that breast feeding changes the shape of women's breasts. Yet it is gravity that changes breast shape whether she breast feeds children or not. Medical evidence verifies that breast milk is the perfect source of nourishment for infants during the 1st 4-6 months of life. No substitute provides infants the remarkable range of benefits of breast feeding, e.g., breast-fed children have higher IQ test scores than bottle-fed children, and tend to be more self-confident and develop more quickly. They also have fewer food allergies and diarrheal episodes. Indeed children breast fed for at least 4 months have lower rates of childhood cancers. Breast feeding in developing countries increases child survival. PMID:1618509

  13. GISS Analysis of Surface Temperature Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, J.; Ruedy, R.; Glascoe, J.; Sato, M.

    1999-01-01

    We describe the current GISS analysis of surface temperature change based primarily on meteorological station measurements. The global surface temperature in 1998 was the warmest in the period of instrumental data. The rate of temperature change is higher in the past 25 years than at any previous time in the period of instrumental data. The warmth of 1998 is too large and pervasive to be fully accounted for by the recent El Nino, suggesting that global temperature may have moved to a higher level, analogous to the increase that occurred in the late 1970s. The warming in the United States over the past 50 years is smaller than in most of the world, and over that period there is a slight cooling trend in the Eastern United States and the neighboring Atlantic ocean. The spatial and temporal patterns of the temperature change suggest that more than one mechanism is involved in this regional cooling.

  14. Late Quaternary temperature change velocity in Mesoamerica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa-Metrio, A.; Lozano, S.; Sosa-Nájera, S.; Bush, M. B.

    2013-05-01

    Quaternary climate has been highly variable, and yet few quantitative continental reconstructions are available for tropical areas. Quantitative records of temperature change during the Quaternary are especially relevant for putting modern climate change into a historic context. Within this perspective, two aspects are of singular relevance: i) Identifying and quantifying past climatic variability, and ii) Providing a means to estimate the seed at which climate change happened in the past. Here we show temperature reconstructions and temperature change velocity calculations for two locations in northern tropical America. Temperature reconstruction was based on two sedimentary records form Lake Chalco (30,000 years), central Mexican highlands, and Lake Petén-Itzá, Guatemalan lowlands (86,000 years). Temperature reconstruction was based on the analysis of fossil pollen on the light of pollen-temperature transfer functions. These functions were calibrated through an extensive survey of modern pollen samples covering an elevational gradient from 0 to 4,218 m asl. Derived temperature profiles show a parallel long-term trend and a similar cooling of approximately 5 oC during the Last Glacial Maximum in the lowlands and highlands of Mexico and Guatemala. Using a digital elevation model, we ere able to reconstruct the velocity at which isotherms displaced to produce the observed temperature anomalies. Spatial velocities of temperature change in the studied areas were at least four times slower than values reported for the last 50 years, but also at least twice as fast as those obtained from recent models. This study demonstrates that modern temperature change has no precedent within the last 86,000 years, but also that tropical climate has been more variable than it has been assumed to date.

  15. Global perceptions of local temperature change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Peter D.; Markowitz, Ezra M.; Lee, Tien Ming; Ko, Chia-Ying; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2013-04-01

    It is difficult to detect global warming directly because most people experience changes only in local weather patterns, which are highly variable and may not reflect long-term global climate trends. However, local climate-change experience may play an important role in adaptation and mitigation behaviour and policy support. Previous research indicates that people can perceive and adapt to aspects of climate variability and change based on personal observations. Experience with local weather may also influence global warming beliefs. Here we examine the extent to which respondents in 89 countries detect recent changes in average local temperatures. We demonstrate that public perceptions correspond with patterns of observed temperature change from climate records: individuals who live in places with rising average temperatures are more likely than others to perceive local warming. As global climate change intensifies, changes in local temperatures and weather patterns may be increasingly detected by the global public. These findings also suggest that public opinion of climate change may shift, at least in part, in response to the personal experience of climate change.

  16. GISS Analysis of Surface Temperature Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, J.; Ruedy, R.; Glascoe, J.; Sato, M.

    1999-01-01

    We describe the current GISS analysis of surface temperature change for the period 1880-1999 based primarily on meteorological station measurements. The global surface temperature in 1998 was the warmest in the period of instrumental data. The rate of temperature change was higher in the past 25 years than at any previous time in the period of instrumental data. The warmth of 1998 was too large and pervasive to be fully accounted for by the recent El Nino. Despite cooling in the first half of 1999, we suggest that the mean global temperature, averaged over 2-3 years, has moved to a higher level, analogous to the increase that occurred in the late 1970s. Warming in the United States over the past 50 years has been smaller than in most of the world, and over that period there was a slight cooling trend in the Eastern United States and the neighboring Atlantic Ocean. The spatial and temporal patterns of the temperature change suggest that more than one mechanism was involved in this regional cooling. The cooling trend in the United States, which began after the 1930s and is associated with ocean temperature change patterns, began to reverse after 1979. We suggest that further warming in the United States to a level rivaling the 1930s is likely in the next decade, but reliable prediction requires better understanding of decadal oscillations of ocean temperature.

  17. Changes in Soil Temperature Regimes under Regional Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    Soil temperatures can provide a smoothed record of regional changes in atmospheric conditions due to soil thermal properties that reduce the annual air and surface temperature amplitude. In areas with seasonal snow cover, however, its insulating effect isolates the soil thermal regime from winter air temperatures. Under changing regional climate patterns, snow cover extent, depth and duration are decreasing. The net effect is thus an expected winter cooling of soil temperature. However, the extent to which this might be mitigated by warmer summer conditions, and changing soil moisture remains to be seen. To examine the relative strength of a cold-season cooling signal versus enhanced summer warming, a network of soil temperature loggers has recorded hourly soil temperatures over the period 2005-2013 within a single watershed experiencing 'lake effect snow'. Elevations range from 168 m to 612 m, on Silurian and Ordovician shale, limestone, and sandstone that have been heavily glaciated. Most of the sites are located on NY Department of Environmental Conservation land in mixed, hardwood and spruce forests. At six sites in varied topographic and land-use setting, two ONSET HOBO Outdoor 4 channel soil temperature loggers are deployed in order to reduce concerns of data reliability and systematic logger drift. Five sites also record air temperature using HOBO Pro Series Temperature loggers at three sites and HOBO Weather Stations at two. Soil temperature data are recorded at hourly intervals at depths of 2-, 5-, 10-, and 25-cm. Several other sites have been operationalized over the 8 year period, but have been tampered with, damaged, stolen, or have failed. These partial records are included to provide greater geographic representation of changing conditions where possible. Data indicate decreasing winter soil temperatures in specific land-use and topographic settings. Only one site, located in a dense spruce plantation, experiences soil freezing within the top 5 cm. The extremely warm winter of 2011-2012 experienced only 28 days of measurable snow on the ground (as recorded at Syracuse Hancock Airport), yet some of the coldest soil temperatures measured in the watershed soils, indicative of snow's role in moderating soil freezing. Similarly, warmer summer air temperatures produce warmer soil temperatures, except following the winter of 2010-2011, one of the snowiest and coldest on record. The 96 days with measureable snow on the ground, and a total seasonal accumulation of 4.55 meters reduced rates of soil warming during a rapid increase in early spring air temperatures. If snow cover duration and extent are reduced, as some studies suggest, these results point to cooler winter soil temperatures, and warmer summer soil temperatures. The implications extend beyond changes in soil microbial activity and carbon sequestration to changes in rates of regolith weathering and pedogenesis.

  18. Seasonal Changes in Surface Temperatures on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.

    2010-01-01

    The surface brightness temperatures on Titan have been measured by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) aboard Cassini during the period spanning late northern winter through vernal equinox. CIRS observes radiance from the surface through a spectral window at 19 microns where the atmosphere has an opacity minimum [I]. CIRS is now seeing a shift in the latitudinal distribution of temperatures froth a distinctly warmer south to a more symmetrical north -south pattern, similar to that found by Voyager IRIS [2,3] at the time of the previous vernal equinox. Near the equator the temperatures remain close to the 93.7 K value found at the surface by Huygens [4]. From the equator to the poles the temperature gradients are 2-3 K. When compared with predictions froth general circulation models [5] the measured temperatures and their seasonal changes constrain the possible types of surface material. As Cassini continues through Titan's northern spring CiRS will extend its, global coverage to took for correlations between surface temperatures and albedo and to search for diurnal temperature variations

  19. Effects of temperature changes on groundwater ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griebler, Christian; Kellermann, Claudia; Schreglmann, Kathrin; Lueders, Tillmann; Brielmann, Heike; Schmidt, Susanne; Kuntz, David; Walker-Hertkorn, Simone

    2014-05-01

    The use of groundwater as a carrier of thermal energy is becoming more and more important as a sustainable source of heating and cooling. At the same time, the present understanding of the effects of aquifer thermal usage on geochemical and biological aquifer ecosystem functions is extremely limited. Recently we started to assess the effects of temperature changes in groundwater on the ecological integrity of aquifers. In a field study, we have monitored hydrogeochemical, microbial, and faunal parameters in groundwater of an oligotrophic aquifer in the vicinity of an active thermal discharge facility. The observed seasonal variability of abiotic and biotic parameters between wells was considerable. Yet, due to the energy-limited conditions no significant temperature impacts on bacterial or faunal abundances and on bacterial productivity were observed. In contrast, the diversity of aquifer bacterial communities and invertebrate fauna was either positively or negatively affected by temperature, respectively. In follow-up laboratory experiments temperature effects were systematically evaluated with respect to energy limitation (e.g. establishment of unlimited growth conditions), geochemistry (e.g. dynamics of DOC and nutrients), microbiology (e.g. survival of pathogens), and fauna (temperature preference and tolerance). First, with increased nutrient and organic carbon concentrations even small temperature changes revealed microbiological dynamics. Second, considerable amounts of adsorbed DOC were mobilized from sediments of different origin with an increase in temperatures. No evidence was obtained for growth of pathogenic bacteria and extended survival of viruses at elevated temperatures. Invertebrates clearly preferred natural thermal conditions (10-12°C), where their highest frequency of appearance was measured in a temperature gradient. Short-term incubations (48h) of invertebrates in temperature dose-response tests resulted in LT50 (lethal temperature) values between 17 and 23°C for selected groundwater amphipodes and 18°C for the isopode Proasellus cavaticus. Extended incubation times dramatically reduced the respective LT50 values way below 20°C for amphipodes and 16°C for the isopode, respectively. Our findings clearly point at an urgent need for further ecological studies with respect to the ecological consequences of geothermal energy use. To avoid the deterioration of groundwater quality and important ecosystem services we propose the development of integrative management concepts for subterranean energy use in the future.

  20. Changes in Concurrent Precipitation and Temperature Extremes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Phillips, Thomas J.

    2013-08-01

    While numerous studies have addressed changes in climate extremes, analyses of concurrence of climate extremes are scarce, and climate change effects on joint extremes are rarely considered. This study assesses the occurrence of joint (concurrent) monthly continental precipitation and temperature extremes in Climate Research Unit (CRU) and University of Delaware (UD) observations, and in 13 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate simulations. Moreover, the joint occurrences of precipitation and temperature extremes simulated by CMIP5 climate models are compared with those derived from the CRU and UD observations for warm/wet, warm/dry, cold/wet, and cold/dry combinations of joint extremes.more » The number of occurrences of these four combinations during the second half of the 20th century (1951–2004) is assessed on a common global grid. CRU and UD observations show substantial increases in the occurrence of joint warm/dry and warm/wet combinations for the period 1978–2004 relative to 1951–1977. The results show that with respect to the sign of change in the concurrent extremes, the CMIP5 climate model simulations are in reasonable overall agreement with observations. The results reveal notable discrepancies between regional patterns and the magnitude of change in individual climate model simulations relative to the observations of precipitation and temperature.« less

  1. Changes in Concurrent Precipitation and Temperature Extremes

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Phillips, Thomas J.

    2013-08-01

    While numerous studies have addressed changes in climate extremes, analyses of concurrence of climate extremes are scarce, and climate change effects on joint extremes are rarely considered. This study assesses the occurrence of joint (concurrent) monthly continental precipitation and temperature extremes in Climate Research Unit (CRU) and University of Delaware (UD) observations, and in 13 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate simulations. Moreover, the joint occurrences of precipitation and temperature extremes simulated by CMIP5 climate models are compared with those derived from the CRU and UD observations for warm/wet, warm/dry, cold/wet, and cold/dry combinations of joint extremes. The number of occurrences of these four combinations during the second half of the 20th century (1951–2004) is assessed on a common global grid. CRU and UD observations show substantial increases in the occurrence of joint warm/dry and warm/wet combinations for the period 1978–2004 relative to 1951–1977. The results show that with respect to the sign of change in the concurrent extremes, the CMIP5 climate model simulations are in reasonable overall agreement with observations. The results reveal notable discrepancies between regional patterns and the magnitude of change in individual climate model simulations relative to the observations of precipitation and temperature.

  2. Seasonal Changes in Titan's Surface Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennins, Donald E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Samuelson, R. E.; Romani, P. N.; Hesman, B. E.; Carlson, R. C.; Gorius, N. J. P.; Coustenis, A.; Tokano, T.

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal changes in Titan's surface brightness temperatures have been observed by Cassini in the thermal infrared. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) measured surface radiances at 19 micron in two time periods: one in late northern winter (Ls = 335d eg) and another centered on northern spring equinox (Ls = 0 deg). In both periods we constructed pole-to-pole maps of zonally averaged brightness temperatures corrected for effects of the atmosphere. Between late northern winter and northern spring equinox a shift occurred in the temperature distribution, characterized by a warming of approximately 0.5 K in the north and a cooling by about the same amount in the south. At equinox the polar surface temperatures were both near 91 K and the equator was 93.4 K. We measured a seasonal lag of delta Ls approximately 9 in the meridional surface temperature distribution, consistent with the post-equinox results of Voyager 1 as well as with predictions from general circulation modeling. A slightly elevated temperature is observed at 65 deg S in the relatively cloud-free zone between the mid-latitude and southern cloud regions.

  3. SEASONAL CHANGES IN TITAN'S SURFACE TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Samuelson, R. E.; Romani, P. N.; Hesman, B. E.; Carlson, R. C.; Gorius, N. J. P.; Coustenis, A.; Tokano, T.

    2011-08-10

    Seasonal changes in Titan's surface brightness temperatures have been observed by Cassini in the thermal infrared. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer measured surface radiances at 19 {mu}m in two time periods: one in late northern winter (LNW; L{sub s} = 335 deg.) and another centered on northern spring equinox (NSE; L{sub s} = 0 deg.). In both periods we constructed pole-to-pole maps of zonally averaged brightness temperatures corrected for effects of the atmosphere. Between LNW and NSE a shift occurred in the temperature distribution, characterized by a warming of {approx}0.5 K in the north and a cooling by about the same amount in the south. At equinox the polar surface temperatures were both near 91 K and the equator was at 93.4 K. We measured a seasonal lag of {Delta}L{sub S} {approx} 9{sup 0} in the meridional surface temperature distribution, consistent with the post-equinox results of Voyager 1 as well as with predictions from general circulation modeling. A slightly elevated temperature is observed at 65{sup 0} S in the relatively cloud-free zone between the mid-latitude and southern cloud regions.

  4. Assessing "dangerous climate change": required reduction of carbon emissions to protect young people, future generations and nature.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J; Hearty, Paul J; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrom, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Konrad; Van Susteren, Lise; von Schuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ∼500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of ∼1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2°C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4°C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels. PMID:24312568

  5. Assessing 'Dangerous Climate Change': Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Demotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J.; Hearty, Paul J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrum, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J.; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Conrad; VanSusteren, Lise; VonShuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C.

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of approx.500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of approx.1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2 C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4 C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels.

  6. Seasonal Changes in Titan's Surface Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Nixon, Conor A.; Cottini, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    Cassini's extended mission has provided the opportunity to search for seasonal variations on Titan. In particular, surface temperatures are expected to have shifted significantly in latitude during the completed portion of the mission. Spectra recorded by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) during the nominal mission (2004-08) and the Equinox mission. (2008-10) have already shown changes in temperature. CIRS has detected a seasonal shift in the latitudinal distribution of surface brightness temperatures by comparing zonal averages from two time segments, one period in late northern winter centered on L(sub s) approximately 335 deg and a second period centered on the equinox (L(sub s) approximately 0 deg.). The earlier period had a meridional distribution similar to that previously reported: 93.5 K at the equator, 91.7 K at 85 S and 899 K at 85 N. The newly measured distribution near equinox shows a cooling in the south and a warming in the north, both by about 0.5 K. We estimate that. the centroid of the distribution moved from approximately 16 S to 7 S between the two periods. This gives a seasonal lag behind insolation of delta L(sub s) approximately 13 deg. The CIRS equinox results are consistent with those of Voyager IRIS, which encountered Titan in November 1980, just following the previous northern equinox (L(sub s) = 10 deg.). When compared with predictions from general circulation models, seasonal variations of surface temperature can help constrain the identification of surface materials. Our measurements most closely match the case of a porous ice regolith treated by Tokano, but with some apparent differences between the northern and southern hemispheres. CIRS will extend its study of seasonal variations in surface temperature on Titan as Cassini continues through northern spring.

  7. Bacterial danger sensing.

    PubMed

    LeRoux, Michele; Peterson, S Brook; Mougous, Joseph D

    2015-11-20

    Here we propose that bacteria detect and respond to threats posed by other bacteria via an innate immune-like process that we term danger sensing. We find support for this contention by reexamining existing literature from the perspective that intermicrobial antagonism, not opportunistic pathogenesis, is the major evolutionary force shaping the defensive behaviors of most bacteria. We conclude that many bacteria possess danger sensing pathways composed of a danger signal receptor and corresponding signal transduction mechanism that regulate pathways important for survival in the presence of the perceived competitor. PMID:26434507

  8. Stratospheric Temperature Changes: Observations and Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Chanin, M.-L.; Angell, J.; Barnett, J.; Gaffen, D.; Gelman, M.; Keckhut, P.; Koshelkov, Y.; Labitzke, K.; Lin, J.-J. R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews observations of stratospheric temperatures that have been made over a period of several decades. Those observed temperatures have been used to assess variations and trends in stratospheric temperatures. A wide range of observation datasets have been used, comprising measurements by radiosonde (1940s to the present), satellite (1979 - present), lidar (1979 - present) and rocketsonde (periods varying with location, but most terminating by about the mid-1990s). In addition, trends have also been assessed from meteorological analyses, based on radiosonde and/or satellite data, and products based on assimilating observations into a general circulation model. Radiosonde and satellite data indicate a cooling trend of the annual-mean lower stratosphere since about 1980. Over the period 1979-1994, the trend is 0.6K/decade. For the period prior to 1980, the radiosonde data exhibit a substantially weaker long-term cooling trend. In the northern hemisphere, the cooling trend is about 0.75K/decade in the lower stratosphere, with a reduction in the cooling in mid-stratosphere (near 35 km), and increased cooling in the upper stratosphere (approximately 2 K per decade at 50 km). Model simulations indicate that the depletion of lower stratospheric ozone is the dominant factor in the observed lower stratospheric cooling. In the middle and upper stratosphere both the well-mixed greenhouse gases (such as CO) and ozone changes contribute in an important manner to the cooling.

  9. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Sep. 26, 2013 It ... she first put in a pair of colored contact lenses, Laura Butler of Parkersburg, W.Va., had " ...

  10. The Danger Instincts

    PubMed Central

    Rippon, T. S.

    1928-01-01

    (I) Theory Rivers' theory of the “danger instincts” is a key to the problem of moral and prevention of war neuroses. (II) Causes of War Neuroses These are believed to be largely mental, e.g., conflict between the instinct of self-preservation and the sense of duty. (III) Instinct of Self-Preservation This subject presents difficulties, because people react in so many different ways; a man may be impelled to run away, or to become aggressive or even motionless when in danger. (IV) Importance The importance of knowing all the reactions of the normal man to danger is, first—the need to know the normal before considering the abnormal states; second—the chemical warfare of the future will involve increased emotional stress; third—in such war, there will be an additional strain of inactivity during a gas attack. (V) The Danger Instincts as described by Rivers Reaction by flight. Aggression. Manipulative activity. Immobility and collapse. Emotional states associated with reactions. Conflict between different tendencies the reason for collapse when in danger. (VI) Evidence supporting Rivers' Theories Relative severity of war neurosis in pilots, observers, balloon officers, Army officers and submarine crews. Investigation on reactions of pilots to danger and fear. (VII) Rivers' Theory applied to Moral (Mental Hygiene) Knowledge of normal reactions to danger enables the medical officer to help to maintain moral by:—(a) Preparing the mind to meet danger. Explaining that fear is a natural emotion under certain circumstances. Need for self-control but not shame. (b) Prevention of repression. (c) Counter-suggestion and panic. (VIII) Concluding Statement on Cowardice Difficulty in distinguishing cowardice from neurosis. Definition suggested. Medical tests. PMID:19986246

  11. A Danger-Theory-Based Immune Network Optimization Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Xiao, Xin; Shi, Yuanquan

    2013-01-01

    Existing artificial immune optimization algorithms reflect a number of shortcomings, such as premature convergence and poor local search ability. This paper proposes a danger-theory-based immune network optimization algorithm, named dt-aiNet. The danger theory emphasizes that danger signals generated from changes of environments will guide different levels of immune responses, and the areas around danger signals are called danger zones. By defining the danger zone to calculate danger signals for each antibody, the algorithm adjusts antibodies' concentrations through its own danger signals and then triggers immune responses of self-regulation. So the population diversity can be maintained. Experimental results show that the algorithm has more advantages in the solution quality and diversity of the population. Compared with influential optimization algorithms, CLONALG, opt-aiNet, and dopt-aiNet, the algorithm has smaller error values and higher success rates and can find solutions to meet the accuracies within the specified function evaluation times. PMID:23483853

  12. [Dangerous, illegal captivities].

    PubMed

    Winnik, Lidia; Lis, Leszek

    2005-01-01

    On the 21st of August 1997 the Polish legislature introduced the first animal protection law nr 724. This act however failed to specify in a clear and proper manner the problem of possession and maintenance of dangerous animals, which allows its multiple interpretations. Poland ratified the Washington Convention in 1990 restricting the trade of animals classified as endangered species. The present regulations enable illegal purchase and trade of those animals. According to the available data illegal trade of such animals, as well as the trade of products obtained from them, ranks in the third position in terms of crime generated income, only after the trade of drugs and weapons. In our country the sales of such animals have been growing at an alarming rate. The animals often get out of the control of their owners, or are abandoned by them. The presented work describes cases of reptiles being found in public places in our region. It also mentions the problem of possible dangers associated with intentional letting out of such animals in public places. The aim of the following paper is the analysis of the problem of raising of exotic animals, in particular venomous snakes and other animals, the possession of which may be dangerous not only for the owner but also for the people around. The existing laws and executive procedures have been discussed. Both, the family doctors as well as toxicologists have little knowledge as far as diagnosis and treatment of cases of stinging and biting by exotic animals is concerned. The authors suggest providing medical emergency doctors, family doctors and surgeons, with clinic toxicology programs, as well as introduction of special courses for middle medical personnel. Establishment of a central database and a database concerned with basic polyvalent serums are crucial in our country in order have the Toxicology Centers ready to face possible dangers associated with dangerous animals, and to prepare emergency solutions in cases of criminal actions involving the use of dangerous animals. PMID:16225136

  13. Radon: The Silent Danger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoffel, Jennifer

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses the public health dangers associated with radon exposure in homes and schools. In addition, testing and corrective efforts by federal and state agencies are discussed. A map indicating areas in the U.S. with potentially high radon levels is included. (IAH)

  14. Schools as Dangerous Places

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    When students set off for school each day how many of them or their caregivers consider for a moment that they will spend the day at a potentially dangerous place? On the contrary, students and caregivers probably view schools as safe havens, and official research suggests that this is the case for the majority of teachers and pupils. However,…

  15. A Danger to Ourselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In this article Richard Barbieri asserts that the biggest danger to our own safety and well-being, and that of our children, comes not from adult predators, environmental hazards, or the class bully, but from traits common to us all. The enemy is us, and not least because we too often jump to such strategies as clobbering. Writers from such varied…

  16. A Danger to Ourselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In this article Richard Barbieri asserts that the biggest danger to our own safety and well-being, and that of our children, comes not from adult predators, environmental hazards, or the class bully, but from traits common to us all. The enemy is us, and not least because we too often jump to such strategies as clobbering. Writers from such varied

  17. Noble Gas Temperature Proxy for Climate Change

    EPA Science Inventory

    Noble gases in groundwater appear to offer a practical approach for quantitatively determining past surface air temperatures over recharge areas for any watershed. The noble gas temperature (NGT) proxy should then permit a paleothermometry of a region over time. This terrestria...

  18. Seasonal Surface Temperature Changes on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Cottini, Valeria; Nixon, Conor A.; Coustenis, Athena; Tokano, Tetsuya

    2015-11-01

    The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on Cassini has been measuring surface brightness temperatures on Titan since 2004 (Jennings et al. 2011; Cottini et al. 2012; Tan et al. 2015). Radiation from the surface reaches space through a window of minimum opacity in Titan’s atmosphere near 19 microns wavelength. We mapped surface temperatures in five time periods, each about 2 years, centered on solar longitudes Ls = 313°, 335°, 0°, 28° and 53° degrees. Using zonally-averaged spectra binned in 10-degree latitude intervals, we clearly see the seasonal progression of the pole-to-pole temperature distribution. Whereas peak temperatures in the vicinity of the Equator have been close to 94 K throughout the Cassini mission, early in the mission temperatures at the North Pole were as low as 90 K and at the South Pole were 92 K. Late in the mission the pattern has reversed: 92 K in the north and 90 K in the south. Over 2005 to 2014 the peak temperature moved in latitude from about 15 S to 15 N. We estimate a seasonal lag of 0.2 Titan month. In 2010 the temperature distribution was approximately symmetric north and south, agreeing with Voyager 1 from one Titan year earlier. The surface temperatures follow closely the predictions of Tokano (2005). Our measurements may indicate a lower thermal inertia in the south than in the north.Jennings, D.E. et al., ApJ Lett. 737, L15 (2011)Cottini, V. et al., 2012. Planet. Space Sci. 60, 62 (2012)Tan, S. P. et al., Icarus 250, 64 (2015)Tokano, T., Icarus 204, 619 (2005)

  19. [Dangerous scorpions from Niger].

    PubMed

    Goyffon, M; Guette, C

    2005-11-01

    Two dangerous scorpion species are responsible for the severe human envenomations in Niger, Leiurus quinquestriatus (H. et E.), the most abundant, and Androctonus aeneas C.L. Koch, less frequent and described in a Sahel country for the first time. Up to now, A. aeneas was known in North Africa only. Its venom is highly toxic for humans, similar to those of the most dangerous species living in Africa, such as L. quinquestriatus and other species belonging to the genus Androctonus, A. australis (L.) and A. mauretanicus (Poc.), for the envenoming treatment of which specific antivenoms are prepared. Taking into account the absence of a specific antivenom for A. aeneas, the paraspecific neutralising effect of these antivenoms should be tested. PMID:16402579

  20. Recording Rapidly Changing Cylinder-wall Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, Adolph

    1942-01-01

    The present report deals with the design and testing of a measuring plug suggested by H. Pfriem for recording quasi-stationary cylinder wall temperatures. The new device is a resistance thermometer, the temperature-susceptible part of which consists of a gold coating applied by evaporation under high vacuum and electrolytically strengthened. After overcoming initial difficulties, calibration of plugs up to and beyond 400 degrees C was possible. The measurements were made on high-speed internal combustion engines. The increasing effect of carbon deposit at the wall surface with increasing operating period is indicated by means of charts.

  1. Climate change and temperature-dependent sex determination in reptiles.

    PubMed Central

    Janzen, F J

    1994-01-01

    Despite increasing concern over the possible impact of global temperature change, there is little empirical evidence of direct temperature effects on biotic interactions in natural systems. Clear assessment of the ecological and evolutionary impact of changing climatic temperature requires a natural system in which populations exhibit a direct unambiguous fitness response to thermal fluctuation. I monitored nests of a population of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) with temperature-dependent sex determination to investigate the causal relationship between local climatic variation in temperature and offspring sex ratio. Consistent with theoretical predictions, annual offspring sex ratio was highly correlated with mean July air temperature, validating concerns about the effect of climate change on population demography. This correlation implies that even modest increases in mean temperature (< 2 degrees C) may drastically skew the sex ratio. Statistical evaluation of the variance in climate change indicates that an increase in mean temperature of 4 degrees C would effectively eliminate production of male offspring. Quantitative genetic analyses and behavioral data suggest that populations with temperature-dependent sex determination may be unable to evolve rapidly enough to counteract the negative fitness consequences of rapid global temperature change. Populations of species with temperature-dependent sex determination may serve as ideal indicators of the biological impact of global temperature change. PMID:8052608

  2. Perceived temperature in the course of climate change: an analysis of global heat index from 1979-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D.; Brenner, T.

    2015-03-01

    The increase in global mean temperatures resulting from climate change has wide reaching consequences for the earth's ecosystems and other natural systems. Many studies have been devoted to evaluating the distribution and effects of these changes. We go a step further and evaluate global changes to the heat index, a measure of temperature as perceived by humans. Heat index, which is computed from temperature and relative humidity, is more important than temperature for the health of humans and other animals. Even in cases where the heat index does not reach dangerous levels from a health perspective, it has been shown to be an important factor in worker productivity and thus in economic productivity. We compute heat index from dewpoint temperature and absolute temperature 2 m above ground from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset for the years 1979-2013. The data is provided aggregated to daily minima, means and maxima (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.841057). Furthermore, the data is temporally aggregated to monthly and yearly values and spatially aggregated to the level of countries after being weighted by population density in order to demonstrate its usefulness for the analysis of its impact on human health and productivity. The resulting data deliver insights into the spatiotemporal development of near-ground heat index during the course of the past 3 decades. It is shown that the impact of changing heat index is unevenly distributed through space and time, affecting some areas differently than others. The likelihood of dangerous heat index events has increased globally. Also, heat index climate groups that would formerly be expected closer to the tropics have spread latitudinally to include areas closer to the poles. The data can serve in future studies as a basis for evaluating and understanding the evolution of heat index in the course of climate change, as well as its impact on human health and productivity.

  3. Dangerous failures in multifunctional systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, P. A.; Kovalev, I. V.; Zelenkov, P. V.

    2015-10-01

    The paper describes the peculiarities of multiple indicators of reliability of automated control systems. Along with the dependability considered an indicator such as the dangers of system failure. Showing particular account of the reliability of the automated control systems when considering their versatility. We study methods of lowering the probability of dangerous failure. Such method could be the reallocation of resources needed for inclusion of backup elements from module carrying a low danger to modules, carrying high-dangerous failures. Another method is identification of least important functions and transfer resources, needed for inclusion of backup from them to most important and dangerous modules, and preventing threats by blocking modules.

  4. Temperature, global climate change and food security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accelerated climate change is expected to have a significant, but variable impact on the world’s major cropping zones. Crops will experience increasingly warmer, drier and more variable growing conditions in the temperate to subtropical latitudes towards 2050 and beyond. Short-term (1-5 day) spikes ...

  5. Correlation of hippocampal theta rhythm with changes in cutaneous temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, J. M.; Saleh, M. A.; Karem, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Investigation of the possibility that the hippocampus performs the function of alerting an animal to changes in cutaneous temperature, using unanesthetized, loosely restrained rabbits. The results indicate that the hippocampal theta rhythm, which appears to be evoked by changes in cutaneous temperature, can be related to a specific type of hyppocampal neuron which is, in turn, connected with other areas of the brain involved in temperature regulation.

  6. Stratospheric temperature changes during the satellite era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Dian J.; Li, Jian; Mears, Carl; Moradi, Isaac; Nash, John; Randel, William J.; Saunders, Roger; Thompson, David W. J.; Zou, Cheng-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Satellite-based layer average stratospheric temperature (T) climate data records (CDRs) now span more than three decades and so can elucidate climate variability associated with processes on multiple time scales. We intercompare and analyze available published T CDRs covering at least two decades, with a focus on Stratospheric Sounding Unit (SSU) and Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) CDRs. Recent research has reduced but not eliminated discrepancies between SSU CDRs developed by NOAA and the UK Meteorological Office. The MSU CDRs from NOAA and Remote Sensing Systems are in closer agreement than the CDR from the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The latter has a previously unreported inhomogeneity in 2005, revealed by an abrupt increase in the magnitude and spatial variability of T anomaly differences between CDRs. Although time-varying biases remain in both SSU and MSU CDRs, multiple linear regression analyses reveal consistent solar, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), quasi-biennial oscillation, aerosol, and piecewise-linear trend signals. Together, these predictors explain 80 to 90% of the variance in the near-global-average T CDRs. The most important predictor variables (in terms of percent explained variance in near-global-average T) for lower stratospheric T measured by MSU are aerosols, solar variability, and ENSO. Trends explain the largest percentage of variance in observations from all three SSU channels. In MSU and SSU CDRs, piecewise-linear trends, with a 1995 break point, indicate cooling during 1979-1994 but no trend during 1995-2013 for MSU and during 1995-2005 for SSU. These observational findings provide a basis for evaluating climate model simulations of stratospheric temperature during the past 35 years.

  7. The Effect of Temperature Changes in Vitreoretinal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Mario R.; Romano, Vito; Mauro, Alessandro; Angi, Martina; Costagliola, Ciro; Ambrosone, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies on temperature control in biology and medicine have found the temperature as a new instrument in healthcare. In this manuscript, we reviewed the effects of temperature and its potential role in pars plana vitrectomy. We also examined the relationship between intraocular pressure, viscosity, and temperature in order to determine the best balance to manipulate the tamponades during the surgery. Methods A literature review was performed to identify potentially relevant studies on intraocular temperature. Physics equations were applied to explain the described effects of temperature changes on the behavior of the endotamponades commonly used during vitreoretinal surgery. We also generated an operating diagram on the pressure–temperature plane for the values of both vapor–liquid equilibrium and intraocular pressure. Results The rapid circulation of fluid in the vitreous cavity reduces the heat produced by the retinal and choroidal surface, bringing the temperature toward room temperature (22°C, deep hypothermia). Temperature increases with endolaser treatment, air infusion, and the presence of silicone oil. The variations in temperature during vitreoretinal surgery are clinically significant, as the rheology of tamponades can be better manipulated by modulating intraocular pressure and temperature. Conclusions During vitreoretinal surgery, the intraocular temperature showed rapid and significant fluctuations at different steps of the surgical procedure inside the vitreous cavity. Temperature control can modulate the rheology of tamponades. Translational Relevance Intraoperative temperature control can improve neuroprotection during vitreoretinal surgery, induce the vaporization of perfluorcarbon liquid, and change the shear viscosity of silicone oil. PMID:26929884

  8. Observed groundwater temperature response to recent climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menberg, K.; Blum, P.; Kurylyk, B. L.; Bayer, P.

    2014-11-01

    Climate change is known to have a considerable influence on many components of the hydrological cycle. Yet, the implications for groundwater temperature, as an important driver for groundwater quality, thermal use and storage, are not yet comprehensively understood. Furthermore, few studies have examined the implications of climate-change-induced groundwater temperature rise for groundwater-dependent ecosystems. Here, we examine the coupling of atmospheric and groundwater warming by employing stochastic and deterministic models. Firstly, several decades of temperature time series are statistically analyzed with regard to climate regime shifts (CRSs) in the long-term mean. The observed increases in shallow groundwater temperatures can be associated with preceding positive shifts in regional surface air temperatures, which are in turn linked to global air temperature changes. The temperature data are also analyzed with an analytical solution to the conduction-advection heat transfer equation to investigate how subsurface heat transfer processes control the propagation of the surface temperature signals into the subsurface. In three of the four monitoring wells, the predicted groundwater temperature increases driven by the regime shifts at the surface boundary condition generally concur with the observed groundwater temperature trends. Due to complex interactions at the ground surface and the heat capacity of the unsaturated zone, the thermal signals from distinct changes in air temperature are damped and delayed in the subsurface, causing a more gradual increase in groundwater temperatures. These signals can have a significant impact on large-scale groundwater temperatures in shallow and economically important aquifers. These findings demonstrate that shallow groundwater temperatures have responded rapidly to recent climate change and thus provide insight into the vulnerability of aquifers and groundwater-dependent ecosystems to future climate change.

  9. Observed groundwater temperature response to recent climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menberg, K.; Blum, P.; Kurylyk, B. L.; Bayer, P.

    2014-03-01

    Climate change is known to have a considerable influence on many components of the hydrological cycle. Yet, the implications for groundwater temperature, as an important driver for groundwater quality, thermal use and storage, are not yet comprehensively understood. Furthermore, few studies have examined the implications of climate change-induced groundwater temperature rise for groundwater-dependent ecosystems. Here, we examine the coupling of atmospheric and groundwater warming by employing stochastic and deterministic models. Firstly, several decades of temperature time-series are statistically analyzed with regard to abrupt climate regime shifts (CRS) in the long-term mean. The observed abrupt increases in shallow groundwater temperatures can be associated with preceding positive shifts in regional surface air temperatures, which are in turn linked to global air temperature changes. The temperature data are also analyzed with an analytical solution to the conduction-advection heat transfer equation to investigate how subsurface heat transfer processes control the propagation of the surface temperature signals into the subsurface. In three of the four monitoring wells, the predicted groundwater temperature increases driven by the regime shifts at the surface boundary condition generally concur with the observed groundwater temperature trends. Due to complex interactions at the ground surface and the heat capacity of the unsaturated zone, the thermal signals from distinct changes in air temperature are damped and delayed in the subsurface, causing a more gradual increase in groundwater temperatures. These signals can have a significant impact on large-scale groundwater temperatures in shallow and economically important aquifers. These findings demonstrate that shallow groundwater temperatures have responded rapidly to recent climate change and thus provide insight into the vulnerability of aquifers and groundwater-dependent ecosystems to future climate change.

  10. Blasting away chemical danger

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.G.

    1980-10-15

    Jet Research Center (JRC), a Halliburton Co. subsidiary, and Haz-Tech have separately developed ''vent-and-burn'' techniques for disposing of dangerous flammable materials, especially flammable or explosive materials involved in transport accidents. At Molino, Florida, JRC used cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine to blow vent holes in derailed railroad cars that contained LPG, and ignited the escaping gas with thermite grenades attached to the cars, creating a high plume of fire, little lasting pollution, and the resolution of a dangerous situation without any major damage to the railroad cars, although the LPG was lost. According to A.G. Smith (EPA), a vent-and-burn operation should not be considered except in an emergency situation that meets several clearly defined criteria, including: that the accident would force the evacuation of at least 10-15 families for 2-3 weeks; that a boiling-liquid expanding-vapor explosion is likely; and that all concerned parties concur that a vent-and-burn operation should be attempted. The technique can not be used with some compounds, e.g., chlorine, that would produce less desirable vapors after combustion than the chlorine itself.

  11. Dangerous marine animals.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, C

    1976-04-01

    Tales of dangerous marine animals have flourished, entwining history, legend and imagination. Man is now demonstrating his remarkable adaptability in returning to the aquatic environment, from which he had his origins, and factual knowledge of marine creatures is surplanting mystery, folklore and fear. There is still cause to fear certain aspects of the underwater world, and the one aspect that still holds sway over public interest is that of dangerous marine animals. There is little justification for this top priority. The kelp beds of San Diego will claim more diving victims than all the marine animals around the United States of America. The cold seas off the English coastline, the tidal currents of Hawaii and the multitude of drowning accidents in water caves of Florida and Australia belittle the relatively few fatalities caused by marine animals. Nevertheless, the latter do cause injury and death, especially in the tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. The Indo-Pacific area seems particularly well endowed with a variety of potentially lethal species, and some of these will be dealt with in this paper. PMID:942359

  12. Temperature variation makes ectotherms more sensitive to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Paaijmans, Krijn P; Heinig, Rebecca L; Seliga, Rebecca A; Blanford, Justine I; Blanford, Simon; Murdock, Courtney C; Thomas, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    Ectotherms are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate warming. Descriptions of habitat temperatures and predicted changes in climate usually consider mean monthly, seasonal or annual conditions. Ectotherms, however, do not simply experience mean conditions, but are exposed to daily fluctuations in habitat temperatures. Here, we highlight how temperature fluctuation can generate ‘realized’ thermal reaction (fitness) norms that differ from the ‘fundamental’ norms derived under standard constant temperatures. Using a mosquito as a model organism, we find that temperature fluctuation reduces rate processes such as development under warm conditions, increases processes under cool conditions, and reduces both the optimum and the critical maximum temperature. Generalizing these effects for a range of terrestrial insects reveals that prevailing daily fluctuations in temperature should alter the sensitivity of species to climate warming by reducing ‘thermal safety margins’. Such effects of daily temperature dynamics have generally been ignored in the climate change literature. PMID:23630036

  13. Temperature variation makes ectotherms more sensitive to climate change.

    PubMed

    Paaijmans, Krijn P; Heinig, Rebecca L; Seliga, Rebecca A; Blanford, Justine I; Blanford, Simon; Murdock, Courtney C; Thomas, Matthew B

    2013-08-01

    Ectotherms are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate warming. Descriptions of habitat temperatures and predicted changes in climate usually consider mean monthly, seasonal or annual conditions. Ectotherms, however, do not simply experience mean conditions, but are exposed to daily fluctuations in habitat temperatures. Here, we highlight how temperature fluctuation can generate 'realized' thermal reaction (fitness) norms that differ from the 'fundamental' norms derived under standard constant temperatures. Using a mosquito as a model organism, we find that temperature fluctuation reduces rate processes such as development under warm conditions, increases processes under cool conditions, and reduces both the optimum and the critical maximum temperature. Generalizing these effects for a range of terrestrial insects reveals that prevailing daily fluctuations in temperature should alter the sensitivity of species to climate warming by reducing 'thermal safety margins'. Such effects of daily temperature dynamics have generally been ignored in the climate change literature. PMID:23630036

  14. Phase change based cooling for high burst mode heat loads with temperature regulation above the phase change temperature

    DOEpatents

    The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy

    2009-12-15

    An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load.

  15. Influence of temperature changes on migraine occurrence in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidt, Jörg; Koppe, Christina; Rill, Sven; Reinel, Dirk; Wogenstein, Florian; Drescher, Johannes

    2013-07-01

    Many factors trigger migraine attacks. Weather is often reported to be one of the most common migraine triggers. However, there is little scientific evidence about the underlying mechanisms and causes. In our pilot study, we used smartphone apps and a web form to collect around 4,700 migraine messages in Germany between June 2011 and February 2012. Taking interdiurnal temperature changes as an indicator for changes in the prevailing meteorological conditions, our analyses were focused on the relationship between temperature changes and the frequency of occurrence of migraine attacks. Linear trends were fitted to the total number of migraine messages with respect to temperature changes. Statistical and systematic errors were estimated. Both increases and decreases in temperature lead to a significant increase in the number of migraine messages. A temperature increase (decrease) of 5 °C resulted in an increase of 19 ± 7 % (24 ± 8 %) in the number of migraine messages.

  16. Is Brain Emulation Dangerous?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckersley, Peter; Sandberg, Anders

    2013-12-01

    Brain emulation is a hypothetical but extremely transformative technology which has a non-zero chance of appearing during the next century. This paper investigates whether such a technology would also have any predictable characteristics that give it a chance of being catastrophically dangerous, and whether there are any policy levers which might be used to make it safer. We conclude that the riskiness of brain emulation probably depends on the order of the preceding research trajectory. Broadly speaking, it appears safer for brain emulation to happen sooner, because slower CPUs would make the technology`s impact more gradual. It may also be safer if brains are scanned before they are fully understood from a neuroscience perspective, thereby increasing the initial population of emulations, although this prediction is weaker and more scenario-dependent. The risks posed by brain emulation also seem strongly connected to questions about the balance of power between attackers and defenders in computer security contests. If economic property rights in CPU cycles1 are essentially enforceable, emulation appears to be comparatively safe; if CPU cycles are ultimately easy to steal, the appearance of brain emulation is more likely to be a destabilizing development for human geopolitics. Furthermore, if the computers used to run emulations can be kept secure, then it appears that making brain emulation technologies ―open‖ would make them safer. If, however, computer insecurity is deep and unavoidable, openness may actually be more dangerous. We point to some arguments that suggest the former may be true, tentatively implying that it would be good policy to work towards brain emulation using open scientific methodology and free/open source software codebases

  17. Adiabatic temperature change from non-adiabatic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, A. Magnus G.; Salazar Mejía, C.; Ponte, C. A.; Silva, L. E. L.; Kaštil, J.; Kamarád, J.; Gomes, A. M.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we present a methodology to obtain the adiabatic temperature change from non-adiabatic measurements, which combines a homemade calorimetric device (used to measure the temperature change of magnetic materials) and a thermodynamic model (that accounts for the energy losses). This model fits optimally the thermomagnetic responses of metallic gadolinium at different conditions. The results for gadolinium indicate that, with the combination of our experimental setup and thermodynamic model, we are able to determine the real adiabatic temperature change in any magnetic material at stable equilibrium, even far from adiabatic conditions.

  18. Photovoltage response to temperature change at oxide semiconductor electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichman, B.; Byvik, C. E.

    1981-01-01

    A study has been carried out on single crystal electrodes of TiO2, SrTiO3, and alpha-Fe2O3 and polycrystalline WO3 to investigate the effect of cell temperature on the onset potential of n-type oxide semiconductor electrodes. It is found that the change of the onset potential with temperature is due to the potential change across the Helmholtz layer. The amount of this change depends on the point of zero zeta potential (pzzp) of the semiconductor electrode. The possibility of increasing the solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency of a photochemical cell by increasing the cell temperature is discussed.

  19. PFP dangerous waste training plan

    SciTech Connect

    Khojandi, J.

    1996-01-01

    This document establishes the minimum training requirements for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) personnel who are responsible for management of dangerous waste. The training plan outlines training requirements for handling of solid dangerous waste during generator accumulation and liquid dangerous waste during treatment and storage operations. The implementation of this training plan will ensure the PFP facility compliance with the training plan requirements of Dangerous Waste Regulation. Chapter 173-303-330. Washington Administrative Code (WAC). The requirements for such compliance is described in Section 11.0 of WHC-CM-7-5 Environmental Compliance Manual.

  20. Observation of temperature trace, induced by changing of temperature inside the human body, on the human body skin using commercially available IR camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.

    2015-05-01

    As it is well-known, application of the passive THz camera for the security problems is very promising way. It allows seeing concealed object without contact with a person and this camera is non-dangerous for a person. In previous papers, we demonstrate new possibility of the passive THz camera using for a temperature difference observing on the human skin if this difference is caused by different temperatures inside the body. For proof of validity of our statement we make the similar physical experiment using the IR camera. We show a possibility of temperature trace on human body skin, caused by changing of temperature inside the human body due to water drinking. We use as a computer code that is available for treatment of images captured by commercially available IR camera, manufactured by Flir Corp., as well as our developed computer code for computer processing of these images. Using both codes we demonstrate clearly changing of human body skin temperature induced by water drinking. Shown phenomena are very important for the detection of forbidden samples and substances concealed inside the human body using non-destructive control without X-rays using. Early we have demonstrated such possibility using THz radiation. Carried out experiments can be used for counter-terrorism problem solving. We developed original filters for computer processing of images captured by IR cameras. Their applications for computer processing of images results in a temperature resolution enhancing of cameras.

  1. The Trends of Soil Temperature Change Associated with Air Temperature Change in Korea from 1973 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bo-Hyun; Park, Byeong-Hak; Koh, Eun-Hee; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2015-04-01

    Examining long-term trends of the soil temperature can contribute to assessing subsurface thermal environment. The recent 40-year (1973-2012) meteorological data from 14 Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) stations was analyzed in this study to estimate the temporal variations of air and soil temperatures (at depths 0.5 and 1.0m) in Korea and their relations. The information on regional characteristics of study sites was also collected to investigate the local and regional features influencing the soil temperature. The long-term increasing trends of both air and soil temperatures were estimated by using simple linear regression analysis. The air temperature rise and soil temperature rise were compared for every site to reveal the relation between air and soil temperature changes. In most sites, the proportion of soil temperature rise to air temperature rise was nearly one to one except a few sites. The difference between the air and soil temperature trends at those sites may be attributed to the combined effect of soil properties such as thermal diffusivity and soil moisture content. The impact of urbanization on the air and soil temperature was also investigated in this study. Establishment of the relationship between the air and soil temperatures can help predicting the soil temperature change in a region where no soil temperature data is obtained by using air temperature data. For rigorous establishment of the relationship between soil and air temperatures, more thorough investigation on the soil thermal properties is necessary through additional monitoring and accompanied validation of the proposed relations. Keywords : Soil temperature, Air temperature, Cross-correlation analysis, Soil thermal diffusivity, Urbanization effect Acknowledgement This work was supported by the research project of "Advanced Technology for Groundwater Development and Application in Riversides (Geowater+)" in "Water Resources Management Program (code 11 Technology Innovation C05)" of the MOLIT and the KAIA in Korea.

  2. On Similarities Between the Earth Rotation and Temperature Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotov, L. V.

    Earths rotation reflects processes in the atmosphere, ocean, Earths interior. The similarities between the global temperature oscillations and Earths rotation speed changes are well known, but still are not explained. We also have found similarities between ~ 20-year temperature oscillations, Chandler excitation envelope and cycle of regression of the Moon orbital nodes. In this short article we want to attract attention to this fact.

  3. The Climate Policy Narrative for a Dangerously Warming World

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, Todd; Frumhoff, Peter; Luers, Amy; Gulledge, Jay

    2014-01-01

    It is time to acknowledge that global average temperatures will likely rise above the 2 C policy target and consider how that deeply troubling prospect should affect priorities for communicating and managing the risks of a dangerously warming climate.

  4. Achieving temperature-size changes in a unicellular organism.

    PubMed

    Forster, Jack; Hirst, Andrew G; Esteban, Genoveva F

    2013-01-01

    The temperature-size rule (TSR) is an intraspecific phenomenon describing the phenotypic plastic response of an organism size to the temperature: individuals reared at cooler temperatures mature to be larger adults than those reared at warmer temperatures. The TSR is ubiquitous, affecting >80% species including uni- and multicellular groups. How the TSR is established has received attention in multicellular organisms, but not in unicells. Further, conceptual models suggest the mechanism of size change to be different in these two groups. Here, we test these theories using the protist Cyclidium glaucoma. We measure cell sizes, along with population growth during temperature acclimation, to determine how and when the temperature-size changes are achieved. We show that mother and daughter sizes become temporarily decoupled from the ratio 2:1 during acclimation, but these return to their coupled state (where daughter cells are half the size of the mother cell) once acclimated. Thermal acclimation is rapid, being completed within approximately a single generation. Further, we examine the impact of increased temperatures on carrying capacity and total biomass, to investigate potential adaptive strategies of size change. We demonstrate no temperature effect on carrying capacity, but maximum supported biomass to decrease with increasing temperature. PMID:22832346

  5. Clouds and temperature drive dynamic changes in tropical flower production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pau, Stephanie; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Nytch, Christopher J.; Regetz, James; Zimmerman, Jess K.; Joseph Wright, S.

    2013-09-01

    Tropical forests are incredibly dynamic, showing rapid and longer-term changes in growth, mortality and net primary productivity. Tropical species may be highly sensitive to temperature increases associated with climate change because of their narrow thermal tolerances. However, at the ecosystem scale the competing effects of temperature, light and precipitation on tropical forest productivity have been difficult to assess. Here we quantify cloudiness over the past several decades to investigate how clouds, together with temperature and precipitation, affect flower production in two contrasting tropical forests. Our results show that temperature, rather than clouds, is critically important to tropical forest flower production. Warmer temperatures increased flower production over seasonal, interannual and longer timescales, contrary to recent evidence that some tropical forests are already near their temperature threshold. Clouds were primarily important seasonally, and limited production in a seasonally dry forest but enhanced production in an ever-wet forest. A long-term increase in flower production at the seasonally dry forest is not driven by clouds and instead may be tied to increasing temperatures. These relationships show that tropical forest productivity, which is not widely thought to be controlled by temperature, is indeed sensitive to small temperature changes (1-4°C) across multiple timescales.

  6. Perceived Dangerousness of Recreational Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luce, Terrence S.; Merrel, Judy C.

    1995-01-01

    In this study both college students and degreed nurses were asked to estimate the abuse potential and lethality of recreational drugs, both licit and illicit. Findings indicate that the illicit drugs under consideration were perceived as presenting the greatest danger to the user. Dangers attributed to the use of licit recreational drugs were…

  7. Behavioral responses of Atlantic cod to sea temperature changes.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Carla; Olsen, Esben Moland; Moland, Even; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Knutsen, Halvor

    2015-05-01

    Understanding responses of marine species to temperature variability is essential to predict impacts of future climate change in the oceans. Most ectotherms are expected to adjust their behavior to avoid extreme temperatures and minimize acute changes in body temperature. However, measuring such behavioral plasticity in the wild is challenging. Combining 4years of telemetry-derived behavioral data on juvenile and adult (30-80cm) Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), and in situ ocean temperature measurements, we found a significant effect of sea temperature on cod depth use and activity level in coastal Skagerrak. During summer, cod were found in deeper waters when sea surface temperature increased. Further, this effect of temperature was stronger on larger cod. Diel vertical migration, which consists in a nighttime rise to shallow feeding habitats, was stronger among smaller cod. As surface temperature increased beyond ?15C, their vertical migration was limited to deeper waters. In addition to larger diel vertical migrations, smaller cod were more active and travelled larger distances compared to larger specimens. Cold temperatures during winter tended, however, to reduce the magnitude of diel vertical migrations, as well as the activity level and distance moved by those smaller individuals. Our findings suggest that future and ongoing rises in sea surface temperature may increasingly deprive cod in this region from shallow feeding areas during summer, which may be detrimental for local populations of the species. PMID:26045957

  8. Behavioral responses of Atlantic cod to sea temperature changes

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Carla; Olsen, Esben Moland; Moland, Even; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Knutsen, Halvor

    2015-01-01

    Understanding responses of marine species to temperature variability is essential to predict impacts of future climate change in the oceans. Most ectotherms are expected to adjust their behavior to avoid extreme temperatures and minimize acute changes in body temperature. However, measuring such behavioral plasticity in the wild is challenging. Combining 4 years of telemetry-derived behavioral data on juvenile and adult (30–80 cm) Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), and in situ ocean temperature measurements, we found a significant effect of sea temperature on cod depth use and activity level in coastal Skagerrak. During summer, cod were found in deeper waters when sea surface temperature increased. Further, this effect of temperature was stronger on larger cod. Diel vertical migration, which consists in a nighttime rise to shallow feeding habitats, was stronger among smaller cod. As surface temperature increased beyond ∼15°C, their vertical migration was limited to deeper waters. In addition to larger diel vertical migrations, smaller cod were more active and travelled larger distances compared to larger specimens. Cold temperatures during winter tended, however, to reduce the magnitude of diel vertical migrations, as well as the activity level and distance moved by those smaller individuals. Our findings suggest that future and ongoing rises in sea surface temperature may increasingly deprive cod in this region from shallow feeding areas during summer, which may be detrimental for local populations of the species. PMID:26045957

  9. Small lakes show muted climate change signal in deepwater temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winslow, Luke A.; Read, Jordan S.; Hansen, Gretchen J. A.; Hanson, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    temperature observations were collected from 142 lakes across Wisconsin, USA, to examine variation in temperature of lakes exposed to similar regional climate. Whole lake water temperatures increased across the state from 1990 to 2012, with an average trend of 0.042°C yr-1 ± 0.01°C yr-1. In large (>0.5 km2) lakes, the positive temperature trend was similar across all depths. In small lakes (<0.5 km2), the warming trend was restricted to shallow waters, with no significant temperature trend observed in water >0.5 times the maximum lake depth. The differing response of small versus large lakes is potentially a result of wind-sheltering reducing turbulent mixing magnitude in small lakes. These results demonstrate that small lakes respond differently to climate change than large lakes, suggesting that current predictions of impacts to lakes from climate change may require modification.

  10. Electrostatic Thermal Energy Harvester Using Unsteady Temperature Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Junya; Morimoto, Kenichi; Suzuki, Yuji

    2013-12-01

    A model electrostatic thermal generator using unsteady temperature change is proposed. The device consists of a capacitor based on high-permittivity ceramics, and an electret layer serving as a permanent voltage source. Connecting them in series, permittivity change by temporal temperature change alters the amount of induced charges on the electrode thereby produces electric current in the external circuit. Optimum design parameters of the system have been obtained using a simplified circuit model. An early prototype using BaTiO3 ceramic as the dielectric and SiO2 as the electret is microfabricated, and its response is compared with the model prediction.

  11. Temperature Dependence of Phase-Change Random Access Memory Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, X. S.; Shi, L. P.; Lee, H. K.; Li, J. M.; Zhao, R.; Tan, P. K.; Lim, K. G.; Yang, H. X.; Chong, T. C.

    2006-05-01

    The temperature dependences of phase-change random access memory (PCRAM) cells on different Ge-Sb-Te phase-change recording materials are studied and compared. A Ge2Sb2Te5 phase-change film has a larger resistance margin and a higher thermal stability than Ge1Sb2Te4 and Ge1Sb4Te7 films. The set resistance, reset resistance, resistance margin and threshold voltage of PCRAM cells decrease with increasing temperature. A Ge2Sb2Te5 PCRAM cell has a higher thermal stability of threshold voltage than Ge1Sb2Te4 and Ge1Sb4Te7 PCRAM cells.

  12. Climate Change and the Impact of Extreme Temperatures on Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffel, E.; Horton, R.

    2015-01-01

    Temperature and airport elevation significantly influence the maximum allowable takeoff weight of an aircraft by changing the surface air density and thus the lift produced at a given speed. For a given runway length, airport elevation, and aircraft type, there is a temperature threshold above which the airplane cannot take off at its maximum weight and thus must be weight restricted. The number of summer days necessitating weight restriction has increased since 1980 along with the observed increase in surface temperature. Climate change is projected to increase mean temperatures at all airports and to significantly increase the frequency and severity of extreme heat events at some. These changes will negatively affect aircraft performance, leading to increased weight restrictions, especially at airports with short runways and little room to expand. For a Boeing 737-800 aircraft, it was found that the number of weight-restriction days between May and September will increase by 50%-200% at four major airports in the United States by 2050-70 under the RCP8.5 emissions scenario. These performance reductions may have a negative economic effect on the airline industry. Increased weight restrictions have previously been identified as potential impacts of climate change, but this study is the first to quantify the effect of higher temperatures on commercial aviation. Planning for changes in extreme heat events will help the aviation industry to reduce its vulnerability to this aspect of climate change.

  13. Changes in precipitation and temperature in Xiangjiang River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chong; Pan, Suli; Wang, Guoqing; Liao, Yufang; Xu, Yue-Ping

    2016-02-01

    Global warming brings a huge challenge to society and human being. Understanding historic and future potential climate change will be beneficial to regional crop, forest, and water management. This study aims to analyze the precipitation and temperature changes in the historic period and future period 2021-2050 in the Xiangjiang River Basin, China. The Mann-Kendall rank test for trend and change point analysis was used to analyze the changes in trend and magnitude based on historic precipitation and temperature time series. Four global climate models (GCMs) and a statistical downscaling approach, LARS-WG, were used to estimate future precipitation and temperature under RCP4.5. The results show that annual precipitation in the basin is increasing, although not significant, and will probably continue to increase in the future on the basis of ensemble projections of four GCMs. Temperature is increasing in a significant way and all GCMs projected continuous temperature increase in the future. There will be more extreme events in the future, including both extreme precipitation and temperature.

  14. Mitigating Climate Change with Ocean Pipes: Influencing Land Temperature and Hydrology and Termination Overshoot Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, L.; Caldeira, K.; Ricke, K.

    2014-12-01

    With increasing risk of dangerous climate change geoengineering solutions to Earth's climate problems have attracted much attention. One proposed geoengineering approach considers the use of ocean pipes as a means to increase ocean carbon uptake and the storage of thermal energy in the deep ocean. We use a latest generation Earth System Model (ESM) to perform simulations of idealised extreme implementations of ocean pipes. In our simulations, downward transport of thermal energy by ocean pipes strongly cools the near surface atmosphere - by up to 11°C on a global mean. The ocean pipes cause net thermal energy to be transported from the terrestrial environment to the deep ocean while increasing the global net transport of water to land. By cooling the ocean surface more than the land, ocean pipes tend to promote a monsoonal-type circulation, resulting in increased water vapour transport to land. Throughout their implementation, ocean pipes prevent energy from escaping to space, increasing the amount of energy stored in Earth's climate system despite reductions in surface temperature. As a consequence, our results indicate that an abrupt termination of ocean pipes could cause dramatic increases in surface temperatures beyond that which would have been obtained had ocean pipes not been implemented.

  15. Alterations in MAST suit pressure with changes in ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Sanders, A B; Meislin, H W; Daub, E

    1983-01-01

    A study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that change in ambient air temperature has an effect on MAST suit pressure according to the ideal gas law. Two different MAST suits were tested on Resusci-Annie dummies. The MAST suits were applied in a cold room at 4.4 degrees C and warmed to 44 degrees C. Positive linear correlations were found in nine trials, but the two suits differed in their rate of increase in pressure. Three trials using humans were conducted showing increased pressure with temperature but at a lesser rate than with dummies. A correlation of 0.5 to 1.0 mm Hg increase in MAST suit pressure for each 1.0 degrees C increase in ambient temperature was found. Implications are discussed for the use of the MAST suit in environmental conditions where the temperature changes. PMID:6679851

  16. Geothermics of Climate Change: Linking Ground and Air Temperature Change Through Repeat Temperature Measurements in Boreholes From Northwest Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, M. G.; Harris, R. N.; Chapman, D. S.

    2007-12-01

    Temperature-depth profiles measured in boreholes contain important information about the Earth's changing surface temperature and provide a direct method for reconstructing surface temperature variations over the past several centuries. Differences between temperature-depth logs, on annual to decadal timescales, provide an important test of borehole thermometry. Twelve temperature-depth logs at the northwestern Utah Emigrant Pass Observatory (EPO) borehole, GC-1, seven at borehole SI-1 and five at borehole DM-1, were acquired between the years 1978 and 2007. Differences in temperature logs extend to about 100 m. Below 100 m, differences between temperature logs are effectively zero. SAT data from the meteorological station at EPO and nearby Historical Climatology Network stations are used as a forcing function at the Earth's surface and diffused into the subsurface. These transients reproduce observed subsurface temperature variations reasonably well at each borehole. Comparisons between repeated temperature-depth profiles and diffused SAT transients over the same time period offer strong support for using GST histories to complement SAT data and multi-proxy reconstructions in climate change studies.

  17. Associations of Inter- and Intraday Temperature Change With Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M.; Forsberg, Bertil; Tobias, Aurelio; Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel; Armstrong, Ben; Gasparrini, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the association between temperature variation and mortality and compared it with the contribution due to mean daily temperature in 6 cities with different climates. Quasi-Poisson time series regression models were applied to estimate the associations (relative risk and 95% confidence interval) of mean daily temperature (99th and 1st percentiles, with temperature of minimum mortality as the reference category), interday temperature variation (difference between the mean temperatures of 2 neighboring days) and intraday temperature variation (diurnal temperature range (DTR)) (referred to as median variation) with mortality in 6 cities: London, United Kingdom; Madrid, Spain; Stockholm, Sweden; New York, New York; Miami, Florida; and Houston, Texas (date range, 1985–2010). All cities showed a substantial increase in mortality risk associated with mean daily temperature, with relative risks reaching 1.428 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.329, 1.533) for heat in Madrid and 1.467 (95% CI: 1.385, 1.555) for cold in London. Inconsistent results for inter-/intraday change were obtained, except for some evidence of protective associations on hot and cold days (relative risk (RR) = 0.977 (95% CI: 0.955, 0.999) and RR = 0.981 (95% CI: 0.971, 0.991), respectively) in Madrid and on cold days in Stockholm (RR = 0.989, 95% CI: 0.980, 0.998). Our results indicate that the association between mortality and temperature variation is generally minimal compared with mean daily temperatures, although further research on intraday changes is needed. PMID:26811244

  18. Rearing Temperature Influences Adult Response to Changes in Mating Status.

    PubMed

    Westerman, Erica; Monteiro, Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Rearing environment can have an impact on adult behavior, but it is less clear how rearing environment influences adult behavior plasticity. Here we explore the effect of rearing temperature on adult mating behavior plasticity in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, a species that has evolved two seasonal forms in response to seasonal changes in temperature. These seasonal forms differ in both morphology and behavior. Females are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at warm temperatures (WS butterflies), and males are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at cooler temperatures (DS butterflies). Rearing temperature also influences mating benefits and costs. In DS butterflies, mated females live longer than virgin females, and mated males live shorter than virgin males. No such benefits or costs to mating are present in WS butterflies. Given that choosiness and mating costs are rearing temperature dependent in B. anynana, we hypothesized that temperature may also impact male and female incentives to remate in the event that benefits and costs of second matings are similar to those of first matings. We first examined whether lifespan was affected by number of matings. We found that two matings did not significantly increase lifespan for either WS or DS butterflies relative to single matings. However, both sexes of WS but not DS butterflies experienced decreased longevity when mated to a non-virgin relative to a virgin. We next observed pairs of WS and DS butterflies and documented changes in mating behavior in response to changes in the mating status of their partner. WS but not DS butterflies changed their mating behavior in response to the mating status of their partner. These results suggest that rearing temperature influences adult mating behavior plasticity in B. anynana. This developmentally controlled behavioral plasticity may be adaptive, as lifespan depends on the partner's mating status in one seasonal form, but not in the other. PMID:26863319

  19. Rearing Temperature Influences Adult Response to Changes in Mating Status

    PubMed Central

    Westerman, Erica; Monteiro, Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Rearing environment can have an impact on adult behavior, but it is less clear how rearing environment influences adult behavior plasticity. Here we explore the effect of rearing temperature on adult mating behavior plasticity in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, a species that has evolved two seasonal forms in response to seasonal changes in temperature. These seasonal forms differ in both morphology and behavior. Females are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at warm temperatures (WS butterflies), and males are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at cooler temperatures (DS butterflies). Rearing temperature also influences mating benefits and costs. In DS butterflies, mated females live longer than virgin females, and mated males live shorter than virgin males. No such benefits or costs to mating are present in WS butterflies. Given that choosiness and mating costs are rearing temperature dependent in B. anynana, we hypothesized that temperature may also impact male and female incentives to remate in the event that benefits and costs of second matings are similar to those of first matings. We first examined whether lifespan was affected by number of matings. We found that two matings did not significantly increase lifespan for either WS or DS butterflies relative to single matings. However, both sexes of WS but not DS butterflies experienced decreased longevity when mated to a non-virgin relative to a virgin. We next observed pairs of WS and DS butterflies and documented changes in mating behavior in response to changes in the mating status of their partner. WS but not DS butterflies changed their mating behavior in response to the mating status of their partner. These results suggest that rearing temperature influences adult mating behavior plasticity in B. anynana. This developmentally controlled behavioral plasticity may be adaptive, as lifespan depends on the partner’s mating status in one seasonal form, but not in the other. PMID:26863319

  20. Solar geoengineering to limit the rate of temperature change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMartin, D. G.; Caldeira, K.; Keith, D.

    2014-12-01

    Solar geoengineering has been suggested as a tool that might reduce damages from an-thropogenic climate change. Analysis often assumes that geoengineering would be used tomaintain a constant global mean temperature. Under this scenario, geoengineering would be required either indefinitely (on societal timescales) or until atmospheric CO2 concentrations were sufficiently reduced. Impacts of climate change, however, are related to the rate of change as well as its magnitude. We thus describe an alternate scenario in which solargeoengineering is used only to constrain the rate of change of global mean temperature; this leads to a finite deployment period for any emissions pathway that stabilizes global mean temperature. The length of deployment and amount of geoengineering required depend on the emissions pathway and allowable rate of change, e.g. in our simulations, reducing the maximum ?0.3C/decade rate of change in an RCP4.5 pathway to 0.1C/decade would require geoengineering for 160 years; under RCP6.0 the required time nearly doubles. We further note that a decision to terminate use of solar geoengineering does not automatically imply rapid temperature increases: feedback could be used to limit rates of change in agradual phase-out. Second, we demonstrate that feedback control can limit rates of change in a climate model. This involves a related observation - in any future implementation, models used to predict behavior will not be perfect, and adjusting the level of solar geoengineering inresponse to climate observations is essential. This feedback process is thus essential for managing uncertainty (and is the answer to the question of how we can engineer a systemthat we don't fully understand). Once this feedback is included, however, meeting some particular objective (such as a specified rate of change) can be achieved without an accurate model of the climate system.

  1. Laser-tissue photothermal interaction and tissue temperature change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ives, Andrea K.; Chen, Wei R.; Jassemnejad, Baha; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Liu, Hong; Nordquist, John A.; Nordquist, Robert E.

    2000-06-01

    Responses of tissue to laser stimulation are crucial in both disease diagnostics and treatment. In general, when tissue absorbs laser energy photothermal interaction occurs. The most important signature of the photothermal reaction is the tissue temperature change during and after the laser irradiation. Experimentally, the tissue reaction to laser irradiation can be measured by numerous methods including direct temperature measurement and measurement of perfusion change. In this study, a multiple-channel temperature probe was used to measure tissue temperature change during irradiation of lasers with different wavelengths at different power settings. Tissue temperature in chicken breast tissue as well as skin and breast tumor of rats was measured during irradiation of an 805-nm diode laser. The vertical profiles of temperature were obtained using simultaneous measurement at several different locations. The absorption of laser energy by tissue was enhanced by injecting laser-absorbing dye into the tissue. A Nd:YAG laser of 1064-nm wavelength was also used to irradiate turkey breast tissue. Our results showed that both laser penetration ability and photothermal reaction depended on the wavelength of lasers. In the case of 805-nm laser, the temperature increased rapidly only in the region close to the laser source and the thermal equilibrium could be reached within a short time period. The laser absorbing dye drastically enhanced the thermal reaction, resulting in approximately 4-fold temperature increase. On the contrary, the laser beam with 1064-nm wavelength penetrated deeply into tissue and the tissue temperature continued increasing even after a 10-minute laser irradiation.

  2. Global Surface Temperature Change and Uncertainties Since 1861

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Samuel S. P.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this talk is to analyze the warming trend and its uncertainties of the global and hemi-spheric surface temperatures. By the method of statistical optimal averaging scheme, the land surface air temperature and sea surface temperature observational data are used to compute the spatial average annual mean surface air temperature. The optimal averaging method is derived from the minimization of the mean square error between the true and estimated averages and uses the empirical orthogonal functions. The method can accurately estimate the errors of the spatial average due to observational gaps and random measurement errors. In addition, quantified are three independent uncertainty factors: urbanization, change of the in situ observational practices and sea surface temperature data corrections. Based on these uncertainties, the best linear fit to annual global surface temperature gives an increase of 0.61 +/- 0.16 C between 1861 and 2000. This lecture will also touch the topics on the impact of global change on nature and environment. as well as the latest assessment methods for the attributions of global change.

  3. Thermal Acoustic Waves from Wall with Temporal Temperature Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, G.; Tsukamoto, M.; Sakurai, A.

    2011-05-01

    Although phenomenon of thermo-acoustic wave has been known for many years in some familiar experiences such as "singing flame" from Bunsen burner, recent trends of utilizing it for the industrial applications urge the understandings of basic details of the phenomenon itself. Here we consider, in this connection, the problem of acoustic wave generation from a particular heat source of solid wall whose temperature changes with time and the phenomenon of temperature change by standing wave oscillating in closed tube. For these we set a hollow tube whose temperature at its one end wall changes with time, and compute flow field inside using the molecular kinetic model, which is found to be more convenient for the boundary value fitting than the ordinary acoustic theory system to this problem. In practice, we use the Boltzmann equation with the BGK approximation, and compute two cases above in monotonic and sinusoidal temperature changes with time. Results of both cases show propagating density wave from the wall almost in acoustic velocity to the first case and the temperature decreases in average to the second case.

  4. Summer hot temperature Return Levels in the climate change context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parey, Sylvie; Thu Huong Hoang, Thi

    2015-04-01

    Climate change and the role of human activities are now attested, and IPCC stated in its last assessment report issued in 2013-2014 that "continued emissions of greenhouse gases will cause further warming and changes in all components of the climate system". In such a context, it is now impossible to consider temperature time series as stationary to estimate extreme values like Return Levels (RL) of hot summer temperature. The first approach, used to estimate near future RLs, consists in identifying and extrapolating trends in the parameters of the classical extreme value distributions. For the design of new installations and a farther time scale, a new methodology has been proposed in order to take climate model results into account. This methodology is based on the link between trends in mean and variance and trends in extremes. Climate model results allow inferring far future mean and variance of temperature, which are more robust outputs than the changes in extreme events, and then future extremes can be estimated through the extremes of the stationary residuals obtained when mean and variance trends have been removed and these future mean and variance. Both approaches will be illustrated using an observed temperature time series and different climate models as in Parey et al. 2010. Parey, S., T. T. H. Hoang, and D. Dacunha-Castelle (2010b), Different ways to compute temperature return levels in the climate change context, Environmetrics, 21, 698-718.

  5. Climate change and the impact of extreme temperatures on aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffel, E.; Horton, R.

    2014-12-01

    Weather is the most significant factor affecting aircraft operations, accounting for 70-80% of passenger delays and costing airlines hundreds of millions of dollars per year in lost revenue. Temperature and airport elevation significantly influence the maximum allowable takeoff weight of an aircraft by changing the surface air density and thus the lift produced at a given speed. For a given runway length, airport elevation, and aircraft type there is a temperature threshold above which the airplane cannot take off at its maximum weight and thus must be weight restricted. The number of summer days necessitating weight restriction has increased since 1980 along with the observed increase in surface temperature. Climate change is projected to increase mean temperatures at all airports and significantly increase the frequency and severity of extreme heat events at some. These changes will negatively affect aircraft performance, leading to increased weight restrictions especially at airports with short runways and little room to expand. For a Boeing 737-800 aircraft, we find that the number of weight restriction days between May and September will increase by 50-100% at four major airports in the United States by 2050-2070 under the RCP8.5 high emissions scenario. These performance reductions may have a significant economic effect on the airline industry, leading to lower profits and higher passenger fares. Increased weight restrictions have previously been identified as potential impacts of climate change, but this study is the first to quantify the effect of higher temperatures on commercial aviation.

  6. Scaling law for electrocaloric temperature change in antiferroelectrics

    PubMed Central

    Lisenkov, S.; Mani, B. K.; Glazkova, E.; Miller, C. W.; Ponomareva, I.

    2016-01-01

    A combination of theoretical and first-principles computational methods, along with experimental evidence from the literature, were used to predict the existence of a scaling law for the electrocaloric temperature change in antiferroelectric materials. We show that the temperature change scales quadratically with electric field, allowing a simple transformation to collapse the set of ΔT(E) onto a single curve. This offers a unique method that can be used to predict electrocaloric behavior beyond the limits of present measurement ranges or in regions where data are not yet available. PMID:26796343

  7. Phase change material for temperature control and material storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessling, Jr., Francis C. (Inventor); Blackwood, James M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A phase change material comprising a mixture of water and deuterium oxide is described, wherein the mole fraction of deuterium oxide is selected so that the mixture has a selected phase change temperature within a range between 0.degree. C. and 4.degree. C. The mixture is placed in a container and used for passive storage and transport of biomaterials and other temperature sensitive materials. Gels, nucleating agents, freezing point depression materials and colorants may be added to enhance the characteristics of the mixture.

  8. Scaling law for electrocaloric temperature change in antiferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenkov, S.; Mani, B. K.; Glazkova, E.; Miller, C. W.; Ponomareva, I.

    2016-01-01

    A combination of theoretical and first-principles computational methods, along with experimental evidence from the literature, were used to predict the existence of a scaling law for the electrocaloric temperature change in antiferroelectric materials. We show that the temperature change scales quadratically with electric field, allowing a simple transformation to collapse the set of ΔT(E) onto a single curve. This offers a unique method that can be used to predict electrocaloric behavior beyond the limits of present measurement ranges or in regions where data are not yet available.

  9. Thermally chargeable supercapacitor working in a homogeneous, changing temperature field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hyuck; Shi, Yang; Qiao, Yu

    2016-04-01

    A thermally chargeable supercapacitor (TCS) system is developed to harvest electrical energy from a uniform temperature field of a changing low-grade heat source. Without any temperature gradient, the TCS absorbs heat when temperature rises and releases electricity during discharging. As temperature decreases, the system configuration returns to the initial condition, so that the thermal-to-electrical energy conversion can be continuously conducted. With a nickel-coated carbon nanotube or nanoporous carbon-based electrode, the thermal sensitivity and the electrode surface area are enhanced simultaneously, leading to a high output voltage around 100-160 mV and a high specific energy of 600-1800 mJ per gram of electrode material in each thermal cycle, with a mild temperature range of ~50 °C.

  10. Temporal changes and variability in temperature series over Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaila, Jamaludin

    2015-02-01

    With the current concern over climate change, the descriptions on how temperature series changed over time are very useful. Annual mean temperature has been analyzed for several stations over Peninsular Malaysia. Non-parametric statistical techniques such as Mann-Kendall test and Theil-Sen slope estimation are used primarily for assessing the significance and detection of trends, while a nonparametric Pettitt's test and sequential Mann-Kendall test are adopted to detect any abrupt climate change. Statistically significance increasing trends for annual mean temperature are detected for almost all studied stations with the magnitude of significant trend varied from 0.02°C to 0.05°C per year. The results shows that climate over Peninsular Malaysia is getting warmer than before. In addition, the results of the abrupt changes in temperature using Pettitt's and sequential Mann-Kendall test reveal the beginning of trends which can be related to El Nino episodes that occur in Malaysia. In general, the analysis results can help local stakeholders and water managers to understand the risks and vulnerabilities related to climate change in terms of mean events in the region.

  11. Global Stream Temperatures and Flows under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vliet, M. T.; Yearsley, J. R.; Franssen, W. H.; Ludwig, F.; Haddeland, I.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Kabat, P.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change will affect thermal and hydrologic regimes of rivers, having a direct impact on human water use and freshwater ecosystems. Here we assess the impact of climate change on stream temperature and streamflow globally. We used a physically-based stream temperature river basin model (RBM) linked to the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. The modelling framework was adapted for global application including impacts of reservoirs and thermal heat discharges, and was validated using observed water temperature and river discharge records in large river basins globally. VIC-RBM was forced with an ensemble of bias-corrected Global Climate Model (GCM) output resulting in global projections of daily streamflow and water temperature for the 21st century. Global mean and high (95th percentile) stream temperatures are projected to increase on average by 0.8-1.6 (1.0-2.2)°C for the SRES B1-A2 scenario for 2071-2100 relative to 1971-2000. The largest water temperature increases are projected for Europe, North America, Southeast Asia, South Africa and parts of Australia. In these regions, the sensitivities for warming are exacerbated by projected decreases in summer low flows. Large increases in water temperature combined with decreases in low flows are found for the southeastern U.S., Europe and eastern China. These regions could potentially be affected by increased deterioration of water quality and freshwater habitats, and reduced water available for beneficial uses such as thermoelectric power production.

  12. Can air temperature be used to project influences of climate change on stream temperature?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arismendi, Ivan; Safeeq, Mohammad; Dunham, Jason B.; Johnson, Sherri L.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, lack of data on stream temperature has motivated the use of regression-based statistical models to predict stream temperatures based on more widely available data on air temperatures. Such models have been widely applied to project responses of stream temperatures under climate change, but the performance of these models has not been fully evaluated. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the performance of two widely used linear and nonlinear regression models that predict stream temperatures based on air temperatures. We evaluated model performance and temporal stability of model parameters in a suite of regulated and unregulated streams with 11–44 years of stream temperature data. Although such models may have validity when predicting stream temperatures within the span of time that corresponds to the data used to develop them, model predictions did not transfer well to other time periods. Validation of model predictions of most recent stream temperatures, based on air temperature–stream temperature relationships from previous time periods often showed poor performance when compared with observed stream temperatures. Overall, model predictions were less robust in regulated streams and they frequently failed in detecting the coldest and warmest temperatures within all sites. In many cases, the magnitude of errors in these predictions falls within a range that equals or exceeds the magnitude of future projections of climate-related changes in stream temperatures reported for the region we studied (between 0.5 and 3.0 °C by 2080). The limited ability of regression-based statistical models to accurately project stream temperatures over time likely stems from the fact that underlying processes at play, namely the heat budgets of air and water, are distinctive in each medium and vary among localities and through time.

  13. Climate Change Effects on Soil Water and Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfried, M. S.; Chandler, D. G.; Marks, D. G.

    2011-12-01

    Soil serves as the critical interface between physical changes in climate and the biological impacts of those changes. While there is general agreement among Global Climate Models concerning the amount and trend of world air temperature change in the upcoming decades, there is less agreement regarding precipitation trends and much less agreement with respect to trends in the "soil climate" (soil water content and temperature). The difficulties with soil are probably related to variable and poorly tested land surface parameterizations. Working at sites spanning a 1000 m elevation gradient in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW) in Idaho, we showed that, over a 45 year period, the annual air temperature increased about 2° C. During that time, the amount of precipitation remained constant, but the precipitation phase shifted considerably from snow to rain depending on site elevation. Most predictions for this environment are for drier, warmer soils. We used soil water and temperature data collected at the same sites for the past 30 years in the RCEW to determine if those trends occurred. We found no significant trend in either soil water content or temperature at any site over the 30 year period. The lack of a soil water trend is related to the vegetation dynamics in this semiarid environment, where very low leaf are index values, and very dry soils much of the year, serve to restrict the impact of increased evaporative demand on transpiration. The lack of soil temperature trends is related to interactions with vegetative and snow cover, especially snow cover, which can effectively modulate exceptionally cold air temperatures. In both cases, it is clear that climate change is not directly imprinted on the soil, but affected by interactions with what is growing in, or laying on the soil.

  14. Changes of temperature-related agroclimatic indices in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graczyk, D.; Kundzewicz, Z. W.

    2016-04-01

    The agricultural sector in Poland is of considerable social and economic importance for the nation. Climate variability and change are of primary relevance to this largely climate-dependent sector. Changes in seven temperature-related agroclimatic indices (lengths of the growing season and of the frost-free season, days of occurrence of the last spring frost and of the first autumn frost; and annual sums of growing degree-days for three values of temperature threshold) in Poland in 1951-2010 are examined. As expected, they generally correspond to the overwhelming and ubiquitous warming. Many, but not all, detected trends are statistically significant. However, for some indices, strong natural variability overshadows eventual trends. Projections of temperature-related agroclimatic indices for the future, based on regional climate models, are also discussed.

  15. Near-term acceleration in the rate of temperature change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Steven J.; Edmonds, James; Hartin, Corinne A.; Mundra, Anupriya; Calvin, Katherine

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenically driven climate changes, which are expected to impact human and natural systems, are often expressed in terms of global-mean temperature. The rate of climate change over multi-decadal scales is also important, with faster rates of change resulting in less time for human and natural systems to adapt. We find that present trends in greenhouse-gas and aerosol emissions are now moving the Earth system into a regime in terms of multi-decadal rates of change that are unprecedented for at least the past 1,000 years. The rate of global-mean temperature increase in the CMIP5 (ref. ) archive over 40-year periods increases to 0.25 +/- 0.05 °C (1σ) per decade by 2020, an average greater than peak rates of change during the previous one to two millennia. Regional rates of change in Europe, North America and the Arctic are higher than the global average. Research on the impacts of such near-term rates of change is urgently needed.

  16. Near-Term Acceleration In The Rate of Temperature Change

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Edmonds, James A.; Hartin, Corinne A.; Mundra, Anupriya; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2015-03-09

    Anthropogenically-driven climate changes, which are expected to impact human and natural systems, are often expressed in terms of global-mean temperature . The rate of climate change over multi-decadal scales is also important, with faster rates of change resulting in less time for human and natural systems to adapt . We find that current trends in greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions are now moving the Earth system into a regime in terms of multi-decadal rates of change that are unprecedented for at least the last 1000 years. The rate of global-mean temperature increase in the CMIP5 archive over 40-year periods increases to 0.25±0.05 (1σ) °C per decade by 2020, an average greater than peak rates of change during the previous 1-2 millennia. Regional rates of change in Europe, North America and the Arctic are higher than the global average. Research on the impacts of such near-term rates of change is urgently needed.

  17. [Temperature effect correction for Chang'E-3 alpha particle X-ray spectrometer].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming-Ye; Wang, Huan-Yu; Peng, Wen-Xi; Zhang, Cheng-Mo; Zhang, Jia-Yu; Cui, Xing-Zhu; Liang, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Jin-Zhou; Yang, Jia-Wei; Fan, Rui-Rui; Liu, Ya-Qing; Dong, Yi-Fan; Wu, Feng; Zhao, Xiao-Yun

    2012-07-01

    Alpha particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS) is one of the payloads of Chang'E-3 lunar rover of China's Lunar Exploration Project. The present paper introduces briefly the components of APXS, how it works and its working environment on the lunar surface. The environmental temperature effect has been studied with simulations and experiments, and the results show that the temperature of the APXS sensor will be varying during the measuring on the lunar surface. And another experiment reveals that the energy resolution becomes worse if the sensor's temperature is varying. In this paper, a correction method based on Pearson's chi-squared test is presented. The method can improve the energy resolution when the sensor's temperature is varying. We have tested the method with the spectra acquired by APXS in the temperature varying period of Temperature Cycling Test, and the results show that the method is efficient and reliable. PMID:23016364

  18. Effect of microorganism on Greenland ice sheet surface temperature change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, R.; Takeuchi, N.; Aoki, T.

    2012-12-01

    Greenland ice sheet holds approximately 10% of the fresh water on earth. If it melts all, sea level rises about 7.2meter. It is reported that mass of Greenland ice sheet is decreasing with temperature rising of climate change. Melting of the coastal area is particularly noticeable. It is established that 4 to 23% of the sea level rising from 1993 to 2005 is caused by the melting of Greenland ice sheet. In 2010, amount of melting per year became the largest than the past. However many climate models aren't able to simulate the recent melting of snow and ice in the Arctic including Greenland. One of the possible causes is albedo reduction of snow and ice surface by light absorbing snow impurities such as black carbon and dust and by glacial microorganisms. But there are few researches for effect of glacial microorganism in wide area. So it is important to clarify the impact of glacial microorganisms in wide area. The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of microorganism on Greenland ice sheet surface temperature change using satellite images of visible, near infrared and thermal infrared wavelength range and observation carried out in northwestern Greenland. We use MODIS Land Surface Temperature Product as ice sheet surface temperature. It estimates land surface temperature based on split window method using thermal infrared bands. MODIS data is bound to cover the whole of Greenland, and calculated the ratio of the temperature change per year. Analysis period is from December 2002 to November 2010. Results of calculating Greenland ice sheet surface temperature change using the MODIS data, our analysis shows that it is upward trend in the whole region. We find a striking upward trend in northern and western part of Greenland. The rate is 0.33±0.03 degree Celsius per a year from 47.5°W to 49°W. While in the coastal area from 49°W to 50.7°W, the rate is 0.26±0.06 degree Celsius per a year. This large upward trend area is the same area as dark region (Wientjes and Oerleman., 2010). It is considered that the cause of the dark region is Cryoconite on the glacier. So, it is considered that upward trends have relation to glacial microorganism including cryoconite. In the future, in order to clarify the relationship between temperature change and glacial microorganism, we will develop product to determine the quantity of glacial microorganism by satellite images.

  19. Negativity Bias in Dangerous Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jing; Qu, Weina; Sun, Xianghong; Zhang, Kan; Ge, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The behavioral and cognitive characteristics of dangerous drivers differ significantly from those of safe drivers. However, differences in emotional information processing have seldom been investigated. Previous studies have revealed that drivers with higher anger/anxiety trait scores are more likely to be involved in crashes and that individuals with higher anger traits exhibit stronger negativity biases when processing emotions compared with control groups. However, researchers have not explored the relationship between emotional information processing and driving behavior. In this study, we examined the emotional information processing differences between dangerous drivers and safe drivers. Thirty-eight non-professional drivers were divided into two groups according to the penalty points that they had accrued for traffic violations: 15 drivers with 6 or more points were included in the dangerous driver group, and 23 drivers with 3 or fewer points were included in the safe driver group. The emotional Stroop task was used to measure negativity biases, and both behavioral and electroencephalograph data were recorded. The behavioral results revealed stronger negativity biases in the dangerous drivers than in the safe drivers. The bias score was correlated with self-reported dangerous driving behavior. Drivers with strong negativity biases reported having been involved in mores crashes compared with the less-biased drivers. The event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed that the dangerous drivers exhibited reduced P3 components when responding to negative stimuli, suggesting decreased inhibitory control of information that is task-irrelevant but emotionally salient. The influence of negativity bias provides one possible explanation of the effects of individual differences on dangerous driving behavior and traffic crashes. PMID:26765225

  20. Negativity Bias in Dangerous Drivers.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jing; Qu, Weina; Sun, Xianghong; Zhang, Kan; Ge, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The behavioral and cognitive characteristics of dangerous drivers differ significantly from those of safe drivers. However, differences in emotional information processing have seldom been investigated. Previous studies have revealed that drivers with higher anger/anxiety trait scores are more likely to be involved in crashes and that individuals with higher anger traits exhibit stronger negativity biases when processing emotions compared with control groups. However, researchers have not explored the relationship between emotional information processing and driving behavior. In this study, we examined the emotional information processing differences between dangerous drivers and safe drivers. Thirty-eight non-professional drivers were divided into two groups according to the penalty points that they had accrued for traffic violations: 15 drivers with 6 or more points were included in the dangerous driver group, and 23 drivers with 3 or fewer points were included in the safe driver group. The emotional Stroop task was used to measure negativity biases, and both behavioral and electroencephalograph data were recorded. The behavioral results revealed stronger negativity biases in the dangerous drivers than in the safe drivers. The bias score was correlated with self-reported dangerous driving behavior. Drivers with strong negativity biases reported having been involved in mores crashes compared with the less-biased drivers. The event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed that the dangerous drivers exhibited reduced P3 components when responding to negative stimuli, suggesting decreased inhibitory control of information that is task-irrelevant but emotionally salient. The influence of negativity bias provides one possible explanation of the effects of individual differences on dangerous driving behavior and traffic crashes. PMID:26765225

  1. Surface Temperatures on Titan; Changes During the Cassini Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Cottini, Valeria; Nixon, Conor A.

    2010-01-01

    Surface brightness temperatures on Titan measured by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) aboard Cassini span the period from late northern winter to early spring. The CIRS observations cover all latitudes and can be used to study meridional changes with season. CIRS previously reported surface temperatures from 2004-2008 which were 93.7 K at the equator with decreases of 2 K toward the south pole and 3 K toward the north pole'. From a comparison of the equinox period with the earlier data, CIRS can now detect a seasonal shift in the latitudinal distribution of temperatures. Around the time of the equinox the meridional distribution was more symmetric about the equator than had been found earlier in the mission. The equatorial surface temperatures remained close to 94 K, but in the south the temperatures had decreased by about 0.5 K and in the north had increased by about 0.5 K. The CIRS equinox results are similar to what was seen near the previous vernal equinox by Voyager IRIS Z. The observed surface temperatures can help constrain the type of surface material by comparison with predictions from general circulation models. Of the three cases treated by Tokano t , our measurements most closely match a porous-ice regolith. As Cassini continues through Titan's northern spring CIRS will extend its temporal and spatial coverage and will continue to search for seasonal variations in surface temperature.

  2. Perceived temperature in the course of climate change: an analysis of global heat index from 1979 to 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D.; Brenner, T.

    2015-08-01

    The increase in global mean temperatures resulting from climate change has wide reaching consequences for the earth's ecosystems and other natural systems. Many studies have been devoted to evaluating the distribution and effects of these changes. We go a step further and propose the use of the heat index, a measure of the temperature as perceived by humans, to evaluate global changes. The heat index, which is computed from temperature and relative humidity, is more important than temperature for the health of humans and animals. Even in cases where the heat index does not reach dangerous levels from a health perspective, it has been shown to be an important factor in worker productivity and thus in economic productivity. We compute the heat index from dew point temperature and absolute temperature 2 m above ground from the ERA-Interim reanalysis data set for the years 1979-2013. The described data set provides global heat index aggregated to daily minima, means and maxima per day (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.841057). This paper examines these data, as well as showing aggregations to monthly and yearly values. Furthermore, the data are spatially aggregated to the level of countries after being weighted by population density in order to facilitate the analysis of its impact on human health and productivity. The resulting data deliver insights into the spatiotemporal development of near-ground heat index during the course of the past three decades. It is shown that the impact of changing heat index is unevenly distributed through space and time, affecting some areas differently than others. The data can serve as a basis for evaluating and understanding the evolution of heat index in the course of climate change, as well as its impact on human health and productivity.

  3. No increase in global temperature variability despite changing regional patterns.

    PubMed

    Huntingford, Chris; Jones, Philip D; Livina, Valerie N; Lenton, Timothy M; Cox, Peter M

    2013-08-15

    Evidence from Greenland ice cores shows that year-to-year temperature variability was probably higher in some past cold periods, but there is considerable interest in determining whether global warming is increasing climate variability at present. This interest is motivated by an understanding that increased variability and resulting extreme weather conditions may be more difficult for society to adapt to than altered mean conditions. So far, however, in spite of suggestions of increased variability, there is considerable uncertainty as to whether it is occurring. Here we show that although fluctuations in annual temperature have indeed shown substantial geographical variation over the past few decades, the time-evolving standard deviation of globally averaged temperature anomalies has been stable. A feature of the changes has been a tendency for many regions of low variability to experience increases, which might contribute to the perception of increased climate volatility. The normalization of temperature anomalies creates the impression of larger relative overall increases, but our use of absolute values, which we argue is a more appropriate approach, reveals little change. Regionally, greater year-to-year changes recently occurred in much of North America and Europe. Many climate models predict that total variability will ultimately decrease under high greenhouse gas concentrations, possibly associated with reductions in sea-ice cover. Our findings contradict the view that a warming world will automatically be one of more overall climatic variation. PMID:23883935

  4. Attribution of extreme temperature changes during 1951-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeon-Hee; Min, Seung-Ki; Zhang, Xuebin; Zwiers, Francis; Alexander, Lisa V.; Donat, Markus G.; Tung, Yu-Shiang

    2016-03-01

    An attribution analysis of extreme temperature changes is conducted using updated observations (HadEX2) and multi-model climate simulation (CMIP5) datasets for an extended period of 1951-2010. Compared to previous HadEX/CMIP3-based results, which identified human contributions to the observed warming of extreme temperatures on global and regional scales, the current results provide better agreement with observations, particularly for the intensification of warm extremes. Removing the influence of two major modes of natural internal variability (the Arctic Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation) from observations further improves attribution results, reducing the model-observation discrepancy in cold extremes. An optimal fingerprinting technique is used to compare observed changes in annual extreme temperature indices of coldest night and day (TNn, TXn) and warmest night and day (TNx, TXx) with multi-model simulated changes that were simulated under natural-plus-anthropogenic and natural-only (NAT) forcings. Extreme indices are standardized for better intercomparisons between datasets and locations prior to analysis and averaged over spatial domains from global to continental regions following a previous study. Results confirm previous HadEX/CMIP3-based results in which anthropogenic (ANT) signals are robustly detected in the increase in global mean and northern continental regional means of the four indices of extreme temperatures. The detected ANT signals are also clearly separable from the response to NAT forcing, and results are generally insensitive to the use of different model samples as well as different data availability.

  5. Attribution of extreme temperature changes during 1951-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeon-Hee; Min, Seung-Ki; Zhang, Xuebin; Zwiers, Francis; Alexander, Lisa V.; Donat, Markus G.; Tung, Yu-Shiang

    2015-05-01

    An attribution analysis of extreme temperature changes is conducted using updated observations (HadEX2) and multi-model climate simulation (CMIP5) datasets for an extended period of 1951-2010. Compared to previous HadEX/CMIP3-based results, which identified human contributions to the observed warming of extreme temperatures on global and regional scales, the current results provide better agreement with observations, particularly for the intensification of warm extremes. Removing the influence of two major modes of natural internal variability (the Arctic Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation) from observations further improves attribution results, reducing the model-observation discrepancy in cold extremes. An optimal fingerprinting technique is used to compare observed changes in annual extreme temperature indices of coldest night and day (TNn, TXn) and warmest night and day (TNx, TXx) with multi-model simulated changes that were simulated under natural-plus-anthropogenic and natural-only (NAT) forcings. Extreme indices are standardized for better intercomparisons between datasets and locations prior to analysis and averaged over spatial domains from global to continental regions following a previous study. Results confirm previous HadEX/CMIP3-based results in which anthropogenic (ANT) signals are robustly detected in the increase in global mean and northern continental regional means of the four indices of extreme temperatures. The detected ANT signals are also clearly separable from the response to NAT forcing, and results are generally insensitive to the use of different model samples as well as different data availability.

  6. Hydrodynamic model of temperature change in open ionic channels.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, D P; Eisenberg, R S; Jerome, J W; Shu, C W

    1995-01-01

    Most theories of open ionic channels ignore heat generated by current flow, but that heat is known to be significant when analogous currents flow in semiconductors, so a generalization of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck theory of channels, called the hydrodynamic model, is needed. The hydrodynamic theory is a combination of the Poisson and Euler field equations of electrostatics and fluid dynamics, conservation laws that describe diffusive and convective flow of mass, heat, and charge (i.e., current), and their coupling. That is to say, it is a kinetic theory of solute and solvent flow, allowing heat and current flow as well, taking into account density changes, temperature changes, and electrical potential gradients. We integrate the equations with an essentially nonoscillatory shock-capturing numerical scheme previously shown to be stable and accurate. Our calculations show that 1) a significant amount of electrical energy is exchanged with the permeating ions; 2) the local temperature of the ions rises some tens of degrees, and this temperature rise significantly alters for ionic flux in a channel 25 A long, such as gramicidin-A; and 3) a critical parameter, called the saturation velocity, determines whether ionic motion is overdamped (Poisson-Nernst-Planck theory), is an intermediate regime (called the adiabatic approximation in semiconductor theory), or is altogether unrestricted (requiring the full hydrodynamic model). It seems that significant temperature changes are likely to accompany current flow in the open ionic channel. PMID:8599638

  7. Small lakes show muted climate change signal in deepwater temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winslow, Luke A.; Read, Jordan S.; Hansen, Gretchen J. A.; Hanson, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Water temperature observations were collected from 142 lakes across Wisconsin, USA, to examine variation in temperature of lakes exposed to similar regional climate. Whole lake water temperatures increased across the state from 1990 to 2012, with an average trend of 0.042°C yr−1 ± 0.01°C yr−1. In large (>0.5 km2) lakes, the positive temperature trend was similar across all depths. In small lakes (<0.5 km2), the warming trend was restricted to shallow waters, with no significant temperature trend observed in water >0.5 times the maximum lake depth. The differing response of small versus large lakes is potentially a result of wind-sheltering reducing turbulent mixing magnitude in small lakes. These results demonstrate that small lakes respond differently to climate change than large lakes, suggesting that current predictions of impacts to lakes from climate change may require modification.

  8. Bhutan Rivers Runoff Sensitivity to Changes in Precipitation and Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonessa, M. Y.; Richey, J. E.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    The Kingdom of Bhutan harnesses its water resources mostly for hydropower generation. Hydroelectricity represents 96% of the country's electricity generating capacity and 99.9% of its electricity generation. About 87% of the electricity generated within Bhutan is exported to India. Assessment of this crucial resource is vital for its proper usage and management especially in the light of potential land use and climate changes. A land surface hydrologic model, Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC), was used to assess the hydrology of the country. The model was forced using data obtained from three sources: NCEP/NCAR, Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and ERA Interim. The NCEP/NCAR forcing resulted in better flow simulation for most of the stations than WRF and ERA forcings. Thus, NCEP/NCAR forcing data was used to evaluate the runoff sensitivity to temperature and precipitation changes. In both steps, VIC was run at 1/24° latitude-longitude resolution. The modeled mean annual runoff elasticity which measures fractional change in annual runoff divided by fractional change in annual precipitation ranges from 1.08 to 2.16. The elasticity value is lower for higher reference precipitations and vice versa. The runoff sensitivity to temperature change computed as percentage change in annual runoff per 1°C change in temperature are all declines and ranges from -1.38 to -1.54. Spatially, both higher elasticity and sensitivity (big negatives) are towards the northern part the country where elevation is more than 5000 m above sea level.

  9. Main Dangers of Our Times.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synek, Miroslav

    2003-03-01

    Terrorism and threatening dictatorships are the main, man-made, dangers of our times. They are run by master demagogues, or, brain-washing manipulators. ----- Our next step in coping with terrorism is to counter master demagoguery. Therefore, supporting EDUCATION that would emphasize the most unifying (and the least controversial), yet, BASIC CIVIC RESPECT for lives of people in a civilian human society, is a priority everywhere on our planet. ----- At the same time we start facing mostly small, threatening, dictatorships, capable of producing weapons of mass destruction. Therefore, we have to try to contribute to developing systems of FREE ELECTIONS, controlling weapons of mass destruction, wherever such dangers exist. ----- In a foreseeable future, unfortunately, we are facing a danger even by orders of magnitude greater. We are facing a possibility of a mass-produced heavy accumulation of inter-continental nuclear missiles, on a computerized "push-button" control, by a very powerful (and, quite possibly, miscalculating, or, suicidal) dictator, dangerous to the very existence of humanity on our planet. Therefore, it is a historical urgency that such a technological power be under the control by a government of the people, by the people and for the people, based on a sufficiently reliable system of FREE ELECTIONS, wherever, on our planet, such a potential danger may originate.

  10. Changes in diurnal temperature range and national cereal yields

    SciTech Connect

    Lobell, D

    2007-04-26

    Models of yield responses to temperature change have often considered only changes in average temperature (Tavg), with the implicit assumption that changes in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) can safely be ignored. The goal of this study was to evaluate this assumption using a combination of historical datasets and climate model projections. Data on national crop yields for 1961-2002 in the 10 leading producers of wheat, rice, and maize were combined with datasets on climate and crop locations to evaluate the empirical relationships between Tavg, DTR, and crop yields. In several rice and maize growing regions, including the two major nations for each crop, there was a clear negative response of yields to increased DTR. This finding reflects a nonlinear response of yields to temperature, which likely results from greater water and heat stress during hot days. In many other cases, the effects of DTR were not statistically significant, in part because correlations of DTR with other climate variables and the relatively short length of the time series resulted in wide confidence intervals for the estimates. To evaluate whether future changes in DTR are relevant to crop impact assessments, yield responses to projected changes in Tavg and DTR by 2046-2065 from 11 climate models were estimated. The mean climate model projections indicated an increase in DTR in most seasons and locations where wheat is grown, mixed projections for maize, and a general decrease in DTR for rice. These mean projections were associated with wide ranges that included zero in nearly all cases. The estimated impacts of DTR changes on yields were generally small (<5% change in yields) relative to the consistently negative impact of projected warming of Tavg. However, DTR changes did significantly affect yield responses in several cases, such as in reducing US maize yields and increasing India rice yields. Because DTR projections tend to be positively correlated with Tavg, estimates of yields under extreme warming scenarios were particularly affected by including DTR (up to 10%). Finally, based on the relatively poor performance of climate models in reproducing the magnitude of past DTR trends, it is possible that future DTR changes and associated yield responses will exceed the ranges considered here.

  11. Causes of Greenland temperature variability over the past 4000 yr: implications for northern hemispheric temperature changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobashi, T.; Goto-Azuma, K.; Box, J. E.; Gao, C.-C.; Nakaegawa, T.

    2013-10-01

    Precise understanding of Greenland temperature variability is important in two ways. First, Greenland ice sheet melting associated with rising temperature is a major global sea level forcing, potentially affecting large populations in coming centuries. Second, Greenland temperatures are highly affected by North Atlantic Oscillation/Arctic Oscillation (NAO/AO) and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO). In our earlier study, we found that Greenland temperature deviated negatively (positively) from northern hemispheric (NH) temperature trend during stronger (weaker) solar activity owing to changes in atmospheric/oceanic changes (e.g. NAO/AO) over the past 800 yr (Kobashi et al., 2013). Therefore, a precise Greenland temperature record can provide important constraints on the past atmospheric/oceanic circulation in the region and beyond. Here, we investigated Greenland temperature variability over the past 4000 yr reconstructed from argon and nitrogen isotopes from trapped air in a GISP2 ice core, using a one-dimensional energy balance model with orbital, solar, volcanic, greenhouse gas, and aerosol forcings. The modelled northern Northern Hemisphere (NH) temperature exhibits a cooling trend over the past 4000 yr as observed for the reconstructed Greenland temperature through decreasing annual average insolation. With consideration of the negative influence of solar variability, the modelled and observed Greenland temperatures agree with correlation coefficients of r = 0.34-0.36 (p = 0.1-0.04) in 21 yr running means (RMs) and r = 0.38-0.45 (p = 0.1-0.05) on a centennial timescale (101 yr RMs). Thus, the model can explain 14 to 20% of variance of the observed Greenland temperature in multidecadal to centennial timescales with a 90-96% confidence interval, suggesting that a weak but persistent negative solar influence on Greenland temperature continued over the past 4000 yr. Then, we estimated the distribution of multidecadal NH and northern high-latitude temperatures over the past 4000 yr constrained by the climate model and Greenland temperatures. Estimated northern NH temperature and NH average temperature from the model and the Greenland temperature agree with published multi-proxy temperature records with r = 0.35-0.60 in a 92-99% confidence interval over the past 2000 yr. We found that greenhouse gases played two important roles over the past 4000 yr for the rapid warming during the 20th century and slightly cooler temperature during the early period of the past 4000 yr. Lastly, our analysis indicated that the current average temperature (1990-2010) or higher temperatures occurred at a frequency of 1.3 times per 1000 yr for northern high latitudes and 0.36 times per 4000 yr for NH temperatures, respectively, indicating that the current multidecadal NH temperature (1990-2010) is more likely unprecedented than not (p = 0.36) for the past 4000 yr.

  12. Extracting changes in air temperature using acoustic coda phase delays.

    PubMed

    Marcillo, Omar; Arrowsmith, Stephen; Whitaker, Rod; Morton, Emily; Scott Phillips, W

    2014-10-01

    Blast waves produced by 60 high-explosive detonations were recorded at short distances (few hundreds of meters); the corresponding waveforms show charge-configuration independent coda-like features (i.e., similar shapes, amplitudes, and phases) lasting several seconds. These features are modeled as reflected and/or scattered waves by acoustic reflectors/scatters surrounding the explosions. Using explosion pairs, relative coda phase delays are extracted and modeled as changes in sound speed due to changes in air temperature. Measurements from nearby weather towers are used for validation. PMID:25324115

  13. Skin temperature changes induced by strong static magnetic field exposure.

    PubMed

    Ichioka, Shigeru; Minegishi, Masayuki; Iwasaka, Masakazu; Shibata, Masahiro; Nakatsuka, Takashi; Ando, Joji; Ueno, Shoogo

    2003-09-01

    High intensity static magnetic fields, when applied to the whole body of the anesthetized rat, have previously been reported to decrease skin temperature. The hypothesis of the present study was that in diamagnetic water, molecules in the air play significant roles in the mechanism of skin temperature decrease. We used a horizontal cylindrical superconducting magnet. The magnet produced 8 T at its center. A thermistor probe was inserted in a subcutaneous pocket of the anesthetized rats to measure skin temperature. Animals (n=10) were placed in an open plastic holder in which the ambient air was free to move in any direction (group I). Animals (n=10) were placed in a closed holder in which the air circulation toward the direction of weak magnetic field was restricted (group II). Each holder was connected to a hydrometer to measure humidity around the animal in the holder. The data acquisition phase consisted of a 5 min baseline interval, followed by inserting the animal together with the holder into the center of the magnet bore for a 5 min exposure and a 5 min postexposure period outside the bore. In group I, skin temperature and humidity around the animal significantly decreased during exposure, followed by recovery after exposure. In group II, skin temperature and humidity did not decrease during the measurement. The skin temperature decrease was closely related to the decrease in humidity around the body of the animal in the holder, and the changes were completely blocked by restricting the air circulation in the direction of the bore entrance. Possible mechanisms responsible for the decrease in skin temperature may be associated with magnetically induced movement of water vapor at the skin surface, leading to skin temperature decrease. PMID:12929156

  14. Altitude and Temperature Change in Climatic Time-Scale (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmura, A.

    2013-12-01

    Monthly mean air temperature at 60 stations grouped in 19 regions in 11 major mountain ranges of the world was analysed. The grouping was made to include stations with large altitude differences (more than 1000 m), located within small horizontal distances (10 km to 500 km). The periods cover the last 50 to 110 years. The largest trend in temperature increase was found in 68% of all regions at the high altitude stations, in 16% at an intermediate altitude between a peak and a foot of the mountain and in the remaining 16% at the foot of the mountain. For a limited number of groups whose stations offer more detailed and longer observations, the strongest trend was found with respect to daily minimum temperature in the colder half of the year during the last century. For the most recent 20 to 30 year period, however, the strongest signal of warming was seen in the daily maximum temperature for the summer half of the year. These findings suggest that there are different dominating processes for the temperature variations of the last century, and of the most recent decades. In mountainous regions, the altitude is only one of many topographic features. To test the influence of the altitude, three closely located (within 20 km) meteorological stations at similar altitudes (about 1000 m a.s.l.), but with drastically different topographic environments are compared in the Jura Mountains. One station is located on a ridge. The second station is on a slope. The third station is at the bottom of an Uvala, 55 m below the lowest pass of the 20 km long valley without a hydrological outlet. The analyses indicate that the local topographic features influence the absolute values of daily maximum, minimum and mean temperatures, but not their decadal trends. The author believes that the temperature variations in a climatic time scale are the results of changing diabatic processes, such as irradiance divergence and release of latent heat in the atmosphere. Of the irradiance change at the earth's surface, 80% is transferred into the atmosphere through latent heat of evaporation, and only 20% through sensible heat. Model simulations and the atmospheric data analyses show that the latent heat is most strongly converted into heat energy where condensation occurs. This altitude centres at 7 km a.s.l. over the equatorial regions and gradually descends over the mid-latitudes to 3 to 4 km, and reaches ground level in polar regions. This tendency is one of the powerful causes for the elevated temperature change maximum. The low temperature of high altitudes alone contributes to the amplification of temperature changes as a result of the Stefan-Boltzmann law of the black body emission. Further the temperature/cryosphere positive feedback can be considered as another factor for the amplification of temperature variations at high altitudes.

  15. Effects of temperature changes on maize production in Mozambique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, L.; Michaelsen, J.; Funk, C.; Husak, G.

    2011-01-01

    We examined intraseasonal changes in maize phenology and heat stress exposure over the 1979-2008 period, using Mozambique meteorological station data and maize growth requirements in a growing degree-day model. Identifying historical effects of warming on maize growth is particularly important in Mozambique because national food security is highly dependent on domestic food production, most of which is grown in already warm to hot environments. Warming temperatures speed plant development, shortening the length of growth periods necessary for optimum plant and grain size. This faster phenological development also alters the timing of maximum plant water demand. In hot growing environments, temperature increases during maize pollination threaten to make midseason crop failure the norm. In addition to creating a harsher thermal environment, we find that early season temperature increases have caused the maize reproductive period to start earlier, increasing the risk of heat and water stress. Declines in time to maize maturation suggest that, independent of effects to water availability, yield potential is becoming increasingly limited by warming itself. Regional variations in effects are a function of the timing and magnitude of temperature increases and growing season characteristics. Continuation of current climatic trends could induce substantial yield losses in some locations. Farmers could avoid some losses through simple changes to planting dates and maize varietal types.

  16. Power change in amorphous silicon technology by low temperature annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Ankit; Rennhofer, Marcus; Dangel, Angelika; Duman, Bogdan; Schlosser, Victor

    2015-07-01

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si) is one of the best established thin-film solar-cell technologies. Despite its long history of research, it still has many critical issues because of its defect rich material and its susceptibility to degrade under light also called as Staebler-Wronski effect (SWE). This leads to an increase in the defect density of a-Si, but as a metastable effect it can be completely healed at temperatures above 170 °C. Our study is focused on investigating the behavior of annealing of different a-Si modules under low temperature conditions below 80 °C indicated by successive change of module power. These conditions reflect the environmental temperature impact of the modules in the field, or integrated in buildings as well. The power changes were followed by STC power rating and investigation of module-power evolution under low irradiance conditions at 50 W/m2. Our samples were recovered close to their initial state of power, reaching as high as 99% from its degraded value. This shows the influence of low temperature annealing and light on metastable module behavior in a-Si thin-film modules.

  17. Carbon dioxide dangers demonstration model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina; Wessells, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is a dangerous volcanic gas. When carbon dioxide seeps from the ground, it normally mixes with the air and dissipates rapidly. However, because carbon dioxide gas is heavier than air, it can collect in snowbanks, depressions, and poorly ventilated enclosures posing a potential danger to people and other living things. In this experiment we show how carbon dioxide gas displaces oxygen as it collects in low-lying areas. When carbon dioxide, created by mixing vinegar and baking soda, is added to a bowl with candles of different heights, the flames are extinguished as if by magic.

  18. Global changes in the synchronicity of seasonal rainfall and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, X.; Porporato, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Seasonal variations in climatic inputs (in particular, rainfall and potential evapotranspiration) have garnered considerable attention in recent years as controlling factors for hydrological and ecosystem responses. These emphases on the role of climate seasonality come at a time of discernible climate change. Previously, we have shown that the interannual variability in the arrival, intensity, and duration of seasonal rainfall have increased over the past century in parts of the tropics where rainfall seasonality is already pronounced. Here, we analyze globally an index that captures the combined effects of rainfall and temperature seasonality by borrowing methods from statistical and information theories. We differentiate between regions which are similar in the seasonality of rainfall or temperature, but are desynchronized in terms of atmospheric supply and demand (e.g., Mediterranean vs. Monsoon climates). For these regions, we describe how the climate seasonality and the synchronicity of rainfall and temperature have shifted over time, along with changes in their interannual variability. We also demonstrate correlations to regional vegetation distributions and intra-annual patterns of vegetation productivity, thereby placing such trends and changes in interannual variability in an ecohydrologically meaningful context.

  19. Global changes in the synchronicity of seasonal rainfall and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xue; Porporato, Amilcare

    2015-04-01

    Seasonal variations in climatic inputs (in particular, rainfall and potential evapotranspiration) have garnered considerable attention in recent years as controlling factors for hydrological and ecosystem responses. These emphases on the role of climate seasonality come at a time of discernible climate change. Previously, we have shown that the interannual variability in the arrival, intensity, and duration of seasonal rainfall have increased over the past century in parts of the tropics where rainfall seasonality is already high. Here, we analyze globally an index that captures the combined effects of rainfall and temperature seasonality by borrowing methods from statistical and information theories. We differentiate between regions which are similar in the seasonality of rainfall or temperature, but are desynchronized in terms of atmospheric supply and demand (e.g., Mediterranean vs. Monsoon climates). For these regions, we describe how the climate seasonality and the synchronicity of rainfall and temperature have shifted over time, along with changes in their interannual variability. We also demonstrate correlations to intra-annual patterns of vegetation productivity, thereby placing such trends and changes in interannual variability in an ecologically meaningful context.

  20. What matters most: Are summer stream temperatures more sensitive to changing air temperature, changing discharge, or changing riparian vegetation under future climates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diabat, M.; Haggerty, R.; Wondzell, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    We investigated stream temperature responses to changes in both air temperature and stream discharge projected for 2040-2060 from downscaled GCMs and changes in the height and canopy density of streamside vegetation. We used Heat Source© calibrated for a 37 km section of the Middle Fork John Day River located in Oregon, USA. The analysis used the multiple-variable-at-a-time (MVAT) approach to simulate various combinations of changes: 3 levels of air warming, 5 levels of stream flow (higher and lower discharges), and 6 types of streamside vegetation. Preliminary results show that, under current discharge and riparian vegetation conditions, projected 2 to 4 °C increase in air temperature will increase the 7-day Average Daily Maximum Temperature (7dADM) by 1 to 2 °C. Changing stream discharge by ±30% changes stream temperature by ±0.5 °C, and the influence of changing discharge is greatest when the stream is poorly shaded. In contrast, the 7dADM could change by as much as 11°C with changes in riparian vegetation from unshaded conditions to heavily shaded conditions along the study section. The most heavily shaded simulations used uniformly dense riparian vegetation over the full 37-km reach, and this vegetation was composed of the tallest trees and densest canopies that can currently occur within the study reach. While this simulation represents an extreme case, it does suggest that managing riparian vegetation to substantially increase stream shade could decrease 7dADM temperatures relative to current temperatures, even under future climates when mean air temperatures have increased from 2 to 4 °C.

  1. LED Curing Lights and Temperature Changes in Different Tooth Sites

    PubMed Central

    Armellin, E.; Bovesecchi, G.; Coppa, P.; Pasquantonio, G.; Cerroni, L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this in vitro study was to assess thermal changes on tooth tissues during light exposure using two different LED curing units. The hypothesis was that no temperature increase could be detected within the dental pulp during polymerization irrespective of the use of a composite resin or a light-curing unit. Methods. Caries-free human first molars were selected, pulp residues were removed after root resection, and four calibrated type-J thermocouples were positioned. Two LED lamps were tested; temperature measurements were made on intact teeth and on the same tooth during curing of composite restorations. The data was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Wilcoxon test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Pearson's χ2. After ANOVA, the Bonferroni multiple comparison test was performed. Results. Polymerization data analysis showed that in the pulp chamber temperature increase was higher than that without resin. Starlight PRO, in the same condition of Valo lamp, showed a lower temperature increase in pre- and intrapolymerization. A control group (without composite resin) was evaluated. Significance. Temperature increase during resin curing is a function of the rate of polymerization, due to the exothermic polymerization reaction, the energy from the light unit, and time of exposure. PMID:27195282

  2. Large diurnal temperature range increases bird sensitivity to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Briga, Michael; Verhulst, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Climate variability is changing on multiple temporal scales, and little is known of the consequences of increases in short-term variability, particularly in endotherms. Using mortality data with high temporal resolution of zebra finches living in large outdoor aviaries (5 years, 359.220 bird-days), we show that mortality rate increases almost two-fold per 1°C increase in diurnal temperature range (DTR). Interestingly, the DTR effect differed between two groups with low versus high experimentally manipulated foraging costs, reflecting a typical laboratory ‘easy’ foraging environment and a ‘hard’ semi-natural environment respectively. DTR increased mortality on days with low minimum temperature in the easy foraging environment, but on days with high minimum temperature in the semi-natural environment. Thus, in a natural environment DTR effects will become increasingly important in a warming world, something not detectable in an ‘easy’ laboratory environment. These effects were particularly apparent at young ages. Critical time window analyses showed that the effect of DTR on mortality is delayed up to three months, while effects of minimum temperature occurred within a week. These results show that daily temperature variability can substantially impact the population viability of endothermic species. PMID:26563993

  3. Large diurnal temperature range increases bird sensitivity to climate change.

    PubMed

    Briga, Michael; Verhulst, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Climate variability is changing on multiple temporal scales, and little is known of the consequences of increases in short-term variability, particularly in endotherms. Using mortality data with high temporal resolution of zebra finches living in large outdoor aviaries (5 years, 359.220 bird-days), we show that mortality rate increases almost two-fold per 1°C increase in diurnal temperature range (DTR). Interestingly, the DTR effect differed between two groups with low versus high experimentally manipulated foraging costs, reflecting a typical laboratory 'easy' foraging environment and a 'hard' semi-natural environment respectively. DTR increased mortality on days with low minimum temperature in the easy foraging environment, but on days with high minimum temperature in the semi-natural environment. Thus, in a natural environment DTR effects will become increasingly important in a warming world, something not detectable in an 'easy' laboratory environment. These effects were particularly apparent at young ages. Critical time window analyses showed that the effect of DTR on mortality is delayed up to three months, while effects of minimum temperature occurred within a week. These results show that daily temperature variability can substantially impact the population viability of endothermic species. PMID:26563993

  4. Temperature Changes in Brown Adipocytes Detected with a Bimaterial Microcantilever

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Masaaki K.; Toda, Masaya; Inomata, Naoki; Maruyama, Hisataka; Okamatsu-Ogura, Yuko; Arai, Fumihito; Ono, Takahito; Ishijima, Akihiko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian cells must produce heat to maintain body temperature and support other biological activities. Methods to measure a cell’s thermogenic ability by inserting a thermometer into the cell or measuring the rate of oxygen consumption in a closed vessel can disturb its natural state. Here, we developed a noninvasive system for measuring a cell’s heat production with a bimaterial microcantilever. This method is suitable for investigating the heat-generating properties of cells in their native state, because changes in cell temperature can be measured from the bending of the microcantilever, without damaging the cell and restricting its supply of dissolved oxygen. Thus, we were able to measure increases in cell temperature of <1 K in a small number of murine brown adipocytes (n = 4–7 cells) stimulated with norepinephrine, and observed a slow increase in temperature over several hours. This long-term heat production suggests that, in addition to converting fatty acids into heat energy, brown adipocytes may also adjust protein expression to raise their own temperature, to generate more heat. We expect this bimaterial microcantilever system to prove useful for determining a cell’s state by measuring thermal characteristics. PMID:24896125

  5. Changing fitness of a necrotrophic plant pathogen under increasing temperature.

    PubMed

    Sabburg, Rosalie; Obanor, Friday; Aitken, Elizabeth; Chakraborty, Sukumar

    2015-08-01

    Warmer temperatures associated with climate change are expected to have a direct impact on plant pathogens, challenging crops and altering plant disease profiles in the future. In this study, we have investigated the effect of increasing temperature on the pathogenic fitness of Fusarium pseudograminearum, an important necrotrophic plant pathogen associated with crown rot disease of wheat in Australia. Eleven wheat lines with different levels of crown rot resistance were artificially inoculated with F. pseudograminearum and maintained at four diurnal temperatures 15/15°C, 20/15°C, 25/15°C and 28/15°C in a controlled glasshouse. To quantify the success of F. pseudograminearum three fitness measures, these being disease severity, pathogen biomass in stem base and flag leaf node, and deoxynivalenol (DON) in stem base and flag leaf node of mature plants were used. F. pseudograminearum showed superior overall fitness at 15/15°C, and this was reduced with increasing temperature. Pathogen fitness was significantly influenced by the level of crown rot resistance of wheat lines, but the influence of line declined with increasing temperature. Lines that exhibited superior crown rot resistance in the field were generally associated with reduced overall pathogen fitness. However, the relative performance of the wheat lines was dependent on the measure of pathogen fitness, and lines that were associated with one reduced measure of pathogen fitness did not always reduce another. There was a strong correlation between DON in stem base tissue and disease severity, but length of browning was not a good predictor of Fusarium biomass in the stem base. We report that a combination of host resistance and rising temperature will reduce pathogen fitness under increasing temperature, but further studies combining the effect of rising CO2 are essential for more realistic assessments. PMID:25767051

  6. Variability in Temperature-Related Mortality Projections under Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Benmarhnia, Tarik; Sottile, Marie-France; Plante, Céline; Brand, Allan; Casati, Barbara; Fournier, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Most studies that have assessed impacts on mortality of future temperature increases have relied on a small number of simulations and have not addressed the variability and sources of uncertainty in their mortality projections. Objectives: We assessed the variability of temperature projections and dependent future mortality distributions, using a large panel of temperature simulations based on different climate models and emission scenarios. Methods: We used historical data from 1990 through 2007 for Montreal, Quebec, Canada, and Poisson regression models to estimate relative risks (RR) for daily nonaccidental mortality in association with three different daily temperature metrics (mean, minimum, and maximum temperature) during June through August. To estimate future numbers of deaths attributable to ambient temperatures and the uncertainty of the estimates, we used 32 different simulations of daily temperatures for June–August 2020–2037 derived from three global climate models (GCMs) and a Canadian regional climate model with three sets of RRs (one based on the observed historical data, and two on bootstrap samples that generated the 95% CI of the attributable number (AN) of deaths). We then used analysis of covariance to evaluate the influence of the simulation, the projected year, and the sets of RRs used to derive the attributable numbers of deaths. Results: We found that < 1% of the variability in the distributions of simulated temperature for June–August of 2020–2037 was explained by differences among the simulations. Estimated ANs for 2020–2037 ranged from 34 to 174 per summer (i.e., June–August). Most of the variability in mortality projections (38%) was related to the temperature–mortality RR used to estimate the ANs. Conclusions: The choice of the RR estimate for the association between temperature and mortality may be important to reduce uncertainty in mortality projections. Citation: Benmarhnia T, Sottile MF, Plante C, Brand A, Casati B, Fournier M, Smargiassi A. 2014. Variability in temperature-related mortality projections under climate change. Environ Health Perspect 122:1293–1298; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306954 PMID:25036003

  7. Interdecadal changes of surface temperature since the late nineteenth century

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.E.; Folland, C.K.; Bevan, A.; Jones, P.D.

    1994-07-20

    The authors present global fields of decadal annual surface temperature anomalies, referred to the period 1951-1980, for each decade from 1881-1890 to 1981-1990 and for 1984-1993. In addition, they show decadal calendar-seasonal anomaly fields for the warm decades 1936-1945 and 1981-1990. The fields are based on sea surface temperature (SST) and land surface air temperature data. The SSTs are corrected for the pre-World War II use of uninsulated sea temperature buckets and incorporate adjusted satellite-based SSTs from 1982 onward. These results extend those published in the 1990 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Scientific Assessment. Despite poor data coverage initially and around the two World Wars the generally cold end of the nineteenth century and start to the twentieth century are confirmed, together with the substantial warming between about 1920 and 1940. Slight cooling of the northern hemisphere took place between the 1950s and the mid-1970s, although slight warming continued south of the equator. Recent warmth has been most marked over the northern continents in winter and spring, but the 1980s were warm almost everywhere apart from Greenland, the northwestern Atlantic and the midlatitude North Pacific. Parts of the middle- to high-latitude southern ocean may also have been cool in the 1980s, but in this area the 1951-1980 climatology is unreliable. The impact of the satellite data is reduced because the record of blended satellite and in situ SST is still too short to yield a climatology from which to calculate representative anomalies reflecting climatic change in the southern ocean. However, the authors propose a method of using existing satellite data in a step toward this target. The maps are condensed into global and hemispheric decadal surface temperature anomalies. The authors show the sensitivity of these estimated anomalies to alternative methods of compositing the spatially incomplete fields. 58 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Temperature changes across CO2-lased dentin during multiple exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakariasen, Kenneth L.; Barron, Joseph R.; Boran, Thomas L.

    1990-06-01

    The literature increasingly indicates that lasers will have a multitude of applications for dental hard tissue procedures, e.g. preventive therapy, caries removal, laser etching and endodontic therapy. However, it is critical that such laser therapies avoid the production of heat levels which will be damaging to the surrounding vital tissues, such as the dental pulp and periodontal tissues. Our preliminary research on temperature changes across C02 lased dentin indicated that for single preventive therapeutic exposures (1.2 W., 0. 1 sec., 1.0 mm focal spot) the mean temperature rise across 350 j.tm of dentin was 0.57 0C while across 1000 .tm of dentin the mean rise was only 0.18 °C. Further research utilizing multiple preventive therapeutic exposures (1.2 W., 0. 1 sec., 1.0 mm focal spot, 3 x 1.0 sec. intervals) showed mean temperature elevations of 1.56 0C across 350 m of dentin and 0.66 O across 1000 xm of dentin. While these temperature elevations, which would be associated with preventive therapy, are very low and would be biologically acceptable, it must be noted that exposures of higher intensities are required to fuse enamel and porcelain, or remove decay. This current research investigates temperature elevations which occuT during C02 lasing utilizing the following exposure parameters: 8.0 W., 1.0 mm focal spot, 0.1 sec. exposures, 2 or 4 exposures per site pulsed 1.0 sec. apart. Three dentin thicknesses were utilized, i.e. 1000 jim, 1500 p.tm and 2000 .tm. Four sections of each thickness were utilized with four exposure sites per specimen (2 with 2 exposures, 2 with 4 exposures). All dentin sections were prepared from non-carious third molars using a hard tissue microtome. A thermistor was placed on the dentin surface opposite each lased site and temperature changes were recorded for approximately 50 sec. following lasing. Mean temperature elevations ranged from a high of 3.07 C for the 1000 xm section utilizing four exposures to a low of 0.37 0C for the 2000 m section utilizing two exposures. Analysis of Variance (p < .0001) and Duncan's Multiple Range Test (p =.05) indicated significant differences existed among the mean temperature elevations observed. While significant differences in temperature elevation can be observed both by numbers of exposures and by dentin thickness, it would appear that, under the conditions of this study, the temperature changes across CO2 lased dentin are all relatively low. It should be reiterated that the lasing parameters used in this study are far in excess of those necessary for preventive applications and are, in fact, in the range of exposures which will fuse enamel and dental porcelain, or remove dental caries. The modest temperature elevations observed, combined with the relatively severe exposure parameters utilized on thin sections of dentin, demonstrate the effective protective barrier which dentin provides for the dental pulp relative to heat damage from C02 lasing.

  9. Students' Ideas about Dangerous Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardak, Osman

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article was to study the concepts and thoughts of primary education students about dangerous animals. A total of 316 primary education students attending a primary school in Turkey participated in the study. The research data was obtained through open-ended questions and word association tests. Data obtained from the questions…

  10. Students' Ideas about Dangerous Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardak, Osman

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article was to study the concepts and thoughts of primary education students about dangerous animals. A total of 316 primary education students attending a primary school in Turkey participated in the study. The research data was obtained through open-ended questions and word association tests. Data obtained from the questions

  11. Improving the estimation of historical marine surface temperature changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carella, Giulia; Kent, Elizabeth C.; Berry, David I.

    2015-04-01

    Global Surface Temperature (GST) is one of the main indicators of climate change and Sea Surface Temperature (SST) forms its marine component. Historical SST observations extend back more than 150 years and are used for monitoring climate change and variability over the oceans, for validation of climate models and to provide boundary conditions for atmospheric models. SST observations from ships form our longest instrumental record of surface marine temperature change, but over the years different methods of measuring SST have been used, each of which potentially has different biases. Changes in technology and observational practice can be rapid and undocumented: generally, it is assumed that almost all SST data collected before the 1940s were derived from bucket samples although the measurement practice is almost never known in detail. Especially prior to the 1940s where buckets measurements prevailed, SST biases are expected to be large, namely comparable to the climatic increase in the GST over the past two centuries. Currently, SST datasets use bias models representing only large-scale effects, based on 5˚ area average monthly climatological environmental conditions or on large-scale variations in air-sea temperature difference, which is also uncertain. There are major differences between the bias adjustment fields used to date, which limits our confidence in global and regional estimates of historical SST as well as in long term trends, which are expected to be controlled by uncertainty in systematic biases. The main barrier to finer-scale adjustments of SST is that information about measurement methods and ambient environmental conditions is usually insufficient. As a result, many reports cannot be confidently assigned to a particular vessel and hence, cautiously, to the same measurement methodology. Here we present a new approach to the quantification of SST biases that can be applied on a ship-by-ship basis. These ship dependent adjustments are expected to account for the instrumental and environmental conditions particular to each platform and to enable the detection of biases directly from the data, avoiding untested a priori assumptions. In this context, laboratory experiments to study the temperature evolution of water samples in SST buckets have also been designed and the results compared to existing models. Future work will be directed towards the application of this approach into the whole observational record and to the review of the resulting SST analysis.

  12. Piglets’ Surface Temperature Change at Different Weights at Birth

    PubMed Central

    Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro; dos Santos, Luan Sousa; Machado, Sivanilza Teixeira; Moi, Marta; de Alencar Nääs, Irenilza; Foppa, Luciana; Garcia, Rodrigo Garófallo; de Kássia Silva dos Santos, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The study was carried out in order to verify the effects of piglets’ weight at birth on their surface temperature change (ST) after birth, and its relationship with ingestion time of colostrum. Piglets from four different sows were weighed at birth and divided into a totally randomized design with three treatments according to birth weight (PBW): T1 - less than 1.00 kg, T2 - 1.00 to 1.39 kg, and T3 - higher than or equal to 1.40 kg. The time spent for the first colostrum ingestion was recorded (TFS). Images of piglets’ surface by thermal imaging camera were recorded at birth (STB) and 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 min after birth. The air temperature and relative humidity were recorded every 30 min and the indexes of temperature and humidity (THI) were calculated. A ST drop after 15 min from birth was observed, increasing again after sixty minutes. Positive correlations were found between the PBW and the ST at 30 and 45 min after birth. The PBW was negatively correlated with the TFS. The THI showed high negative correlations (−0.824 and −0.815) with STB and after 15 min from birth. The piglet’s surface temperature at birth was positively correlated with temperature thereof to 15 min, influencing therefore the temperatures in the interval of 45 to 120 min. The birth weight contributes significantly to postnatal hypothermia and consequently to the time it takes for piglets ingest colostrum, requiring special attention to those of low birth weight. PMID:25049971

  13. Method for Measuring Collimator-Pointing Sensitivity to Temperature Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramovici, Alex; Cox, Timothy E.; Hein, Randall C.; MacDonald, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    For a variety of applications, it is important to measure the sensitivity of the pointing of a beam emerging from a collimator, as a function of temperature changes. A straightforward method for carrying out this measurement is based on using interferometry for monitoring the changes in beam pointing, which presents its own problems. The added temperature dependence and complexity issues relating to using an interferometer are addressed by not using an interferometer in the first place. Instead, the collimator is made part of an arrangement that uses a minimum number of low-cost, off-the-shelf materials and by using a quad diode to measure changes in beam pointing. In order to minimize the influence of the test arrangement on the outcome of the measurement, several steps are taken. The collimator assembly is placed on top of a vertical, 1-m-long, fused silica tube. The quad diode is bonded to a fused silica bar, which, in turn, is bonded to the lower end of the fused silica tube. The lower end of the tube rests on a self-aligning support piece, while the upper end of the tube is kept against two rounded setscrew tips, using a soft rubber string. This ensures that very little stress is applied to the tube as the support structure changes dimensions due to thermal expansion. Light is delivered to the collimator through a bare fiber in order to minimize variable bending torque caused by a randomly relaxing, rigid fiber jacket. In order to separate the effect of temperature on the collimator assembly from the effect temperature has on the rest of the setup, multiple measurements are taken with the collimator assembly rotated from measurement to measurement. Laboratory testing, with 1-m spacing between the collimator and the quad diode, has shown that the sensitivity of the arrangement is better than 100 nm rms, over time spans of at least one hour, if the beam path is protected from atmospheric turbulence by a tube. The equivalent sensitivity to detecting changes in pointing angle is 100 nanoradians.

  14. Acute Changes in Ambient Temperature Are Associated With Adverse Changes in Cardiac Rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Erin B.; Zareba, Wojciech; Utell, Mark J.; Oakes, David; Hopke, Philip K.; Frampton, Mark; Chalupa, David; Beckett, William; Rich, David Q.

    2014-01-01

    Background Both increases and decreases in ambient temperature have been associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. However, the mechanism(s) remain unclear. Objectives We examined associations between biomarkers of pathways thought to, in part, explain these associations and changes in ambient temperature in a panel of predominantly post-myocardial infarction or post-stent patients. Methods We studied 76 subjects who had a recent coronary event and were participating in a cardiac rehabilitation program. In these patients, we measured heart rate variability, repolarization, and baroreflex sensitivity parameters using Holter ECG recordings before and during supervised, graded, twice weekly, exercise sessions. Hourly temperature measurements were made at a monitoring site near the rehabilitation center. Results Using linear mixed models, we observed decreases in rMSSD (square root of the mean of the sum of the squared differences between adjacent NN intervals) and deceleration capacity, associated with increases in ambient temperature in the previous four days. Additionally, decreased rMSSD was associated with both increasing temperature (mean in previous 6 hours) in the summer and decreasing temperature (mean in the previous 3 weeks) in the winter. Conclusions In a panel of cardiac rehabilitation patients, changes in ambient temperature were associated with decreases in markers of heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity, which may lead to increased risk of arrhythmic events and sudden death in post-infarction patients. PMID:25368681

  15. Northwestern Pacific typhoon intensity controlled by changes in ocean temperatures.

    PubMed

    Mei, Wei; Xie, Shang-Ping; Primeau, François; McWilliams, James C; Pasquero, Claudia

    2015-05-01

    Dominant climatic factors controlling the lifetime peak intensity of typhoons are determined from six decades of Pacific typhoon data. We find that upper ocean temperatures in the low-latitude northwestern Pacific (LLNWP) and sea surface temperatures in the central equatorial Pacific control the seasonal average lifetime peak intensity by setting the rate and duration of typhoon intensification, respectively. An anomalously strong LLNWP upper ocean warming has favored increased intensification rates and led to unprecedentedly high average typhoon intensity during the recent global warming hiatus period, despite a reduction in intensification duration tied to the central equatorial Pacific surface cooling. Continued LLNWP upper ocean warming as predicted under a moderate [that is, Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5] climate change scenario is expected to further increase the average typhoon intensity by an additional 14% by 2100. PMID:26601179

  16. Northwestern Pacific typhoon intensity controlled by changes in ocean temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Wei; Xie, Shang-Ping; Primeau, François; McWilliams, James C.; Pasquero, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Dominant climatic factors controlling the lifetime peak intensity of typhoons are determined from six decades of Pacific typhoon data. We find that upper ocean temperatures in the low-latitude northwestern Pacific (LLNWP) and sea surface temperatures in the central equatorial Pacific control the seasonal average lifetime peak intensity by setting the rate and duration of typhoon intensification, respectively. An anomalously strong LLNWP upper ocean warming has favored increased intensification rates and led to unprecedentedly high average typhoon intensity during the recent global warming hiatus period, despite a reduction in intensification duration tied to the central equatorial Pacific surface cooling. Continued LLNWP upper ocean warming as predicted under a moderate [that is, Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5] climate change scenario is expected to further increase the average typhoon intensity by an additional 14% by 2100. PMID:26601179

  17. Home hazards: can children recognize the dangers?

    PubMed

    Schooley, Carolyn B; Kelly, Amanda R

    2008-01-01

    To have effective injury prevention programs for children, solid education must be provided. Initially, the parental responsibility includes protecting and instructing the child about dangerous situations. However, when children can recognize a hazard for themselves, this becomes the basis for behavior change according to the health belief model. For trauma centers providing injury prevention services, knowing what a child perceives as a safety issue can be instrumental in correctly targeting curriculum. The following is a compilation of responses of 90 children who participated in a 2008 Home Hazard Recognition Station at a local Safe Kids event. PMID:18820562

  18. Repeat temperature measurements in borehole GC-1, northwestern Utah - Towards isolating a climate-change signal in borehole temperature profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, D.S.; Harris, R.N. )

    1993-09-01

    Temperature-depth profiles in borehole GC-1, northwestern Utah, were measured in 1978, 1990, and 1992. Borehole temperatures below 80 m depth are highly reproducible over the 14 year period indicating long term thermal stability. A slowly changing temperature field above 80 m depth has similiar characteristics to synthetic temperature profiles computed from a 100 year record of air temperature changes at Park Valley weather station 50 km northeast of the borehole site. 6 refs.

  19. Sudden change of geometric quantum discord in finite temperature reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Ming-Liang Sun, Jian

    2015-03-15

    We investigate sudden change (SC) behaviors of the distance-based measures of geometric quantum discords (GQDs) for two non-interacting qubits subject to the two-sided and the one-sided thermal reservoirs. We found that the GQDs defined by different distances exhibit different SCs, and thus the SCs are the combined result of the chosen discord measure and the property of a state. We also found that the thermal reservoir may generate states having different orderings related to different GQDs. These inherent differences of the GQDs reveal that they are incompatible in characterizing quantum correlations both quantitatively and qualitatively. - Highlights: • Comparable study of different distance-based geometric quantum discords. • Evolution of the geometric quantum discords in finite temperature reservoirs. • Different geometric quantum discords exhibit distinct sudden changes. • Nonunique states ordering imposed by different geometric quantum discords.

  20. Repeat temperature measurements in boreholes from northwestern Utah link ground and air temperature changes at the decadal time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Michael G.; Harris, Robert N.; Chapman, David S.

    2010-05-01

    Borehole temperature profiles provide a record of ground surface temperature (GST) change at the decadal to centennial time scale. GST histories reconstructed from boreholes are particularly useful in climate reconstruction if changes in GST and surface air temperature (SAT) are effectively coupled at decadal and longer time periods and it can be shown that borehole temperatures respond faithfully to surface temperature changes. We test these assumptions using three boreholes in northwestern Utah that have been repeatedly logged for temperature over a time span of 29 years. We report 13 temperature-depth logs at the Emigrant Pass Observatory borehole GC-1, eight at borehole SI-1 and five at borehole DM-1, acquired between 1978 and 2007. Systematic subsurface temperature changes of up to 0.6°C are observed over this time span in the upper sections of the boreholes; below approximately 100 m any temperature transients are within observational noise. We difference the temperature logs to highlight subsurface transients and to remove any ambiguity resulting from steady state source of curvature. Synthetic temperature profiles computed from SAT data at nearby meteorological stations reproduce both the amplitude and pattern of the transient temperature observations, fitting the observations to within 0.03°C or better. This observational confirmation of the strong coupling between surface temperature change and borehole temperature transients lends further support to the use of borehole temperatures to complement SAT and multiproxy reconstructions of climate change.

  1. Dangerous Near-Earth Asteroids and Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Grigoryan, A. E.

    2015-07-01

    The problem of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs; Astreoids and Meteorites) is discussed. To have an understanding on the probablity of encounters with such objects, one may use two different approaches: 1) historical, based on the statistics of existing large meteorite craters on the Earth, estimation of the source meteorites size and the age of these craters to derive the frequency of encounters with a given size of meteorites and 2) astronomical, based on the study and cataloging of all medium-size and large bodies in the Earth's neighbourhood and their orbits to estimate the probability, angles and other parameters of encounters. Therefore, we discuss both aspects and give our present knowledge on both phenomena. Though dangerous NEOs are one of the main source for cosmic catastrophes, we also focus on other possible dangers, such as even slight changes of Solar irradiance or Earth's orbit, change of Moon's impact on Earth, Solar flares or other manifestations of Solar activity, transit of comets (with impact on Earth's atmosphere), global climate change, dilution of Earth's atmosphere, damage of ozone layer, explosion of nearby Supernovae, and even an attack by extraterrestrial intelligence.

  2. Stress-induced core temperature changes in pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Myla de Aguiar; Melleu, Fernando Falkenburger; Marino-Neto, José

    2015-02-01

    Changes in body temperature are significant physiological consequences of stressful stimuli in mammals and birds. Pigeons (Columba livia) prosper in (potentially) stressful urban environments and are common subjects in neurobehavioral studies; however, the thermal responses to stress stimuli by pigeons are poorly known. Here, we describe acute changes in the telemetrically recorded celomatic (core) temperature (Tc) in pigeons given a variety of potentially stressful stimuli, including transfer to a novel cage (ExC) leading to visual isolation from conspecifics, the presence of the experimenter (ExpR), gentle handling (H), sham intracelomatic injections (SI), and the induction of the tonic immobility (TI) response. Transfer to the ExC cage provoked short-lived hyperthermia (10-20 min) followed by a long-lasting and substantial decrease in Tc, which returned to baseline levels 2 h after the start of the test. After a 2-hour stay in the ExC, the other potentially stressful stimuli evoked only weak, marginally significant hyperthermic (ExpR, IT) or hypothermic (SI) responses. Stimuli delivered 26 h after transfer to the ExC induced definite and intense increases in Tc (ExpR, H) or hypothermic responses (SI). These Tc changes appear to be unrelated to modifications in general activity (as measured via telemetrically recorded actimetric data). Repeated testing failed to affect the hypothermic responses to the transference to the ExC, even after nine trials and at 1- or 8-day intervals, suggesting that the social (visual) isolation from conspecifics may be a strong and poorly controllable stimulus in this species. The present data indicated that stress-induced changes in Tc may be a consistent and reliable physiological parameter of stress but that they may also show stressor type-, direction- and species-specific attributes. PMID:25479572

  3. Rice and Climate Change: Danger, or Opportunity?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), the principle gas associated with global warming, is also one of four resources needed for plants to complete their life cycle (i.e. water, light, nutrients, CO2). The ongoing increase in its concentration may allow rice breeders to begin selecting for optimal varieties among ...

  4. Predators modify the evolutionary response of prey to temperature change.

    PubMed

    Tseng, M; O'Connor, M I

    2015-12-01

    As climate regimes shift in many ecosystems worldwide, evolution may be a critical process allowing persistence in rapidly changing environments. Organisms regularly interact with other species, yet whether climate-mediated evolution can occur in the context of species interactions is not well understood. We tested whether a species interaction could modify evolutionary responses to temperature. We demonstrate that predation pressure by Dipteran larvae (Chaoborus americanus) modified the evolutionary response of a freshwater crustacean (Daphnia pulex) to its thermal environment over approximately seven generations in laboratory conditions. Daphnia kept at 21°C evolved higher population growth rates than those kept at 18°C, but only in those populations that were also reared with predators. Furthermore, predator-mediated selection resulted in the evolution of elevated Daphnia thermal plasticity. This laboratory natural selection experiment demonstrates that biotic interactions can modify evolutionary adaptation to temperature. Understanding the interplay between multiple selective forces can improve predictions of ecological and evolutionary responses of organisms to rapid environmental change. PMID:26673935

  5. Changes in Escherichia coli transcriptome during acclimatization at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Polissi, Alessandra; De Laurentis, Walter; Zangrossi, Sandro; Briani, Federica; Longhi, Vera; Pesole, Graziano; Dehò, Gianni

    2003-10-01

    Upon cold shock Escherichia coli transiently stops growing and adapts to the new temperature (acclimatization phase). The major physiological effects of cold temperature are a decrease in membrane fluidity and the stabilization of secondary structures of RNA and DNA, which may affect the efficiencies of translation, transcription, and replication. Specific proteins are transiently induced in the acclimatization phase. mRNA stabilization and increased translatability play a major role in this phenomenon. Polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) is one of the cold-induced proteins and is essential for E. coli growth at low temperatures. We investigated the global changes in mRNA abundance during cold adaptation both in wild type E. coli MG1655 and in a PNPase-deficient mutant. We observed a twofold or greater variation in the relative mRNA abundance of 20 genes upon cold shock, notably the cold-inducible subset of csp genes and genes not previously associated with cold shock response, among these, the extracytoplasmic stress response regulators rpoE and rseA, and eight genes with unknown function. Interestingly, we found that PNPase both negatively and positively modulated the transcript abundance of some of these genes, thus suggesting a complex role of PNPase in controlling cold adaptation. PMID:14527658

  6. Morphological changes of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes in response to temperature selection.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bihong; Xia, Xuhua

    2003-02-01

    Adaptation to novel environments usually entails morphological changes. The cell morphology of six experimental populations of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes and their common ancestor were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The six experimental populations were propagated under different temperatures for 10 months: three of them cultured at constant normal temperature (35 degrees C) forming the control group, and the other three cultured at incremental higher temperatures (from 41 degrees to 47 degrees C) as the HT group. SEM showed the deformed and elongated cells in the 6-h cultures of both ancestral and control populations at 45 degrees C, indicating that 45 degrees C is stressful for the ancestral and the control populations. In contrast, the HT populations retained normal cell shape in the 6-h cultures at both 35 degrees C and 45 degrees C. The mean cell volumes of control and HT populations increased 29% and 34%, respectively, relative to the ancestor at their respective thermal regimens, suggestion that the culturing conditions might favor larger cells. PMID:12520367

  7. A new approach to quantifying soil temperature responses to changing air temperature and snow cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackiewicz, Michael C.

    2012-08-01

    Seasonal snow cover provides an effective insulating barrier, separating shallow soil (0.25 m) from direct localized meteorological conditions. The effectiveness of this barrier is evident in a lag in the soil temperature response to changing air temperature. The causal relationship between air and soil temperatures is largely because of the presence or absence of snow cover, and is frequently characterized using linear regression analysis. However, the magnitude of the dampening effect of snow cover on the temperature response in shallow soils is obscured in linear regressions. In this study the author used multiple linear regression (MLR) with dummy predictor variables to quantify the degree of dampening between air and shallow soil temperatures in the presence and absence of snow cover at four Greenland sites. The dummy variables defining snow cover conditions were z = 0 for the absence of snow and z = 1 for the presence of snow cover. The MLR was reduced to two simple linear equations that were analyzed relative to z = 0 and z = 1 to enable validation of the selected equations. Compared with ordinary linear regression of the datasets, the MLR analysis yielded stronger coefficients of multiple determination and less variation in the estimated regression variables.

  8. [Preventing dangerous psychotic acting out].

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Delusions of having been wronged, of persecution, of having a mission or order to execute, are frequently the causes of dangerous psychotic acting out. The regular clinical assessment of these patients and their treatment is essential for preventing this acting out, which can have dramatic consequences on the potential victims. If there is a treatment indication but refusal on the part of the patient to cooperate, it is necessary to resort to treatment without the patient's consent. PMID:25751909

  9. Low temperature induced changes in gene expression in low temperature-sensitive and -tolerant tomatoes

    SciTech Connect

    Vallejos, C.E.; Camp, S.F. )

    1989-04-01

    The objective of this project is to identify genes that control low temperature (LT) tolerance/acclimation in a high altitude ecotype of the wild tomato L. hirsutum. LT induced changes in gene expression were monitored via 2-D gel electrophoresis and fluorography of radiolabeled in vitro translation products. Two types of changes were detected when both LT-sensitive (L. esculentum, L. hirsutum 100m) and LT-tolerant (L. hirsutum 3100m) genotypes were exposed to 6{degrees}C for 12 h in the dark: (a) specific LT induction or up-regulation or up-regulation of some genes; and (b) changes in the turnover rate of day specific mRNA's. Increased exposure lead to the disappearance of some mRNA's. These comparisons will lead to the identification of mRNA's involved in acclimation, and those involved in stress response.

  10. Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... back to top Why is Xylitol Dangerous to Dogs, but Not People? In both people and dogs, ...

  11. Danger of Antibiotic Overuse (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Child All About Food Allergies The Danger of Antibiotic Overuse KidsHealth > For Parents > The Danger of Antibiotic ... by not reaching for the prescription pad. How Antibiotics Work Antibiotics, first used in the 1940s, are ...

  12. 30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Danger signs. 57.12021 Section 57.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

  13. 42 CFR 85.10 - Imminent dangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Imminent dangers. 85.10 Section 85.10 Public Health... AND RELATED ACTIVITIES REQUESTS FOR HEALTH HAZARD EVALUATIONS § 85.10 Imminent dangers. Whenever... that there is a reasonable basis for an allegation of an imminent danger, NIOSH will immediately...

  14. 42 CFR 85a.7 - Imminent dangers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Imminent dangers. 85a.7 Section 85a.7 Public Health... Imminent dangers. Whenever, during the course of, or as a result of, an investigation under this part, the... danger, NIOSH will immediately advise the employer, owner, operator or agent in charge at the place...

  15. Decadal Changes in the World's Coastal Latitudinal Temperature Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Hannes; Doherty, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Most of the world's living marine resources inhabit coastal environments, where average thermal conditions change predictably with latitude. These coastal latitudinal temperature gradients (CLTG) coincide with important ecological clines,e.g., in marine species diversity or adaptive genetic variations, but how tightly thermal and ecological gradients are linked remains unclear. A first step is to consistently characterize the world's CLTGs. We extracted coastal cells from a global 11 dataset of weekly sea surface temperatures (SST, 19822012) to quantify spatial and temporal variability of the world's 11 major CLTGs. Gradient strength, i.e., the slope of the linear mean-SST/latitude relationship, varied 3-fold between the steepest (North-American Atlantic and Asian Pacific gradients: ?0.91C and ?0.68C lat?1, respectively) and weakest CLTGs (African Indian Ocean and the South- and North-American Pacific gradients: ?0.28, ?0.29, ?0.32C lat?1, respectively). Analyzing CLTG strength by year revealed that seven gradients have weakened by 310% over the past three decades due to increased warming at high compared to low latitudes. Almost the entire South-American Pacific gradient (647S), however, has considerably cooled over the study period (?0.3 to ?1.7C, 31 years), and the substantial weakening of the North-American Atlantic gradient (?10%) was due to warming at high latitudes (4260N, +0.8 to +1.6C,31 years) and significant mid-latitude cooling (Florida to Cape Hatteras 2635N, ?0.5 to ?2.2C, 31 years). Average SST trends rarely resulted from uniform shifts throughout the year; instead individual seasonal warming or cooling patterns elicited the observed changes in annual means. This is consistent with our finding of increased seasonality (i.e., summer-winter SST amplitude) in three quarters of all coastal cells (331 of 433). Our study highlights the regionally variable footprint of global climate change, while emphasizing ecological implications of changing CLTGs, which are likely driving observed spatial and temporal clines in coastal marine life. PMID:23825672

  16. Low temperature tolerance in plants: Changes at the protein level.

    PubMed

    Janmohammadi, Mohsen; Zolla, Lello; Rinalducci, Sara

    2015-09-01

    Low temperature (LT) is one of several important environmental stresses influencing plant performance and distribution. Adaptation to LT is a highly dynamic stress-response phenomenon and involves complex cross-talk between different regulatory levels. Although plants differ in their sensitivity to LT, in temperate species low nonfreezing temperatures cause noticeable alterations in various biochemical and physiological processes that can potentially improve freezing tolerance. This adaptation is associated with changes in the expression pattern of genes and their protein products. Proteins are the major players in most cellular events and are directly involved in plant LT responses, thereby proteome analysis could help uncover additional novel proteins associated with LT tolerance. Proteomics is recommended as an appropriate strategy for complementing transcriptome level changes and characterizing translational and post-translational regulations. In this review, we considered alterations in the expression and accumulation of proteins in response to LT stress in the three major cereal crops produced worldwide (wheat, barley, and rice). LT stress down-regulates many photosynthesis-related proteins. On the contrary, pathways/protein sets that are up-regulated by LT include carbohydrate metabolism (ATP formation), ROS scavenging, redox adjustment, cell wall remodelling, cytoskeletal rearrangements, cryoprotection, defence/detoxification. These modifications are common adaptation reactions also observed in the plant model Arabidopsis, thus representing key potential biomarkers and critical intervention points for improving LT tolerance of crop plants in cold regions with short summers. We believe that an assessment of the proteome within a broad time frame and during the different phenological stages may disclose the molecular mechanisms related to the developmental regulation of LT tolerance and facilitate the progress of genetically engineered stress-resistant plant varieties. PMID:26068669

  17. Change In Minimum Temperature As A Response To Land Cover Change In South Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, H. P.; Melesse, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    Replacement of higher evapotranspirative surface materials such as water and vegetation cover by other materials such as buildings, roads, and pavements increases the Bowen's ratio from about 0.5-2.0 in rural to about ≈ 5.0 in urban areas resulting in higher surface and near surface atmospheric temperatures in the urban areas (Taha, 1997). This effect is intensified by low emissivity surfaces of the urban covers storing more heat energy during day time, but emitting less during night compared to the energy emitted by rural covers causing higher night time temperatures in urban centers, an effect called Urban Heat Island (UHI). South Florida has undergone tremendous land cover change from its pre-drainage vegetated and wetlands to post drainage agricultural and urban lands, especially after late 20th century. The objective of this study was to simultaneously analyze the land use/ land cover change and the rural/ urban minimum temperatures in south Florida for the period representing pre and post drainage states. The result shows urban sprawl increased from 8% at the beginning of the analysis period to about 14% at the end. Green vegetated areas, shrubs, and forests are found to be declined. The minimum temperature is found increased as maximum as 2°F in the urbanized stations, which remained constant or shows negligible increase in rural stations. The study dictates further micro level scrutiny in order to reach a conclusion on the development of UHI in south Florida. Key words: Bowen's ratio, emissivity, urban heat island

  18. Long-term changes of the diurnal temperature cycle: implications about mechanisms of global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Ruedy, R.

    We use a global climate model to investigate the impact of a wide range of radiative forcing and feedback mechanisms on the diurnal cycle of surface air temperature. This allows us not only to rule out many potential explanations for observed diurnal changes, but to infer fundamental information concerning the nature and location of the principal global climate forcings of this century. We conclude that the observed changes of the diurnal cycle result neither from natural climate variability nor a globally-distributed forcing, but rather they require the combination of a (negative) radiative forcing located primarily over continental regions together with the known globally-distributed forcing due to anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Tropospheric aerosols can account for part of the continentally-located forcing, but alone they do not damp the diurnal cycle as observed. Only an increase of continental cloud cover, possibly a consequence of anthropogenic aerosols, can damp the diurnal cycle by an amount comparable to observations. A corollary of these results is quantitative confirmation of the widely held suspicion that anthropogenic greenhouse gas warming has been substantially counterbalanced by a forced cooling. Under the assumption that the cloud change is sulfate driven, a further implication is that the net rate of global warming is likely to increase substantially in coming years. We note that, on the long run, the daily maximum temperature will increase by an amount not much less than the increase of the mean temperature.

  19. Variation in the sensitivity of organismal body temperature to climate change over local and geographic scales

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Sarah E.; Wethey, David S.; Helmuth, Brian

    2006-01-01

    Global climate change is expected to have broad ecological consequences for species and communities. Attempts to forecast these consequences usually assume that changes in air or water temperature will translate into equivalent changes in a species’ organismal body temperature. This simple change is unlikely because an organism’s body temperature is determined by a complex series of interactions between the organism and its environment. Using a biophysical model, validated with 5 years of field observations, we examined the relationship between environmental temperature change and body temperature of the intertidal mussel Mytilus californianus over 1,600 km of its geographic distribution. We found that at all locations examined simulated changes in air or water temperature always produced less than equivalent changes in the daily maximum mussel body temperature. Moreover, the magnitude of body temperature change was highly variable, both within and among locations. A simulated 1°C increase in air or water temperature raised the maximum monthly average of daily body temperature maxima by 0.07–0.92°C, depending on the geographic location, vertical position, and temperature variable. We combined these sensitivities with predicted climate change for 2100 and calculated increases in monthly average maximum body temperature of 0.97–4.12°C, depending on location and climate change scenario. Thus geographic variation in body temperature sensitivity can modulate species’ experiences of climate change and must be considered when predicting the biological consequences of climate change. PMID:16763050

  20. A linear regression model for predicting PNW estuarine temperatures in a changing climate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pacific Northwest coastal regions, estuaries, and associated ecosystems are vulnerable to the potential effects of climate change, especially to changes in nearshore water temperature. While predictive climate models simulate future air temperatures, no such projections exist for...

  1. Dangerous people or dangerous situations? Some further thoughts.

    PubMed

    Prins, H

    1991-01-01

    The author enlarges upon and develops some observations upon the assessment of dangerousness which appeared in this journal a decade ago. In the present contribution, particular attention is paid to identifying the type of person at risk of committing further acts of serious personal harm to persons and or property and to the factors or circumstances that may be conducive to this. Finally, the author puts forward some views on why cues and clues may be missed and how these omissions might be overcome. 'Between the acting of a dreadful thing And the first motion, all the interim is Like a phantasma, or a hideous dream' Julius Caesar, Act II Scene 1. PMID:2005765

  2. Visual Aid to Demonstrate Change of State and Gas Pressure with Temperature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaffari, Shahrokh

    2011-01-01

    Demonstrations are used in chemistry lectures to improve conceptual understanding by direct observation. The visual aid described here is designed to demonstrate the change in state of matter with the change of temperature and the change of pressure with temperature. Temperature is presented by the rate of airflow and pressure is presented by…

  3. Visual Aid to Demonstrate Change of State and Gas Pressure with Temperature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaffari, Shahrokh

    2011-01-01

    Demonstrations are used in chemistry lectures to improve conceptual understanding by direct observation. The visual aid described here is designed to demonstrate the change in state of matter with the change of temperature and the change of pressure with temperature. Temperature is presented by the rate of airflow and pressure is presented by

  4. Response of California temperature to regional anthropogenic aerosol changes

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchstetter, Thomas; Novakov, T.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Menon, S.; Aguiar, J.

    2008-05-12

    In this paper, we compare constructed records of concentrations of black carbon (BC)--an indicator of anthropogenic aerosols--with observed surface temperature trends in California. Annual average BC concentrations in major air basins in California significantly decreased after about 1990, coincident with an observed statewide surface temperature increase. Seasonal aerosol concentration trends are consistent with observed seasonal temperature trends. These data suggest that the reduction in anthropogenic aerosol concentrations contributed to the observed surface temperature increase. Conversely, high aerosol concentrations may lower surface temperature and partially offset the temperature increase of greenhouse gases.

  5. WATER TEMPERATURE CHARACTERISTICS OF LAKES SUBJECTED TO CLIMATE CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A deterministic, one dimensional, unsteady lake water temperature model was modified and validated to simulate the seasonal (spring to fall) temperature stratification structure over a wide range of lake morphometries, trophic and meteorological conditions. odel coefficients rela...

  6. A study on the measurement of the core body temperature change after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) through MR temperature mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang-Bok; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Yu, Young; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Joo, Kyu-Ji

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the change in the heat generated during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using a self-manufactured phantom and used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to analyze the change in the temperature of the core body and the tissues surrounding the phantom. In this experiment, the image and the phase image were obtained simultaneously from a gradient echo-based sequence using 1.5-Tesla MRI equipment and a 12-channel head coil. The temperature mapping technique was used to calculate the change in temperature. The regions of interest (ROIs) (ROI 1 - ROI 6) were set with a focus on the area where the RFA was performed, according to the temperature distribution, before monitoring the temperature change for one hour in time intervals of five minutes. The results showed that the temperature change in the ROI with time was largest in the ROI 1 and smallest in the ROI 5. In addition, after the RFA procedure, the temperature decreased from the initial value to 0 °C in one hour. The temperature changes in the core body and the surrounding tissues were confirmed by MRI temperature mapping, which is a noninvasive method.

  7. Atmospheric temperature changes over the 20th century at very high elevations in the European Alps from englacial temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, A.; Vincent, C.

    2013-05-01

    the paucity of observations, a great deal of uncertainty remains concerning temperature changes at very high altitudes over the last century. Englacial temperature measurements performed in boreholes provide a very good indicator of atmospheric temperatures for very high elevations although they are not directly related to air temperatures. Temperature profiles from seven deep boreholes drilled at three different sites between 4240 and 4300 m above sea level in the Mont Blanc area (French Alps) have been analyzed using a heat flow model and a Bayesian inverse modeling approach. Atmospheric temperature changes over the last century were estimated by simultaneous inversion of these temperature profiles. A mean warming rate of 0.14°C/decade between 1900 and 2004 was found. This is similar to the observed regional low altitude trend in the northwestern Alps, suggesting that air temperature trends are not altitude dependent.

  8. The distribution and identification of dangerously venomous Australian terrestrial snakes.

    PubMed

    Shea, G M

    1999-12-01

    The identification of dangerous Australian snakes is important in instituting therapy for envenomation. Despite the availability of a number of identification guides with varying degrees of generality, identification can be problematic for several reasons. These include a diversity of common names, many of which are inappropriate or regionally applied to different species, identification keys that focus on variable features, intraspecific variation and interspecific convergence in colouration, and recent changes in scientific nomenclature of species and genera. Geographic distribution of the dangerously venomous species can be a useful aid to identification, by limiting the range of options in a region. However, delineation of the limits of distribution relies on fine scale mapping beyond the resolution of most identification guides. This article provides a summary of the geographic limits of the dangerously venomous Australian snakes, with particular emphasis on major population centres, and clarifies some problems in identification, particularly among brown-coloured snakes. PMID:10685181

  9. Metabolic features of the cell danger response.

    PubMed

    Naviaux, Robert K

    2014-05-01

    The cell danger response (CDR) is the evolutionarily conserved metabolic response that protects cells and hosts from harm. It is triggered by encounters with chemical, physical, or biological threats that exceed the cellular capacity for homeostasis. The resulting metabolic mismatch between available resources and functional capacity produces a cascade of changes in cellular electron flow, oxygen consumption, redox, membrane fluidity, lipid dynamics, bioenergetics, carbon and sulfur resource allocation, protein folding and aggregation, vitamin availability, metal homeostasis, indole, pterin, 1-carbon and polyamine metabolism, and polymer formation. The first wave of danger signals consists of the release of metabolic intermediates like ATP and ADP, Krebs cycle intermediates, oxygen, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and is sustained by purinergic signaling. After the danger has been eliminated or neutralized, a choreographed sequence of anti-inflammatory and regenerative pathways is activated to reverse the CDR and to heal. When the CDR persists abnormally, whole body metabolism and the gut microbiome are disturbed, the collective performance of multiple organ systems is impaired, behavior is changed, and chronic disease results. Metabolic memory of past stress encounters is stored in the form of altered mitochondrial and cellular macromolecule content, resulting in an increase in functional reserve capacity through a process known as mitocellular hormesis. The systemic form of the CDR, and its magnified form, the purinergic life-threat response (PLTR), are under direct control by ancient pathways in the brain that are ultimately coordinated by centers in the brainstem. Chemosensory integration of whole body metabolism occurs in the brainstem and is a prerequisite for normal brain, motor, vestibular, sensory, social, and speech development. An understanding of the CDR permits us to reframe old concepts of pathogenesis for a broad array of chronic, developmental, autoimmune, and degenerative disorders. These disorders include autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), asthma, atopy, gluten and many other food and chemical sensitivity syndromes, emphysema, Tourette's syndrome, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), traumatic brain injury (TBI), epilepsy, suicidal ideation, organ transplant biology, diabetes, kidney, liver, and heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer and Parkinson disease, and autoimmune disorders like lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. PMID:23981537

  10. Influence of changes in solar radiation on changes of surface temperature in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hua; Yin, Qing; Nakajima, Teruyuki; Makiko, Nakata Mukai; Lu, Peng; He, Jinhai

    2013-02-01

    The long-term trends of total surface solar radiation (SSR), surface diffuse radiation, and surface air temperature were analyzed in this study based on updated 48-yr data from 55 observational stations in China, and then the correlation between SSR and the diurnal temperature range (DTR) was studied. The effect of total solar radiation on surface air temperature in China was investigated on the basis of the above analyses. A strong correlation between SSR and DTR was found for the period 1961-2008 in China. The highest correlation and steepest regression line slope occurred in winter, indicating that the solar radiation effect on DTR was the largest in this season. Clouds and water vapor have strong influences on both SSR and DTR, and hence on their relationship. The largest correlations between SSR and DTR occurred in wintertime in northern China, regardless of all-day (including clear days and cloudy days) or clear-day cases. Our results also showed that radiation arriving at the surface in China decreased significantly during 1961-1989 (dimming period), but began to increase during 1990-2008 (brightening period), in agreement with previous global studies. The reduction of total SSR offset partially the greenhouse warming during 1961-1989. However, with the increase of SSR after 1990, this offsetting effect vanished; on the contrary, it even made a contribution to the accelerated warming. Nonetheless, the greenhouse warming still played a controlling role because of the increasing of minimum and mean surface temperatures in the whole study period of 1961-2008. We estimated that the greenhouse gases alone may have caused surface temperatures to rise by 0.31-0.46°C (10 yr)-1 during 1961-2008, which is higher than previously estimated. Analysis of the corresponding changes in total solar radiation, diffuse radiation, and total cloud cover indicated that the dimming and brightening phenomena in China were likely attributable to increases in absorptive and scattering aerosols in the atmosphere, respectively.

  11. Volume and density changes of biological fluids with temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal expansion of human blood, plasma, ultrafiltrate, and erythrocycte concentration at temperatures in the range of 4-48 C is studied. The mechanical oscillator technique which has an accuracy of 1 x 10 to the -5 th g/ml is utilized to measure fluid density. The relationship between thermal expansion, density, and temperature is analyzed. The study reveals that: (1) thermal expansion increases with increasing temperature; (2) the magnitude of the increase declines with increasing temperature; (3) thermal expansion increases with density at temperatures below 40 C; and (4) the thermal expansion of intracellular fluid is greater than that of extracellular fluid in the temperature range of 4-10 C, but it is equal at temperatures greater than or equal to 40 C.

  12. Seasonal Change Detection and Attribution of Surface Temperature changes over Interior Peninsular Region of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattanayak, Sonali; Nagesh Kumar, Dasika

    2015-04-01

    A good number of studies have investigated recent trends in the observed and simulated hydrometeorological variables across the world. It has been challenging for the research community to address whether the significant change in climate over the course of 2nd half of 20th century is caused either due to natural or manmade effects. Although evidences for an anthropogenic contribution to climatic trends have been accumulated rapidly worldwide, for India these are scarce. Hence the formal efforts have been undertaken to distinguish whether the recent changes in seasonal temperature over India occurred due to natural internal variation of climate system or human influence using rigorous detection and attribution (D&A) procedure. The surface temperature is the most widely cited indicator of climate fluctuation. Hence maximum and minimum temperatures (Tmax & Tmin) which are among the six most commonly used variables for impact assessment studies are analyzed here. Seasonal divisions are based on conventional meteorological seasons: January-February (winter); March-May (pre monsoon); June-September (monsoon); October-December (post monsoon). Time span considered for this study is 1950-2005. Climate Research Unit (Version 3.21) gridded monthly temperature datasets are considered as observed data. Initially TFPW-MK (Trend Free Pre Whitening Mann Kendall) test is used to search the significant trends in the four seasons over all India. Temporal change detection analysis in evapotranspiration (which is one of the key processes in hydrological cycle) is essential for progress in water resources planning and management. Hence along with Tmax and Tmin, potential evapotranspiration (PET) has also been analyzed for the similar conditions. Significant upward trends in Tmax, Tmin and PET are observed over most of the grid points in Interior Peninsula (IP) region over India. Significant correlation was obtained between PET and Tmax compared to PET and Tmin. Trends in Tmin clearly indicate the impact of anthropogenic GHGs (as it occurs during clear cloudless nights).Hence both Tmax and Tmin are considered for further analysis. In the next step formal D&A analysis is carried out to assess the change in seasonal temperature of IP region considering seasonal Tmax and Tmin. While simulating historical temperature changes over India, climate models from CMIP5 performed better than CMIP3. Therefore, simulations from five different sets of experiments (piControl, historical, historicalNat, historicalMisc, historicalGHG) from CMIP5 are used. Fingerprint based D&A (Hasselmann, 1979) approach is employed here. Fingerprint is the expected pattern of climate response to anthropogenic forcing and it is searched in the observed and model responses with respect to different experiments. It is observed from the D&A analysis that variability in Tmax during post monsoon season and Tmin during pre monsoon and monsoon seasons are beyond the range of natural internal variability. Hasselmann, K. 1979. On the signal-to-noise problem in atmospheric response studies. Meteorol.trop. oceans, 251-259.

  13. Soil erosion under climate change: simulatingthe response of temperature and rainfall changes in three UK catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciampalini, Rossano; Walker-Springett, Kate J.; Constantine, José Antonio; Hales, Tristram C.

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion by water cost in environmental damages across the Great Britain is estimated in over £200m (2014 GBP) each year and could increase for the effect of climate change. Assessing the potential for increased climate-driven soil erosion, due to the several water processes involved (e.g., infiltration excess, return flow, direct precipitation onto saturated soil),is recognizedas a complex task. Climate change can have a positive and direct effect on soil erosionsuch the case of increasing rainfall in amount and intensity, or an indirect effect through the variation of the atmospheric CO2 level, which can improve plant productivityandwater infiltration capacity of soil reducing the likelihood of soil erosion. Changes in vegetation patterns and typologies with a different protection effect can lead also the soil system to dramatic changes in soil erosion rates, potentially amplifying or ameliorating the direct effects of climate change.Climate, vegetation and soil erosion are thus connected and several feedback effects could be accounted in the study of global change. Understanding these interactions may be a primary goal for clarifying the impact of global change on soil erosion and its consequences on related soil functions such as water and organic carbon storage support to vegetation and agricultural production. In this research, focused on three UK catchments (i.e. Conwy, 627 km2, Wales; Ehen, 225 km2, England; and Dee, 2100 km2, Scotland), we simulated soil erosionapplying SRES climatic scenarios(IPCC, 2000) for different CO2 emission levels. We modelled using Pesera "The Pan European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment" (Kirkby et al., 2004), a model for vegetation growing and soil erosion evaluation at regional scale. For each catchment,we realised a sensitivity - analysis - like test investigating different increments in temperature and rainfall, then, we compared the results of the SRES scenarios with the issues of the parametric sensitivity analysis. The results show that, because of the role of the vegetation, each land use has different reactions to temperature - rainfall variations; crop surfaces confirm to have a strong sensitivity while forests and grassland play a mitigation role on soil erosion.

  14. Personal Safety in Dangerous Places

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Terry; Dunlap, Eloise; Johnson, Bruce D.; Hamid, Ansley

    2009-01-01

    Personal safety during fieldwork is seldom addressed directly in the literature. Drawing from many prior years of ethnographic research and from field experience while studying crack distributors in New York City, the authors provide a variety of strategies by which ethnographic research can be safely conducted in dangerous settings. By projecting an appropriate demeanor, ethnographers can seek others for protector and locator roles, routinely create a safety zone in the field, and establish compatible field roles with potential subjects. The article also provides strategies for avoiding or handling sexual approaches, common law crimes, fights, drive-by shootings, and contacts with the police. When integrated with other standard qualitative methods, ethnographic strategies help to ensure that no physical harm comes to the field-worker and other staff members. Moreover, the presence of researchers may actually reduce (and not increase) potential and actual violence among crack distributors/abusers or others present in the field setting. PMID:19809525

  15. The danger theory: 20 years later

    PubMed Central

    Pradeu, Thomas; Cooper, Edwin L.

    2012-01-01

    The self–non-self theory has dominated immunology since the 1950s. In the 1990s, Matzinger and her colleagues suggested a new, competing theory, called the “danger theory.” This theory has provoked mixed acclaim: enthusiasm and criticism. Here we assess the danger theory vis-à-vis recent experimental data on innate immunity, transplantation, cancers and tolerance to foreign entities, and try to elucidate more clearly whether danger is well defined. PMID:23060876

  16. Low Temperature Adaptation Is Not the Opposite Process of High Temperature Adaptation in Terms of Changes in Amino Acid Composition

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ling-Ling; Tang, Shu-Kun; Huang, Ying; Zhi, Xiao-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies focused on psychrophilic adaptation generally have demonstrated that multiple mechanisms work together to increase protein flexibility and activity, as well as to decrease the thermostability of proteins. However, the relationship between high and low temperature adaptations remains unclear. To investigate this issue, we collected the available predicted whole proteome sequences of species with different optimal growth temperatures, and analyzed amino acid variations and substitutional asymmetry in pairs of homologous proteins from related species. We found that changes in amino acid composition associated with low temperature adaptation did not exhibit a coherent opposite trend when compared with changes in amino acid composition associated with high temperature adaptation. This result indicates that during their evolutionary histories the proteome-scale evolutionary patterns associated with prokaryotes exposed to low temperature environments were distinct from the proteome-scale evolutionary patterns associated with prokaryotes exposed to high temperature environments in terms of changes in amino acid composition of the proteins. PMID:26614525

  17. Complex coupled metabolic and prokaryotic community responses to increasing temperatures in anaerobic marine sediments: critical temperatures and substrate changes

    PubMed Central

    Roussel, Erwan G.; Cragg, Barry A.; Webster, Gordon; Sass, Henrik; Tang, Xiaohong; Williams, Angharad S.; Gorra, Roberta; Weightman, Andrew J.; Parkes, R. John

    2015-01-01

    The impact of temperature (0–80°C) on anaerobic biogeochemical processes and prokaryotic communities in marine sediments (tidal flat) was investigated in slurries for up to 100 days. Temperature had a non-linear effect on biogeochemistry and prokaryotes with rapid changes over small temperature intervals. Some activities (e.g. methanogenesis) had multiple ‘windows’ within a large temperature range (∼10 to 80°C). Others, including acetate oxidation, had maximum activities within a temperature zone, which varied with electron acceptor [metal oxide (up to ∼34°C) and sulphate (up to ∼50°C)]. Substrates for sulphate reduction changed from predominantly acetate below, and H2 above, a 43°C critical temperature, along with changes in activation energies and types of sulphate-reducing Bacteria. Above ∼43°C, methylamine metabolism ceased with changes in methanogen types and increased acetate concentrations (>1 mM). Abundances of uncultured Archaea, characteristic of deep marine sediments (e.g. MBGD Euryarchaeota, ‘Bathyarchaeota’) changed, indicating their possible metabolic activity and temperature range. Bacterial cell numbers were consistently higher than archaeal cells and both decreased above ∼15°C. Substrate addition stimulated activities, widened some activity temperature ranges (methanogenesis) and increased bacterial (×10) more than archaeal cell numbers. Hence, additional organic matter input from climate-related eutrophication may amplify the impact of temperature increases on sedimentary biogeochemistry. PMID:26207045

  18. Complex coupled metabolic and prokaryotic community responses to increasing temperatures in anaerobic marine sediments: critical temperatures and substrate changes.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Erwan G; Cragg, Barry A; Webster, Gordon; Sass, Henrik; Tang, Xiaohong; Williams, Angharad S; Gorra, Roberta; Weightman, Andrew J; Parkes, R John

    2015-08-01

    The impact of temperature (0-80°C) on anaerobic biogeochemical processes and prokaryotic communities in marine sediments (tidal flat) was investigated in slurries for up to 100 days. Temperature had a non-linear effect on biogeochemistry and prokaryotes with rapid changes over small temperature intervals. Some activities (e.g. methanogenesis) had multiple 'windows' within a large temperature range (∼10 to 80°C). Others, including acetate oxidation, had maximum activities within a temperature zone, which varied with electron acceptor [metal oxide (up to ∼34°C) and sulphate (up to ∼50°C)]. Substrates for sulphate reduction changed from predominantly acetate below, and H2 above, a 43°C critical temperature, along with changes in activation energies and types of sulphate-reducing Bacteria. Above ∼43°C, methylamine metabolism ceased with changes in methanogen types and increased acetate concentrations (>1 mM). Abundances of uncultured Archaea, characteristic of deep marine sediments (e.g. MBGD Euryarchaeota, 'Bathyarchaeota') changed, indicating their possible metabolic activity and temperature range. Bacterial cell numbers were consistently higher than archaeal cells and both decreased above ∼15°C. Substrate addition stimulated activities, widened some activity temperature ranges (methanogenesis) and increased bacterial (×10) more than archaeal cell numbers. Hence, additional organic matter input from climate-related eutrophication may amplify the impact of temperature increases on sedimentary biogeochemistry. PMID:26207045

  19. Temperature-induced tissue susceptibility changes lead to significant temperature errors in PRFS-based MR thermometry during thermal interventions.

    PubMed

    Sprinkhuizen, Sara M; Konings, Maurits K; van der Bom, Martijn J; Viergever, Max A; Bakker, Chris J G; Bartels, Lambertus W

    2010-11-01

    Proton resonance frequency shift-based MR thermometry (MRT) is hampered by temporal magnetic field changes. Temporal changes in the magnetic susceptibility distribution lead to nonlocal field changes and are, therefore, a possible source of errors. The magnetic volume susceptibility of tissue is temperature dependent. For water-like tissues, this dependency is in the order of 0.002 ppm/°C. For fat, it is in the same order of magnitude as the temperature dependence of the proton electron screening constant of water (0.01 ppm/°C). For this reason, proton resonance frequency shift-based MR thermometry in fatty tissues, like the human breast, is expected to be prone to errors. We aimed to quantify the influence of the temperature dependence of the susceptibility on proton resonance frequency shift-based MR thermometry. Heating experiments were performed in a controlled phantom set-up to show the impact of temperature-induced susceptibility changes on actual proton resonance frequency shift-based temperature maps. To study the implications for a clinical case, simulations were performed in a 3D breast model. Temperature errors were quantified by computation of magnetic field changes in the glandular tissue, resulting from susceptibility changes in a thermally heated region. The results of the experiments and simulations showed that the temperature-induced susceptibility changes of water and fat lead to significant errors in proton resonance frequency shift-based MR thermometry. PMID:20648685

  20. Assessing the Influence of Precipitation on Diurnal Temperature Range Changes: Implications for Climate Change Projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Hoof, C.; Garreaud, R.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we investigate up to what extent the spatial heterogeneity in the projected changes in DTR during the rest of the 21st century (under several emission scenarios) is explained by the regional variability in projected precipitation changes. DTR is indeed a suitable index of climate variability and change [1] and several studies have highlighted the existence of a negative correlation with both the cloud cover and the precipitation rate over land throughout last century [2]. Precipitation reduces DTR mainly by decreasing surface solar radiation through increased cloud cover and by increasing daytime surface evaporative cooling through increased soil moisture content. Whether or not these processes are captured in the current generation of global and regional models is matter of research. To achieve our objective, we make use of the climate projections made available by the CMIP5 project as well as their historical runs, along with reanalysis and station data. At inter-annual timescale, the seasonal mean DTR simulated by an ensemble of CMIP5 models for the last decades shows a negative relationship over land with the simulated precipitation at zero lag. The correlation is globally very strong except during winter at higher latitudes. This corresponds well with the correlations observed in the re-analysis datasets. Some spatial variability in correlation strength is however noticeable between both datasets. Concerning the projected changes, the negative correlation between DTR and precipitation does not hold globally; no correlation or even positive correlations are observed in different climate regions, including Northern South America and Central Europe. Within this study we will further investigate the physical process that could explain this change in correlation sign as well as the reason why positive correlations are rarely observed or simulated at inter-annual timescale under current climate during summer and at lower latitudes during winter. [1] K. Braganza, D.J. Karoly, and J.M. Arblaster. Diurnal temperature range as an index of global climate change during the twentieth century. Geophysical Research Letters, 31:1-4, 2004. [2] A. Dai, A.D. Del Genio, and I.Y. Fung. Clouds, precipitation and temperature range. Nature, 386:665-666, 1997.

  1. Dangerous Spaces, Dangerous Memories, Dangerous Emotions: Informal Education and Heteronormativity--A Manchester UK Youth Work Vignette

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batsleer, Janet

    2012-01-01

    This article makes a connection between youth work spaces, emotions and some elements of memory, exploring the construction of spaces dangerous for social justice in both meanings of the term "dangerous for". It investigates the contribution to social justice of lesbian and gay youth work and other non-heteronormative youth work in a British…

  2. Determination of time-dependent skin temperature decrease rates in the case of abrupt changes of environmental temperature.

    PubMed

    Mall, G; Hubig, M; Beier, G; Büttner, A; Eisenmenger, W

    2000-09-11

    The present study deals with the development of a method for determining time-dependent temperature decrease rates and its application to postmortem surface cooling. The study concentrates on evaluating skin cooling behavior since data on skin cooling in the forensic literature are scarce. Furthermore, all heat transfer mechanisms strongly depend on the temperature gradient between body surface and environment. One of the main problems in modelling postmortem cooling processes is the dependence on the environmental temperature. All models for postmortem rectal cooling essentially presuppose a constant environmental temperature. In medico-legal practice, the temperature of the surrounding of a corpse mostly varies; therefore, an approach for extending the models to variable environmental temperatures is desirable. It consists in 'localizing' them to infinitesimal small intervals of time. An extended model differential equation is obtained and solved explicitly. The approach developed is applied to the single-exponential Newtonian model of surface cooling producing the following differential equation:T(S)'(t)=-lambda(t)(T(S)(t)-T(E)(t))(with T(S)(t) the surface/skin temperature, T(E)(t) the environmental temperature, lambda(t) the temperature decrease rate and T(S)'(t) the actual change of skin temperature or first-order derivative of T(S)). The differential equation directly provides an estimator:lambda(t)=-T(S)'(t)T(S)(t)-T(E)(t)for the time-dependent temperature decrease rate. The estimator is applied to two skin cooling experiments with different types of abrupt changes of environmental temperature, peak-like and step-like; the values of the time-dependent temperature decrease rate function were calculated. By reinserting them, the measured surface temperature curve could be accurately reconstructed, indicating that the extended model is well suited for describing surface cooling in the case of abrupt changes of environmental temperature. PMID:10978629

  3. Skin sites to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment during periodical changes in air temperature.

    PubMed

    Kim, Siyeon; Lee, Joo-Young

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate stable and valid measurement sites of skin temperatures as a non-invasive variable to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment (PPE) during air temperature changes. Eight male firefighters participated in an experiment which consisted of 60-min exercise and 10-min recovery while wearing PPE without self-contained breathing apparatus (7.75 kg in total PPE mass). Air temperature was periodically fluctuated from 29.5 to 35.5 °C with an amplitude of 6 °C. Rectal temperature was chosen as a deep-body temperature, and 12 skin temperatures were recorded. The results showed that the forehead and chest were identified as the most valid sites to predict rectal temperature (R(2) = 0.826 and 0.824, respectively) in an environment with periodically fluctuated air temperatures. This study suggests that particular skin temperatures are valid as a non-invasive variable when predicting rectal temperature of an individual wearing PPE in changing ambient temperatures. Practitioner Summary: This study should offer assistance for developing a more reliable indirect indicating system of individual heat strain for firefighters in real time, which can be used practically as a precaution of firefighters' heat-related illness and utilised along with physiological monitoring. PMID:26214379

  4. Global surface temperature changes since the 1850s

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.D.

    1996-12-31

    Temperature data from land and marine areas form the basis for many studies of climatic variations on local, regional and hemispheric scales, and the global mean temperature is a fundamental measure of the state of the climate system. In this paper it is shown that the surface temperature of the globe has warmed by about 0.5{degrees}C since the mid-nineteenth century. This is an important part of the evidence in the {open_quote}global warming{close_quote} debate. How certain are we about the magnitude of the warming? Where has it been greatest? In this paper, these and related issues will be addressed.

  5. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Danger signs. 56.12021 Section 56.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger...

  6. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Danger signs. 56.12021 Section 56.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger...

  7. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Danger signs. 56.12021 Section 56.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger...

  8. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Danger signs. 56.12021 Section 56.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger...

  9. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Danger signs. 56.12021 Section 56.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger...

  10. Preferred levels of auditory danger signals.

    PubMed

    Zera, J; Nagórski, A

    2000-01-01

    An important issue at the design stage of the auditory danger signal for a safety system is the signal audibility under various conditions of background noise. The auditory danger signal should be clearly audible but it should not be too loud to avoid fright, startling effects, and nuisance complaints. Criteria for designing auditory danger signals are the subject of the ISO 7731 (International Organization for Standardization [ISO], 1986) international standard and the EN 457 European standard (European Committee for Standardization [CEN], 1992). It is required that the A-weighted sound pressure level of the auditory danger signal is higher in level than the background noise by 15 dB. In this paper, the results of an experiment are reported, in which listeners adjusted most preferred levels of 3 danger signals (tone, sweep, complex sound) in the presence of a noise background (pink noise and industrial noise). The measurements were done for 60-, 70-, 80-, and 90-dB A-weighted levels of noise. Results show that for 60-dB level of noise the most preferred level of the danger signal is 10 to 20 dB above the noise level. However, for 90-dB level of noise, listeners selected a level of the danger signal that was equal to the noise level. Results imply that the criterion in the existing standards is conservative as it requires the level of the danger signal to be higher than the level of noise regardless of the noise level. PMID:10828157

  11. 29 CFR 1903.13 - Imminent danger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Imminent danger. 1903.13 Section 1903.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.13 Imminent danger. Whenever and as soon as a Compliance Safety and Health Officer concludes on...

  12. Tennessee Killing Underscores Job Dangers for Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonn, Jessica L.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author stresses the dangers facing school leaders on the job. The school shooting at Campbell County Comprehensive High School in Jacksboro, Tennessee, on November 8, 2005, which left one assistant principal dead and the principal and another assistant principal seriously wounded, is an extreme example of dangers school…

  13. 29 CFR 1903.13 - Imminent danger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Imminent danger. 1903.13 Section 1903.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.13 Imminent danger. Whenever and as soon as a Compliance Safety and Health Officer concludes on...

  14. Temperature changes across porcelain during multiple exposure CO2 lasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, Joseph R.; Zakariasen, Kenneth L.; Peacocke, Larry

    1990-06-01

    Research indicates that laser energy may provide a useful method for glazing and fusing porcelain for intraoral prosthetic purposes. However, it is not known whether such lasing will result in the production of heat levels that may be damaging to adjacent vital tissues such as the dental pulp and periodontal tissues. This research is designed to measure the magnitude of temperature rise across porcelain observed during multiple exposure C02 lasing. Fifteen porcelain examples of 1000 jim (5), 1500 pm (5) and 2000 tm (5) x each received five C02 laser exposures on the same exposure site at 1.0 sec. intervals at 8.0 watts (0.2 sec. per exposure with a 1 mm focal spot). A YSI 144201 thermilinear precision thermistor was placed on the porcelain surface opposite each laser exposure site. Temperature rise above ambient was recorded by an HP3421A data acquisition unit and HP9816 technical microcomputer. Recording continued for sufficient time to allow temperatures to return to ambient. The mean temperature elevations ranged from a low of 2.97 0C (2000 pm) to a high of 7.77 °C (1000 μm). ANOVA and Duncan's Multiple Range Test indicated significant differences in temperature rise by porcelain thickness. It would appear from the results of this research that temperature elevations adjacent to lased porcelain may be sufficiently controllable that safe intraoral porcelain lasing will be possible.

  15. Climate Change: A New Metric to Measure Changes in the Frequency of Extreme Temperatures using Record Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munasinghe, L.; Jun, T.; Rind, D. H.

    2012-01-01

    Consensus on global warming is the result of multiple and varying lines of evidence, and one key ramification is the increase in frequency of extreme climate events including record high temperatures. Here we develop a metric- called "record equivalent draws" (RED)-based on record high (low) temperature observations, and show that changes in RED approximate changes in the likelihood of extreme high (low) temperatures. Since we also show that this metric is independent of the specifics of the underlying temperature distributions, RED estimates can be aggregated across different climates to provide a genuinely global assessment of climate change. Using data on monthly average temperatures across the global landmass we find that the frequency of extreme high temperatures increased 10-fold between the first three decades of the last century (1900-1929) and the most recent decade (1999-2008). A more disaggregated analysis shows that the increase in frequency of extreme high temperatures is greater in the tropics than in higher latitudes, a pattern that is not indicated by changes in mean temperature. Our RED estimates also suggest concurrent increases in the frequency of both extreme high and extreme low temperatures during 2002-2008, a period when we observe a plateauing of global mean temperature. Using daily extreme temperature observations, we find that the frequency of extreme high temperatures is greater in the daily minimum temperature time-series compared to the daily maximum temperature time-series. There is no such observable difference in the frequency of extreme low temperatures between the daily minimum and daily maximum.

  16. Effect of climate change on water temperature and attainment of water temperature criteria in the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Cheryl A.; Sharp, Darrin; Mochon Collura, T. Chris

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that our planet is warming and this warming is also resulting in rising sea levels. Estuaries which are located at the interface between land and ocean are impacted by these changes. We used CE-QUAL-W2 water quality model to predict changes in water temperature as a function of increasing air temperatures and rising sea level for the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon (USA). Annual average air temperature in the Yaquina watershed is expected to increase about 0.3 °C per decade by 2040-2069. An air temperature increase of 3 °C in the Yaquina watershed is likely to result in estuarine water temperature increasing by 0.7-1.6 °C. Largest water temperature increases are expected in the upper portion of the estuary, while sea level rise may mitigate some of the warming in the lower portion of the estuary. Smallest changes in water temperature are predicted to occur in the summer, and maximum changes during the winter and spring. Increases in air temperature may result in an increase in the number of days per year that the 7-day maximum average temperature exceeds 18 °C (criterion for protection of rearing and migration of salmonids and trout) as well as other water quality concerns. In the upstream portion of the estuary, a 4 °C increase in air temperature is predicted to cause an increase of 40 days not meeting the temperature criterion, while in the lower estuary the increase will depend upon rate of sea level rise (ranging from 31 to 19 days).

  17. Potential climate change effects on rice: Carbon dioxide and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.T.; Boote, K.J.; Allen, L.H. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    The projected doubling of current levels of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration [CO{sub 2}] during the next century, along with increases in other radiatively active gases, has led to predictions of increases in global air temperature and shifts in precipitation patterns. Since 1987, several [CO{sub 2}] and temperature experiments have been conducted on rice (Oryza sativa L., cv. IR-30) in outdoor, naturally-sunlit, environmentally-controlled, plant growth chambers. The objectives of this chapter are to summarize some of the major findings of these experiments. In these experiments, season-long [CO{sub 2}] treatments ranged from 160 to 900 {micro}mol CO{sub 2} mol{sup {minus}1} air, while temperature treatments ranged from 25/18/21 to 40/33/37 C (daytime dry bulb air temperature/nighttime dry bulb air temperature/constant paddy water temperature). Total growth duration was shortened by 10 to 12 d as [CO{sub 2}] increased across a [CO{sub 2}] range from 160 to 500 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1}, due mainly to a shortened vegetative phase of development and a reduction in the number of mainstem leaves formed prior to panicle initiation. Photosynthesis, growth, and final grain yield increased with [CO{sub 2}] from 160 to 500 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1}, but were very similar from 500 to 900 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1}. Carbon dioxide enrichment from 330 to 660 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1} increased grain yield mainly by increasing the number of panicles per plant, and increasing temperature treatment above 28/21/25 C resulted in decreased grain yield, due largely to a decline in the number of filled grain per panicle. Evapotranspiration decreased and water-use efficiency increased with increasing [CO{sub 2}] treatment, while the reverse trends were found with increasing temperature treatment. 60 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. A simplified physically-based model to calculate surface water temperature of lakes from air temperature in climate change scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccolroaz, S.; Toffolon, M.

    2012-12-01

    Modifications of water temperature are crucial for the ecology of lakes, but long-term analyses are not usually able to provide reliable estimations. This is particularly true for climate change studies based on Global Circulation Models, whose mesh size is normally too coarse for explicitly including even some of the biggest lakes on Earth. On the other hand, modeled predictions of air temperature changes are more reliable, and long-term, high-resolution air temperature observational datasets are more available than water temperature measurements. For these reasons, air temperature series are often used to obtain some information about the surface temperature of water bodies. In order to do that, it is common to exploit regression models, but they are questionable especially when it is necessary to extrapolate current trends beyond maximum (or minimum) measured temperatures. Moreover, water temperature is influenced by a variety of processes of heat exchange across the lake surface and by the thermal inertia of the water mass, which also causes an annual hysteresis cycle between air and water temperatures that is hard to consider in regressions. In this work we propose a simplified, physically-based model for the estimation of the epilimnetic temperature in lakes. Starting from the zero-dimensional heat budget, we derive a simplified first-order differential equation for water temperature, primarily forced by a seasonally varying external term (mainly related to solar radiation) and an exchange term explicitly depending on the difference between air and water temperatures. Assuming annual sinusoidal cycles of the main heat flux components at the atmosphere-lake interface, eight parameters (some of them can be disregarded, though) are identified, which can be calibrated if two temporal series of air and water temperature are available. We note that such a calibration is supported by the physical interpretation of the parameters, which provide good initial conditions. As a general result, the model allows one to obtain long-term series of estimated water temperatures, which can be valuably considered in climate change studies. The model has been applied to different lakes (Lake Baikal, Siberia; Lake Garda, Italy; Great Lakes, Canada and USA; Lake Mara, Canada) showing a noticeable agreement with the validation datasets and allowing for predictions of future trends of lake surface water temperature. Finally, it is worth noting that if the model is calibrated using air temperature series from climate models (global scale) and measured records of water temperature (lake scale), air temperatures are contemporaneously converted and downscaled. In conclusion, the model can be used as a downscaling tool, both for historical conditions and projected scenarios.

  19. Assessing Climate Change: Temperatures, Solar Radiation and Heat Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Marvin

    2008-08-01

    The science of climate change is being investigated by thousands of scientists, is constantly in the news, and is discussed in the political arena worldwide. My Internet search on the words ``climate change'' produced about 40,600,000 hits. The 2007 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to former U.S. vice president Al Gore and the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Of course, the subject goes beyond the science. The debate on what, if anything, should be done about humankind's influence on climate is the subject of U.S. and international political debate.

  20. Comparison of two approaches to measurement of electrical impedance of glass microelectrodes designed for evaluation of temperature changes in biological tissues.

    PubMed

    Rech, F; Dittert, I; Vyskocil, F

    1992-01-01

    We proposed a temperature sensitive microelectrode for rapid measurements of temperature at the cellular level. In principle, the electrical impedance of the tip of the microelectrode changes with temperature. We designed an impulse measurement system (STEP) sensitive to the above changes of impedance. The system is based on a presettable negative input impedance of the current to a voltage converter. We compared the efficiency of the new STEP with the currently used RAMP system. We found following advantages of the STEP system: i) the danger of high voltage oscillations which could mechanically destroy the microelectrode tip is eliminated; ii) this system provides the opportunity to set the maximum sensitivity of the system according to the measured temperature interval. Moreover, the STEP method makes it possible to measure the resistance by using a sinusoidal stimulation signal which has to be preliminarily compensated by a rectangular signal. The shortest sampling period of the new system represents 0.1 ms with a resolution higher than 0.1 K and sensitivity better than 30 mV/K. PMID:1286091

  1. Changes in Population Occupancy of Bradyrhizobia under Diffrent Temperature Regimes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains (USDA 6T, 38, and 123) and Bradyrhizobium elkanii strain (USDA 76T) were conducted to compare their respective proliferation traits under different cultivation temperature conditions with yeast-extract mannitol broth medium and to estimate the strain p...

  2. Volcanic Contribution to Decadal Changes in Tropospheric Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santer, Benjamin D.; Bonfils, Celine; Painter, Jeffrey F.; Zelinka, Mark D.; Mears, Carl; Solomon, Susan; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Fyfe, John C.; Cole, Jason N.S.; Nazarenko, Larissa; Taylor, Karl E.; Wentz, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite continued growth in atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, global mean surface and tropospheric temperatures have shown slower warming since 1998 than previously. Possible explanations for the slow-down include internal climate variability, external cooling influences and observational errors. Several recent modelling studies have examined the contribution of early twenty-first-century volcanic eruptions to the muted surface warming. Here we present a detailed analysis of the impact of recent volcanic forcing on tropospheric temperature, based on observations as well as climate model simulations. We identify statistically significant correlations between observations of stratospheric aerosol optical depth and satellite-based estimates of both tropospheric temperature and short-wave fluxes at the top of the atmosphere. We show that climate model simulations without the effects of early twenty-first-century volcanic eruptions overestimate the tropospheric warming observed since 1998. In two simulations with more realistic volcanic influences following the 1991 Pinatubo eruption, differences between simulated and observed tropospheric temperature trends over the period 1998 to 2012 are up to 15% smaller, with large uncertainties in the magnitude of the effect. To reduce these uncertainties, better observations of eruption-specific properties of volcanic aerosols are needed, as well as improved representation of these eruption-specific properties in climate model simulations.

  3. Continental temperature change during Early Eocene hyperthermal events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, Martin; Abels, Hemmo; de Winter, Nils; Gingerich, Philip; Bernasconi, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    Carbonate clumped isotope thermometry has great potential for solving long-standing questions in paleoclimatology as it provides temperature estimates that are independent from assumptions regarding the isotopic or elemental composition of water from which the carbonate precipitated. The clumped isotope group at ETH has worked towards decreasing the sample size requirements and derived new calibrations for the Kiel method based on synthetic and natural calcites. Here we present results of clumped isotope based continental temperatures across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). The Bighorn Basin of northwestern Wyoming provides hundreds of meters of excellently exposed river floodplain strata of Paleocene and early Eocene age. Records of the the largest greenhouse-warming episode in this interval of time, were recovered soon after their discovery in deep marine sediments. This has allowed intensive study of the major impact this greenhouse warming event had on continental interior climate. Recently, records of four successive, smaller, transient greenhouse warming events in the early Eocene - ETM2/H1/Elmo, H2, I1, and I2 - were located in the fluvial rock record of the basin. We show that the (summer) temperature excursions during hyperthermal events in continental mid-latitudes were amplified compared to marine temperatures and proportional to the size of associated carbon isotope excursions.

  4. Water Temperature changes in the Mississippi River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we demonstrate the transfer of a physically based semi-Lagrangian water temperature model (RBM) to EPA, its linkage with the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model, and its calibration to and demonstration for the Mississippi River Basin (MRB). The r...

  5. Involvement of GABA in environmental temperature-induced change in body temperature.

    PubMed

    Biswas, S; Poddar, M K

    1988-12-01

    Acute exposure of adult male albino rats (110-120 g) to higher environmental temperature (40 +/- 1 degrees C) increased body temperature (BT). This increase of BT was also dependent on the duration of exposure. Treatment with muscimol (1 mg/kg, i.p.), a GABA agonist, produced hypothermia at room temperature (28 +/- 1 degree C) and resistance to increase the body temperature when exposed to higher temperature (40 +/- 1 degree C). Administration of bicuculline (1 mg/kg, i.p.), a GABA antagonist, on the other hand, enhanced BT more than that observed in control (normal) rat exposed to higher temperature (40 +/- 1 degree C), although at room temperature bicuculline treatment did not show any effect on BT. Pretreatment with ethanolamine-O-sulfate (EOS) (2 g/kg, s.c.), a GABA transaminase inhibitor, to rats exposed to higher temperature increased BT as in control (normal) rat. Inhibition of central GAD activity with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) (70 mg/kg, i.p.) produced resistance to increase BT during its period of action when rats were exposed to higher environmental temperature (28 +/- 1 degree C). These results thus suggest that central inhibitory neuron, GABA, plays a regulatory role in thermoregulation. PMID:3236943

  6. Spring temperature change and its implication in the change of vegetation growth in North America from 1982 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuhui; Piao, Shilong; Ciais, Philippe; Li, Junsheng; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Koven, Charlie; Chen, Anping

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how vegetation growth responds to climate change is a critical requirement for projecting future ecosystem dynamics. Parts of North America (NA) have experienced a spring cooling trend over the last three decades, but little is known about the response of vegetation growth to this change. Using observed climate data and satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from 1982 to 2006, we investigated changes in spring (April–May) temperature trends and their impact on vegetation growth in NA. A piecewise linear regression approach shows that the trend in spring temperature is not continuous through the 25-year period. In the northwestern region of NA, spring temperature increased until the late 1980s or early 1990s, and stalled or decreased afterwards. In response, a spring vegetation greening trend, which was evident in this region during the 1980s, stalled or reversed recently. Conversely, an opposite phenomenon occurred in the northeastern region of NA due to different spring temperature trends. Additionally, the trends of summer vegetation growth vary between the periods before and after the turning point (TP) of spring temperature trends. This change cannot be fully explained by summer drought stress change alone and is partly explained by changes in the trends of spring temperature as well as those of summer temperature. As reported in previous studies, summer vegetation browning trends have occurred in the northwestern region of NA since the early 1990s, which is consistent with the spring and summer cooling trends in this region during this period. PMID:21220297

  7. Spring temperature change and its implication in the change of vegetation growth in North America from 1982 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuhui; Piao, Shilong; Ciais, Philippe; Li, Junsheng; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Koven, Charlie; Chen, Anping

    2011-01-25

    Understanding how vegetation growth responds to climate change is a critical requirement for projecting future ecosystem dynamics. Parts of North America (NA) have experienced a spring cooling trend over the last three decades, but little is known about the response of vegetation growth to this change. Using observed climate data and satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from 1982 to 2006, we investigated changes in spring (April-May) temperature trends and their impact on vegetation growth in NA. A piecewise linear regression approach shows that the trend in spring temperature is not continuous through the 25-year period. In the northwestern region of NA, spring temperature increased until the late 1980s or early 1990s, and stalled or decreased afterwards. In response, a spring vegetation greening trend, which was evident in this region during the 1980s, stalled or reversed recently. Conversely, an opposite phenomenon occurred in the northeastern region of NA due to different spring temperature trends. Additionally, the trends of summer vegetation growth vary between the periods before and after the turning point (TP) of spring temperature trends. This change cannot be fully explained by summer drought stress change alone and is partly explained by changes in the trends of spring temperature as well as those of summer temperature. As reported in previous studies, summer vegetation browning trends have occurred in the northwestern region of NA since the early 1990s, which is consistent with the spring and summer cooling trends in this region during this period. PMID:21220297

  8. A closer look at temperature changes with remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, Markus; Rocchini, Duccio; Neteler, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Temperature is a main driver for important ecological processes. Time series temperature data provide key environmental indicators for various applications and research fields. High spatial and temporal resolution is crucial in order to perform detailed analyses in various fields of research. While meteorological station data are commonly used, they often lack completeness or are not distributed in a representative way. Remotely sensed thermal images from polar orbiting satellites are considered to be a good alternative to the scarce meteorological data as they offer almost continuous coverage of the Earth with very high temporal resolution. A drawback of temperature data obtained by satellites is the occurrence of gaps (due to clouds, aerosols) that must be filled. We have reconstructed a seamless and gap-free time series for land surface temperature (LST) at continental scale for Europe from MODIS LST products (Moderate Resolution Imaging Sensor instruments onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites), keeping the temporal resolution of four records per day and enhancing the spatial resolution from 1 km to 250 m. Here we present a new procedure to reconstruct MODIS LST time series with unprecedented detail in space and time, at the same time providing continental coverage. Our method constitutes a unique new combination of weighted temporal averaging with statistical modeling and spatial interpolation. We selected as auxiliary variables datasets which are globally available in order to propose a worldwide reproducible method. Compared to existing similar datasets, the substantial quantitative difference translates to a qualitative difference in applications and results. We consider both our dataset and the new procedure for its creation to be of utmost interest to a broad interdisciplinary audience. Moreover, we provide examples for its implications and applications, such as disease risk assessment, epidemiology, environmental monitoring, and temperature anomalies. In the near future, aggregated derivatives of our dataset (following the BIOCLIM variable scheme) will be freely made online available for direct usage in GIS based applications.

  9. Forest fire danger rating in complex topography - results from a case study in the Bavarian Alps in autumn 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schunk, C.; Wastl, C.; Leuchner, M.; Schuster, C.; Menzel, A.

    2013-09-01

    Forest fire danger rating based on sparse meteorological stations is known to be potentially misleading when assigned to larger areas of complex topography. This case study examines several fire danger indices based on data from two meteorological stations at different elevations during a major drought period. This drought was caused by a persistent high pressure system, inducing a pronounced temperature inversion and its associated thermal belt with much warmer, dryer conditions in intermediate elevations. Thus, a massive drying of fuels, leading to higher fire danger levels, and multiple fire occurrences at mid-slope positions were contrasted by moderate fire danger especially in the valleys. The ability of fire danger indices to resolve this situation was studied based on a comparison with the actual fire danger as determined from expert observations, fire occurrences and fuel moisture measurements. The results revealed that, during temperature inversion, differences in daily cycles of meteorological parameters influence fire danger and that these are not resolved by standard meteorological stations and fire danger indices (calculated on a once-a-day basis). Additional stations in higher locations or high-resolution meteorological models combined with fire danger indices accepting at least hourly input data may allow reasonable fire danger calculations under these circumstances.

  10. Forest fire danger rating in complex topography - results from a case study in the Bavarian Alps in autumn 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schunk, C.; Wastl, C.; Leuchner, M.; Schuster, C.; Menzel, A.

    2013-04-01

    Forest fire danger rating based on sparse meteorological stations is known to be potentially misleading when assigned to larger areas with a complex topography. This case study examines outputs of several fire danger rating systems based on data from two meteorological stations in different elevations during a major drought period. This drought was caused by a persistent high pressure system, inducing a pronounced temperature inversion with cool, humid conditions in the lower and warmer, dryer conditions in the upper layer. Thus, a massive drying of fuels, leading to a high fire danger level and multiple fire occurrences at higher elevations were contrasted by moderate fire danger in the valleys. The relative accuracy of fire danger rating indices was studied based on a comparison with the actual fire danger as determined from expert observations, fire occurrences and fuel moisture measurements. The results revealed that, during temperature inversion, differences in daily cycles of meteorological parameters influence fire danger and that these are not resolved by standard meteorological stations and fire danger indices. Additional stations in higher locations or high-resolution meteorological models in combination with fire danger indices that accept hourly input data may allow reasonable fire danger calculations under these circumstances.

  11. Can air temperatures be used to project influences of climate change on stream temperatures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arismendi, I.; Safeeq, M.; Dunham, J.; Johnson, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    The lack of available in situ stream temperature records at broad spatiotemporal scales have been recognized as a major limiting factor in the understanding of thermal behavior of stream and river systems. This has motivated the promotion of a wide variety of models that use surrogates for stream temperatures including a regression approach that uses air temperature as the predictor variable. We investigate the long-term performance of widely used linear and non-linear regression models between air and stream temperatures to project the latter in future climate scenarios. Specifically, we examine the temporal variability of the parameters that define each of these models in long-term stream and air temperature datasets representing relatively natural and highly human-influenced streams. We selected 25 sites with long-term records that monitored year-round daily measurements of stream temperature (daily mean) in the western United States (California, Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and Alaska). Surface air temperature data from each site was not available. Therefore, we calculated daily mean surface air temperature for each site in contiguous US from a 1/16-degree resolution gridded surface temperature data. Our findings highlight several limitations that are endemic to linear or nonlinear regressions that have been applied in many recent attempts to project future stream temperatures based on air temperature. Our results also show that applications over longer time periods, as well as extrapolation of model predictions to project future stream temperatures are unlikely to be reliable. Although we did not analyze a broad range of stream types at a continental or global extent, our analysis of stream temperatures within the set of streams considered herein was more than sufficient to illustrate a number of specific limitations associated with statistical projections of stream temperature based on air temperature. Radar plots of Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) values for the two correlation models in regulated (n=14; lower panel) and unregulated (n=11; upper panel) streams. Solid lines represent average × SD of the NSE estimated for different time periods every 5-year. Dotted line at each plot indicates a NSE = 0.7. Symbols outside of the dotted line at each plot represent a satisfactory level of accuracy of the model

  12. Metastable Changes to the Temperature Coefficients of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Deceglie, M. G.; Silverman, T. J.; Marion, B.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2014-07-01

    Transient changes in the performance of thin-film modules with light exposure are a well-known and widely reported phenomenon. These changes are often the result of reversible metastabilities rather than irreversible changes. Here we consider how these metastable changes affect the temperature dependence of photovoltaic performance. We find that in CIGS modules exhibiting a metastable increase in performance with light exposure, the light exposure also induces an increase in the magnitude of the temperature coefficient. It is important to understand such changes when characterizing temperature coefficients and when analyzing the outdoor performance of newly installed modules.

  13. Local warming: daily temperature change influences belief in global warming.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Johnson, Eric J; Zaval, Lisa

    2011-04-01

    Although people are quite aware of global warming, their beliefs about it may be malleable; specifically, their beliefs may be constructed in response to questions about global warming. Beliefs may reflect irrelevant but salient information, such as the current day's temperature. This replacement of a more complex, less easily accessed judgment with a simple, more accessible one is known as attribute substitution. In three studies, we asked residents of the United States and Australia to report their opinions about global warming and whether the temperature on the day of the study was warmer or cooler than usual. Respondents who thought that day was warmer than usual believed more in and had greater concern about global warming than did respondents who thought that day was colder than usual. They also donated more money to a global-warming charity if they thought that day seemed warmer than usual. We used instrumental variable regression to rule out some alternative explanations. PMID:21372325

  14. Observed and projected changes in absolute temperature records across the contiguous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abatzoglou, John T.; Barbero, Renaud

    2014-09-01

    Changes in the extent of absolute, all-time, daily temperature records across the contiguous United States were examined using observations and climate model simulations. Observations from station data and reanalysis from 1980 to 2013 show increased extent of absolute highest temperature records and decreased extent of absolute lowest temperature records. Conversely, station data from 1920 to 2013 showed decreased extent of absolute highest records with nearly half of such records occurring in the 1930s during exceptional widespread drought. Simulated changes in the extent of absolute temperature records from climate model experiments were in general agreement with observed changes for recent decades. However, fewer lowest temperature records and highest temperature records were observed since 2000 than simulated by most models. Climate models project a continued increase in the occurrence of highest temperature records and decline in lowest temperature records through the mid-21st century.

  15. Predicting global average thermospheric temperature changes resulting from auroral heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weimer, D. R.; Bowman, B. R.; Sutton, E. K.; Tobiska, W. K.

    2011-01-01

    The total Poynting flux flowing into both polar hemispheres as a function of time, computed with an empirical model, is compared with measurements of neutral densities in the thermosphere at two altitudes obtained from accelerometers on the CHAMP and GRACE satellites. The Jacchia-Bowman 2008 empirical thermospheric density model (JB2008) is used to facilitate the comparison. This model calculates a background level for the global nighttime minimum exospheric temperature, Tc, from solar indices. Corrections to this background level due to auroral heating, ?Tc, are presently computed from the Dst index. A proxy measurement of this temperature difference, ?Tc, is obtained by matching the CHAMP and GRACE density measurements with the JB2008 model. Through the use of a differential equation, the ?Tc correction can be predicted from IMF values. The resulting calculations correlate very well with the orbit-averaged measurements of ?Tc, and correlate better than the values derived from Dst. Results indicate that the thermosphere cools faster following time periods with greater ionospheric heating. The enhanced cooling is likely due to nitric oxide (NO) that is produced at a higher rate in proportion to the ionospheric heating, and this effect is simulated in the differential equations. As the ?Tc temperature correction from this model can be used as a direct substitute for the Dst-derived correction that is now used in JB200, it could be possible to predict ?Tc with greater accuracy and lead time.

  16. Seasonal Temperature Changes Do Not Affect Cardiac Glucose Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Schildt, Jukka; Loimaala, Antti; Hippeläinen, Eero; Nikkinen, Päivi; Ahonen, Aapo

    2015-01-01

    FDG-PET/CT is widely used to diagnose cardiac inflammation such as cardiac sarcoidosis. Physiological myocardial FDG uptake often creates a problem when assessing the possible pathological glucose metabolism of the heart. Several factors, such as fasting, blood glucose, and hormone levels, influence normal myocardial glucose metabolism. The effect of outdoor temperature on myocardial FDG uptake has not been reported before. We retrospectively reviewed 29 cancer patients who underwent PET scans in warm summer months and again in cold winter months. We obtained myocardial, liver, and mediastinal standardized uptake values (SUVs) as well as quantitative cardiac heterogeneity and the myocardial FDG uptake pattern. We also compared age and body mass index to other variables. The mean myocardial FDG uptake showed no significant difference between summer and winter months. Average outdoor temperature did not correlate significantly with myocardial SUVmax in either summer or winter. The heterogeneity of myocardial FDG uptake did not differ significantly between seasons. Outdoor temperature seems to have no significant effect on myocardial FDG uptake or heterogeneity. Therefore, warming the patients prior to attending cardiac PET studies in order to reduce physiological myocardial FDG uptake seems to be unnecessary. PMID:26858844

  17. Seasonal Temperature Changes Do Not Affect Cardiac Glucose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Schildt, Jukka; Loimaala, Antti; Hippeläinen, Eero; Nikkinen, Päivi; Ahonen, Aapo

    2015-01-01

    FDG-PET/CT is widely used to diagnose cardiac inflammation such as cardiac sarcoidosis. Physiological myocardial FDG uptake often creates a problem when assessing the possible pathological glucose metabolism of the heart. Several factors, such as fasting, blood glucose, and hormone levels, influence normal myocardial glucose metabolism. The effect of outdoor temperature on myocardial FDG uptake has not been reported before. We retrospectively reviewed 29 cancer patients who underwent PET scans in warm summer months and again in cold winter months. We obtained myocardial, liver, and mediastinal standardized uptake values (SUVs) as well as quantitative cardiac heterogeneity and the myocardial FDG uptake pattern. We also compared age and body mass index to other variables. The mean myocardial FDG uptake showed no significant difference between summer and winter months. Average outdoor temperature did not correlate significantly with myocardial SUVmax in either summer or winter. The heterogeneity of myocardial FDG uptake did not differ significantly between seasons. Outdoor temperature seems to have no significant effect on myocardial FDG uptake or heterogeneity. Therefore, warming the patients prior to attending cardiac PET studies in order to reduce physiological myocardial FDG uptake seems to be unnecessary. PMID:26858844

  18. Amplification and dampening of soil respiration by changes in temperature variability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sierra, C.A.; Harmon, M.E.; Thomann, E.; Perakis, S.S.; Loescher, H.W.

    2011-01-01

    Accelerated release of carbon from soils is one of the most important feed backs related to anthropogenically induced climate change. Studies addressing the mechanisms for soil carbon release through organic matter decomposition have focused on the effect of changes in the average temperature, with little attention to changes in temperature vari-ability. Anthropogenic activities are likely to modify both the average state and the variability of the climatic system; therefore, the effects of future warming on decomposition should not only focus on trends in the average temperature, but also variability expressed as a change of the probability distribution of temperature.Using analytical and numerical analyses we tested common relationships between temperature and respiration and found that the variability of temperature plays an important role determining respiration rates of soil organic matter. Changes in temperature variability, without changes in the average temperature, can affect the amount of carbon released through respiration over the long term. Furthermore, simultaneous changes in the average and variance of temperature can either amplify or dampen there release of carbon through soil respiration as climate regimes change. The effects depend on the degree of convexity of the relationship between temperature and respiration and the magnitude of the change in temperature variance. A potential consequence of this effect of variability would be higher respiration in regions where both the mean and variance of temperature are expected to increase, such as in some low latitude regions; and lower amounts of respiration where the average temperature is expected to increase and the variance to decrease, such as in northern high latitudes.

  19. Parameterization of temperature sensitivity of spring phenology and its application in explaining diverse phenological responses to temperature change

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huanjiong; Ge, Quansheng; Rutishauser, This; Dai, Yuxiao; Dai, Junhu

    2015-01-01

    Existing evidence of plant phenological change to temperature increase demonstrates that the phenological responsiveness is greater at warmer locations and in early-season plant species. Explanations of these findings are scarce and not settled. Some studies suggest considering phenology as one functional trait within a plant's life history strategy. In this study, we adapt an existing phenological model to derive a generalized sensitivity in space (SpaceSens) model for calculating temperature sensitivity of spring plant phenophases across species and locations. The SpaceSens model have three parameters, including the temperature at the onset date of phenophases (Tp), base temperature threshold (Tb) and the length of period (L) used to calculate the mean temperature when performing regression analysis between phenology and temperature. A case study on first leaf date of 20 plant species from eastern China shows that the change of Tp and Tb among different species accounts for interspecific difference in temperature sensitivity. Moreover, lower Tp at lower latitude is the main reason why spring phenological responsiveness is greater there. These results suggest that spring phenophases of more responsive, early-season plants (especially in low latitude) will probably continue to diverge from the other late-season plants with temperatures warming in the future. PMID:25743934

  20. Parameterization of temperature sensitivity of spring phenology and its application in explaining diverse phenological responses to temperature change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huanjiong; Ge, Quansheng; Rutishauser, This; Dai, Yuxiao; Dai, Junhu

    2015-03-01

    Existing evidence of plant phenological change to temperature increase demonstrates that the phenological responsiveness is greater at warmer locations and in early-season plant species. Explanations of these findings are scarce and not settled. Some studies suggest considering phenology as one functional trait within a plant's life history strategy. In this study, we adapt an existing phenological model to derive a generalized sensitivity in space (SpaceSens) model for calculating temperature sensitivity of spring plant phenophases across species and locations. The SpaceSens model have three parameters, including the temperature at the onset date of phenophases (Tp), base temperature threshold (Tb) and the length of period (L) used to calculate the mean temperature when performing regression analysis between phenology and temperature. A case study on first leaf date of 20 plant species from eastern China shows that the change of Tp and Tb among different species accounts for interspecific difference in temperature sensitivity. Moreover, lower Tp at lower latitude is the main reason why spring phenological responsiveness is greater there. These results suggest that spring phenophases of more responsive, early-season plants (especially in low latitude) will probably continue to diverge from the other late-season plants with temperatures warming in the future.

  1. Intruder-induced change in condensation temperature of granular gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kuo-Ching; Hsieh, Wan-Lin; Lin, Chi-Hao

    2011-02-01

    The process from a gaseous state to a clustering state for a compartmentalized monodisperse granular gas is accompanied by a drop in the granular temperature to a condensation point. We show experimentally that adding an intruder generally results in a decrease in the condensation point, and a heavier intruder makes this decrease more pronounced. However, once the Brazil nut effect (the intruder on the top of clustering grains) occurs, the condensation point will rise. Through the balance of particle fluxes and the hydrodynamic balance of driving forces, we analytically calculated the condensation point for the monodisperse gases and the intruder-fluid mixtures. The analytical results match the experimental data.

  2. Ultrasound monitoring of temperature change in liver tissue during laser thermotherapy: 10 degrees C intervals.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari-Dizaji, M; Gorji-Ara, T; Ghanaeati, H; Kalbasi, M

    2007-01-01

    In thermal tissue ablation, it is very important to control the increase in the temperature for having an efficient ablation therapy. We conducted this study to determine the efficacy of measuring pixel shift of ultrasound B-mode images as a function of change in tissue temperature. By fixing some micro thermocouples in liver tissues, temperature at different points was monitored invasively in vitro during laser-induced thermotherapy. According to our results optimum power and exposure time were determined for ultrasound temperature monitoring. Simultaneously, noninvasive temperature monitoring was performed with ultrasound B-mode images. These images were saved on computer from 25 degrees C to 95 degrees C with 10 degrees C steps. The speed of sound changes with each 10 degrees C temperature change that produce virtual shifts in the scatter positions. Using an image processing method, the pixel shift due to 10 degrees C temperature change was extracted by motion detection. The cubic regression function between the mean pixel shifts on ultrasound B-mode images caused by the change in speed of sound which in turn was a function of the mean change in temperature was evaluated. When temperature increased, pixel shift occurs in ultrasound images. The maximum pixel shift was observed between 60 to 70 degrees C. After 70 degrees C, the local pixel shift due to change in the speed of sound in liver tissue had an irregular decreasing. Pearson correlation coefficient between invasive and non-invasive measurements for 10 degrees C temperature changes was 0.93 and the non-linear function was suitable for monitoring of temperature. Monitoring of changes in temperature based on pixel shifts observed in ultrasound B-mode images in interstitial laser thermotherapy of liver seems a good modality. PMID:18002409

  3. 29 CFR 1903.13 - Imminent danger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.13 Imminent danger. Whenever and as soon as a Compliance... relief in accordance with the provisions of section 13(a) of the Act. Appropriate citations and...

  4. 29 CFR 1903.13 - Imminent danger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.13 Imminent danger. Whenever and as soon as a Compliance... relief in accordance with the provisions of section 13(a) of the Act. Appropriate citations and...

  5. 29 CFR 1903.13 - Imminent danger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.13 Imminent danger. Whenever and as soon as a Compliance... relief in accordance with the provisions of section 13(a) of the Act. Appropriate citations and...

  6. Potentially Dangerous Items for Your Pet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Resources for You Animal Health Literacy Potentially Dangerous Items for Your Pet Share Tweet ... at 1-888-426-4435. More in Animal Health Literacy CVM Kid's Page Page Last Updated: 08/27/ ...

  7. Booze, High Blood Pressure a Dangerous Mix

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158828.html Booze, High Blood Pressure a Dangerous Mix Study links moderate drinking to heart damage in people with hypertension To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  8. Is Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) Dangerous?

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Joslin Research Advocacy & Gov't Affairs History Managing Diabetes Childhood Diabetes Nutrition Exercise Online Diabetes Classes Discussion ... Support Our Donors Development Team Diabetes Information & Resources » Managing Diabetes » Is Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) Dangerous? FOLLOW US ...

  9. Using Spectral Methods to Quantify Changes in Temperature Variability across Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, S.; McInerney, D.; Stein, M.; Leeds, W.; Poppick, A. N.; Nazarenko, L.; Schmidt, G. A.; Moyer, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in future surface temperature variability are of great scientific and societal interest. Since the impact of variability on human society depends on not only the magnitude but also the frequency of variations, shifts in the marginal distribution of temperatures do not provide enough information for impacts assessment. Leeds et al (2014) proposed a method to quantify changes in variability of temperature at distinct temporal frequencies by estimating the ratio of the spectral densities of temperature between pre-industrial and equilibrated future climates. This spectral ratio functions well as a metric to quantify temperature variability shifts in climate model output. In this study, we apply the method of Leeds et al (2014) to explore the temperature variability changes under increased radiative forcing. We compare changes in variability in higher-CO2 climates across two different climate models (CCSM3 from the National Center for Atmospheric Research and GISS-E2-R from NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies), and changes driven by two different forcing agents (CO2 and solar radiation) within the same model (CCSM3). In all cases we use only the equilibrium stages of model runs extended several thousand years after an abrupt forcing change is imposed. We find a number of results. First, changes in temperature variability differ by frequency in most regions, confirming the need for spectral methods. Second, changes are similar regardless of forcing agents. In experiments with abruptly increased CO2 and solar forcing designed to produce the same change in global mean temperature, the distributions and magnitudes of spectral ratio changes are nearly identical. Finally, projections of variability changes differ across models. In CCSM3, temperature variability decreases in most regions and at most frequencies. Conversely, in GISS-E2-R, temperature variability tends to increase over land. The discrepancy between CCSM3 and the GISS-E-R highlights the need for further inter-model comparisons of variability projections. This study provides a potential framework for such comparisons.

  10. Evidence for changes in the microwave brightness temperature and spectrum of Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batty, M. J.; Jauncey, D. L.; Rayner, P. T.; Gulkis, S.

    1981-01-01

    A new measurement of the microwave brightness temperature of Uranus at 13.1 cm wavelength yields an effective disk temperature of 255 + or - 18 K. Comparison with earlier measurements at nearby wavelengths reveals a doubling in brightness temperature in 14 yr. Observations at shorter wavelengths show significant changes in the shape of the microwave spectrum of the planet over the last decade.

  11. REVIEW OF TERMS FOR REGULATED VERSUS FORCED, NEUROCHEMICAL-INDUCED CHANGES IN BODY TEMPERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Deviations of the body temperature of homeothermic animals may be regulated or forced. A regulated change in core temperature is caused by a natural or synthetic compound that displaces the set-point temperature. A forced shift occurs when an excessive environmental or endogenous...

  12. Estimation of surface temperature variations due to changes in sky and solar flux with elevation.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hummer-Miller, S.

    1981-01-01

    Sky and solar radiance are of major importance in determining the ground temperature. Knowledge of their behavior is a fundamental part of surface temperature models. These 2 fluxes vary with elevation and this variation produces temperature changes. Therefore, when using thermal-property differences to discriminate geologic materials, these flux variations with elevation need to be considered. -from Author

  13. Simulation of regional temperature change effect of land cover change in agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tingxiang; Zhang, Shuwen; Yu, Lingxue; Bu, Kun; Yang, Jiuchun; Chang, Liping

    2016-02-01

    The Northeast China is one of typical regions experiencing intensive human activities within short time worldwide. Particularly, as the significant changes of agriculture land and forest, typical characteristics of pattern and process of agroforestry ecotone change formed in recent decades. The intensive land use change of agroforestry ecotone has made significant change for regional land cover, which had significant impact on the regional climate system elements and the interactions among them. This paper took agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China as study region and simulated temperature change based on land cover change from 1950s to 1978 and from 1978 to 2010. The analysis of temperature difference sensitivity to land cover change based on Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model showed that the land cover change from 1950s to 1978 induced warming effect over all the study area, including the change of grassland to agriculture land, grassland to deciduous broad-leaved forest, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to shrub land. The land cover change from 1978 to 2010 induced cooling effect over all the study area, including the change of deciduous broad-leaved forest to agriculture land, grassland to agriculture land, shrub land to agriculture land, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to grassland. In addition, the warming and cooling effect of land cover change was more significant in the region scale than specific land cover change area.

  14. Validation of climate model-inferred regional temperature change for late-glacial Europe.

    PubMed

    Heiri, Oliver; Brooks, Stephen J; Renssen, Hans; Bedford, Alan; Hazekamp, Marjolein; Ilyashuk, Boris; Jeffers, Elizabeth S; Lang, Barbara; Kirilova, Emiliya; Kuiper, Saskia; Millet, Laurent; Samartin, Stéphanie; Toth, Monika; Verbruggen, Frederike; Watson, Jenny E; van Asch, Nelleke; Lammertsma, Emmy; Amon, Leeli; Birks, Hilary H; Birks, H John B; Mortensen, Morten F; Hoek, Wim Z; Magyari, Enikö; Muñoz Sobrino, Castor; Seppä, Heikki; Tinner, Willy; Tonkov, Spassimir; Veski, Siim; Lotter, André F

    2014-01-01

    Comparisons of climate model hindcasts with independent proxy data are essential for assessing model performance in non-analogue situations. However, standardized palaeoclimate data sets for assessing the spatial pattern of past climatic change across continents are lacking for some of the most dynamic episodes of Earth's recent past. Here we present a new chironomid-based palaeotemperature dataset designed to assess climate model hindcasts of regional summer temperature change in Europe during the late-glacial and early Holocene. Latitudinal and longitudinal patterns of inferred temperature change are in excellent agreement with simulations by the ECHAM-4 model, implying that atmospheric general circulation models like ECHAM-4 can successfully predict regionally diverging temperature trends in Europe, even when conditions differ significantly from present. However, ECHAM-4 infers larger amplitudes of change and higher temperatures during warm phases than our palaeotemperature estimates, suggesting that this and similar models may overestimate past and potentially also future summer temperature changes in Europe. PMID:25208610

  15. Investigation of medium and high temperature phase change materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heine, D.; Kraehling, H.

    1979-01-01

    A detailed description of the programs for acquisition and analysis of the test results is given. Basically it concerns three programs. The TEST program controls the recording of the test data. With the THELLI program it is possible to follow the temperature curve recorded for each individual thermoelement during the test. With the AUSW program the test data can be analyzed, to determine, for example, the melting point and the start of melting. The first results of the service life tests are discussed. From these it is attempted to draw inferences for the subsequent tests. An attempt is made to focus on the determination of the area-related mass loss, the reduction in thickness and the corrosion rate as well as optical and scanning electron microscope evaluation.

  16. Operational perspective of remote sensing-based forest fire danger forecasting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Ehsan H.; Hassan, Quazi K.

    2015-06-01

    Forest fire is a natural phenomenon in many ecosystems across the world. One of the most important components of forest fire management is the forecasting of fire danger conditions. Here, our aim was to critically analyse the following issues, (i) current operational forest fire danger forecasting systems and their limitations; (ii) remote sensing-based fire danger monitoring systems and usefulness in operational perspective; (iii) remote sensing-based fire danger forecasting systems and their functional implications; and (iv) synergy between operational forecasting systems and remote sensing-based methods. In general, the operational systems use point-based measurements of meteorological variables (e.g., temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, precipitations, cloudiness, solar radiation, etc.) and generate danger maps upon employing interpolation techniques. Theoretically, it is possible to overcome the uncertainty associated with the interpolation techniques by using remote sensing data. During the last several decades, efforts were given to develop fire danger condition systems, which could be broadly classified into two major groups: fire danger monitoring and forecasting systems. Most of the monitoring systems focused on determining the danger during and/or after the period of image acquisition. A limited number of studies were conducted to forecast fire danger conditions, which could be adaptable. Synergy between the operational systems and remote sensing-based methods were investigated in the past but too much complex in nature. Thus, the elaborated understanding about these developments would be worthwhile to advance research in the area of fire danger in the context of making them operational.

  17. Effect of change in ambient temperature on core temperature during the daytime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakitsuba, Naoshi; White, Matthew D.

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the hypothesis is tested that continuous increases in ambient temperature (Ta) during daytime would give elevated core and skin temperatures, and consequently better thermal sensation and comfort. Rectal temperature (Tre), skin temperatures and regional dry heat losses at 7 sites were continuously measured for 10 Japanese male subjects in three thermal conditions: cond. 1, stepwise increases in Ta from 26 °C at 9 h00 to 30 °C at 18 h00; cond. 2, steady Ta at 28 °C from 9 h00 to 18 h00 and cond. 3, stepwise decreases in Ta from 30 °C at 9 h00 to 26 °C at 18 h00. Oxygen consumption was measured and thermal sensation and comfort votes were monitored at 15 min intervals. Body weight loss was measured at 1 h intervals. While Tre increased continuously in the morning period in any condition, it increased to a significantly greater ( p < 0.05) 36.9 ± 0.3 °C at 18 h00 in cond. 1 relative to 36.7 ± 0.28 °C in Cond. 2 and 36.5 ± 0.37 °C in cond. 3. Better thermal comfort was observed in the afternoon and the evening in Cond.1 as compared with the other 2 conditions. Thus, a progressive and appropriate increase in Ta may induce optimal cycle in core temperature during daytime, particularly for a resting person.

  18. Water temperature of streams in the Cook Inlet basin, Alaska, and implications of climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kyle, Rebecca E.; Brabets, Timothy P.

    2001-01-01

    Water-temperature data from 32 sites in the Cook Inlet Basin, south-central Alaska, indicate various trends that depend on watershed characteristics. Basins with 25 percent or more of their area consisting of glaciers have the coldest water temperatures during the open-water season, mid-May to mid-October. Streams and rivers that drain lowlands have the warmest water temperatures. A model that uses air temperature as input to predict water temperature as output was utilized to simulate future trends in water temperature based on increased air temperatures due to climate warming. Based on the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient, the model produced acceptable results for 27 sites. For basins with more than 25 percent glacial coverage, the model was not as accurate. Results indicate that 15 sites had a predicted water-temperature change of 3 degrees Celsius or more, a magnitude of change that is considered significant for the incidence of disease in fish populations.

  19. Effect of Climate Change on Soil Temperature in Swedish Boreal Forests

    PubMed Central

    Jungqvist, Gunnar; Oni, Stephen K.; Teutschbein, Claudia; Futter, Martyn N.

    2014-01-01

    Complex non-linear relationships exist between air and soil temperature responses to climate change. Despite its influence on hydrological and biogeochemical processes, soil temperature has received less attention in climate impact studies. Here we present and apply an empirical soil temperature model to four forest sites along a climatic gradient of Sweden. Future air and soil temperature were projected using an ensemble of regional climate models. Annual average air and soil temperatures were projected to increase, but complex dynamics were projected on a seasonal scale. Future changes in winter soil temperature were strongly dependent on projected snow cover. At the northernmost site, winter soil temperatures changed very little due to insulating effects of snow cover but southern sites with little or no snow cover showed the largest projected winter soil warming. Projected soil warming was greatest in the spring (up to 4°C) in the north, suggesting earlier snowmelt, extension of growing season length and possible northward shifts in the boreal biome. This showed that the projected effects of climate change on soil temperature in snow dominated regions are complex and general assumptions of future soil temperature responses to climate change based on air temperature alone are inadequate and should be avoided in boreal regions. PMID:24747938

  20. AO/NAO Response to Climate Change. 2; Relative Importance of Low- and High-Latitude Temperature Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, D.; Perlwitz, J.; Lonergan, P.; Lerner, J.

    2005-01-01

    Using a variety of GCM experiments with various versions of the GISS model, we investigate how different aspects of tropospheric climate changes affect the extratropical Arctic Oscillation (AO)/North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) circulation indices. The results show that low altitude changes in the extratropical latitudinal temperature gradient can have a strong impact on eddy forcing of the extratropical zonal wind, in the sense that when this latitudinal temperature gradient increases, it helps force a more negative AO/NAO phase. In addition, local conditions at high latitudes can stabilize/destabilize the atmosphere, inducing negative/positive phase changes. To the extent that there is not a large temperature change in the tropical upper troposphere (either through reduced tropical sensitivity at the surface, or limited transport of this change to high levels), the changes in the low level temperature gradient can provide the dominate influence on the extratropical circulation, so that planetary wave meridional refraction and eddy angular momentum transport changes become uncorrelated with potential vorticity transports. In particular, the climate change that produces the most positive NAO phase change would have substantial warming in the tropical upper troposphere over the Pacific Ocean, with high latitude warming in the North Atlantic. An increase in positive phase of these circulation indices is still more likely than not, but it will depend on the degree of tropical and high latitude temperature response and the transport of low level warming into the upper troposphere. These are aspects that currently differ among the models used for predicting the effects of global warning, contributing to the lack of consensus of future changes in the AO/NAO.

  1. PERSPECTIVE: On the verge of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriegler, Elmar

    2007-03-01

    The recent publication of the summary for policy makers by Working Group I of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) [1] has injected a renewed sense of urgency to address climate change. It is therefore timely to review the notion of preventing 'dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system' as put forward in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The article by Danny Harvey in this issue [2] offers a fresh perspective by rephrasing the concept of 'dangerous interference' as a problem of risk assessment. As Harvey points out, identification of 'dangerous interference' does not require us to know with certainty that future climate change will be dangerous—an impossible task given that our knowledge about future climate change includes uncertainty. Rather, it requires the assertion that interference would lead to a significant probability of dangerous climate change beyond some risk tolerance, and therefore would pose an unacceptable risk. In his article [2], Harvey puts this idea into operation by presenting a back-of-the-envelope calculation to identify allowable CO2 concentrations under uncertainty about climate sensitivity to anthropogenic forcing and the location of a temperature threshold beyond which dangerous climate change will occur. Conditional on his assumptions, Harvey delivers an interesting result. With the current atmospheric CO2 concentration exceeding 380 ppm, a forcing contribution from other greenhouse gases adding an approximate 100 110 ppm CO2 equivalent on top of it, and a global dimming effect of aerosols that roughly compensates for this contribution (albeit still subject to considerable uncertainty) ([1], figures SPM-1 and 2), we are on the verge of or even committed to dangerous interference with the climate system if we (1) set the risk tolerance for experiencing dangerous climate change to 1% and (2) allocate at least 5% probability to the belief that climate sensitivity is 4.5 °C or higher. In the language of the IPCC, the latter would mean that such a high climate sensitivity is anything but extremely unlikely ([1], footnote 6 and p 9), a view that is shared by many in the scientific community. Even if the risk tolerance is increased to 10%, the maximum allowable CO2 equivalent concentration remains below 460 ppm ([2], figure 7(c)). We are bound to reach that concentration in the near future, as it can be surpassed both by addition of new greenhouse gases and by a reduction of global dimming. Given the potential significance of this result, let us take a step back, and investigate its underlying assumptions. The concept of 'dangerous anthropogenic interference' is inextricably linked to the idea of a threshold beyond which climate change can be labeled dangerous. This idea enters Harvey's analysis in the form of a probability distribution for the—as he calls it—'harm threshold' measured in terms of global mean temperature increase since preindustrial time. It might be due to the presumption of such a threshold that climate science and society at large have had a difficult relationship with the concept of 'dangerous anthropogenic interference' (Dessai et al [3]). Nevertheless, I want to argue here, as many have done before (see Oppenheimer and Petsonk [4] for an overview), that this concept is not ill-defined. First of all, it is clear that 'dangerous interference' and the stipulation of a 'harm threshold' carry a value judgment, and therefore cannot be decided upon purely by science. This does not prevent science, however, from providing information and conceptual frameworks to facilitate such judgment (Schellnhuber et al [5]). Secondly, it is certainly true that our interference with the climate system emanates from local and national action, and that the consequences of such interference will first and foremost be felt on the local to regional scale. However, this does not need to conflict with the assessment of a global 'harm threshold'. The nexus of climate policy is inevitably global since our interference with the climate system is determined by the sum total of greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we are living in a highly interconnected world, and it would be foolish not to take global patterns of drivers and impacts of climate change into account. Finally, some may find the assumption of a harm threshold at odds with a cost benefit approach, since the latter implies trading off avoided climate damage with the costs of mitigation measures. However, even if such a trade-off is made, harm thresholds will occur if damage rises sharply beyond some critical amount of climate change. A look into the climate history will convince us that this is not a far-fetched idea. Climate changes in the past have often exhibited highly non-linear behaviour (see figure 1). Although the paleoclimatic record does not provide a perfect analogue to the current situation, it offers little comfort that abrupt climate change in response to our massive and rapid increase of atmospheric CO2 concentrations might not happen in the future. Consequently, cost benefit analyses accounting for the prospect of dangerous climate change have surfaced in recent years (e.g. Keller et al [6]). In addition, society has been prepared to set thresholds, e.g., to limit exposure to contaminants, even in situations where no clear jump in damage could be identified. And often such identification of thresholds was aided by cost benefit analysis (e.g. Gurian et al [7]). Is it appropriate to offer a deep time perspective on climate change such as presented in figure 1 in a discussion of 'dangerous anthropogenic interference'? Yes, because the magnitude of the anthropogenic perturbation of the carbon cycle forces us to go back far into the past, if we want to look for clues of what might happen in the future. Certainly, some of the climate changes reflected in figure 1 are a result of volcanism and continental drift, in particular the opening and closing of sea passages. However, recent data indicate that the carbon cycle was a major player in the transition from the Eocene hothouse to the modern-day icehouse world (e.g. Moran et al [11], Zachos et al [12]). The studies by Zachos et al [12] and Pearson and Palmer [13] found that carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere decreased from well above 1000 ppm during the Eocene to below or around 300 ppm during the Mio-, Plio- and Pleistocene. On the basis of their data, it is likely that present-day levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide have not occurred for the last 23 million years. Moreover, projections of the growing anthropogenic perturbation of the carbon cycle in the 21st century, including scenarios that aim at stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentration at twice its preindustrial value, carry us to carbon dioxide levels that were last seen during the Oligocene, where major restructuring of the climate system occurred. But what about time scales? Certainly, climate policy cannot be concerned with climate changes that unravel over millions of years. However, the slowest processes in the climate system, i.e., heat penetration into the deep ocean and changes in ice sheet volume, operate on time scales of thousands of years, with deglaciation potentially occurring much faster within hundreds of years. Hence, if the driver is sufficiently fast, rapid climate change can occur. This is evidenced in the paleoclimatic record shown in figure 1 by the event called Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) 55 million years ago. During the PETM, global temperatures rose by 5 10 °C to presumably the hottest conditions during the Cenozoic era in a matter of several thousand years (Zachos et al [14]) due to a large perturbation of the carbon cycle (Zachos et al [15]) of hitherto unknown cause (Pagani et al [16]). A millennial time scale is still far beyond the time horizon of current socio-economic activity, but this is just the time scale for the system to equilibrate (bar the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere ocean-biosphere reservoir which proceeds much more slowly [15]). Significant changes will be felt much earlier. And when it comes to assessing 'dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system' that has the potential to change the face of the planet for a hundred thousand or more years to come, an extension of our time horizon to several hundred years seems to be appropriate. Oxygen-18 stable isotope ratios in benthic foraminifera for the last 65 million years Figure 1. Any harm threshold here? Shown are δ18O stable isotope ratios (18O:16O relative to standard mean ocean water) in benthic foraminifera for the last 65 million years from Zachos et al [8]. The stable isotope ratio of the oxygen contained in the calcium carbonate of the foram shells depends on the water temperature in which they calcified (the warmer the water, the smaller δ18O). A complication arises from the fact that it also depends on the δ18O of the surrounding sea water, which is affected by latitude, evaporation and rainfall, and the presence or absence of large ice sheets. Therefore, these measurements can only be tied uniquely to past ocean temperatures for the early Cenozoic hothouse (Paleo- and Eocene) where no ice sheets existed, and for the most recent period by observing that the oxygen isotope measurements by Lisiecki and Raymo [9] are tightly correlated to temperature changes identified in the Vostok ice core (Petit et al [10]). Present day is indicated as 0. The large shifts of isotope ratio during the Oligocene also reflect changes in ice sheet volume. The figure was prepared by Robert A Rohde from published and publicly available data, and is distributed under the GNU free documentation license at www.globalwarmingart.com/wiki/Image:65_Myr_Climate_Change_Rev_png. While the paleoclimatic record in figure 1 can inform us that 'dangerous interference with the climate system' may be in store for a species that evolved during icehouse conditions, it can not yet point us to specific harm thresholds in the climate system. Our knowledge about the climate in the past is still too sparse, and the analogy to present-day conditions too limited. In order to get a better idea about harm thresholds as the global mean temperature continues to increase, we need to turn to model projections of future climate change and associated impacts, as well as our own normative assessment of what might be labeled dangerous and what not. Given the imperfection of state-of-the-art model projections, e.g., in terms of extreme event statistics (although some have become available, see Tebaldi et al [17]), agreement on the regional scale (although improving, see [1], p 12 and figure SPM-6), and ability to model abrupt climate change, and the foreseeable disagreement between societal groups on what might be dangerous, this will certainly be an exercise in guestimating and consensus finding on some sort of uncertainty measure for the location of thresholds to dangerous climate change. In his article, Harvey offers his own take on the problem by presenting two different harm-threshold probability distributions: a stringent variant with median at 1.5 °C and 95% quantile at 2.7 °C of global mean temperature increase since preindustrial time, and a more lenient variant with median at 2.5 °C and 95% quantile at 3.8 °C. Whether or not one believes the temperature values attached to the list of impacts that Harvey offers in support of his harm assessment, there is still a value judgment about the 'dangerousness' of these impacts to be made. As Harvey points out himself, this is a question that can be informed, but not answered by science. Consequently, the allowable CO2 concentrations to prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system presented in Harvey's article reflect a value judgment. So it is for you, the reader, and society at large to decide whether or not these findings are significant. If your judgment about the onset of dangerous climate change lies somewhere in the range of Harvey's harm-threshold probability distributions, his results will carry meaning for you. I, for my part, can certainly answer this question in the affirmative. Once we accept this range of harm-threshold probabilities, the natural question emerges whether Harvey's result indicating that we are on the verge of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system is inevitable. Is there an easy way out by adjusting the methodological framework that would present us considerably larger allowances of carbon in the atmosphere? It does not seem so. The virtue of Harvey's back-of-the-envelope calculation is that it includes the dominant factors in a simple, but fairly robust manner, which makes it hard to significantly alter the outcome by changing the details. Harvey has considered a wide range of medians and 95% quantiles for the probability distribution of climate sensitivity, but what if we changed the shape of both the climate sensitivity and harm-threshold probability density function (PDF)? After all, there is no particular reason why they should follow a lognormal distribution as Harvey assumed. The answer to this question is harbored by equation (1) of his article. The smaller the overlap between the climate sensitivity PDF and the harm-threshold CDF, the greater the carbon allowance available without committing dangerous interference with the climate system will be. And in this respect, Harvey's assumption of lognormality for both distributions goes some way in minimizing the overlap across possible shapes for fixed median and 95% quantiles. So what about peaking concentrations that can reach higher carbon dioxide levels because the part of the equilibrium warming they would entail will never be realized due to the time lag of the temperature response? Harvey has included this—as he calls it—climate-disequilibrium credit in his analysis, and thus his dire assessment of the proximity of dangerous interference extends to the case of transient climate change. True, he has not considered uncertainty in the heat uptake of the ocean that dominates the time lag of the temperature response along with climate sensitivity. But assuming a larger heat uptake and a slower temperature response within the confidence bounds allowed by the 20th century temperature and ocean heat content records is unlikely to change the carbon allowance by more than a few tens of ppm. Thus, Harvey's findings seem to stand firm once we underwrite the value judgment that the probability of dangerous climate change lies somewhere in the range of the harm-threshold probability distributions put forward in his article. The new sense of urgency to address climate change mirrors this judgment. References [1] IPCC 2007 Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis - Summary for Policymakers. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) in preparation (available for download at http://www.ipcc.ch) [2] Harvey L D D 2007 Allowable CO2 concentrations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a function of the climate sensitivity probability distribution function Environ. Res. Lett. 2 014001 [3] Dessai S, Adger W N, Hulme M, Turnpenny J, Köhler J and Warren R 2004 Defining and experiencing dangerous climate change Clim. Change 64 11 25 [4] Oppenheimer M and Petsonk A 2005 Article 2 of the UNFCCC: historical origins, recent interpretations Clim. Change 73 195 226 [5] Schellnhuber H J, Cramer W, Nakicenovic N, Wigley T and Yohe G (ed) 2006 Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) pp 392 [6] Keller K, Hall M, Kim S R, Bradford D F and Oppenheimer M 2005 Avoiding dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system Clim. Change 73 227 38 [7] Gurian P L, Small M J, Lockwood J R and Schervish M J 2001 Benefit-cost estimation for alternative drinking water maximum contaminant levels Water Resources Res. 37 2213 16 [8] Zachos J C, Pagani M, Sloan L, Thomas E and Billups K 2001 Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present Science 292 686 93 [9] Lisiecki L E and Raymo M E 2005 A Pliocene Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic δ18O records Paleoceanography 20 PA1003 [10] Petit J R, Jouzel J, Raynaud D, Barkov N I, Barnola J M, Basile I, Bender M, Chappellaz J, Davis J, Delaygue G, Delmotte M, Kotlyakov V M, Legrand M, Lipenkov V, Lorius C, Pépin L, Ritz C, Saltzman E and Stievenard M 1999 Climate and Atmospheric History of the Past 420 000 years from the Vostok Ice Core, Antarctica Nature 399 429 36 [11] Morgan K and the ACEX expedition team 2006 The Cenozic paleoenvironment of the Arctic Ocean Nature 441 601 5 [12] Pagani M, Zachos J C, Freeman K H, Tipple B and Bohaty S 2005 Marked decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations during the paleogene Science 309 600 3 [13] Pearson P N and Palmer M R 2000 Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations over the past 60 million years Nature 406 695 9 [14] Zachos J C, Wara M W, Bohaty S, Delaney M L, Petrizzo M R, Brill A, Bralower, T J and Premoli-Silva I 2003 A transient rise in tropical sea surface temperature during the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum Science 302 1551 4 [15] Zachos J C, Röhl U, Schellenberg S A, Sluijs A, Hodell D A, Kelly D C, Thomas E, Nicolo M, Raffi I, Lourens L J, McCarren H and Kroon D 2005 Rapid acidification of the ocean during the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum Science 308 1611 5 [16] Pagani M, Caldeira K, Archer D, Zachos J C 2006 An ancient carbon mystery Science 314 1556 7 [17] Tebaldi C, Hayhoe K, Arblaster J M and Meehl G A 2006 Going to the extremes: an intercomparison of model-simulated historical and future changes in extreme events Clim. Change 79 185 211 Photo of Elmar Kriegler Elmar Kriegler received a diploma (MS equivalent) degree in physics from the Albert-Ludwigs-University of Freiburg, Germany, in 1998, and a PhD degree in physics from the University of Potsdam, Germany, in 2005. He worked for seven years as a graduate/post-doctoral researcher at the Potsdam Institute of Climate Impact Research on topics relating to the integrated assessment of climate change. He is now a visiting researcher at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, USA, where he works—with support by a Marie-Curie Outgoing International Fellowship from the European Union—on the evaluation of climate policies under large uncertainty about climate change.

  2. On the electrical intestine turbulence induced by temperature changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizzi, A.; Cherubini, C.; Migliori, S.; Alloni, R.; Portuesi, R.; Filippi, S.

    2010-03-01

    Paralytic ileus is a temporary syndrome with impairment of peristalsis and no passage of food through the intestine. Although improvements in supportive measures have been achieved, no therapy useful to specifically reduce or eliminate the motility disorder underlying postoperative ileus has been developed yet. In this paper, we draw a plausible, physiologically fine-tuned scenario, which explains a possible cause of paralytic ileus. To this aim we extend the existing 1D intestinal electrophysiological Aliev-Richards-Wikswo ionic model based on a double-layered structure in two and three dimensions. Thermal coupling is introduced here to study the influence of temperature gradients on intestine tissue which is an important external factor during surgery. Numerical simulations present electrical spiral waves similar to those experimentally observed already in the heart, brain and many other excitable tissues. This fact seems to suggest that such peculiar patterns, here electrically and thermally induced, may play an important role in clinically experienced disorders of the intestine, then requiring future experimental analyses in the search for possible implications for medical and physiological practice and bioengineering.

  3. Coffee and chocolate in danger.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2014-06-01

    As a rapidly growing global consumer base appreciates the pleasures of coffee and chocolate and health warnings are being replaced by more encouraging sounds from medical experts, their supply is under threat from climate change, pests and financial problems. Coffee farmers in Central America, in particular, are highly vulnerable to the impact of climate change, made worse by financial insecurity. Michael Gross reports. PMID:24944039

  4. Evaluation of photobioreactor heat balance for predicting changes in culture medium temperature due to light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Morita, M; Watanabe, Y; Saiki, H

    2001-09-20

    Microalgal photosynthesis requires appropriate culture medium temperatures to achieve high photosynthetic performance and to maintain production of a high-quality biomass product. Enclosed systems, such as our conical, helical tubular photobioreactor (HTP), can accomplish high photosynthetic efficiency and the small amount of culture medium used by these systems means that the culture medium temperature may be effectively controlled. On the other hand, because a high ratio of surface area to culture medium volume leads to rapid heating under the illumination condition and substantial heat loss at night, maintaining a suitable culture medium temperature is necessary to achieve efficient, commercially practical biomass production. In order to predict changes in the culture medium temperature caused by changes in solar irradiance and ambient temperature, it is necessary to understand the heat balance within the photobioreactor. We therefore investigated the heat balance in three major parts (photostage, degasser, and helical heat exchanger) of our conical HTP, analyzed the time-dependent changes in medium temperature at various room temperatures and radiant energy inputs, and predicted changes in the culture medium temperature based on the characteristics of heat transfer among the three parts. Using this model, the predicted changes in culture medium temperature were very similar to the changes observed experimentally in the laboratory and under field conditions. This means that by calculating the time-dependent changes in the culture medium temperature, based on measurements of solar energy input and ambient temperature, we should be able to estimate the energy required to maintain the culture medium temperature within a range where photosynthetic performance of microalgae is high. PMID:11494213

  5. A comparison of changes model produced temperature and precipitation extremes with observed changes for the 20th Century and Simulated Changes for the 21st Century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easterling, D. R.; Gleason, B.; Vose, R. S.; Stouffer, R. J.

    2006-12-01

    Observed changes in temperature and precipitation extremes for the latter half of the 20th century generally show increases in warm temperature extremes, decreases in cold extremes, and increases in heavy precipitation events (Alexander et al. 2006). Here we use daily values from a general circulation model simulation for the 20th century using observed greenhouse gas and other forcings produced for the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report and the definition of extremes found in Alexander et al. (2006) as well as other extremes to compare how changes in the model-produced extremes compare to the changes in observed extremes. The model used is the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Climate Model 2.1. We also examine how these temperature and precipitation extremes change in simulations produced using two 21st century forcing scenarios. Alexander, L., et al., 2006: Global observed changes in daily climate extremes of temperature and precipitation. J. Geophys. Res., D05109,doi:10.1029/2005JD006290.

  6. Differential effects of temperature change and human impact on European Late Quaternary mammalian extinctions.

    PubMed

    Varela, Sara; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus Souza; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Storch, David

    2015-04-01

    Species that inhabited Europe during the Late Quaternary were impacted by temperature changes and early humans, resulting in the disappearance of half of the European large mammals. However, quantifying the relative importance that each factor had in the extinction risk of species has been challenging, mostly due to the spatio-temporal biases of fossil records, which complicate the calibration of realistic and accurate ecological niche modeling. Here, we overcome this problem by using ecotypes, and not real species, to run our models. We created 40 ecotypes with different temperature requirements (mean temperature from -20 °C to 25 °C and temperature range from 10 °C to 40 °C) and used them to quantify the effect of climate change and human impact. Our results show that cold-adapted ecotypes would have been highly affected by past temperature changes in Europe, whereas temperate and warm-adapted ecotypes would have been positively affected by temperature change. Human impact affected all ecotypes negatively, and temperate ecotypes suffered the greatest impacts. Based on these results, the extinction of cold-adapted species like Mammuthus primigenius may be related to temperature change, while the extinction of temperate species, like Crocuta crocuta, may be related to human impact. Our results suggest that temperature change and human impact affected different ecotypes in distinct ways, and that the interaction of both impacts may have shaped species extinctions in Europe. PMID:25311114

  7. [Dangerous dogs: application of federal regulations].

    PubMed

    Rossi-Broy, C

    2000-03-01

    During the last years nearly in all provinces in Germany new, hotly debated rules were published in order to meet the threat dangerous dogs or so-called fighting dogs mean to animals and men. Comparing current regulations of different provinces two categories of rules can be identified: one considering particular breeds as extremely dangerous and the other defining and characterising the dangerous dog. The application of these regulations differs enormously in expenditure and procedure. Recent statistics of all registered dog-bites allow other conclusions than those which seemed to have been relevant for the elaboration of the existing legislation. This is particularly true for the breeds which are considered extremely dangerous. It seems to be more useful to use the expression dangerous dog in general. Routine application of the new regulations have, except from some cases, increased administrative input but have not improved the situation itself. Animals homes are complaining of more "fighting" dogs. The fact that it is extremely difficult to find a new owner for these dogs leads to additional animal health problems. Judgement and treatment of dogs presented to public authorities because of dog-biting has not become any easier and dogs causing severe injury are not even presented. The new regulations are not sufficiently preventive and do not really tackle the cause of the problem of dangerous dogs. The existing regulations were developed under a strong political pressure. Authorities are now calling into question the usefulness and purpose of the new legislation. In the past the problem of dangerous dogs was dealt with using general safety legislation and police regulations offering flexibility. Obviously there is an urgent need to identify countermeasures on a larger scale. PMID:10774066

  8. Association between Temperature Change and Outpatient Visits for Respiratory Tract Infections among Children in Guangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Guo, Yong; Wang, Changbing; Li, Weidong; Lu, Jinhua; Shen, Songying; Xia, Huimin; He, Jianrong; Qiu, Xiu

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the association between temperature change and clinical visits for childhood respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in Guangzhou, China. Outpatient records of clinical visits for pediatric RTIs, which occurred from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2013, were collected from Guangzhou Women and Children’s Hospital. Records for meteorological variables during the same period were obtained from the Guangzhou Meteorological Bureau. Temperature change was defined as the difference between the mean temperatures on two consecutive days. A distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) was used to examine the impact of temperature change on pediatric outpatient visits for RTIs. A large temperature decrease was associated with a significant risk for an RTI, with the effect lasting for ~10 days. The maximum effect of a temperature drop (−8.8 °C) was reached at lag 2~3 days. Children aged 0–2 years, and especially those aged <1 year, were particularly vulnerable to the effects of temperature drop. An extreme temperature decrease affected the number of patient visits for both upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). A temperature change between consecutive days, and particularly an extreme temperature decrease, was significantly associated with increased pediatric outpatient visits for RTIs in Guangzhou. PMID:25568973

  9. Rainfall and temperatures changes have confounding impacts on Phytophthora cinnamomi occurrence risk in the southwestern USA under climate change scenarios.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Sally E; Levin, Simon; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-04-01

    Global change will simultaneously impact many aspects of climate, with the potential to exacerbate the risks posed by plant pathogens to agriculture and the natural environment; yet, most studies that explore climate impacts on plant pathogen ranges consider individual climatic factors separately. In this study, we adopt a stochastic modeling approach to address multiple pathways by which climate can constrain the range of the generalist plant pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi (Pc): through changing winter soil temperatures affecting pathogen survival; spring soil temperatures and thus pathogen metabolic rates; and changing spring soil moisture conditions and thus pathogen growth rates through host root systems. We apply this model to the southwestern USA for contemporary and plausible future climate scenarios and evaluate the changes in the potential range of Pc. The results indicate that the plausible range of this pathogen in the southwestern USA extends over approximately 200,000 km(2) under contemporary conditions. While warming temperatures as projected by the IPCC A2 and B1 emissions scenarios greatly expand the range over which the pathogen can survive winter, projected reductions in spring rainfall reduce its feasible habitat, leading to spatially complex patterns of changing risk. The study demonstrates that temperature and rainfall changes associated with possible climate futures in the southwestern USA have confounding impacts on the range of Pc, suggesting that projections of future pathogen dynamics and ranges should account for multiple pathways of climate-pathogen interaction. PMID:24515971

  10. Determination of enthalpy-temperature curves of phase change materials with the temperature-history method: improvement to temperature dependent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín, José M.; Zalba, Belén; Cabeza, Luisa F.; Mehling, Harald

    2003-02-01

    The temperature-history method, proposed by Yinping et al, is a simple and economic way to determine the main thermophysical properties of materials used in thermal energy storage based on solid-liquid phase change. It is based on comparing the temperature history of a phase-change material sample and a sample of a well known material upon cooling down. In this paper we describe a further developed evaluation procedure to determine cp and h as temperature dependent values which was not the case in Yinping's method, based on the same experimental procedure. Given the suitability of these properties to calculate thermal energy storage using these materials, the method is proposed to present the results obtained in the form of enthalpy-temperature curves. A discussion about the errors produced by this method and an experimental improvement are proposed too.

  11. The relationships between temperature changes and reproductive investment in a Mediterranean goby: Insights for the assessment of climate change effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchetta, M.; Cipolato, G.; Pranovi, F.; Antonetti, P.; Torricelli, P.; Franzoi, P.; Malavasi, S.

    2012-04-01

    The relationships between changes in water temperature and the timing and level of reproductive investment were investigated in an estuarine fish, inhabiting the Venice lagoon: the grass goby Zosterisessor ophiocephalus. A time series of the mean monthly values of gonado-somatic index was coupled with thermal profiles of lagoon water temperatures over 14 years, from 1997 to 2010. Results showed that the reproductive investment was positively affected by water temperature changes, both in terms of monthly thermal anomalies and cumulative degree days. A predictive model was also developed to assess the temporal shift of reproductive peaks as a response to inter-annual thermal fluctuations. This model allowed the detection of deviations from the median level, indicating that during warmer years, the reproductive peak tended to occur earlier than during colder years. The model is therefore proposed as a tool to predict anticipated consequences of climate change on fish phenology in transitional waters, regarding recurrent biological phenomena, such as reproduction and recruitment.

  12. Linkage Between Hourly Precipitation Events and Atmospheric Temperature Changes over China during the Warm Season.

    PubMed

    Miao, Chiyuan; Sun, Qiaohong; Borthwick, Alistair G L; Duan, Qingyun

    2016-01-01

    We investigated changes in the temporospatial features of hourly precipitation during the warm season over mainland China. The frequency and amount of hourly precipitation displayed latitudinal zonation, especially for light and moderate precipitation, which showed successive downward change over time in northeastern and southern China. Changes in the precipitation amount resulted mainly from changes in frequency rather than changes in intensity. We also evaluated the linkage between hourly precipitation and temperature variations and found that hourly precipitation extreme was more sensitive to temperature than other categories of precipitation. A strong dependency of hourly precipitation on temperature occurred at temperatures colder than the median daily temperature; in such cases, regression slopes were greater than the Clausius-Clapeyron (C-C) relation of 7% per degree Celsius. Regression slopes for 31.6%, 59.8%, 96.9%, and 99.1% of all stations were greater than 7% per degree Celsius for the 75th, 90th, 99th, and 99.9th percentiles for precipitation, respectively. The mean regression slopes within the 99.9th percentile of precipitation were three times the C-C rate. Hourly precipitation showed a strong negative relationship with daily maximum temperature and the diurnal temperature range at most stations, whereas the equivalent correlation for daily minimum temperature was weak. PMID:26931350

  13. Linkage Between Hourly Precipitation Events and Atmospheric Temperature Changes over China during the Warm Season

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Chiyuan; Sun, Qiaohong; Borthwick, Alistair G. L.; Duan, Qingyun

    2016-01-01

    We investigated changes in the temporospatial features of hourly precipitation during the warm season over mainland China. The frequency and amount of hourly precipitation displayed latitudinal zonation, especially for light and moderate precipitation, which showed successive downward change over time in northeastern and southern China. Changes in the precipitation amount resulted mainly from changes in frequency rather than changes in intensity. We also evaluated the linkage between hourly precipitation and temperature variations and found that hourly precipitation extreme was more sensitive to temperature than other categories of precipitation. A strong dependency of hourly precipitation on temperature occurred at temperatures colder than the median daily temperature; in such cases, regression slopes were greater than the Clausius-Clapeyron (C-C) relation of 7% per degree Celsius. Regression slopes for 31.6%, 59.8%, 96.9%, and 99.1% of all stations were greater than 7% per degree Celsius for the 75th, 90th, 99th, and 99.9th percentiles for precipitation, respectively. The mean regression slopes within the 99.9th percentile of precipitation were three times the C-C rate. Hourly precipitation showed a strong negative relationship with daily maximum temperature and the diurnal temperature range at most stations, whereas the equivalent correlation for daily minimum temperature was weak. PMID:26931350

  14. Linkage Between Hourly Precipitation Events and Atmospheric Temperature Changes over China during the Warm Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Chiyuan; Sun, Qiaohong; Borthwick, Alistair G. L.; Duan, Qingyun

    2016-03-01

    We investigated changes in the temporospatial features of hourly precipitation during the warm season over mainland China. The frequency and amount of hourly precipitation displayed latitudinal zonation, especially for light and moderate precipitation, which showed successive downward change over time in northeastern and southern China. Changes in the precipitation amount resulted mainly from changes in frequency rather than changes in intensity. We also evaluated the linkage between hourly precipitation and temperature variations and found that hourly precipitation extreme was more sensitive to temperature than other categories of precipitation. A strong dependency of hourly precipitation on temperature occurred at temperatures colder than the median daily temperature; in such cases, regression slopes were greater than the Clausius-Clapeyron (C-C) relation of 7% per degree Celsius. Regression slopes for 31.6%, 59.8%, 96.9%, and 99.1% of all stations were greater than 7% per degree Celsius for the 75th, 90th, 99th, and 99.9th percentiles for precipitation, respectively. The mean regression slopes within the 99.9th percentile of precipitation were three times the C-C rate. Hourly precipitation showed a strong negative relationship with daily maximum temperature and the diurnal temperature range at most stations, whereas the equivalent correlation for daily minimum temperature was weak.

  15. Uncovering physical processes responsible for the asymmetry of day-to-day temperature changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huth, Radan; Piskala, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Day-to-day temperature changes, and especially those of minimum temperature in winter and maximum temperature in summer, are asymmetrical: in winter, large warmings occur more frequently than large coolings and small coolings occur more frequently than small warmings. In summer, the opposite is the case. We investigate causes of this asymmetry for Prague, Czech Republic. First, we relate strong temperature changes to passages of atmospheric fronts. More specifically, large warmings in winter are related with passages of warm fronts and large coolings in summer are related with passages of cold fronts. In particular, we test the hypothesis that the days with large temperature changes (changes exceeding 3°C or 5°C) are accompanied with passages of corresponding atmospheric fronts more frequently than other days. We prove statistical significance of such a relationship between front passages and large temperature changes by means of a two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Second, we demonstrate that small temperature changes (by up to 2°C), namely, small warmings in summer and small coolings in winter, are tightly related to anticyclonic circulation conditions and, hence, occur due to radiative processes. This relationship is investigated by comparing frequencies of anticyclonic circulation types in selected classifications from the COST733 database between the days with small temperature changes and all other days. The relationship appears to be highly statistically significant. Although the findings may seem a bit trivial, we are not aware of any study that would examine and prove the relationships between front passages and anticyclonic circulation conditions on one side, and the asymmetry of day-to-day temperature changes on the other side.

  16. Projected changes in extreme temperature events based on the NARCCAP model suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Radley M.; Coffel, Ethan D.; Winter, Jonathan M.; Bader, Daniel A.

    2015-09-01

    Once-per-year (annual) maximum temperature extremes in North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) models are projected to increase more (less) than mean daily maximum summer temperatures over much of the eastern (western) United States. In contrast, the models almost everywhere project greater warming of once-per-year minimum temperatures as compared to mean daily minimum winter temperatures. Under projected changes associated with extremes of the temperature distribution, Baltimore's maximum temperature that was met or exceeded once per year historically is projected to occur 17 times per season by midcentury, a 28% increase relative to projections based on summer mean daily maximum temperature change. Under the same approach, historical once-per-year cold events in Baltimore are projected to occur once per decade. The models are generally able to capture observed geopotential height anomalies associated with temperature extremes in two subregions. Projected changes in extreme temperature events cannot be explained by geopotential height anomalies or lower boundary conditions as reflected by soil moisture anomalies or snow water equivalent.

  17. 33 CFR 334.5 - Disestablishment of a danger zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disestablishment of a danger zone..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.5 Disestablishment of a danger zone. (a) Upon receipt of a request from any agency for the disestablishment of a danger zone, the...

  18. The Effect of Land Use Change on Land Surface Temperature in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youneszadeh, S.; Amiri, N.; Pilesjo, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Netherlands is a small country with a relatively large population which experienced a rapid rate of land use changes from 2000 to 2008 years due to the industrialization and population increase. Land use change is especially related to the urban expansion and open agriculture reduction due to the enhanced economic growth. This research reports an investigation into the application of remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) in combination with statistical methods to provide a quantitative information on the effect of land use change on the land surface temperature. In this study, remote sensing techniques were used to retrieve the land surface temperature (LST) by using the MODIS Terra (MOD11A2) Satellite imagery product. As land use change alters the thermal environment, the land surface temperature (LST) could be a proper change indicator to show the thermal changes in relation with land use changes. The Geographical information system was further applied to extract the mean yearly land surface temperature (LST) for each land use type and each province in the 2003, 2006 and 2008 years, by using the zonal statistic techniques. The results show that, the inland water and offshore area has the highest night land surface temperature (LST). Furthermore, the Zued (South)-Holland province has the highest night LST value in the 2003, 2006 and 2008 years. The result of this research will be helpful tool for urban planners and environmental scientists by providing the critical information about the land surface temperature.

  19. Investigation of microstructural changes in polyetherether-ketone films at cryogenic temperatures by positron lifetime spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Eftekhari, Abe; St.clair, Terry L.; Sprinkle, Danny R.

    1991-01-01

    Microstructural changes in Polyetherether-ketone (PEEK) films were investigated in the temperature ranges of 23 to -196 C, using Positron Lifetime Spectroscopy (PLS) technique. It was determined that the total free volume decreases by about 46 percent in amorphous PEEK samples and about 36 percent in semicrystalline PEEK samples when they are cooled down from room temperature to liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperature. If this trend in reduction in free volume with decreasing temperature continues, as expected, it is surmised that PEEK will be able to withstand cooling down to liquid hydrogen (LH2) temperature without any detrimental effect on its diffusivity for liquid hydrogen.

  20. The effects of temperature changes on retinal ganglion cell responses to electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Maturana, Matias I; Apollo, Nicholas V; Garrett, David J; Kameneva, Tatiana; Meffin, Hamish; Ibbotson, Michael R; Cloherty, Shaun L; Grayden, David B

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about how the retina's response to electrical stimulation is modified by temperatures. In vitro experiments are often used to inform in vivo studies, hence it is important to understand what changes occur at physiological temperature. To investigate this, we recorded from eight RGCs in vitro at three temperatures; room temperature (24°C), 30°C and 34°C. Results show that response latencies and thresholds are reduced, bursting spike rates in response to stimulation increases, and the spiking becomes more consistently locked to the stimulus at higher temperatures. PMID:26738028

  1. Yawning and Stretching Predict Brain Temperature Changes in Rats: Support for the Thermoregulatory Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Shoup-Knox, Melanie L.; Gallup, Andrew C.; Gallup, Gordon G.; McNay, Ewan C.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research suggests that yawning is an adaptive behavior that functions to promote brain thermoregulation among homeotherms. To explore the relationship between brain temperature and yawning we implanted thermocoupled probes in the frontal cortex of rats to measure brain temperature before, during and after yawning. Temperature recordings indicate that yawns and stretches occurred during increases in brain temperature, with brain temperatures being restored to baseline following the execution of each of these behaviors. The circulatory changes that accompany yawning and stretching may explain some of the thermal similarities surrounding these events. These results suggest that yawning and stretching may serve to maintain brain thermal homeostasis. PMID:21031034

  2. The effect on engine performance of change in jacket-water outlet temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garlock, E A; Ellis, Greer

    1933-01-01

    Tests made on a Curtiss D-12 engine in the Altitude Laboratory at the Bureau of Standards show the following effects on engine performance of change in jacket-water outlet temperature: 1) Friction at all altitudes is a linear function of the jacket-water temperature, decreasing with increasing temperature. 2) The brake horsepower below an altitude of about 9,000 feet decreases, and at higher altitudes increases, with jacket-water temperature. 3) The brake specific fuel consumption tends to decrease, at all altitudes, with increasing jacket-water temperature. 4) The percentage change in brake power output is roughly equal to the algebraic sum of the percentage change in volumetric efficiency and mechanical efficiency.

  3. Effect of composition change on temperature measurements in a premixed flame by holographic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chi-Chung; Chang, Keh-Chin; Tieng, Sheng-Mao

    1992-02-01

    Application of holographic interferometry to nonintrusive temperature measurements in flames has been demonstrated as a viable means in engineering practices. However, the effect of composition changes on the previous investigations was often either neglected or assumed by a simpler relationship owing to lack of the distribution information of gas composition. This study investigates the effect of composition changes on temperature measurements using holographic interferometry by analyzing the composition of combustion gas using a gas chromatograph and measuring temperatures with a thermocouple to provide a comparison basis. Results are given for axisymmetric, laminar, premixed propane-air flames. Fuel-rich flame is found to have complex flame structure, and the effect of composition changes on the reconstruction of interferometric temperatures has to be taken into account. On the other hand, the flame structure in the fuel-lean case is much simpler, and using the linear distribution of molar refractivity in reconstruction of interferometric temperatures yields satisfactory results.

  4. Daily estimates of fire danger using multitemporal satellite MODIS data: the experience of FIRE-SAT in the Basilicata Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanorte, R.; Lasaponara, R.; De Santis, F.; Aromando, A.; Nole, G.

    2012-04-01

    Daily estimates of fire danger using multitemporal satellite MODIS data: the experience of FIRE-SAT in the Basilicata Region (Italy) A. Lanorte, F. De Santis , A. Aromando, G. Nolè, R. Lasaponara, CNR-IMAA, Potenza, Italy In the recent years the Basilicata Region (Southern Italy) has been characterized by an increasing incidence of fire disturbance which also tends to affect protected (Regional and national parks) and natural vegetated areas. FIRE_SAT project has been funded by the Civil Protection of the Basilicata Region in order to set up a low cost methodology for fire danger/risk monitoring based on satellite Earth Observation techniques. To this aim, NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data were used. The spectral capability and daily availability makes MODIS products especially suitable for estimating the variations of fuel characteristics. This work presents new significant results obtained in the context of FIRE-SAT project. In order to obtain a dynamical indicator of fire susceptibility based on multitemporal MODIS satellite data, up-datable in short-time periods (daily), we used the spatial/temporal variations of following parameters: (1) Relative Greenness Index (2) Live and dead fuel moisture content (3) Temperature In particular, the dead fuel moisture content is a key factor in fire ignition. Dead fuel moisture dynamics are significantly faster than those observed for live fuel. Dead fine vegetation exhibits moisture and density values dependent on rapid atmospheric changes and strictly linked to local meteorological conditions. For this reason, commonly, the estimation of dead fuel moisture content is based on meteorological variables. In this study we propose to use MODIS data to estimate meteorological data (specifically Relative Humidity) at an adequate spatial and temporal resolution. The assessment of dead fuel moisture content plays a decisive role in determining a fire dynamic danger index in combination with other factors. This greatly improves the reliability of fire danger maps obtained on the basis of a integrated approach of the dynamic factors mentioned above and the static factors (fuel physical properties, morphological parameters and social-historical factors). The validation of the fire danger indices was carried out by the use of statistics of occurred forest fires. The validation results show satisfactory agreement with the fire danger map taking into account that . fire events are indirect indicator of fire danger; indeed, many factor influence fire ignition and spread such as human pressure, fire-fighting conditions, wind, etc.. Therefore, in this study we have defined and used several fire statistic data useful for the validation of the fire danger maps in order to create the basic elements for the design of a validation protocol.

  5. Soil Temperature and Moisture Change and the Impacts on Vegetation over the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuo, L.; Bohn, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Permafrost soil covers 25% of the area in the Northern Hemisphere, it is especially important on the Tibetan Plateau, with almost 75% the Tibetan Plateau land covered by the permafrost. Continuous, isolated and discontinuous permafrost soil and seasonally frozen soil coexist on the plateau. Changes in frozen soil are likely to have impact on ecosystems, hydrology and infrastructure. In this study, we use both modeling approach to study the historical changes in soil temperature and moisture over the past 50 years. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model was modified and used to simulate the soil temperature and moisture on the plateau. Observed soil temperature and moisture down to 7 m were used to evaluate the VIC model. The evaluated model is then used to study the historical change of the frozen soil. The effects of the frozen soil change on the vegetation growth in the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau are examined by using empirical relationships between soil temperature/moisture and biomass.

  6. Global river temperatures and sensitivity to atmospheric warming and changes in river flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vliet, M. T. H.; Ludwig, F.; Zwolsman, J. J. G.; Weedon, G. P.; Kabat, P.

    2011-02-01

    This study investigates the impact of both air temperature and river discharge changes on daily water temperatures for river stations globally. A nonlinear water temperature regression model was adapted to include discharge as a variable in addition to air temperature, and a time lag was incorporated to apply the model on a daily basis. The performance of the model was tested for a selection of study basin stations and 157 river temperature stations globally using historical series of daily river temperature, air temperature, and river discharge for the 1980-1999 period. For the study basin stations and for 87% of the global river stations, the performance of the model improved by including discharge as an input variable. Greatest improvements were found during heat wave and drought (low flow) conditions, when water temperatures are most sensitive to atmospheric influences and can reach critically high values. A sensitivity analysis showed increases in annual mean river temperatures of +1.3 °C, +2.6 °C, and +3.8 °C under air temperature increases of +2 °C, +4 °C, and +6 °C, respectively. Discharge decreases of 20% and 40% exacerbated water temperature increases by +0.3 °C and +0.8 °C on average. For several stations, maximum water temperatures on a daily basis were higher under an air temperature increase of +4 °C combined with a 40% discharge decrease compared to an air temperature increase of +6 °C (without discharge changes). Impacts of river discharge on water temperatures should therefore be incorporated to provide more accurate estimations of river temperatures during historical and future projected dry and warm periods.

  7. Neurones in the ventrobasal complex of the rat thalamus responding to scrotal skin temperature changes.

    PubMed

    Hellon, R F; Misra, N K

    1973-07-01

    1. In rats the scrotal temperature was raised or lowered with a water-perfused thermode while micro-electrode recordings were made of unit activity in the ventrobasal complex of the thalamus. The electrodes were aimed at the region where evoked responses had been found by electrical stimulation of the scrotum. Recording sites were marked by iontophoresis of dye from the micro-electrode.2. Changes in firing rate of thalamic neurones were only found in the scrotal temperature range of 31-40 degrees C. Within this range, 72% of the 123 cells tested were excited or suppressed by skin warming. At temperatures above or below this range, activity was not affected. Most of the cells responded just to temperature and only 7% were also excited by touch.3. Raising temperature in the range 31-40 degrees C caused 82% of the thermally responding cells to increase their firing rate and 18% to decrease their rate. Individual neurones showed a sudden and maintained change in their activity for scrotal temperature increases of only 2, 1 or even 0.5 degrees C. Mean firing rates changed by factors of about 8 or more with these temperature increases and further warming did not change the rate. These step-like changes in firing rate were found at different points over the whole skin temperature range of 31-40 degrees C, but most were between 33 and 38 degrees C.4. For a given neurone the step-like change in activity occurred once its critical temperature was reached, irrespective of whether this was achieved by a step increase of skin temperature over 1-2 sec or by a slow ramp increase lasting several minutes.5. It is not possible to say whether the skin warm receptors, cold receptors or both were responsible for these thalamic responses, but the results do show that incoming thermal information is considerably processed when it reaches the thalamic level. PMID:4727087

  8. Neurones in the somatosensory cortex of the rat responding to scrotal skin temperature changes.

    PubMed

    Hellon, R F; Misra, N K; Provins, K A

    1973-07-01

    1. In rats the scrotal temperature was raised or lowered with a water-perfused thermode while micro-electrode recordings were made of unit activity in the somatosensory (SI) cortex. The electrodes were inserted in the area where the largest evoked potentials had been found from electrical stimulation of the scrotum.2. Changes in firing rate of cortical neurones were found only in the scrotal temperature range of 32-41 degrees C. Within this range 40% of all the cells tested were excited or suppressed by skin warming. At temperatures above or below this range, activity was not affected. Most of the cells responded just to temperature and only 14% were also excited by touch.3. Raising temperature in the range 33-41 degrees C caused 83% of the thermally responding cells to decrease their firing rate and 17% to increase their rate. Individual neurones showed a sudden and maintained change in their activity for scrotal temperature increases of only 2, 1 or even 0.5 degrees C. Mean firing rates changed several-fold with these temperature increases and further warming did not change the rate. These step-like changes in firing rate were found at different points over the whole skin temperature range of 33-41 degrees C but most were between 35 and 39 degrees C.4. For a given neurone the step-like change in activity occurred once its critical temperature was reached, irrespective of whether this was achieved by a step increase of skin temperature over 1-2 sec, or by a slow ramp increase lasting several minutes.5. The results are very similar to those found in the thalamus (preceding paper), but the proportions of cortical cells which were excited or suppressed on skin warming were the reverse of the proportions seen in the thalamus. PMID:4727088

  9. A model for evaluating stream temperature response to climate change scenarios in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Stewart, Jana S.; Buchwald, Cheryl A.; Mitro, Matthew G.; Lyons, John D.; Greb, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Global climate change is expected to alter temperature and flow regimes for streams in Wisconsin over the coming decades. Stream temperature will be influenced not only by the predicted increases in average air temperature, but also by changes in baseflow due to changes in precipitation patterns and amounts. In order to evaluate future stream temperature and flow regimes in Wisconsin, we have integrated two existing models in order to generate a water temperature time series at a regional scale for thousands of stream reaches where site-specific temperature observations do not exist. The approach uses the US Geological Survey (USGS) Soil-Water-Balance (SWB) model, along with a recalibrated version of an existing artificial neural network (ANN) stream temperature model. The ANN model simulates stream temperatures on the basis of landscape variables such as land use and soil type, and also includes climate variables such as air temperature and precipitation amounts. The existing ANN model includes a landscape variable called DARCY designed to reflect the potential for groundwater recharge in the contributing area for a stream segment. SWB tracks soil-moisture and potential recharge at a daily time step, providing a way to link changing climate patterns and precipitation amounts over time to baseflow volumes, and presumably to stream temperatures. The recalibrated ANN incorporates SWB-derived estimates of potential recharge to supplement the static estimates of groundwater flow potential derived from a topographically based model (DARCY). SWB and the recalibrated ANN will be supplied with climate drivers from a suite of general circulation models and emissions scenarios, enabling resource managers to evaluate possible changes in stream temperature regimes for Wisconsin.

  10. Assessing Danger: What Judges Need To Know

    PubMed Central

    Nichols-Hadeed, Corey; Cerulli, Catherine; Kaukeinen, Kimberly; Rhodes, Karin V.; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2011-01-01

    Every day, judges are faced with decisions regarding intimate partner violence (IPV) victims' requests for protection orders, custody arrangements, and visitation schedules. To make informed decisions, judges must understand victims' risk for future violence. This mixed method study explores the extent to which protection order petitions (n=169) communicate victims' current danger and future risk of violence. Methods included interviews coupled with an archival review of court petitions. Findings suggest judges are inadequately prepared to render decisions to improve victim safety in the absence of standardized risk assessments. The Danger Assessment provides an evidence-based solution to routinize intake interviews with victims petitioning the court. PMID:22661908

  11. Principles of estimation of Radiative danger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korogodin, V. I.

    1990-08-01

    The main principles of the estimation of Radiative danger has been discussed. Two main particularities of the danger were pointed out: negatve consequencies of small doses, which does not lead to radiation sickness, but lead to disfunctions of sanguine organs and thin intestines; absolute estimation of biological anomalies, which was forwarded by A.D. Sakharov (1921-1989). The ethic aspects of the use of Nuclear weapons on the fate of Human civilization were pointed out by A.D. Sakharov (1921-1990).

  12. CHANGES IN AMBIENT TEMPERATURE TRIGGER YAWNING BUT NOT STRETCHING IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Gallup, Andrew C.; Miller, Ralph R.; Clark, Anne B.

    2010-01-01

    Yawning appears to be involved in arousal, state change, and activity across vertebrates. Recent research suggests that yawning may support effective changes in mental state or vigilance through cerebral cooling. To further investigate the relationship between yawning, state change, and thermoregulation, 12 Sprague-Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus) were exposed to a total of two hours of ambient temperature manipulation over a period of 48 hours. Using a repeated measures design, each rat experienced a range of increasing (22→32°C), decreasing (32→22°C), and constant temperatures (22°C; 32°C). Yawning and locomotor activity occurred most frequently during initial changes in temperature, irrespective of direction, compared to more extended periods of temperature manipulation. The rate of yawning also diminished during constant high temperatures (32°C) compared to low temperatures (22°C). Unlike yawning, however, stretching was unaffected by ambient temperature variation. These findings are compared to recent work on budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), and the ecological selective pressures for yawning in challenging thermal environments are discussed. The results support previous comparative research connecting yawning with arousal and state change, and contribute to refining the predictions of the thermoregulatory hypothesis across vertebrates. PMID:21132114

  13. Temperature-related degradation and colour changes of historic paintings containing vivianite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čermáková, Zdeňka; Švarcová, Silvie; Hradilová, Janka; Bezdička, Petr; Lančok, Adriana; Vašutová, Vlasta; Blažek, Jan; Hradil, David

    2015-04-01

    Temperature-related degradation of pure synthetic as well as partly oxidised natural vivianite has been studied by high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) covering the whole extent of the temperature-related stability of its structure. While temperatures around 70 °C are already damaging to vivianite, exposition to 160 °C results in complete amorphisation of both the vivianite and its oxidation products. As indicated by Mössbauer spectroscopy, temperature-induced oxidation of vivianite starts at 90 °C. To study the occurring structural as well as accompanying colour changes in more detail, model vivianite paint layer samples with different historic binders were prepared and subjected to increased temperatures. Exposition to 80 °C caused pronounced colour changes of all the samples: ground natural blue vivianite became grey - a colour change which has been described in actual works of art. Regarding the binders, the oil seemed to facilitate the transfer of heat to vivianite's grains. To simulate conditions of conservation treatment under which the painting is exposed to increased temperatures, oil-on-canvas mock-ups with vivianite were prepared and relined in a traditional way using iron. The treatment affected preferentially larger grains of vivianite; the micro-samples documented their change to grey, and their Raman spectra showed the change from vivianite to metavivianite.

  14. Temperature-related degradation and colour changes of historic paintings containing vivianite.

    PubMed

    Čermáková, Zdeňka; Švarcová, Silvie; Hradilová, Janka; Bezdička, Petr; Lančok, Adriana; Vašutová, Vlasta; Blažek, Jan; Hradil, David

    2015-04-01

    Temperature-related degradation of pure synthetic as well as partly oxidised natural vivianite has been studied by high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) covering the whole extent of the temperature-related stability of its structure. While temperatures around 70°C are already damaging to vivianite, exposition to 160°C results in complete amorphisation of both the vivianite and its oxidation products. As indicated by Mössbauer spectroscopy, temperature-induced oxidation of vivianite starts at 90°C. To study the occurring structural as well as accompanying colour changes in more detail, model vivianite paint layer samples with different historic binders were prepared and subjected to increased temperatures. Exposition to 80°C caused pronounced colour changes of all the samples: ground natural blue vivianite became grey--a colour change which has been described in actual works of art. Regarding the binders, the oil seemed to facilitate the transfer of heat to vivianite's grains. To simulate conditions of conservation treatment under which the painting is exposed to increased temperatures, oil-on-canvas mock-ups with vivianite were prepared and relined in a traditional way using iron. The treatment affected preferentially larger grains of vivianite; the micro-samples documented their change to grey, and their Raman spectra showed the change from vivianite to metavivianite. PMID:25589392

  15. Further studies of the atmospheric temperature change produced by the Mt. Agung volcanic eruption in 1963

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, R.E.

    1980-03-26

    The eruption of Mt. Agung in March 1963 introduced an aerosol layer into the stratosphere that was associated with stratospheric temperature increases of several degrees Kelvin. The mechanics of this temperature change in the tropical troposphere are examined by observations of its distribution in altitutde and time. (ACR)

  16. Implications of solar irradiance variability upon long-term changes in the Earth's atmospheric temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III

    1992-01-01

    From 1979 through 1987, it is believed that variability in the incoming solar energy played a significant role in changing the Earth's climate. Using high-precision spacecraft radiometric measurements, the incoming total solar irradiance (total amount of solar power per unit area) and the Earth's mean, global atmospheric temperatures were found to vary in phase with each other. The observed irradiance and temperature changes appeared to be correlated with the 11-year cycle of solar magnetic activity. During the period from 1979 through 1985, both the irradiance and temperature decreased. From 1985 to 1987, they increased. The irradiance changed approximately 0.1 percent, while the temperature varied as much as 0.6 C. During the 1979-1987 period, the temperatures were forecasted to rise linearly because of the anthropogenic build-up of carbon dioxide and the hypothesized 'global warming', 'greenhouse effect', scenarios. Contrary to these scenarios, the temperatures were found to vary in a periodic manner in phase with the solar irradiance changes. The observed correlations between irradiance and temperature variabilily suggest that the mean, global temperature of the Earth may decline between 1990 and 1997 as solar magnetic activity decreases.

  17. Effects of Climate Change on Temperature and Salinity in the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon (USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a larger study to examine the effect of climate change (CC) on estuarine resources, we simulated the effect of rising sea level, alterations in river discharge, and increasing atmospheric temperatures on water properties (temperature and salinity) in the Yaquina Estuar...

  18. Changes in the association between summer temperature and mortality in Seoul, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Jongsik; Kim, Ho

    2013-07-01

    The health impact of climate change depends on various conditions at any given time and place, as well as on the person. Temporal variations in the relationship between high temperature and mortality need to be explored in depth to explain how changes in the level of exposure and public health interventions modify the temperature-mortality relationship. We examined changes in the relationship between human mortality and temperature in Seoul, which has the highest population in South Korea, considering the change in population structure from 1993-2009. Poisson regression models were used to estimate short-term temperature-related mortality impacts. Temperature-related risks were divided into two "time periods" of approximately equal length (1993 and 1995-2000, and 2001-2009), and were also examined according to early summer and late summer. Temperature-related mortality in summer over the past 17 years has declined. These decreasing patterns were stronger for cardiovascular disease-related mortality than for all non-accidental deaths. The novel finding is that declines in temperature-related mortality were particularly noteworthy in late summer. Our results indicate that temperature-related mortality is decreasing in Seoul, particularly during late summer and, to a lesser extent, during early summer. This information would be useful for detailed public health preparedness for hot weather.

  19. The fingerprint of human-induced changes in the ocean's salinity and temperature fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, David W.; Gleckler, Peter J.; Barnett, Tim P.; Santer, Benjamin D.; Durack, Paul J.

    2012-11-01

    The ocean's salinity field is driven primarily by evaporation, precipitation, and river discharge, all key elements of the Earth's hydrological cycle. Observations show the salinity field has been changing in recent decades. We perform a formal fingerprint-based detection and attribution analysis of these changes between 1955-2004, 60°S and 60°N, and in the top 700 m of the water column. We find that observed changes are inconsistent with the effects of natural climate variability, either internal to the climate system (such as El Niño and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation) or external (solar fluctuations and volcanic eruptions). However, the observed changes are consistent with the changes expected due to human forcing of the climate system. Joint changes in salinity and temperature yield a stronger signal of human effects on climate than either salinity or temperature alone. When examining individual depth levels, observed salinity changes are unlikely (p < 0.05) to have arisen from natural causes over the top 125 m of the water column, while temperature changes (and joint salinity/temperature changes) are distinct from natural variability over the top 250 m.

  20. Relationships between facial temperature changes, end-exercise affect and during-exercise changes in affect: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Legrand, Fabien D; Bertucci, William M; Arfaoui, Ahlem

    2015-01-01

    The present study was performed as an evaluation of the relationships between changes in facial temperature and self-reported pleasure-displeasure during an acute aerobic exercise bout. Ninety-two students performed a 10-minute long session of cycle ergometry at 80-85% of age-predicted maximal heart rate. Using infrared thermography and a single-item measure of pleasure-displeasure (the Feeling Scale, FS), facial temperature and the FS score were sampled at the beginning (Min1:00) and at the end of the exercise session (Min9:00). Statistical analyses revealed that cheek (but not forehead) temperature was higher at the end of the exercise bout compared to Min1:00 (it increased by about 5%). Change in cheek temperature was negatively related to end-exercise affect (β = -0.28, P < 0.001) and to during-exercise affective changes (β = -0.35, P < 0.001). No significant relationship with forehead temperature was found. Some of the possible reasons for this differential effect as well as theoretical and practical implications of our findings are discussed. PMID:25131146

  1. Do Changes in Tympanic Temperature Predict Changes in Affective Valence during High-Intensity Exercise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legrand, Fabien D.; Joly, Philippe M.; Bertucci, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Increased core (brain or body) temperature that accompanies exercise has been posited to play an influential role in affective responses to exercise. However, findings in support of this hypothesis have been equivocal, and most of the performed studies have been done in relation to anxiety. The aim of the present study was to investigate…

  2. Do Changes in Tympanic Temperature Predict Changes in Affective Valence during High-Intensity Exercise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legrand, Fabien D.; Joly, Philippe M.; Bertucci, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Increased core (brain or body) temperature that accompanies exercise has been posited to play an influential role in affective responses to exercise. However, findings in support of this hypothesis have been equivocal, and most of the performed studies have been done in relation to anxiety. The aim of the present study was to investigate

  3. Temperature Pill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Ingestible Thermal Monitoring System was developed at Johns Hopkins University as means of getting internal temperature readings for treatments of such emergency conditions as dangerously low (hypothermia) and dangerously high (hyperthermia) body temperatures. ITMS's accuracy is off no more than one hundredth of a degree and provides the only means of obtaining deep body temperature. System has additional applicability in fertility monitoring and some aspects of surgery, critical care obstetrics, metabolic disease treatment, gerontology (aging) and food processing research. Three-quarter inch silicone capsule contains telemetry system, micro battery, and a quartz crystal temperature sensor inserted vaginally, rectally, or swallowed.

  4. Precipitation and temperature changes in the major Chinese river basins during 1957-2013 and links to sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qing; Prange, Matthias; Merkel, Ute

    2016-05-01

    The variation characteristics of precipitation and temperature in the three major Chinese river basins (Yellow River, Yangtze River and Pearl River) in the period of 1957-2013 were analyzed on an annual and seasonal basis, as well as their links to sea surface temperature (SST) variations in the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean on both interannual and decadal time scales. Annual mean temperature of the three river basins increased significantly overall since 1957, with an average warming rate of about 0.19 °C/10a, but the warming was characterized by a staircase form with steps around 1987 and 1998. The significant increase of annual mean temperature could mostly be attributed to the remarkable warming trend in spring, autumn and winter. Warming rates in the northern basins were generally much higher than in the southern basins. However, both the annual precipitation and seasonal mean precipitation of the three river basins showed little change in the study area average, but distinct interannual variations since 1957 and clear regional differences. An overall warming-wetting tendency was found in the northwestern and southeastern river basins in 1957-2013, while the central regions tended to become warmer and drier. Results from a Maximum Covariance Analysis (MCA) showed that the interannual variations of seasonal mean precipitation and surface air temperature over the three river basins were both associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) since 1957. ENSO SST patterns affected precipitation and surface air temperature variability throughout the year, but with very different response patterns in the different seasons. For instance, temperature in most of the river basins was positively correlated with central-eastern equatorial Pacific SST in winter and spring, but negatively correlated in summer and autumn. On the decadal time scale, the seasonal mean precipitation and surface air temperature variations were strongly associated with the Pacific Quasi-Decadal Oscillation.

  5. Detection and Attribution of temperature changes in the mountainous western United States.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonfils, C.; Santer, B. D.; Pierce, D. W.; Bala, G.; Barnett, T. P.; Hidalgo, H. G.; Wood, A. W.; Dettinger, M.; Cayan, D. R.; Mirin, A.; Das, T.

    2007-12-01

    Under climate change, one of the major challenges that water managers face in the western United States is adequately meeting the water demand while minimizing the flood risk. It has been shown that, in the second half of the 20th century, winters and springs have warmed, the partition of precipitations has changed, the snow pack melts earlier and that the timing of streamflows has shifted towards the winter. A better understanding of the primary causes of these changes are crucial to reliably project future water availability. Hydrological changes can be driven by temperature or by precipitation changes, or a combination of the two. In this study, which is part of a more integrated analysis focusing on the detection and attribution of changes in the hydrological cycle, we raise the following questions: What are the causes of temperatures changes in the mountainous regions in the second half of the 20th century? Can we verify whether the observed earlier melting of snow is driven by human-induced temperature changes, rather than by changes in precipitation or natural internal climate variability? To address these questions, we conduct a detection and attribution analysis based on daily minimum and maximum temperatures, and on temperature variables that are more relevant to a potential shift in snowmelt (number of frost days and number of degree-days below 0C). We find that natural internal climate variability alone cannot explain the increase in temperature, the reduction of frost days and the decline in degree-days below 0C. External forcings agents such as the solar variability and volcanic eruptions cannot explain those changes either. Instead, we find a positive detection when the influence of anthropogenic greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols effects are included in the climate forcings.

  6. Changing temperature response turned boreal forest from carbon sink into carbon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grelle, Achim; Hadden, David

    2015-04-01

    19 years of flux measurements reveal that a boreal forest in northern Sweden has turned from a carbon sink into a carbon source. A consistent annual uptake of about 4 tonnes CO2 per hectare turned into annual emissions of the same magnitude within a few years. While biomass increment and gross CO2 uptake remained unchanged, gross respiration has increased, mainly during the autumn periods. This increasingly reduced the annual number of days with net CO2 uptake. No significant trend towards higher temperatures could be observed during the measurement period. However, the temperature responses of ecosystem respiration have changed with time, leading to higher respiration rates in the temperature range between 0 °C and 5 °C, which is the most common range during spring and autumn. Consequently, respiration fluxes under those temperature conditions have increased, both in spring and - even more - in autumn. Thus the change of the carbon balance is not directly caused by climate warming, as stated in other studies, but by changes in ecosystem functioning. The reasons for the rapid change in temperature response are still unknown and may be sought in changes of litterfall and dead wood distribution, changes in fungi- and microbial communities, or hydrological changes.

  7. Temperature driven changes in the diet preference of omnivorous copepods: no more meat when it's hot?

    PubMed

    Boersma, Maarten; Mathew, K Avarachen; Niehoff, Barbara; Schoo, Katherina L; Franco-Santos, Rita M; Meunier, Cédric L

    2016-01-01

    Herbivory is more prevalent in the tropics than at higher latitudes. If differences in ambient temperature are the direct cause for this phenomenon, then the same pattern should be visible in a seasonal gradient, as well as in experiments manipulating temperature. Using (15)N stable isotope analyses of natural populations of the copepod Temora longicornis we indeed observed seasonal differences in the trophic level of the copepod and a decrease in trophic level with increasing temperature. In a grazing experiment, with a mixed diet of the cryptophyte Rhodomonas salina and the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina, T. longicornis preferred the cryptophyte at higher temperatures, whereas at lower temperatures it preferred the non-autotrophic prey. We explain these results by the higher relative carbon content of primary producers compared to consumers, in combination with the higher demand for metabolic carbon at higher temperatures. Thus, currently increasing temperatures may cause changes in dietary preferences of many consumers. PMID:26567776

  8. Assessment of a Forest-fire Danger Index for Russia Using Remote Sensing Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhinin, Anatoly; McRae, Douglas; Ji-Zhong, Jin; Dubrovskaya, Olga; Ponomarev, Eugene

    2010-05-01

    Intensive exploitation of Siberian forest resources requires to increase the level of their protection. In Russia, forests annually disturbed by fire make up about 6% of the total forest area, whereas they account for hundredth or even thousandth of percent in the West European countries and Canada. Devastating forest fires associated with long draughts have become very common over recent decades in some parts of Siberia and the Russian Far East. Fires burning under these conditions disturb hundreds of thousands hectares of forest lands. Forest fires impact essentially on different biogeocenosis and on ecological situation in region as well. Thus their detrimental effects, including economic damage, are hard to overestimate. Remote sensing data using is more perspective method for forests monitoring in Russia. Moreover satellite data is only available information for non-protected Russian boreal forests and tundra also. To be efficient, modern forest fire managers require a reliable method for estimating fire danger. For large remote forested areas, such as found in Russia where a dense network of local weather station needed to calculate fire danger does not exist, this can be a major problem. However, remote sensing using satellite data can provide reasonable estimates of fire danger across Russia to allow for an understanding of the current fire situation. An algorithm has been developed that can assess current fire danger by inputting ambient weather conditions derived from remote sensing data obtained from NOAA, TERRA-series satellites. Necessary inputs for calculating fire danger, such as surface temperature, dew-point temperature, and precipitation, are obtained from AVHRR, MODIS and ATOVS satellite data. By generating the final products as maps a concise picture can be presented of fire danger across Russia. In order to understand future fire suppression needs, fire danger predictions for an advanced 7-day period can be made using meteorological forecasts of near surface pressure and air temperatures. The only problem with this type of forecasting is the absence of knowing exactly what precipitation will occur during the forecasted period. This is resolved using an interactive method that continually updates the forecasted fire danger map using current precipitation. One important application of this product for remote sensing will be the ability to classify fire severity on burn scar areas for predicting carbon release better over the vast areas of Russia. This will require the development of fire behavior models that use components of the fire danger systems as key independent variables. Modern wildfire prevention programs cannot be successful unless they are fully supported by fire-danger analysis acquired from detailed daily fire-danger mapping. This enables better coordination and potential success of limited suppression forces. Currently the existing network of weather stations in Russia, especially in remote areas, does not allow for the estimation of fire danger over the entire country. Thus, northern forests are deprived of badly needed fire protection information because of the lack of weather stations. Remote sensing analysis and diagnosis of forest fire danger conditions is an emerging field both in Russia and abroad. V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, located in Krasnoyarsk, is supporting research this field and is proposing the development of methodology for generating daily fire weather danger maps based on the digital multispectral images obtained from satellites. This will allow the computation of fire danger for remote areas without the need for supplementary on-ground weather stations. KEYWORDS: Fire weather danger system, meteorological data, remote sensing data, wildfires, Siberian boreal forests.

  9. Changes in Body Temperature in Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury by Digital Infrared Thermographic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yun-Gyu; Won, Yu Hui; Park, Sung-Hee; Ko, Myoung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate changes in the core temperature and body surface temperature in patients with incomplete spinal cord injuries (SCI). In incomplete SCI, the temperature change is difficult to see compared with complete spinal cord injuries. The goal of this study was to better understand thermal regulation in patients with incomplete SCI. Methods Fifty-six SCI patients were enrolled, and the control group consisted of 20 healthy persons. The spinal cord injuries were classified according to International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury. The patients were classified into two groups: upper (neurological injury level T6 or above) and lower (neurological injury level T7 or below) SCIs. Body core temperature was measured using an oral thermometer, and body surface temperature was measured using digital infrared thermographic imaging. Results Twenty-nine patients had upper spinal cord injuries, 27 patients had lower SCIs, and 20 persons served as the normal healthy persons. Comparing the skin temperatures of the three groups, the temperatures at the lower abdomen, anterior thigh and anterior tibia in the patients with upper SCIs were lower than those of the normal healthy persons and the patients with lower SCIs. No significant temperature differences were observed between the normal healthy persons and the patients with lower SCIs. Conclusion In our study, we found thermal dysregulation in patients with incomplete SCI. In particular, body surface temperature regulation was worse in upper SCIs than in lower injuries. Moreover, cord injury severity affected body surface temperature regulation in SCI patients. PMID:26605167

  10. PERMEABILITY CHANGES IN CRYSTALLINE ROCKS DUE TO TEMPERATURE: EFFECTS OF MINERAL ASSEMBLAGE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrow, C.A.; Moore, Diane E.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The change in permeability with time of granite, quartzite, anorthosite and gabbro was measured while these rocks were subjected to a temperature gradient. Permeability reductions of up to two orders of magnitude were observed, with the greatest reactions occurring in the quartzite. These changes are thought to be caused by dissolution of minerals at high temperatures, and redeposition of the dissolved material at lower temperatures. Quartz appears to be an important mineral in this self-sealing process. If very low permeability is desired around a nuclear waste repository in crystalline rocks, then a quartz-rich rock may be the most appropriate host.

  11. Sensitive Indicators of Zonal Stipa Species to Changing Temperature and Precipitation in Inner Mongolia Grassland, China

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xiaomin; Zhou, Guangsheng; Wang, Yuhui; Song, Xiliang

    2016-01-01

    Climate change often induces shifts in plant functional traits. However, knowledge related to sensitivity of different functional traits and sensitive indicator representing plant growth under hydrothermal change remains unclear. Inner Mongolia grassland is predicted to be one of the terrestrial ecosystems which are most vulnerable to climate change. In this study, we analyzed the response of four zonal Stipa species (S. baicalensis, S. grandis, S. breviflora, and S. bungeana) from Inner Mongolia grassland to changing temperature (control, increased 1.5, 2, 4, and 6°C), precipitation (decreased 30 and 15%, control, increased 15 and 30%) and their combined effects via climate control chambers. The relative change of functional traits in the unit of temperature and precipitation change was regarded as sensitivity coefficient and sensitive indicators were examined by pathway analysis. We found that sensitivity of the four Stipa species to changing temperature and precipitation could be ranked as follows: S. bungeana > S. grandis > S. breviflora > S. baicalensis. In particular, changes in leaf area, specific leaf area and root/shoot ratio could account for 86% of the changes in plant biomass in the four Stipa species. Also these three measurements were more sensitive to hydrothermal changes than the other functional traits. These three functional indicators reflected the combination of plant production capacity (leaf area), adaptive strategy (root/shoot ratio), instantaneous environmental effects (specific leaf area), and cumulative environmental effects (leaf area and root/shoot ratio). Thus, leaf area, specific leaf area and root/shoot ratio were chosen as sensitive indicators in response to changing temperature and precipitation for Stipa species. These results could provide the basis for predicting the influence of climate change on Inner Mongolia grassland based on the magnitude of changes in sensitive indicators. PMID:26904048

  12. Sensitive Indicators of Zonal Stipa Species to Changing Temperature and Precipitation in Inner Mongolia Grassland, China.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiaomin; Zhou, Guangsheng; Wang, Yuhui; Song, Xiliang

    2016-01-01

    Climate change often induces shifts in plant functional traits. However, knowledge related to sensitivity of different functional traits and sensitive indicator representing plant growth under hydrothermal change remains unclear. Inner Mongolia grassland is predicted to be one of the terrestrial ecosystems which are most vulnerable to climate change. In this study, we analyzed the response of four zonal Stipa species (S. baicalensis, S. grandis, S. breviflora, and S. bungeana) from Inner Mongolia grassland to changing temperature (control, increased 1.5, 2, 4, and 6C), precipitation (decreased 30 and 15%, control, increased 15 and 30%) and their combined effects via climate control chambers. The relative change of functional traits in the unit of temperature and precipitation change was regarded as sensitivity coefficient and sensitive indicators were examined by pathway analysis. We found that sensitivity of the four Stipa species to changing temperature and precipitation could be ranked as follows: S. bungeana > S. grandis > S. breviflora > S. baicalensis. In particular, changes in leaf area, specific leaf area and root/shoot ratio could account for 86% of the changes in plant biomass in the four Stipa species. Also these three measurements were more sensitive to hydrothermal changes than the other functional traits. These three functional indicators reflected the combination of plant production capacity (leaf area), adaptive strategy (root/shoot ratio), instantaneous environmental effects (specific leaf area), and cumulative environmental effects (leaf area and root/shoot ratio). Thus, leaf area, specific leaf area and root/shoot ratio were chosen as sensitive indicators in response to changing temperature and precipitation for Stipa species. These results could provide the basis for predicting the influence of climate change on Inner Mongolia grassland based on the magnitude of changes in sensitive indicators. PMID:26904048

  13. Climate change and Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae): Impacts of temperature and carbon dioxide on life history

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change is relevant to life around the globe. A rise in ambient temperature and CO2 may have various impacts on arthropods such as altered life cycles, modified reproductive patterns, and changes in distribution. The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), is a global agricultural...

  14. Hydrological sensitivity and global temperature change to greenhouse gases and aerosols in CESM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvalevag, M. M.; Samset, B. H.; Myhre, G.

    2012-04-01

    We present a set of climate model experiments using the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM1.03) to investigate the relationship between precipitation changes and surface temperature change for several forcing mechanisms. The model simulations include forcing mechanisms since preindustrial times causing either warming or cooling, in order to study the energy budget at different levels (surface, atmosphere and top of atmosphere), temperature changes and precipitation change. On a short timescale the precipitation changes are due to atmospheric instability and reduced convection caused by the presence of a forcing mechanism in the atmosphere. On longer timescale it is the adjusted surface temperatures that drive the changes. In particular we look at the precipitation response from black carbon and study the model sensitivity to absorbing aerosols by introducing black carbon at different altitudes in the model. Our results are similar to earlier studies regarding greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols, but extend previous results on black carbon aerosols. We introduce BC aerosols in different altitudes and look at how sensitive the precipitation changes are due to the placement of a warming forcing agent in the atmosphere. We find that while the surface temperature response of a column of BC is positive, it is composed of a warming component at low altitudes and a cooling component at higher altitudes. The precipitation response of a change in BC concentration is however always negative.

  15. A dynamic model for plant growth: validation study under changing temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wann, M.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    A dynamic simulation model to describe vegetative growth of plants, for which some functions and parameter values have been estimated previously by optimization search techniques and numerical experimentation based on data from constant temperature experiments, is validated under conditions of changing temperatures. To test the predictive capacity of the model, dry matter accumulation in the leaves, stems, and roots of tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.) was measured at 2- or 3-day intervals during a 5-week period when temperatures in controlled-environment rooms were programmed for changes at weekly and daily intervals and in ascending or descending sequences within a range of 14 to 34 degrees C. Simulations of dry matter accumulation and distribution were carried out using the programmed changes for experimental temperatures and compared with the measured values. The agreement between measured and predicted values was close and indicates that the temperature-dependent functional forms derived from constant-temperature experiments are adequate for modelling plant growth responses to conditions of changing temperatures with switching intervals as short as 1 day.

  16. A dynamic model for plant growth: validation study under changing temperatures.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Wann M; Raper CD Jr

    1984-01-01

    A dynamic simulation model to describe vegetative growth of plants, for which some functions and parameter values have been estimated previously by optimization search techniques and numerical experimentation based on data from constant temperature experiments, is validated under conditions of changing temperatures. To test the predictive capacity of the model, dry matter accumulation in the leaves, stems, and roots of tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.) was measured at 2- or 3-day intervals during a 5-week period when temperatures in controlled-environment rooms were programmed for changes at weekly and daily intervals and in ascending or descending sequences within a range of 14 to 34 degrees C. Simulations of dry matter accumulation and distribution were carried out using the programmed changes for experimental temperatures and compared with the measured values. The agreement between measured and predicted values was close and indicates that the temperature-dependent functional forms derived from constant-temperature experiments are adequate for modelling plant growth responses to conditions of changing temperatures with switching intervals as short as 1 day.

  17. A dynamic model for plant growth: validation study under changing temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wann, M; Raper, C D

    1984-01-01

    A dynamic simulation model to describe vegetative growth of plants, for which some functions and parameter values have been estimated previously by optimization search techniques and numerical experimentation based on data from constant temperature experiments, is validated under conditions of changing temperatures. To test the predictive capacity of the model, dry matter accumulation in the leaves, stems, and roots of tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.) was measured at 2- or 3-day intervals during a 5-week period when temperatures in controlled-environment rooms were programmed for changes at weekly and daily intervals and in ascending or descending sequences within a range of 14 to 34 degrees C. Simulations of dry matter accumulation and distribution were carried out using the programmed changes for experimental temperatures and compared with the measured values. The agreement between measured and predicted values was close and indicates that the temperature-dependent functional forms derived from constant-temperature experiments are adequate for modelling plant growth responses to conditions of changing temperatures with switching intervals as short as 1 day. PMID:11539773

  18. Upper-air temperature change trends above arid region of Northwest China during 1960-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhongsheng; Chen, Yaning; Xu, Jianhua; Bai, Ling

    2015-04-01

    This study summarized upper-air temperature change trends based on the monthly datasets of 14 sounding stations in the arid region of Northwest China during 1960-2009. Over the investigated period, the change in upper-air temperature measured at eight standard pressure levels shows that an obvious warming at 850-400 hPa, which decreases with altitude, changes to an apparent cooling at 300-50 hPa. There is a positive correlation between the surface and 850-300-hPa temperatures, but a negative correlation between the surface and 200-50-hPa temperatures. Over the full 1960-2009 record, patterns of statistically significant mid-lower tropospheric warming and upper tropospheric and mid-lower stratospheric cooling are clearly evident. Also, the annual temperature cycle indicates that the peak temperature shifts from July in the troposphere to February in the mid-lower stratosphere, suggesting the importance of seasonal trend analysis. We found that the warming in the mid-lower troposphere is more pronounced during the summer, autumn, and winter, whereas the cooling in the upper troposphere and mid-lower stratosphere is larger during the summer and autumn. Furthermore, there are also many regional differences in the upper-air temperature change, regardless of both season and layer.

  19. Short term changes of microbial processes in Icelandic soils to increasing temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guicharnaud, R.; Arnalds, O.; Paton, G. I.

    2010-02-01

    Temperature change is acknowledged to have a significant effect on soil biological processes and the corresponding sequestration of carbon and cycling of nutrients. Soils at high latitudes are likely to be particularly impacted by increases in temperature. Icelandic soils experience unusually frequent freeze and thaw cycles compare to other Arctic regions, which are increasing due to a warming climate. As a consequence these soils are frequently affected by short term temperature fluctuations. In this study, the short term response of a range of soil microbial parameters (respiration, nutrient availability, microbial biomass carbon, arylphosphatase and dehydrogenase activity) to temperature changes was measured in sub-arctic soils collected from across Iceland. Sample sites reflected two soil temperature regimes (cryic and frigid) and two land uses (pasture and arable). The soils were sampled from the field frozen, equilibrated at -20 °C and then incubated for two weeks at -10 °C, -2 °C, +2 °C and +10 °. Respiration and enzymatic activity were temperature dependent. The soil temperature regime affected the soil microbial biomass carbon sensitivity to temperatures. When soils where sampled from the cryic temperature regime a decreasing soil microbial biomass was detected when temperatures rose above the freezing point. Frigid soils, sampled from milder climatic conditions, where unaffected by difference in temperatures. Nitrogen mineralisation did not change with temperature. At -10 °C, dissolved organic carbon accounted for 88% of the fraction of labile carbon which was significantly greater than that recorded at +10 °C when dissolved organic carbon accounted for as low as 42% of the labile carbon fraction.

  20. Ebola: a very dangerous viral haemorrhagic fever.

    PubMed

    Scully, Crispian

    2015-01-01

    Ebola is a highly dangerous infectious disease seen mainly in West Africa or travellers from there. All healthcare workers should check the recent travel history of their patients and follow formal guidance issued. Clinical Relevance: This article discusses the relevance of the Ebola virus in dentistry. PMID:26062275

  1. Decreasing Dangerous Infant Behaviors through Parent Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Judith R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Four young mothers with one-year-old infants were successfully taught to reduce their children's potential for injury in the home through interventions which included increasing positive interactions with the infant, child-proofing the home, using playpen time-out for potentially dangerous behaviors, and giving positive attention for safe…

  2. Thoughts on Managing Dangers in Adventure Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priest, Simon

    1996-01-01

    Describes a 10-step process for analyzing danger as a way of reducing the chance that an accident will happen, or minimizing its consequences to acceptable and recoverable levels. Factors that can inhibit the process include inappropriate attribution, relaxed concentration, rushing to maintain a schedule, group or peer pressure, and poor judgment.…

  3. Danger and the Decision to Offend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Bill; Hagan, John

    2005-01-01

    Humiliation; incarceration; stigma; loss of income, freedom, and respect: most research on offending emphasizes these sanctions. Yet classical theorists recognized other costs including physical harm. We revive this abandoned insight, arguing that danger--the possibility of pain--figures largely in people's decisions to offend. Although modern…

  4. Correlation of hippocampal theta rhythm with changes in cutaneous temperature. [evoked neuron response in thermoregulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, J. M.; Saleh, M. A.; Karem, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    A possible role for the hippocampus in alerting an animal to changes in cutaneous temperature was examined. Following local warming or cooling of the ears of unanesthetized, loosely restrained rabbits, theta waves (4-7 Hz EEG waves) were recorded from electrodes straddling the hippocampus. The onset of the hippocampal theta rhythm was correlated with changes in cutaneous temperature, an observation consistent with studies indicating that the theta rhythm is a nonspecific response evoked by stimulation of several sensory modalities. Additional data from cats and rabbits were correlated with specific neurons within the hippocampus, namely pyramidal cells. Post stimulus time histograms obtained by excitation of the dorsal fornix were interpreted in terms of excitatory and inhibitory inputs to pyramidal cells. Thus, the theta rhythm, which appears to be evoked by changes in cutaneous temperature, can be related to a specific type of hippocampal neuron which is in turn connected with other areas of the brain involved in temperature regulation.

  5. Short-tailed temperature distributions over North America and implications for future changes in extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loikith, Paul C.; Neelin, J. David

    2015-10-01

    Some regions of North America exhibit nonnormal temperature distributions. Shorter-than-Gaussian warm tails are a special subset of these cases, with potentially meaningful implications for future changes in extreme warm temperatures under anthropogenic global warming. Locations exhibiting shorter-than-Gaussian warm tails would experience a greater increase in extreme warm temperature exceedances than a location with a Gaussian or long warm-side tail under a simple uniform warm shift in the distribution. Here we identify regions exhibiting such behavior over North America and demonstrate the effect of a simple warm shift on changes in extreme warm temperature exceedances. Some locations exceed the 95th percentile of the original distribution by greater than 40% of the time after this uniform shift. While the manner in which distributions change under global warming may be more complex than a simple shift, these results provide an observational baseline for climate model evaluation.

  6. Temperature changes in the North-Western Italian Alps from 1961 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acquaotta, Fiorella; Fratianni, Simona; Garzena, Diego

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify any possible temperature changes within the last 50 years in the North-Western Italian Alps by examining data from 16 high-altitude weather stations in the period 1961-2010. The daily temperature time series were collected, digitized and subjected to a historical research to individuate discontinuities and retrieve metadata. We also carried out the data quality control and the homogenization which allowed the climatic indices trend detection. The analysis of the temperature values showed an increase in temperature, particularly at high-altitudes sites. In fact, the stations located above 1600 m asl revealed a rise in temperatures and a decrease in the number of cold periods. For the maximum temperatures, greater increases in spring and winter have been observed, for minimum temperatures in the summer. These trends confirm that climate change is occurring in an environment particularly sensitive to temperature changes, especially during the season of snow accumulation and vegetative growth. These results may be important for policy makers to define the best adaptation strategies in order to protect one of the most sensitive environments such as mountains.

  7. Temperature changes caused by light curing of fiber-reinforced composite resins

    PubMed Central

    Ilday, Nurcan Ozakar; Sagsoz, Omer; Karatas, Ozcan; Bayindir, Yusuf Ziya; elik, Neslihan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study is to evaluate temperature change in fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) resin photopolymerized with a light-emitting diode (LED) light-curing unit (LCU). Materials and Methods: Forty dentine disks (1 mm thick and 8 mm diameter) were prepared from human molars. The FRC specimens (2 mm thickness and 8 mm diameter) consisted of polyethylene fiber (Construct (CT)) products or glass fiber (ever Stick (ES)) and one hybrid composite bonded to the dentin disks and polymerized with an LED LCU. Control groups were prepared using the hybrid composite. Temperature rise in dentine samples under the FRC bonded disks was measured using a K-type thermocouple, and data were recorded. Temperature change data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's test. Results: The results show that addition of fiber (one or two layers) did not change temperature rise values at any of the exposure times (P > 0.05). The CT fiber/two layer/40 s group exhibited the greatest temperature rise (5.49 0.62) and the ES/one layer/10 s group the lowest rise (1.75 0.32). A significant difference was observed in temperature rise measured during 10 and 20 s exposures (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Maximal temperature rise determined in all groups was not critical for pulpal health, although clinicians need to note temperature rises during polymerization. PMID:26069409

  8. Sensitivity of biogenic silica oxygen isotopes to changes in surface water temperature and palaeoclimatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moschen, Robert; Lcke, Andreas; Schleser, Gerhard H.

    2005-04-01

    Oxygen isotope ratios of biogenic silica derived from planktonic diatoms living in the pelagial of a freshwater lake are used to determine the temperature effect on the isotope fractionation between water and biogenic silica under ecosystem conditions. Our data show a deterministic relation between seasonally changing water temperatures (4C-22C) and the oxygen isotope fractionation during valve formation. The temperature dependent fractionation appears to be independent of diatom cell sizes indicating a mere physical control of this process. The isotopic change induced per degree centigrade, the temperature coefficient, amounts to a value of -0.2/C. This implies that previous studies have overestimated the temperature relationship of this proxy by using coefficients of up to -0.5/C for climate reconstructions.

  9. Changes in the frequency of extreme temperature records for Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Shannon M. J.; Gough, William A.; Mohsin, Tanzina

    2015-02-01

    Temperature extremes in Toronto, Ontario, Canada are examined using an under-utilized approach. The frequency of temperature extreme records per year is examined for the period of 1971 to 2000. Consistent with other published metrics, record extreme cold temperatures is decreasing at five weather observing stations in the Greater Toronto Area. This was confirmed using three different statistical tests indicating the change signal was stronger for weather stations on the fringe of the urban area suggesting that expanding urbanization was a major factor in this net change. However, this was not found to be the case for record extreme warm temperatures where increasing trends were not statistically significant. The effects of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption in 1991 were detected in both the minimum and maximum temperatures records.

  10. Thermal stresses in the wall of pipes caused by periodic change of temperature of medium fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atefi, Gholamali; Mahmoudi, Hamid

    2012-06-01

    The problem of thermal stresses induced in pipes due to periodic change of medium fluid temperature has never been considered completely. In this paper an analytical solution for obtaining thermal stresses in a pipe caused by periodic time varying of temperature of medium fluid is offered. Transient heat conduction equation in cylindrical coordinates for a long hollow cylinder under periodic change of ambient temperature condition is solved analytically using Fourier series and Temperature distribution in the wall of pipe as a function of time and radial direction is specified. Then resulting thermal stresses are obtained using thermoelasticity relations. Because of the use of Fourier series expansion in obtaining the transient temperature field the proposed method is very comprehensive and covers many theoretical and practical problems. The results for thermal stresses have been compared with former works and show excellent agreement for the same conditions.

  11. Synchronous change of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature during the last deglacial warming.

    PubMed

    Parrenin, F; Masson-Delmotte, V; Köhler, P; Raynaud, D; Paillard, D; Schwander, J; Barbante, C; Landais, A; Wegner, A; Jouzel, J

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the role of atmospheric CO2 during past climate changes requires clear knowledge of how it varies in time relative to temperature. Antarctic ice cores preserve highly resolved records of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature for the past 800,000 years. Here we propose a revised relative age scale for the concentration of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature for the last deglacial warming, using data from five Antarctic ice cores. We infer the phasing between CO2 concentration and Antarctic temperature at four times when their trends change abruptly. We find no significant asynchrony between them, indicating that Antarctic temperature did not begin to rise hundreds of years before the concentration of atmospheric CO2, as has been suggested by earlier studies. PMID:23449589

  12. Potential for temperature change during application of ultrasonic vibration to intra-radicular posts.

    PubMed

    Satterthwaite, Julian D; Stokes, Alastair N; Frankel, Nicholas T N

    2003-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential for heat production when intra-radicular posts were subjected to ultrasonic vibration. Thirty zirconium ceramic posts and thirty stainless steel posts were luted into canine roots. Ultrasonic vibration was applied to the top of each post for thirty minutes and temperature change on the root surface was measured. The mean peak temperature rise from baseline was 18.7 degrees C. Post type had no influence on peak temperature. Temperature increase on the external root surfaces increased as the thickness of dentine between post and root surface reduced. PMID:12868207

  13. Interannual temperature changes in the Antarctic lower stratosphere - A relation to the ozone hole

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahira, Kohji ); Hirooka, Toshihiko )

    1989-01-01

    Interannual changes in the daily zonal mean temperature in the Antarctic lower stratosphere are analyzed for the past seven years from 1980 to 1986 by using NMC data. It is found that the Antarctic polar region tends to cool not only in spring but also in all seasons, remarkably in winter and spring. Further analysis concerning the meridional gradient of the zonal mean temperature showed that the period per year of the winter pattern (temperature decrease toward the south pole) becomes longer as the ozone hole becomes deeper. From this evidence, the interrelation between the temperature decline and the ozone depletion is discussed.

  14. The role of land use change in the recent warming of daily extreme temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christidis, Nikolaos; Stott, Peter A.; Hegerl, Gabriele C.; Betts, Richard A.

    2013-02-01

    Abstract Understanding how <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes respond in a climate forced by human activity is of great importance, as extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are detrimental to health and often responsible for mortality increases. While previous detection and attribution studies demonstrated a significant human influence on the recent warming of daily extremes, contributions of individual anthropogenic forcings like <span class="hlt">changes</span> in land use have not yet been investigated in such studies. Here we apply an optimal fingerprinting technique to data from observations and experiments with a new earth system model to examine whether <span class="hlt">changing</span> land use has led to detectable <span class="hlt">changes</span> in daily extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on a quasi-global scale. We find that loss of trees and increase of grassland since preindustrial times has caused an overall cooling trend in both mean and extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> which is detectable in the observed <span class="hlt">changes</span> of warm but not cold extremes. The warming in both mean and extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> due to anthropogenic forcings other than land use is detected in all cases, whereas the weaker effect of natural climatic forcings is not detected in any. This is the first formal attribution of observed climatic <span class="hlt">changes</span> to <span class="hlt">changing</span> land use, suggesting further investigations are justified, particularly in studies of warm extremes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC41B0548K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC41B0548K"><span id="translatedtitle">People as sensors: mass media and local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> influence climate <span class="hlt">change</span> discussion on Twitter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kirilenko, A.; Molodtsova, T.; Stepchenkova, S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We examined whether people living under significant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies connect their sensory experiences to climate <span class="hlt">change</span> and the role that media plays in this process. We used Twitter messages containing words "climate <span class="hlt">change</span>" and "global warming" as the indicator of attention that public pays to the issue. Specifically, the goals were: (1) to investigate whether people immediately notice significant local weather anomalies and connect them to climate <span class="hlt">change</span> and (2) to examine the role of mass media in this process. Over 2 million tweets were collected for a two-year period (2012 - 2013) and were assigned to 157 urban areas in the continental USA (Figure 1). Geographical locations of the tweets were identified with a geolocation resolving algorithm based the profile of the users. Daily number of tweets (tweeting rate) was computed for 157 conterminous USA urban areas and adjusted for data acquisition errors. The USHCN daily minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were obtained for the station locations closest to the centers of the urban areas and the 1981-2010 30-year <span class="hlt">temperature</span> mean and standard deviation were used as the climate normals. For the analysis, we computed the following indices for each day of 2012 - 2013 period: standardized <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly, absolute standardized <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly, and extreme cold and hot <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies for each urban zone. The extreme cold and hot <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies were then transformed into country-level values that represent the number of people living in extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions. The rate of tweeting on climate <span class="hlt">change</span> was regressed on the time variables, number of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> publications in the mass media, and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In the majority of regression models, the mass media and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variables were significant at the p<0.001 level. Additionally, we did not find convincing evidence that the media acts as a mediator in the relationship between local weather and climate <span class="hlt">change</span> discourse intensity. Our analysis of Twitter data confirmed that the public is able to recognize extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies and connects these anomalies to climate <span class="hlt">change</span>. Finally, we demonstrated the utility of social network data for research on public climate <span class="hlt">change</span> perception.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H31H0741D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H31H0741D"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Shasta Dam operations to regulate <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for Chinook salmon under extreme climate and climate <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dai, A.; Saito, L.; Sapin, J. R.; Rajagopalan, B.; Hanna, R. B.; Kauneckis, D. L.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Chinook salmon populations have declined significantly after the construction of Shasta Dam on the Sacramento River in 1945 prevented them from spawning in the cold waters upstream. In 1994, the winter-run Chinook were listed under the Endangered Species Act and 3 years later the US Bureau of Reclamation began operating a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control device (TCD) on the dam that allows for selective withdrawal for downstream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control to promote salmon spawning while also maximizing power generation. However, dam operators are responsible to other interests that depend on the reservoir for water such as agriculture, municipalities, industry, and recreation. An increase in <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> due to climate <span class="hlt">change</span> may place additional strain on the ability of dam operations to maintain spawning habitat for salmon downstream of the dam. We examined the capability of Shasta Dam to regulate downstream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> under extreme climates and climate <span class="hlt">change</span> by using stochastically generated streamflow, stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and weather inputs with a two-dimensional CE-QUAL-W2 model under several operational options. Operation performance was evaluated using degree days and cold pool volume (volume of water below a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> threshold). Model results indicated that a generalized operations release schedule, in which release elevations varied over the year to match downstream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> targets, performed best overall in meeting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> targets while preserving cold pool volume. Releasing all water out the bottom throughout the year tended to meet <span class="hlt">temperature</span> targets at the expense of depleting the cold pool, and releasing all water out uppermost gates preserved the cold pool, but released water that was too warm during the critical spawning period. With higher air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> due to climate <span class="hlt">change</span>, both degree day and cold pool volume metrics were worse than baseline conditions, which suggests that Chinook salmon may be more negatively affected under climate <span class="hlt">change</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014QSRv..106..262B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014QSRv..106..262B"><span id="translatedtitle">To what extent did <span class="hlt">changes</span> in July <span class="hlt">temperature</span> influence Lateglacial vegetation patterns in NW Europe?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Birks, Hilary H.; Birks, H. John B.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>What was the impact of July <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> on vegetation patterns during the Lateglacial period in north-west Europe? Chironomid-inferred mean July air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimates (C-Tjul) are proxy <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records independent of terrestrial vegetation. The relationships between Lateglacial vegetation inferred from pollen percentages and these <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimates are explored using data synthesised geographically from 15 sites where both pollen percentages and C-Tjul are published to assess the influence of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> on regional vegetation. Direct impacts of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on a species involve passing the range limits or realised niche of that species. The Bølling warming allowed vegetation to develop. The Younger Dryas cooling had direct impacts on species and vegetation types that were at a critical ecotone and thus sensitive to <span class="hlt">change</span>. Precipitation is extremely important and its interaction with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controlled most of the vegetation patterns inferred from these NW European pollen data. High precipitation was important in W Norway, whereas aridity in the YD was a controlling factor in N Norway, the Netherlands, and NE Germany. Under constant climate, ecological processes occurred such as immigration, succession, and soil development that resulted in vegetation <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Biotic interactions were also important, such as the impact of grazing by mega-herbivores during Allerød time in Ireland that may have restricted the development of birch woodland. At the coarse scale of this synthesis, July <span class="hlt">temperature</span> alone is seen not to be a good predictor of the patterns of pollen percentages and hence of vegetation through the Lateglacial. Rather, it is the interactions of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation, combined with ecological processes that appear to be the major factors influencing Lateglacial palynological and vegetation patterns in NW Europe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRD..11521107W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRD..11521107W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Changes</span> in the relationship between Northeast China summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and ENSO</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Renguang; Yang, Song; Liu, Shi; Sun, Li; Lian, Yi; Gao, Zongting</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>Northeast China (NEC) summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> tends to be lower (higher) than normal in El Niño (La Niña) developing years during 1950s through mid-1970s. The relationship between the NEC summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is weakened or even becomes opposite in 1980s and 1990s. The present study documents this interdecadal <span class="hlt">change</span> and investigates plausible reasons for this <span class="hlt">change</span>. Before the late 1970s, ENSO affects the NEC summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> through modulating the South Asian heating and consequently the midlatitude Asian circulation. After the late 1970s, the connection between ENSO and the Indian summer monsoon and that between the South Asian heating and the midlatitude Asian circulation have been weakened. This leads to a weakening of ENSO impacts on the NEC summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. It is found that the NEC summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations are closely related to the North Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) and circulation <span class="hlt">changes</span> in 1980s and 1990s. In particular, a tripole North Atlantic SST anomaly pattern in boreal spring is a good precursory for the NEC summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies. The NEC summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> displays a negative correlation with the summer SST surrounding the Maritime Continent in 1980s and 1990s. In many years, the tropical North Pacific and the North Atlantic SST anomalies can contribute in concert to the midlatitude Asian circulation <span class="hlt">changes</span> and the NEC summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies. These effects overcome those of the central and eastern equatorial Pacific SST anomalies, leading to a same-sign relationship between the NEC summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the central and eastern equatorial Pacific SST anomalies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3032790','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3032790"><span id="translatedtitle">A Large <span class="hlt">Change</span> in <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> between Neighbouring Days Increases the Risk of Mortality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Guo, Yuming; Barnett, Adrian G.; Yu, Weiwei; Pan, Xiaochuan; Ye, Xiaofang; Huang, Cunrui; Tong, Shilu</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background Previous studies have found high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> increase the risk of mortality in summer. However, little is known about whether a sharp decrease or increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> between neighbouring days has any effect on mortality. Method Poisson regression models were used to estimate the association between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and mortality in summer in Brisbane, Australia during 19962004 and Los Angeles, United States during 19872000. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> was calculated as the current day's mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> minus the previous day's mean. Results In Brisbane, a drop of more than 3C in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> between days was associated with relative risks (RRs) of 1.157 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.024, 1.307) for total non-external mortality (NEM), 1.186 (95%CI: 1.002, 1.405) for NEM in females, and 1.442 (95%CI: 1.099, 1.892) for people aged 6574 years. An increase of more than 3C was associated with RRs of 1.353 (95%CI: 1.033, 1.772) for cardiovascular mortality and 1.667 (95%CI: 1.146, 2.425) for people aged <65 years. In Los Angeles, only a drop of more than 3C was significantly associated with RRs of 1.133 (95%CI: 1.053, 1.219) for total NEM, 1.252 (95%CI: 1.131, 1.386) for cardiovascular mortality, and 1.254 (95%CI: 1.135, 1.385) for people aged ?75 years. In both cities, there were joint effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on NEM. Conclusion A significant <span class="hlt">change</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of more than 3C, whether positive or negative, has an adverse impact on mortality even after controlling for the current <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. PMID:21311772</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18075590','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18075590"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of remote sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on tropical cyclone potential intensity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vecchi, Gabriel A; Soden, Brian J</p> <p>2007-12-13</p> <p>The response of tropical cyclone activity to global warming is widely debated. It is often assumed that warmer sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> provide a more favourable environment for the development and intensification of tropical cyclones, but cyclone genesis and intensity are also affected by the vertical thermodynamic properties of the atmosphere. Here we use climate models and observational reconstructions to explore the relationship between <span class="hlt">changes</span> in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and tropical cyclone 'potential intensity'--a measure that provides an upper bound on cyclone intensity and can also reflect the likelihood of cyclone development. We find that <span class="hlt">changes</span> in local sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are inadequate for characterizing even the sign of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in potential intensity, but that long-term <span class="hlt">changes</span> in potential intensity are closely related to the regional structure of warming; regions that warm more than the tropical average are characterized by increased potential intensity, and vice versa. We use this relationship to reconstruct <span class="hlt">changes</span> in potential intensity over the twentieth century from observational reconstructions of sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. We find that, even though tropical Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are currently at a historical high, Atlantic potential intensity probably peaked in the 1930s and 1950s, and recent values are near the historical average. Our results indicate that--per unit local sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>--the response of tropical cyclone activity to natural climate variations, which tend to involve localized <span class="hlt">changes</span> in sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, may be larger than the response to the more uniform patterns of greenhouse-gas-induced warming. PMID:18075590</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25963275','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25963275"><span id="translatedtitle">Spectrophotometric analysis of color <span class="hlt">changes</span> in teeth incinerated at increasing <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rubio, Leticia; Sioli, Jose Manuel; Suarez, Juan; Gaitan, Maria Jesus; Martin-de-las-Heras, Stella</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Color <span class="hlt">changes</span> produced by histological alterations in burned teeth can provide conclusive forensic information on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of exposure. The objective was to correlate heat-induced color <span class="hlt">changes</span> in incinerated teeth with increases in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (to 1200°C). Spectrophotometry was used to measure lightness, chromaticity (a* and b*), whiteness, and yellowness in 80 teeth heated at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, or 1200°C for 60 min. Chromaticity a* was reduced at 100°C and lightness at 200 and 400°C, while chromaticity b* and yellowness were reduced at 400 and 600°C. Higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (800, 1000, and 1200°C) produced progressive increases in lightness and whiteness but reductions in chromaticity b* and yellowness. The accuracy of color values to determine the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of exposure was determined by Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis. High accuracy was shown by lightness, chromaticity b* and yellowness values for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> between 800° and 1200°C, by whiteness for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of 1000° and 1200°C, and by lightness for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of 200° and 400°C, with sensitivity and specificity values ranging from 90% to 100%. According to these results, colorimetric analysis of incinerated teeth can be used to estimate the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of exposure with high accuracy, with lightness being the most useful variable. PMID:25963275</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24312614','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24312614"><span id="translatedtitle">Millennial-scale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocity in the continental northern Neotropics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Correa-Metrio, Alexander; Bush, Mark; Lozano-García, Socorro; Sosa-Nájera, Susana</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Climate has been inherently linked to global diversity patterns, and yet no empirical data are available to put modern climate <span class="hlt">change</span> into a millennial-scale context. High tropical species diversity has been linked to slow rates of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> during the Quaternary, an assumption that lacks an empirical foundation. Thus, there is the need for quantifying the velocity at which the bioclimatic space <span class="hlt">changed</span> during the Quaternary in the tropics. Here we present rates of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> for the late Pleistocene and Holocene from Mexico and Guatemala. An extensive modern pollen survey and fossil pollen data from two long sedimentary records (30,000 and 86,000 years for highlands and lowlands, respectively) were used to estimate past <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Derived <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles show a parallel long-term trend and a similar cooling during the Last Glacial Maximum in the Guatemalan lowlands and the Mexican highlands. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> estimates and digital elevation models were used to calculate the velocity of isotherm displacement (<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocity) for the time period contained in each record. Our analyses showed that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocities in Mesoamerica during the late Quaternary were at least four times slower than values reported for the last 50 years, but also at least twice as fast as those obtained from recent models. Our data demonstrate that, given extremely high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocities, species survival must have relied on either microrefugial populations or persistence of suppressed individuals. Contrary to the usual expectation of stable climates being associated with high diversity, our results suggest that Quaternary tropical diversity was probably maintained by centennial-scale oscillatory climatic variability that forestalled competitive exclusion. As humans have simplified modern landscapes, thereby removing potential microrefugia, and climate <span class="hlt">change</span> is occurring monotonically at a very high velocity, extinction risk for tropical species is higher than at any time in the last 86,000 years. PMID:24312614</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3846729','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3846729"><span id="translatedtitle">Millennial-Scale <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> Velocity in the Continental Northern Neotropics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Correa-Metrio, Alexander; Bush, Mark; Lozano-García, Socorro; Sosa-Nájera, Susana</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Climate has been inherently linked to global diversity patterns, and yet no empirical data are available to put modern climate <span class="hlt">change</span> into a millennial-scale context. High tropical species diversity has been linked to slow rates of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> during the Quaternary, an assumption that lacks an empirical foundation. Thus, there is the need for quantifying the velocity at which the bioclimatic space <span class="hlt">changed</span> during the Quaternary in the tropics. Here we present rates of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> for the late Pleistocene and Holocene from Mexico and Guatemala. An extensive modern pollen survey and fossil pollen data from two long sedimentary records (30,000 and 86,000 years for highlands and lowlands, respectively) were used to estimate past <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Derived <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles show a parallel long-term trend and a similar cooling during the Last Glacial Maximum in the Guatemalan lowlands and the Mexican highlands. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> estimates and digital elevation models were used to calculate the velocity of isotherm displacement (<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocity) for the time period contained in each record. Our analyses showed that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocities in Mesoamerica during the late Quaternary were at least four times slower than values reported for the last 50 years, but also at least twice as fast as those obtained from recent models. Our data demonstrate that, given extremely high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocities, species survival must have relied on either microrefugial populations or persistence of suppressed individuals. Contrary to the usual expectation of stable climates being associated with high diversity, our results suggest that Quaternary tropical diversity was probably maintained by centennial-scale oscillatory climatic variability that forestalled competitive exclusion. As humans have simplified modern landscapes, thereby removing potential microrefugia, and climate <span class="hlt">change</span> is occurring monotonically at a very high velocity, extinction risk for tropical species is higher than at any time in the last 86,000 years. PMID:24312614</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JEMat..45.1309M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JEMat..45.1309M"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic Performance of Maximum Power Point Trackers in TEG Systems Under Rapidly <span class="hlt">Changing</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Man, E. A.; Sera, D.; Mathe, L.; Schaltz, E.; Rosendahl, L.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Characterization of thermoelectric generators (TEG) is widely discussed and equipment has been built that can perform such analysis. One method is often used to perform such characterization: constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with variable thermal power input. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods for TEG systems are mostly tested under steady-state conditions for different constant input <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. However, for most TEG applications, the input <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient <span class="hlt">changes</span>, exposing the MPPT to variable tracking conditions. An example is the exhaust pipe on hybrid vehicles, for which, because of the intermittent operation of the internal combustion engine, the TEG and its MPPT controller are exposed to a cyclic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile. Furthermore, there are no guidelines on how fast the MPPT must be under such dynamic conditions. In the work discussed in this paper, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients for TEG integrated in several applications were evaluated; the results showed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation up to 5°C/s for TEG systems. Electrical characterization of a calcium-manganese oxide TEG was performed at steady-state for different input <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and a maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 401°C. By using electrical data from characterization of the oxide module, a solar array simulator was emulated to perform as a TEG. A trapezoidal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile with different gradients was used on the TEG simulator to evaluate the dynamic MPPT efficiency. It is known that the perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm may have difficulty accurately tracking under rapidly <span class="hlt">changing</span> conditions. To solve this problem, a compromise must be found between the magnitude of the increment and the sampling frequency of the control algorithm. The standard P&O performance was evaluated experimentally by using different <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients for different MPPT sampling frequencies, and efficiency values are provided for all cases. The results showed that a tracking speed of 2.5 Hz can be successfully implemented on a TEG system to provide ˜95% MPPT efficiency when the input <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is <span class="hlt">changing</span> at 5°C/s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JEMat.tmp..439M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JEMat.tmp..439M"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic Performance of Maximum Power Point Trackers in TEG Systems Under Rapidly <span class="hlt">Changing</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Man, E. A.; Sera, D.; Mathe, L.; Schaltz, E.; Rosendahl, L.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Characterization of thermoelectric generators (TEG) is widely discussed and equipment has been built that can perform such analysis. One method is often used to perform such characterization: constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with variable thermal power input. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods for TEG systems are mostly tested under steady-state conditions for different constant input <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. However, for most TEG applications, the input <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient <span class="hlt">changes</span>, exposing the MPPT to variable tracking conditions. An example is the exhaust pipe on hybrid vehicles, for which, because of the intermittent operation of the internal combustion engine, the TEG and its MPPT controller are exposed to a cyclic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile. Furthermore, there are no guidelines on how fast the MPPT must be under such dynamic conditions. In the work discussed in this paper, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients for TEG integrated in several applications were evaluated; the results showed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation up to 5°C/s for TEG systems. Electrical characterization of a calcium-manganese oxide TEG was performed at steady-state for different input <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and a maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 401°C. By using electrical data from characterization of the oxide module, a solar array simulator was emulated to perform as a TEG. A trapezoidal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile with different gradients was used on the TEG simulator to evaluate the dynamic MPPT efficiency. It is known that the perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm may have difficulty accurately tracking under rapidly <span class="hlt">changing</span> conditions. To solve this problem, a compromise must be found between the magnitude of the increment and the sampling frequency of the control algorithm. The standard P&O performance was evaluated experimentally by using different <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients for different MPPT sampling frequencies, and efficiency values are provided for all cases. The results showed that a tracking speed of 2.5 Hz can be successfully implemented on a TEG system to provide ˜95% MPPT efficiency when the input <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is <span class="hlt">changing</span> at 5°C/s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25965185','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25965185"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Changing</span> patterns of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-mortality association by time and location in the US, and implications for climate <span class="hlt">change</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nordio, Francesco; Zanobetti, Antonella; Colicino, Elena; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The shape of the non-linear relationship between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and mortality varies among cities with different climatic conditions. There has been little examination of how these curves <span class="hlt">change</span> over space and time. We evaluated the short-term effects of hot and cold <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on daily mortality over six 7-year periods in 211 US cities, comprising over 42 million deaths. Cluster analysis was used to group the cities according to similar <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and relative humidity. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-mortality functions were calculated using B-splines to model the heat effect (lag 0) and the cold effect on mortality (moving average lags 1-5). The functions were then combined through meta-smoothing and subsequently analyzed by meta-regression. We identified eight clusters. At lag 0, Cluster 5 (West Coast) had a RR of 1.14 (95% CI: 1.11,1.17) for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of 27 °C vs 15.6 °C, and Cluster 6 (Gulf Coast) has a RR of 1.04 (95% CI: 1.03,1.05), suggesting that people are acclimated to their respective climates. Controlling for cluster effect in the multivariate-meta regression we found that across the US, the excess mortality from a 24-h <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 27 °C decreased over time from 10.6% to 0.9%. We found that the overall risk due to the heat effect is significantly affected by summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> mean and air condition usage, which could be a potential predictor in building climate-<span class="hlt">change</span> scenarios. PMID:25965185</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23903375','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23903375"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dangers</span> and opportunities for social media in medicine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>George, Daniel R; Rovniak, Liza S; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Health professionals have begun using social media to benefit patients, enhance professional networks, and advance understanding of individual and contextual factors influencing public health. However, discussion of the <span class="hlt">dangers</span> of these technologies in medicine has overwhelmed consideration of positive applications. This article summarizes the hazards of social media in medicine and explores how <span class="hlt">changes</span> in functionality on sites like Facebook may make these technologies less perilous for health professionals. Finally, it describes the most promising avenues through which professionals can use social media in medicine-improving patient communication, enhancing professional development, and contributing to public health research and service. PMID:23903375</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610086S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610086S"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition to simultaneous <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sierra, Carlos; Trumbore, Susan; Davidson, Eric; Vicca, Sara; Janssens, Ivan</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Soil organic matter decomposition depends on multiple factors that are being altered simultaneously as a result of global environmental <span class="hlt">change</span>. For this reason it is important to study the overall sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition with respect to multiple and interacting drivers. Here we present an analysis of the potential response of decomposition rates to simultaneous <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture. To address this problem, we first present a theoretical framework to study the sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition when multiple driving factors <span class="hlt">change</span> simultaneously. We then apply this framework to models and data at different levels of abstraction: 1) to a mechanistic model that addresses the limitation of enzyme activity by simultaneous effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and soil water content, the latter controlling substrate supply and oxygen concentration for microbial activity; 2) to different mathematical functions used to represent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture effects on decomposition in biogeochemical models. To contrast model predictions at these two levels of organization, we compiled different datasets of observed responses in field and laboratory studies. Then we applied our conceptual framework to: 3) observations of soil respiration at the ecosystem level; 4) laboratory experiments looking at the response of heterotrophic respiration to independent <span class="hlt">changes</span> in moisture and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>; and 5) ecosystem-level experiments manipulating soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and water content simultaneously. The combined theoretical and empirical evidence reviewed suggests: first, large uncertainties still remain regarding the combined controls of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture on decomposition rates, particularly at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and the extremes of the soil moisture range; second, the highest sensitivities of decomposition rates are likely in systems where <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture are high such as tropical peatlands, and at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> near the freezing point of water such as in soils under freeze-thaw cycles. These regions also exhibit the largest differences in projected <span class="hlt">changes</span> in decomposition rates among different models. Third, the lowest sensitivity of decomposition rates to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture is expected in soils with <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> well below the freezing point. Uncertainty in models can be reduced if some of the functions representing the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture on decomposition can be discredited based on empirical observations or experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4000386','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4000386"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploring potential mechanisms responsible for observed <span class="hlt">changes</span> of ultrasonic backscattered energy with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Xin; Ghoshal, Goutam; Lavarello, Roberto J.; Oelze, Michael L.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: Previous studies have provided the observation that the ultrasonic backscattered energy from a tissue region will <span class="hlt">change</span> due to a <span class="hlt">change</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The mechanism responsible for the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in backscattered energy (CBE) with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has been hypothesized to be from the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in scattering properties of local aqueous and lipid scatterers. An alternative mechanism is hypothesized here to be capable of producing similar CBE curves, i.e., <span class="hlt">changes</span> in speckle resulting from <span class="hlt">changes</span> in summation of scattered wavelets. Methods: Both simulations and experiments were conducted with a 5.5 MHz, 128-element linear array and synthetic and physical phantoms containing randomly spaced scatterers. The speckle pattern resulting from summation of scattered wavelets was <span class="hlt">changed</span> in simulations and experiments by directly increasing the background sound speed from 1520 to 1540 m/s, and <span class="hlt">changing</span> the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from 37 °C to 48 °C, respectively. Shifts in the backscattered signal were compensated using 2D cross-correlation techniques. Results: Excellent agreement between simulations and experiments was observed, with each pixel in the CBE images on average undergoing either a monotonic increase (up to 3.2 dB) or a monotonic decrease (down to −1.9 dB) with increasing sound speed or <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Similar CBE curves were also produced by shifting the image plane in the elevational and axial directions even after correcting for apparent motion. Conclusions: CBE curves were produced by <span class="hlt">changing</span> the sound speed or <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in tissue mimicking phantoms or by shifting the image plane in the elevational and axial directions and the production of these CBE curves did not require the presence of lipid and aqueous scatterers. PMID:24784401</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033722','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033722"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> responses to land-use <span class="hlt">change</span> in the western United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kueppers, L.M.; Snyder, M.A.; Sloan, L.C.; Cayan, D.; Jin, J.; Kanamaru, H.; Kanamitsu, M.; Miller, N.L.; Tyree, Mary; Du, H.; Weare, B.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In the western United States, more than 79 000??km2 has been converted to irrigated agriculture and urban areas. These <span class="hlt">changes</span> have the potential to alter surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by modifying the energy budget at the land-atmosphere interface. This study reports the seasonally varying <span class="hlt">temperature</span> responses of four regional climate models (RCMs) - RSM, RegCM3, MM5-CLM3, and DRCM - to conversion of potential natural vegetation to modern land-cover and land-use over a 1-year period. Three of the RCMs supplemented soil moisture, producing large decreases in the August mean (- 1.4 to - 3.1????C) and maximum (- 2.9 to - 6.1????C) 2-m air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> where natural vegetation was converted to irrigated agriculture. Conversion to irrigated agriculture also resulted in large increases in relative humidity (9% to 36% absolute <span class="hlt">change</span>). Modeled <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the August minimum 2-m air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were not as pronounced or consistent across the models. Converting natural vegetation to urban land-cover produced less pronounced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects in all models, with the magnitude of the effect dependent upon the preexisting vegetation type and urban parameterizations. Overall, the RCM results indicate that the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> impacts of land-use <span class="hlt">change</span> are most pronounced during the summer months, when surface heating is strongest and differences in surface soil moisture between irrigated land and natural vegetation are largest. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3336117','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3336117"><span id="translatedtitle">Alternative Splicing Mediates Responses of the Arabidopsis Circadian Clock to <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Changes</span>[W</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>James, Allan B.; Syed, Naeem Hasan; Bordage, Simon; Marshall, Jacqueline; Nimmo, Gillian A.; Jenkins, Gareth I.; Herzyk, Pawel; Brown, John W.S.; Nimmo, Hugh G.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Alternative splicing plays crucial roles by influencing the diversity of the transcriptome and proteome and regulating protein structure/function and gene expression. It is widespread in plants, and alteration of the levels of splicing factors leads to a wide variety of growth and developmental phenotypes. The circadian clock is a complex piece of cellular machinery that can regulate physiology and behavior to anticipate predictable environmental <span class="hlt">changes</span> on a revolving planet. We have performed a system-wide analysis of alternative splicing in clock components in Arabidopsis thaliana plants acclimated to different steady state <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> or undergoing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> transitions. This revealed extensive alternative splicing in clock genes and dynamic <span class="hlt">changes</span> in alternatively spliced transcripts. Several of these <span class="hlt">changes</span>, notably those affecting the circadian clock genes LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) and PSEUDO RESPONSE REGULATOR7, are <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent and contribute markedly to functionally important <span class="hlt">changes</span> in clock gene expression in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> transitions by producing nonfunctional transcripts and/or inducing nonsense-mediated decay. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> effects on alternative splicing contribute to a decline in LHY transcript abundance on cooling, but LHY promoter strength is not affected. We propose that <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-associated alternative splicing is an additional mechanism involved in the operation and regulation of the plant circadian clock. PMID:22408072</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3914460','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3914460"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Changes</span> of Pulp Chamber during In Vitro Laser Welding of Orthodontic Attachments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>İşman, Eren; Okşayan, Rıdvan; Sökücü, Oral; Üşümez, Serdar</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The use of lasers has been suggested for orthodontists to fabricate or repair orthodontic appliances by welding metals directly in the mouth. This work aimed to evaluate the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the pulp chamber during welding of an orthodontic wire to an orthodontic molar band using Nd : YAG laser in vitro. A freshly extracted human third molar with eliminated pulpal tissues was used. J-type thermocouple wire was positioned in the pulp chamber. A conductor gel was used in the transferring of outside <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> to the thermocouple wire. An orthodontic band was applied to the molar tooth and bonded using light cured orthodontic cement. Twenty five mm length of 0.6 mm diameter orthodontic stainless steel wires was welded to the orthodontic band using Nd : YAG laser operated at 9.4 watt. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> variation was determined as the <span class="hlt">change</span> from baseline <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to the highest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was recorded during welding. The recorded <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> were between 1.8 and 6.8°C (mean: 3.3 ± 1.1°C). The reported critical 5.5°C level was exceeded in only one sample. The results of this study suggest that intraoral use of lasers holds great potential for the future of orthodontics and does not present a thermal risk. Further studies with larger samples and structural analysis are required. PMID:24550714</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24550714','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24550714"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> of pulp chamber during in vitro laser welding of orthodontic attachments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Işman, Eren; Okşayan, Rıdvan; Sökücü, Oral; Üşümez, Serdar</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The use of lasers has been suggested for orthodontists to fabricate or repair orthodontic appliances by welding metals directly in the mouth. This work aimed to evaluate the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the pulp chamber during welding of an orthodontic wire to an orthodontic molar band using Nd : YAG laser in vitro. A freshly extracted human third molar with eliminated pulpal tissues was used. J-type thermocouple wire was positioned in the pulp chamber. A conductor gel was used in the transferring of outside <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> to the thermocouple wire. An orthodontic band was applied to the molar tooth and bonded using light cured orthodontic cement. Twenty five mm length of 0.6 mm diameter orthodontic stainless steel wires was welded to the orthodontic band using Nd : YAG laser operated at 9.4 watt. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> variation was determined as the <span class="hlt">change</span> from baseline <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to the highest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was recorded during welding. The recorded <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> were between 1.8 and 6.8°C (mean: 3.3±1.1°C). The reported critical 5.5°C level was exceeded in only one sample. The results of this study suggest that intraoral use of lasers holds great potential for the future of orthodontics and does not present a thermal risk. Further studies with larger samples and structural analysis are required. PMID:24550714</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp....5W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp....5W"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional <span class="hlt">change</span> in snow water equivalent-surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> relationship over Eurasia during boreal spring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Renguang; Chen, Shangfeng</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Present study investigates local relationship between surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and snow water equivalent (SWE) <span class="hlt">change</span> over mid- and high-latitudes of Eurasia during boreal spring. Positive correlation is generally observed around the periphery of snow covered region, indicative of an effect of snow on surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. In contrast, negative correlation is usually found over large snow amount area, implying a response of snow <span class="hlt">change</span> to wind-induced surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies. With the seasonal retreat of snow covered region, region of positive correlation between SWE and surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> shifts northeastward from March to May. A diagnosis of surface heat flux anomalies in April suggests that the snow impact on surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is dominant in east Europe and west Siberia through modulating surface shortwave radiation. In contrast, atmospheric effect on SWE is important in Siberia and Russia Far East through wind-induced surface sensible heat flux <span class="hlt">change</span>. Further analysis reveals that atmospheric circulation anomalies in association with snowmelt over east Siberia may be partly attributed to sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies in the North Atlantic and the atmospheric circulation anomaly pattern associated with snowmelt over Russia Far East has a close association with the Arctic Oscillation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10176177','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10176177"><span id="translatedtitle">Hanford facility <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> waste permit application, 616 Nonradioactive <span class="hlt">Dangerous</span> Waste Storage Facility. Revision 2A</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bowman, R.C.</p> <p>1994-04-01</p> <p>This permit application for the 616 Nonradioactive <span class="hlt">Dangerous</span> Waste Storage Facility consists for 15 chapters. Topics of discussion include the following: facility description and general provisions; waste characteristics; process information; personnel training; reporting and record keeping; and certification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035357','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035357"><span id="translatedtitle">A century of climate and ecosystem <span class="hlt">change</span> in Western Montana: What do <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends portend?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Pederson, G.T.; Graumlich, L.J.; Fagre, D.B.; Kipfer, T.; Muhlfeld, C.C.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The physical science linking human-induced increases in greenhouse gasses to the warming of the global climate system is well established, but the implications of this warming for ecosystem processes and services at regional scales is still poorly understood. Thus, the objectives of this work were to: (1) describe rates of <span class="hlt">change</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> averages and extremes for western Montana, a region containing sensitive resources and ecosystems, (2) investigate associations between Montana <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> to hemispheric and global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, (3) provide climate analysis tools for land and resource managers responsible for researching and maintaining renewable resources, habitat, and threatened/endangered species and (4) integrate our findings into a more general assessment of climate impacts on ecosystem processes and services over the past century. Over 100 years of daily and monthly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data collected in western Montana, USA are analyzed for long-term <span class="hlt">changes</span> in seasonal averages and daily extremes. In particular, variability and trends in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> above or below ecologically and socially meaningful thresholds within this region (e.g., -17.8??C (0??F), 0??C (32??F), and 32.2??C (90??F)) are assessed. The daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series reveal extremely cold days (??? -17.8??C) terminate on average 20 days earlier and decline in number, whereas extremely hot days (???32??C) show a three-fold increase in number and a 24-day increase in seasonal window during which they occur. Results show that regionally important thresholds have been exceeded, the most recent of which include the timing and number of the 0??C freeze/thaw <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during spring and fall. Finally, we close with a discussion on the implications for Montana's ecosystems. Special attention is given to critical processes that respond non-linearly as <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> exceed critical thresholds, and have positive feedbacks that amplify the <span class="hlt">changes</span>. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24596285','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24596285"><span id="translatedtitle">The negative effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase on bacterial respiration are independent of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in community composition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pires, Aliny P F; Guariento, Rafael D; Laque, Thais; Esteves, Francisco A; Farjalla, Vinicius F</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Temporal <span class="hlt">changes</span> in environmental conditions and in bacterial community composition (BCC) regulate bacterial processes and ecosystem services. An increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> accelerates bacterial processes in polar or temperate regions, but this relationship has not been documented for the tropics. Here, we tested the interactive effects of <span class="hlt">changing</span> the BCC and increasing the water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on tropical bacterial respiration (BR). The BCC was manipulated through successional <span class="hlt">changes</span> of the bacterial community in a filtered water sample from a tropical coastal lagoon. Four succession incubation periods (120, 240, 288 and 336 h) and four different water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (23, 28, 33 and 38(o)C) were tested in a full-factorial design microcosm experiment. Both the BCC and the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> had significant individual, but not interactive, effects on BR. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> increasing consistently decreased BR, while there was no clear pattern of successional effects on BR observed. No BCC tested was able to diminish the negative effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases on BR. Our results suggest that the effects of an increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can negatively affect BR, even in tropical ecosystems with different BCC. PMID:24596285</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20571150','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20571150"><span id="translatedtitle">Global climate <span class="hlt">change</span> and tree nutrition: effects of elevated CO2 and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lukac, Martin; Calfapietra, Carlo; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Loreto, Francesco</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Although tree nutrition has not been the primary focus of large climate <span class="hlt">change</span> experiments on trees, we are beginning to understand its links to elevated atmospheric CO? and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>. This review focuses on the major nutrients, namely N and P, and deals with the effects of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on the processes that alter their cycling and availability. Current knowledge regarding biotic and abiotic agents of weathering, mobilization and immobilization of these elements will be discussed. To date, controlled environment studies have identified possible effects of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on tree nutrition. Only some of these findings, however, were verified in ecosystem scale experiments. Moreover, to be able to predict future effects of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on tree nutrition at this scale, we need to progress from studying effects of single factors to analysing interactions between factors such as elevated CO?, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> or water availability. PMID:20571150</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26323334','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26323334"><span id="translatedtitle">Proteomic <span class="hlt">changes</span> in rice leaves grown under open field high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Das, Smruti; Krishnan, P; Mishra, Vagish; Kumar, Ritesh; Ramakrishnan, B; Singh, N K</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The interactive effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with other climatic and soil factors has profound influences on the growth and development of rice. The responses of rice to high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> under field conditions are more important than those under the controlled conditions. To understand the genes associated with high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress response in general and tolerance in particular, the expression of all those genes associated with adaptation and tolerance in rice requires proteomic analysis. High <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress-tolerant cv. N22 was subjected to 28/18 °C (control) and 42/32 °C (high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress) at flowering stage. The plants were grown in the field under the free air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increment condition. The proteomic <span class="hlt">changes</span> in rice leaves due to high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress were discussed. The proteomes of leaves had about 3000 protein spots, reproducibly detected on 2-dimensional electrophoretic gels with 573 proteins differentially expressed between the control and the high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatments. Putative physiological functions suggested five categories such as growth (15.4%), heat shock proteins (7.7%), regulatory proteins (26.9%), redox homeostasis proteins (11.5%) and energy and metabolism (38.5%) related proteins. The results of the present study suggest that cv. N22, an agronomically recognized <span class="hlt">temperature</span> tolerant rice cultivar copes with high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress in a complex manner. Several functional proteins play important roles in its responses. The predicted climate <span class="hlt">change</span> events necessitate more studies using this cultivar under different simulated ecological conditions to identify proteomic <span class="hlt">changes</span> and the associated genes to be used as biomarkers and to gain a better understanding on the biochemical pathways involved in tolerance. PMID:26323334</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22906407','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22906407"><span id="translatedtitle">Intraosseous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> during the use of piezosurgical inserts in vitro.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schütz, S; Egger, J; Kühl, S; Filippi, A; Lambrecht, J Th</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>This study concerns intraosseous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> during the use of piezosurgical inserts. On six fresh pig jaws heated to body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (36°C), osteotomies and osteoplasties were performed in vitro with the Piezosurgery(®) 3 device (Mectron, Carasco, Italy) and various inserts. The intraosseous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases were measured at a depth of 3mm and at a distance of 1mm from the working site using nickel-chromium/nickel <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensors. 20°C Ringer's solution was used for cooling in an initial test series and 10°C Ringer's in a second series. The processed bone was examined using digital volume tomography images to determine the ratio of cortical to cancellous bone thickness. Mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases of 4.4-10.9°C were found; maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> peaks were over 47°C for an average of only 8.5 s. The type of piezosurgical insert had a marked influence on intraosseous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> generation (p=0.026); the thickness of the cortical bone and the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the coolant did not. Coolant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> had an influence on the bone cooling time (p=0.013). The results show that correct use of the piezosurgery device does not give rise to prolonged <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases over 47°C and hence does not cause any irreversible thermal damage in the bone. 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We also explored whether the impact of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> had <span class="hlt">changed</span> over time. Food poisoning, campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, Salmonella Typhimurium infections and Salmonella Enteritidis infections were positively associated (P<0.01) with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the current and previous week. Only food poisoning, salmonellosis and S. Typhimurium infections were associated with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> 2-5 weeks previously (P<0.01). There were significant reductions also in the impact of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on foodborne illnesses over time. This applies to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the current and previous week for all illness types (P<0.01) except S. Enteritidis infection (P=0.079). <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> 2-5 weeks previously diminished in importance for food poisoning and S. Typhimurium infection (P<0.001). The results are consistent with reduced pathogen concentrations in food and improved food hygiene over time. These adaptations to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> imply that current estimates of how climate <span class="hlt">change</span> may alter foodborne illness burden are overly pessimistic. PMID:19371450</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70048621','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70048621"><span id="translatedtitle">The effects of elevated water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on native juvenile mussels: implications for climate <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ganser, Alissa M.; Newton, Teresa J.; Haro, Roger J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Native freshwater mussels are a diverse but imperiled fauna and may be especially sensitive to increasing water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> because many species already may be living near their upper thermal limits. We tested the hypothesis that elevated water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (20, 25, 30, and 35°C) adversely affected the survival and physiology of 2-mo-old juvenile mussels (Lampsilis abrupta, Lampsilis siliquoidea, and Megalonaias nervosa) in 28-d laboratory experiments. The 28-d LT50s (lethal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> affecting 50% of the population) ranged from 25.3 to 30.3°C across species, and were lowest for L. abrupta and L. siliquoidea. Heart rate of L. siliquoidea was not affected by <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, but heart rate declined at higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in L. abrupta and M. nervosa. However, for both of these species, heart rate also declined steadily during the experiment and a strong <span class="hlt">temperature</span> × time interaction was detected. Juvenile growth was low for all species in all treatments and did not respond directly to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, but growth of some species responded to a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> × time interaction. Responses to thermal stress differed among species, but potential laboratory artifacts may limit applicability of these results to real-world situations. Environmentally relevant estimates of upper thermal tolerances in native mussels are urgently needed to assess the extent of assemblage <span class="hlt">changes</span> that can be expected in response to global climate <span class="hlt">change</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HESS...19.3093F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HESS...19.3093F"><span id="translatedtitle">Attribution of European precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in synoptic circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fleig, A. K.; Tallaksen, L. M.; James, P.; Hisdal, H.; Stahl, K.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Surface climate in Europe is <span class="hlt">changing</span> and patterns in trends have been found to vary at sub-seasonal scales. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of these <span class="hlt">changes</span> across space and time by analysing to what degree observed climatic trends can be attributed to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in synoptic atmospheric circulation. The relative importance of synoptic circulation <span class="hlt">changes</span> (i.e. trends in synoptic type frequencies) as opposed to trends in the hydrothermal properties of synoptic types (within-type trends) on precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends in Europe is assessed on a monthly basis. The study is based on mapping spatial and temporal trend patterns and their variability at a relatively high resolution (0.5° × 0.5°; monthly) across Europe. Gridded precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data (1963-2001) originate from the Watch Forcing Data set and synoptic types are defined by the objective SynopVis Grosswetterlagen (SVG). During the study period, relatively high influence of synoptic circulation <span class="hlt">changes</span> are found from January to March, contributing to wetting trends in northern Europe and drying in the south. Simultaneously, particularly dry synoptic types get warmer first in south-western Europe in November and/or December and affect most of Europe in March and/or April. Strong influence of synoptic circulation <span class="hlt">changes</span> is again found in June and August. In general, <span class="hlt">changes</span> in synoptic circulation has a stronger effect on climate trends in north-western Europe than in the south-east. The exact locations of the strongest influence of synoptic circulation <span class="hlt">changes</span> vary with the time of year and to some degree between precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Throughout the year and across the whole of Europe, precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends are caused by a combination of synoptic circulation <span class="hlt">changes</span> and within-type <span class="hlt">changes</span> with their relative influence varying between regions, months and climate variables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2503M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2503M"><span id="translatedtitle">MODIS-Derived Nighttime Arctic Land-Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Nascent Trends and Non-Stationary <span class="hlt">Changes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Muskett, Reginald</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Arctic nighttime Land-Surface <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> (LST) derived by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors onboard the NASA Terra and Aqua satellites are investigated. We use the local equator crossing times of 22:30 and 01:30, respectively, in the analysis of <span class="hlt">changes</span>, trends and variations on the Arctic region and within 120-degree sectors. We show increases in the number of days above 0C and significant LST increase over decades of March 2000 through 2010 (MODIS Terra) and July 2002 through 2012 (MODIS Aqua). The MODIS Aqua nighttime Arctic LST <span class="hlt">change</span>, +0.2 +/- 0.2C with P-value of 0.01 indicates a reduction relative to the MODIS Terra nighttime Arctic land-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, +1.8 +/- 0.3C with P-value of 0.01. This reduction is a decadal non-stationary component of the Arctic land-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>. The reduction is greatest, -1.3 +/- 0.2C with P-value of 0.01 in the Eastern Russia - Western North American sector of the Arctic during the July 2002 through 2012. Ref.: Muskett, R.R., "MODIS-Derived Nighttime Arctic Land-Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Nascent Trends and Non-Stationary <span class="hlt">Changes</span>," American Journal of Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span>, in press January 2014. http://www.scirp.org/journal/ajcc/</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.tmp..333J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.tmp..333J"><span id="translatedtitle">Historical and potential <span class="hlt">changes</span> of precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of Alberta subjected to climate <span class="hlt">change</span> impact: 1900-2100</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jiang, Rengui; Gan, Thian Yew; Xie, Jiancang; Wang, Ni; Kuo, Chun-Chao</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We investigated <span class="hlt">changes</span> to precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of Alberta for historical and future periods. First, the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope were used to test for historical trends and trend magnitudes from the climate data of Alberta, respectively. Second, the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) (A1B, A2, and B1) of CMIP3 (Phase 3 of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project), projected by seven general circulation models (GCM) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> (IPCC) for three 30 years periods (2020s, 2050s, and 2080s), were used to evaluate the potential impact of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of Alberta. Third, trends of projected precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were investigated, and differences between historical versus projected trends were estimated. Using the 50-km resolution dataset from CANGRD (Canadian Grid Climate Data), we found that Alberta had become warmer and somewhat drier for the past 112 years (1900-2011), especially in central and southern Alberta. For observed precipitation, upward trends mainly occurred in northern Alberta and at the leeward side of Canadian Rocky Mountains. However, only about 13 to 22 % of observed precipitation showed statistically significant increasing trends at 5 % significant level. Most observed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> showed significant increasing trends, up to 0.05 C/year in DJF (December, January, and February) in northern Alberta. GCMs' SRES projections indicated that seasonal precipitation of Alberta could <span class="hlt">change</span> from -25 to 36 %, while the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> would increase from 2020s to 2080s, with the largest increase (6.8 C) in DJF. In all 21 GCM-SRES cases considered, precipitation in both DJF and MAM (March, April, and May) is projected to increase, while <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is consistently projected to increase in all seasons, which generally agree with the trends of historical precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The SRES A1B scenario of CCSM3 might project more realistic future climate for Alberta, where its water resources can become more critical in the future as its streamflow is projected to decrease continually in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3174G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3174G"><span id="translatedtitle">Kamchatkan Volcanoes Explosive Eruptions in 2014 and <span class="hlt">Danger</span> to Aviation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Girina, Olga; Manevich, Alexander; Melnikov, Dmitry; Demyanchuk, Yury; Nuzhdaev, Anton; Petrova, Elena</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>There are 30 active volcanoes in the Kamchatka, and several of them are continuously active. In 2014, three of the Kamchatkan volcanoes - Sheveluch, Karymsky and Zhupanovsky - had strong and moderate explosive eruptions. Moderate gas-steam activity was observing of Klyuchevskoy, Bezymianny, Avachinsky, Koryaksky, Gorely, Mutnovsky and other volcanoes. Strong explosive eruption of volcanoes is the most <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> for aircraft because in a few hours or days in the atmosphere and the stratosphere can produce about several cubic kilometers of volcanic ash and aerosols. Ash plumes and the clouds, depending on the power of the eruption, the strength and wind speed, can travel thousands of kilometers from the volcano for several days, remaining hazardous to aircraft, as the melting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of small particles of ash below the operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of jet engines. The eruptive activity of Sheveluch Volcano began since 1980 (growth of the lava dome) and is continuing at present. Strong explosive events of the volcano occurred in 2014: on January 08 and 12, May 12, September 24, October 02 and 28, November 16, 22 and 26, and December 05, 17, 26 and 29: ash plumes rose up to 9-12 km a.s.l. and extended more 900 km to the eastern and western directions of the volcano. Ashfalls occurred at Klyuchi Village (on January 12, June 11, and November 16). Activity of the volcano was <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> to international and local aviation. Karymsky volcano has been in a state of explosive eruption since 1996. The moderate ash explosions of this volcano were noting during 2014: from March 24 till April 02; and from September 03 till December 10. Ash plumes rose up to 5 km a.s.l. and extended more 300 km mainly to the eastern directions of the volcano. Activity of the volcano was <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> to local aviation. Explosive eruption of Zhupanovsky volcano began on June 06, 2014 and continues in January 2015 too. Ash explosions rose up to 8-10 km a.s.l. on June 19, September 05 and 07, October 11, November 07 and 22; in the other days - up to 5-6 km a.s.l. Ash plumes extended for about 1000 km mainly to the eastern directions of the volcano. Ashfalls occurred at Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky on September 07. Activity of the volcano was <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> to international and local aviation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP13B1424J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP13B1424J"><span id="translatedtitle">Decoupling of Northern North Atlantic Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Deep Circulation during Abrupt Glacial Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jonkers, L.; Barker, S.; Hall, I. R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Abrupt climate <span class="hlt">change</span> is a prominent feature of the ice ages. The prevailing view is that these <span class="hlt">changes</span> are related to fluctuations in ocean circulation, possibly triggered by <span class="hlt">changes</span> in freshwater forcing as a result of ice-rafting events in the North Atlantic. Here we investigate this view by presenting results from a sediment core in the Northern North Atlantic (ODP 983 60.4°N, 23.6°W, 1984m depth, ~12-35 kyr), which is ideally positioned to monitor <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the flow speed of Iceland-Scotland Overflow Waters. The mean size of silt (10-63 μm) has been proposed as a useful flow speed indicator, but can be influenced the presence of ice-rafted detritus (IRD). We present grain size data obtained using a Coulter counter as well as a laser diffraction particle sizer, which we compare to the proportion of Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (proxy for sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) and manually counted coarse IRD. Grain size results are comparable for the two techniques and the influence of IRD is clearly visible in the mean size data. We use end-member modelling to derive an IRD-free estimate of flow speed variability and find clear reductions in the flow speed associated with IRD input. Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> however, appears to vary independently from IRD input and hence deep circulation. In particular, IRD appears and current speed decreases after the onset of cooling and additional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability is observed that is not associated with IRD events or <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the deep circulation. These results question the classical view of freshwater forcing as the driver of abrupt climate <span class="hlt">change</span>. We suggest that North Atlantic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability may be related to shifts in position of the polar front and that, while IRD events may be coeval with <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the deep circulation, these <span class="hlt">changes</span> are not required to explain the abrupt <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability in the Northern North Atlantic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070017413&hterms=differences&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Ddifferences','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070017413&hterms=differences&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Ddifferences"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of AIRS, MODIS, and HIRS 11 Micron Brightness <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Difference <span class="hlt">Changes</span> from 2002 through 2006</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Broberg, Steven E.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Gregorich, David T.; Xiong, X.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>In an effort to validate the accuracy and stability of AIRS data at low scene <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (200-250 K range), we evaluated brightness <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at 11 microns with Aqua MODIS band 31 and HIRS/3 channel 8 for Antarctic granules between September 2002 and May 2006. We found excellent agreement with MODIS (at the 0.2 K level) over the full emperature range in data from early in the Aqua mission. However, in more recent data, starting in April 2005, we found a scene <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence in MODIS-AIRS brightness <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences, with a discrepancy of 1- 1.5 K at 200 K. The comparison between AIRS and HIRS/3 (channel 8) on NOAA 16 for the same time period yields excellent agreement. The cause and time dependence of the disagreement with MODIS is under evaluation, but the <span class="hlt">change</span> was coincident with a <span class="hlt">change</span> in the MODIS production software from collection 4 to 5.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC23C0958M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC23C0958M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Snowmelt Runoff Timing: Potential Implications for Stream <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Native Salmonid Habitat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>MacDonald, R.; Boon, S.; Byrne, J. M.; Silins, U.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Atmospheric warming is expected to maintain the trend towards an earlier onset of spring snowmelt across western North America in the future. An advanced spring streamflow peak has important implications for aquatic ecosystems, particularly cold-water salmonids that are sensitive to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in stream hydrological and thermal regimes. We tested stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity to atmospheric warming scenarios in a headwater catchment on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains by applying a process-based hydrometeorological and stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> model. We used a field study in three thermally and hydrologically distinct catchments to provide context for modelling. Results indicate that stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity to atmospheric warming is variable and corresponds with <span class="hlt">changes</span> in streamflow. Predictions of lower spring, higher summer and fall, and lower winter stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are consistent with field study results. This analysis suggests the thermal habitat of native salmonids could become less suitable under future climatic conditions, favouring non-native species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212403P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212403P"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and its consequences for drinking water production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peñailillo Burgos, Reinaldo; Boderie, Pascal; Rijk, Sacha; Loos, Sibren</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The average water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the Rhine at Lobith has increased in the past hundred years by 3C, as a result of thermal discharges and climate <span class="hlt">change</span>. Also, a growing trend in the number of days per year that the water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reaches values above 25°C is observed, exceeding the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> standard for drinking water production as imposed by the European Drinking Water Directive. During the heat wave of 2006, the water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at Lobith increased above 25°C during almost the entire month of July. Besides the risks for the production of drinking water, this limits the potential for the cooling capacities of the water for the industrial and energy sectors. The main objective of this study is providing insight into the <span class="hlt">change</span> of water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Dutch main rivers caused by climate <span class="hlt">change</span> and the consequences for the drinking water production at selected intake sites. Two KNMI'06 climate scenarios (W and W+) based on a global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise of 2C, were applied to the Dutch <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Model (DTM) to simulate the water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> around 2050 relative to the current situation (1970-2000). The DTM is a SOBEK River application and appropriate for calculating the regional effects of the natural warming and the warming due to cooling water discharges on the daily water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of Dutch rivers. According to the analysis of model results, more days with a higher water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are expected for both scenarios around 2050 in comparison with the current situation. In the most extreme scenario (W+) the inter-annual variation of water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> will be higher. In the Rhine and in the Meuse, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise in winter will be about 2.1°C and will reach values above 2.5°C in the summer months at the selected locations. At all intake sites for the water supply the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> standard is exceeded in the current situation in less than 0.5% of the time (2 days). For the W and W+ scenarios the predicted duration of exceeding the drinking water standard at the site with the highest increase is 5 and 11 days, respectively. In these cases, only measures such as cooling between intake and final product in reservoirs or a temporary intake stop may prevent exceeding the legal standard.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26046269','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26046269"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and beverage on mechanical and tribological properties of dental restorative composites.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ayatollahi, M R; Yahya, Mohd Yazid; Karimzadeh, A; Nikkhooyifar, M; Ayob, Amran</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and immersion in two common beverages on the mechanical and tribological properties for three different types of dental restorative materials. Thermocycling procedure was performed for simulating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in oral conditions. Black tea and soft drink were considered for beverages. Universal composite, universal nanohybrid composite and universal nanofilled composite, were used as dental materials. The nanoindentation and nanoscratch experiments were utilized to determine the elastic modulus, hardness, plasticity index and wear resistance of the test specimens. The results showed that thermocycling and immersion in each beverage had different effects on the tested dental materials. The mechanical and tribological properties of nanohybrid composite and nanocomposite were less sensitive to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and to immersion in beverages in comparison with those of the conventional dental composite. PMID:26046269</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2859956','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2859956"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on acid-base regulation in skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) blood.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Perry, S F; Daxboeck, C; Emmett, B; Hochachka, P W; Brill, R W</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> (in vitro) on acid-base balance of skipjack tuna blood were investigated. By examining the relationship between blood pH and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (in vitro) under conditions of constant CO2 tension (open system), it was observed that dpH/dT = -0.013 U/degrees C. This value falls well within the range of in vivo values reported for other ectothermic vertebrates, and is only slightly different than results obtained in vitro under conditions of constant CO2 content (closed system; dpH/dT = -0.0165 U/degrees C). It is concluded that <span class="hlt">changes</span> in pH following <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> can be accounted for solely by the passive, in vitro behaviour of the chemical buffer system found in the blood, so that active regulatory mechanisms of pH adjustment need not be postulated for skipjack tuna. PMID:2859956</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43..812D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43..812D"><span id="translatedtitle">Midlatitude daily summer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> reshaped by soil moisture under climate <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Douville, H.; Colin, J.; Krug, E.; Cattiaux, J.; Thao, S.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Projected <span class="hlt">changes</span> in daily <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are highly model dependent, particularly in the summer midlatitudes where the spread in the response of heat waves represents a major obstacle for the design of adaptation strategies. Understanding the main reasons for such uncertainties is obviously a research priority. Here we use a set of global atmospheric simulations to assess the contribution of the soil moisture feedback to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the full distribution of daily maximum summer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> projected in the late 21st century. Results show that this feedback (i) accounts for up to one third of the mean increase in daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, (ii) dominates <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the shape of the distribution, and (iii) explains about half of the increase in the severity of heat waves over densely populated areas of the northern midlatitudes. A dedicated intercomparison project is therefore needed to assess and constrain land surface feedbacks in the new generation Earth System Models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.H52B..01J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.H52B..01J"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating Groundwater Recharge in Response to Potential Future Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span>: The Importance of Winter <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jyrkama, M. I.; Sykes, J. F.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Changes</span> in future climate will alter regional hydrologic cycles and subsequently impact the quantity and quality of regional water resources. While climate <span class="hlt">change</span> affects surface water resources directly through <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the major long-term climate variables such as air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, precipitation, and evapotranspiration, the relationship between the <span class="hlt">changing</span> climate variables and groundwater is more complicated and poorly understood. Groundwater resources are related to climate <span class="hlt">change</span> through the direct interaction with surface water resources, such as lakes and rivers, and indirectly through the recharge process. Therefore, quantifying the impact of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on groundwater resources requires not only reliable forecasting of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the major climatic variables, but also accurate estimation of groundwater recharge. The primary goal of this study is estimating the impact of potential future climate <span class="hlt">changes</span> on seasonally varying groundwater recharge with an emphasis on evaluating the importance of winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Two case studies are investigated: the Grand River watershed in south-western Ontario that drains an area of nearly 7000 square kilometres into Lake Erie and a 139 square kilometre highly monitored area of the Cohansey aquifer at Toms River NJ. For both areas, the physically based hydrologic model HELP3 is used in conjunction with GIS to simulate the past conditions and future <span class="hlt">changes</span> in evapotranspiration, potential surface runoff, and groundwater recharge rates as a result of projected <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the regions climate. The climate <span class="hlt">change</span> projections are based on the general predictions reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> (IPCC) in 2001. For the Grand River Basin, forty years of daily historical weather data are used as the reference condition while for the Toms River study, the reference period is from 1970 to the present. The impact of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on the hydrologic cycle is modelled by perturbing the HELP3 model input parameters using predicted future <span class="hlt">changes</span> in precipitation, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and solar radiation. The <span class="hlt">changes</span> in land use and vegetation cover over time were not considered in the study. The results of the two case studies reveal the importance of warmer winter <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on reducing the extent and duration of ground frost and shifting the spring melt from spring toward winter months, allowing more water to infiltrate into the ground. The historical monitoring well data and climate record for the Cohansey aquifer clearly show this effect as do the simulations for the perturbed historical weather record for the Grand River watershed. The predicted higher intensity and frequency of future precipitation will not only contribute significantly to increased surface runoff, but also results in higher evapotranspiration and groundwater recharge rates due to increased amounts of available water. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in the incoming solar radiation have a minimal impact on the simulated hydrologic processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018765','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018765"><span id="translatedtitle">Large arctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> at the Wisconsin-Holocene glacial transition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cuffey, Kurt M.; Clow, G.D.; Alley, R.B.; Stuiver, M.; Waddington, E.D.; Saltus, R.W.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Analysis of borehole <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and Greenland Ice Sheet Project II ice-core isotopic composition reveals that the warming from average glacial conditions to the Holocene in central Greenland was large, approximately 15??C. This is at least three times the coincident <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in the tropics and mid-latitudes. The coldest periods of the last glacial were probably 21??C colder than at present over the Greenland ice sheet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012WRR....4811530W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012WRR....4811530W"><span id="translatedtitle">Projected climate <span class="hlt">change</span> impacts on the hydrology and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of Pacific Northwest rivers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Huan; Kimball, John S.; Elsner, Marketa M.; Mantua, Nate; Adler, Robert F.; Stanford, Jack</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>A dominant river-tracing-based streamflow and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (DRTT) model was developed by coupling stream thermal dynamics with a source-sink routing model. The DRTT model was applied using 1/16 degree (˜6 km) resolution gridded daily surface meteorology inputs over a ˜988,000 km2 Pacific Northwest (PNW) domain to produce regional daily streamflow and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> simulations from 1996 to 2005. The DRTT results showed favorable performance for simulation of daily stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (mean R2= 0.72 and root-mean-square error = 2.35°C) and discharge (mean R2 = 0.52 and annual relative error = 14%) against observations from 12 PNW streams. The DRTT was then applied with a macroscale hydrologic model to predict streamflow and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> under historical (1980s) and future (2020s, 2040s, and 2080s) climate <span class="hlt">change</span> scenarios (IPCC AR4) as they may affect current and future patterns of freshwater salmon habitat and associated productivity of PNW streams. The model projected a 3.5% decrease in mean annual streamflow for the 2020s and 0.6% and 5.5% increases for the 2040s and 2080s, respectively, with projected increase in mean annual stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from 0.55°C (2020s) to 1.68°C (2080s). However, summer streamflow decreased from 19.3% (2020s) to 30.3% (2080s), while mean summer stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> warmed from 0.92°C to 2.10°C. The simulations indicate that projected climate <span class="hlt">change</span> will have greater impacts on snow dominant streams, with lower summer streamflows and warmer summer stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> relative to transient and rain dominant regimes. Lower summer flows combined with warmer stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> suggest a future with widespread increased summertime thermal stress for coldwater fish in the PNW region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7417B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7417B"><span id="translatedtitle">Statistical downscaling of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes in the Mediterranean area under future climate <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beck, Alexander; Hertig, Elke; Jacobeit, Jucundus</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Statistical approaches are developed to estimate parameters of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> in the Mediterranean area with a focus on non-stationarities arising in the relationship between regional climate variables and their large-scale predictors. Hereby particular attention is paid to the analysis of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes which affect many components of the geosystem and therefore are of particular interest in the scope of future climate <span class="hlt">change</span>. The E-OBS dataset (Haylock et al., 2008) delivers gridded data of the maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on a daily basis for the period from January 1950 till December 2012 with a spatial resolution of 0.25 x 0.25. In order to analyze the data of different regions, a principal component analysis is performed and the representative grid box, i.e. the grid box with the highest loading, is separated for every principal component. The daily 95%-percentile for every month and season is computed. Additionally, time series with 5 consecutive days exceeding the 95%-percentiles were generated. Furthermore, extreme value distributions like the generalized pareto distribution (GPD) are fitted to the time series. Non-stationarities in the predictors-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> relationships are analyzed in the percentile-based time series as well as in the parameters of the extreme value distribution. In addition to the analysis of the extreme part of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution, analyses will concentrate on the whole distribution in order to get a more complete idea regarding <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the Mediterranean area. This is achieved by fitting mixture models to the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data. Subsequently, a perfect prog downscaling approach is used to to assess future <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> under enhanced greenhouse gas conditions. Haylock, M. R., N. Hofstra, A. M. G. Klein Tank, E. J. Klok, P. D. Jones, and M. New (2008), A European daily high-resolution gridded data set of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation for 1950 - 2006, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D20119, doi:10.1029/2008JD010201.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B23K0144P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B23K0144P"><span id="translatedtitle">Response of Soil <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> to Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> in the CMIP5 Earth System Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Phillips, C. L.; Torn, M. S.; Koven, C. D.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Predictions of soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> are as critical to policy development and climate <span class="hlt">change</span> adaptation as predictions of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, but have received comparatively little attention. Soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> determines seed germination and growth of wild and agricultural plants, and impacts climate through both geophysical and carbon-cycle feedbacks. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> 5th Assessment Report does not report soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> predictions, but focuses instead on surface air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, despite the fact that mean annual soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and mean surface air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are often different from each other. Here we aim to fill this important knowledge gap by reporting soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture predictions for 15 earth system models (ESMs) that participated in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison 5 Project (CMIP5). Under the RCP 4.5 and 8.5 emissions scenarios, soil warming is predicted to almost keep pace with soil air warming, with about 10% less warming in soil than air, globally. The slower warming of soil compared to air is likely related to predictions of soil drying, with drier soils having reduced soil heat capacity and thermal conductivity. Mollisol soils, which are typically regarded as the most productive soil order for cultivating cereal crops, are anticipated to see warming in North America of 3.5 to 5.5 °C at the end of the 21st century (2080-2100) compared to 1986-2005. One impact of soil warming is likely to be an acceleration of germination timing, with the 3°C <span class="hlt">temperature</span> threshold for wheat germination anticipated to advance by several weeks in Mollisol regions. Furthermore, soil warming at 1 m depth is predicted to be almost equivalent to warming at 1 cm depth in frost-free regions, indicating vulnerability of deep soil carbon pools to destabilization. To assess model performance we compare the models' predictions with observations of damping depth, and offsets between mean annual soil and air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the historic period. We find ESMs generally predict warmer mean annual air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> than soil, whereas observations show air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are cooler or similar to soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in many locations. To improve future assessments of soil carbon, it is important to benchmark soil-air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> linkages of global land models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3610895','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3610895"><span id="translatedtitle">Decreasing <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> infant behaviors through parent instruction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mathews, J R; Friman, P C; Barone, V J; Ross, L V; Christophersen, E R</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>One adult and three adolescent mothers with 1-year-old infants were taught to reduce their infants' potential for injury in the home. After being taught to increase their positive interactions with their infants, the mothers were taught to child-proof the home, to use playpen time-out for potentially <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> behaviors, and to give positive attention for safe behaviors. A multiple baseline design across subjects was used to evaluate functional control. Potentially <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> behaviors, observed during 10 min of free play, decreased from variable and, at times, high rates during baseline to stable near-zero rates after treatment. These target behaviors remained low at a 7-month follow-up assessment. PMID:3610895</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21315296','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21315296"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential <span class="hlt">dangers</span> of accelerant use in arson.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Heath, Karen; Kobus, Hilton; Byard, Roger W</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>Accelerant-enhanced combustion often characterizes a fire that has been deliberately set to disguise a murder scene or to destroy property for insurance purposes. The intensity and rapidity of spread of fires where accelerants have been used are often underestimated by perpetrators who may sustain heat-related injuries. The case of a 49-year-old male who was using gasoline (petrol) as an accelerant is reported to demonstrate another <span class="hlt">danger</span> of this type of activity. After ignition, an explosion occurred that destroyed the building and caused the death of the victim who was crushed beneath a rear wall of the commercial premises. Gasoline vapour/air mixtures are extremely volatile and may cause significant explosions if exposed to flame. Given the potential <span class="hlt">danger</span> of explosion, arsonists using accelerants do so at significant risk to themselves and to others in the vicinity. PMID:21315296</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014HESSD..1112799F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014HESSD..1112799F"><span id="translatedtitle">Attribution of European precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in circulation types</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fleig, A. K.; Tallaksen, L. M.; James, P.; Hisdal, H.; Stahl, K.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Surface climate in Europe is <span class="hlt">changing</span> and patterns in trends have been found to vary at sub-seasonal scales. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of these <span class="hlt">changes</span> across space and time by analysing to what degree observed climatic trends can be attributed to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in atmospheric circulation. The relative importance of circulation <span class="hlt">changes</span> (i.e. trends in circulation type frequencies) as opposed to trends in the hydrothermal properties of circulation types (within-type trends) on precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends in Europe is assessed on a monthly basis. Gridded precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data originate from the Watch Forcing Dataset and circulation types (CTs) are defined by the objective SynopVis Grosswetterlagen. Relatively high influence of circulation <span class="hlt">changes</span> are found from January to March, contributing to wetting trends in northern Europe and drying in the South. Simultaneously, in particular dry CTs get warmer first in south-western Europe in November/December and affecting most of Europe in March/April. Strong influence of circulation <span class="hlt">changes</span> is again found in June and August. In general, circulation influence affects climate trends in north-western Europe stronger than the South-East. The exact locations of the strongest influence of circulation <span class="hlt">changes</span> vary with time of the year and to some degree between precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Throughout the year and across the whole of Europe, precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends are caused by a combination of circulation <span class="hlt">changes</span> and within-type <span class="hlt">changes</span> with their relative influence varying between regions, months and climate variables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..116.3104R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRD..116.3104R"><span id="translatedtitle">Global <span class="hlt">changes</span> in indices describing moderate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes from the daily output of a climate model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Russo, S.; Sterl, A.</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> indices derived from daily climate model <span class="hlt">temperature</span> output are computed and analyzed to study the <span class="hlt">change</span> of moderate climatic extremes between 1950 and 2100. We used output from the Ensemble Simulations of Extreme Weather Events Under Nonlinear Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> (ESSENCE) project, in which a 17-member ensemble simulation of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> in response to the SRES A1b scenario has been carried out using the ECHAM5/MPI-OM climate model developed at the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg. The large size of the data set gives the opportunity to accurately detect the <span class="hlt">change</span> of extreme climate indicators. We choose indices describing moderately extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from the Expert Team on Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> Detection, Monitoring and Indices, focusing on percentile-based and duration indices. Additionally, we define some new indices measuring the intensity of daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes. To study extremes within different consecutive 50 year time intervals (1950-2000, 2001-2050, and 2051-2100), we use corresponding reference periods (1961-1990, 2011-2040, and 2061-2090, respectively). Trends of the indices within each of the three 50-year periods are estimated using the Mann-Kendall slope estimator. The trends found in our model output for the period 1950-2000 compare well with those reported in the literature from observations. Future trend patterns resemble those from the 1950-2000 period, but have larger amplitudes. This suggests that the pattern of extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> might already emerge from the weather noise. Outside the tropics, the trend of indices defined from minimum daily <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> is greater in absolute value than the trend of indicators related to maximum daily <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The trend of the annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (Tmax - Tmin) is positive or close to zero over the tropics and negative over the extratropics, indicating that the value of the yearly maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is increasing faster than the minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the tropics and vice versa in the extratropics. Finally, using the empirical distribution, we study the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of the occurrence of cold nights and warm days for nine regions. All PDFs shift in the direction of warming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4297512','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4297512"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrophysiological <span class="hlt">Changes</span> Correlated with <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Increases Induced by High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wu, Z.; Kumon, R. E.; Laughner, J. I.; Efimov, I. R.; Deng, C. X.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>To gain better understanding of the detailed mechanisms of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation for cardiac arrhythmias, we investigated how the cellular electrophysiological (EP) <span class="hlt">changes</span> were correlated with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases and thermal dose (cumulative equivalent minutes [CEM43]) during HIFU application using Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts. Employing voltage-sensitive dye di-4-ANEPPS, we measured the EP and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during HIFU using simultaneous optical mapping and infrared imaging. Both action potential amplitude (APA) and AP duration at 50% repolarization (APD50) decreased with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases, and APD50 was more thermally sensitive than APA. EP and tissue <span class="hlt">changes</span> were irreversible when HIFU-induced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased above 52.3 ± 1.4 °C and log10(CEM43) above 2.16 ± 0.51 (n = 5), but were reversible when <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was below 50.1 ± 0.8 °C and log10(CEM43) below −0.9 ± 0.3 (n = 9). EP and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/thermal dose <span class="hlt">changes</span> were spatially correlated with HIFU induced tissue necrosis surrounded by a transition zone. PMID:25516446</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25828407','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25828407"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulating the effect of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Trout Lake Watershed, Wisconsin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Selbig, William R</p> <p>2015-07-15</p> <p>The potential for increases in stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> across many spatial and temporal scales as a result of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> can pose a difficult challenge for environmental managers, especially when addressing thermal requirements for sensitive aquatic species. This study evaluates simulated <span class="hlt">changes</span> to the thermal regime of three northern Wisconsin streams in response to a projected <span class="hlt">changing</span> climate using a modeling framework and considers implications of thermal stresses to the fish community. The Stream Network <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Model (SNTEMP) was used in combination with a coupled groundwater and surface water flow model to assess forecasts in climate from six global circulation models and three emission scenarios. Model results suggest that annual average stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> will steadily increase approximately 1.1 to 3.2C (varying by stream) by the year 2100 with differences in magnitude between emission scenarios. Daily mean stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the months of July and August, a period when cold-water fish communities are most sensitive, showed excursions from optimal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with increased frequency compared to current conditions. Projections of daily mean stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, in some cases, were no longer in the range necessary to sustain a cold water fishery. PMID:25828407</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3959131','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3959131"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> on the dimensional stability of elastomeric impression materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kambhampati, Sujan; Subhash, Vaddavalli; Vijay, Chellagulla; Das, Aruna</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the <span class="hlt">changed</span> dimensions of dies obtained from impressions made with different combinations of addition sillicones which were subjected to variations in storage <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Materials & Methods: 45 die stone models were obtained of 45 impressions of which 15 each were stored at three different storage <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>(25C, 37C and 42C). 15 impressions each were made using one impression technique. The measurements of the dies made from the impressions were measured with the help of Profile Projector with a accuracy of 0.001mm. Results: The results were statistically analyzed. The results indicated the significant decrease in dimensions when the storage <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reduced from the mouth <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. As compared to this there was a marginal increase in overall dimensions of all variables when storage <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased. Conclusion: More <span class="hlt">changes</span> were seen in putty/light body combination followed by monophase and least in heavy/light body combination. How to cite the article: Kambhampati S, Subhash V, Vijay C, Das A. Effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> on the dimensional stability of elastomeric impression materials. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):12-9. PMID:24653597</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A23F0386M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A23F0386M"><span id="translatedtitle">Can human local activities worsen the rise of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> due to Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mateos, E.; Santana, J.; Deeb, A.; Grünwaldt, A.; Prieto, R.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Several studies have shown a global scale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise which in consequence, have brought up the need to propose various impact scenarios for this <span class="hlt">change</span> on the planet and its life forms. Climate <span class="hlt">changes</span> have a direct effect on human activities. Particularly these alterations have a negative impact on economy which in turn affects the most vulnerable and marginal population on developing nations. In a recent study based on 30 years climatological observed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in ten Mexican watersheds, from the period between 1970 and 1999, positive trend on maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were found in all watersheds. At each watershed at least 10 climatological stations from the net operated by the National Meteorological Service (Servicio Meterologico Nacional), whose data are maintained in the CLICOM database (Computerized Climate database), were selected. The climatological stations have at least 70% valid data per decade. In eight watersheds a maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trend oscillates between +0.5 to +1 oC every 30 years with a 95% confidence level. Nonetheless, in Rio Bravo and Rio Verde watersheds the tendencies are +1.75 and +2.75 oC over 30 years. The result in these two last watersheds evinces that: 1) there are fragile systems; 2) the human activities have a strong impact in those places, and 3) a principal anthropogenic influence on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise is the <span class="hlt">change</span> in land use. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> rised on Jalostitlan within Rio Verde watershed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24375891','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24375891"><span id="translatedtitle">Warming <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and smaller body sizes: synchronous <span class="hlt">changes</span> in growth of North Sea fishes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baudron, Alan R; Needle, Coby L; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D; Marshall, C Tara</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Decreasing body size has been proposed as a universal response to increasing <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The physiology behind the response is well established for ectotherms inhabiting aquatic environments: as higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> decrease the aerobic capacity, individuals with smaller body sizes have a reduced risk of oxygen deprivation. However, empirical evidence of this response at the scale of communities and ecosystems is lacking for marine fish species. Here, we show that over a 40-year period six of eight commercial fish species in the North Sea examined underwent concomitant reductions in asymptotic body size with the synchronous component of the total variability coinciding with a 1-2C increase in water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Smaller body sizes decreased the yield-per-recruit of these stocks by an average of 23%. Although it is not possible to ascribe these phenotypic <span class="hlt">changes</span> unequivocally to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, four aspects support this interpretation: (i) the synchronous trend was detected across species varying in their life history and life style; (ii) the decrease coincided with the period of increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span>; (iii) the direction of the phenotypic <span class="hlt">change</span> is consistent with physiological knowledge; and (iv) no cross-species synchrony was detected in other species-specific factors potentially impacting growth. Our findings support a recent model-derived prediction that fish size will shrink in response to climate-induced <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and oxygen. The smaller body sizes being projected for the future are already detectable in the North Sea. PMID:24375891</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713057M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713057M"><span id="translatedtitle">Observed <span class="hlt">changes</span> in seasonal heat waves and warm <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes in the Romanian Carpathians</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Micu, Dana; Birsan, Marius-Victor; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Cheval, Sorin</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Extreme high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have a large impact on environment and human activities, especially in high elevation areas particularly sensitive to the recent climate warming. The climate of the Romanian Carpathians became warmer particularly in winter, spring and summer, exibiting a significant increasing frequency of warm extremes. The paper investigates the seasonal <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the frequency, duration and intensity of heat waves in relation to the shifts in the daily distribution of maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over a 50-year period of meteorological observations (1961-2010). The paper uses the heat wave definition recommended by the Expert Team on Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) and exploits the gridded daily dataset of maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at 0.1° resolution (~10 km) developed in the framework of the CarpatClim project (www.carpatclim.eu). The seasonal <span class="hlt">changes</span> in heat waves behavior were identified using the Mann-Kendall non-parametric trend test. The results suggest an increase in heat wave frequency and a lengthening of intervals affected by warm <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes all over the study region, which are explained by the shifts in the upper (extreme) tail of the daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution in most seasons. The trends are consistent across the region and are well correlated to the positive phases of the East Atlantic Oscillation. Our results are in good agreement with the previous <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-related studies concerning the Carpathian region. This study was realized within the framework of the project GENCLIM, financed by UEFISCDI, code PN-II 151/2014.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcDyn..65.1017L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015OcDyn..65.1017L"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding surface and subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> induced by tropical cyclones in the Kuroshio</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Xin; Wei, Jun</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Surface and subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the Kuroshio induced by tropical cyclones (TCs) were investigated using both 10-year observational datasets (SST maps and Argo data) and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> budget analysis of idealized numerical simulations. Although Argo data are very limited during a TC's passage, they provided unique in situ measurements at the subsurface of the Kuroshio. Compared to the surface water in the Kuroshio and in the general ocean, the subsurface water of the Kuroshio shows a rapid <span class="hlt">temperature</span> warming (recovery) after a TC's passage. Budget analysis on the model simulations suggested that the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> at surface Kuroshio are dominated by the wind-induced vertical mixing, while the subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> are primarily dominated by TC-induced Ekman pumping (downwelling-upwelling-downwelling pattern). The Kuroshio subsurface water is warmed up mainly by the downwelling process, and then transported downstream by strong Kuroshio currents. Sensitivity experiments suggested that the recovery time of the subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cooling is more sensitive to TC translation speeds and less sensitive to the Kuroshio current velocities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70144678','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70144678"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulating the effect of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Trout Lake Watershed, Wisconsin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Selbig, William R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The potential for increases in stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> across many spatial and temporal scales as a result of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> can pose a difficult challenge for environmental managers, especially when addressing thermal requirements for sensitive aquatic species. This study evaluates simulated <span class="hlt">changes</span> to the thermal regime of three northern Wisconsin streams in response to a projected <span class="hlt">changing</span> climate using a modeling framework and considers implications of thermal stresses to the fish community. The Stream Network <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Model (SNTEMP) was used in combination with a coupled groundwater and surface water flow model to assess forecasts in climate from six global circulation models and three emission scenarios. Model results suggest that annual average stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> will steadily increase approximately 1.1 to 3.2 °C (varying by stream) by the year 2100 with differences in magnitude between emission scenarios. Daily mean stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the months of July and August, a period when cold-water fish communities are most sensitive, showed excursions from optimal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with increased frequency compared to current conditions. Projections of daily mean stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, in some cases, were no longer in the range necessary to sustain a cold water fishery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JGRD..11023107A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JGRD..11023107A"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Changes</span> in precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes in Central America and northern South America, 1961-2003</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aguilar, E.; Peterson, T. C.; Obando, P. RamíRez; Frutos, R.; Retana, J. A.; Solera, M.; Soley, J.; GarcíA, I. GonzáLez; Araujo, R. M.; Santos, A. Rosa; Valle, V. E.; Brunet, M.; Aguilar, L.; ÁLvarez, L.; Bautista, M.; Castañón, C.; Herrera, L.; Ruano, E.; Sinay, J. J.; SáNchez, E.; Oviedo, G. I. HernáNdez; Obed, F.; Salgado, J. E.; VáZquez, J. L.; Baca, M.; GutiéRrez, M.; Centella, C.; Espinosa, J.; MartíNez, D.; Olmedo, B.; Espinoza, C. E. Ojeda; NúñEz, R.; Haylock, M.; Benavides, H.; Mayorga, R.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>In November 2004, a regional climate <span class="hlt">change</span> workshop was held in Guatemala with the goal of analyzing how climate extremes had <span class="hlt">changed</span> in the region. Scientists from Central America and northern South America brought long-term daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation time series from meteorological stations in their countries to the workshop. After undergoing careful quality control procedures and a homogeneity assessment, the data were used to calculate a suite of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> indices over the 1961-2003 period. Analysis of these indices reveals a general warming trend in the region. The occurrence of extreme warm maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> has increased while extremely cold <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events have decreased. Precipitation indices, despite the large and expected spatial variability, indicate that although no significant increases in the total amount are found, rainfall events are intensifying and the contribution of wet and very wet days are enlarging. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and precipitation indices were correlated with northern and equatorial Atlantic and Pacific Ocean sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. However, those indices having the largest significant trends (percentage of warm days, precipitation intensity, and contribution from very wet days) have low correlations to El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Additionally, precipitation indices show a higher correlation with tropical Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26265493','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26265493"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of gender difference in human response to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> step <span class="hlt">changes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xiong, Jing; Lian, Zhiwei; Zhou, Xin; You, Jianxiong; Lin, Yanbing</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to examine gender difference in human response to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> step <span class="hlt">changes</span>. A total of three step-<span class="hlt">change</span> conditions (S5: 32 °C-37 °C-32 °C, S11: 26 °C-37 °C-26 °C, and S15: 22 °C-37 °C-22 °C) were designed and a laboratory experiment with 12 males and 12 females was performed. Results of this study support our hypothesis that females differ from males in human response to sudden <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> from the perspectives of psychology, physiology and biomarkers. Females are more prone to show thermal dissatisfaction to cool environments while males are more likely to feel thermal discomfort in warm environments. It is logical that men have a stronger thermoregulation ability than women as male skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> amplitude is smaller while the time to be stable for skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is shorter than that of females after both up-steps and down-steps. In S15, males witnessed a more intensive decrease in RMSSD while females underwent a remarkable instant reduce in oral <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> after the up-step. Marginal significance was observed in male IL-6 before and after the up-step in S15 while female IL-6 prominently increased after the down-step in S15. PMID:26265493</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26511054','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26511054"><span id="translatedtitle">Geographical variation in species' population responses to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pearce-Higgins, James W; Ockendon, Nancy; Baker, David J; Carr, Jamie; White, Elizabeth C; Almond, Rosamunde E A; Amano, Tatsuya; Bertram, Esther; Bradbury, Richard B; Bradley, Cassie; Butchart, Stuart H M; Doswald, Nathalie; Foden, Wendy; Gill, David J C; Green, Rhys E; Sutherland, William J; Tanner, Edmund V J</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Despite increasing concerns about the vulnerability of species' populations to climate <span class="hlt">change</span>, there has been little overall synthesis of how individual population responses to variation in climate differ between taxa, with trophic level or geographically. To address this, we extracted data from 132 long-term (greater than or equal to 20 years) studies of population responses to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation covering 236 animal and plant species across terrestrial and freshwater habitats. Our results identify likely geographical differences in the effects of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on populations and communities in line with macroecological theory. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> tended to have a greater overall impact on populations than precipitation, although the effects of increased precipitation varied strongly with latitude, being most positive at low latitudes. Population responses to increased <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were generally positive, but did not vary significantly with latitude. Studies reporting significant climatic trends through time tended to show more negative effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and more positive effects of precipitation upon populations than other studies, indicating climate <span class="hlt">change</span> has already impacted many populations. Most studies of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> impacts on biodiversity have focused on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and are from middle to high northern latitudes. Our results suggest their findings may be less applicable to low latitudes. PMID:26511054</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21899094','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21899094"><span id="translatedtitle">[Radioecological approaches to ranking radiation <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> objects].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Korenkov, I P; Lashchenova, T N; Veselov, E I; Shandala, N K; Maksimova, O A</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The paper gives complex criteria for evaluating the hazard of radiation <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> objects (RDO). The proposed criteria include the following indicators: the ratio of the cumulative activity of radioactive waste to a hazard factor (D value) or to the allowable level of i-radionuclide in the storage; the power of an effective gamma-radiation dose; the rate of radionuclide migration; the doses of human radiation. A scoring system for the hazard of RDO from the above indicators is given. PMID:21899094</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety-fact-sheets/safe-food-handling/molds-on-food-are-they-dangerous_/','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety-fact-sheets/safe-food-handling/molds-on-food-are-they-dangerous_/"><span id="translatedtitle">Molds on Food: Are They <span class="hlt">Dangerous</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Molds on Food: Are they <span class="hlt">dangerous</span>? Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21371111','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21371111"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of the <span class="hlt">change</span> of electron <span class="hlt">temperature</span> inside magnetic island caused by localized radio frequency heating</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yang, J.; Zhu, S.; Yu, Q.; Zhuang, G.</p> <p>2010-05-15</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">change</span> in the electron <span class="hlt">temperature</span> inside magnetic island caused by localized radio frequency (rf) heating is studied numerically by solving the two-dimensional energy transport equation, to investigate the dependence of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on the location and width of the rf power deposition along the minor radius and the helical angle, the island width, and the ratio between the parallel and the perpendicular heat conductivity. Based on obtained numerical results, suggestions for optimizing the island stabilization by localized rf heating are made.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4057399','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4057399"><span id="translatedtitle">Daily <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, Not the Circadian Clock, Regulate Growth Rate in Brachypodium distachyon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Matos, Dominick A.; Cole, Benjamin J.; Whitney, Ian P.; MacKinnon, Kirk J.-M.; Kay, Steve A.; Hazen, Samuel P.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Plant growth is commonly regulated by external cues such as light, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, water availability, and internal cues generated by the circadian clock. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in the rate of growth within the course of a day have been observed in the leaves, stems, and roots of numerous species. However, the relative impact of the circadian clock on the growth of grasses has not been thoroughly characterized. We examined the influence of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and light <span class="hlt">changes</span>, and that of the circadian clock on leaf length growth patterns in Brachypodium distachyon using high-resolution time-lapse imaging. Pronounced <span class="hlt">changes</span> in growth rate were observed under combined photocyles and thermocycles or with thermocycles alone. A considerably more rapid growth rate was observed at 28°C than 12°C, irrespective of the presence or absence of light. In spite of clear circadian clock regulated gene expression, plants exhibited no <span class="hlt">change</span> in growth rate under conditions of constant light and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and little or no effect under photocycles alone. Therefore, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> appears to be the primary cue influencing observed oscillations in growth rate and not the circadian clock or photoreceptor activity. Furthermore, the size of the leaf meristem and final cell length did not <span class="hlt">change</span> in response to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Therefore, the nearly five-fold difference in growth rate observed across thermocycles can be attributed to proportionate <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the rate of cell division and expansion. A better understanding of the growth cues in B. distachyon will further our ability to model metabolism and biomass accumulation in grasses. PMID:24927130</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JTePh..60.1705F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JTePh..60.1705F"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of the thermal stabilization <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the <span class="hlt">change</span> in the texture of polyacrylonitrile fiber</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fazlitdinova, A. G.; Tyumentsev, V. A.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of isothermal treatment on the <span class="hlt">change</span> in sizes L 010 of coherent scattering regions and texture of a polyacrylonitrile fiber during its transition to the structure of a thermally stabilized fiber is analyzed using X-ray structure analysis. An increase in the thermostabilization <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at a constant stretching load stimulates simultaneously a more active increase in size L 010 and texturing of polyacrylonitrile fibers at the initial stage. Active evolution of the phase transformation at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> 275-290°C during further thermostabilization is accompanied by a substantial decrease in the texture of the polymer that has not experienced the phase transformation by this instant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/571088','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/571088"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> of the hypothalamus and body core in ducks feeding in cold water.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmidt, I; Simon, E</p> <p>1979-01-31</p> <p>Hypothalamic (Thy), spinal(Tsc) and colonic (Tc) <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were measured in Pekin ducks spontaneously dabbling for food in cold water (5 degrees C). In agreement with observations in the pigeon and the fowl Thy was found to be consistently lower by about 0.5 degrees C than the other core <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The drop of Thy during dipping head and neck into the cold water was not substantially greater than that of Tsc, while both <span class="hlt">changed</span> more than Tc. The measurements do not support the assumption that the hypothalamic region in the duck is exposed to substantially greater <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations than other thermosensitive parts of the body core. PMID:571088</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1024059','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1024059"><span id="translatedtitle">High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Phase <span class="hlt">Change</span> Materials for Thermal Energy Storage Applications: Preprint</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gomez, J.; Glatzmaier, G. C.; Starace, A.; Turchi, C.; Ortega, J.</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>To store thermal energy, sensible and latent heat storage materials are widely used. Latent heat thermal energy storage (TES) systems using phase <span class="hlt">change</span> materials (PCM) are useful because of their ability to charge and discharge a large amount of heat from a small mass at constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during a phase transformation. Molten salt PCM candidates for cascaded PCMs were evaluated for the <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> near 320 degrees C, 350 degrees C, and 380 degrees C. These <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were selected to fill the 300 degrees C to 400 degrees C operating range typical for parabolic trough systems, that is, as one might employ in three-PCM cascaded thermal storage. Based on the results, the best candidate for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> near 320 degrees C was the molten salt KNO3-4.5wt%KCl. For the 350 degrees C and 380 degrees C <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, the evaluated molten salts are not good candidates because of the corrosiveness and the high vapor pressure of the chlorides.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=arsenic&pg=2&id=EJ313025','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=arsenic&pg=2&id=EJ313025"><span id="translatedtitle">Help Protect Children from <span class="hlt">Dangers</span> in the Environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Reynolds, Pamela</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Children may be exposed to environmental hazards such as lead, arsenic, and <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> pesticides more often than parents may realize. <span class="hlt">Dangers</span> of more commonly used chemicals found in the environment are listed. (DF)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/AlcoholOverdoseFactsheet/Overdosefact.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/AlcoholOverdoseFactsheet/Overdosefact.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Alcohol Overdose: The <span class="hlt">Dangers</span> of Drinking Too Much</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... The <span class="hlt">Dangers</span> of Drinking Too Much Print version Alcohol Overdose: The <span class="hlt">Dangers</span> of Drinking Too Much Celebrating ... excess. And the results can be deadly. Identifying Alcohol Poisoning Critical Signs and Symptoms of Alcohol Poisoning ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157682.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157682.html"><span id="translatedtitle">For 'Ironman' Athletes, Study Shows <span class="hlt">Danger</span> of Too Much Water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Ironman' Athletes, Study Shows <span class="hlt">Danger</span> of Too Much Water Frequent fluid stops entice racers to drink more ... News) -- Long-distance triathletes who drink too much water during competition may end up with <span class="hlt">dangerously</span> low ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1522975G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1522975G"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of radiatively forced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in enhanced semi-arid warming over East Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guan, X.; Huang, J.; Guo, R.; Lin, P.; Zhang, Y.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>As the climate <span class="hlt">change</span> occurred over East Asia since 1950s, intense interest and debate have arisen concerning the contribution of human activities to the warming observed in previous decades. In this study, we investigate surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> using a recently developed methodology that can successfully identify and separate the dynamically induced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (DIT) and radiatively forced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (RFT) <span class="hlt">changes</span> in raw surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT) data. For regional averages, DIT and RFT make 43.7 and 56.3 % contributions to the SAT over East Asia, respectively. The DIT <span class="hlt">changes</span> dominate the SAT decadal variability and are mainly determined by internal climate variability, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO). The radiatively forced SAT <span class="hlt">changes</span> made major contribution to the global-scale warming trend and the regional-scale enhanced semi-arid warming (ESAW). Such enhanced warming is also found in radiatively forced daily maximum and minimum SAT. The long-term global-mean SAT warming trend is mainly related to radiative forcing produced by global well-mixed greenhouse gases. The regional anthropogenic radiative forcing, however, caused the enhanced warming in the semi-arid region, which may be closely associated with local human activities. Finally, the relationship between global warming hiatus and regional enhanced warming is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGP21B1011S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGP21B1011S"><span id="translatedtitle">Pressure effect on the low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> remanences of multidomain magnetite: <span class="hlt">Change</span> in the Verwey transition <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sato, M.; Yamamoto, Y.; Nishioka, T.; Kodama, K.; Mochizuki, N.; Tsunakawa, H.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The Verwey transition of magnetite is the basic issues for the rock magnetism, since main magnetic mineral of terrestrial rocks is magnetite and its associates. One of the most important issues concerning the Verwey transition is the <span class="hlt">change</span> in transition <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tv) due to pressure, which is thought to improve our understanding of its electric and magnetic nature in relation to the phase diagram. Recently, the opposite pressure effects of the transition <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were reported applying the different experimental method. Measuring the electrical resistivity of single crystalline samples, Môri et al. [2002] reported that Tv becomes lower with increasing pressure by 9 GPa. In contrast, Pasternak et al. [2003] reported from Mössbauer experiment that transition <span class="hlt">temperature</span> becomes higher with increasing pressure by 30 GPa. Thus the <span class="hlt">change</span> in transition <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with pressure has been controversial, and nature of the Verwey transition is still unclear. The magnetic property measurements using low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycle are a powerful tool for identifying the state of magnetic minerals. Carporzen and Gilder [2010] conducted the thermal demagnetization experiment of low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> remanences of magnetite, and observed an increase in Tv with increasing pretreated pressure. From this result, they suggested that the Verwey transition of magnetite have the potential of a geobarometer. Modern techniques of high-pressure experiments enable us to measure sample magnetizations under pressure [Gilder et al., 2002; Kodama and Nishioka, 2005; Sadykov et al., 2008]. In the present study, systematic experiments of low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> remanences have been conducted for powder samples of stoichiometric magnetite under pressure up to 0.7 GPa using the high-pressure cell specially designed for MPMS, which was made of CuBe and ZrO2 [Kodama and Nishioka, 2005]. Natural magnetite of large single crystals were crushed by hand and sieved in an ultrasonic bath to be ~50 μm in size. For relaxation of internal stress, powder samples were annealed in vacuum at 700 C with carbon buffer for several hours. The magnetite powders were dispersed in the glass wool and it was then placed in a Teflon capsule, which was filled by a pressure transmitting fluid. The high-pressure cell was connected with the end of the sample rod of MPMS and measured in a regular manner. We precisely measured thermal demagnetization curves of low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> isothermal remanent magnetization imparted at 20 K after cooling in zero-field and remanence acquired by cooling in 2.5 T DC field. The magnetite samples showed decrease in Tv under high-pressure, although decompressed samples exhibited the increase in Tv. Negative Clapeyron slope of the transition boundary is calculated to be -2.5 K/GPa to -4.0 K/GPa, supporting the results obtained by recent electrical resistivity measurement [Môri et al., 2002] and magnetic susceptibility measurement [Wiecheć et al., 2005]. Decompressed samples also showed similar results obtained by thermal demagnetization experiment of low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> remanences [Carporzen and Gilder, 2010].</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4261957','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4261957"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative Neuropeptidomics Study of the Effects of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> in the Crab Cancer borealis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> influence the reaction rates of all biological processes, which can pose dramatic challenges to cold-blooded organisms, and the capability to adapt to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations is crucial for the survival of these animals. In order to understand the roles that neuropeptides play in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress response, we employed a mass spectrometry-based approach to investigate the neuropeptide <span class="hlt">changes</span> associated with acute <span class="hlt">temperature</span> elevation in three neural tissues from the Jonah crab Cancer borealis. At high <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, members from two neuropeptide families, including RFamide and RYamide, were observed to be significantly reduced in one of the neuroendocrine structures, the pericardial organ, while several orcokinin peptides were detected to be decreased in another major neuroendocrine organ, the sinus gland. These results implicate that the observed neuropeptides may be involved with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> perturbation response via hormonal regulation. Furthermore, a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress marker peptide with the primary sequence of SFRRMGGKAQ (m/z 1137.7) was detected and de novo sequenced in the circulating fluid (hemolymph) from animals under thermal perturbation. PMID:25214466</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020022493&hterms=global+temperature&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Btemperature','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020022493&hterms=global+temperature&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dglobal%2Btemperature"><span id="translatedtitle">Inference of Global Mean <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Trend and Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> from MSU and AMSU</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Prabhakara, Cuddapah; Iacovazzi, R. A., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) and Advanced MSU (AMSU) radiometers flown on the NOAA operational satellite series are potentially valuable as global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> monitoring devices. Spencer and Christy pioneered the analysis of mid-tropospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, given by MSU Channel 2 (Ch 2) at 53.74 GHz, to derive the global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trend. Also, in addition to monitoring global <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, these microwave radiometers have the potential to reveal interannual climate signals in tropics. We have analyzed the data of MSU Ch 2 and AMSU Ch 5 (53.6 GHz) from the NOAA operational satellites for the period 1980 to 2000, utilizing the NOAA calibration procedure. The data are corrected for the satellite orbital drift based on the temporal <span class="hlt">changes</span> of the on-board warm blackbody <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. From our analysis, we find that the global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased at a rate of 0.13 +/- 0.05 Kdecade(sup -1) during 1980 to 2000. From an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis of the MSU global data, we find that the mid-tropospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in middle and high latitudes responds to the ENSO forcing during the Northern Hemisphere Winter in a distinct manner. This mid-latitude response is opposite in phase to that in the tropics. This result is in accord with simulations performed with an ECMWF global spectral model. This study shows a potential use of the satellite observations for climatic <span class="hlt">change</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008epsc.conf..755S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008epsc.conf..755S"><span id="translatedtitle">Cassini CIRS <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations with <span class="hlt">changing</span> solar elevation in Saturn's rings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Spilker, L.; Flandes, A.; Altobelli, N.; Leyrat, C.; Pilorz, S.; Ferrari, C.; Flasar, F.</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>The Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) has acquired an extensive set of thermal measurements of Saturn's main rings (A, B, C and Cassini Division) during four years in orbit around Saturn. These thermal measurements include information on ring <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as well as filling factor. <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> were retrieved for the lit and unlit rings over a variety of ring geometries that include solar phase angle, spacecraft elevation, solar elevation and local hour angle. The largest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> on the lit face of the rings are driven by variations in phase angle while differences in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with <span class="hlt">changing</span> spacecraft elevation and local time are a secondary effect [1, 2, 3]. After taking phase angle and local time effects into account, decreases in ring <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with decreasing solar elevation are seen on both the lit and unlit faces of the rings. For the lit rings, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decreases of 2-4 K are observed in the C ring and larger decreases, 7-10 K and 10-13 K, are observed in the A and B rings respectively. Our thermal data cover a range of solar elevations from -23° to -12° (south side of the rings). The optically thinnest and optically thickest regions of the rings show the best fits to our two end member models. We present a preliminary report on ring <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations as a function of solar elevation in Saturn's rings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8553E..21Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8553E..21Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the pulp chamber during dentin ablation with Er:YAG laser</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Xianzeng; Zhao, Haibin; Zhan, Zhenlin; Guo, Wenqing; Xie, Shusen</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>To examine the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the pulp chamber during cavity preparation in dentin with the Er:YAG laser (2940 nm), a total 20 intact premolars teeth were divided into 4 groups for dentin ablation with different radiant exposures at 4Hz and 8Hz with and without water spray. A K-type thermocouple was used to monitor the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in pulp chamber during laser treatment. The total time of irradiation was 70 sec. the water spray rate was 3 mL/min. It showed that maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise increases with the increasing of radiant exposure and pulse repetition rate and the additional water cooling during laser ablation can significantly reduce the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise in pulp chamber which will benefit to avoid or reduce thermal damage to tooth structure and dental pulp. The highest rise of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the pulp was achieved with 20 J/cm2 and 8 Hz (19.83°C ). For all sample without water spray, the rise of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was exceed 5 °C . In contrast, with water spray, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise in the pulp can be firmly controlled under 1°C. The results also indicated that ablation rate and efficiency can be enhanced by increasing the incident radiant exposure and pulse repetition rate, which simultaneously producing more heat accumulation in dental tissue and causing thermal damage to dental tissue. By applying an additional water spray, thermal damage can be significantly reduced in clinical application.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H43G1288K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H43G1288K"><span id="translatedtitle">Tidal controlled <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in Diamond Lake in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kletetschka, G.; Mls, J.; Fischer, T.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Autonomous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensors, data loggers, have been placed in the Diamond Lake in Minnesota, Minneapolis, USA. The depth was shallow (<1 m) at the measurement site. Hourly measurements revealed the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> of the ice frozen over the lake as well as the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record of the water under the ice. The ice that formed over the lake was soon covered with the snow. Snow isolated the ice from the daily air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> sensors were about 1-2 inches apart attached to the plastic rope tied to the floater on one side and anchored with the piece of metal on the other side of the rope. Sensors that were frozen deeper within the ice showed dumped and delayed thermal fluctuation from the surface. The sensors that were frozen at the bottom within the ice showed continuous, almost constant, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> near freezing. However, all of the sensors that were within the liquid water below the ice showed thermal variation indicating significant 12 and 24 hour periods. We have correlated these variations with the tidal forces from the solar system bodies and found that during the maximum of the tidal gravity forces, when both the Moon and the Sun gravity forces were additive, the variation of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> correlated with the daily tides. However the daily tidal variation anti correlated when the tidal force from the Sun acted against the tidal force from the Moon. This paper discusses this new observation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=retrieve&db=pubmed&list_uids=20187574&dopt=AbstractPlus','TOXNETTOXLINE'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=retrieve&db=pubmed&list_uids=20187574&dopt=AbstractPlus"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> corrected transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurement to quantify rapid <span class="hlt">changes</span> in paracellular permeability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?TOXLINE">TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information</a></p> <p>Blume LF; Denker M; Gieseler F; Kunze T</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Determining the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) is a widely used method to functionally analyze tight junction dynamics in cell culture models of physiological barriers. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are known to have strong effects on TEER and can pose problems during the process of TEER measurements in cell culture vessels, complicating comparisons of TEER data across different experiments and studies. Here, we set out to devise a strategy to obtain <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-independent TEER values based on the physical correlation between parameters such as TEER, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, medium viscosity and pore size of the cell culture inserts. By measuring the impact of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and different electrode types on TEER measurements on Caco-2 and HPDE (normal human pancreatic ductal epithelium) monolayers, we were able to derive a mathematical method that is suitable for the correction of TEER values for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Applying this method to raw TEER values yields <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-corrected TEER (tcTEER) values. Validity of tcTEER was demonstrated by showing a direct correlation with permeability of monolayers as determined by flux of RITC dextran. Taken together, the mathematical solution presented here allows for a simple and accurate determination of paracellular permeability independent of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation during the process of TEER recording.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20187574','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20187574"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> corrected transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurement to quantify rapid <span class="hlt">changes</span> in paracellular permeability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Blume, L-F; Denker, M; Gieseler, F; Kunze, T</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Determining the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) is a widely used method to functionally analyze tight junction dynamics in cell culture models of physiological barriers. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are known to have strong effects on TEER and can pose problems during the process of TEER measurements in cell culture vessels, complicating comparisons of TEER data across different experiments and studies. Here, we set out to devise a strategy to obtain <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-independent TEER values based on the physical correlation between parameters such as TEER, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, medium viscosity and pore size of the cell culture inserts. By measuring the impact of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and different electrode types on TEER measurements on Caco-2 and HPDE (normal human pancreatic ductal epithelium) monolayers, we were able to derive a mathematical method that is suitable for the correction of TEER values for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Applying this method to raw TEER values yields <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-corrected TEER (tcTEER) values. Validity of tcTEER was demonstrated by showing a direct correlation with permeability of monolayers as determined by flux of RITC dextran. Taken together, the mathematical solution presented here allows for a simple and accurate determination of paracellular permeability independent of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation during the process of TEER recording. PMID:20187574</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.A42A0096P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.A42A0096P"><span id="translatedtitle">Inference of Global Mean <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Trend and Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> From MSU and AMSU</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R. A.; Yoo, J.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) and Advanced MSU (AMSU) radiometers flown on the NOAA operational satellite series are potentially valuable as global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> monitoring devices. Spencer and Christy (1990) pioneered the analysis of mid-tropospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, given by MSU Channel 2 (Ch 2) at 53.74 GHz,, to derive the global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trend. Also, in addition to monitoring global <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, these microwave radiometers have the potential to reveal interannual climate signals in tropics (Yulaeva and Wallace, 1994). We have analyzed the data of MSU Ch 2 and AMSU Ch 5 (53.6 GHz) from the NOAA operational satellites for the period 1980 to 2000, utilizing the NOAA calibration procedure. The data are corrected for the satellite orbital drift based on the temporal <span class="hlt">changes</span> of the on-board warm blackbody <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. From our analysis, we find that the global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased at a rate of 0.13 (+ - ) 0.05 Kdecade-1 during 1980 to 2000. From an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis of the MSU global data, we find that the mid-tropospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in middle and high latitudes responds to the ENSO forcing during the Northern Hemisphere Winter in a distinct manner. This mid-latitude response is opposite in phase to that in the tropics. This result is in accord with simulations performed with an ECMWF global spectral model by May and Bengtsson, (1998). This study shows a potential use of the satellite observations for climatic <span class="hlt">change</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC31B1047K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC31B1047K"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> for the last 1,000 years inferred from borehole <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kitaoka, K.; Arimoto, H.; Hamamoto, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Takeuchi, T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are an archive of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> occurred at the ground surface in the recent past (Lachenbruch and Marshall, 1986; Pollack, 1993). In order to investigate the local surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> histories in Osaka Plane, Japan, we observed subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in existing boreholes, using a thermometer logger. Many <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-depth profiles within 200 m depth from the ground surface have been obtained, but they show considerable variability. The geological formations in the area consist of horizontally stratified sedimentary layers of about 1,000 m in thickness overlaid on bedrock of granite. There exists a vertical disordered structure in the formations, which may be relating to an active fault (Uemachi fault) in the bedrock (Takemura, et al, 2013). It is considered that groundwater in the horizontal layers cannot move vertically, but can move vertically along the vertical disordered zone. Various <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles might be related to occurrence of vertical groundwater flow in the zone. Analytical models of subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> which include heat conduction and convection due to vertical groundwater flow in the zone have been constructed under the boundary conditions of prescribing time dependent surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and uniform geothermal flux from greater depths. To solve as one-dimensional problem, heat transfer between the vertical zone and the surrounding medium of no groundwater flow is assumed. Prescribing surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were given as exponential and periodic functions of the time. Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> can be considered to comprise both natural and artificial <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Artificial <span class="hlt">change</span>, which occurs by the increasing combustion of fossil fuels, is considered roughly to be an exponential increase of the ground surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the last 150 years. Natural <span class="hlt">change</span>, which can correlate to solar activity (Lassen and Friis-Christensen, 1995), is assumed roughly to be periodic with the period of about 1200 y at the minimum time of 1620 AD for the last 2,000 years, based on the proxy data in literature (Kitagawa, 1995; Moberg, et al, 2005). Analytical solutions have been obtained by applying a superimpose method. Optimum values of parameters included in the model have been obtained by fitting the solutions to the data of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-depth profiles by a least-square method. As a result, the amplitude of natural oscillation in the area is about 0.8 degree in average, which is in agreement with the result of tree ring analysis of Yakushima cedar (Kitagawa, 1995). Greater upward groundwater flow rates (up to 1.0 m/y, Darcy flux) are seen along the vertical disordered structure. However, the increasing rate of ground surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is greater than that in atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the last 140 years at Osaka Meteorological Observatory, Japan Meteorological Agency. The high increasing rate of the ground surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> suggests that the <span class="hlt">change</span> in atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is influenced by the <span class="hlt">change</span> in long wave radiation from the ground surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4044431','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4044431"><span id="translatedtitle">Phase maintenance in a rhythmic motor pattern during <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in vivo</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Soofi, Wafa; Goeritz, Marie L.; Kispersky, Tilman J.; Prinz, Astrid A.; Marder, Eve</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Central-pattern-generating neural circuits function reliably throughout an animal's life, despite constant molecular turnover and environmental perturbations. Fluctuations in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> pose a problem to the nervous systems of poikilotherms because their body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> follows the ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, thus affecting the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent dynamics of various subcellular components that constitute neuronal circuits. In the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system, the pyloric circuit produces a triphasic rhythm comprising the output of the pyloric dilator, lateral pyloric, and pyloric constrictor neurons. In vitro, the phase relationships of these neurons are maintained over a fourfold <span class="hlt">change</span> in pyloric frequency as <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases from 7°C to 23°C. To determine whether these <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects are also found in intact crabs, in the presence of sensory feedback and neuromodulator-rich environments, we measured the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the pyloric frequency and phases in vivo by implanting extracellular electrodes into Cancer borealis and Cancer pagurus and shifting tank water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from 11°C to 26°C. Pyloric frequency in the intact crab increased significantly with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Q10 = 2–2.5), while pyloric phases were generally conserved. For a subset of the C. borealis experiments, animals were subsequently dissected and the stomatogastric ganglion subjected to a similar <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ramp in vitro. We found that the maximal frequency attained at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in vivo is lower than it is under in vitro conditions. Our results demonstrate that, over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range, the phases of the pyloric rhythm in vivo are generally preserved, but that the frequency range is more restricted than it is in vitro. PMID:24671541</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.4061W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009EGUGA..11.4061W"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring of WUT grand hall roof in conditions of high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wozniak, M.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The geodetic control measurements of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in object's geometry should satisfy high accuracy and reliability. New tacheometers equipped with Automatic Target Recognition automatically moves the telescope to the center of the prism and supports control points measurements. The accuracy of using ATR system and stability of instrument in precise measurements were controlled in laboratory and field conditions. This paper will present the results of monitoring measurements using Leica TDA 5005 during investigations of roof geometry in conditions of high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.A33D0938N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.A33D0938N"><span id="translatedtitle">Arctic Weather <span class="hlt">Change</span>: Linking Indigenous (Inuit) Observations With the Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Record</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Noonan, G. J.; Weatherhead, E. C.; Gearheard, S.; Barry, R.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Inuit observations in the Artic describe increasing unpredictability in the weather. In an effort to link their reports with scientific data, we analyzed time series of surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from two stations; Baker Lake and Clyde River, located in Nunavut, Canada. 52 year records (1953-2004) of hourly WMO weather station <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data were utilized for a statistical assessment at the two locations. Large positive trends in mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were observed at both sites. Hourly and daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences were then calculated noting that a positive tendency in results may be indicative of recent variability. This was not seen. Further examination focused on a possible increase or decrease in frontal activity; these results displayed little <span class="hlt">change</span> in the magnitude of frontal activity in both locations. Very small <span class="hlt">changes</span> were observed in the variance, with a tendency toward higher values. It is difficult to understand how these small <span class="hlt">changes</span> in variance could be easily observable by the Inuit, although the ramification of a small <span class="hlt">change</span> in variance may be more easily observed. Finally, day-to-day autocorrelation was calculated as a way to quantify the persistence of weather. A strong <span class="hlt">change</span> was noted in June at Baker Lake. At the beginning of the time series (1953 - 1990) autocorrelation values were typically in the 0.8 +- 0.1 range, in the 1990's they were often around 0.4. These results show a marked <span class="hlt">change</span> in the persistence of weather for this month. We will need to explore further if such an outcome can be used to estimate the predictability of weather and estimate <span class="hlt">changes</span> in weather patterns. These initial results, however, are promising and point to a distinct <span class="hlt">change</span> in the nature and predictability of weather.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24831180','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24831180"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture on Mormon cricket reproduction with implications for responses to climate <span class="hlt">change</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Srygley, Robert B</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>During the last decade, populations of flightless Mormon crickets Anabrus simplex (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) increased suddenly over vast areas of the Western United States, suggesting that climate is an important factor driving outbreaks. Moreover summer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are predicted to increase and precipitation is expected to decrease in most areas of the U.S. Great Basin, but little is known of the response of Mormon crickets to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and soil moisture. In a laboratory study, we varied ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and lighting and measured the propensity of mating pairs to mate, and the proportion of eggs that developed into embryos. We found that reproduction was optimal when ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reached 30°C and the insects were beneath broad-spectrum lights such that maternal body and soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> reached 35°C. Fewer eggs that developed fully were laid when maternal body and soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> reached 30°C or 37-39°C. We also varied initial soil moisture from 0% to 100% saturated and found that more eggs reached embryonic diapause when initial soil moisture was 25% or 50% of saturated volume. However more of the developed eggs hatched when treated in summer soils with 0-25% of saturated moisture. We conclude that small <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> had large effects on reproduction, whereas large <span class="hlt">changes</span> in moisture had very small effects on reproduction. This is the first report of Mormon crickets mating in a laboratory setting and laying eggs that hatched, facilitating further research on the role of maternal and embryonic environments in <span class="hlt">changes</span> in population size. PMID:24831180</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7609D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7609D"><span id="translatedtitle">Geothermal evidences of pre-industrial ground <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the Urals and Eastern Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Demezhko, D.; Kotlovanova, A.; Khachay, Yu.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>To characterize pre-industrial (17-19th centuries) climate <span class="hlt">changes</span> we reconstructed ground surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> histories from <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-depth profiles measured in boreholes at 83 sites in the Urals and Eastern Europe (Finland, Ukraine, and Belarus). Only upper 300-meters interval and constant value of thermal diffusivity of rocks = 10-6 m2/sec were used in all cases. Parts of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> histories for the 20th century were excluded from further analysis. Our investigation shows high degree of spatial-temporal variability of climatic <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the 17-19th centuries. Nevertheless, most of the histories have a minimum within the investigated period corresponding to the Little Ice Age and subsequent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise. Cluster analysis reveals at least two types of histories: with early (1720-1760 years) and late (1820-1900 years) warming start date. Early start of warming appears in the north and northwest Urals as well as north and south area of Eastern Europe. Late start appears along the lines southwest - northeast along the Urals as well as in central part of Eastern European territory. Higher positive amplitude of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the 17-19 centuries are typical for the regions of early start, while for the regions of the late start there are low or even negative amplitude. In the report we discuss possible reasons of such ground <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> pattern including: i) a role of atmospheric circulation, ii) air/ground surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> interaction and precipitation, iii) influence of non-climatic factors such as deforestation and geological features.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP33B1684S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP33B1684S"><span id="translatedtitle">Deglacial Subsurface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> in the Tropical North Atlantic Linked to Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation Variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmidt, M. W.; Chang, P.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Coupled ocean-atmosphere modeling experiments indicate that Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability is tightly coupled to abrupt tropical North Atlantic (TNA) climate <span class="hlt">change</span> through both atmospheric and oceanic processes (Zhang, 2007; <span class="hlt">Chang</span> et al., 2008; and Chiang et al., 2008). While a slowdown of AMOC in these experiments results in an atmospheric-induced surface cooling in the entire TNA, the subsurface experiences an even larger warming due to rapid reorganizations of ocean circulation patterns (Wan et al., 2009). In addition, observational records of detrended 20th century ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity variability show a strong anticorrelation between surface cooling and subsurface warming in the TNA over the past several decades, suggesting <span class="hlt">changing</span> vertical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients in this region may be a distinct fingerprint of AMOC variability (Zhang 2007). In order to test the hypothesis that subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in the TNA is coupled to AMOC variability across abrupt climate events over the last deglacial, we reconstructed high-resolution Mg/Ca-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> and δ18O records from both surface (G. ruber) and sub-thermocline dwelling (G. truncatulinoides, 350-500 m depth and G. crassaformis, 450-580 m) planktonic foraminifera in the southern Caribbean Sea sediment core VM12-107 (11.33oN, 66.63oW; 1079 m; 18 cm/kyr sedimentation rate). Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> indicate a gradual warming in the TNA starting at ~19 kyr BP with small cold reversals of ~1.5oC during Heinrich Event 1 (H1) and the Younger Dryas (YD). In contrast, last glacial maximum subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were as much as 2.5oC warmer than Late Holocene values and H1 and the YD are marked by the warmest subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> characterized by abrupt <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases as large as 4-5oC. Furthermore, a comparison of our subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record with the Bermuda Rise 231Pa/230Th proxy record of AMOC variability (McManus et al., 2004) indicates a strong correlation between periods of reduced AMOC and subsurface warming in the TNA. Our results suggest that western TNA subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> is a sensitive indicator of AMOC strength with the potential to determine AMOC variability during marine isotope stage 3.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2014/5186/pdf/sir2014-5186.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2014/5186/pdf/sir2014-5186.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A model for evaluating stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response to climate <span class="hlt">change</span> in Wisconsin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stewart, Jana S.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Mitro, Matthew G.; Lyons, John D.; Kammel, Leah E.; Buchwald, Cheryl A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Integrating the SWB Model with the ANN Model provided a mechanism by which downscaled global or regional climate model results could be used to estimate the potential effects of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on future stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on a daily time step. To address future climate scenarios, statistically downscaled air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation projections from 10 GCMs and 2 time periods were used with the SWB-ANNv1 Model to project future stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Projections of future stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at mid- (2046–65) and late- (2081–2100) 21st century showed the July mean water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increasing for all stream segments with about 80 percent of stream kilometers increasing by 1 to 2 degrees Celsius (°C) by mid-century and about 99 percent increasing by 1 to 3 °C by late-century. Projected <span class="hlt">changes</span> in stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> also affected <span class="hlt">changes</span> in thermal classes with a loss in the total amount of cold-water, cold-transition, and warm-transition thermal habitat and a gain in warm-water and very warm thermal habitat for both mid- and late-21st century time periods. The greatest losses occurred for cold-water streams and the greatest gains for warm-water streams, with a contraction of cold-water streams in the Driftless Area of western and southern Wisconsin and an expansion of warm-water streams across northern Wisconsin. Results of this study suggest that such <span class="hlt">changes</span> will affect the composition of fish assemblages, with a loss of suitable habitat for cold-water fishes and gain in suitable habitat for warm-water fishes. In the end, these projected <span class="hlt">changes</span> in thermal habitat attributable to climate may result in a net loss of fisheries, because many warm-water species may be unable to colonize habitats formerly occupied by cold-water species because of other habitat limitations (e.g., stream size, gradient). Although projected stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> may vary greatly, depending on the emissions scenario and models used, the results presented in this report represent one possibility. The relative <span class="hlt">change</span> in stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can provide useful information for planning for potential climate impacts to aquatic ecosystems. Model results can be used to help identify vulnerabilities of streams to climate <span class="hlt">change</span>, guide stream surveys and thermal classifications, prioritize the allocation of scarce financial resources, identify approaches to climate adaptation to best protect and enhance resiliency in stream thermal habitat, and provide information to make quantitative assessments of statewide stream resources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.438...37G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.438...37G"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative estimates of tropical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in lowland Central America during the last 42 ka</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grauel, Anna-Lena; Hodell, David A.; Bernasconi, Stefano M.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Determining the magnitude of tropical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> during the last glacial period is a fundamental problem in paleoclimate research. Large discrepancies exist in estimates of tropical cooling inferred from marine and terrestrial archives. Here we present a reconstruction of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the last 42 ka from a lake sediment core from Lake Petén Itzá, Guatemala, located at 17°N in lowland Central America. We compared three independent methods of glacial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstruction: pollen-based <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimates, tandem measurements of δ18O in biogenic carbonate and gypsum hydration water, and clumped isotope thermometry. Pollen provides a near-continuous record of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> for most of the glacial period but the occurrence of a no-analog pollen assemblage during cold, dry stadials renders <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimates unreliable for these intervals. In contrast, the gypsum hydration and clumped isotope methods are limited mainly to the stadial periods when gypsum and biogenic carbonate co-occur. The combination of palynological and geochemical methods leads to a continuous record of tropical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in lowland Central America over the last 42 ka. Furthermore, the gypsum hydration water method and clumped isotope thermometry provide independent estimates of not only <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, but also the δ18O of lake water that is dependent on the hydrologic balance between evaporation and precipitation over the lake surface and its catchment. The results show that average glacial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was cooler in lowland Central America by 5-10 °C relative to the Holocene. The coldest and driest times occurred during North Atlantic stadial events, particularly Heinrich stadials (HSs), when <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decreased by up to 6 to 10 °C relative to today. This magnitude of cooling is much greater than estimates derived from Caribbean marine records and model simulations. The extreme dry and cold conditions during HSs in the lowland Central America were associated with fresh water forcing in the North Atlantic, which led to reduced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, cooling of the North Atlantic, southern advance of sea-ice, and southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Although some models correctly predict the sign of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">changes</span>, they consistently underestimate the degree of observed cooling and decreased precipitation over land in lowland Central America.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS44B..05G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS44B..05G"><span id="translatedtitle">Where to Look for Recent Decadal Ocean <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Salinity <span class="hlt">Changes</span>: a CMIP Model Density Analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guilyardi, E.; Durack, P. J.; Gleckler, P. J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Multi-decadal ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity <span class="hlt">changes</span>, a key element of climate variability and <span class="hlt">change</span>, is not well constrained by available observations. Recent observed assessments have highlighted coherent long-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity <span class="hlt">changes</span> that appear consistent with CMIP multi-model mean assessments, however there are discrepancies in the absolute magnitude of these observed and simulated <span class="hlt">changes</span>. In this study, we use global climate models (from the CMIP5 and CMIP3 model suites) and a number of available observational analyses to investigate the global and regional distribution of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity <span class="hlt">changes</span> in neutral density space. Unlike the classical fixed-depth diagnostics, isopycnal analysis provides a lagrangian view of ocean property <span class="hlt">changes</span> that can be directly related to surface fluxes and upper ocean water mass transformation, while essentially ignoring isopycnal heave. The comparison of pre-industrial and historical (1860-2005) simulations allows us to precisely describe where the heat and salt is stored as a result of modified forcing, leveraging off a large suite of similarly forced simulations. We also evaluate the modeled global and regional isopycnal climatologies against recent (ARGO) observations with better spatio-temporal coverage, to investigate model performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9k5007D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9k5007D"><span id="translatedtitle">Constructing scenarios of regional sea level <span class="hlt">change</span> using global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> pathways</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Vries, Hylke; Katsman, Caroline; Drijfhout, Sybren</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The effects of sea level <span class="hlt">change</span> become increasingly relevant for the Dutch coast. Therefore we construct two scenarios for regional sea-level <span class="hlt">change</span> in the 21st century. They are designed to follow two <span class="hlt">temperature</span> pathways, in which global mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rises moderately (G, +1.5 K in 2085) or more substantially (W, +3.5 K in 2085). Contributions from all major processes leading to sea level rise are included (ocean expansion, glacier melt, ice-sheet <span class="hlt">changes</span>, and landwater <span class="hlt">changes</span>), except glacial isostatic adjustment and surface elevation <span class="hlt">changes</span>. As input we use data from 42 coupled global climate models that contributed to CMIP5. The approach is consistent with the recent fifth assessment Report of IPCC, but provides an alternative viewpoint based on global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> rather than RCPs. This makes them rather accessible and readily applicable to policy makers and the general public. We find a likely range for the G-scenario of +25-60 cm in 2085, and +45-80 cm for the W-scenario. These numbers have been rounded to 5 cm precision, to emphasise to any end-user of these scenarios that estimated lower and upper limits themselves are uncertain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GPC...122..122C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GPC...122..122C"><span id="translatedtitle">Sharper detection of winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the Romanian higher-elevations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Croitoru, Adina-Eliza; Drignei, Dorin; Dragotă, Carmen Sofia; Imecs, Zoltan; Burada, Doina Cristina</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>This paper investigates winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends in the Romanian higher-altitude areas, for three types of topographies: depression, slope and summit. The main challenge is that some winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends, by comparison with the other seasons, are milder and harder to detect. We used a <span class="hlt">change</span>-point regression model with statistically dependent errors and compared it with a standard <span class="hlt">change</span>-point model with independent errors. Statistical theory ensures that the former model gives a more accurate trend analysis than the latter. The model with statistically dependent errors detects <span class="hlt">change</span>-points in the mid 70s and statistically significant increasing trends both before and after the <span class="hlt">change</span>-point. On the other hand, the model with independent errors does not detect statistically significant increasing trends after the <span class="hlt">change</span>-points for the winter series. These general results occur for all topography types. A separate multiple regression model reveals that the winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trend <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the Romanian higher-elevations can be described by a linear additive effect of several global atmospheric circulation patterns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24817412','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24817412"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Changes</span> in floral bouquets from compound-specific responses to increasing <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Farré-Armengol, Gerard; Filella, Iolanda; Llusià, Joan; Niinemets, Ulo; Peñuelas, Josep</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We addressed the potential effects of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the profiles of volatile emissions from flowers and tested whether warming could induce significant quantitative and qualitative <span class="hlt">changes</span> in floral emissions, which would potentially interfere with plant-pollinator chemical communication. We measured the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> responses of floral emissions of various common species of Mediterranean plants using dynamic headspace sampling and used GC-MS to identify and quantify the emitted terpenes. Floral emissions increased with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to an optimum and thereafter decreased. The responses to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> modeled here predicted increases in the rates of floral terpene emission of 0.03-1.4-fold, depending on the species, in response to an increase of 1 °C in the mean global ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Under the warmest projections that predict a maximum increase of 5 °C in the mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of Mediterranean climates in the Northern Hemisphere by the end of the century, our models predicted increases in the rates of floral terpene emissions of 0.34-9.1-fold, depending on the species. The species with the lowest emission rates had the highest relative increases in floral terpene emissions with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases of 1-5 °C. The response of floral emissions to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differed among species and among different compounds within the species. Warming not only increased the rates of total emissions, but also <span class="hlt">changed</span> the ratios among compounds that constituted the floral scents, i.e. increased the signal for pollinators, but also importantly altered the signal fidelity and probability of identification by pollinators, especially for specialists with a strong reliance on species-specific floral blends. PMID:24817412</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..339H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..339H"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbial community responses to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase the potential for soil carbon losses under climate <span class="hlt">change</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hartley, Iain; Karhu, Kristiina; Auffret, Marc; Hopkins, David; Prosser, Jim; Singh, Brajesh; Subke, Jens-Arne; Wookey, Philip; Ågren, Göran</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>There are concerns that global warming may stimulate decomposition rates in soils, with the extra CO2 released representing a positive feedback to climate <span class="hlt">change</span>. However, there is growing recognition that adaptation of soil microbial communities to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> may alter the potential rate of carbon release. Critically, recent studies have produced conflicting results in terms of whether the medium-term soil microbial community response to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reduces (compensatory thermal adaptation) or enhances (enhancing thermal adaptation) the instantaneous direct positive effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on microbial activity. This lack of understanding adds considerably to uncertainty in predictions of the magnitude and direction of carbon-cycle feedbacks to climate <span class="hlt">change</span>. In this talk, I present results from one of the most extensive investigations ever undertaken into the role that microbial adaptation plays in controlling the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity of decomposition. Soils were collected from a range of ecosystem types, representing a thermal gradient from the Arctic to the Amazon. Our novel soil-cooling approach minimises issues associated with substrate depletion in warming studies, but still tests whether adaptation enhances or reduces the direct impact of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> on microbial activity. We also investigated the mechanisms underlying <span class="hlt">changes</span> in microbial respiration by quantifying <span class="hlt">changes</span> in microbial community composition, microbial biomass, mass-specific activity, carbon-use efficiency, and enzyme activities. Our results indicate that enhancing responses are much more common than compensatory thermal acclimation, with the latter being observed in less than 10% of cases. However, identifying the mechanisms underlying enhancing and compensatory adaptation remained elusive. No consistent <span class="hlt">changes</span> were observed in terms of mass-specific activity, biomass or enzyme activity, indicating that current theory is inadequate in explaining observed patterns. Importantly, initial microbial community composition was the best predictor of the sign and magnitude of the adaptation response, but further research is required to develop process-based understanding. In terms of the implications of our findings, although enhancing responses were observed in soils from all geographical regions, Arctic soils showed the strongest evidence for microbial community responses enhancing the direct effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>. This suggests that the long-term effect of warming on soil respiration rates in the Arctic could be larger than predicted based on short-term measurements of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity. Consequently, the substantial stores of carbon present in high-latitude soils may be more vulnerable to climate warming than currently estimated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title46-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title46-vol4-sec91-25-37.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title46-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title46-vol4-sec91-25-37.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">46 CFR 91.25-37 - Tanks containing <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> cargoes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tanks containing <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> cargoes. 91.25-37 Section 91... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-37 Tanks containing <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> cargoes. (a) For inspection and tests of tanks containing certain <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> cargoes in bulk, see part...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title46-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title46-vol4-sec91-25-37.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title46-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title46-vol4-sec91-25-37.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">46 CFR 91.25-37 - Tanks containing <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> cargoes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tanks containing <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> cargoes. 91.25-37 Section 91... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-37 Tanks containing <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> cargoes. (a) For inspection and tests of tanks containing certain <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> cargoes in bulk, see part...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title46-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title46-vol4-sec91-25-37.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title46-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title46-vol4-sec91-25-37.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">46 CFR 91.25-37 - Tanks containing <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> cargoes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tanks containing <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> cargoes. 91.25-37 Section 91... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-37 Tanks containing <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> cargoes. (a) For inspection and tests of tanks containing certain <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> cargoes in bulk, see part...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title30-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title30-vol3-sec722-11.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title30-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title30-vol3-sec722-11.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 722.11 - Imminent <span class="hlt">dangers</span> and harms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Imminent <span class="hlt">dangers</span> and harms. 722.11 Section 722... INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES § 722.11 Imminent <span class="hlt">dangers</span> and harms. (a) If an... create an imminent <span class="hlt">danger</span> to the health or safety of the public, the authorized representative...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title30-vol1-sec77-511.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title30-vol1-sec77-511.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 77.511 - <span class="hlt">Danger</span> signs at electrical installations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Danger</span> signs at electrical installations. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.511 <span class="hlt">Danger</span> signs at electrical installations. Suitable <span class="hlt">danger</span> signs shall be posted at all major electrical installations....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED391171.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED391171.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Voice as a Lightning Rod for <span class="hlt">Dangerous</span> Thinking.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Elbow, Peter</p> <p></p> <p>"Voice" has become a <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> term. It has tended to imply romanticism, expressionism, and individualism--<span class="hlt">dangerous</span> things. There are, however, two safe or prudent thoughts that can be expressed about voice and writing and four <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> or adventuresome thoughts. The first point is that the choice between the use of terms such as text and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title46-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title46-vol5-sec148-02-3.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title46-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title46-vol5-sec148-02-3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">46 CFR 148.02-3 - <span class="hlt">Dangerous</span> cargo manifest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Dangerous</span> cargo manifest. 148.02-3 Section 148.02-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) <span class="hlt">DANGEROUS</span> CARGOES CARRIAGE OF SOLID HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN BULK Vessel Requirements § 148.02-3 <span class="hlt">Dangerous</span> cargo manifest. (a) Each vessel, except for unmanned barges, transporting...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC13H0764C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC13H0764C"><span id="translatedtitle">An Observationally-Centred Method to Quantify the <span class="hlt">Changing</span> Shape of Local <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Distributions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chapman, S. C.; Stainforth, D. A.; Watkins, N. W.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>For climate sensitive decisions and adaptation planning, guidance on how local climate is <span class="hlt">changing</span> is needed at the specific thresholds relevant to particular impacts or policy endeavours. This requires the quantification of how the distributions of variables, such as daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, are <span class="hlt">changing</span> at specific quantiles. These <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distributions are non-normal and vary both geographically and in time. We present a method[1,2] for analysing local climatic time series data to assess which quantiles of the local climatic distribution show the greatest and most robust <span class="hlt">changes</span>. We have demonstrated this approach using the E-OBS gridded dataset[3] which consists of time series of local daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> across Europe over the last 60 years. Our method extracts the <span class="hlt">changing</span> cumulative distribution function over time and uses a simple mathematical deconstruction of how the difference between two observations from two different time periods can be assigned to the combination of natural statistical variability and/or the consequences of secular climate <span class="hlt">change</span>. The <span class="hlt">change</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can be tracked at a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> threshold, at a likelihood, or at a given return time, independently for each geographical location. Geographical correlations are thus an output of our method and reflect both climatic properties (local and synoptic), and spatial correlations inherent in the observation methodology. We find as an output many regionally consistent patterns of response of potential value in adaptation planning. For instance, in a band from Northern France to Denmark the hottest days in the summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution have seen <span class="hlt">changes</span> of at least 2°C over a 43 year period; over four times the global mean <span class="hlt">change</span> over the same period. We discuss methods to quantify the robustness of these observed sensitivities and their statistical likelihood. This approach also quantifies the level of detail at which one might wish to see agreement between climate models and observations if such models are to be used directly as tools to assess climate <span class="hlt">change</span> impacts at local scales. [1] S C Chapman, D A Stainforth, N W Watkins, 2013, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A, 371 20120287. [2] D A Stainforth, S C Chapman, N W Watkins, 2013, Environ. Res. Lett. 8, 034031 [3] Haylock, M.R. et al., 2008, J. Geophys. Res (Atmospheres), 113, D20119</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24620574','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24620574"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> dependent mortality and behavioral <span class="hlt">changes</span> in a freshwater mussel Lamellidens marginalis to dimethoate exposure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kumar, Saurabh; Pandey, Rakesh Kumar; Das, Shobha; Das, Vijai Krishna</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> is a crucial determinant of biogeography, directly affecting the behavioral responses of the organisms. An acute static bioassay was conducted to evaluate the effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on dimethoate toxicity in a freshwater mussel Lamellidens marginalis. The mussel, were exposed for 96 hr at different concentrations of dimethoate (155.00, 160.00, 165.00, 170.00, 175.00, 180.00, 185.00, 190.00, 195.00, and 200.00 mgl(-1)) in the month of January when water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was 14.9 +/- 1.2 degrees C and at concentration 35.00, 37.00, 39.00, 41.00, 43.00, 45.00, 47.00, and 49.00 mgl(-1) in the month of August when the water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was 28.0 +/- 0.5 degrees C. The LC50 values were calculated from the mortality data obtained (using EPA-Probit analysis version 1.5, statistical software). The 96 hr LC50 value recorded at higher <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was 36.34 mgl(-1) and at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was 163.59 mgl(-1). The mussel exposed at higher <span class="hlt">temperature</span> showed more sensitive behavioral responses like huge mucus secretion, sudden closure of shell valves, quick post-mortem <span class="hlt">changes</span> and increased oxygen consumption in comparison to exposure at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Therefore, the increasing threat of global warming increases the risk of pesticide toxicity in the exposed organisms. PMID:24620574</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ShMeS...1...23N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ShMeS...1...23N"><span id="translatedtitle">Composition Dependences of Entropy <span class="hlt">Change</span> and Transformation <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> in Ni-rich Ti-Ni System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Niitsu, K.; Kimura, Y.; Xu, X.; Kainuma, R.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>For Ni-rich Ti-Ni alloys, physical properties such as specific heat and electric resistance were systematically investigated. The B2/B19' martensitic transformation <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> ranging from 180 to 373 K were determined for Ni contents of 49.98-51.09 %, and a sudden disappearance of martensitic transformation was confirmed for Ni contents greater than 51.23 %, which has also been well reported in the literatures. The entropy <span class="hlt">change</span> was also evaluated from differential scanning calorimeter measurement, and it was clarified that the entropy <span class="hlt">change</span> plotted to T 0 <span class="hlt">temperature</span> shows an S-shaped curve, starting to drastically decrease at about 300 K. Thermodynamic approaches were then carried out attempting to determine the reason for the disappearance of transformation. The entropy <span class="hlt">change</span> estimated from direct measurements of specific heats for 51.75 Ni (B2) and 50.92 Ni (B19') was found to be more consistent with the experimental data, rather than the calculated curve based on the Debye model for vibration specific heat. It was proposed that the equilibrium between the parent and martensite phases obeys the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship in the composition-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> system. Using the constructed composition-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> diagram, the disappearance of martensitic transformation in the Ti-Ni system can be well understood as being due to the drastic increase of hysteresis at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdAtS..33..247W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdAtS..33..247W"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic responses of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration to global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> between 1850 and 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Weile; Nemani, Ramakrishna</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Earth's <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have significant impacts on the global carbon cycle that vary at different time scales, yet to quantify such impacts with a simple scheme is traditionally deemed difficult. Here, we show that, by incorporating a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity parameter (1.64 ppm yr-1 °C-1) into a simple linear carbon-cycle model, we can accurately characterize the dynamic responses of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration to anthropogenic carbon emissions and global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> between 1850 and 2010 ( r 2 > 0.96 and the root-mean-square error < 1 ppm for the period from 1960 onward). Analytical analysis also indicates that the multiplication of the parameter with the response time of the atmospheric carbon reservoir (~12 year) approximates the long-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity of global atmospheric CO2 concentration (~15 ppm °C-1), generally consistent with previous estimates based on reconstructed CO2 and climate records over the Little Ice Age. Our results suggest that recent increases in global surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, which accelerate the release of carbon from the surface reservoirs into the atmosphere, have partially offset surface carbon uptakes enhanced by the elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and slowed the net rate of atmospheric CO2 sequestration by global land and oceans by ~30% since the 1960s. The linear modeling framework outlined in this paper thus provides a useful tool to diagnose the observed atmospheric CO2 dynamics and monitor their future <span class="hlt">changes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10845114','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10845114"><span id="translatedtitle">Ventilatory responses to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in mammals and other vertebrates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mortola, J P; Frappell, P B</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>This article reviews the relationship between pulmonary ventilation (VE) and metabolic rate (oxygen consumption) during <span class="hlt">changes</span> in ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The main focus is on mammals, although for comparative purposes the VE responses of ectothermic vertebrates are also discussed. First, the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on pulmonary mechanics, chemoreceptors, and airway receptors are summarized. Then we review the main VE responses to cold and warm stimuli and their interaction with exercise, hypoxia, or hypercapnia. In these cases, mammals attempt to maintain both oxygenation and body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, although conflicts can arise because of the respiratory heat loss associated with the increase in ventilation. Finally, we consider the VE responses of mammals when body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>, as during torpor, fever, sleep, and hypothermia. In ectotherms, during <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, VE control becomes part of a general strategy to maintain constant relative alkalinity and ensure a constancy of pH-dependent protein functions (alphastat regulation). In mammals on the other hand, VE control is aimed to balance metabolic needs with homeothermy. Therefore, alphastat regulation in mammals seems to have a low priority, and it may be adopted only in exceptional cases. PMID:10845114</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20478789','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20478789"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of repeated refrigerant spray applications using various carriers on pulpal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Garza, Christopher A; Vandewalle, Kraig S; Sabey, Kent A; Hamilton, Garrett J; Chong, Chol H</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This study sought to determine how repeated applications of a refrigerant spray on various cotton carriers affected the <span class="hlt">change</span> in pulpal <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. A thermocouple was placed at the roof of the pulp chamber of a human maxillary canine and connected to a thermometer logging at one-second intervals while the root was immersed in a water bath at 37 degrees C. Four different carrier types were used: large cotton pellets, small cotton pellets, cotton-tip applicators, and cotton rolls. Each carrier was sprayed with 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane and placed on the crown for five seconds. Pulpal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> was recorded after each five second application of the same carrier to the tooth until a total of six consecutive sprays and applications of the carrier were applied. Each carrier group consisted of 10 performances of the six sets of readings (n = 10). The difference between baseline and the low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reading was calculated to determine the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> (in degrees C) in the pulp chamber per application. When the refrigerant spray was used, the large cotton pellet carrier generally produced the largest decrease in pulpal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at each repeated application compared to the other types of carriers. However, the same large cotton pellet should not be sprayed with the refrigerant more than two times before it is replaced. PMID:20478789</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011IJBm...55..733L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011IJBm...55..733L"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationship between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and the requirement for a permanent pacemaker implantation in bradyarrhythmias</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, I.-Fan; Chang, Shih-Lin; Lo, Li-Wei; Hu, Yu-Feng; Tuan, Ta-Chuan; Kong, Chi-Woon; Wu, Tsu-Juey; Chiang, Chern-En; Chen, Shih-Ann; Lin, Yenn-Jiang</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>Some cardiovascular diseases are associated with seasonal or meteorological factors. We tried to identify the relationship between meteorological parameters and the requirement for a permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation for advanced sinus node dysfunction (SND) and atrioventricular block (AVB). This study enrolled 656 patients (67% male, age = 76 ± 11 years) who underwent a PPM implantation due to SND or AVB from January 2004 to December 2008. Using daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, barometric pressure, humidity, and daylight hour records from Taipei, we evaluated the effect of these meteorological parameters within different time periods on the occurrence of SND and AVB. There were 355 patients in the SND group and 301 in the AVB group. In the AVB group, more patients presented in the spring than in other seasons ( P = 0.003). In the SND group, there was no relationship with the seasons ( P = 0.137). The proportion of patients with AVB did not depend on the average <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, barometric pressure, humidity, or daylight hours within 3, 7, and 14 days prior to admission ( P = NS). A <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> of greater than 11°C within 30 days prior to admission was associated with a significantly higher proportion of patients with advanced AVB compared to those with advanced SND ( P = 0.009). Extreme <span class="hlt">change</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was the most independent predictor of the development of advanced AVB. The peak occurrence of advanced AVB was in the spring. The occurrence of advanced AVB was associated with extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> within 30 days, especially in the spring.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJCli..25.1507P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJCli..25.1507P"><span id="translatedtitle">Air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the Canadian Arctic from the early instrumental period to modern times</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Przybylak, Rajmund; Vizi, Zsuzsanna</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>This article presents a detailed account of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (using four thermal parameters: mean daily air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (MDAT), maximum daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TMAX), minimum daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TMIN), and diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR)) in the Canadian Arctic from 1819 to 1859. As source data, the authors have used hourly, two-hourly, four-hourly, or six-hourly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements carried out during exploratory (land or marine) expeditions sent mainly by the Royal Navy to find the Northwest Passage and later also during a lost expedition under the command of Sir John Franklin. Standard climate analyses (using monthly means) and more detailed and precise analyses based on daily data showing a wide spectrum of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regimes were conducted. The latter analysis examined the frequency of occurrence of MDAT in particular intervals, day-to-day variability of MDAT, annual courses of MDAT and DTR, and the frequency of occurrence of different kinds of characteristic days (e.g. very warm, warm, severe cold, very cold). All studied aspects of historical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the Canadian Arctic from 1819 to 1859 were compared with present-day (1961-1990) values.All the results obtained suggest that in the nineteenth century a moderate cooling occurred in the Canadian Arctic. The average annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the study period was only about 0.3 C lower in comparison with the present-day value. The most typical features in the annual courses of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the study period were very cold winter months (December to February, 1.0-2.5 C below today's norm) and warm springs (March to May, 0.2-2.6 C above today's norm). The majority of mean monthly and daily <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> lie within one SD from the modern mean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26559666','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26559666"><span id="translatedtitle">Prediction of color <span class="hlt">changes</span> in acetaminophen solution using the time-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> superposition principle.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mochizuki, Koji; Takayama, Kozo</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>A prediction method for color <span class="hlt">changes</span> based on the time-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> superposition principle (TTSP) was developed for acetaminophen solution. Color <span class="hlt">changes</span> of acetaminophen solution are caused by the degradation of acetaminophen, such as hydrolysis and oxidation. In principle, the TTSP can be applied to only thermal aging. Therefore, the impact of oxidation on the color <span class="hlt">changes</span> of acetaminophen solution was verified. The results of our experiment suggested that the oxidation products enhanced the color <span class="hlt">changes</span> in acetaminophen solution. Next, the color <span class="hlt">changes</span> of acetaminophen solution samples of the same head space volume after accelerated aging at various <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were investigated using the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) LAB color space (a*, b*, L* and ΔE*ab), following which the TTSP was adopted to kinetic analysis of the color <span class="hlt">changes</span>. The apparent activation energies using the time-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> shift factor of a*, b*, L* and ΔE*ab were calculated as 72.4, 69.2, 72.3 and 70.9 (kJ/mol), respectively, which are similar to the values for acetaminophen hydrolysis reported in the literature. The predicted values of a*, b*, L* and ΔE*ab at 40 °C were obtained by calculation using Arrhenius plots. A comparison between the experimental and predicted values for each color parameter revealed sufficiently high R(2) values (>0.98), suggesting the high reliability of the prediction. The kinetic analysis using TTSP was successfully applied to predicting the color <span class="hlt">changes</span> under the controlled oxygen amount at any <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and for any length of time. PMID:26559666</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=139594','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=139594"><span id="translatedtitle">EFFECT OF TRANSIENT <span class="hlt">TEMPERATURE</span> <span class="hlt">CHANGE</span> ON SUCROSE METABOLISM IN SUGARCANE INTERNODES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>It was previously observed that a decrease in total soluble solids concentration in sugarcane (Saccharum sp. hybrids) juice was proportional to the magnitude of the <span class="hlt">change</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the week prior to harvest (Eggleston and Vinyard, 1999. J. Am. Soc. Sugar Cane Technol. 19:62-63). I teste...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=water+AND+activity+AND+foods&pg=2&id=EJ1068332','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=water+AND+activity+AND+foods&pg=2&id=EJ1068332"><span id="translatedtitle">The Heat Is On! Using Particle Models to <span class="hlt">Change</span> Students' Conceptions of Heat and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hitt, Austin Manning; Townsend, J. Scott</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Elementary, middle-level, and high school science teachers commonly find their students have misconceptions about heat and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Unfortunately, student misconceptions are difficult to modify or <span class="hlt">change</span> and can prevent students from learning the accurate scientific explanation. In order to improve our students' understanding of heat and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=heat+AND+treatment&id=EJ753589','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=heat+AND+treatment&id=EJ753589"><span id="translatedtitle">Effectiveness of Conceptual <span class="hlt">Change</span> Instruction on Understanding of Heat and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Concepts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Baser, Mustafa; Geban, Omer</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This study investigated the differential effects of two modes of instructional program (conceptual <span class="hlt">change</span> oriented and traditionally designed) and gender difference on students' understanding of heat and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> concepts, and their attitudes toward science as a school subject. The subjects of this study consisted of 72 seventh grade students…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp...71R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp...71R"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding the joint behavior of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation for climate <span class="hlt">change</span> impact studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rana, Arun; Moradkhani, Hamid; Qin, Yueyue</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The multiple downscaled scenario products allow us to assess the uncertainty of the variations of precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the current and future periods. Probabilistic assessments of both climatic variables help better understand the interdependence of the two and thus, in turn, help in assessing the future with confidence. In the present study, we use ensemble of statistically downscaled precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from various models. The dataset used is multi-model ensemble of 10 global climate models (GCMs) downscaled product from CMIP5 daily dataset using the Bias Correction and Spatial Downscaling (BCSD) technique, generated at Portland State University. The multi-model ensemble of both precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is evaluated for dry and wet periods for 10 sub-basins across Columbia River Basin (CRB). Thereafter, copula is applied to establish the joint distribution of two variables on multi-model ensemble data. The joint distribution is then used to estimate the <span class="hlt">change</span> in trends of said variables in future, along with estimation of the probabilities of the given <span class="hlt">change</span>. The joint distribution trends vary, but certainly positive, for dry and wet periods in sub-basins of CRB. Dry season, generally, is indicating a higher positive <span class="hlt">change</span> in precipitation than <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (as compared to historical) across sub-basins with wet season inferring otherwise. Probabilities of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in future, as estimated from the joint distribution, indicate varied degrees and forms during dry season whereas the wet season is rather constant across all the sub-basins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7796635','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7796635"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, cortical evoked potential and pain behavior elicited by CO2 lasers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yen, C T; Huang, C H; Fu, S E</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The performance of a self-designed CO2 laser stimulator, TL#2, was evaluated against a commercial product, model DE20XL of the Direct Energy Inc. (Irvine). The major items evaluated were the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> of the irradiated surface and the electrophysiological and behavior <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the rat elicited by single laser pulse irradiation. Single shots of TL#2 produced a profile of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> similar to those of the DE20XL, as quantified by their maximal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, rate of rise (half time to maximum) and rate of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> drop. TL#2 and DE20XL elicited the same pain behaviors and the same pattern of cortical evoked potential in awake, behaving rats. TL#2 differed from the DE20XL in its laser beam shape and focal depth. The cross sectional energy profile of the TL#2 was a Gaussian shape, i.e., most intense at its center point, whereas that of the DE20XL with the FL20XL attachment had a shape of an inverted Gaussian, i.e., most intense in the periphery. Consequently, the peak energy of the center of the TL#2 laser beam grows rapidly with an increase in the pulse intensity. Caution must be taken not to use this machine at high intensity or for long duration less permanent damage should be produced on tested animal or human subject. In summary, TL#2 when used properly, should be a useful tool in the study of pain mechanism. PMID:7796635</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=48337&keyword=solar+AND+heat&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=71849266&CFTOKEN=75018593','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=48337&keyword=solar+AND+heat&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=71849266&CFTOKEN=75018593"><span id="translatedtitle">PROJECTED GLOBAL CLIMATE <span class="hlt">CHANGE</span> IMPACT ON WATER <span class="hlt">TEMPERATURE</span> IN FIVE NORTH CENTRAL U.S. STREAMS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The effect of projected global climate <span class="hlt">change</span> due to a doubling of atmospheric CO2 on water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in five streams in Minnesota was estimated using a deterministic heat transport model. he model calculates heat exchange between the atmosphere and the water and is driven by ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=236373&keyword=sharp&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=71472203&CFTOKEN=76688171','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=236373&keyword=sharp&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=71472203&CFTOKEN=76688171"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity in the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>As part of a larger study to examine the effect of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> (CC) on estuarine resources, we simulated the effect of rising sea level, alterations in river discharge, and increasing atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on water properties in estuaries along the Pacific coast of the Unit...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=216632','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=216632"><span id="translatedtitle">Detecting Root Rot Stress in Geranium by Measuring <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Leaf <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Our objective was to determine if <span class="hlt">changes</span> in geranium leaf <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, measured by infrared (IR) transducers aimed at the plant canopy or individual leaves, correlate with root infection by pathogenic water molds. This is the first report to our knowledge that addresses the use of environmental se...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJMPC..16..389S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJMPC..16..389S"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation and Experiment of Extinction or Adaptation of Biological Species after <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Changes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stauffer, D.; Arndt, H.</p> <p></p> <p>Can unicellular organisms survive a drastic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, and adapt to it after many generations? In simulations of the Penna model of biological aging, both extinction and adaptation were found for asexual and sexual reproduction as well as for parasex. These model investigations are the basis for the design of evolution experiments with heterotrophic flagellates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24593415','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24593415"><span id="translatedtitle">Note: surface acoustic wave resonators for detecting of small <span class="hlt">changes</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>: a thermometric "magnifying glass".</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kryshtal, R G; Medved, A V</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Application of surface acoustic wave resonators with a phase format of an output signal as the thermometric "magnifying glass" is suggested. Possibilities of monitoring and measuring of small <span class="hlt">changes</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from 0.001 K to 0.3 K of objects having thermal contact with the resonator's substrate are shown experimentally. PMID:24593415</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=model+AND+materials&pg=3&id=EJ1068332','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=model+AND+materials&pg=3&id=EJ1068332"><span id="translatedtitle">The Heat Is On! Using Particle Models to <span class="hlt">Change</span> Students' Conceptions of Heat and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hitt, Austin Manning; Townsend, J. Scott</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Elementary, middle-level, and high school science teachers commonly find their students have misconceptions about heat and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Unfortunately, student misconceptions are difficult to modify or <span class="hlt">change</span> and can prevent students from learning the accurate scientific explanation. In order to improve our students' understanding of heat and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=312634','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=312634"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> and potato: Responses to carbon dioxide, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and drought</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) ranks fifth worldwide in annual production among food crops. It is sensitive to warm <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (T) and water availability (W), two factors which are expected to be profoundly impacted by climate <span class="hlt">change</span>. Since 2003, over seven studies and 12 experiments have been co...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RScI...85b6115K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RScI...85b6115K"><span id="translatedtitle">Note: Surface acoustic wave resonators for detecting of small <span class="hlt">changes</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>: A thermometric "magnifying glass"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kryshtal, R. G.; Medved, A. V.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Application of surface acoustic wave resonators with a phase format of an output signal as the thermometric "magnifying glass" is suggested. Possibilities of monitoring and measuring of small <span class="hlt">changes</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from 0.001 K to 0.3 K of objects having thermal contact with the resonator's substrate are shown experimentally.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24348192','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24348192"><span id="translatedtitle">Air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in the southern Tarim River Basin, China, 1964-2011.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhao, Benfu; Xu, Jianhua; Chen, Zhongsheng; Bai, Ling; Li, Peng</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from 3 meteorological stations (Kashi, Ruoqiang, and Hotan) in the South of Tarim River Basin (STRB) during 1964-2011 were analyzed by Mann-Kendall test and correlation analysis. The results from Mann-Kendall test show that the surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (ST), 850 hPa <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T850), and 700 hPa <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T700) exhibited upward trends, while 300 hPa <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T300) revealed a downward trend. On the whole, the <span class="hlt">change</span> rate of ST, T850, T700, and T300 was 0.26~0.46°C/10a, 0.15~0.40°C/10a, 0.03~0.10°C/10a, and -0.38~-0.13°C/10a, respectively. For the periods, ST and T850 declined during 1964-1997 and then rose during 1998-2011. T700 declined during 1964-2005 and then rose during 2006-2011, while T300 rose from 1964 to 1970s and then declined. The results from correlation analysis show that T850 and T700 positively correlated with ST (P<0.01) at the all three stations and there was a negative correlation between T300 and ST at Hotan (P<0.1), while the correlation is not significant at Kashi and Ruoqiang. The results indicate that there were gradient differences in the response of upper-air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (UT) to ST <span class="hlt">change</span>. PMID:24348192</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRD..119.9376S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRD..119.9376S"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiative forcing and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> at Potsdam between 1893 and 2012</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stanhill, Gerald; Ahiman, Ori</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Radiative forcing in both the short and long-wave lengths reaching the Earth's surface accounted for more than 80% of the inter-annual variations in the mean yearly <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> measured at Potsdam, Germany, during the last 120 years. Three quarters of the increase in the long-wave flux was due to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the water content of the lower atmosphere; the remainder was attributed to increases in CO2 and other anthropogenic, radiatively active gases. Over the period radiative forcing in the short-wave flux slightly exceeded that in the long wave, but its effect on air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was much less as the climate sensitivity to atmospheric radiation, 0.187°C per W m-2, was three times greater than to short-wave global radiation. This anomalous finding, similar to that previously reported at two coastal sites, awaits explanation as does the complex interaction existing between radiative forcing and advection in determining <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24415314','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24415314"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Changes</span> in nitrogen resources with increases in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during production of mushroom compost.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Savoie, J M; Olivier, J M; Laborde, J</p> <p>1996-07-01</p> <p>The rise in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is an important event during the composting of lignocellulosic materials and has to be controlled and regulated to improve the biodegradation. Phase I mushroom composts were incubated under environmentally controlled conditions. When the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was pre-set at 65°C and then later at around 80°C, the microbial respiration and the biodegradations were hardly affected. However residual activities due to thermoresistant bacteria were still measured after 68 h at a constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 80°C. Significant <span class="hlt">changes</span> in nitrogen resources were observed: loss of nitrogen from microbial products, an increase in the proportion of nitrogen in non-hydrolysable and stable forms, and an increase in volatilisation of ammonia. These <span class="hlt">changes</span> were mainly due to physico-chemical mechanisms associated with disturbances in the structure of the microbial community. PMID:24415314</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm..tmp...52C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm..tmp...52C"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on ambulance dispatches and seasonal effect modification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheng, Jian; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhao, Desheng; Xie, Mingyu; Yang, Huihui; Wen, Liying; Li, Kesheng; Su, Hong</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Ambulance dispatch is a proxy of acute health outcomes, and growing epidemiological evidence documented its relation to extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events. Research, however, on short-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and ambulance dispatches is scarce. We aimed to investigate the effect of short-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on ambulance dispatches and potential modification by season. Daily data on ambulance dispatch and weather factors were collected in Huainan, a Chinese inland city from December 2011 through December 2013. A Poison generalized linear regression model combined with distributed lag nonlinear model was constructed to examine the association of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> between neighboring days (TCN) with ambulance dispatches. The effect modification by season was also examined. There were 48,700 ambulance attendances during the study period. A statistically significant association of TCN with ambulance dispatches was observed. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> rise between neighboring days (TCN > 0) was associated with elevated adverse risk of ambulance dispatches, and the effects appeared to be acute (lag0, on the current day) and could last for at least a week, while <span class="hlt">temperature</span> drop between neighboring days (TCN < 0) had a protective effect. For a 1 °C increase of TCN at lag0 and lag06 (on the 7-day moving average), the risk of ambulance dispatches increased by 2 % (95 % CI 1-3 %) and 7 (95 % CI 1-13 %), respectively. Extreme TCN increase (95th percentile, 3.3 °C vs. 0 °C) at lag0 and lag05 was accompanied by 6 (95 % CI 3-8 %) and 27 % (95 % CI 12-44 %) increase in ambulance dispatches. Ambulance dispatches were more vulnerable to extremely great <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise in summer and autumn. TCN was adopted for the first time to quantify the impact of short-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on ambulance dispatches. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> drop between neighboring days (TCN < 0) had a protective effect on ambulance dispatches, while <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise between neighboring days (TCN > 0) could acutely trigger the increase in ambulance dispatches, and TCN effect differs by season.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGP53B1133J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGP53B1133J"><span id="translatedtitle">Reversible <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Curie <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> of Natural Titanomagnetites: Occurrences and Experimental Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jackson, M. J.; Bowles, J. A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We have previously reported that natural Al- and Mg- bearing titanomagnetites from historical pyroclastic deposits of Mount St Helens (1980) and of Novarupta (1912) have Curie <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> Tc that reflect their emplacement <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and cooling histories, and moreover that the physical effects can be reproduced experimentally through controlled <span class="hlt">temperature</span> histories in the laboratory. Curie <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> increase systematically as a function of time during moderate-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> (300-425° C) annealing, and then decrease rapidly on exposure to higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (500-550° C), and we have interpreted this behavior to be the result of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent cation redistribution between the tetrahedral and octahedral sites of the inverse spinel structure, with no <span class="hlt">change</span> in chemical composition or crystal structure. Here we present new results showing similar behavior in a variety of other natural titanomagnetite-bearing extrusive and intrusive rocks, including andesitic and dacitic lithic clasts within the 1993 pyroclastic deposits of Lascar Volcano; a feeder dike from the ~15 Ma Columbia River Basalt Group; and a troctolite from the basal cumulate layered peridotite-troctolite-gabbro sequence of the 1.1 Ga Duluth Complex. For each sample, initial measurement of susceptibility as a function of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (k(T) prior to any laboratory annealing) shows a substantial irreversibility, with a Curie <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during heating that exceeds that during subsequent cooling by a large amount, in some cases approaching 200°, with little or no <span class="hlt">change</span> in the room-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> susceptibility. As was the case with the Mt St Helens and Novarupta samples, the diminished Curie <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at the end of a thermomagnetic experiment can be increased again by heating for hours, days or weeks at moderate <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, which we interpret in terms of nonconvergent cation ordering. Tc then decreases again during subsequent k(T) measurements, which we attribute to disordering of the cation distribution at higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and quenching of the more disordered state during cooling at the relatively rapid rate (~10° C/min) for that experiment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JBO....20g8001M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JBO....20g8001M"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of the <span class="hlt">change</span> in peak corneal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during excimer laser ablation in porcine eyes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mosquera, Samuel Arba; Verma, Shwetabh</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The objective is to characterize the impact of different ablation parameters on the thermal load during corneal refractive surgery by means of excimer laser ablation on porcine eyes. One hundred eleven ablations were performed in 105 porcine eyes. Each ablation was recorded using infrared thermography and analyzed mainly based on the two tested local frequencies (40 Hz, clinical local frequency; 1000 Hz, no local frequency). The <span class="hlt">change</span> in peak corneal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was analyzed with respect to varying ablation parameters [local frequency, system repetition rate, pulse energy, optical zone (OZ) size, and refractive correction]. Transepithelial ablations were also compared to intrastromal ablations. The average of the baseline <span class="hlt">temperature</span> across all eyes was 20.5°C±1.1 (17.7°C to 22.2°C). Average of the <span class="hlt">change</span> in peak corneal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for all clinical local frequency ablations was 5.8°C±0.8 (p=3.3E-53 to baseline), whereas the average was 9.0°C±1.5 for all no local frequency ablations (p=1.8E-35 to baseline, 1.6E-16 to clinical local frequency ablations). A logarithmic relationship was observed between the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in peak corneal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with increasing local frequency. For clinical local frequency, <span class="hlt">change</span> in peak corneal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was comparatively flat (r2=0.68 with a range of 1.5°C) with increasing system repetition rate and increased linearly with increasing OZ size (r2=0.95 with a range of 2.4°C). Local frequency controls help maintain safe corneal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase during excimer laser ablations. Transepithelial ablations induce higher thermal load compared to intrastromal ablations, indicating a need for stronger thermal controls in transepithelial refractive procedures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70159714','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70159714"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> impacts on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and magnitude of groundwater discharge from shallow, unconfined aquifers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kurylyk, Barret L.; MacQuarrie, Kerry T.B; Voss, Clifford I.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Cold groundwater discharge to streams and rivers can provide critical thermal refuge for threatened salmonids and other aquatic species during warm summer periods. Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> may influence groundwater <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and flow rates, which may in turn impact riverine ecosystems. This study evaluates the potential impact of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on the timing, magnitude, and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of groundwater discharge from small, unconfined aquifers that undergo seasonal freezing and thawing. Seven downscaled climate scenarios for 2046–2065 were utilized to drive surficial water and energy balance models (HELP3 and ForHyM2) to obtain future projections for daily ground surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and groundwater recharge. These future surface conditions were then applied as boundary conditions to drive subsurface simulations of variably saturated groundwater flow and energy transport. The subsurface simulations were performed with the U.S. Geological Survey finite element model SUTRA that was recently modified to include the dynamic freeze-thaw process. The SUTRA simulations indicate a potential rise in the magnitude (up to 34%) and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (up to 3.6°C) of groundwater discharge to the adjacent river during the summer months due to projected increases in air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation. The thermal response of groundwater to climate <span class="hlt">change</span> is shown to be strongly dependent on the aquifer dimensions. Thus, the simulations demonstrate that the thermal sensitivity of aquifers and baseflow-dominated streams to decadal climate <span class="hlt">change</span> may be more complex than previously thought. Furthermore, the results indicate that the probability of exceeding critical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thresholds within groundwater-sourced thermal refugia may significantly increase under the most extreme climate scenarios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22156246','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22156246"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying the health impacts of future <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ostro, Bart; Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology, Barcelona ; Rauch, Stephen; Green, Shelley</p> <p>2011-11-15</p> <p>Background: Several epidemiological studies demonstrate associations between high summer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and increased mortality. However, the quantitative implications of projected future increases in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have not been well characterized. Objective: This study quantifies the effects of projected future <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on both mortality and morbidity in California, including the potential effects of mitigation. Data and methods: We first estimated the association between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and mortality for populations close to weather stations throughout the state. These dose-response estimates for mortality were then combined with local measures of current and projected <span class="hlt">changes</span> in population, and projected <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, using a baseline of average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from 1961 to 1990, for the years 2025 and 2050. The latter were based on two greenhouse gas emissions scenarios (A2 and B1) developed for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span>. In addition, we assessed the impacts of future adaptation through use of air conditioners. Several sensitivity analyses were conducted to determine the likely range of estimates. Results: These analyses indicate that for the high emissions scenario, the central estimate of annual premature mortality ranges from 2100 to 4300 for the year 2025 and from 6700 to 11,300 for 2050. The highest estimates are from the models that use age-specific dose-response functions, while the low estimates are from the models that adjust for ozone. Estimates using the low emissions scenario are roughly half of these estimates. Mitigation based on our estimates of the effects of 10% and 20% increase in air conditioner use would generate reductions of 16% and 33% in the years 2025 and 2050, respectively. Conclusion: Our estimates suggest significant public health impacts associated with future projected increases in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26266707','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26266707"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Changes</span> in the Microenvironment of Nitroxide Radicals around the Glass Transition <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bordignon, Enrica; Nalepa, Anna I; Savitsky, Anton; Braun, Lukas; Jeschke, Gunnar</p> <p>2015-10-29</p> <p>For structural characterization by pulsed EPR methods, spin-labeled macromolecules are routinely studied at cryogenic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The equilibration of the conformational ensemble during shock-freezing occurs to a good approximation at the glass transition <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Tg). In this work, we used X-band power saturation continuous wave (cw) EPR to obtain information on the glass transition <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the microenvironment of nitroxide radicals in solvents or bound to different sites in proteins. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the saturation curve of nitroxide probes in pure glycerol or ortho-terphenyl showed detectable transitions at the respective Tg values, with the latter solvent characterized by a sharper <span class="hlt">change</span> of the saturation properties, according to its higher fragility. In contrast, nitroxide probes in a glycerol/water mixture showed a discontinuity in the saturation properties close to the expected glass transition <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, which made the determination of Tg complicated. Low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> W-band cw EPR and W-band ELDOR-detected NMR experiments demonstrated that the discontinuity is due to local rearrangements of H-bonds between water molecules and the nitroxide reporter group. The <span class="hlt">change</span> in the network of H-bonds formed between the nitroxide and water molecules that occurs around Tg was found to be site-dependent in spin-labeled proteins. This effect can therefore be modulated by neighboring residues with different steric hindrances and/or charge distributions and possibly by the glycerol enrichment on protein surfaces. In conclusion, if the thermal history of the sample is carefully reproduced, the nitroxide probe is extremely sensitive in reporting site-specific <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the H-bonding to water molecules close to Tg and local glass transition <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in spin-labeled macromolecules. PMID:26266707</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21I..05L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC21I..05L"><span id="translatedtitle">Short-tailed <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Distributions over North America and Implications for Future <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Extremes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Loikith, P.; Neelin, J. D.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Probability distributions of daily surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> can exhibit marked departures from Gaussianity in the tails of the distribution. Locations exhibiting shorter-than-Gaussian tails are prone to experiencing a relatively greater <span class="hlt">change</span> in the frequency of extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exceedances, under a simple shift in the distribution towards warmer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, than are locations with Gaussian or long tails. Under such conditions, places with a short warm tail would see a larger increase in extreme warm events and places with a short cold tail would see a larger decrease in extreme cold events than places with longer tails. The potential impact of this effect is quantified using gridded observations over North America by uniformly shifting the distribution at each grid cell by one standard deviation and assessing the <span class="hlt">change</span> in frequency of extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> threshold exceedances relative to the current climate. In winter, portions of the Pacific Coast of Canada and southern Alaska, where warm tails are notably short, <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> that are exceeded 5% of the time in the current climate occur up to 60% of the time under such a shift. In summer, much of Mexico and the central and eastern United States exhibit short warm tails and also experience large increases in the frequency of warm exceedances. <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> that are below the 5th percentile of the distribution in the current climate no longer occur over central and eastern Canada and northern Alaska in the winter and throughout much of the Pacific Northwest in summer, due to short cold tails there. While actual <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may be less uniform across the distribution, these results demonstrate how important it is for climate models to be able to reproduce observed distribution tails and the key physical and dynamical processes that govern distribution shape.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H32A..04M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H32A..04M"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Electricity Sector Vulnerabilities and Costs Associated with Water <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> Under Scenarios of Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Macknick, J.; Miara, A.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Newmark, R. L.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The reliability of the power sector is highly vulnerable to variability in the availability and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of water resources, including those that might result from potential climatic <span class="hlt">changes</span> or from competition from other users. In the past decade, power plants throughout the United States have had to shut down or curtail generation due to a lack of available water or from elevated water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. These disruptions in power plant performance can have negative impacts on energy security and can be costly to address. Analysis of water-related vulnerabilities requires modeling capabilities with high spatial and temporal resolution. This research provides an innovative approach to energy-water modeling by evaluating the costs and reliability of a power sector region under policy and climate <span class="hlt">change</span> scenarios that affect water resource availability and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. This work utilizes results from a spatially distributed river water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> model coupled with a thermoelectric power plant model to provide inputs into an electricity production cost model that operates on a high spatial and temporal resolution. The regional transmission organization ISO-New England, which includes six New England states and over 32 Gigawatts of power capacity, is utilized as a case study. Hydrological data and power plant operations are analyzed over an eleven year period from 2000-2010 under four scenarios that include climate impacts on water resources and air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> as well as strict interpretations of regulations that can affect power plant operations due to elevated water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Results of these model linkages show how the power sector's reliability and economic performance can be affected by <span class="hlt">changes</span> in water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and water availability. The effective reliability and capacity value of thermal electric generators are quantified and discussed in the context of current as well as potential future water resource characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.8938E..0RS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.8938E..0RS"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in tissue-mimicking fluid phantoms using optical coherence tomography and envelope statistics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seevaratnam, Subaagari; Bains, Amitpal; Farid, Mashal; Farhat, Golnaz; Kolios, Michael; Standish, Beau A.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Several therapies make use of a hypo or hyperthermia tissue environment to induce cell death in both benign and malignant tumors. Current progression in optical technologies, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) sensors, could potentially provide viable information to explore the response of tissue when these <span class="hlt">temperature</span> induced treatments are implemented. Studies were conducted with tissue-mimicking phantoms fabricated with polystyrene microspheres and glycerin to observe any relationship between the pixel intensities of the OCT images and their concurring envelope statistics. OCT images of the monitored region of interest were taken at 5°C intervals from 25°C to 60°C. Four probability distribution functions (PDF), Rician, Rayleigh, Normal and Generalized Gamma were used to investigate OCT envelope statistics as the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was altered. Using the Kolmogrov-Smirnov goodness of fit test, it was determined that the Generalized Gamma was the best fit. The scaling and shape parameters associated with the Generalized Gamma PDF were used to quantify the OCT envelope data to identify <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> within the tissue mimicking media. The Generalized Gamma PDF was verified as the best fit based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test correlation factor being less than 0.05 (p = 0.0158). In addition to the PDFs, the OCT speckle decorrelation at varying <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were also measured and quantified to detect the microspheres response to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Initial results are very promising with future research focused on extending this methodology to monitor relative <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in tissue during therapy. Clinical utility can be achieved if these optical techniques are used to evaluate the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-derived biological response of tissue and provide a feedback mechanism to improve procedural efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Natur.522..465H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015Natur.522..465H"><span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in atmospheric circulation patterns to extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Horton, Daniel E.; Johnson, Nathaniel C.; Singh, Deepti; Swain, Daniel L.; Rajaratnam, Bala; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Surface weather conditions are closely governed by the large-scale circulation of the Earth's atmosphere. Recent increases in the occurrence of some extreme weather phenomena have led to multiple mechanistic hypotheses linking <span class="hlt">changes</span> in atmospheric circulation to increasing probability of extreme events. However, observed evidence of long-term <span class="hlt">change</span> in atmospheric circulation remains inconclusive. Here we identify statistically significant trends in the occurrence of atmospheric circulation patterns, which partially explain observed trends in surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes over seven mid-latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Using self-organizing map cluster analysis, we detect robust circulation pattern trends in a subset of these regions during both the satellite observation era (1979-2013) and the recent period of rapid Arctic sea-ice decline (1990-2013). Particularly substantial influences include the contribution of increasing trends in anticyclonic circulations to summer and autumn hot extremes over portions of Eurasia and North America, and the contribution of increasing trends in northerly flow to winter cold extremes over central Asia. Our results indicate that although a substantial portion of the observed <span class="hlt">change</span> in extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> occurrence has resulted from regional- and global-scale thermodynamic <span class="hlt">changes</span>, the risk of extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over some regions has also been altered by recent <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the frequency, persistence and maximum duration of regional circulation patterns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26108856','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi