Science.gov

Sample records for dangerous temperature change

  1. Avoiding dangerous climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Hans Joachim Schellnhuber; Wolfgang Cramer; Nebojsa Nakicenovic; Tom Wigley; Gary Yohe

    2006-02-15

    In 2005 the UK Government hosted the Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change conference to take an in-depth look at the scientific issues associated with climate change. This volume presents the most recent findings from the leading international scientists that attended the conference. The topics addressed include critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, socioeconomic costs and benefits of emissions pathways, and technological options for meeting different stabilisation levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Contents are: Foreword from Prime Minister Tony Blair; Introduction from Rajendra Pachauri, Chairman of the IPCC; followed by 41 papers arranged in seven sections entitled: Key Vulnerabilities of the Climate System and Critical Thresholds; General Perspectives on Dangerous Impacts; Key Vulnerabilities for Ecosystems and Biodiversity; Socio-Economic Effects; Regional Perspectives; Emission Pathways; and Technological Options. Four papers have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

  2. American risk perceptions: is climate change dangerous?

    PubMed

    Leiserowitz, Anthony A

    2005-12-01

    Public risk perceptions can fundamentally compel or constrain political, economic, and social action to address particular risks. Public support or opposition to climate policies (e.g., treaties, regulations, taxes, subsidies) will be greatly influenced by public perceptions of the risks and dangers posed by global climate change. This article describes results from a national study (2003) that examined the risk perceptions and connotative meanings of global warming in the American mind and found that Americans perceived climate change as a moderate risk that will predominantly impact geographically and temporally distant people and places. This research also identified several distinct interpretive communities, including naysayers and alarmists, with widely divergent perceptions of climate change risks. Thus, "dangerous" climate change is a concept contested not only among scientists and policymakers, but among the American public as well. PMID:16506973

  3. Beyond 'dangerous' climate change: emission scenarios for a new world.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kevin; Bows, Alice

    2011-01-13

    The Copenhagen Accord reiterates the international community's commitment to 'hold the increase in global temperature below 2 degrees Celsius'. Yet its preferred focus on global emission peak dates and longer-term reduction targets, without recourse to cumulative emission budgets, belies seriously the scale and scope of mitigation necessary to meet such a commitment. Moreover, the pivotal importance of emissions from non-Annex 1 nations in shaping available space for Annex 1 emission pathways received, and continues to receive, little attention. Building on previous studies, this paper uses a cumulative emissions framing, broken down to Annex 1 and non-Annex 1 nations, to understand the implications of rapid emission growth in nations such as China and India, for mitigation rates elsewhere. The analysis suggests that despite high-level statements to the contrary, there is now little to no chance of maintaining the global mean surface temperature at or below 2°C. Moreover, the impacts associated with 2°C have been revised upwards, sufficiently so that 2°C now more appropriately represents the threshold between 'dangerous' and 'extremely dangerous' climate change. Ultimately, the science of climate change allied with the emission scenarios for Annex 1 and non-Annex 1 nations suggests a radically different framing of the mitigation and adaptation challenge from that accompanying many other analyses, particularly those directly informing policy. PMID:21115511

  4. Probabilistic assessment of "dangerous" climate change and emissions pathways.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Stephen H; Mastrandrea, Michael D

    2005-11-01

    Climate policy decisions driving future greenhouse gas mitigation efforts will strongly influence the success of compliance with Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the prevention of "dangerous anthropogenic interference (DAI) with the climate system." However, success will be measured in very different ways by different stakeholders, suggesting a spectrum of possible definitions for DAI. The likelihood of avoiding a given threshold for DAI depends in part on uncertainty in the climate system, notably, the range of uncertainty in climate sensitivity. We combine a set of probabilistic global average temperature metrics for DAI with probability distributions of future climate change produced from a combination of several published climate sensitivity distributions and a range of proposed concentration stabilization profiles differing in both stabilization level and approach trajectory, including overshoot profiles. These analyses present a "likelihood framework" to differentiate future emissions pathways with regard to their potential for preventing DAI. Our analysis of overshoot profiles in comparison with non-overshoot profiles demonstrates that overshoot of a given stabilization target can significantly increase the likelihood of exceeding "dangerous" climate impact thresholds, even though equilibrium warming in our model is identical for non-overshoot concentration stabilization profiles having the same target. PMID:16150711

  5. Our contaminated atmosphere: The danger of climate change, phases 1 and 2. [effect of atmospheric particulate matter on surface temperature and earth's radiation budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimorelli, A. J.; House, F. B.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of increased concentrations of atmospheric particulate matter on average surface temperature and on the components of the earth's radiation budget are studied. An atmospheric model which couples particulate loading to surface temperature and to changes in the earth's radiation budget was used. A determination of the feasibility of using satellites to monitor the effect of increased atmospheric particulate concentrations is performed. It was found that: (1) a change in man-made particulate loading of a factor of 4 is sufficient to initiate an ice age; (2) variations in the global and hemispheric weighted averages of surface temperature, reflected radiant fluz and emitted radiant flux are nonlinear functions of particulate loading; and (3) a black satellite sphere meets the requirement of night time measurement sensitivity, but not the required day time sensitivity. A nonblack, spherical radiometer whose external optical properties are sensitive to either the reflected radiant fluz or the emitted radiant flux meets the observational sensitivity requirements.

  6. Global climate change: The dangers are real

    SciTech Connect

    Lashof, D.A.

    1994-02-01

    A series of carefully reviewed scientific assessments over the past decade have all concluded that substantial global warming is likely to occur in the absence of policies to limit emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. The most recent report of the National Academy of Sciences concluded that [open quotes]despite the great uncertainties, greenhouse warming is a potential threat sufficient to justify action now.[close quotes] Following this advice, the Clinton Administrations's Climate Change Action Plan released last October sets forth a plan designed to return greenhouse gas emissions to their 1990 levels by the year 2000. In this article the author attempts to set out the fundamental understanding of the global climate system that has been synthesized in scientific assessments over the past 15 years, starting with the 1979 report by the National Academy of Sciences, and continuing through the reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1990 and 1992. The author makes reference to papers published in the refereed journals only when needed to supplement these assessments, or to respond directly to challenges by the skeptics. Decision makers should, however, read the original reports for themselves rather than rely on this or any other secondary source of information.

  7. On Dangerous Anthropogenic Interference and Climate Change Risk (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, M. E.

    2009-12-01

    The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) commits signatory nations (which includes all major nations including the United States) to stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations at levels short of Dangerous Anthropogenic Interference ( DAI) with the climate. To properly define DAI, one must take into account issues that are not only scientific, but, economic, political, and ethical in nature. Defining DAI is furthermore complicated by the inter-generational and regionally-disaggregated nature of the risks associated with climate change. In this talk, I will explore the nature of anthropogenic climate change risks and the notion of DAI.

  8. Communicating the Need to Avoid Dangerous Climate Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Kharecha, P. A.; Sato, M.

    2013-12-01

    We describe our past, ongoing and planned efforts to communicate the need for humanity to avoid dangerous climate change. Communications with governments have been largely fruitless, with substantial indication that governments are more disposed to be responsive to financial interests rather than scientific information. Communication with the public is essential to create pressure on governments for appropriate policies, but it is made difficult by the massive resources of the fossil fuel industry. Communication with influential individuals can be effective in reaching both governments and the public.

  9. Setting cumulative emissions targets to reduce the risk of dangerous climate change

    PubMed Central

    Zickfeld, Kirsten; Eby, Michael; Matthews, H. Damon; Weaver, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Avoiding dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system requires stabilization of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and substantial reductions in anthropogenic emissions. Here, we present an inverse approach to coupled climate-carbon cycle modeling, which allows us to estimate the probability that any given level of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions will exceed specified long-term global mean temperature targets for dangerous anthropogenic interference, taking into consideration uncertainties in climate sensitivity and the carbon cycle response to climate change. We show that to stabilize global mean temperature increase at 2 C above preindustrial levels with a probability of at least 0.66, cumulative CO2 emissions from 2000 to 2500 must not exceed a median estimate of 590 petagrams of carbon (PgC) (range, 200 to 950 PgC). If the 2 C temperature stabilization target is to be met with a probability of at least 0.9, median total allowable CO2 emissions are 170 PgC (range, ?220 to 700 PgC). Furthermore, these estimates of cumulative CO2 emissions, compatible with a specified temperature stabilization target, are independent of the path taken to stabilization. Our analysis therefore supports an international policy framework aimed at avoiding dangerous anthropogenic interference formulated on the basis of total allowable greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:19706489

  10. Global temperature change.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto; Lo, Ken; Lea, David W; Medina-Elizade, Martin

    2006-09-26

    Global surface temperature has increased approximately 0.2 degrees C per decade in the past 30 years, similar to the warming rate predicted in the 1980s in initial global climate model simulations with transient greenhouse gas changes. Warming is larger in the Western Equatorial Pacific than in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific over the past century, and we suggest that the increased West-East temperature gradient may have increased the likelihood of strong El Nios, such as those of 1983 and 1998. Comparison of measured sea surface temperatures in the Western Pacific with paleoclimate data suggests that this critical ocean region, and probably the planet as a whole, is approximately as warm now as at the Holocene maximum and within approximately 1 degrees C of the maximum temperature of the past million years. We conclude that global warming of more than approximately 1 degrees C, relative to 2000, will constitute "dangerous" climate change as judged from likely effects on sea level and extermination of species. PMID:17001018

  11. The 2003 heat wave in France: dangerous climate change here and now.

    PubMed

    Poumadre, Marc; Mays, Claire; Le Mer, Sophie; Blong, Russell

    2005-12-01

    In an analysis of the French episode of heat wave in 2003, this article highlights how heat wave dangers result from the intricate association of natural and social factors. Unusually high temperatures, as well as socioeconomic vulnerability, along with social attenuation of hazards, in a general context where the anthropogenic contribution to climate change is becoming more plausible, led to an excess of 14,947 deaths in France, between August 4 and 18, 2003. The greatest increase in mortality was due to causes directly attributable to heat: dehydration, hyperthermia, heat stroke. In addition to age and gender, combinatorial factors included preexisting disease, medication, urban residence, isolation, poverty, and, probably, air pollution. Although diversely impacted or reported, many parts of Europe suffered human and other losses, such as farming and forestry through drought and fires. Summer 2003 was the hottest in Europe since 1500, very likely due in part to anthropogenic climate change. The French experience confirms research establishing that heat waves are a major mortal risk, number one among so-called natural hazards in postindustrial societies. Yet France had no policy in place, as if dangerous climate were restricted to a distant or uncertain future of climate change, or to preindustrial countries. We analyze the heat wave's profile as a strongly attenuated risk in the French context, as well as the causes and the effects of its sudden shift into amplification. Research and preparedness needs are highlighted. PMID:16506977

  12. Climate-society feedbacks and the avoidance of dangerous climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, A. J.; Leedal, D. T.; Hewitt, C. N.

    2012-09-01

    The growth in anthropogenic CO2 emissions experienced since the onset of the Industrial Revolution is the most important disturbance operating on the Earth's climate system. To avoid dangerous climate change, future greenhouse-gas emissions will have to deviate from business-as-usual trajectories. This implies that feedback links need to exist between climate change and societal actions. Here, we show that, consciously or otherwise, these feedbacks can be represented by linking global mean temperature change to the growth dynamics of CO2 emissions. We show that the global growth of new renewable sources of energy post-1990 represents a climate-society feedback of ~0.25%yr-1 per degree increase in global mean temperature. We also show that to fulfil the outcomes negotiated in Durban in 2011, society will have to become ~ 50 times more responsive to global mean temperature change than it has been since 1990. If global energy use continues to grow as it has done historically then this would result in amplification of the long-term endogenous rate of decarbonization from -0.6%yr-1 to ~-13%yr-1. It is apparent that modest levels of feedback sensitivity pay large dividends in avoiding climate change but that the marginal return on this effort diminishes rapidly as the required feedback strength increases.

  13. Changing Horses in Midstream: The Dangers of Unplanned Head Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinby, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Quick leadership transitions may succeed in other industries, but they don't usually work in the "business of relationships" we call school. Boards that respond to a solvable problem by firing the head may believe that action is necessary and good for the school. In truth, these abrupt changes almost always hurt schools, with devastating

  14. Dangerous news: media decision making about climate change risk.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joe

    2005-12-01

    This article explores the role of broadcast news media decision makers in shaping public understanding and debate of climate change risks. It locates the media within a "tangled web" of communication and debate between sources, media, and publics. The article draws on new qualitative research in the British context. The main body of it focuses on media source strategies, on climate change storytelling in news, and the "myth of detachment" sustained by many news decision makers. The empirical evidence, gathered between 1997 and 2004, is derived primarily from recordings and notes drawn from a series of seminars that has brought together equal numbers of BBC news and television decision makers and environment/development specialists. The seminars have created a rare space for extended dialogue between media and specialist perspectives on the communication of complex climate change science and policy. While the article acknowledges the distinctive nature of the BBC as a public sector broadcaster, the evidence confirms and extends current understanding of the career of climate change within the media more broadly. The working group discussions have explored issues arising out of how stories are sourced and, in the context of competitive and time-pressured newsrooms, shaped and presented in short news pieces. Particularly significant is the disjuncture between ways of talking about uncertainty within science and policy discourse and media constructions of objectivity, truth, and balance. The article concludes with a summary of developments in media culture, technology, and practice that are creating opportunities for enhanced public understanding and debate of climate change risks. It also indicates the need for science and policy communities to be more active critics and sources of news. PMID:16506976

  15. Temporal variations and change in forest fire danger in Europe for 1960-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venlinen, A.; Korhonen, N.; Hyvrinen, O.; Koutsias, N.; Xystrakis, F.; Urbieta, I. R.; Moreno, J. M.

    2014-06-01

    Understanding how fire weather danger indices changed in the past and how such changes affected forest fire activity is important in a changing climate. We used the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI), calculated from two reanalysis data sets, ERA-40 and ERA Interim, to examine the temporal variation of forest fire danger in Europe in 1960-2012. Additionally, we used national forest fire statistics from Greece, Spain and Finland to examine the relationship between fire danger and fires. There is no obvious trend in fire danger for the time period covered by ERA-40 (1960-1999), whereas for the period 1980-2012 covered by ERA Interim, the mean FWI shows an increasing trend for southern and eastern Europe which is significant at the 99% confidence level. The cross correlations calculated at the national level in Greece, Spain and Finland between total area burned and mean FWI of the current season is of the order of 0.6, demonstrating the extent to which the current fire-season weather can explain forest fires. To summarize, fire risk is multifaceted, and while climate is a major determinant, other factors can contribute to it, either positively or negatively.

  16. Enzymatic temperature change indicator

    DOEpatents

    Klibanov, Alexander M.; Dordick, Jonathan S.

    1989-01-21

    A temperature change indicator is described which is composed of an enzyme and a substrate for that enzyme suspended in a solid organic solvent or mixture of solvents as a support medium. The organic solvent or solvents are chosen so as to melt at a specific temperature or in a specific temperature range. When the temperature of the indicator is elevated above the chosen, or critical temperature, the solid organic solvent support will melt, and the enzymatic reaction will occur, producing a visually detectable product which is stable to further temperature variation.

  17. Global Surface Temperature Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; Ruedy, R.; Sato, M.; Lo, K.

    2010-12-01

    We update the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) analysis of global surface temperature change, compare alternative analyses, and address questions about perception and reality of global warming. Satellite-observed night lights are used to identify measurement stations located in extreme darkness and adjust temperature trends of urban and periurban stations for nonclimatic factors, verifying that urban effects on analyzed global change are small. Because the GISS analysis combines available sea surface temperature records with meteorological station measurements, we test alternative choices for the ocean data, showing that global temperature change is sensitive to estimated temperature change in polar regions where observations are limited. We use simple 12 month (and n 12) running means to improve the information content in our temperature graphs. Contrary to a popular misconception, the rate of warming has not declined. Global temperature is rising as fast in the past decade as in the prior 2 decades, despite year-to-year fluctuations associated with the El Nio-La Nia cycle of tropical ocean temperature. Record high global 12 month running mean temperature for the period with instrumental data was reached in 2010.

  18. Assessing dangerous climate change through an update of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) "reasons for concern".

    PubMed

    Smith, Joel B; Schneider, Stephen H; Oppenheimer, Michael; Yohe, Gary W; Hare, William; Mastrandrea, Michael D; Patwardhan, Anand; Burton, Ian; Corfee-Morlot, Jan; Magadza, Chris H D; Fssel, Hans-Martin; Pittock, A Barrie; Rahman, Atiq; Suarez, Avelino; van Ypersele, Jean-Pascal

    2009-03-17

    Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change [United Nations (1992) http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/conveng.pdf. Accessed February 9, 2009] commits signatory nations to stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that "would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference (DAI) with the climate system." In an effort to provide some insight into impacts of climate change that might be considered DAI, authors of the Third Assessment Report (TAR) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) identified 5 "reasons for concern" (RFCs). Relationships between various impacts reflected in each RFC and increases in global mean temperature (GMT) were portrayed in what has come to be called the "burning embers diagram." In presenting the "embers" in the TAR, IPCC authors did not assess whether any single RFC was more important than any other; nor did they conclude what level of impacts or what atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases would constitute DAI, a value judgment that would be policy prescriptive. Here, we describe revisions of the sensitivities of the RFCs to increases in GMT and a more thorough understanding of the concept of vulnerability that has evolved over the past 8 years. This is based on our expert judgment about new findings in the growing literature since the publication of the TAR in 2001, including literature that was assessed in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), as well as additional research published since AR4. Compared with results reported in the TAR, smaller increases in GMT are now estimated to lead to significant or substantial consequences in the framework of the 5 "reasons for concern." PMID:19251662

  19. Assessing dangerous climate change through an update of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) “reasons for concern”

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joel B.; Schneider, Stephen H.; Oppenheimer, Michael; Yohe, Gary W.; Hare, William; Mastrandrea, Michael D.; Patwardhan, Anand; Burton, Ian; Corfee-Morlot, Jan; Magadza, Chris H. D.; Füssel, Hans-Martin; Pittock, A. Barrie; Rahman, Atiq; Suarez, Avelino; van Ypersele, Jean-Pascal

    2009-01-01

    Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change [United Nations (1992) http://unfccc.int/resource/docs/convkp/conveng.pdf. Accessed February 9, 2009] commits signatory nations to stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that “would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference (DAI) with the climate system.” In an effort to provide some insight into impacts of climate change that might be considered DAI, authors of the Third Assessment Report (TAR) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) identified 5 “reasons for concern” (RFCs). Relationships between various impacts reflected in each RFC and increases in global mean temperature (GMT) were portrayed in what has come to be called the “burning embers diagram.” In presenting the “embers” in the TAR, IPCC authors did not assess whether any single RFC was more important than any other; nor did they conclude what level of impacts or what atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases would constitute DAI, a value judgment that would be policy prescriptive. Here, we describe revisions of the sensitivities of the RFCs to increases in GMT and a more thorough understanding of the concept of vulnerability that has evolved over the past 8 years. This is based on our expert judgment about new findings in the growing literature since the publication of the TAR in 2001, including literature that was assessed in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), as well as additional research published since AR4. Compared with results reported in the TAR, smaller increases in GMT are now estimated to lead to significant or substantial consequences in the framework of the 5 “reasons for concern.” PMID:19251662

  20. Dangerous drivers foster social dilemma structures hidden behind a traffic flow with lane changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Jun; Fujiki, Takuya; Wang, Zhen; Hagishima, Aya; Ikegaya, Naoki

    2014-11-01

    Motivated by the fact that there are quite a few ill-mannered drivers who disregard traffic rules concerning lane-changing and maximum speed, we investigated an interesting question: whether or not social dilemma structures can be formed from a frequent dangerous lane-changing attitude in a typical traffic flow without any explicit bottlenecks. In our model system, two classes of driver-agents coexist: C agents (cooperative strategy) always keep to traffic regulations with respect to lane-changing and speed, while D agents (defective strategy) disregard them to move ahead. In relatively high-density flows, such as the metastable and high-density phases, we found structures that correspond to either n-person Prisoner's Dilemma (n-PD) games or to quasi-PD games. In these situations, existing ill-mannered drivers create heavy traffic jams that reduce social efficiency.

  1. Estimating live fuel status by drought indices: an approach for assessing local impact of climate change on fire danger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellizzaro, Grazia; Dubrovsky, Martin; Bortolu, Sara; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Bachisio; Masia, Pierpaolo; Duce, Pierpaolo

    2014-05-01

    Mediterranean shrubs are an important component of both Mediterranean vegetation communities and understorey vegetation. They also constitute the surface fuels primarily responsible for the ignition and the spread of wildland fires in Mediterranean forests. Although fire spread and behaviour are dependent on several factors, the water content of live fuel plays an important role in determining fire occurrence and spread, especially in the Mediterranean shrubland, where live fuel is often the main component of the available fuel which catches fire. According to projections on future climate, an increase in risk of summer droughts is likely to take place in Southern Europe. More prolonged drought seasons induced by climatic changes are likely to influence general flammability characteristics of fuel, affecting load distribution in vegetation strata, floristic composition, and live and dead fuel ratio. In addition, variations in precipitation and mean temperature could directly affect fuel water status, and consequently flammability, and length of critical periods of high ignition danger for Mediterranean ecosystems. The main aim of this work was to propose a methodology for evaluating possible impacts of future climate change on moisture dynamic and length of fire danger period at local scale. Specific objectives were: i) evaluating performances of meteorological drought indices in describing seasonal pattern of live fuel moisture content (LFMC), and ii) simulating the potential impacts of future climate changes on the duration of fire danger period. Measurements of LFMC seasonal pattern of three Mediterranean shrub species were performed in North Western Sardinia (Italy) for 8 years. Seasonal patterns of LFMC were compared with the Drought Code of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index and the Keetch-Byram Drought Index. Analysis of frequency distribution and cumulative distribution curves were carried out in order to evaluate performance of codes and to identify threshold values of indices useful to determine the end of the potential fire season due to fuel status. A weather generator linked to climate change scenarios derived from 17 available General Circulation Models (GCMs) was used to produce synthetic weather series, representing present and future climates, for four selected sites located in North Sardinia, Italy. Finally, impacts of future climate change on fire season length at local scale were simulated. Results confirmed that the projected climate scenarios over the Mediterranean area will determine an overall increase of the fire season length.

  2. Potential forest fire danger over Northern Eurasia: Changes during the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel Ya.; Sherstyukov, Boris G.; Razuvaev, Vyacheslav N.; Knight, Richard W.; Enloe, Jesse G.; Stroumentova, Nina S.; Whitfield, Paul H.; Frland, Eirik; Hannsen-Bauer, Inger; Tuomenvirta, Heikki; Aleksandersson, Hans; Mescherskaya, Anna V.; Karl, Thomas R.

    2007-04-01

    Significant climatic changes over Northern Eurasia during the 20th century have been reflected in numerous variables of economic, social, and ecological interest, including the natural frequency of forest fires. For the former USSR, we are now using the Global Daily Climatology Network and a new Global Synoptic Data Network archive, GSDN, created jointly by U.S. National Climatic Data Center and Russian Research Institute for Hydrometeorological Information. Data from these archives (approximately 1500 of them having sufficiently long meteorological time series suitable for participation in our analyses) are employed to estimate systematic changes in indices used in the United States and Russia to assess potential forest fire danger. We use four indices: (1) Keetch-Byram Drought Index, (KBDI; this index was developed and widely used in the United States); (2) Nesterov, (3) Modified Nesterov, and (4) Zhdanko Indices (these indices were developed and widely used in Russia). Analyses show that after calibration, time series of the days with increased potential forest fire danger constructed using each of these three indices (a) are well correlated and (b) deliver similar conclusions about systematic changes in the weather conditions conducive to forest fires. Specifically, over the Eastern half of Northern Eurasia (Siberia and the Russian Far East) statistically significant increases in indices that characterize the weather conditions conducive to forest fires were found. These areas coincide with the areas of most significant warming during the past several decades south of the Arctic Circle. West of the Ural Mountains, the same indices show a steady decrease in the frequency of "dry weather summer days" during the past 60 yr. This study is corroborated with available statistics of forest fires and with observed changes in drought statistics in agricultural regions of Northern Eurasia.

  3. Global temperature change

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto; Lo, Ken; Lea, David W.; Medina-Elizade, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Global surface temperature has increased ≈0.2°C per decade in the past 30 years, similar to the warming rate predicted in the 1980s in initial global climate model simulations with transient greenhouse gas changes. Warming is larger in the Western Equatorial Pacific than in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific over the past century, and we suggest that the increased West–East temperature gradient may have increased the likelihood of strong El Niños, such as those of 1983 and 1998. Comparison of measured sea surface temperatures in the Western Pacific with paleoclimate data suggests that this critical ocean region, and probably the planet as a whole, is approximately as warm now as at the Holocene maximum and within ≈1°C of the maximum temperature of the past million years. We conclude that global warming of more than ≈1°C, relative to 2000, will constitute “dangerous” climate change as judged from likely effects on sea level and extermination of species. PMID:17001018

  4. Dangers of predicting bird species distributions in response to land-cover changes.

    PubMed

    Vallecillo, Sara; Brotons, Lluís; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2009-03-01

    Land-cover changes from the last decades are leading to important declines in habitat quality, giving rise to changes in bird species distribution all over the world. However, land-cover changes result from a variety of different processes, and it is not clear how effective species distribution models are in capturing species responses to these changes. In this study, we evaluated our ability to predict the effects of land-cover changes on shifts in species distributions at large spatial and temporal scales using Mediterranean landscapes and early-successional, open-habitat birds as study models. Based on presence-absence data from the second Catalan Breeding Bird Atlas (1999-2002), we applied six different species distribution modeling techniques for 10 bird species using climate, topographic, and land-cover data as predictor variables. Then we back-projected the models on land-cover conditions from 1980 to evaluate the projections with field observation data from the first Catalan Breeding Bird Atlas (1975-1983). Finally, we assessed if, in addition to changes in habitat suitability resulting from land-cover shifts, descriptors of fire impact contributed to further explain species distribution dynamics: colonization and local extinction. We developed accurate model projections of current and past global patterns of species distribution, but our ability to predict species distribution dynamics was reduced. Colonization dynamics were generally more strongly related to fire descriptors than to changes in overall habitat suitability derived from land-cover changes. Our results warn of the dangers of projecting species distribution models onto future conditions if processes behind species distribution dynamics are not explicitly included. Consideration of ecologically meaningful processes for species (i.e., fire disturbance) when modeling species' distribution might contribute to a better explanation of species' colonization dynamics. PMID:19323209

  5. Change points of global temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Niamh; Rahmstorf, Stefan; Parnell, Andrew C.

    2015-08-01

    We aim to address the question of whether or not there is a significant recent hiatus, pause or slowdown of global temperature rise. Using a statistical technique known as change point (CP) analysis we identify the changes in four global temperature records and estimate the rates of temperature rise before and after these changes occur. For each record the results indicate that three CPs are enough to accurately capture the variability in the data with no evidence of any detectable change in the global warming trend since ?1970. We conclude that the term hiatus or pause cannot be statistically justified.

  6. Dangerous climate change and collective action. Comment on "Climate change governance, cooperation and self-organization" by Jorge M. Pacheco, Vtor V. Vasconcelos, and Francisco C. Santos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannenberg, Astrid

    2014-12-01

    Climate change perhaps is the greatest collective action problem mankind has ever faced and the international community is still at a loss for how to get the ever rising greenhouse gas emissions under control. Does the risk of crossing a "dangerous" climate threshold improve the prospects of collective action?

  7. Embedded Temperature-Change Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita; Thakoor, Anil; Karmon, Dan

    1995-01-01

    Transducers sensitive to rates of change of temperature embedded in integrated circuits and discrete electronic components damaged by overheating, according to proposal. Used to detect onset of rapid heating and to trigger shutoffs of power or other corrective actions before temperatures rise beyond safe limits. Sensors respond fast and reliably to incipient overheating because they are in direct thermal contact with vulnerable circuit elements.

  8. The Danger of Selectively Changing the Rules in Youth Sport: The Case of the Strike Zone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Cesar R.

    2010-01-01

    Albeit well-intentioned, the practice of selectively changing the strike zone to promote young players' welfare is critically flawed. After discussing the central purpose of competitive sport, the duty of officials, and the significance of impartiality in officiating, this article demonstrates that this practice presents numerous practical…

  9. Phase Change Fabrics Control Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Originally featured in Spinoff in 1997, Outlast Technologies Inc. (formerly Gateway Technologies Inc.) has built its entire product line on microencapsulated phase change materials, developed in Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Johnson Space Center after initial development for the U.S. Air Force. The Boulder, Colorado-based company acquired the exclusive patent rights and now integrates these materials into textiles or onto finished apparel, providing temperature regulation in bedding materials and a full line of apparel for both ordinary and extreme conditions.

  10. [Dangerous aquaria].

    PubMed

    Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka; Szkolnicka, Beata; Mitrus, Małgorzata; Targosz, Dorota; Gwiazdowski, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    World trends for a home breeding of exotic freshwater and marine fishes did not miss Poland. There are almost all species of aquarium fishes available in Polish pet shops, but there is not enough information about threat given to customers. In some fish, there are masses of one-cell glands, mainly serous, in the proximity of the spines. In others, those one-cell glands may be grouped in larger aggregates of cells called venom glands, that may form organs resembling multicellular glands of terrestrial animals. They are usually located around the spines or hard rays of the fins. Even if covered with a connective tissue sheath, the aggregates of the venom cells do not have any common outlet; they are not, therefore, proper multicellular glands. The venom glands of the catfish are covered with a thin sheath and they release their contents when the fin ray is pressed. Spines are derived from fin rays. When the spine penetrates the body of its prey, it presses its base against the cells, squashes them and squeezes the venomous contents into the wound. Catfish, lionfish and stonefish have the venom glands producing secretion which could be dangerous. The eels and morays blood is also dangerous, as well as slime of reduced squamae. Poison information centers noted several cases of fishes' stings in Poland. PMID:16225137

  11. Sharks in danger.

    PubMed

    Cunningham-Day, Rachel

    2002-06-01

    Many shark populations are in danger of extinction as a direct result of man's activities. A change in attitude and a greater understanding of species' requirements are needed to prevent further destruction and replenish numbers, thus sustaining trade, fisheries and sport activity. PMID:12097714

  12. Dangerous Darwinism.

    PubMed

    Flemming, Chris; Goodall, Jane

    2002-07-01

    We are concerned with a particular rhetorical narrative that appeared in the early stages of the Darwin debate but that has been fiercely resurgent in the past two decades. Freud wrote of Darwin's theory as one of three major blows to which human vanity had been submitted at the hands of science. Assertions that "Darwin's dangerous idea" came as a horrible shock to the Victorians and that it is still a profound psychological threat, and therefore widely resisted, remain current. When such assertions are offered as the premise on which Darwin is to be approached by the general reader they call for some detailed scrutiny, with regard both to the bases on which they are made, and the effect they have on the terms of public debate. This paper offers a critique of the culture-shock myth based on a re-examination of Victorian reactions to Darwin's work, and on an analysis of the ways in which the myth functions as a rhetorical strategy in our own time. PMID:12430530

  13. Dangerous directions

    SciTech Connect

    Arkin, W.M.; Kristensen, H.

    1998-03-01

    Even in the through-the-looking-glass world of nuclear deterrence, the current situation is bizarre: Although the United States and Russia are friends, and are both cutting back the numbers of strategic weapons, the United States is more able than ever to deliver a devastating, decapitating, first-strike blow against Russia, should US-Russian relations ever sour. Russian nuclear survivability is not assured, creating - at least on paper - a uniquely dangerous hair trigger. After several rounds of nuclear reductions and almost a decade of declared peace, how is it that US strategic nuclear forces have, been enhanced rather than diminished? The answer is partly Russia`s inability to fulfill the unwritten contract underlying US-Russian strategic arms reductions - that both sides maintain high levels of alert. Russia`s day-to-day nuclear readiness is miserable. Its missile force is in a state of flux, with even its land-based missiles severely challenged by technological weaknesses and insurmountable maintenance problems. Its mobile forces - particularly its SS-25 road-mobile missiles and its ballistic missile submarines - are at a virtual standstill. Apparently flawed, Russia`s newest submarines, those of the Typhoon class, are being prematurely retired. The intercontinental bomber force is essentially nonexistent. Russia cannot afford to modernize its nuclear forces, and thus faces the physical reality of forced disarmament. The imbalance vis-a-vis the United States will grow wider after the turn of the century, as the majority of Russia`s current systems reach the end of their service lives.

  14. Measuring Seawater Temperatures with Global Climate Change

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Researchers are experimentally determining the mechanisms corals will use to acclimatize to warmer seawater temperatures with global climate change. To determine the biochemical changes in corals, Dan did reciprocal transplant experiments between the forereef slope (benign environment, always around...

  15. Temperature Changes During Photoablation Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinmetz, M.

    1988-12-01

    The results of current microscopic investigations show that during the process of athermal photoablation the material surrounding the target is thermally stressed. In order to get more information of the target's thermal behaviour during light interaction and, furthermore, about the process itself, we developed a microthermocouple device with high spatial (um) and temporal (us) resolution. So far temperature measurements were carried out during excimer laser (351nm) irradiation with 250 to 1600 mJ/cm2 in single and repetition pulse mode. The measurements in polymers and in biological material gave the following results: 1) typical thermal effects like melting zones at polymer crater walls and tissue discoloration and smoke generation in biologic material. 2) In polymers as well as in biological materials the surface temperature increases with increasing energy density in single laser mode once the removal threshold is reached or exceeded. 3) The removal threshold depends on the heat capacity of the samples. The results indicate that photoablation of polymers and biological material (obtained with 351 nm short pulsed laser light wavelength of nearly 1000 mJ/cm2) is predominantly a photothermal process.

  16. Probes For Measuring Changing Internal Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, S. B.; Durtschi, J.; Smith, D.; Maw, Joel; Sakaguchi, M.; Smart, L.; Blake, B.

    1995-01-01

    Improved thermocouple probes devised for measuring rapidly changing temperatures within layers of solid materials. In original application, layers in question are carbon-cloth phenolic liners in solid-rocket motor nozzles, and probes inserted in layers to various depths of order of 0.5 in. measure changing temperatures in layers during hot-fire tests. Probe concept adapted to measurements of temperatures inside various other layers, materials, and components, including material test specimens.

  17. Dangerous myths.

    PubMed

    Donovan, P

    1992-01-01

    Humanity has perpetuated myths against breast feeding for millennia, e.g., milk substitutes were sought as early as the 8th century B.C. when mythology claimed a wolf nursed the twin founders of Rome. A wet nurse fed Moses and Mohammed. Women wore corsets for 200 years even though they disfigured them and did not allow them to breast feed. Society considered breast feeding in bed a sin. Despite the fact that science has proved breast feeding's remarkable benefits, several myths continue. For example, in many developing countries, it is taboo to offer a newborn the colostrum which is full of maternal antibodies. In developed countries, some health workers continue to make new mothers doubt their ability to produce enough breast milk. Yet the milk supply is dependent on the demand for milk. An infant sucking at the breast or a mother expressing milk signals the body to produce milk. If mothers supplement with infant formula the demand diminishes so the body does not receive signals to increase milk production which in turn reduces the milk supply. Another myth is that breast feeding changes the shape of women's breasts. Yet it is gravity that changes breast shape whether she breast feeds children or not. Medical evidence verifies that breast milk is the perfect source of nourishment for infants during the 1st 4-6 months of life. No substitute provides infants the remarkable range of benefits of breast feeding, e.g., breast-fed children have higher IQ test scores than bottle-fed children, and tend to be more self-confident and develop more quickly. They also have fewer food allergies and diarrheal episodes. Indeed children breast fed for at least 4 months have lower rates of childhood cancers. Breast feeding in developing countries increases child survival. PMID:1618509

  18. Undulator Changes Due To Temperature Excursions

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zachary; Levashov, Yurii; Reese, Ed; ,

    2010-11-17

    The temperature of the LCLS undulators has not been controlled during storage. The effects of the temperature excursions are documented in this note. After a number of LCLS undulators were tuned, fiducialized, and placed in storage anticipating their use, a test was made to ensure that their properties had not changed. The test revealed, however, that indeed the undulators had changed. Detailed study of this problem followed. We now believe that the gap of the undulators changes permanently when the undulators go through temperature excursions. We have tested the other possible cause, transportation, and do not see gap changes. In this note, we document how the undulators have changed since they were originally tuned. The undulators were tuned and fiducialized in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF). Afterward, many of them (approximately 18) were taken to building 750 for storage during summer and fall 2007. Building 750 had no temperature control. The undulator temperatures went from 20 C, used for tuning, down to approximately 11 C during the winter. In January 2008, three of the undulators were brought back to the MMF for a check. All three undulators showed similar changes. Trajectories, phases, and most undulator properties stayed the same, but the fiducialization (beam axis position relative to tooling balls on the undulator) had changed. Further investigation showed that the undulator gap was altered in a periodic way along the magnetic axis with a net average gap change causing the fiducialization change. A new storage location in building 33 was found and future undulators were placed there. A failure in the temperature control, however, caused the undulators to get too hot. Again the gap changed, but with a different periodic pattern. This note documents the measured changes in the undulators. In particular, it shows the detailed history of undulator 39 which went through both negative and positive temperature excursions.

  19. GISS Analysis of Surface Temperature Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, J.; Ruedy, R.; Glascoe, J.; Sato, M.

    1999-01-01

    We describe the current GISS analysis of surface temperature change based primarily on meteorological station measurements. The global surface temperature in 1998 was the warmest in the period of instrumental data. The rate of temperature change is higher in the past 25 years than at any previous time in the period of instrumental data. The warmth of 1998 is too large and pervasive to be fully accounted for by the recent El Nino, suggesting that global temperature may have moved to a higher level, analogous to the increase that occurred in the late 1970s. The warming in the United States over the past 50 years is smaller than in most of the world, and over that period there is a slight cooling trend in the Eastern United States and the neighboring Atlantic ocean. The spatial and temporal patterns of the temperature change suggest that more than one mechanism is involved in this regional cooling.

  20. Global perceptions of local temperature change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, Peter D.; Markowitz, Ezra M.; Lee, Tien Ming; Ko, Chia-Ying; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2013-04-01

    It is difficult to detect global warming directly because most people experience changes only in local weather patterns, which are highly variable and may not reflect long-term global climate trends. However, local climate-change experience may play an important role in adaptation and mitigation behaviour and policy support. Previous research indicates that people can perceive and adapt to aspects of climate variability and change based on personal observations. Experience with local weather may also influence global warming beliefs. Here we examine the extent to which respondents in 89 countries detect recent changes in average local temperatures. We demonstrate that public perceptions correspond with patterns of observed temperature change from climate records: individuals who live in places with rising average temperatures are more likely than others to perceive local warming. As global climate change intensifies, changes in local temperatures and weather patterns may be increasingly detected by the global public. These findings also suggest that public opinion of climate change may shift, at least in part, in response to the personal experience of climate change.

  1. This hill is dangerous.

    PubMed

    Oddy, Nicholas

    2015-04-01

    The introduction of cyclists' "danger boards" in the United Kingdom in the 1880s established a new form of road sign aimed at private, mechanized transport that redefined ideas of safety on the road. This article explores the implications of this for established road users. In particular it considers the transfer of responsibility for erecting signs from private clubs to the state in the context of cycling's eclipse by motoring in the early twentieth century. It uses the design development of road signs as a marker of changing power structures in road use. PMID:26005083

  2. Congressional Temperature Trends - Is the temperature changing in your district?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, C. J.; Cordero, E.

    2013-12-01

    Congress is interested in what happens in a Member's district or a Senator's state. We present a website: temperaturetrends.org that shows how temperature has changed at the district, state, national and global level. NOAA/NCDC (USHCN v2.5) bias-adjusted annual average surface temperatures are shown on the site. We also show comparison with the ocean heat content. This site has been used in numerous meetings with Congressional Staff and Members.

  3. GISS Analysis of Surface Temperature Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, J.; Ruedy, R.; Glascoe, J.; Sato, M.

    1999-01-01

    We describe the current GISS analysis of surface temperature change for the period 1880-1999 based primarily on meteorological station measurements. The global surface temperature in 1998 was the warmest in the period of instrumental data. The rate of temperature change was higher in the past 25 years than at any previous time in the period of instrumental data. The warmth of 1998 was too large and pervasive to be fully accounted for by the recent El Nino. Despite cooling in the first half of 1999, we suggest that the mean global temperature, averaged over 2-3 years, has moved to a higher level, analogous to the increase that occurred in the late 1970s. Warming in the United States over the past 50 years has been smaller than in most of the world, and over that period there was a slight cooling trend in the Eastern United States and the neighboring Atlantic Ocean. The spatial and temporal patterns of the temperature change suggest that more than one mechanism was involved in this regional cooling. The cooling trend in the United States, which began after the 1930s and is associated with ocean temperature change patterns, began to reverse after 1979. We suggest that further warming in the United States to a level rivaling the 1930s is likely in the next decade, but reliable prediction requires better understanding of decadal oscillations of ocean temperature.

  4. [Dangerous games in schoolchildren].

    PubMed

    Le Heuzey, M-F

    2011-02-01

    Dangerous games inside or outside school are a serious social phenomenon, but unfortunately underrecognized. Aggressive games are a part of school bullying, which is in expansion. Choking games are very dangerous, with many deaths or serious neurologic complications. Pediatricians should be knowledgeable about risky behaviors encountered by their patients, and provide guidance about its dangers. PMID:21146376

  5. Seasonal Changes in Titan's Surface Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Nixon, Conor A.; Cottini, Valeria

    2010-04-01

    The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) (Flasar, 2004) on Cassini measures brightness temperatures at the surface of Titan near 19 microns wavelength where the atmospheric opacity is low. During the Cassini mission CIRS has collected a large dataset covering all latitudes with a range of viewing geometries. When latitude maps from the recent northern spring equinox are compared with maps from earlier in the mission (Jennings, 2009) they show changes in temperature distribution that are similar to predictions of seasonal variation at the surface (Tokano, 2005). During late northern winter Titan's surface temperatures were about 1 K colder at the north pole than at the south pole. In the period around equinox the north-south distribution was more symmetric and matched the latitude dependence observed by Voyager 1, also near northern spring equinox (Flasar, 1981; Courtin, 2002). Seasonal changes in surface temperature have implications for evaporation of volatiles and may help determine surface composition and structure.

  6. Change in global temperature: A statistical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, G.R. )

    1993-03-01

    This paper investigates several issues relating to global climatic change using statistical techniques that impose minimal restrictions on the data. The main findings are as follows: (1) The global temperature increase since the last century is a systematic development. (2) Short-term variations in temperature do not have long-lasting effects on the final realizations of the series over time, stochastic perturbations dissipate and temperature reverts to trend. (3) Multivariate tests for causality demonstrate that atmospheric CO[sub 2] is a significant forcing factor. The implied change in temperature with respect to a doubling of atmospheric CO[sub 2] lies in a range of 2.17[degrees] to 2.57[degrees]C, with a mean value of 2.34[degrees]C. The contributions of solar irradiance and volcanic loading are much smaller. (4) In a multivariate system, shocks to forcing factors generate stochastic cycles in temperature comparable to the results from unforced simulations of climatological models. (5) Extrapolation of regression equations predict changes in global temperature that are marginally lower than the results from climatological simulation models.

  7. Changes in Soil Temperature Regimes under Regional Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    Soil temperatures can provide a smoothed record of regional changes in atmospheric conditions due to soil thermal properties that reduce the annual air and surface temperature amplitude. In areas with seasonal snow cover, however, its insulating effect isolates the soil thermal regime from winter air temperatures. Under changing regional climate patterns, snow cover extent, depth and duration are decreasing. The net effect is thus an expected winter cooling of soil temperature. However, the extent to which this might be mitigated by warmer summer conditions, and changing soil moisture remains to be seen. To examine the relative strength of a cold-season cooling signal versus enhanced summer warming, a network of soil temperature loggers has recorded hourly soil temperatures over the period 2005-2013 within a single watershed experiencing 'lake effect snow'. Elevations range from 168 m to 612 m, on Silurian and Ordovician shale, limestone, and sandstone that have been heavily glaciated. Most of the sites are located on NY Department of Environmental Conservation land in mixed, hardwood and spruce forests. At six sites in varied topographic and land-use setting, two ONSET HOBO Outdoor 4 channel soil temperature loggers are deployed in order to reduce concerns of data reliability and systematic logger drift. Five sites also record air temperature using HOBO Pro Series Temperature loggers at three sites and HOBO Weather Stations at two. Soil temperature data are recorded at hourly intervals at depths of 2-, 5-, 10-, and 25-cm. Several other sites have been operationalized over the 8 year period, but have been tampered with, damaged, stolen, or have failed. These partial records are included to provide greater geographic representation of changing conditions where possible. Data indicate decreasing winter soil temperatures in specific land-use and topographic settings. Only one site, located in a dense spruce plantation, experiences soil freezing within the top 5 cm. The extremely warm winter of 2011-2012 experienced only 28 days of measurable snow on the ground (as recorded at Syracuse Hancock Airport), yet some of the coldest soil temperatures measured in the watershed soils, indicative of snow's role in moderating soil freezing. Similarly, warmer summer air temperatures produce warmer soil temperatures, except following the winter of 2010-2011, one of the snowiest and coldest on record. The 96 days with measureable snow on the ground, and a total seasonal accumulation of 4.55 meters reduced rates of soil warming during a rapid increase in early spring air temperatures. If snow cover duration and extent are reduced, as some studies suggest, these results point to cooler winter soil temperatures, and warmer summer soil temperatures. The implications extend beyond changes in soil microbial activity and carbon sequestration to changes in rates of regolith weathering and pedogenesis.

  8. Seasonal Changes in Surface Temperatures on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.

    2010-01-01

    The surface brightness temperatures on Titan have been measured by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) aboard Cassini during the period spanning late northern winter through vernal equinox. CIRS observes radiance from the surface through a spectral window at 19 microns where the atmosphere has an opacity minimum [I]. CIRS is now seeing a shift in the latitudinal distribution of temperatures froth a distinctly warmer south to a more symmetrical north -south pattern, similar to that found by Voyager IRIS [2,3] at the time of the previous vernal equinox. Near the equator the temperatures remain close to the 93.7 K value found at the surface by Huygens [4]. From the equator to the poles the temperature gradients are 2-3 K. When compared with predictions froth general circulation models [5] the measured temperatures and their seasonal changes constrain the possible types of surface material. As Cassini continues through Titan's northern spring CiRS will extend its, global coverage to took for correlations between surface temperatures and albedo and to search for diurnal temperature variations

  9. Changes in Concurrent Precipitation and Temperature Extremes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Phillips, Thomas J.

    2013-08-01

    While numerous studies have addressed changes in climate extremes, analyses of concurrence of climate extremes are scarce, and climate change effects on joint extremes are rarely considered. This study assesses the occurrence of joint (concurrent) monthly continental precipitation and temperature extremes in Climate Research Unit (CRU) and University of Delaware (UD) observations, and in 13 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate simulations. Moreover, the joint occurrences of precipitation and temperature extremes simulated by CMIP5 climate models are compared with those derived from the CRU and UD observations for warm/wet, warm/dry, cold/wet, and cold/dry combinations of joint extremes.more » The number of occurrences of these four combinations during the second half of the 20th century (1951–2004) is assessed on a common global grid. CRU and UD observations show substantial increases in the occurrence of joint warm/dry and warm/wet combinations for the period 1978–2004 relative to 1951–1977. The results show that with respect to the sign of change in the concurrent extremes, the CMIP5 climate model simulations are in reasonable overall agreement with observations. The results reveal notable discrepancies between regional patterns and the magnitude of change in individual climate model simulations relative to the observations of precipitation and temperature.« less

  10. Changes in Concurrent Precipitation and Temperature Extremes

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Phillips, Thomas J.

    2013-08-01

    While numerous studies have addressed changes in climate extremes, analyses of concurrence of climate extremes are scarce, and climate change effects on joint extremes are rarely considered. This study assesses the occurrence of joint (concurrent) monthly continental precipitation and temperature extremes in Climate Research Unit (CRU) and University of Delaware (UD) observations, and in 13 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate simulations. Moreover, the joint occurrences of precipitation and temperature extremes simulated by CMIP5 climate models are compared with those derived from the CRU and UD observations for warm/wet, warm/dry, cold/wet, and cold/dry combinations of joint extremes. The number of occurrences of these four combinations during the second half of the 20th century (1951–2004) is assessed on a common global grid. CRU and UD observations show substantial increases in the occurrence of joint warm/dry and warm/wet combinations for the period 1978–2004 relative to 1951–1977. The results show that with respect to the sign of change in the concurrent extremes, the CMIP5 climate model simulations are in reasonable overall agreement with observations. The results reveal notable discrepancies between regional patterns and the magnitude of change in individual climate model simulations relative to the observations of precipitation and temperature.

  11. Effects of temperature changes on groundwater ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griebler, Christian; Kellermann, Claudia; Schreglmann, Kathrin; Lueders, Tillmann; Brielmann, Heike; Schmidt, Susanne; Kuntz, David; Walker-Hertkorn, Simone

    2014-05-01

    The use of groundwater as a carrier of thermal energy is becoming more and more important as a sustainable source of heating and cooling. At the same time, the present understanding of the effects of aquifer thermal usage on geochemical and biological aquifer ecosystem functions is extremely limited. Recently we started to assess the effects of temperature changes in groundwater on the ecological integrity of aquifers. In a field study, we have monitored hydrogeochemical, microbial, and faunal parameters in groundwater of an oligotrophic aquifer in the vicinity of an active thermal discharge facility. The observed seasonal variability of abiotic and biotic parameters between wells was considerable. Yet, due to the energy-limited conditions no significant temperature impacts on bacterial or faunal abundances and on bacterial productivity were observed. In contrast, the diversity of aquifer bacterial communities and invertebrate fauna was either positively or negatively affected by temperature, respectively. In follow-up laboratory experiments temperature effects were systematically evaluated with respect to energy limitation (e.g. establishment of unlimited growth conditions), geochemistry (e.g. dynamics of DOC and nutrients), microbiology (e.g. survival of pathogens), and fauna (temperature preference and tolerance). First, with increased nutrient and organic carbon concentrations even small temperature changes revealed microbiological dynamics. Second, considerable amounts of adsorbed DOC were mobilized from sediments of different origin with an increase in temperatures. No evidence was obtained for growth of pathogenic bacteria and extended survival of viruses at elevated temperatures. Invertebrates clearly preferred natural thermal conditions (10-12C), where their highest frequency of appearance was measured in a temperature gradient. Short-term incubations (48h) of invertebrates in temperature dose-response tests resulted in LT50 (lethal temperature) values between 17 and 23C for selected groundwater amphipodes and 18C for the isopode Proasellus cavaticus. Extended incubation times dramatically reduced the respective LT50 values way below 20C for amphipodes and 16C for the isopode, respectively. Our findings clearly point at an urgent need for further ecological studies with respect to the ecological consequences of geothermal energy use. To avoid the deterioration of groundwater quality and important ecosystem services we propose the development of integrative management concepts for subterranean energy use in the future.

  12. SEASONAL CHANGES IN TITAN'S SURFACE TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Samuelson, R. E.; Romani, P. N.; Hesman, B. E.; Carlson, R. C.; Gorius, N. J. P.; Coustenis, A.; Tokano, T.

    2011-08-10

    Seasonal changes in Titan's surface brightness temperatures have been observed by Cassini in the thermal infrared. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer measured surface radiances at 19 {mu}m in two time periods: one in late northern winter (LNW; L{sub s} = 335 deg.) and another centered on northern spring equinox (NSE; L{sub s} = 0 deg.). In both periods we constructed pole-to-pole maps of zonally averaged brightness temperatures corrected for effects of the atmosphere. Between LNW and NSE a shift occurred in the temperature distribution, characterized by a warming of {approx}0.5 K in the north and a cooling by about the same amount in the south. At equinox the polar surface temperatures were both near 91 K and the equator was at 93.4 K. We measured a seasonal lag of {Delta}L{sub S} {approx} 9{sup 0} in the meridional surface temperature distribution, consistent with the post-equinox results of Voyager 1 as well as with predictions from general circulation modeling. A slightly elevated temperature is observed at 65{sup 0} S in the relatively cloud-free zone between the mid-latitude and southern cloud regions.

  13. Seasonal Changes in Titan's Surface Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennins, Donald E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Samuelson, R. E.; Romani, P. N.; Hesman, B. E.; Carlson, R. C.; Gorius, N. J. P.; Coustenis, A.; Tokano, T.

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal changes in Titan's surface brightness temperatures have been observed by Cassini in the thermal infrared. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) measured surface radiances at 19 micron in two time periods: one in late northern winter (Ls = 335d eg) and another centered on northern spring equinox (Ls = 0 deg). In both periods we constructed pole-to-pole maps of zonally averaged brightness temperatures corrected for effects of the atmosphere. Between late northern winter and northern spring equinox a shift occurred in the temperature distribution, characterized by a warming of approximately 0.5 K in the north and a cooling by about the same amount in the south. At equinox the polar surface temperatures were both near 91 K and the equator was 93.4 K. We measured a seasonal lag of delta Ls approximately 9 in the meridional surface temperature distribution, consistent with the post-equinox results of Voyager 1 as well as with predictions from general circulation modeling. A slightly elevated temperature is observed at 65 deg S in the relatively cloud-free zone between the mid-latitude and southern cloud regions.

  14. Dangerous marine life.

    PubMed

    Harrison, L J

    1992-09-01

    All physicians must be educated in treating injuries incurred when a diver comes into contact with any dangerous marine life. Stinging invertebrates are the most commonly encountered dangerous marine animals. Venomous vertebrate marine animals are less common than stinging invertebrates and easier to recognize. However, they may be much more deadly. Sharks pose the greatest danger to divers. However, bites from other marine animals can be painful, become infected and require extensive medical treatment. PMID:1358999

  15. Assessing "dangerous climate change": required reduction of carbon emissions to protect young people, future generations and nature.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J; Hearty, Paul J; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrom, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Konrad; Van Susteren, Lise; von Schuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ?500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of ?1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels. PMID:24312568

  16. Assessing 'Dangerous Climate Change': Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Demotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J.; Hearty, Paul J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrum, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J.; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Conrad; VanSusteren, Lise; VonShuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C.

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of approx.500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of approx.1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2 C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4 C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels.

  17. Seasonal Changes in Titan's Surface Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Nixon, Conor A.; Cottini, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    Cassini's extended mission has provided the opportunity to search for seasonal variations on Titan. In particular, surface temperatures are expected to have shifted significantly in latitude during the completed portion of the mission. Spectra recorded by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) during the nominal mission (2004-08) and the Equinox mission. (2008-10) have already shown changes in temperature. CIRS has detected a seasonal shift in the latitudinal distribution of surface brightness temperatures by comparing zonal averages from two time segments, one period in late northern winter centered on L(sub s) approximately 335 deg and a second period centered on the equinox (L(sub s) approximately 0 deg.). The earlier period had a meridional distribution similar to that previously reported: 93.5 K at the equator, 91.7 K at 85 S and 899 K at 85 N. The newly measured distribution near equinox shows a cooling in the south and a warming in the north, both by about 0.5 K. We estimate that. the centroid of the distribution moved from approximately 16 S to 7 S between the two periods. This gives a seasonal lag behind insolation of delta L(sub s) approximately 13 deg. The CIRS equinox results are consistent with those of Voyager IRIS, which encountered Titan in November 1980, just following the previous northern equinox (L(sub s) = 10 deg.). When compared with predictions from general circulation models, seasonal variations of surface temperature can help constrain the identification of surface materials. Our measurements most closely match the case of a porous ice regolith treated by Tokano, but with some apparent differences between the northern and southern hemispheres. CIRS will extend its study of seasonal variations in surface temperature on Titan as Cassini continues through northern spring.

  18. Stratospheric Temperature Changes: Observations and Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Chanin, M.-L.; Angell, J.; Barnett, J.; Gaffen, D.; Gelman, M.; Keckhut, P.; Koshelkov, Y.; Labitzke, K.; Lin, J.-J. R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews observations of stratospheric temperatures that have been made over a period of several decades. Those observed temperatures have been used to assess variations and trends in stratospheric temperatures. A wide range of observation datasets have been used, comprising measurements by radiosonde (1940s to the present), satellite (1979 - present), lidar (1979 - present) and rocketsonde (periods varying with location, but most terminating by about the mid-1990s). In addition, trends have also been assessed from meteorological analyses, based on radiosonde and/or satellite data, and products based on assimilating observations into a general circulation model. Radiosonde and satellite data indicate a cooling trend of the annual-mean lower stratosphere since about 1980. Over the period 1979-1994, the trend is 0.6K/decade. For the period prior to 1980, the radiosonde data exhibit a substantially weaker long-term cooling trend. In the northern hemisphere, the cooling trend is about 0.75K/decade in the lower stratosphere, with a reduction in the cooling in mid-stratosphere (near 35 km), and increased cooling in the upper stratosphere (approximately 2 K per decade at 50 km). Model simulations indicate that the depletion of lower stratospheric ozone is the dominant factor in the observed lower stratospheric cooling. In the middle and upper stratosphere both the well-mixed greenhouse gases (such as CO) and ozone changes contribute in an important manner to the cooling.

  19. Bacterial danger sensing.

    PubMed

    LeRoux, Michele; Peterson, S Brook; Mougous, Joseph D

    2015-11-20

    Here we propose that bacteria detect and respond to threats posed by other bacteria via an innate immune-like process that we term danger sensing. We find support for this contention by reexamining existing literature from the perspective that intermicrobial antagonism, not opportunistic pathogenesis, is the major evolutionary force shaping the defensive behaviors of most bacteria. We conclude that many bacteria possess danger sensing pathways composed of a danger signal receptor and corresponding signal transduction mechanism that regulate pathways important for survival in the presence of the perceived competitor. PMID:26434507

  20. Dangers of Indoor Tanning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dermatologist Dangers of indoor tanning The World Health Organization has declared indoor tanning devices to be cancer-causing agents that are in the same category as tobacco. Studies have found a 59% increase in the risk ...

  1. The Danger Instincts

    PubMed Central

    Rippon, T. S.

    1928-01-01

    (I) Theory Rivers' theory of the “danger instincts” is a key to the problem of moral and prevention of war neuroses. (II) Causes of War Neuroses These are believed to be largely mental, e.g., conflict between the instinct of self-preservation and the sense of duty. (III) Instinct of Self-Preservation This subject presents difficulties, because people react in so many different ways; a man may be impelled to run away, or to become aggressive or even motionless when in danger. (IV) Importance The importance of knowing all the reactions of the normal man to danger is, first—the need to know the normal before considering the abnormal states; second—the chemical warfare of the future will involve increased emotional stress; third—in such war, there will be an additional strain of inactivity during a gas attack. (V) The Danger Instincts as described by Rivers Reaction by flight. Aggression. Manipulative activity. Immobility and collapse. Emotional states associated with reactions. Conflict between different tendencies the reason for collapse when in danger. (VI) Evidence supporting Rivers' Theories Relative severity of war neurosis in pilots, observers, balloon officers, Army officers and submarine crews. Investigation on reactions of pilots to danger and fear. (VII) Rivers' Theory applied to Moral (Mental Hygiene) Knowledge of normal reactions to danger enables the medical officer to help to maintain moral by:—(a) Preparing the mind to meet danger. Explaining that fear is a natural emotion under certain circumstances. Need for self-control but not shame. (b) Prevention of repression. (c) Counter-suggestion and panic. (VIII) Concluding Statement on Cowardice Difficulty in distinguishing cowardice from neurosis. Definition suggested. Medical tests. PMID:19986246

  2. Asymetric change of daily temperature range: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Kukla, G.; Karl, T.R.; Riches, M.R.

    1994-04-01

    This report is a compilation of abstracts of papers presented at the MINIMAX workshop. Topics include; temperature fluxes, influence of clouds on temperature, anthropogenic influences on temperature flux, and carbon dioxide and aerosol induced greenhouse effect.

  3. [Dangerous, illegal captivities].

    PubMed

    Winnik, Lidia; Lis, Leszek

    2005-01-01

    On the 21st of August 1997 the Polish legislature introduced the first animal protection law nr 724. This act however failed to specify in a clear and proper manner the problem of possession and maintenance of dangerous animals, which allows its multiple interpretations. Poland ratified the Washington Convention in 1990 restricting the trade of animals classified as endangered species. The present regulations enable illegal purchase and trade of those animals. According to the available data illegal trade of such animals, as well as the trade of products obtained from them, ranks in the third position in terms of crime generated income, only after the trade of drugs and weapons. In our country the sales of such animals have been growing at an alarming rate. The animals often get out of the control of their owners, or are abandoned by them. The presented work describes cases of reptiles being found in public places in our region. It also mentions the problem of possible dangers associated with intentional letting out of such animals in public places. The aim of the following paper is the analysis of the problem of raising of exotic animals, in particular venomous snakes and other animals, the possession of which may be dangerous not only for the owner but also for the people around. The existing laws and executive procedures have been discussed. Both, the family doctors as well as toxicologists have little knowledge as far as diagnosis and treatment of cases of stinging and biting by exotic animals is concerned. The authors suggest providing medical emergency doctors, family doctors and surgeons, with clinic toxicology programs, as well as introduction of special courses for middle medical personnel. Establishment of a central database and a database concerned with basic polyvalent serums are crucial in our country in order have the Toxicology Centers ready to face possible dangers associated with dangerous animals, and to prepare emergency solutions in cases of criminal actions involving the use of dangerous animals. PMID:16225136

  4. The dangerous patient.

    PubMed

    Lande, R G

    1989-07-01

    The dangerous patient requires proper management to ensure appropriate disposition and preclude injury. A safety-conscious public has propelled the issue into the courtroom, and a slowly evolving standard of care is emerging. In some states a legal duty to protect victims of violence exists. Understanding human aggression, the potentiating effects of the environment, and prior methods of coping, as well as assessing current behavioral controls and certain statistical correlates all aid management decisions. Stabilization of the dangerous patient begins with the interview and progresses to medication or restraints as the situation dictates. Once the acute crisis is resolved, attention is directed toward a more thorough review. PMID:2738552

  5. Radon: The Silent Danger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoffel, Jennifer

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses the public health dangers associated with radon exposure in homes and schools. In addition, testing and corrective efforts by federal and state agencies are discussed. A map indicating areas in the U.S. with potentially high radon levels is included. (IAH)

  6. A Danger to Ourselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In this article Richard Barbieri asserts that the biggest danger to our own safety and well-being, and that of our children, comes not from adult predators, environmental hazards, or the class bully, but from traits common to us all. The enemy is us, and not least because we too often jump to such strategies as clobbering. Writers from such varied

  7. A Danger to Ourselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In this article Richard Barbieri asserts that the biggest danger to our own safety and well-being, and that of our children, comes not from adult predators, environmental hazards, or the class bully, but from traits common to us all. The enemy is us, and not least because we too often jump to such strategies as clobbering. Writers from such varied…

  8. Noble Gas Temperature Proxy for Climate Change

    EPA Science Inventory

    Noble gases in groundwater appear to offer a practical approach for quantitatively determining past surface air temperatures over recharge areas for any watershed. The noble gas temperature (NGT) proxy should then permit a paleothermometry of a region over time. This terrestria...

  9. Sensitivity of flowering phenology to changing temperature in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haicheng; Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Fu, Yang

    2015-08-01

    Plant phenology is one of the preferred indicators of climate change, and its variation potentially impacts community dynamics and ecosystem functions. To better understand the responses of plants' flowering phenology to rising temperatures, we investigated the temperature sensitivity (expressed as the date of changes in phenology per change in temperature in degree Celsius, d C-1) of flowering phenology for more than 220 plant species at 59 sites in China during the period 1963-1988. Our results indicated that most flowerings in China were significantly sensitive to the temperature in the 2 months (60 days) prior to the flowering dates. Plants in warmer regions showed larger sensitivities to increased temperatures. Species flowering in the late spring and early summer were generally less sensitive to changing temperature than species flowering at other times of the year. For plants flowering in the spring, species that flower earlier showed higher temperature sensitivity; however, for plants flowering in the summer and autumn, species that flower earlier showed lower temperature sensitivity. The responses of the first and last flowering times to changing temperature were mostly consistent, so flowering durations were rarely (6.1%) sensitive to changing temperature. We hypothesize that plants in cold regions may have adapted to the more variable temperatures and thus showed lower temperature sensitivities than plants in warm regions. Overall, the responses of flowering phenology to temperature varied significantly among temperature zones and plant species, so it should be considered carefully when estimating the impacts of climate warming on the terrestrial biosphere.

  10. Seasonal Surface Temperature Changes on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Cottini, Valeria; Nixon, Conor A.; Coustenis, Athena; Tokano, Tetsuya

    2015-11-01

    The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on Cassini has been measuring surface brightness temperatures on Titan since 2004 (Jennings et al. 2011; Cottini et al. 2012; Tan et al. 2015). Radiation from the surface reaches space through a window of minimum opacity in Titans atmosphere near 19 microns wavelength. We mapped surface temperatures in five time periods, each about 2 years, centered on solar longitudes Ls = 313, 335, 0, 28 and 53 degrees. Using zonally-averaged spectra binned in 10-degree latitude intervals, we clearly see the seasonal progression of the pole-to-pole temperature distribution. Whereas peak temperatures in the vicinity of the Equator have been close to 94 K throughout the Cassini mission, early in the mission temperatures at the North Pole were as low as 90 K and at the South Pole were 92 K. Late in the mission the pattern has reversed: 92 K in the north and 90 K in the south. Over 2005 to 2014 the peak temperature moved in latitude from about 15 S to 15 N. We estimate a seasonal lag of 0.2 Titan month. In 2010 the temperature distribution was approximately symmetric north and south, agreeing with Voyager 1 from one Titan year earlier. The surface temperatures follow closely the predictions of Tokano (2005). Our measurements may indicate a lower thermal inertia in the south than in the north.Jennings, D.E. et al., ApJ Lett. 737, L15 (2011)Cottini, V. et al., 2012. Planet. Space Sci. 60, 62 (2012)Tan, S. P. et al., Icarus 250, 64 (2015)Tokano, T., Icarus 204, 619 (2005)

  11. Recording Rapidly Changing Cylinder-wall Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, Adolph

    1942-01-01

    The present report deals with the design and testing of a measuring plug suggested by H. Pfriem for recording quasi-stationary cylinder wall temperatures. The new device is a resistance thermometer, the temperature-susceptible part of which consists of a gold coating applied by evaporation under high vacuum and electrolytically strengthened. After overcoming initial difficulties, calibration of plugs up to and beyond 400 degrees C was possible. The measurements were made on high-speed internal combustion engines. The increasing effect of carbon deposit at the wall surface with increasing operating period is indicated by means of charts.

  12. Is the "Cinnamon Challenge" Dangerous?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Kids Safe Concussions: What to Know Is the "Cinnamon Challenge" Dangerous? KidsHealth > Parents > School & Family Life > Family Life > Is the "Cinnamon Challenge" Dangerous? Print A A A Text Size ...

  13. Potential dangers of cannabis.

    PubMed

    Kaymakalan, S

    1975-01-01

    Cannabis is not a harmless drug. The potential dangers of cannabis are briefly reviewed in this report. The above-mentioned observations on cannabis users should be kept in mind and carefully examined by all physicians. One could expect that as more potent cannabis preparations become available, some of the toxic manifestations which now seem rare might become more frequent. Some of the remarks about the dangers of cannabis may not be proved in future studies, and they may represent only our anxiety. However, prior to the elimination of these fears, no steps should be taken toward the legalizing of marijuana. At present there is no scientific evidence that cannabis is less harmful than either tobacco or alcohol. The opposite may be true. The analogy can be drawn between opium and cannabis. The permissive attitude toward the use of opium can easily lead to the use of morphine and other opiates. If we legalize the use of marijuana, we cannot prevent the use of more dangerous derivatives of cannabis; namely, hashish, cannabis oil and THC, itself. In my opinion, in the light of our present knowledge, legalizing of marijuana could be hazardous both for the individual and for society. PMID:1181294

  14. Climate change and temperature-dependent sex determination in reptiles.

    PubMed Central

    Janzen, F J

    1994-01-01

    Despite increasing concern over the possible impact of global temperature change, there is little empirical evidence of direct temperature effects on biotic interactions in natural systems. Clear assessment of the ecological and evolutionary impact of changing climatic temperature requires a natural system in which populations exhibit a direct unambiguous fitness response to thermal fluctuation. I monitored nests of a population of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) with temperature-dependent sex determination to investigate the causal relationship between local climatic variation in temperature and offspring sex ratio. Consistent with theoretical predictions, annual offspring sex ratio was highly correlated with mean July air temperature, validating concerns about the effect of climate change on population demography. This correlation implies that even modest increases in mean temperature (< 2 degrees C) may drastically skew the sex ratio. Statistical evaluation of the variance in climate change indicates that an increase in mean temperature of 4 degrees C would effectively eliminate production of male offspring. Quantitative genetic analyses and behavioral data suggest that populations with temperature-dependent sex determination may be unable to evolve rapidly enough to counteract the negative fitness consequences of rapid global temperature change. Populations of species with temperature-dependent sex determination may serve as ideal indicators of the biological impact of global temperature change. PMID:8052608

  15. Localized enhancements in fire danger during the 'Black Saturday' fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, T. P.; Engel, C. B.; Reeder, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    On Saturday 7 February 2009 a series of fire complexes occurred over the state of Victoria, Australia. The fires caused more than 150 fatalities, the destruction of more than 2000 residences, and decimated a number of townships. The meteorological conditions on 7 February for the region were categorized as the worst fire weather conditions on record. Specifically, the maximum temperature exceeded 45 C (113 F) and gusty surface winds were sustained at 15 m/s (30 knots) for most of the day. These conditions were followed by the passage of a strong cold front in the late afternoon / early evening. Moreover, vegetation and fuels had suffered significant drying over the prior weeks due to a sequence of hot days and a record heatwave. In addition to these broad scale meteorological conditions, numerous mesoscale atmospheric processes contributed to localized enhancement in fire danger in the vicinity of many of the fires; these phenomena may have contributed to the extraordinary nature of some of the fires occurring that day. This study documents these localized processes using a combination of surface observations and an extremely high-resolution numerical weather prediction model with a horizontal resolution of 500 m. The observations and model forecast identify many notable phenomena of relevance to fire danger that persist throughout the day. These include enhanced down-slope surface winds and organized boundary layer horizontal convective rolls (HCRs). The HCRs are responsible for significant spatial variability in surface winds and forest fire danger index (FFDI). The model forecast elucidates the complex interaction between the cold front and the terrain, including the large variability in the timing and direction of the cool change. Finally, two nocturnal bores are identified that propagate ahead of the cool change; such bores have the potential to cause rapid, yet unexpected, changes to fire danger. In addition to documenting these important phenomena, the model forecast demonstrates the future capabilities of operational numerical weather prediction that could be utilized for improved fire weather guidance.

  16. Perceived temperature in the course of climate change: an analysis of global heat index from 1979-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D.; Brenner, T.

    2015-03-01

    The increase in global mean temperatures resulting from climate change has wide reaching consequences for the earth's ecosystems and other natural systems. Many studies have been devoted to evaluating the distribution and effects of these changes. We go a step further and evaluate global changes to the heat index, a measure of temperature as perceived by humans. Heat index, which is computed from temperature and relative humidity, is more important than temperature for the health of humans and other animals. Even in cases where the heat index does not reach dangerous levels from a health perspective, it has been shown to be an important factor in worker productivity and thus in economic productivity. We compute heat index from dewpoint temperature and absolute temperature 2 m above ground from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset for the years 1979-2013. The data is provided aggregated to daily minima, means and maxima (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.841057). Furthermore, the data is temporally aggregated to monthly and yearly values and spatially aggregated to the level of countries after being weighted by population density in order to demonstrate its usefulness for the analysis of its impact on human health and productivity. The resulting data deliver insights into the spatiotemporal development of near-ground heat index during the course of the past 3 decades. It is shown that the impact of changing heat index is unevenly distributed through space and time, affecting some areas differently than others. The likelihood of dangerous heat index events has increased globally. Also, heat index climate groups that would formerly be expected closer to the tropics have spread latitudinally to include areas closer to the poles. The data can serve in future studies as a basis for evaluating and understanding the evolution of heat index in the course of climate change, as well as its impact on human health and productivity.

  17. Temperature, global climate change and food security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accelerated climate change is expected to have a significant, but variable impact on the worlds major cropping zones. Crops will experience increasingly warmer, drier and more variable growing conditions in the temperate to subtropical latitudes towards 2050 and beyond. Short-term (1-5 day) spikes ...

  18. Acne, quorum sensing and danger.

    PubMed

    Lwin, S M; Kimber, I; McFadden, J P

    2014-03-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a ubiquitous skin commensal bacterium, which is normally well tolerated by the immune system in healthy human skin. However, there is increasing evidence to suggest a pivotal role for P. acnes in the inflammatory process underlying the acne pathogenesis. With its features of inflammation and pustulation, acne vulgaris resembles the skin's normal reaction to bacterial pathogens. P. acnes flourishes when sebum production increases in the follicles. Bacteria may undergo behavioural changes based on the surrounding bacterial population, a process called quorum sensing (QS). Evidence from in vitro studies suggests that QS enables P. acnes to upregulate its hydrolysis of sebum triglycerides by its bacterial lipases, secreting free fatty acids (FFAs) such as oleic, palmitic and lauric acids. These FFAs act as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), and activate Toll-like receptor (TLR)2 and TLR4, leading to selective T-helper (Th)-driven immunity, with subsequent expression of Th1/Th17-associated inflammatory cytokines. To our knowledge, there is currently no explanation as to what determines the shift of recognition by the immune system of P. acnes from being symbiotic to pathogenic. We present a novel hypothesis based on the essence of QS and DAMPs. P. acnes sends no or only 'safety' signals when present in 'controlled' quantities under commensal conditions, but becomes pathogenic and sends 'danger' signals via QS in the form of excess FFA production, which stimulates TLR2 and TLR4 as the bacterial population flourishes. PMID:24524558

  19. Stratospheric temperature changes during the satellite era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Dian J.; Li, Jian; Mears, Carl; Moradi, Isaac; Nash, John; Randel, William J.; Saunders, Roger; Thompson, David W. J.; Zou, Cheng-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Satellite-based layer average stratospheric temperature (T) climate data records (CDRs) now span more than three decades and so can elucidate climate variability associated with processes on multiple time scales. We intercompare and analyze available published T CDRs covering at least two decades, with a focus on Stratospheric Sounding Unit (SSU) and Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) CDRs. Recent research has reduced but not eliminated discrepancies between SSU CDRs developed by NOAA and the UK Meteorological Office. The MSU CDRs from NOAA and Remote Sensing Systems are in closer agreement than the CDR from the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The latter has a previously unreported inhomogeneity in 2005, revealed by an abrupt increase in the magnitude and spatial variability of T anomaly differences between CDRs. Although time-varying biases remain in both SSU and MSU CDRs, multiple linear regression analyses reveal consistent solar, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), quasi-biennial oscillation, aerosol, and piecewise-linear trend signals. Together, these predictors explain 80 to 90% of the variance in the near-global-average T CDRs. The most important predictor variables (in terms of percent explained variance in near-global-average T) for lower stratospheric T measured by MSU are aerosols, solar variability, and ENSO. Trends explain the largest percentage of variance in observations from all three SSU channels. In MSU and SSU CDRs, piecewise-linear trends, with a 1995 break point, indicate cooling during 1979-1994 but no trend during 1995-2013 for MSU and during 1995-2005 for SSU. These observational findings provide a basis for evaluating climate model simulations of stratospheric temperature during the past 35 years.

  20. Correlation of hippocampal theta rhythm with changes in cutaneous temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, J. M.; Saleh, M. A.; Karem, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Investigation of the possibility that the hippocampus performs the function of alerting an animal to changes in cutaneous temperature, using unanesthetized, loosely restrained rabbits. The results indicate that the hippocampal theta rhythm, which appears to be evoked by changes in cutaneous temperature, can be related to a specific type of hyppocampal neuron which is, in turn, connected with other areas of the brain involved in temperature regulation.

  1. The Effect of Temperature Changes in Vitreoretinal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Mario R.; Romano, Vito; Mauro, Alessandro; Angi, Martina; Costagliola, Ciro; Ambrosone, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies on temperature control in biology and medicine have found the temperature as a new instrument in healthcare. In this manuscript, we reviewed the effects of temperature and its potential role in pars plana vitrectomy. We also examined the relationship between intraocular pressure, viscosity, and temperature in order to determine the best balance to manipulate the tamponades during the surgery. Methods A literature review was performed to identify potentially relevant studies on intraocular temperature. Physics equations were applied to explain the described effects of temperature changes on the behavior of the endotamponades commonly used during vitreoretinal surgery. We also generated an operating diagram on the pressure–temperature plane for the values of both vapor–liquid equilibrium and intraocular pressure. Results The rapid circulation of fluid in the vitreous cavity reduces the heat produced by the retinal and choroidal surface, bringing the temperature toward room temperature (22°C, deep hypothermia). Temperature increases with endolaser treatment, air infusion, and the presence of silicone oil. The variations in temperature during vitreoretinal surgery are clinically significant, as the rheology of tamponades can be better manipulated by modulating intraocular pressure and temperature. Conclusions During vitreoretinal surgery, the intraocular temperature showed rapid and significant fluctuations at different steps of the surgical procedure inside the vitreous cavity. Temperature control can modulate the rheology of tamponades. Translational Relevance Intraoperative temperature control can improve neuroprotection during vitreoretinal surgery, induce the vaporization of perfluorcarbon liquid, and change the shear viscosity of silicone oil. PMID:26929884

  2. Observed groundwater temperature response to recent climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menberg, K.; Blum, P.; Kurylyk, B. L.; Bayer, P.

    2014-11-01

    Climate change is known to have a considerable influence on many components of the hydrological cycle. Yet, the implications for groundwater temperature, as an important driver for groundwater quality, thermal use and storage, are not yet comprehensively understood. Furthermore, few studies have examined the implications of climate-change-induced groundwater temperature rise for groundwater-dependent ecosystems. Here, we examine the coupling of atmospheric and groundwater warming by employing stochastic and deterministic models. Firstly, several decades of temperature time series are statistically analyzed with regard to climate regime shifts (CRSs) in the long-term mean. The observed increases in shallow groundwater temperatures can be associated with preceding positive shifts in regional surface air temperatures, which are in turn linked to global air temperature changes. The temperature data are also analyzed with an analytical solution to the conduction-advection heat transfer equation to investigate how subsurface heat transfer processes control the propagation of the surface temperature signals into the subsurface. In three of the four monitoring wells, the predicted groundwater temperature increases driven by the regime shifts at the surface boundary condition generally concur with the observed groundwater temperature trends. Due to complex interactions at the ground surface and the heat capacity of the unsaturated zone, the thermal signals from distinct changes in air temperature are damped and delayed in the subsurface, causing a more gradual increase in groundwater temperatures. These signals can have a significant impact on large-scale groundwater temperatures in shallow and economically important aquifers. These findings demonstrate that shallow groundwater temperatures have responded rapidly to recent climate change and thus provide insight into the vulnerability of aquifers and groundwater-dependent ecosystems to future climate change.

  3. Observed groundwater temperature response to recent climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menberg, K.; Blum, P.; Kurylyk, B. L.; Bayer, P.

    2014-03-01

    Climate change is known to have a considerable influence on many components of the hydrological cycle. Yet, the implications for groundwater temperature, as an important driver for groundwater quality, thermal use and storage, are not yet comprehensively understood. Furthermore, few studies have examined the implications of climate change-induced groundwater temperature rise for groundwater-dependent ecosystems. Here, we examine the coupling of atmospheric and groundwater warming by employing stochastic and deterministic models. Firstly, several decades of temperature time-series are statistically analyzed with regard to abrupt climate regime shifts (CRS) in the long-term mean. The observed abrupt increases in shallow groundwater temperatures can be associated with preceding positive shifts in regional surface air temperatures, which are in turn linked to global air temperature changes. The temperature data are also analyzed with an analytical solution to the conduction-advection heat transfer equation to investigate how subsurface heat transfer processes control the propagation of the surface temperature signals into the subsurface. In three of the four monitoring wells, the predicted groundwater temperature increases driven by the regime shifts at the surface boundary condition generally concur with the observed groundwater temperature trends. Due to complex interactions at the ground surface and the heat capacity of the unsaturated zone, the thermal signals from distinct changes in air temperature are damped and delayed in the subsurface, causing a more gradual increase in groundwater temperatures. These signals can have a significant impact on large-scale groundwater temperatures in shallow and economically important aquifers. These findings demonstrate that shallow groundwater temperatures have responded rapidly to recent climate change and thus provide insight into the vulnerability of aquifers and groundwater-dependent ecosystems to future climate change.

  4. Temperature variation makes ectotherms more sensitive to climate change.

    PubMed

    Paaijmans, Krijn P; Heinig, Rebecca L; Seliga, Rebecca A; Blanford, Justine I; Blanford, Simon; Murdock, Courtney C; Thomas, Matthew B

    2013-08-01

    Ectotherms are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate warming. Descriptions of habitat temperatures and predicted changes in climate usually consider mean monthly, seasonal or annual conditions. Ectotherms, however, do not simply experience mean conditions, but are exposed to daily fluctuations in habitat temperatures. Here, we highlight how temperature fluctuation can generate 'realized' thermal reaction (fitness) norms that differ from the 'fundamental' norms derived under standard constant temperatures. Using a mosquito as a model organism, we find that temperature fluctuation reduces rate processes such as development under warm conditions, increases processes under cool conditions, and reduces both the optimum and the critical maximum temperature. Generalizing these effects for a range of terrestrial insects reveals that prevailing daily fluctuations in temperature should alter the sensitivity of species to climate warming by reducing 'thermal safety margins'. Such effects of daily temperature dynamics have generally been ignored in the climate change literature. PMID:23630036

  5. Temperature variation makes ectotherms more sensitive to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Paaijmans, Krijn P; Heinig, Rebecca L; Seliga, Rebecca A; Blanford, Justine I; Blanford, Simon; Murdock, Courtney C; Thomas, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    Ectotherms are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate warming. Descriptions of habitat temperatures and predicted changes in climate usually consider mean monthly, seasonal or annual conditions. Ectotherms, however, do not simply experience mean conditions, but are exposed to daily fluctuations in habitat temperatures. Here, we highlight how temperature fluctuation can generate ‘realized’ thermal reaction (fitness) norms that differ from the ‘fundamental’ norms derived under standard constant temperatures. Using a mosquito as a model organism, we find that temperature fluctuation reduces rate processes such as development under warm conditions, increases processes under cool conditions, and reduces both the optimum and the critical maximum temperature. Generalizing these effects for a range of terrestrial insects reveals that prevailing daily fluctuations in temperature should alter the sensitivity of species to climate warming by reducing ‘thermal safety margins’. Such effects of daily temperature dynamics have generally been ignored in the climate change literature. PMID:23630036

  6. Phase change based cooling for high burst mode heat loads with temperature regulation above the phase change temperature

    DOEpatents

    The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy

    2009-12-15

    An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load.

  7. Dangerous marine animals.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, C

    1976-04-01

    Tales of dangerous marine animals have flourished, entwining history, legend and imagination. Man is now demonstrating his remarkable adaptability in returning to the aquatic environment, from which he had his origins, and factual knowledge of marine creatures is surplanting mystery, folklore and fear. There is still cause to fear certain aspects of the underwater world, and the one aspect that still holds sway over public interest is that of dangerous marine animals. There is little justification for this top priority. The kelp beds of San Diego will claim more diving victims than all the marine animals around the United States of America. The cold seas off the English coastline, the tidal currents of Hawaii and the multitude of drowning accidents in water caves of Florida and Australia belittle the relatively few fatalities caused by marine animals. Nevertheless, the latter do cause injury and death, especially in the tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. The Indo-Pacific area seems particularly well endowed with a variety of potentially lethal species, and some of these will be dealt with in this paper. PMID:942359

  8. Blasting away chemical danger

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, A.G.

    1980-10-15

    Jet Research Center (JRC), a Halliburton Co. subsidiary, and Haz-Tech have separately developed ''vent-and-burn'' techniques for disposing of dangerous flammable materials, especially flammable or explosive materials involved in transport accidents. At Molino, Florida, JRC used cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine to blow vent holes in derailed railroad cars that contained LPG, and ignited the escaping gas with thermite grenades attached to the cars, creating a high plume of fire, little lasting pollution, and the resolution of a dangerous situation without any major damage to the railroad cars, although the LPG was lost. According to A.G. Smith (EPA), a vent-and-burn operation should not be considered except in an emergency situation that meets several clearly defined criteria, including: that the accident would force the evacuation of at least 10-15 families for 2-3 weeks; that a boiling-liquid expanding-vapor explosion is likely; and that all concerned parties concur that a vent-and-burn operation should be attempted. The technique can not be used with some compounds, e.g., chlorine, that would produce less desirable vapors after combustion than the chlorine itself.

  9. Influence of temperature changes on migraine occurrence in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidt, Jörg; Koppe, Christina; Rill, Sven; Reinel, Dirk; Wogenstein, Florian; Drescher, Johannes

    2013-07-01

    Many factors trigger migraine attacks. Weather is often reported to be one of the most common migraine triggers. However, there is little scientific evidence about the underlying mechanisms and causes. In our pilot study, we used smartphone apps and a web form to collect around 4,700 migraine messages in Germany between June 2011 and February 2012. Taking interdiurnal temperature changes as an indicator for changes in the prevailing meteorological conditions, our analyses were focused on the relationship between temperature changes and the frequency of occurrence of migraine attacks. Linear trends were fitted to the total number of migraine messages with respect to temperature changes. Statistical and systematic errors were estimated. Both increases and decreases in temperature lead to a significant increase in the number of migraine messages. A temperature increase (decrease) of 5 °C resulted in an increase of 19 ± 7 % (24 ± 8 %) in the number of migraine messages.

  10. Interannual changes in Northern Hemispheric tropospheric temperatures, 1960-1989

    SciTech Connect

    Herbert, G.A.

    1992-03-01

    Tropospheric temperatures were calculated from geopotential thicknesses based on analyzed data for two layers, 850-700 and 700-500 hPa, for the past three decades. Comparison of the interannual changes in thickness temperatures with radiosonde thickness temperature and surface temperatures show substantial agreement, especially at the time of major changes such as cooling periods after the eruption of the Agung and El Chichon volcanoes. The temperature increase between two 13-year periods, 1964-1976 and 1977-1989, was greatest the winter season at both levels. The increase in temperature of the 850-100 hPa layer exceeded that of 700-500 hPa layer for comparable times of the year and grids. The polar region showed the largest temperature change. A plot of the 850-700 hPa layer, winter temperature changes for the octagonal grid, shows the largest positive change over Alaska, northern Canada, and western China. The dominant cooling occurred over the north Pacific and western Europe. The warm-cold couplet in the north Pacific suggests a change in the strength of the Aleutian low.

  11. Surface temperature changes in response to handling in domestic chickens.

    PubMed

    Edgar, J L; Nicol, C J; Pugh, C A; Paul, E S

    2013-07-01

    Stress-induced hyperthermia (SIH) occurs in numerous species and is characterised by an increase in core body temperature, and a decrease in surface temperature, of between 0.5 and 1.5C within 10 to 15 min of the onset of "emotional stress". The aim of the current study was to ascertain whether the husbandry-relevant procedure of handling resulted in measurable changes in surface body temperature in chickens, as measured using infrared thermography. Baseline temperatures for 19 domestic hens were compared to temperatures immediately, and up to 20 min following handling (catching and brief restraint by a human). Surface head, eye and comb temperatures were plotted to investigate the pattern of temperature change. In response to handling, comb temperature decreased significantly, showing a rapid 2C drop. Eye temperature showed an initial decrease then rose to levels significantly higher than handling. Head temperature increased over the 20 min post-handling period, to reach levels significantly higher than baseline. It can be concluded that surface temperature changes assessed using infrared thermography, in particular of the hen's comb, are sensitive to husbandry procedures such as handling and represent a potentially useful method for assessing stress-induced hyperthermia in chickens. PMID:23816981

  12. Adiabatic temperature change from non-adiabatic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, A. Magnus G.; Salazar Mejía, C.; Ponte, C. A.; Silva, L. E. L.; Kaštil, J.; Kamarád, J.; Gomes, A. M.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, we present a methodology to obtain the adiabatic temperature change from non-adiabatic measurements, which combines a homemade calorimetric device (used to measure the temperature change of magnetic materials) and a thermodynamic model (that accounts for the energy losses). This model fits optimally the thermomagnetic responses of metallic gadolinium at different conditions. The results for gadolinium indicate that, with the combination of our experimental setup and thermodynamic model, we are able to determine the real adiabatic temperature change in any magnetic material at stable equilibrium, even far from adiabatic conditions.

  13. Photovoltage response to temperature change at oxide semiconductor electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichman, B.; Byvik, C. E.

    1981-01-01

    A study has been carried out on single crystal electrodes of TiO2, SrTiO3, and alpha-Fe2O3 and polycrystalline WO3 to investigate the effect of cell temperature on the onset potential of n-type oxide semiconductor electrodes. It is found that the change of the onset potential with temperature is due to the potential change across the Helmholtz layer. The amount of this change depends on the point of zero zeta potential (pzzp) of the semiconductor electrode. The possibility of increasing the solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency of a photochemical cell by increasing the cell temperature is discussed.

  14. Observation of temperature trace, induced by changing of temperature inside the human body, on the human body skin using commercially available IR camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.

    2015-05-01

    As it is well-known, application of the passive THz camera for the security problems is very promising way. It allows seeing concealed object without contact with a person and this camera is non-dangerous for a person. In previous papers, we demonstrate new possibility of the passive THz camera using for a temperature difference observing on the human skin if this difference is caused by different temperatures inside the body. For proof of validity of our statement we make the similar physical experiment using the IR camera. We show a possibility of temperature trace on human body skin, caused by changing of temperature inside the human body due to water drinking. We use as a computer code that is available for treatment of images captured by commercially available IR camera, manufactured by Flir Corp., as well as our developed computer code for computer processing of these images. Using both codes we demonstrate clearly changing of human body skin temperature induced by water drinking. Shown phenomena are very important for the detection of forbidden samples and substances concealed inside the human body using non-destructive control without X-rays using. Early we have demonstrated such possibility using THz radiation. Carried out experiments can be used for counter-terrorism problem solving. We developed original filters for computer processing of images captured by IR cameras. Their applications for computer processing of images results in a temperature resolution enhancing of cameras.

  15. Changes in exposure temperature lead to changes in pesticide toxicity to earthworms: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Velki, Mirna; E?imovi?, Sandra

    2015-11-01

    The occurring climate changes will have direct consequences to all ecosystems, including the soil ecosystems. The effects of climate change include, among other, the changes in temperature and greater frequency and intensity of extreme weather conditions. Temperature is an important factor in ecotoxicological investigations since it can act as a stressor and influence the physiological status of organisms, as well as affect the fate and transport of pollutants present in the environment. However, most of so far conducted (eco)toxicological investigations neglected the possible effects of temperature and focused solely on the effects of toxicants on organisms. Considering that temperature can contribute to the toxicity of pollutants, it is of immense importance to investigate whether the change in the exposure temperature will impact the strength of the toxic effects of pollutants present in soil ecosystems. Therefore, in the present study the toxicity of several commonly used pesticides to earthworms was assessed under different exposure temperatures (15, 20 and 25C). The results showed that changes in exposure temperature lead to changes in susceptibility of earthworms to particular pesticides. Namely, exposures to the same pesticide concentration at different temperatures lead to different toxicity responses. Increase in exposure temperature in most cases caused increase in toxicity, whereas decrease in temperature mostly caused decrease in toxicity. This preliminary study points to need for an in-depth investigation of mechanisms by which temperature affects the toxicity of pesticides and also provides important data for future research on the effects of temperature change on the soil ecosystems. PMID:26436694

  16. Is moral bioenhancement dangerous?

    PubMed

    Drake, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In a recent response to Persson and Savulescu's Unfit for the Future, Nicholas Agar argues that moral bioenhancement is dangerous. His grounds for this are that normal moral judgement should be privileged because it involves a balance of moral subcapacities; moral bioenhancement, Agar argues, involves the enhancement of only particular moral subcapacities, and thus upsets the balance inherent in normal moral judgement. Mistaken moral judgements, he says, are likely to result. I argue that Agar's argument fails for two reasons. First, having strength in a particular moral subcapacity does not necessarily entail a worsening of moral judgement; it can involve strength in a particular aspect of morality. Second, normal moral judgement is not sufficiently likely to be correct to be the standard by which moral judgements are measured. PMID:26552998

  17. Is Brain Emulation Dangerous?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckersley, Peter; Sandberg, Anders

    2013-12-01

    Brain emulation is a hypothetical but extremely transformative technology which has a non-zero chance of appearing during the next century. This paper investigates whether such a technology would also have any predictable characteristics that give it a chance of being catastrophically dangerous, and whether there are any policy levers which might be used to make it safer. We conclude that the riskiness of brain emulation probably depends on the order of the preceding research trajectory. Broadly speaking, it appears safer for brain emulation to happen sooner, because slower CPUs would make the technology`s impact more gradual. It may also be safer if brains are scanned before they are fully understood from a neuroscience perspective, thereby increasing the initial population of emulations, although this prediction is weaker and more scenario-dependent. The risks posed by brain emulation also seem strongly connected to questions about the balance of power between attackers and defenders in computer security contests. If economic property rights in CPU cycles1 are essentially enforceable, emulation appears to be comparatively safe; if CPU cycles are ultimately easy to steal, the appearance of brain emulation is more likely to be a destabilizing development for human geopolitics. Furthermore, if the computers used to run emulations can be kept secure, then it appears that making brain emulation technologies ―open‖ would make them safer. If, however, computer insecurity is deep and unavoidable, openness may actually be more dangerous. We point to some arguments that suggest the former may be true, tentatively implying that it would be good policy to work towards brain emulation using open scientific methodology and free/open source software codebases

  18. PFP dangerous waste training plan

    SciTech Connect

    Khojandi, J.

    1996-01-01

    This document establishes the minimum training requirements for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) personnel who are responsible for management of dangerous waste. The training plan outlines training requirements for handling of solid dangerous waste during generator accumulation and liquid dangerous waste during treatment and storage operations. The implementation of this training plan will ensure the PFP facility compliance with the training plan requirements of Dangerous Waste Regulation. Chapter 173-303-330. Washington Administrative Code (WAC). The requirements for such compliance is described in Section 11.0 of WHC-CM-7-5 Environmental Compliance Manual.

  19. The Trends of Soil Temperature Change Associated with Air Temperature Change in Korea from 1973 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bo-Hyun; Park, Byeong-Hak; Koh, Eun-Hee; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2015-04-01

    Examining long-term trends of the soil temperature can contribute to assessing subsurface thermal environment. The recent 40-year (1973-2012) meteorological data from 14 Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) stations was analyzed in this study to estimate the temporal variations of air and soil temperatures (at depths 0.5 and 1.0m) in Korea and their relations. The information on regional characteristics of study sites was also collected to investigate the local and regional features influencing the soil temperature. The long-term increasing trends of both air and soil temperatures were estimated by using simple linear regression analysis. The air temperature rise and soil temperature rise were compared for every site to reveal the relation between air and soil temperature changes. In most sites, the proportion of soil temperature rise to air temperature rise was nearly one to one except a few sites. The difference between the air and soil temperature trends at those sites may be attributed to the combined effect of soil properties such as thermal diffusivity and soil moisture content. The impact of urbanization on the air and soil temperature was also investigated in this study. Establishment of the relationship between the air and soil temperatures can help predicting the soil temperature change in a region where no soil temperature data is obtained by using air temperature data. For rigorous establishment of the relationship between soil and air temperatures, more thorough investigation on the soil thermal properties is necessary through additional monitoring and accompanied validation of the proposed relations. Keywords : Soil temperature, Air temperature, Cross-correlation analysis, Soil thermal diffusivity, Urbanization effect Acknowledgement This work was supported by the research project of "Advanced Technology for Groundwater Development and Application in Riversides (Geowater+)" in "Water Resources Management Program (code 11 Technology Innovation C05)" of the MOLIT and the KAIA in Korea.

  20. Climate change signal analysis for Northeast Asian surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong-Hyeong; Kim, Byungsoo; Sohn, Keon-Tae; Kown, Won-Tae; Min, Seung-Ki

    2005-03-01

    Climate change detection, attribution, and prediction were studied for the surface temperature in the Northeast Asian region using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and three coupled-model simulations from ECHAM4/OPYC3, HadCM3, and CCCma GCMs (Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis general circulation model). The Bayesian fingerprint approach was used to perform the detection and attribution test for the anthropogenic climate change signal associated with changes in anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfate aerosol (SO{4/2-}) concentrations for the Northeast Asian temperature. It was shown that there was a weak anthropogenic climate change signal in the Northeast Asian temperature change. The relative contribution of CO2 and SO{4/2-} effects to total temperature change in Northeast Asia was quantified from ECHAM4/OPYC3 and CCCma GCM simulations using analysis of variance. For the observed temperature change for the period of 1959 1998, the CO2 effect contributed 10% 21% of the total variance and the direct cooling effect of SO{4/2-} played a less important role (0% 7%) than the CO2 effect. The prediction of surface temperature change was estimated from the second CO2+SO{4/2-} scenario run of ECHAM4/OPYC3 which has the least error in the simulation of the present-day temperature field near the Korean Peninsula. The result shows that the area-mean surface temperature near the Korean Peninsula will increase by about 1.1 by the 2040s relative to the 1990s.

  1. On Similarities Between the Earth Rotation and Temperature Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zotov, L. V.

    Earths rotation reflects processes in the atmosphere, ocean, Earths interior. The similarities between the global temperature oscillations and Earths rotation speed changes are well known, but still are not explained. We also have found similarities between ~ 20-year temperature oscillations, Chandler excitation envelope and cycle of regression of the Moon orbital nodes. In this short article we want to attract attention to this fact.

  2. Achieving temperature-size changes in a unicellular organism.

    PubMed

    Forster, Jack; Hirst, Andrew G; Esteban, Genoveva F

    2013-01-01

    The temperature-size rule (TSR) is an intraspecific phenomenon describing the phenotypic plastic response of an organism size to the temperature: individuals reared at cooler temperatures mature to be larger adults than those reared at warmer temperatures. The TSR is ubiquitous, affecting >80% species including uni- and multicellular groups. How the TSR is established has received attention in multicellular organisms, but not in unicells. Further, conceptual models suggest the mechanism of size change to be different in these two groups. Here, we test these theories using the protist Cyclidium glaucoma. We measure cell sizes, along with population growth during temperature acclimation, to determine how and when the temperature-size changes are achieved. We show that mother and daughter sizes become temporarily decoupled from the ratio 2:1 during acclimation, but these return to their coupled state (where daughter cells are half the size of the mother cell) once acclimated. Thermal acclimation is rapid, being completed within approximately a single generation. Further, we examine the impact of increased temperatures on carrying capacity and total biomass, to investigate potential adaptive strategies of size change. We demonstrate no temperature effect on carrying capacity, but maximum supported biomass to decrease with increasing temperature. PMID:22832346

  3. Achieving temperature-size changes in a unicellular organism

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Jack; Hirst, Andrew G; Esteban, Genoveva F

    2013-01-01

    The temperature-size rule (TSR) is an intraspecific phenomenon describing the phenotypic plastic response of an organism size to the temperature: individuals reared at cooler temperatures mature to be larger adults than those reared at warmer temperatures. The TSR is ubiquitous, affecting >80% species including uni- and multicellular groups. How the TSR is established has received attention in multicellular organisms, but not in unicells. Further, conceptual models suggest the mechanism of size change to be different in these two groups. Here, we test these theories using the protist Cyclidium glaucoma. We measure cell sizes, along with population growth during temperature acclimation, to determine how and when the temperature-size changes are achieved. We show that mother and daughter sizes become temporarily decoupled from the ratio 2:1 during acclimation, but these return to their coupled state (where daughter cells are half the size of the mother cell) once acclimated. Thermal acclimation is rapid, being completed within approximately a single generation. Further, we examine the impact of increased temperatures on carrying capacity and total biomass, to investigate potential adaptive strategies of size change. We demonstrate no temperature effect on carrying capacity, but maximum supported biomass to decrease with increasing temperature. PMID:22832346

  4. Clouds and temperature drive dynamic changes in tropical flower production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pau, Stephanie; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Nytch, Christopher J.; Regetz, James; Zimmerman, Jess K.; Joseph Wright, S.

    2013-09-01

    Tropical forests are incredibly dynamic, showing rapid and longer-term changes in growth, mortality and net primary productivity. Tropical species may be highly sensitive to temperature increases associated with climate change because of their narrow thermal tolerances. However, at the ecosystem scale the competing effects of temperature, light and precipitation on tropical forest productivity have been difficult to assess. Here we quantify cloudiness over the past several decades to investigate how clouds, together with temperature and precipitation, affect flower production in two contrasting tropical forests. Our results show that temperature, rather than clouds, is critically important to tropical forest flower production. Warmer temperatures increased flower production over seasonal, interannual and longer timescales, contrary to recent evidence that some tropical forests are already near their temperature threshold. Clouds were primarily important seasonally, and limited production in a seasonally dry forest but enhanced production in an ever-wet forest. A long-term increase in flower production at the seasonally dry forest is not driven by clouds and instead may be tied to increasing temperatures. These relationships show that tropical forest productivity, which is not widely thought to be controlled by temperature, is indeed sensitive to small temperature changes (1-4°C) across multiple timescales.

  5. The climate policy narrative for a dangerously warming world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, Todd; Frumhoff, Peter C.; Luers, Amy; Gulledge, Jay

    2014-03-01

    It is time to acknowledge that global average temperatures are likely to rise above the 2 C policy target and consider how that deeply troubling prospect should affect priorities for communicating and managing the risks of a dangerously warming climate.

  6. The Climate Policy Narrative for a Dangerously Warming World

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, Todd; Frumhoff, Peter; Luers, Amy; Gulledge, Jay

    2014-01-01

    It is time to acknowledge that global average temperatures will likely rise above the 2 C policy target and consider how that deeply troubling prospect should affect priorities for communicating and managing the risks of a dangerously warming climate.

  7. Behavioral responses of Atlantic cod to sea temperature changes.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Carla; Olsen, Esben Moland; Moland, Even; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Knutsen, Halvor

    2015-05-01

    Understanding responses of marine species to temperature variability is essential to predict impacts of future climate change in the oceans. Most ectotherms are expected to adjust their behavior to avoid extreme temperatures and minimize acute changes in body temperature. However, measuring such behavioral plasticity in the wild is challenging. Combining 4years of telemetry-derived behavioral data on juvenile and adult (30-80cm) Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), and in situ ocean temperature measurements, we found a significant effect of sea temperature on cod depth use and activity level in coastal Skagerrak. During summer, cod were found in deeper waters when sea surface temperature increased. Further, this effect of temperature was stronger on larger cod. Diel vertical migration, which consists in a nighttime rise to shallow feeding habitats, was stronger among smaller cod. As surface temperature increased beyond ?15C, their vertical migration was limited to deeper waters. In addition to larger diel vertical migrations, smaller cod were more active and travelled larger distances compared to larger specimens. Cold temperatures during winter tended, however, to reduce the magnitude of diel vertical migrations, as well as the activity level and distance moved by those smaller individuals. Our findings suggest that future and ongoing rises in sea surface temperature may increasingly deprive cod in this region from shallow feeding areas during summer, which may be detrimental for local populations of the species. PMID:26045957

  8. Behavioral responses of Atlantic cod to sea temperature changes

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Carla; Olsen, Esben Moland; Moland, Even; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Knutsen, Halvor

    2015-01-01

    Understanding responses of marine species to temperature variability is essential to predict impacts of future climate change in the oceans. Most ectotherms are expected to adjust their behavior to avoid extreme temperatures and minimize acute changes in body temperature. However, measuring such behavioral plasticity in the wild is challenging. Combining 4 years of telemetry-derived behavioral data on juvenile and adult (30–80 cm) Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), and in situ ocean temperature measurements, we found a significant effect of sea temperature on cod depth use and activity level in coastal Skagerrak. During summer, cod were found in deeper waters when sea surface temperature increased. Further, this effect of temperature was stronger on larger cod. Diel vertical migration, which consists in a nighttime rise to shallow feeding habitats, was stronger among smaller cod. As surface temperature increased beyond ∼15°C, their vertical migration was limited to deeper waters. In addition to larger diel vertical migrations, smaller cod were more active and travelled larger distances compared to larger specimens. Cold temperatures during winter tended, however, to reduce the magnitude of diel vertical migrations, as well as the activity level and distance moved by those smaller individuals. Our findings suggest that future and ongoing rises in sea surface temperature may increasingly deprive cod in this region from shallow feeding areas during summer, which may be detrimental for local populations of the species. PMID:26045957

  9. Solar geoengineering to limit the rate of temperature change.

    PubMed

    MacMartin, Douglas G; Caldeira, Ken; Keith, David W

    2014-12-28

    Solar geoengineering has been suggested as a tool that might reduce damage from anthropogenic climate change. Analysis often assumes that geoengineering would be used to maintain a constant global mean temperature. Under this scenario, geoengineering would be required either indefinitely (on societal time scales) or until atmospheric CO2 concentrations were sufficiently reduced. Impacts of climate change, however, are related to the rate of change as well as its magnitude. We thus describe an alternative scenario in which solar geoengineering is used only to constrain the rate of change of global mean temperature; this leads to a finite deployment period for any emissions pathway that stabilizes global mean temperature. The length of deployment and amount of geoengineering required depends on the emissions pathway and allowable rate of change, e.g. in our simulations, reducing the maximum approximately 0.3C per decade rate of change in an RCP 4.5 pathway to 0.1C per decade would require geoengineering for 160 years; under RCP?6.0, the required time nearly doubles. We demonstrate that feedback control can limit rates of change in a climate model. Finally, we note that a decision to terminate use of solar geoengineering does not automatically imply rapid temperature increases: feedback could be used to limit rates of change in a gradual phase-out. PMID:25404687

  10. Perceived Dangerousness of Recreational Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luce, Terrence S.; Merrel, Judy C.

    1995-01-01

    In this study both college students and degreed nurses were asked to estimate the abuse potential and lethality of recreational drugs, both licit and illicit. Findings indicate that the illicit drugs under consideration were perceived as presenting the greatest danger to the user. Dangers attributed to the use of licit recreational drugs were…

  11. Temperature acclimation of photosynthesis: mechanisms involved in the changes in temperature dependence of photosynthetic rate.

    PubMed

    Hikosaka, Kouki; Ishikawa, Kazumasa; Borjigidai, Almaz; Muller, Onno; Onoda, Yusuke

    2006-01-01

    Growth temperature alters temperature dependence of the photosynthetic rate (temperature acclimation). In many species, the optimal temperature that maximizes the photosynthetic rate increases with increasing growth temperature. In this minireview, mechanisms involved in changes in the photosynthesis-temperature curve are discussed. Based on the biochemical model of photosynthesis, change in the photosynthesis-temperature curve is attributable to four factors: intercellular CO2 concentration, activation energy of the maximum rate of RuBP (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate) carboxylation (Vc max), activation energy of the rate of RuBP regeneration (Jmax), and the ratio of Jmax to Vc max. In the survey, every species increased the activation energy of Vc max with increasing growth temperature. Other factors changed with growth temperature, but their responses were different among species. Among these factors, activation energy of Vc max may be the most important for the shift of optimal temperature of photosynthesis at ambient CO2 concentrations. Physiological and biochemical causes for the change in these parameters are discussed. PMID:16364948

  12. Small lakes show muted climate change signal in deepwater temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winslow, Luke A.; Read, Jordan S.; Hansen, Gretchen J. A.; Hanson, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    temperature observations were collected from 142 lakes across Wisconsin, USA, to examine variation in temperature of lakes exposed to similar regional climate. Whole lake water temperatures increased across the state from 1990 to 2012, with an average trend of 0.042°C yr-1 ± 0.01°C yr-1. In large (>0.5 km2) lakes, the positive temperature trend was similar across all depths. In small lakes (<0.5 km2), the warming trend was restricted to shallow waters, with no significant temperature trend observed in water >0.5 times the maximum lake depth. The differing response of small versus large lakes is potentially a result of wind-sheltering reducing turbulent mixing magnitude in small lakes. These results demonstrate that small lakes respond differently to climate change than large lakes, suggesting that current predictions of impacts to lakes from climate change may require modification.

  13. Electrostatic Thermal Energy Harvester Using Unsteady Temperature Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Junya; Morimoto, Kenichi; Suzuki, Yuji

    2013-12-01

    A model electrostatic thermal generator using unsteady temperature change is proposed. The device consists of a capacitor based on high-permittivity ceramics, and an electret layer serving as a permanent voltage source. Connecting them in series, permittivity change by temporal temperature change alters the amount of induced charges on the electrode thereby produces electric current in the external circuit. Optimum design parameters of the system have been obtained using a simplified circuit model. An early prototype using BaTiO3 ceramic as the dielectric and SiO2 as the electret is microfabricated, and its response is compared with the model prediction.

  14. Temperature Dependence of Phase-Change Random Access Memory Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, X. S.; Shi, L. P.; Lee, H. K.; Li, J. M.; Zhao, R.; Tan, P. K.; Lim, K. G.; Yang, H. X.; Chong, T. C.

    2006-05-01

    The temperature dependences of phase-change random access memory (PCRAM) cells on different Ge-Sb-Te phase-change recording materials are studied and compared. A Ge2Sb2Te5 phase-change film has a larger resistance margin and a higher thermal stability than Ge1Sb2Te4 and Ge1Sb4Te7 films. The set resistance, reset resistance, resistance margin and threshold voltage of PCRAM cells decrease with increasing temperature. A Ge2Sb2Te5 PCRAM cell has a higher thermal stability of threshold voltage than Ge1Sb2Te4 and Ge1Sb4Te7 PCRAM cells.

  15. Climate Change and the Impact of Extreme Temperatures on Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffel, E.; Horton, R.

    2015-01-01

    Temperature and airport elevation significantly influence the maximum allowable takeoff weight of an aircraft by changing the surface air density and thus the lift produced at a given speed. For a given runway length, airport elevation, and aircraft type, there is a temperature threshold above which the airplane cannot take off at its maximum weight and thus must be weight restricted. The number of summer days necessitating weight restriction has increased since 1980 along with the observed increase in surface temperature. Climate change is projected to increase mean temperatures at all airports and to significantly increase the frequency and severity of extreme heat events at some. These changes will negatively affect aircraft performance, leading to increased weight restrictions, especially at airports with short runways and little room to expand. For a Boeing 737-800 aircraft, it was found that the number of weight-restriction days between May and September will increase by 50%-200% at four major airports in the United States by 2050-70 under the RCP8.5 emissions scenario. These performance reductions may have a negative economic effect on the airline industry. Increased weight restrictions have previously been identified as potential impacts of climate change, but this study is the first to quantify the effect of higher temperatures on commercial aviation. Planning for changes in extreme heat events will help the aviation industry to reduce its vulnerability to this aspect of climate change.

  16. Phase Change Material Systems for High Temperature Heat Storage.

    PubMed

    Perraudin, David Y S; Binder, Selmar R; Rezaei, Ehsan; Ortonaa, Alberto; Haussener, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Efficient, cost effective, and stable high-temperature heat storage material systems are important in applications such as high-temperature industrial processes (metal processing, cement and glass manufacturing, etc.), or electricity storage using advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage. Incorporating phase change media into heat storage systems provides an advantage of storing and releasing heat at nearly constant temperature, allowing steady and optimized operation of the downstream processes. The choice of, and compatibility of materials and encapsulation for the phase change section is crucial, as these must guarantee good and stable performance and long lifetime at low cost. Detailed knowledge of the material properties and stability, and the coupled heat transfer, phase change, and fluid flow are required to allow for performance and lifetime predictions. We present coupled experimental-numerical techniques allowing prediction of the long-term performance of a phase change material-based high-temperature heat storage system. The experimental investigations focus on determination of material properties (melting temperature, heat of fusion, etc.) and phase change material and encapsulation interaction (stability, interface reactions, etc.). The computational investigations focus on an understanding of the multi-mode heat transfer, fluid flow, and phase change processes in order to design the material system for enhanced performance. The importance of both the experimental and numerical approaches is highlighted and we give an example of how both approaches can be complementarily used for the investigation of long-term performance. PMID:26842330

  17. Changes in population occupancy of Bradyrhizobia under different temperature regimes.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Yuichi; Ozumi, Satoru; Yamamoto, Akihiro; Umehara, Yosuke; Hayashi, Masaki; Sigua, Gilbert C

    2010-01-01

    To elucidate how temperature affects bradyrhizobial ecology, long-term incubations of Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 6(T), 38, and 123 and of Bradyrhizobium elkanii USDA 76(T) were conducted under various temperature conditions. Proliferative traits in liquid culture and population occupancies in soil microcosms were compared. The occupancies of USDA 76(T) and USDA 123 in soil microcosms during long-term incubation changed with the temperature conditions. These results suggest that temperature is an environmental factor affecting the ecology and occupancy of bradyrhizobia in soils. PMID:21576887

  18. Multicomponent phase change microfibers prepared by temperature control multifluidic electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Wang, N; Chen, Hongyan; Lin, Ling; Zhao, Yong; Cao, Xinyu; Song, Yanlin; Jiang, Lei

    2010-09-15

    Multicomponent phase change microfibers, which can storage and release thermal energy in a stepwise manner, are firstly prepared through a facile one-step multifluidic compound-jet electrospinning with temperature control. The multiresponsive effect benefits from a special multichannel tubular microstructure that could controllably encapsulate different phase change materials into the channels independently. Aside from the fabrication of multicomponent phase change microfibers, the melt multifluidic compound-jet electrospinning is promising for applications related to microencapsulation and multifunctional material fields. PMID:21567573

  19. Snow and the ground temperature record of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Marshall G.; Chapman, David S.; Harris, Robert N.

    2004-12-01

    Borehole temperature-depth profiles contain a record of surface ground temperature (SGT) changes with time and complement surface air temperature (SAT) analysis to infer climate change over multiple centuries. Ground temperatures are generally warmer than air temperatures due to solar radiation effects in the summer and the insulating effect of snow cover during the winter. The low thermal diffusivity of snow damps surface temperature variations; snow effectively acts as an insulator of the ground during the coldest part of the year. A numerical model of snow-ground thermal interactions is developed to investigate the effect of seasonal snow cover on annual ground temperatures. The model is parameterized in terms of three snow event parameters: onset time of the annual snow event, duration of the event, and depth of snow during the event. These parameters are commonly available from meteorological and remotely sensed data making the model broadly applicable. The model is validated using SAT, subsurface temperature from a depth of 10 cm, and snow depth data from the 6 years of observations at Emigrant Pass climate observatory in northwestern Utah and 217 station years of National Weather Service data from sites across North America. Measured subsurface temperature-time series are compared to changes predicted by the model. The model consistently predicts ground temperature changes that compare well with those observed. Sensitivity analysis of the model leads to a nonlinear relationship between the three snow event parameters (onset, duration, and depth of the annual snow event) and the influence snow has on mean annual SGT.

  20. Mitigating Climate Change with Ocean Pipes: Influencing Land Temperature and Hydrology and Termination Overshoot Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, L.; Caldeira, K.; Ricke, K.

    2014-12-01

    With increasing risk of dangerous climate change geoengineering solutions to Earth's climate problems have attracted much attention. One proposed geoengineering approach considers the use of ocean pipes as a means to increase ocean carbon uptake and the storage of thermal energy in the deep ocean. We use a latest generation Earth System Model (ESM) to perform simulations of idealised extreme implementations of ocean pipes. In our simulations, downward transport of thermal energy by ocean pipes strongly cools the near surface atmosphere - by up to 11°C on a global mean. The ocean pipes cause net thermal energy to be transported from the terrestrial environment to the deep ocean while increasing the global net transport of water to land. By cooling the ocean surface more than the land, ocean pipes tend to promote a monsoonal-type circulation, resulting in increased water vapour transport to land. Throughout their implementation, ocean pipes prevent energy from escaping to space, increasing the amount of energy stored in Earth's climate system despite reductions in surface temperature. As a consequence, our results indicate that an abrupt termination of ocean pipes could cause dramatic increases in surface temperatures beyond that which would have been obtained had ocean pipes not been implemented.

  1. Changes in precipitation and temperature in Xiangjiang River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chong; Pan, Suli; Wang, Guoqing; Liao, Yufang; Xu, Yue-Ping

    2016-02-01

    Global warming brings a huge challenge to society and human being. Understanding historic and future potential climate change will be beneficial to regional crop, forest, and water management. This study aims to analyze the precipitation and temperature changes in the historic period and future period 2021-2050 in the Xiangjiang River Basin, China. The Mann-Kendall rank test for trend and change point analysis was used to analyze the changes in trend and magnitude based on historic precipitation and temperature time series. Four global climate models (GCMs) and a statistical downscaling approach, LARS-WG, were used to estimate future precipitation and temperature under RCP4.5. The results show that annual precipitation in the basin is increasing, although not significant, and will probably continue to increase in the future on the basis of ensemble projections of four GCMs. Temperature is increasing in a significant way and all GCMs projected continuous temperature increase in the future. There will be more extreme events in the future, including both extreme precipitation and temperature.

  2. Changes in precipitation and temperature in Xiangjiang River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chong; Pan, Suli; Wang, Guoqing; Liao, Yufang; Xu, Yue-Ping

    2015-02-01

    Global warming brings a huge challenge to society and human being. Understanding historic and future potential climate change will be beneficial to regional crop, forest, and water management. This study aims to analyze the precipitation and temperature changes in the historic period and future period 2021-2050 in the Xiangjiang River Basin, China. The Mann-Kendall rank test for trend and change point analysis was used to analyze the changes in trend and magnitude based on historic precipitation and temperature time series. Four global climate models (GCMs) and a statistical downscaling approach, LARS-WG, were used to estimate future precipitation and temperature under RCP4.5. The results show that annual precipitation in the basin is increasing, although not significant, and will probably continue to increase in the future on the basis of ensemble projections of four GCMs. Temperature is increasing in a significant way and all GCMs projected continuous temperature increase in the future. There will be more extreme events in the future, including both extreme precipitation and temperature.

  3. Alterations in MAST suit pressure with changes in ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Sanders, A B; Meislin, H W; Daub, E

    1983-01-01

    A study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that change in ambient air temperature has an effect on MAST suit pressure according to the ideal gas law. Two different MAST suits were tested on Resusci-Annie dummies. The MAST suits were applied in a cold room at 4.4 degrees C and warmed to 44 degrees C. Positive linear correlations were found in nine trials, but the two suits differed in their rate of increase in pressure. Three trials using humans were conducted showing increased pressure with temperature but at a lesser rate than with dummies. A correlation of 0.5 to 1.0 mm Hg increase in MAST suit pressure for each 1.0 degrees C increase in ambient temperature was found. Implications are discussed for the use of the MAST suit in environmental conditions where the temperature changes. PMID:6679851

  4. Associations of Inter- and Intraday Temperature Change With Mortality.

    PubMed

    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Forsberg, Bertil; Tobias, Aurelio; Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel; Armstrong, Ben; Gasparrini, Antonio

    2016-02-15

    In this study we evaluated the association between temperature variation and mortality and compared it with the contribution due to mean daily temperature in 6 cities with different climates. Quasi-Poisson time series regression models were applied to estimate the associations (relative risk and 95% confidence interval) of mean daily temperature (99th and 1st percentiles, with temperature of minimum mortality as the reference category), interday temperature variation (difference between the mean temperatures of 2 neighboring days) and intraday temperature variation (diurnal temperature range (DTR)) (referred to as median variation) with mortality in 6 cities: London, United Kingdom; Madrid, Spain; Stockholm, Sweden; New York, New York; Miami, Florida; and Houston, Texas (date range, 1985-2010). All cities showed a substantial increase in mortality risk associated with mean daily temperature, with relative risks reaching 1.428 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.329, 1.533) for heat in Madrid and 1.467 (95% CI: 1.385, 1.555) for cold in London. Inconsistent results for inter-/intraday change were obtained, except for some evidence of protective associations on hot and cold days (relative risk (RR) = 0.977 (95% CI: 0.955, 0.999) and RR = 0.981 (95% CI: 0.971, 0.991), respectively) in Madrid and on cold days in Stockholm (RR = 0.989, 95% CI: 0.980, 0.998). Our results indicate that the association between mortality and temperature variation is generally minimal compared with mean daily temperatures, although further research on intraday changes is needed. PMID:26811244

  5. Associations of Inter- and Intraday Temperature Change With Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M.; Forsberg, Bertil; Tobias, Aurelio; Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel; Armstrong, Ben; Gasparrini, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the association between temperature variation and mortality and compared it with the contribution due to mean daily temperature in 6 cities with different climates. Quasi-Poisson time series regression models were applied to estimate the associations (relative risk and 95% confidence interval) of mean daily temperature (99th and 1st percentiles, with temperature of minimum mortality as the reference category), interday temperature variation (difference between the mean temperatures of 2 neighboring days) and intraday temperature variation (diurnal temperature range (DTR)) (referred to as median variation) with mortality in 6 cities: London, United Kingdom; Madrid, Spain; Stockholm, Sweden; New York, New York; Miami, Florida; and Houston, Texas (date range, 1985–2010). All cities showed a substantial increase in mortality risk associated with mean daily temperature, with relative risks reaching 1.428 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.329, 1.533) for heat in Madrid and 1.467 (95% CI: 1.385, 1.555) for cold in London. Inconsistent results for inter-/intraday change were obtained, except for some evidence of protective associations on hot and cold days (relative risk (RR) = 0.977 (95% CI: 0.955, 0.999) and RR = 0.981 (95% CI: 0.971, 0.991), respectively) in Madrid and on cold days in Stockholm (RR = 0.989, 95% CI: 0.980, 0.998). Our results indicate that the association between mortality and temperature variation is generally minimal compared with mean daily temperatures, although further research on intraday changes is needed. PMID:26811244

  6. Rearing Temperature Influences Adult Response to Changes in Mating Status

    PubMed Central

    Westerman, Erica; Monteiro, Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Rearing environment can have an impact on adult behavior, but it is less clear how rearing environment influences adult behavior plasticity. Here we explore the effect of rearing temperature on adult mating behavior plasticity in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, a species that has evolved two seasonal forms in response to seasonal changes in temperature. These seasonal forms differ in both morphology and behavior. Females are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at warm temperatures (WS butterflies), and males are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at cooler temperatures (DS butterflies). Rearing temperature also influences mating benefits and costs. In DS butterflies, mated females live longer than virgin females, and mated males live shorter than virgin males. No such benefits or costs to mating are present in WS butterflies. Given that choosiness and mating costs are rearing temperature dependent in B. anynana, we hypothesized that temperature may also impact male and female incentives to remate in the event that benefits and costs of second matings are similar to those of first matings. We first examined whether lifespan was affected by number of matings. We found that two matings did not significantly increase lifespan for either WS or DS butterflies relative to single matings. However, both sexes of WS but not DS butterflies experienced decreased longevity when mated to a non-virgin relative to a virgin. We next observed pairs of WS and DS butterflies and documented changes in mating behavior in response to changes in the mating status of their partner. WS but not DS butterflies changed their mating behavior in response to the mating status of their partner. These results suggest that rearing temperature influences adult mating behavior plasticity in B. anynana. This developmentally controlled behavioral plasticity may be adaptive, as lifespan depends on the partner’s mating status in one seasonal form, but not in the other. PMID:26863319

  7. Rearing Temperature Influences Adult Response to Changes in Mating Status.

    PubMed

    Westerman, Erica; Monteiro, Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Rearing environment can have an impact on adult behavior, but it is less clear how rearing environment influences adult behavior plasticity. Here we explore the effect of rearing temperature on adult mating behavior plasticity in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, a species that has evolved two seasonal forms in response to seasonal changes in temperature. These seasonal forms differ in both morphology and behavior. Females are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at warm temperatures (WS butterflies), and males are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at cooler temperatures (DS butterflies). Rearing temperature also influences mating benefits and costs. In DS butterflies, mated females live longer than virgin females, and mated males live shorter than virgin males. No such benefits or costs to mating are present in WS butterflies. Given that choosiness and mating costs are rearing temperature dependent in B. anynana, we hypothesized that temperature may also impact male and female incentives to remate in the event that benefits and costs of second matings are similar to those of first matings. We first examined whether lifespan was affected by number of matings. We found that two matings did not significantly increase lifespan for either WS or DS butterflies relative to single matings. However, both sexes of WS but not DS butterflies experienced decreased longevity when mated to a non-virgin relative to a virgin. We next observed pairs of WS and DS butterflies and documented changes in mating behavior in response to changes in the mating status of their partner. WS but not DS butterflies changed their mating behavior in response to the mating status of their partner. These results suggest that rearing temperature influences adult mating behavior plasticity in B. anynana. This developmentally controlled behavioral plasticity may be adaptive, as lifespan depends on the partner's mating status in one seasonal form, but not in the other. PMID:26863319

  8. Solar geoengineering to limit the rate of temperature change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMartin, D. G.; Caldeira, K.; Keith, D.

    2014-12-01

    Solar geoengineering has been suggested as a tool that might reduce damages from an-thropogenic climate change. Analysis often assumes that geoengineering would be used tomaintain a constant global mean temperature. Under this scenario, geoengineering would be required either indefinitely (on societal timescales) or until atmospheric CO2 concentrations were sufficiently reduced. Impacts of climate change, however, are related to the rate of change as well as its magnitude. We thus describe an alternate scenario in which solargeoengineering is used only to constrain the rate of change of global mean temperature; this leads to a finite deployment period for any emissions pathway that stabilizes global mean temperature. The length of deployment and amount of geoengineering required depend on the emissions pathway and allowable rate of change, e.g. in our simulations, reducing the maximum ?0.3C/decade rate of change in an RCP4.5 pathway to 0.1C/decade would require geoengineering for 160 years; under RCP6.0 the required time nearly doubles. We further note that a decision to terminate use of solar geoengineering does not automatically imply rapid temperature increases: feedback could be used to limit rates of change in agradual phase-out. Second, we demonstrate that feedback control can limit rates of change in a climate model. This involves a related observation - in any future implementation, models used to predict behavior will not be perfect, and adjusting the level of solar geoengineering inresponse to climate observations is essential. This feedback process is thus essential for managing uncertainty (and is the answer to the question of how we can engineer a systemthat we don't fully understand). Once this feedback is included, however, meeting some particular objective (such as a specified rate of change) can be achieved without an accurate model of the climate system.

  9. Summer hot temperature Return Levels in the climate change context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parey, Sylvie; Thu Huong Hoang, Thi

    2015-04-01

    Climate change and the role of human activities are now attested, and IPCC stated in its last assessment report issued in 2013-2014 that "continued emissions of greenhouse gases will cause further warming and changes in all components of the climate system". In such a context, it is now impossible to consider temperature time series as stationary to estimate extreme values like Return Levels (RL) of hot summer temperature. The first approach, used to estimate near future RLs, consists in identifying and extrapolating trends in the parameters of the classical extreme value distributions. For the design of new installations and a farther time scale, a new methodology has been proposed in order to take climate model results into account. This methodology is based on the link between trends in mean and variance and trends in extremes. Climate model results allow inferring far future mean and variance of temperature, which are more robust outputs than the changes in extreme events, and then future extremes can be estimated through the extremes of the stationary residuals obtained when mean and variance trends have been removed and these future mean and variance. Both approaches will be illustrated using an observed temperature time series and different climate models as in Parey et al. 2010. Parey, S., T. T. H. Hoang, and D. Dacunha-Castelle (2010b), Different ways to compute temperature return levels in the climate change context, Environmetrics, 21, 698-718.

  10. Climate change and the impact of extreme temperatures on aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffel, E.; Horton, R.

    2014-12-01

    Weather is the most significant factor affecting aircraft operations, accounting for 70-80% of passenger delays and costing airlines hundreds of millions of dollars per year in lost revenue. Temperature and airport elevation significantly influence the maximum allowable takeoff weight of an aircraft by changing the surface air density and thus the lift produced at a given speed. For a given runway length, airport elevation, and aircraft type there is a temperature threshold above which the airplane cannot take off at its maximum weight and thus must be weight restricted. The number of summer days necessitating weight restriction has increased since 1980 along with the observed increase in surface temperature. Climate change is projected to increase mean temperatures at all airports and significantly increase the frequency and severity of extreme heat events at some. These changes will negatively affect aircraft performance, leading to increased weight restrictions especially at airports with short runways and little room to expand. For a Boeing 737-800 aircraft, we find that the number of weight restriction days between May and September will increase by 50-100% at four major airports in the United States by 2050-2070 under the RCP8.5 high emissions scenario. These performance reductions may have a significant economic effect on the airline industry, leading to lower profits and higher passenger fares. Increased weight restrictions have previously been identified as potential impacts of climate change, but this study is the first to quantify the effect of higher temperatures on commercial aviation.

  11. Thermal Acoustic Waves from Wall with Temporal Temperature Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, G.; Tsukamoto, M.; Sakurai, A.

    2011-05-01

    Although phenomenon of thermo-acoustic wave has been known for many years in some familiar experiences such as "singing flame" from Bunsen burner, recent trends of utilizing it for the industrial applications urge the understandings of basic details of the phenomenon itself. Here we consider, in this connection, the problem of acoustic wave generation from a particular heat source of solid wall whose temperature changes with time and the phenomenon of temperature change by standing wave oscillating in closed tube. For these we set a hollow tube whose temperature at its one end wall changes with time, and compute flow field inside using the molecular kinetic model, which is found to be more convenient for the boundary value fitting than the ordinary acoustic theory system to this problem. In practice, we use the Boltzmann equation with the BGK approximation, and compute two cases above in monotonic and sinusoidal temperature changes with time. Results of both cases show propagating density wave from the wall almost in acoustic velocity to the first case and the temperature decreases in average to the second case.

  12. Laser-tissue photothermal interaction and tissue temperature change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ives, Andrea K.; Chen, Wei R.; Jassemnejad, Baha; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Liu, Hong; Nordquist, John A.; Nordquist, Robert E.

    2000-06-01

    Responses of tissue to laser stimulation are crucial in both disease diagnostics and treatment. In general, when tissue absorbs laser energy photothermal interaction occurs. The most important signature of the photothermal reaction is the tissue temperature change during and after the laser irradiation. Experimentally, the tissue reaction to laser irradiation can be measured by numerous methods including direct temperature measurement and measurement of perfusion change. In this study, a multiple-channel temperature probe was used to measure tissue temperature change during irradiation of lasers with different wavelengths at different power settings. Tissue temperature in chicken breast tissue as well as skin and breast tumor of rats was measured during irradiation of an 805-nm diode laser. The vertical profiles of temperature were obtained using simultaneous measurement at several different locations. The absorption of laser energy by tissue was enhanced by injecting laser-absorbing dye into the tissue. A Nd:YAG laser of 1064-nm wavelength was also used to irradiate turkey breast tissue. Our results showed that both laser penetration ability and photothermal reaction depended on the wavelength of lasers. In the case of 805-nm laser, the temperature increased rapidly only in the region close to the laser source and the thermal equilibrium could be reached within a short time period. The laser absorbing dye drastically enhanced the thermal reaction, resulting in approximately 4-fold temperature increase. On the contrary, the laser beam with 1064-nm wavelength penetrated deeply into tissue and the tissue temperature continued increasing even after a 10-minute laser irradiation.

  13. Ground and air temperature tracking: Applications in climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Marshall Grant

    2005-11-01

    Borehole temperature-depth profiles contain a record of surface ground temperature (SGT) changes with time and complement surface air temperature (SAT) analysis to infer climate change over multiple centuries. Ground temperatures are generally warmer than air temperatures due to solar radiation effects in the summer and the insulating effect of snow cover during the winter. The low thermal diffusivity of snow damps surface temperature variations; snow effectively acts as an insulator of the ground during the coldest part of the year. A numerical model of snow-ground thermal interactions is developed to investigate the effect of seasonal snow cover on annual ground temperatures. Using the model, we calculate the response of SGT to changes in seasonal snow cover in North America from 1950--2002, the period for which comprehensive snow and air observations exist across the region. There are no significant trends in either onset or duration from 1950--2002. Winter season air temperature has warmed during this period, particularly from 1970--2002. The effect of the combination of a relatively stationary snow season with winter season SAT warming has been to diminish the mean annual SGT-SAT offset by -0.05 K/decade over the past 30 years. In addition to snow cover, incident solar radiation can have a pronounced effect on ground temperatures. Using data from Emigrant Pass Observatory in northwestern Utah, we investigate the impact that radiation and snow have had on SGT at this site during the period 1993--2004. Solar radiation is observed to exert a linear influence on the SGT-SAT difference with a trend of 1.21 K per 100 Wm-2 and can account for the 2.47 K average offset in SGT-SAT. Snow cover exerts only a minor influence on the annual tracking of SGT and SAT at the site.

  14. Global Surface Temperature Change and Uncertainties Since 1861

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Samuel S. P.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this talk is to analyze the warming trend and its uncertainties of the global and hemi-spheric surface temperatures. By the method of statistical optimal averaging scheme, the land surface air temperature and sea surface temperature observational data are used to compute the spatial average annual mean surface air temperature. The optimal averaging method is derived from the minimization of the mean square error between the true and estimated averages and uses the empirical orthogonal functions. The method can accurately estimate the errors of the spatial average due to observational gaps and random measurement errors. In addition, quantified are three independent uncertainty factors: urbanization, change of the in situ observational practices and sea surface temperature data corrections. Based on these uncertainties, the best linear fit to annual global surface temperature gives an increase of 0.61 +/- 0.16 C between 1861 and 2000. This lecture will also touch the topics on the impact of global change on nature and environment. as well as the latest assessment methods for the attributions of global change.

  15. Scaling law for electrocaloric temperature change in antiferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenkov, S.; Mani, B. K.; Glazkova, E.; Miller, C. W.; Ponomareva, I.

    2016-01-01

    A combination of theoretical and first-principles computational methods, along with experimental evidence from the literature, were used to predict the existence of a scaling law for the electrocaloric temperature change in antiferroelectric materials. We show that the temperature change scales quadratically with electric field, allowing a simple transformation to collapse the set of ΔT(E) onto a single curve. This offers a unique method that can be used to predict electrocaloric behavior beyond the limits of present measurement ranges or in regions where data are not yet available.

  16. Phase change material for temperature control and material storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessling, Jr., Francis C. (Inventor); Blackwood, James M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A phase change material comprising a mixture of water and deuterium oxide is described, wherein the mole fraction of deuterium oxide is selected so that the mixture has a selected phase change temperature within a range between 0.degree. C. and 4.degree. C. The mixture is placed in a container and used for passive storage and transport of biomaterials and other temperature sensitive materials. Gels, nucleating agents, freezing point depression materials and colorants may be added to enhance the characteristics of the mixture.

  17. Scaling law for electrocaloric temperature change in antiferroelectrics

    PubMed Central

    Lisenkov, S.; Mani, B. K.; Glazkova, E.; Miller, C. W.; Ponomareva, I.

    2016-01-01

    A combination of theoretical and first-principles computational methods, along with experimental evidence from the literature, were used to predict the existence of a scaling law for the electrocaloric temperature change in antiferroelectric materials. We show that the temperature change scales quadratically with electric field, allowing a simple transformation to collapse the set of ΔT(E) onto a single curve. This offers a unique method that can be used to predict electrocaloric behavior beyond the limits of present measurement ranges or in regions where data are not yet available. PMID:26796343

  18. Can air temperature be used to project influences of climate change on stream temperature?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arismendi, Ivan; Safeeq, Mohammad; Dunham, Jason B.; Johnson, Sherri L.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, lack of data on stream temperature has motivated the use of regression-based statistical models to predict stream temperatures based on more widely available data on air temperatures. Such models have been widely applied to project responses of stream temperatures under climate change, but the performance of these models has not been fully evaluated. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the performance of two widely used linear and nonlinear regression models that predict stream temperatures based on air temperatures. We evaluated model performance and temporal stability of model parameters in a suite of regulated and unregulated streams with 11–44 years of stream temperature data. Although such models may have validity when predicting stream temperatures within the span of time that corresponds to the data used to develop them, model predictions did not transfer well to other time periods. Validation of model predictions of most recent stream temperatures, based on air temperature–stream temperature relationships from previous time periods often showed poor performance when compared with observed stream temperatures. Overall, model predictions were less robust in regulated streams and they frequently failed in detecting the coldest and warmest temperatures within all sites. In many cases, the magnitude of errors in these predictions falls within a range that equals or exceeds the magnitude of future projections of climate-related changes in stream temperatures reported for the region we studied (between 0.5 and 3.0 °C by 2080). The limited ability of regression-based statistical models to accurately project stream temperatures over time likely stems from the fact that underlying processes at play, namely the heat budgets of air and water, are distinctive in each medium and vary among localities and through time.

  19. Change point detection of the Persian Gulf sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirvani, A.

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the Student's t parametric and Mann-Whitney nonparametric change point models (CPMs) were applied to detect change point in the annual Persian Gulf sea surface temperature anomalies (PGSSTA) time series for the period 1951-2013. The PGSSTA time series, which were serially correlated, were transformed to produce an uncorrelated pre-whitened time series. The pre-whitened PGSSTA time series were utilized as the input file of change point models. Both the applied parametric and nonparametric CPMs estimated the change point in the PGSSTA in 1992. The PGSSTA follow the normal distribution up to 1992 and thereafter, but with a different mean value after year 1992. The estimated slope of linear trend in PGSSTA time series for the period 1951-1992 was negative; however, that was positive after the detected change point. Unlike the PGSSTA, the applied CPMs suggested no change point in the Nio3.4SSTA time series.

  20. The Jastak System: Dangerous Nonsense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Barbara; Judd, Ben, Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The Jastak System of obtaining scores on "personality" dimensions is currently widely promoted. It is shown to be totally spurious, based on hereditarian doctrines long in disrepute, and dangerous in use. The promotional techniques used are also described. (Author)

  1. Near-Term Acceleration In The Rate of Temperature Change

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Edmonds, James A.; Hartin, Corinne A.; Mundra, Anupriya; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2015-03-09

    Anthropogenically-driven climate changes, which are expected to impact human and natural systems, are often expressed in terms of global-mean temperature . The rate of climate change over multi-decadal scales is also important, with faster rates of change resulting in less time for human and natural systems to adapt . We find that current trends in greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions are now moving the Earth system into a regime in terms of multi-decadal rates of change that are unprecedented for at least the last 1000 years. The rate of global-mean temperature increase in the CMIP5 archive over 40-year periods increases to 0.25±0.05 (1σ) °C per decade by 2020, an average greater than peak rates of change during the previous 1-2 millennia. Regional rates of change in Europe, North America and the Arctic are higher than the global average. Research on the impacts of such near-term rates of change is urgently needed.

  2. Geothermal climate change observatory in south India 1: Borehole temperatures and inferred surface temperature histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkiraju, Vyasulu V.; Roy, Sukanta

    Temperature-depth profiles measured in boreholes contain records of changes in surface ground temperature over the past few centuries. We have recently set up a geothermal climate change observatory at the Choutuppal campus of National Geophysical Research Institute (17.29 N, 78.92 E) to measure subsurface temperature changes on annual to decadal timescales and quantify how well they track surface temperature changes. The site is located about 60 km to the east of Hyderabad in south India, in a designated reserved forest land and far from potential urban heat islands. In April 2009, two boreholes were drilled to depths of 210 m and 21 m respectively after careful site selection to minimize perturbations to the subsurface temperatures on account of groundwater flow in the borehole, large thermal conductivity contrasts and rugged topography. Temperature measurements in the two holes are being carried out periodically. Analysis of equilibrium temperature-depth profile in the 210 m deep borehole reveals at least two ongoing events that started during the past Century: (i) surface ground warming of 0.5 0.1 C over the past 92 7 years, and (ii) a more recent cooling of ?1 C over the past ?39 years, probably representing local changes to surface vegetation caused by the presence of a thicker grass cover throughout the year inside the campus since 1967 AD compared to the short cropping of grass outside it. The inferred surface ground warming is consistent with estimates from temperature measurements in three other boreholes (170-300 m deep) distributed in a 10 5 km 2 area in the vicinity of the observatory (mean: 0.5 0.1 C over the past 93 21 years), and is characteristic of the Interior Peninsula region of south India.

  3. Use of a pneumatic tourniquet induces changes in central temperature.

    PubMed

    Estebe, J P; Le Naoures, A; Malledant, Y; Ecoffey, C

    1996-12-01

    Twenty-six patients requiring orthopaedic surgery were anaesthetized and oesophageal and rectal temperature were monitored continuously. Twenty patients requiring a pneumatic tourniquet were allocated prospectively to one of two groups: passive group (Pg) with reflective insulation on all available skin surface (n = 10) and forced group (Fg), with active warming by a forced air system (n = 10). Six patients without a tourniquet were used as a reference group (Rg). The pneumatic tourniquet time was similar in the tourniquet groups. During tourniquet inflation, oesophageal temperature increased with time. The difference was significant compared with the reference group at approximately 20 min. At about 30 min, oesophageal temperature in group Fg was significantly higher than that in group Pg. After tourniquet deflation, temperature decreased transiently. Changes in rectal temperature were similar but delayed significantly. A mechanism to explain the increase in core temperature during pneumatic tourniquet use remains unclear. A redistribution mechanism by cooling of the blood in a cold and vasodilated limb could explain the decrease of temperature after tourniquet deflation. PMID:9014635

  4. Surface Temperatures on Titan; Changes During the Cassini Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Cottini, Valeria; Nixon, Conor A.

    2010-01-01

    Surface brightness temperatures on Titan measured by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) aboard Cassini span the period from late northern winter to early spring. The CIRS observations cover all latitudes and can be used to study meridional changes with season. CIRS previously reported surface temperatures from 2004-2008 which were 93.7 K at the equator with decreases of 2 K toward the south pole and 3 K toward the north pole'. From a comparison of the equinox period with the earlier data, CIRS can now detect a seasonal shift in the latitudinal distribution of temperatures. Around the time of the equinox the meridional distribution was more symmetric about the equator than had been found earlier in the mission. The equatorial surface temperatures remained close to 94 K, but in the south the temperatures had decreased by about 0.5 K and in the north had increased by about 0.5 K. The CIRS equinox results are similar to what was seen near the previous vernal equinox by Voyager IRIS Z. The observed surface temperatures can help constrain the type of surface material by comparison with predictions from general circulation models. Of the three cases treated by Tokano t , our measurements most closely match a porous-ice regolith. As Cassini continues through Titan's northern spring CIRS will extend its temporal and spatial coverage and will continue to search for seasonal variations in surface temperature.

  5. Model-based estimation of changes in air temperature seasonality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Susana; Trigo, Ricardo

    2010-05-01

    Seasonality is a ubiquitous feature in climate time series. Climate change is expected to involve not only changes in the mean of climate parameters but also changes in the characteristics of the corresponding seasonal cycle. Therefore the identification and quantification of changes in seasonality is a highly relevant topic in climate analysis, particularly in a global warming context. However, the analysis of seasonality is far from a trivial task. A key challenge is the discrimination between long-term changes in the mean and long-term changes in the seasonal pattern itself, which requires the use of appropriate statistical approaches in order to be able to distinguish between overall trends in the mean and trends in the seasons. Model based approaches are particularly suitable for the analysis of seasonality, enabling to assess uncertainties in the amplitude and phase of seasonal patterns within a well defined statistical framework. This work addresses the changes in the seasonality of air temperature over the 20th century. The analysed data are global air temperature values close to surface (2m above ground) and mid-troposphere (500 hPa geopotential height) from the recently developed 20th century reanalysis. This new 3-D Reanalysis dataset is available since 1891, considerably extending all other Reanalyses currently in use (e.g. NCAR, ECWMF), and was obtained with the Ensemble Filter (Compo et al., 2006) by assimilation of pressure observations into a state-of-the-art atmospheric general circulation model that includes the radiative effects of historical time-varying CO2 concentrations, volcanic aerosol emissions and solar output variations. A modeling approach based on autoregression (Barbosa et al, 2008; Barbosa, 2009) is applied within a Bayesian framework for the estimation of a time varying seasonal pattern and further quantification of changes in the amplitude and phase of air temperature over the 20th century. Barbosa, SM, Silva, ME, Fernandes, MJ, 2008. Changing seasonality in North Atlantic coastal sea level from the analysis of long tide gauge records. Tellus, 60A, 165-177. Barbosa, SM, 2009. Changing seasonality in Europe's air temperature. European Physical Journal - Special Topics, 174, 81-89. Compo,G.P., J.S. Whitaker, and P.D. Sardeshmukh, 2006: Feasibility of a 100 year reanalysis using only surface pressure data. Bull. Amer. Met. Soc., 87, 175-190.

  6. Hydrodynamic model of temperature change in open ionic channels.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, D P; Eisenberg, R S; Jerome, J W; Shu, C W

    1995-01-01

    Most theories of open ionic channels ignore heat generated by current flow, but that heat is known to be significant when analogous currents flow in semiconductors, so a generalization of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck theory of channels, called the hydrodynamic model, is needed. The hydrodynamic theory is a combination of the Poisson and Euler field equations of electrostatics and fluid dynamics, conservation laws that describe diffusive and convective flow of mass, heat, and charge (i.e., current), and their coupling. That is to say, it is a kinetic theory of solute and solvent flow, allowing heat and current flow as well, taking into account density changes, temperature changes, and electrical potential gradients. We integrate the equations with an essentially nonoscillatory shock-capturing numerical scheme previously shown to be stable and accurate. Our calculations show that 1) a significant amount of electrical energy is exchanged with the permeating ions; 2) the local temperature of the ions rises some tens of degrees, and this temperature rise significantly alters for ionic flux in a channel 25 A long, such as gramicidin-A; and 3) a critical parameter, called the saturation velocity, determines whether ionic motion is overdamped (Poisson-Nernst-Planck theory), is an intermediate regime (called the adiabatic approximation in semiconductor theory), or is altogether unrestricted (requiring the full hydrodynamic model). It seems that significant temperature changes are likely to accompany current flow in the open ionic channel. PMID:8599638

  7. Attribution of extreme temperature changes during 1951-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeon-Hee; Min, Seung-Ki; Zhang, Xuebin; Zwiers, Francis; Alexander, Lisa V.; Donat, Markus G.; Tung, Yu-Shiang

    2016-03-01

    An attribution analysis of extreme temperature changes is conducted using updated observations (HadEX2) and multi-model climate simulation (CMIP5) datasets for an extended period of 1951-2010. Compared to previous HadEX/CMIP3-based results, which identified human contributions to the observed warming of extreme temperatures on global and regional scales, the current results provide better agreement with observations, particularly for the intensification of warm extremes. Removing the influence of two major modes of natural internal variability (the Arctic Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation) from observations further improves attribution results, reducing the model-observation discrepancy in cold extremes. An optimal fingerprinting technique is used to compare observed changes in annual extreme temperature indices of coldest night and day (TNn, TXn) and warmest night and day (TNx, TXx) with multi-model simulated changes that were simulated under natural-plus-anthropogenic and natural-only (NAT) forcings. Extreme indices are standardized for better intercomparisons between datasets and locations prior to analysis and averaged over spatial domains from global to continental regions following a previous study. Results confirm previous HadEX/CMIP3-based results in which anthropogenic (ANT) signals are robustly detected in the increase in global mean and northern continental regional means of the four indices of extreme temperatures. The detected ANT signals are also clearly separable from the response to NAT forcing, and results are generally insensitive to the use of different model samples as well as different data availability.

  8. No increase in global temperature variability despite changing regional patterns.

    PubMed

    Huntingford, Chris; Jones, Philip D; Livina, Valerie N; Lenton, Timothy M; Cox, Peter M

    2013-08-15

    Evidence from Greenland ice cores shows that year-to-year temperature variability was probably higher in some past cold periods, but there is considerable interest in determining whether global warming is increasing climate variability at present. This interest is motivated by an understanding that increased variability and resulting extreme weather conditions may be more difficult for society to adapt to than altered mean conditions. So far, however, in spite of suggestions of increased variability, there is considerable uncertainty as to whether it is occurring. Here we show that although fluctuations in annual temperature have indeed shown substantial geographical variation over the past few decades, the time-evolving standard deviation of globally averaged temperature anomalies has been stable. A feature of the changes has been a tendency for many regions of low variability to experience increases, which might contribute to the perception of increased climate volatility. The normalization of temperature anomalies creates the impression of larger relative overall increases, but our use of absolute values, which we argue is a more appropriate approach, reveals little change. Regionally, greater year-to-year changes recently occurred in much of North America and Europe. Many climate models predict that total variability will ultimately decrease under high greenhouse gas concentrations, possibly associated with reductions in sea-ice cover. Our findings contradict the view that a warming world will automatically be one of more overall climatic variation. PMID:23883935

  9. Attribution of extreme temperature changes during 1951-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeon-Hee; Min, Seung-Ki; Zhang, Xuebin; Zwiers, Francis; Alexander, Lisa V.; Donat, Markus G.; Tung, Yu-Shiang

    2015-05-01

    An attribution analysis of extreme temperature changes is conducted using updated observations (HadEX2) and multi-model climate simulation (CMIP5) datasets for an extended period of 1951-2010. Compared to previous HadEX/CMIP3-based results, which identified human contributions to the observed warming of extreme temperatures on global and regional scales, the current results provide better agreement with observations, particularly for the intensification of warm extremes. Removing the influence of two major modes of natural internal variability (the Arctic Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation) from observations further improves attribution results, reducing the model-observation discrepancy in cold extremes. An optimal fingerprinting technique is used to compare observed changes in annual extreme temperature indices of coldest night and day (TNn, TXn) and warmest night and day (TNx, TXx) with multi-model simulated changes that were simulated under natural-plus-anthropogenic and natural-only (NAT) forcings. Extreme indices are standardized for better intercomparisons between datasets and locations prior to analysis and averaged over spatial domains from global to continental regions following a previous study. Results confirm previous HadEX/CMIP3-based results in which anthropogenic (ANT) signals are robustly detected in the increase in global mean and northern continental regional means of the four indices of extreme temperatures. The detected ANT signals are also clearly separable from the response to NAT forcing, and results are generally insensitive to the use of different model samples as well as different data availability.

  10. Small lakes show muted climate change signal in deepwater temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winslow, Luke A.; Read, Jordan S.; Hansen, Gretchen J. A.; Hanson, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Water temperature observations were collected from 142 lakes across Wisconsin, USA, to examine variation in temperature of lakes exposed to similar regional climate. Whole lake water temperatures increased across the state from 1990 to 2012, with an average trend of 0.042°C yr−1 ± 0.01°C yr−1. In large (>0.5 km2) lakes, the positive temperature trend was similar across all depths. In small lakes (<0.5 km2), the warming trend was restricted to shallow waters, with no significant temperature trend observed in water >0.5 times the maximum lake depth. The differing response of small versus large lakes is potentially a result of wind-sheltering reducing turbulent mixing magnitude in small lakes. These results demonstrate that small lakes respond differently to climate change than large lakes, suggesting that current predictions of impacts to lakes from climate change may require modification.

  11. Negativity Bias in Dangerous Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jing; Qu, Weina; Sun, Xianghong; Zhang, Kan; Ge, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The behavioral and cognitive characteristics of dangerous drivers differ significantly from those of safe drivers. However, differences in emotional information processing have seldom been investigated. Previous studies have revealed that drivers with higher anger/anxiety trait scores are more likely to be involved in crashes and that individuals with higher anger traits exhibit stronger negativity biases when processing emotions compared with control groups. However, researchers have not explored the relationship between emotional information processing and driving behavior. In this study, we examined the emotional information processing differences between dangerous drivers and safe drivers. Thirty-eight non-professional drivers were divided into two groups according to the penalty points that they had accrued for traffic violations: 15 drivers with 6 or more points were included in the dangerous driver group, and 23 drivers with 3 or fewer points were included in the safe driver group. The emotional Stroop task was used to measure negativity biases, and both behavioral and electroencephalograph data were recorded. The behavioral results revealed stronger negativity biases in the dangerous drivers than in the safe drivers. The bias score was correlated with self-reported dangerous driving behavior. Drivers with strong negativity biases reported having been involved in mores crashes compared with the less-biased drivers. The event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed that the dangerous drivers exhibited reduced P3 components when responding to negative stimuli, suggesting decreased inhibitory control of information that is task-irrelevant but emotionally salient. The influence of negativity bias provides one possible explanation of the effects of individual differences on dangerous driving behavior and traffic crashes. PMID:26765225

  12. Phasic temperature change patterns affect growth and tuberization in potatoes

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, W.; Tibbitts, T.W. . Dept. of Horticulture)

    1994-07-01

    This study determined the response of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Norland) plants to various patterns of air temperature changes over different growth periods. In each of two experiments under controlled environments, eight treatments of temperature changes were carried out in two growth rooms maintained at 17 and 22 C and a constant vapor pressure deficit of 0.60 kPa and 14-hour photoperiod. Plants were grown for 63 days after transplanting of tissue culture plantlets in 20-liter pots containing peat-vermiculite mix. Temperature changes were imposed on days 21 and 42, which were essentially at the beginning of tuber initiation and tuber enlargement, respectively, for this cultivar. Plants were moved between two temperature rooms to obtain eight temperature change patterns: 17-17-17, 17-17-22, 17-22-17, 22-17-17, 17-22-22, 22-17-22, 22-22-17, and 22-22-22C over three 21-day growth periods. At harvest on day 63, total plant dry weight was higher for the treatments beginning with 22 C than for those beginning with 17C, with highest biomass obtained at 22-22-17 and 22-17-17C. Shoot dry weight increased with temperature increased from 17-17-17 to 22-22-22C during the three growth periods. Tuber dry weight was highest with 22-17-17C, and lowest with 17-17-22 and 17-22-22C. With 22-17-17C, both dry weights of stolons and roots were lowest. Total tuber number and number of small tubers were highest with 17-17-17 and 17-17-22C, and lowest with 17-22-22 and 22-22-22C, whereas number of medium tubers was highest with 22-17-22C, and number of large tubers was highest with 22-17-17C. This study indicates that tuber development of potatoes is optimized with a phasic pattern of high temperature during early growth and low temperature during later growth.

  13. Changes in diurnal temperature range and national cereal yields

    SciTech Connect

    Lobell, D

    2007-04-26

    Models of yield responses to temperature change have often considered only changes in average temperature (Tavg), with the implicit assumption that changes in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) can safely be ignored. The goal of this study was to evaluate this assumption using a combination of historical datasets and climate model projections. Data on national crop yields for 1961-2002 in the 10 leading producers of wheat, rice, and maize were combined with datasets on climate and crop locations to evaluate the empirical relationships between Tavg, DTR, and crop yields. In several rice and maize growing regions, including the two major nations for each crop, there was a clear negative response of yields to increased DTR. This finding reflects a nonlinear response of yields to temperature, which likely results from greater water and heat stress during hot days. In many other cases, the effects of DTR were not statistically significant, in part because correlations of DTR with other climate variables and the relatively short length of the time series resulted in wide confidence intervals for the estimates. To evaluate whether future changes in DTR are relevant to crop impact assessments, yield responses to projected changes in Tavg and DTR by 2046-2065 from 11 climate models were estimated. The mean climate model projections indicated an increase in DTR in most seasons and locations where wheat is grown, mixed projections for maize, and a general decrease in DTR for rice. These mean projections were associated with wide ranges that included zero in nearly all cases. The estimated impacts of DTR changes on yields were generally small (<5% change in yields) relative to the consistently negative impact of projected warming of Tavg. However, DTR changes did significantly affect yield responses in several cases, such as in reducing US maize yields and increasing India rice yields. Because DTR projections tend to be positively correlated with Tavg, estimates of yields under extreme warming scenarios were particularly affected by including DTR (up to 10%). Finally, based on the relatively poor performance of climate models in reproducing the magnitude of past DTR trends, it is possible that future DTR changes and associated yield responses will exceed the ranges considered here.

  14. Main Dangers of Our Times.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synek, Miroslav

    2003-03-01

    Terrorism and threatening dictatorships are the main, man-made, dangers of our times. They are run by master demagogues, or, brain-washing manipulators. ----- Our next step in coping with terrorism is to counter master demagoguery. Therefore, supporting EDUCATION that would emphasize the most unifying (and the least controversial), yet, BASIC CIVIC RESPECT for lives of people in a civilian human society, is a priority everywhere on our planet. ----- At the same time we start facing mostly small, threatening, dictatorships, capable of producing weapons of mass destruction. Therefore, we have to try to contribute to developing systems of FREE ELECTIONS, controlling weapons of mass destruction, wherever such dangers exist. ----- In a foreseeable future, unfortunately, we are facing a danger even by orders of magnitude greater. We are facing a possibility of a mass-produced heavy accumulation of inter-continental nuclear missiles, on a computerized "push-button" control, by a very powerful (and, quite possibly, miscalculating, or, suicidal) dictator, dangerous to the very existence of humanity on our planet. Therefore, it is a historical urgency that such a technological power be under the control by a government of the people, by the people and for the people, based on a sufficiently reliable system of FREE ELECTIONS, wherever, on our planet, such a potential danger may originate.

  15. Extracting changes in air temperature using acoustic coda phase delays.

    PubMed

    Marcillo, Omar; Arrowsmith, Stephen; Whitaker, Rod; Morton, Emily; Scott Phillips, W

    2014-10-01

    Blast waves produced by 60 high-explosive detonations were recorded at short distances (few hundreds of meters); the corresponding waveforms show charge-configuration independent coda-like features (i.e., similar shapes, amplitudes, and phases) lasting several seconds. These features are modeled as reflected and/or scattered waves by acoustic reflectors/scatters surrounding the explosions. Using explosion pairs, relative coda phase delays are extracted and modeled as changes in sound speed due to changes in air temperature. Measurements from nearby weather towers are used for validation. PMID:25324115

  16. [Legal aspects of keeping dangerous terrarium animals].

    PubMed

    Rssel, D

    2003-05-01

    Besides dangerous dogs, there are also other species of dangerous animals. While the legal regulations concerning dangerous dogs are well known and discussed everywhere, the rules concerning exotic dangerous animals are mostly unknown and, besides of this, not well practicable because of their considerable deficiencies. PMID:12822261

  17. Skin temperature changes induced by strong static magnetic field exposure.

    PubMed

    Ichioka, Shigeru; Minegishi, Masayuki; Iwasaka, Masakazu; Shibata, Masahiro; Nakatsuka, Takashi; Ando, Joji; Ueno, Shoogo

    2003-09-01

    High intensity static magnetic fields, when applied to the whole body of the anesthetized rat, have previously been reported to decrease skin temperature. The hypothesis of the present study was that in diamagnetic water, molecules in the air play significant roles in the mechanism of skin temperature decrease. We used a horizontal cylindrical superconducting magnet. The magnet produced 8 T at its center. A thermistor probe was inserted in a subcutaneous pocket of the anesthetized rats to measure skin temperature. Animals (n=10) were placed in an open plastic holder in which the ambient air was free to move in any direction (group I). Animals (n=10) were placed in a closed holder in which the air circulation toward the direction of weak magnetic field was restricted (group II). Each holder was connected to a hydrometer to measure humidity around the animal in the holder. The data acquisition phase consisted of a 5 min baseline interval, followed by inserting the animal together with the holder into the center of the magnet bore for a 5 min exposure and a 5 min postexposure period outside the bore. In group I, skin temperature and humidity around the animal significantly decreased during exposure, followed by recovery after exposure. In group II, skin temperature and humidity did not decrease during the measurement. The skin temperature decrease was closely related to the decrease in humidity around the body of the animal in the holder, and the changes were completely blocked by restricting the air circulation in the direction of the bore entrance. Possible mechanisms responsible for the decrease in skin temperature may be associated with magnetically induced movement of water vapor at the skin surface, leading to skin temperature decrease. PMID:12929156

  18. Causes of Greenland temperature variability over the past 4000 yr: implications for northern hemispheric temperature changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobashi, T.; Goto-Azuma, K.; Box, J. E.; Gao, C.-C.; Nakaegawa, T.

    2013-10-01

    Precise understanding of Greenland temperature variability is important in two ways. First, Greenland ice sheet melting associated with rising temperature is a major global sea level forcing, potentially affecting large populations in coming centuries. Second, Greenland temperatures are highly affected by North Atlantic Oscillation/Arctic Oscillation (NAO/AO) and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO). In our earlier study, we found that Greenland temperature deviated negatively (positively) from northern hemispheric (NH) temperature trend during stronger (weaker) solar activity owing to changes in atmospheric/oceanic changes (e.g. NAO/AO) over the past 800 yr (Kobashi et al., 2013). Therefore, a precise Greenland temperature record can provide important constraints on the past atmospheric/oceanic circulation in the region and beyond. Here, we investigated Greenland temperature variability over the past 4000 yr reconstructed from argon and nitrogen isotopes from trapped air in a GISP2 ice core, using a one-dimensional energy balance model with orbital, solar, volcanic, greenhouse gas, and aerosol forcings. The modelled northern Northern Hemisphere (NH) temperature exhibits a cooling trend over the past 4000 yr as observed for the reconstructed Greenland temperature through decreasing annual average insolation. With consideration of the negative influence of solar variability, the modelled and observed Greenland temperatures agree with correlation coefficients of r = 0.34-0.36 (p = 0.1-0.04) in 21 yr running means (RMs) and r = 0.38-0.45 (p = 0.1-0.05) on a centennial timescale (101 yr RMs). Thus, the model can explain 14 to 20% of variance of the observed Greenland temperature in multidecadal to centennial timescales with a 90-96% confidence interval, suggesting that a weak but persistent negative solar influence on Greenland temperature continued over the past 4000 yr. Then, we estimated the distribution of multidecadal NH and northern high-latitude temperatures over the past 4000 yr constrained by the climate model and Greenland temperatures. Estimated northern NH temperature and NH average temperature from the model and the Greenland temperature agree with published multi-proxy temperature records with r = 0.35-0.60 in a 92-99% confidence interval over the past 2000 yr. We found that greenhouse gases played two important roles over the past 4000 yr for the rapid warming during the 20th century and slightly cooler temperature during the early period of the past 4000 yr. Lastly, our analysis indicated that the current average temperature (1990-2010) or higher temperatures occurred at a frequency of 1.3 times per 1000 yr for northern high latitudes and 0.36 times per 4000 yr for NH temperatures, respectively, indicating that the current multidecadal NH temperature (1990-2010) is more likely unprecedented than not (p = 0.36) for the past 4000 yr.

  19. Reconciling anthropogenic climate change with observed temperature 1998-2008.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Robert K; Kauppi, Heikki; Mann, Michael L; Stock, James H

    2011-07-19

    Given the widely noted increase in the warming effects of rising greenhouse gas concentrations, it has been unclear why global surface temperatures did not rise between 1998 and 2008. We find that this hiatus in warming coincides with a period of little increase in the sum of anthropogenic and natural forcings. Declining solar insolation as part of a normal eleven-year cycle, and a cyclical change from an El Nino to a La Nina dominate our measure of anthropogenic effects because rapid growth in short-lived sulfur emissions partially offsets rising greenhouse gas concentrations. As such, we find that recent global temperature records are consistent with the existing understanding of the relationship among global surface temperature, internal variability, and radiative forcing, which includes anthropogenic factors with well known warming and cooling effects. PMID:21730180

  20. Reconciling anthropogenic climate change with observed temperature 19982008

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Robert K.; Kauppi, Heikki; Mann, Michael L.; Stock, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Given the widely noted increase in the warming effects of rising greenhouse gas concentrations, it has been unclear why global surface temperatures did not rise between 1998 and 2008. We find that this hiatus in warming coincides with a period of little increase in the sum of anthropogenic and natural forcings. Declining solar insolation as part of a normal eleven-year cycle, and a cyclical change from an El Nino to a La Nina dominate our measure of anthropogenic effects because rapid growth in short-lived sulfur emissions partially offsets rising greenhouse gas concentrations. As such, we find that recent global temperature records are consistent with the existing understanding of the relationship among global surface temperature, internal variability, and radiative forcing, which includes anthropogenic factors with well known warming and cooling effects. PMID:21730180

  1. Power change in amorphous silicon technology by low temperature annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Ankit; Rennhofer, Marcus; Dangel, Angelika; Duman, Bogdan; Schlosser, Victor

    2015-07-01

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si) is one of the best established thin-film solar-cell technologies. Despite its long history of research, it still has many critical issues because of its defect rich material and its susceptibility to degrade under light also called as Staebler-Wronski effect (SWE). This leads to an increase in the defect density of a-Si, but as a metastable effect it can be completely healed at temperatures above 170 C. Our study is focused on investigating the behavior of annealing of different a-Si modules under low temperature conditions below 80 C indicated by successive change of module power. These conditions reflect the environmental temperature impact of the modules in the field, or integrated in buildings as well. The power changes were followed by STC power rating and investigation of module-power evolution under low irradiance conditions at 50 W/m2. Our samples were recovered close to their initial state of power, reaching as high as 99% from its degraded value. This shows the influence of low temperature annealing and light on metastable module behavior in a-Si thin-film modules.

  2. Effects of temperature changes on maize production in Mozambique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, L.; Michaelsen, J.; Funk, C.; Husak, G.

    2011-01-01

    We examined intraseasonal changes in maize phenology and heat stress exposure over the 1979-2008 period, using Mozambique meteorological station data and maize growth requirements in a growing degree-day model. Identifying historical effects of warming on maize growth is particularly important in Mozambique because national food security is highly dependent on domestic food production, most of which is grown in already warm to hot environments. Warming temperatures speed plant development, shortening the length of growth periods necessary for optimum plant and grain size. This faster phenological development also alters the timing of maximum plant water demand. In hot growing environments, temperature increases during maize pollination threaten to make midseason crop failure the norm. In addition to creating a harsher thermal environment, we find that early season temperature increases have caused the maize reproductive period to start earlier, increasing the risk of heat and water stress. Declines in time to maize maturation suggest that, independent of effects to water availability, yield potential is becoming increasingly limited by warming itself. Regional variations in effects are a function of the timing and magnitude of temperature increases and growing season characteristics. Continuation of current climatic trends could induce substantial yield losses in some locations. Farmers could avoid some losses through simple changes to planting dates and maize varietal types.

  3. Global changes in the synchronicity of seasonal rainfall and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, X.; Porporato, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Seasonal variations in climatic inputs (in particular, rainfall and potential evapotranspiration) have garnered considerable attention in recent years as controlling factors for hydrological and ecosystem responses. These emphases on the role of climate seasonality come at a time of discernible climate change. Previously, we have shown that the interannual variability in the arrival, intensity, and duration of seasonal rainfall have increased over the past century in parts of the tropics where rainfall seasonality is already pronounced. Here, we analyze globally an index that captures the combined effects of rainfall and temperature seasonality by borrowing methods from statistical and information theories. We differentiate between regions which are similar in the seasonality of rainfall or temperature, but are desynchronized in terms of atmospheric supply and demand (e.g., Mediterranean vs. Monsoon climates). For these regions, we describe how the climate seasonality and the synchronicity of rainfall and temperature have shifted over time, along with changes in their interannual variability. We also demonstrate correlations to regional vegetation distributions and intra-annual patterns of vegetation productivity, thereby placing such trends and changes in interannual variability in an ecohydrologically meaningful context.

  4. Global changes in the synchronicity of seasonal rainfall and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xue; Porporato, Amilcare

    2015-04-01

    Seasonal variations in climatic inputs (in particular, rainfall and potential evapotranspiration) have garnered considerable attention in recent years as controlling factors for hydrological and ecosystem responses. These emphases on the role of climate seasonality come at a time of discernible climate change. Previously, we have shown that the interannual variability in the arrival, intensity, and duration of seasonal rainfall have increased over the past century in parts of the tropics where rainfall seasonality is already high. Here, we analyze globally an index that captures the combined effects of rainfall and temperature seasonality by borrowing methods from statistical and information theories. We differentiate between regions which are similar in the seasonality of rainfall or temperature, but are desynchronized in terms of atmospheric supply and demand (e.g., Mediterranean vs. Monsoon climates). For these regions, we describe how the climate seasonality and the synchronicity of rainfall and temperature have shifted over time, along with changes in their interannual variability. We also demonstrate correlations to intra-annual patterns of vegetation productivity, thereby placing such trends and changes in interannual variability in an ecologically meaningful context.

  5. DANGEROUS AND HYPNOTIC DRUG ACT

    PubMed Central

    Whelan, William M.

    1961-01-01

    It is unprofessional conduct within the meaning of the Medical Practice Act to prescribe a dangerous drug without either a medical examination by a physician or other medical indications. Dangerous and hypnotic drugs are specifically defined by both state and federal law and distribution is strictly regulated. A physician may administer to his own patients such amounts of dangerous drugs as are necessary for the immediate needs of the patient. The physician may obtain such needed amounts of these drugs by an order placed with a pharmacist marked for administration to immediate needs of patients. A licensed physician may also prescribe dangerous and hypnotic drugs for patients and such prescriptions may be refilled on the specific authorization of the physician. A physician who dispenses dangerous and hypnotic drugs to patients must obtain a hypnotic drug license; he must use specific purchase orders when purchasing; the drugs must be labeled in the manner provided by law; and all records of sale shall be open to inspection by authorized officers of the law and kept for three years. By the Principles of Medical Ethics physicians are bound to limit the source of their professional income to medical services actually rendered. Recent decisions of the Judicial Council answer questions concerning a physician's interest in a corporation which purchases, packages and sells medicines under a corporate name. Also answered are questions as to the measures that exist to prevent physicians from abusing the privilege of owning a pharmacy, and whether a physician can ethically rent space in a building owned by him to a pharmacist with a percentage of the income of the pharmacy as rental. The public welfare of California and the nation as determined by legislation strictly regulates the distribution of dangerous drugs. It is in the best interest of the medical profession and its patients that these laws be understood and carefully observed. PMID:13784776

  6. Large diurnal temperature range increases bird sensitivity to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Briga, Michael; Verhulst, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Climate variability is changing on multiple temporal scales, and little is known of the consequences of increases in short-term variability, particularly in endotherms. Using mortality data with high temporal resolution of zebra finches living in large outdoor aviaries (5 years, 359.220 bird-days), we show that mortality rate increases almost two-fold per 1°C increase in diurnal temperature range (DTR). Interestingly, the DTR effect differed between two groups with low versus high experimentally manipulated foraging costs, reflecting a typical laboratory ‘easy’ foraging environment and a ‘hard’ semi-natural environment respectively. DTR increased mortality on days with low minimum temperature in the easy foraging environment, but on days with high minimum temperature in the semi-natural environment. Thus, in a natural environment DTR effects will become increasingly important in a warming world, something not detectable in an ‘easy’ laboratory environment. These effects were particularly apparent at young ages. Critical time window analyses showed that the effect of DTR on mortality is delayed up to three months, while effects of minimum temperature occurred within a week. These results show that daily temperature variability can substantially impact the population viability of endothermic species. PMID:26563993

  7. Temperature Changes in Brown Adipocytes Detected with a Bimaterial Microcantilever

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Masaaki K.; Toda, Masaya; Inomata, Naoki; Maruyama, Hisataka; Okamatsu-Ogura, Yuko; Arai, Fumihito; Ono, Takahito; Ishijima, Akihiko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian cells must produce heat to maintain body temperature and support other biological activities. Methods to measure a cell’s thermogenic ability by inserting a thermometer into the cell or measuring the rate of oxygen consumption in a closed vessel can disturb its natural state. Here, we developed a noninvasive system for measuring a cell’s heat production with a bimaterial microcantilever. This method is suitable for investigating the heat-generating properties of cells in their native state, because changes in cell temperature can be measured from the bending of the microcantilever, without damaging the cell and restricting its supply of dissolved oxygen. Thus, we were able to measure increases in cell temperature of <1 K in a small number of murine brown adipocytes (n = 4–7 cells) stimulated with norepinephrine, and observed a slow increase in temperature over several hours. This long-term heat production suggests that, in addition to converting fatty acids into heat energy, brown adipocytes may also adjust protein expression to raise their own temperature, to generate more heat. We expect this bimaterial microcantilever system to prove useful for determining a cell’s state by measuring thermal characteristics. PMID:24896125

  8. Carbon dioxide dangers demonstration model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina; Wessells, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is a dangerous volcanic gas. When carbon dioxide seeps from the ground, it normally mixes with the air and dissipates rapidly. However, because carbon dioxide gas is heavier than air, it can collect in snowbanks, depressions, and poorly ventilated enclosures posing a potential danger to people and other living things. In this experiment we show how carbon dioxide gas displaces oxygen as it collects in low-lying areas. When carbon dioxide, created by mixing vinegar and baking soda, is added to a bowl with candles of different heights, the flames are extinguished as if by magic.

  9. Changing fitness of a necrotrophic plant pathogen under increasing temperature.

    PubMed

    Sabburg, Rosalie; Obanor, Friday; Aitken, Elizabeth; Chakraborty, Sukumar

    2015-08-01

    Warmer temperatures associated with climate change are expected to have a direct impact on plant pathogens, challenging crops and altering plant disease profiles in the future. In this study, we have investigated the effect of increasing temperature on the pathogenic fitness of Fusarium pseudograminearum, an important necrotrophic plant pathogen associated with crown rot disease of wheat in Australia. Eleven wheat lines with different levels of crown rot resistance were artificially inoculated with F.pseudograminearum and maintained at four diurnal temperatures 15/15C, 20/15C, 25/15C and 28/15C in a controlled glasshouse. To quantify the success of F.pseudograminearum three fitness measures, these being disease severity, pathogen biomass in stem base and flag leaf node, and deoxynivalenol (DON) in stem base and flag leaf node of mature plants were used. F.pseudograminearum showed superior overall fitness at 15/15C, and this was reduced with increasing temperature. Pathogen fitness was significantly influenced by the level of crown rot resistance of wheat lines, but the influence of line declined with increasing temperature. Lines that exhibited superior crown rot resistance in the field were generally associated with reduced overall pathogen fitness. However, the relative performance of the wheat lines was dependent on the measure of pathogen fitness, and lines that were associated with one reduced measure of pathogen fitness did not always reduce another. There was a strong correlation between DON in stem base tissue and disease severity, but length of browning was not a good predictor of Fusarium biomass in the stem base. We report that a combination of host resistance and rising temperature will reduce pathogen fitness under increasing temperature, but further studies combining the effect of rising CO2 are essential for more realistic assessments. PMID:25767051

  10. Variability in Temperature-Related Mortality Projections under Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Benmarhnia, Tarik; Sottile, Marie-France; Plante, Céline; Brand, Allan; Casati, Barbara; Fournier, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Background: Most studies that have assessed impacts on mortality of future temperature increases have relied on a small number of simulations and have not addressed the variability and sources of uncertainty in their mortality projections. Objectives: We assessed the variability of temperature projections and dependent future mortality distributions, using a large panel of temperature simulations based on different climate models and emission scenarios. Methods: We used historical data from 1990 through 2007 for Montreal, Quebec, Canada, and Poisson regression models to estimate relative risks (RR) for daily nonaccidental mortality in association with three different daily temperature metrics (mean, minimum, and maximum temperature) during June through August. To estimate future numbers of deaths attributable to ambient temperatures and the uncertainty of the estimates, we used 32 different simulations of daily temperatures for June–August 2020–2037 derived from three global climate models (GCMs) and a Canadian regional climate model with three sets of RRs (one based on the observed historical data, and two on bootstrap samples that generated the 95% CI of the attributable number (AN) of deaths). We then used analysis of covariance to evaluate the influence of the simulation, the projected year, and the sets of RRs used to derive the attributable numbers of deaths. Results: We found that < 1% of the variability in the distributions of simulated temperature for June–August of 2020–2037 was explained by differences among the simulations. Estimated ANs for 2020–2037 ranged from 34 to 174 per summer (i.e., June–August). Most of the variability in mortality projections (38%) was related to the temperature–mortality RR used to estimate the ANs. Conclusions: The choice of the RR estimate for the association between temperature and mortality may be important to reduce uncertainty in mortality projections. Citation: Benmarhnia T, Sottile MF, Plante C, Brand A, Casati B, Fournier M, Smargiassi A. 2014. Variability in temperature-related mortality projections under climate change. Environ Health Perspect 122:1293–1298; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306954 PMID:25036003

  11. Clear and present danger? The use of a yeast biosensor to monitor changes in the toxicity of industrial effluents subjected to oxidative colour removal treatments.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Patrick O; Knight, Andrew W; Billinton, Nicholas; Cahill, Paul A; Dalrymple, Ian M; Hawkyard, Christopher J; Stratton-Campbell, Duncan; Walmsley, Richard M

    2007-12-01

    Discharges of coloured effluents into surface waters provide conspicuous evidence of the impact of industry on the environment. The textile industry is an obvious candidate for sources of such discharges. Conventional treatment methods appear to alleviate this situation by removing colour, however the affect on toxicity is less obvious. The objective of this study was to examine the changes in effluent toxicity during the course of two alternative wastewater treatment methods, ozonation and electrochemical oxidation, using a novel toxicity biosensor, GreenScreen EM. The biosensor is capable of measuring both general acute toxicity (cytotoxicity), and more specifically genotoxicity, that is damage to a cell's DNA structure, replication or distribution, caused by substances that may be mutagenic and/or carcinogenic. The biosensor utilises a modified strain of the brewers yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, incorporating a gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) linked to the inducible promoter of the DNA damage responsive RAD54 gene. Upon exposure to a genotoxin, the production of GFP is up-regulated in parallel with RAD54, and the resulting cellular fluorescence provides a measure of genotoxicity. Acute toxicity is simultaneously determined by monitoring relative total growth of the cell culture during incubation. The results presented in this paper show that a reduction in colouration does not necessarily correspond to a reduction in effluent toxicity. PMID:18049779

  12. Temperature changes across CO2-lased dentin during multiple exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakariasen, Kenneth L.; Barron, Joseph R.; Boran, Thomas L.

    1990-06-01

    The literature increasingly indicates that lasers will have a multitude of applications for dental hard tissue procedures, e.g. preventive therapy, caries removal, laser etching and endodontic therapy. However, it is critical that such laser therapies avoid the production of heat levels which will be damaging to the surrounding vital tissues, such as the dental pulp and periodontal tissues. Our preliminary research on temperature changes across C02 lased dentin indicated that for single preventive therapeutic exposures (1.2 W., 0. 1 sec., 1.0 mm focal spot) the mean temperature rise across 350 j.tm of dentin was 0.57 0C while across 1000 .tm of dentin the mean rise was only 0.18 °C. Further research utilizing multiple preventive therapeutic exposures (1.2 W., 0. 1 sec., 1.0 mm focal spot, 3 x 1.0 sec. intervals) showed mean temperature elevations of 1.56 0C across 350 m of dentin and 0.66 O across 1000 xm of dentin. While these temperature elevations, which would be associated with preventive therapy, are very low and would be biologically acceptable, it must be noted that exposures of higher intensities are required to fuse enamel and porcelain, or remove decay. This current research investigates temperature elevations which occuT during C02 lasing utilizing the following exposure parameters: 8.0 W., 1.0 mm focal spot, 0.1 sec. exposures, 2 or 4 exposures per site pulsed 1.0 sec. apart. Three dentin thicknesses were utilized, i.e. 1000 jim, 1500 p.tm and 2000 .tm. Four sections of each thickness were utilized with four exposure sites per specimen (2 with 2 exposures, 2 with 4 exposures). All dentin sections were prepared from non-carious third molars using a hard tissue microtome. A thermistor was placed on the dentin surface opposite each lased site and temperature changes were recorded for approximately 50 sec. following lasing. Mean temperature elevations ranged from a high of 3.07 C for the 1000 xm section utilizing four exposures to a low of 0.37 0C for the 2000 m section utilizing two exposures. Analysis of Variance (p < .0001) and Duncan's Multiple Range Test (p =.05) indicated significant differences existed among the mean temperature elevations observed. While significant differences in temperature elevation can be observed both by numbers of exposures and by dentin thickness, it would appear that, under the conditions of this study, the temperature changes across CO2 lased dentin are all relatively low. It should be reiterated that the lasing parameters used in this study are far in excess of those necessary for preventive applications and are, in fact, in the range of exposures which will fuse enamel and dental porcelain, or remove dental caries. The modest temperature elevations observed, combined with the relatively severe exposure parameters utilized on thin sections of dentin, demonstrate the effective protective barrier which dentin provides for the dental pulp relative to heat damage from C02 lasing.

  13. Improving the estimation of historical marine surface temperature changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carella, Giulia; Kent, Elizabeth C.; Berry, David I.

    2015-04-01

    Global Surface Temperature (GST) is one of the main indicators of climate change and Sea Surface Temperature (SST) forms its marine component. Historical SST observations extend back more than 150 years and are used for monitoring climate change and variability over the oceans, for validation of climate models and to provide boundary conditions for atmospheric models. SST observations from ships form our longest instrumental record of surface marine temperature change, but over the years different methods of measuring SST have been used, each of which potentially has different biases. Changes in technology and observational practice can be rapid and undocumented: generally, it is assumed that almost all SST data collected before the 1940s were derived from bucket samples although the measurement practice is almost never known in detail. Especially prior to the 1940s where buckets measurements prevailed, SST biases are expected to be large, namely comparable to the climatic increase in the GST over the past two centuries. Currently, SST datasets use bias models representing only large-scale effects, based on 5˚ area average monthly climatological environmental conditions or on large-scale variations in air-sea temperature difference, which is also uncertain. There are major differences between the bias adjustment fields used to date, which limits our confidence in global and regional estimates of historical SST as well as in long term trends, which are expected to be controlled by uncertainty in systematic biases. The main barrier to finer-scale adjustments of SST is that information about measurement methods and ambient environmental conditions is usually insufficient. As a result, many reports cannot be confidently assigned to a particular vessel and hence, cautiously, to the same measurement methodology. Here we present a new approach to the quantification of SST biases that can be applied on a ship-by-ship basis. These ship dependent adjustments are expected to account for the instrumental and environmental conditions particular to each platform and to enable the detection of biases directly from the data, avoiding untested a priori assumptions. In this context, laboratory experiments to study the temperature evolution of water samples in SST buckets have also been designed and the results compared to existing models. Future work will be directed towards the application of this approach into the whole observational record and to the review of the resulting SST analysis.

  14. Temperature changes along the Spanish Mediterranean shelf waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Yanez, M.; Lopez-Jurado, J. L.; Salat, J.; Pascual, J.

    2003-04-01

    Temperature and salinity of intermediate and deep waters of the western Mediterranean have rised during the XX century. These changes are well documented in the specialised literature (Bethoux et al., 1998, Rholing and Bryden, 1992, Tsimplis and Baker, 2000). Nevertheless it is not yet clear whether these changes are due to global warming and a change in the deep water formation conditions in the western Mediterranean or if it is imported from the eastern basin. In the second case, an increase of salinity of the eastern basin due to damming of the main rivers would be the main cause. Trend detection in coastal waters where intermediate waters influence is negligible, would help to clarify this problem. Nevertheless, it is more difficult to detect significant trends in coastal waters due to the intense noise and seasonal cycles superimposed to these trends (if existing). The number of degrees of freedom needed for the significant detection is higher and regular sampling programs are needed. Unfortunately, standard stations periodically sampled are scarce. Here we present results from two of these periodic programs conducted by IEO and ICM along the Spanish Mediterranean shelf (RADIALES project and L'startit coastal station). This work is divided into two parts. The first one is devoted to the revision of the main hypothesis involved in the statistic treatment of time series, such as normal distribution, independence of residuals, seasonal cycles removing, etc...., while the second part will focus on the comparison of time series along the Spanish coast, the study of temperature trends and its possible relation with NAO index. The most striking result is the detection of a intense warming trend which is common to the north-western and south-western stations for the last part of the XX century. Bibliography. Bethoux, J.P., B. Gentili, D. Taillez, warming and freshwater budget change in the Mediterranean since the 1940s, their possible relation to the greenhouse effect, Geophys. Res. Letters, Vol. 25, N0 7, 1023-1026, 1998. Rholing, E.J. and H.L. Bryden, Man iduced salinity and temperature increases in the western Mediterranean Deep water, J. Geophys. Res. vol, 97, N0 C7, 11191-11198, 1992. Tsimplis, M.N. and T. Baker, Sea level drop in the Mediterranean Sea: An indicator of deep water salinity and temperature changes?, Geophys. Res. Letters, vol. 27, N0 12, 1731-1734, 2000

  15. Method for Measuring Collimator-Pointing Sensitivity to Temperature Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramovici, Alex; Cox, Timothy E.; Hein, Randall C.; MacDonald, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    For a variety of applications, it is important to measure the sensitivity of the pointing of a beam emerging from a collimator, as a function of temperature changes. A straightforward method for carrying out this measurement is based on using interferometry for monitoring the changes in beam pointing, which presents its own problems. The added temperature dependence and complexity issues relating to using an interferometer are addressed by not using an interferometer in the first place. Instead, the collimator is made part of an arrangement that uses a minimum number of low-cost, off-the-shelf materials and by using a quad diode to measure changes in beam pointing. In order to minimize the influence of the test arrangement on the outcome of the measurement, several steps are taken. The collimator assembly is placed on top of a vertical, 1-m-long, fused silica tube. The quad diode is bonded to a fused silica bar, which, in turn, is bonded to the lower end of the fused silica tube. The lower end of the tube rests on a self-aligning support piece, while the upper end of the tube is kept against two rounded setscrew tips, using a soft rubber string. This ensures that very little stress is applied to the tube as the support structure changes dimensions due to thermal expansion. Light is delivered to the collimator through a bare fiber in order to minimize variable bending torque caused by a randomly relaxing, rigid fiber jacket. In order to separate the effect of temperature on the collimator assembly from the effect temperature has on the rest of the setup, multiple measurements are taken with the collimator assembly rotated from measurement to measurement. Laboratory testing, with 1-m spacing between the collimator and the quad diode, has shown that the sensitivity of the arrangement is better than 100 nm rms, over time spans of at least one hour, if the beam path is protected from atmospheric turbulence by a tube. The equivalent sensitivity to detecting changes in pointing angle is 100 nanoradians.

  16. Piglets Surface Temperature Change at Different Weights at Birth

    PubMed Central

    Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro; dos Santos, Luan Sousa; Machado, Sivanilza Teixeira; Moi, Marta; de Alencar Ns, Irenilza; Foppa, Luciana; Garcia, Rodrigo Garfallo; de Kssia Silva dos Santos, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The study was carried out in order to verify the effects of piglets weight at birth on their surface temperature change (ST) after birth, and its relationship with ingestion time of colostrum. Piglets from four different sows were weighed at birth and divided into a totally randomized design with three treatments according to birth weight (PBW): T1 - less than 1.00 kg, T2 - 1.00 to 1.39 kg, and T3 - higher than or equal to 1.40 kg. The time spent for the first colostrum ingestion was recorded (TFS). Images of piglets surface by thermal imaging camera were recorded at birth (STB) and 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 min after birth. The air temperature and relative humidity were recorded every 30 min and the indexes of temperature and humidity (THI) were calculated. A ST drop after 15 min from birth was observed, increasing again after sixty minutes. Positive correlations were found between the PBW and the ST at 30 and 45 min after birth. The PBW was negatively correlated with the TFS. The THI showed high negative correlations (?0.824 and ?0.815) with STB and after 15 min from birth. The piglets surface temperature at birth was positively correlated with temperature thereof to 15 min, influencing therefore the temperatures in the interval of 45 to 120 min. The birth weight contributes significantly to postnatal hypothermia and consequently to the time it takes for piglets ingest colostrum, requiring special attention to those of low birth weight. PMID:25049971

  17. Students' Ideas about Dangerous Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardak, Osman

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article was to study the concepts and thoughts of primary education students about dangerous animals. A total of 316 primary education students attending a primary school in Turkey participated in the study. The research data was obtained through open-ended questions and word association tests. Data obtained from the questions

  18. Students' Ideas about Dangerous Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardak, Osman

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article was to study the concepts and thoughts of primary education students about dangerous animals. A total of 316 primary education students attending a primary school in Turkey participated in the study. The research data was obtained through open-ended questions and word association tests. Data obtained from the questions…

  19. Acute Changes in Ambient Temperature Are Associated With Adverse Changes in Cardiac Rhythm

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Erin B.; Zareba, Wojciech; Utell, Mark J.; Oakes, David; Hopke, Philip K.; Frampton, Mark; Chalupa, David; Beckett, William; Rich, David Q.

    2014-01-01

    Background Both increases and decreases in ambient temperature have been associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. However, the mechanism(s) remain unclear. Objectives We examined associations between biomarkers of pathways thought to, in part, explain these associations and changes in ambient temperature in a panel of predominantly post-myocardial infarction or post-stent patients. Methods We studied 76 subjects who had a recent coronary event and were participating in a cardiac rehabilitation program. In these patients, we measured heart rate variability, repolarization, and baroreflex sensitivity parameters using Holter ECG recordings before and during supervised, graded, twice weekly, exercise sessions. Hourly temperature measurements were made at a monitoring site near the rehabilitation center. Results Using linear mixed models, we observed decreases in rMSSD (square root of the mean of the sum of the squared differences between adjacent NN intervals) and deceleration capacity, associated with increases in ambient temperature in the previous four days. Additionally, decreased rMSSD was associated with both increasing temperature (mean in previous 6 hours) in the summer and decreasing temperature (mean in the previous 3 weeks) in the winter. Conclusions In a panel of cardiac rehabilitation patients, changes in ambient temperature were associated with decreases in markers of heart rate variability and baroreflex sensitivity, which may lead to increased risk of arrhythmic events and sudden death in post-infarction patients. PMID:25368681

  20. Northwestern Pacific typhoon intensity controlled by changes in ocean temperatures.

    PubMed

    Mei, Wei; Xie, Shang-Ping; Primeau, François; McWilliams, James C; Pasquero, Claudia

    2015-05-01

    Dominant climatic factors controlling the lifetime peak intensity of typhoons are determined from six decades of Pacific typhoon data. We find that upper ocean temperatures in the low-latitude northwestern Pacific (LLNWP) and sea surface temperatures in the central equatorial Pacific control the seasonal average lifetime peak intensity by setting the rate and duration of typhoon intensification, respectively. An anomalously strong LLNWP upper ocean warming has favored increased intensification rates and led to unprecedentedly high average typhoon intensity during the recent global warming hiatus period, despite a reduction in intensification duration tied to the central equatorial Pacific surface cooling. Continued LLNWP upper ocean warming as predicted under a moderate [that is, Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5] climate change scenario is expected to further increase the average typhoon intensity by an additional 14% by 2100. PMID:26601179

  1. Northwestern Pacific typhoon intensity controlled by changes in ocean temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Wei; Xie, Shang-Ping; Primeau, François; McWilliams, James C.; Pasquero, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Dominant climatic factors controlling the lifetime peak intensity of typhoons are determined from six decades of Pacific typhoon data. We find that upper ocean temperatures in the low-latitude northwestern Pacific (LLNWP) and sea surface temperatures in the central equatorial Pacific control the seasonal average lifetime peak intensity by setting the rate and duration of typhoon intensification, respectively. An anomalously strong LLNWP upper ocean warming has favored increased intensification rates and led to unprecedentedly high average typhoon intensity during the recent global warming hiatus period, despite a reduction in intensification duration tied to the central equatorial Pacific surface cooling. Continued LLNWP upper ocean warming as predicted under a moderate [that is, Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5] climate change scenario is expected to further increase the average typhoon intensity by an additional 14% by 2100. PMID:26601179

  2. Home hazards: can children recognize the dangers?

    PubMed

    Schooley, Carolyn B; Kelly, Amanda R

    2008-01-01

    To have effective injury prevention programs for children, solid education must be provided. Initially, the parental responsibility includes protecting and instructing the child about dangerous situations. However, when children can recognize a hazard for themselves, this becomes the basis for behavior change according to the health belief model. For trauma centers providing injury prevention services, knowing what a child perceives as a safety issue can be instrumental in correctly targeting curriculum. The following is a compilation of responses of 90 children who participated in a 2008 Home Hazard Recognition Station at a local Safe Kids event. PMID:18820562

  3. Repeat temperature measurements in borehole GC-1, northwestern Utah - Towards isolating a climate-change signal in borehole temperature profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, D.S.; Harris, R.N. )

    1993-09-01

    Temperature-depth profiles in borehole GC-1, northwestern Utah, were measured in 1978, 1990, and 1992. Borehole temperatures below 80 m depth are highly reproducible over the 14 year period indicating long term thermal stability. A slowly changing temperature field above 80 m depth has similiar characteristics to synthetic temperature profiles computed from a 100 year record of air temperature changes at Park Valley weather station 50 km northeast of the borehole site. 6 refs.

  4. Sudden change of geometric quantum discord in finite temperature reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Ming-Liang Sun, Jian

    2015-03-15

    We investigate sudden change (SC) behaviors of the distance-based measures of geometric quantum discords (GQDs) for two non-interacting qubits subject to the two-sided and the one-sided thermal reservoirs. We found that the GQDs defined by different distances exhibit different SCs, and thus the SCs are the combined result of the chosen discord measure and the property of a state. We also found that the thermal reservoir may generate states having different orderings related to different GQDs. These inherent differences of the GQDs reveal that they are incompatible in characterizing quantum correlations both quantitatively and qualitatively. - Highlights: • Comparable study of different distance-based geometric quantum discords. • Evolution of the geometric quantum discords in finite temperature reservoirs. • Different geometric quantum discords exhibit distinct sudden changes. • Nonunique states ordering imposed by different geometric quantum discords.

  5. Circadian changes in the temperature of human beings.

    PubMed

    Reinberg, A

    1975-01-01

    Temperature in man measured or recorded by different means, is not constant but varies in a predictable and rhythmic fashion. Circadian (about 24-hour) rhythms have been demonstrated and studied in healthy men and women as well as in patients under a wide variety of experimental conditions and diseases. With the help of special computer programs (Halberg's cosinor) inferential statistical analyses can be performed. There validate and characterize a biological rhythm (i.e., core temperature) by several parameters: the period (tau) the acrophase (phi) (timing of the peak), the amplitude (A) and the rhythm-adjusted mean (M). Each one of these parameters is given with its confidence limits when the studied rhythm is detectable (p less than 0.05). The human temperature (oral, rectal and skin) circadian rhythm has been validated and quantified in healthy newborns, in healthy adults on various diets (including near-fasting conditions: 220 cal/24h, casein) and various type of activities. Food intake does not appear to influence the temperature circadian rhythm. The rhythm persists with a change of period and/or acrophase during isolation underground, without time dues or clues. Its acrophase can be shifted by manipulating synchronizing factors (i.e., shift-working, transmeridian flight). Alteration of circadian temperature rhythm may result from the timed administration of certain drugs (i.e. reserpine) and from certain chronic diseases (without overt fever). A first attempt to use both thermography and chronobiological method has been made independantly by Gautherie et al [40] and Smolensky [41] in the prediction of therapeutic value of a given modality during the course of breast cancer treatment. PMID:1101884

  6. Stress-induced core temperature changes in pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Myla de Aguiar; Melleu, Fernando Falkenburger; Marino-Neto, Jos

    2015-02-01

    Changes in body temperature are significant physiological consequences of stressful stimuli in mammals and birds. Pigeons (Columba livia) prosper in (potentially) stressful urban environments and are common subjects in neurobehavioral studies; however, the thermal responses to stress stimuli by pigeons are poorly known. Here, we describe acute changes in the telemetrically recorded celomatic (core) temperature (Tc) in pigeons given a variety of potentially stressful stimuli, including transfer to a novel cage (ExC) leading to visual isolation from conspecifics, the presence of the experimenter (ExpR), gentle handling (H), sham intracelomatic injections (SI), and the induction of the tonic immobility (TI) response. Transfer to the ExC cage provoked short-lived hyperthermia (10-20 min) followed by a long-lasting and substantial decrease in Tc, which returned to baseline levels 2 h after the start of the test. After a 2-hour stay in the ExC, the other potentially stressful stimuli evoked only weak, marginally significant hyperthermic (ExpR, IT) or hypothermic (SI) responses. Stimuli delivered 26 h after transfer to the ExC induced definite and intense increases in Tc (ExpR, H) or hypothermic responses (SI). These Tc changes appear to be unrelated to modifications in general activity (as measured via telemetrically recorded actimetric data). Repeated testing failed to affect the hypothermic responses to the transference to the ExC, even after nine trials and at 1- or 8-day intervals, suggesting that the social (visual) isolation from conspecifics may be a strong and poorly controllable stimulus in this species. The present data indicated that stress-induced changes in Tc may be a consistent and reliable physiological parameter of stress but that they may also show stressor type-, direction- and species-specific attributes. PMID:25479572

  7. Dangerous Near-Earth Asteroids and Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Grigoryan, A. E.

    2015-07-01

    The problem of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs; Astreoids and Meteorites) is discussed. To have an understanding on the probablity of encounters with such objects, one may use two different approaches: 1) historical, based on the statistics of existing large meteorite craters on the Earth, estimation of the source meteorites size and the age of these craters to derive the frequency of encounters with a given size of meteorites and 2) astronomical, based on the study and cataloging of all medium-size and large bodies in the Earth's neighbourhood and their orbits to estimate the probability, angles and other parameters of encounters. Therefore, we discuss both aspects and give our present knowledge on both phenomena. Though dangerous NEOs are one of the main source for cosmic catastrophes, we also focus on other possible dangers, such as even slight changes of Solar irradiance or Earth's orbit, change of Moon's impact on Earth, Solar flares or other manifestations of Solar activity, transit of comets (with impact on Earth's atmosphere), global climate change, dilution of Earth's atmosphere, damage of ozone layer, explosion of nearby Supernovae, and even an attack by extraterrestrial intelligence.

  8. Predators modify the evolutionary response of prey to temperature change.

    PubMed

    Tseng, M; O'Connor, M I

    2015-12-01

    As climate regimes shift in many ecosystems worldwide, evolution may be a critical process allowing persistence in rapidly changing environments. Organisms regularly interact with other species, yet whether climate-mediated evolution can occur in the context of species interactions is not well understood. We tested whether a species interaction could modify evolutionary responses to temperature. We demonstrate that predation pressure by Dipteran larvae (Chaoborus americanus) modified the evolutionary response of a freshwater crustacean (Daphnia pulex) to its thermal environment over approximately seven generations in laboratory conditions. Daphnia kept at 21C evolved higher population growth rates than those kept at 18C, but only in those populations that were also reared with predators. Furthermore, predator-mediated selection resulted in the evolution of elevated Daphnia thermal plasticity. This laboratory natural selection experiment demonstrates that biotic interactions can modify evolutionary adaptation to temperature. Understanding the interplay between multiple selective forces can improve predictions of ecological and evolutionary responses of organisms to rapid environmental change. PMID:26673935

  9. Rice and Climate Change: Danger, or Opportunity?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), the principle gas associated with global warming, is also one of four resources needed for plants to complete their life cycle (i.e. water, light, nutrients, CO2). The ongoing increase in its concentration may allow rice breeders to begin selecting for optimal varieties among ...

  10. Microstructural changes in the desulfurization reaction at low temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Renedo, M.J.; Fernandez, J.; Garea, A.; Ayerbe, A.; Irabien, J.A.

    1999-04-01

    Sorbents for SO{sub 2} removal from flue gas were prepared on the basis of fly ash and calcium hydroxide at different slurring times; they were tested in the desulfurization reaction at low temperature and characterized before and after the reaction, by determining the particle size, specific surface area, and pore size distribution in order to study the influence of the slurry time in the microstructure of the sorbent and to establish the main changes in the desulfurization reaction at low temperature. Small macro- and mesopore volumes were the structural properties of the sorbent related to the conversion values, with a maximum in conversion and porosity for the sorbent at a slurring time of 15 h despite the continuous increase in the specific surface area (microporosity). These results confirm that the pore size distribution and volume are the main variables which can be related to the maximum utilization of the sorbent at low temperatures. The increase in the specific surface area of the sulfated sorbents at high relative humidity (80%), due to the microporosity increase, may be explained by taking into account that the partial condensation of water can happen in the pore structure and a gas-liquid-solid reaction, with a fast nucleation step, would produce the observed microporosity increase.

  11. Changes in Escherichia coli transcriptome during acclimatization at low temperature.

    PubMed

    Polissi, Alessandra; De Laurentis, Walter; Zangrossi, Sandro; Briani, Federica; Longhi, Vera; Pesole, Graziano; Dehò, Gianni

    2003-10-01

    Upon cold shock Escherichia coli transiently stops growing and adapts to the new temperature (acclimatization phase). The major physiological effects of cold temperature are a decrease in membrane fluidity and the stabilization of secondary structures of RNA and DNA, which may affect the efficiencies of translation, transcription, and replication. Specific proteins are transiently induced in the acclimatization phase. mRNA stabilization and increased translatability play a major role in this phenomenon. Polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase) is one of the cold-induced proteins and is essential for E. coli growth at low temperatures. We investigated the global changes in mRNA abundance during cold adaptation both in wild type E. coli MG1655 and in a PNPase-deficient mutant. We observed a twofold or greater variation in the relative mRNA abundance of 20 genes upon cold shock, notably the cold-inducible subset of csp genes and genes not previously associated with cold shock response, among these, the extracytoplasmic stress response regulators rpoE and rseA, and eight genes with unknown function. Interestingly, we found that PNPase both negatively and positively modulated the transcript abundance of some of these genes, thus suggesting a complex role of PNPase in controlling cold adaptation. PMID:14527658

  12. Morphological changes of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes in response to temperature selection.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bihong; Xia, Xuhua

    2003-02-01

    Adaptation to novel environments usually entails morphological changes. The cell morphology of six experimental populations of Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes and their common ancestor were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The six experimental populations were propagated under different temperatures for 10 months: three of them cultured at constant normal temperature (35 degrees C) forming the control group, and the other three cultured at incremental higher temperatures (from 41 degrees to 47 degrees C) as the HT group. SEM showed the deformed and elongated cells in the 6-h cultures of both ancestral and control populations at 45 degrees C, indicating that 45 degrees C is stressful for the ancestral and the control populations. In contrast, the HT populations retained normal cell shape in the 6-h cultures at both 35 degrees C and 45 degrees C. The mean cell volumes of control and HT populations increased 29% and 34%, respectively, relative to the ancestor at their respective thermal regimens, suggestion that the culturing conditions might favor larger cells. PMID:12520367

  13. Changes in maximum air temperatures over the Ukraine territory under modern climate changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomenko, Inna

    2015-04-01

    For nine stations of the Ukraine (Kyiv, Lviv, Odesa, Poltava, Simferopol, Uzhgorod, Uman, Kharkiv, Chernivtsi), the series of average daily maximum temperature for periods of 41 to 112 years are analyzed during the warm season (May, 1 to September, 30). In the contribution the statistical theory of extreme values changes, so called "block maximum" method, and "peaks-over-threshold" method are used to represent changes in the temporal series of maximum temperature under modern climate change. For four sites in the Ukraine - Poltava, Simferopol, Uzhgorod, Uman - received a positive trend (changes in temperature are from 1.0 to 3,40C), in Kharkiv, Odesa and Chernivtsi a decrease in temperature with time are observed and for two stations - Kyiv and Lviv - changes are barely noticeable. It should be noted that negative trend corresponds to the regions, where low absolute maximum temperatures are observed, and positive trends fit regions with high values of observed absolute maximum. The research shows shift in the generalized extreme value distributions of average maximum temperatures for the first and last year of record. The results showed shift of modal values, lower and upper boundary of distributions to higher temperatures for all sites in the Ukraine, Uzhhorod and Kharkiv excepted. For all nine sites the return levels of highest temperatures are calculated. Indices for the selection of heat waves (90th percentile, 95th percentile and heat wave criterion proposed by WMO) were calculated for each days of the period under study for all nine sites. For 15th day of each month of the period concerned the maps of extreme indices were created. These maps can be used to output more suitable and accurate heat wave indices for the territory of Ukraine. For Odesa heat waves were selected by means of the different extreme criteria. All criteria don't show increase of heat wave number with time in Odesa. The obtained results show that maximum number of heat waves were observed from 1921 to 1959 and from 1991 to 2005.

  14. Temperature extremes in a changing climate: Drivers and feedbacks (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seneviratne, S. I.; Davin, E. L.; Hirschi, M.; Mueller, B.; Orlowsky, B.; Orth, R.; Wilhelm, M.

    2013-12-01

    Global warming increases the occurrence probability of hot extremes, and improving the predictability of such events is thus becoming of critical importance (e.g. Seneviratne et al. 2012). This presentation provides an overview of past and projected changes in hot extremes on the global and regional scale, and of the respective drivers and feedbacks responsible for their occurrence. In particular, soil moisture-temperature feedbacks have been identified as major drivers for hot extremes (e.g. Seneviratne et al. 2006, 2010; Hirschi et al. 2011). Recently, a global study (Mueller and Seneviratne 2012) has shown that wide areas of the world display a strong relationship between the number of hot days in the regions' hottest month and preceding precipitation deficits. These findings suggest that effects of soil moisture-temperature coupling are geographically more widespread than commonly assumed, with for instance large hot spots of soil moisture-temperature coupling in the Southern Hemisphere. Further results indicate that this relationship could be better used in the context of seasonal forecasting, allowing an early warning of impending hot summers (Mueller and Seneviratne 2012, Orth and Seneviratne 2013). In addition, the role of soil moisture-climate feedbacks for climate projections will also be discussed (e.g. Orlowsky and Seneviratne 2012; Seneviratne et al., 2013). Finally, we will address the relevance of the identified feedbacks in the context of urban climate, as well as potential relevant impacts of other land-climate interactions (e.g. from modifications in surface albedo). References: Hirschi, M., et al., 2011: Observational evidence for soil-moisture impact on hot extremes in southeastern Europe. Nature Geosci., 4, 17-21, doi:10.1038/ngeo1032. Mueller, B., and S.I. Seneviratne, 2012: Hot days induced by precipitation deficits at the global scale. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci., 109 (31), 12398-12403, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1204330109. Orth, R. and S.I. Seneviratne 2013: Using soil moisture forecasts for sub-seasonal temperature predictions in Europe. Submitted to Clim. Dyn.. Seneviratne, S.I., et al., 2006: Land-atmosphere coupling and climate change in Europe. Nature, 443, 205-209. Seneviratne, S.I., et al., 2010: Investigating soil moisture-climate interactions in a changing climate: A review. Earth-Science Reviews, 99, 3-4, 125-161, doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2010.02.004. Seneviratne, S.I., N. Nicholls, et al., 2012: Changes in climate extremes and their impacts on the natural physical environment. In: Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation [Field, C.B., et al. (eds.)]. A Special Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, pp. 109-230. Seneviratne, S.I., et al., 2013: Impact of soil moisture-climate feedbacks on CMIP5 projections: First results from the GLACE-CMIP5 experiment. Submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett.

  15. Low temperature induced changes in gene expression in low temperature-sensitive and -tolerant tomatoes

    SciTech Connect

    Vallejos, C.E.; Camp, S.F. )

    1989-04-01

    The objective of this project is to identify genes that control low temperature (LT) tolerance/acclimation in a high altitude ecotype of the wild tomato L. hirsutum. LT induced changes in gene expression were monitored via 2-D gel electrophoresis and fluorography of radiolabeled in vitro translation products. Two types of changes were detected when both LT-sensitive (L. esculentum, L. hirsutum 100m) and LT-tolerant (L. hirsutum 3100m) genotypes were exposed to 6{degrees}C for 12 h in the dark: (a) specific LT induction or up-regulation or up-regulation of some genes; and (b) changes in the turnover rate of day specific mRNA's. Increased exposure lead to the disappearance of some mRNA's. These comparisons will lead to the identification of mRNA's involved in acclimation, and those involved in stress response.

  16. Climate change scenarios for temperature and precipitation in Aragn (Spain).

    PubMed

    Ribalaygua, Jaime; Pino, M Rosa; Prtoles, Javier; Roldn, Esther; Gaitn, Emma; Chinarro, David; Torres, Luis

    2013-10-01

    By applying a two-step statistical downscaling technique to four climate models under different future emission scenarios, we produced future projections of the daily precipitation and the maximum and minimum temperatures over the Spanish region of Aragn. The reliability of the downscaling technique was assessed by a verification process involving the comparison of the downscaled reanalysis data with the observed data--the results were very good for the temperature and acceptable for the precipitation. To determine the ability of the climate models to simulate the real climate, their simulations of the past (the 20C3M output) were downscaled and then compared with the observed climate. The results are quite robust for temperature and less conclusive for the precipitation. The downscaled future projections exhibit a significant increase during the entire 21st century of the maximum and minimum temperatures for all the considered IPCC future emission scenarios (A2, A1B, B1), both for mid-century (increases relative to the 1971-2000 averages between 1.5C and 2.5C, depending on the scenario) and for the end of the century (for the maximum temperature of approximately 3.75C, 3.3C, and 2.1C for A2, A1B, and B1 scenarios respectively, and for the minimum temperature of 3.1C, 2.75C, and 1.75C). The precipitation does not follow such a clear tendency (and exhibits greater uncertainties), but all the scenarios suggest a moderate decrease in rainfall for the mid-century (2-4%) and for the end of the century (4.5-5.5%). Due to the clear spatial differences in climate characteristics, we divided the studied area into five sub-regions to analyse the different changes on these areas; we determined that the high mountains (Pyrenees, Mediterranean-Oceanic transitional climate) and the lands of the Ebro River Basin (Continental sub-Mediterranean climate) will probably be the most affected. PMID:23876546

  17. Danger of Antibiotic Overuse (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect The Danger of Antibiotic Overuse KidsHealth > Parents > Flu Center > Treatment > The Danger ... by not reaching for the prescription pad. How Antibiotics Work Antibiotics, first used in the 1940s, are ...

  18. Comparing Recent Changes in Global Surface Humidity with Temperature Changes and Global Circulation Model Output

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, K. M.; Thorne, P. W.; Jones, P. D.; Gillett, N.

    2008-12-01

    Water vapour, a very significant greenhouse gas, has increased significantly at the surface over most of the globe since the 1970s (Willett et al in press). Surface humidity is the source of the atmospheric component of the hydrological cycle, and so is key to understanding changes in free atmosphere humidity, cloud and precipitation. Considering this, constraining the spatial and temporal pattern of observed changes in surface humidity alongside changes in the surface temperature record and GCM reconstructions, is key to our furthering our understanding of the climate system. Here we will present key findings from HadCRUH, a homogenised monthly mean anomaly gridded global surface humidity dataset (available along with several other datasets at http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/hadobs/). Comparisons between HadCRUH and the independently constructed HadCRUT3 temperature record (Brohan et al 2006) will be made at a range of scales. Timeseries behaviour, trends and the temperature- humidity relationship are then compared with that found in a suite of CMIP4 'Climate of the 20th Century' runs (complimenting our formal detection and attribution study which considered only one model). This provides a comprehensive picture of our understanding of recent changes in global surface humidity.

  19. Decadal Changes in the World's Coastal Latitudinal Temperature Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Hannes; Doherty, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Most of the world's living marine resources inhabit coastal environments, where average thermal conditions change predictably with latitude. These coastal latitudinal temperature gradients (CLTG) coincide with important ecological clines,e.g., in marine species diversity or adaptive genetic variations, but how tightly thermal and ecological gradients are linked remains unclear. A first step is to consistently characterize the world's CLTGs. We extracted coastal cells from a global 11 dataset of weekly sea surface temperatures (SST, 19822012) to quantify spatial and temporal variability of the world's 11 major CLTGs. Gradient strength, i.e., the slope of the linear mean-SST/latitude relationship, varied 3-fold between the steepest (North-American Atlantic and Asian Pacific gradients: ?0.91C and ?0.68C lat?1, respectively) and weakest CLTGs (African Indian Ocean and the South- and North-American Pacific gradients: ?0.28, ?0.29, ?0.32C lat?1, respectively). Analyzing CLTG strength by year revealed that seven gradients have weakened by 310% over the past three decades due to increased warming at high compared to low latitudes. Almost the entire South-American Pacific gradient (647S), however, has considerably cooled over the study period (?0.3 to ?1.7C, 31 years), and the substantial weakening of the North-American Atlantic gradient (?10%) was due to warming at high latitudes (4260N, +0.8 to +1.6C,31 years) and significant mid-latitude cooling (Florida to Cape Hatteras 2635N, ?0.5 to ?2.2C, 31 years). Average SST trends rarely resulted from uniform shifts throughout the year; instead individual seasonal warming or cooling patterns elicited the observed changes in annual means. This is consistent with our finding of increased seasonality (i.e., summer-winter SST amplitude) in three quarters of all coastal cells (331 of 433). Our study highlights the regionally variable footprint of global climate change, while emphasizing ecological implications of changing CLTGs, which are likely driving observed spatial and temporal clines in coastal marine life. PMID:23825672

  20. Low temperature tolerance in plants: Changes at the protein level.

    PubMed

    Janmohammadi, Mohsen; Zolla, Lello; Rinalducci, Sara

    2015-09-01

    Low temperature (LT) is one of several important environmental stresses influencing plant performance and distribution. Adaptation to LT is a highly dynamic stress-response phenomenon and involves complex cross-talk between different regulatory levels. Although plants differ in their sensitivity to LT, in temperate species low nonfreezing temperatures cause noticeable alterations in various biochemical and physiological processes that can potentially improve freezing tolerance. This adaptation is associated with changes in the expression pattern of genes and their protein products. Proteins are the major players in most cellular events and are directly involved in plant LT responses, thereby proteome analysis could help uncover additional novel proteins associated with LT tolerance. Proteomics is recommended as an appropriate strategy for complementing transcriptome level changes and characterizing translational and post-translational regulations. In this review, we considered alterations in the expression and accumulation of proteins in response to LT stress in the three major cereal crops produced worldwide (wheat, barley, and rice). LT stress down-regulates many photosynthesis-related proteins. On the contrary, pathways/protein sets that are up-regulated by LT include carbohydrate metabolism (ATP formation), ROS scavenging, redox adjustment, cell wall remodelling, cytoskeletal rearrangements, cryoprotection, defence/detoxification. These modifications are common adaptation reactions also observed in the plant model Arabidopsis, thus representing key potential biomarkers and critical intervention points for improving LT tolerance of crop plants in cold regions with short summers. We believe that an assessment of the proteome within a broad time frame and during the different phenological stages may disclose the molecular mechanisms related to the developmental regulation of LT tolerance and facilitate the progress of genetically engineered stress-resistant plant varieties. PMID:26068669

  1. Change In Minimum Temperature As A Response To Land Cover Change In South Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, H. P.; Melesse, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    Replacement of higher evapotranspirative surface materials such as water and vegetation cover by other materials such as buildings, roads, and pavements increases the Bowen's ratio from about 0.5-2.0 in rural to about ≈ 5.0 in urban areas resulting in higher surface and near surface atmospheric temperatures in the urban areas (Taha, 1997). This effect is intensified by low emissivity surfaces of the urban covers storing more heat energy during day time, but emitting less during night compared to the energy emitted by rural covers causing higher night time temperatures in urban centers, an effect called Urban Heat Island (UHI). South Florida has undergone tremendous land cover change from its pre-drainage vegetated and wetlands to post drainage agricultural and urban lands, especially after late 20th century. The objective of this study was to simultaneously analyze the land use/ land cover change and the rural/ urban minimum temperatures in south Florida for the period representing pre and post drainage states. The result shows urban sprawl increased from 8% at the beginning of the analysis period to about 14% at the end. Green vegetated areas, shrubs, and forests are found to be declined. The minimum temperature is found increased as maximum as 2°F in the urbanized stations, which remained constant or shows negligible increase in rural stations. The study dictates further micro level scrutiny in order to reach a conclusion on the development of UHI in south Florida. Key words: Bowen's ratio, emissivity, urban heat island

  2. Long-term changes of the diurnal temperature cycle: implications about mechanisms of global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Ruedy, R.

    We use a global climate model to investigate the impact of a wide range of radiative forcing and feedback mechanisms on the diurnal cycle of surface air temperature. This allows us not only to rule out many potential explanations for observed diurnal changes, but to infer fundamental information concerning the nature and location of the principal global climate forcings of this century. We conclude that the observed changes of the diurnal cycle result neither from natural climate variability nor a globally-distributed forcing, but rather they require the combination of a (negative) radiative forcing located primarily over continental regions together with the known globally-distributed forcing due to anthropogenic greenhouse gases. Tropospheric aerosols can account for part of the continentally-located forcing, but alone they do not damp the diurnal cycle as observed. Only an increase of continental cloud cover, possibly a consequence of anthropogenic aerosols, can damp the diurnal cycle by an amount comparable to observations. A corollary of these results is quantitative confirmation of the widely held suspicion that anthropogenic greenhouse gas warming has been substantially counterbalanced by a forced cooling. Under the assumption that the cloud change is sulfate driven, a further implication is that the net rate of global warming is likely to increase substantially in coming years. We note that, on the long run, the daily maximum temperature will increase by an amount not much less than the increase of the mean temperature.

  3. A linear regression model for predicting PNW estuarine temperatures in a changing climate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pacific Northwest coastal regions, estuaries, and associated ecosystems are vulnerable to the potential effects of climate change, especially to changes in nearshore water temperature. While predictive climate models simulate future air temperatures, no such projections exist for...

  4. Pretest Caluculations of Temperature Changes for Field Thermal Conductivity Tests

    SciTech Connect

    N.S. Brodsky

    2002-07-17

    A large volume fraction of the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain may reside in the Tptpll (Tertiary, Paintbrush Group, Topopah Spring Tuff, crystal poor, lower lithophysal) lithostratigraphic unit. This unit is characterized by voids, or lithophysae, which range in size from centimeters to meters. A series of thermal conductivity field tests are planned in the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift. The objective of the pretest calculation described in this document is to predict changes in temperatures in the surrounding rock for these tests for a given heater power and a set of thermal transport properties. The calculation can be extended, as described in this document, to obtain thermal conductivity, thermal capacitance (density x heat capacity, J {center_dot} m{sup -3} {center_dot} K{sup -1}), and thermal diffusivity from the field data. The work has been conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan For: Testing and Monitoring'' (BSC 2001). One of the outcomes of this analysis is to determine the initial output of the heater. This heater output must be sufficiently high that it will provide results in a reasonably short period of time (within several weeks or a month) and be sufficiently high that the heat increase is detectable by the instruments employed in the test. The test will be conducted in stages and heater output will be step increased as the test progresses. If the initial temperature is set too high, the experiment will not have as many steps and thus fewer thermal conductivity data points will result.

  5. Response of California temperature to regional anthropogenic aerosol changes

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchstetter, Thomas; Novakov, T.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Menon, S.; Aguiar, J.

    2008-05-12

    In this paper, we compare constructed records of concentrations of black carbon (BC)--an indicator of anthropogenic aerosols--with observed surface temperature trends in California. Annual average BC concentrations in major air basins in California significantly decreased after about 1990, coincident with an observed statewide surface temperature increase. Seasonal aerosol concentration trends are consistent with observed seasonal temperature trends. These data suggest that the reduction in anthropogenic aerosol concentrations contributed to the observed surface temperature increase. Conversely, high aerosol concentrations may lower surface temperature and partially offset the temperature increase of greenhouse gases.

  6. Visual Aid to Demonstrate Change of State and Gas Pressure with Temperature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaffari, Shahrokh

    2011-01-01

    Demonstrations are used in chemistry lectures to improve conceptual understanding by direct observation. The visual aid described here is designed to demonstrate the change in state of matter with the change of temperature and the change of pressure with temperature. Temperature is presented by the rate of airflow and pressure is presented by

  7. Visual Aid to Demonstrate Change of State and Gas Pressure with Temperature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaffari, Shahrokh

    2011-01-01

    Demonstrations are used in chemistry lectures to improve conceptual understanding by direct observation. The visual aid described here is designed to demonstrate the change in state of matter with the change of temperature and the change of pressure with temperature. Temperature is presented by the rate of airflow and pressure is presented by…

  8. WATER TEMPERATURE CHARACTERISTICS OF LAKES SUBJECTED TO CLIMATE CHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A deterministic, one dimensional, unsteady lake water temperature model was modified and validated to simulate the seasonal (spring to fall) temperature stratification structure over a wide range of lake morphometries, trophic and meteorological conditions. odel coefficients rela...

  9. Atmospheric temperature changes over the 20th century at very high elevations in the European Alps from englacial temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, A.; Vincent, C.

    2013-05-01

    the paucity of observations, a great deal of uncertainty remains concerning temperature changes at very high altitudes over the last century. Englacial temperature measurements performed in boreholes provide a very good indicator of atmospheric temperatures for very high elevations although they are not directly related to air temperatures. Temperature profiles from seven deep boreholes drilled at three different sites between 4240 and 4300 m above sea level in the Mont Blanc area (French Alps) have been analyzed using a heat flow model and a Bayesian inverse modeling approach. Atmospheric temperature changes over the last century were estimated by simultaneous inversion of these temperature profiles. A mean warming rate of 0.14C/decade between 1900 and 2004 was found. This is similar to the observed regional low altitude trend in the northwestern Alps, suggesting that air temperature trends are not altitude dependent.

  10. Soil erosion under climate change: simulatingthe response of temperature and rainfall changes in three UK catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciampalini, Rossano; Walker-Springett, Kate J.; Constantine, José Antonio; Hales, Tristram C.

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion by water cost in environmental damages across the Great Britain is estimated in over £200m (2014 GBP) each year and could increase for the effect of climate change. Assessing the potential for increased climate-driven soil erosion, due to the several water processes involved (e.g., infiltration excess, return flow, direct precipitation onto saturated soil),is recognizedas a complex task. Climate change can have a positive and direct effect on soil erosionsuch the case of increasing rainfall in amount and intensity, or an indirect effect through the variation of the atmospheric CO2 level, which can improve plant productivityandwater infiltration capacity of soil reducing the likelihood of soil erosion. Changes in vegetation patterns and typologies with a different protection effect can lead also the soil system to dramatic changes in soil erosion rates, potentially amplifying or ameliorating the direct effects of climate change.Climate, vegetation and soil erosion are thus connected and several feedback effects could be accounted in the study of global change. Understanding these interactions may be a primary goal for clarifying the impact of global change on soil erosion and its consequences on related soil functions such as water and organic carbon storage support to vegetation and agricultural production. In this research, focused on three UK catchments (i.e. Conwy, 627 km2, Wales; Ehen, 225 km2, England; and Dee, 2100 km2, Scotland), we simulated soil erosionapplying SRES climatic scenarios(IPCC, 2000) for different CO2 emission levels. We modelled using Pesera "The Pan European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment" (Kirkby et al., 2004), a model for vegetation growing and soil erosion evaluation at regional scale. For each catchment,we realised a sensitivity - analysis - like test investigating different increments in temperature and rainfall, then, we compared the results of the SRES scenarios with the issues of the parametric sensitivity analysis. The results show that, because of the role of the vegetation, each land use has different reactions to temperature - rainfall variations; crop surfaces confirm to have a strong sensitivity while forests and grassland play a mitigation role on soil erosion.

  11. Seasonal Change Detection and Attribution of Surface Temperature changes over Interior Peninsular Region of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattanayak, Sonali; Nagesh Kumar, Dasika

    2015-04-01

    A good number of studies have investigated recent trends in the observed and simulated hydrometeorological variables across the world. It has been challenging for the research community to address whether the significant change in climate over the course of 2nd half of 20th century is caused either due to natural or manmade effects. Although evidences for an anthropogenic contribution to climatic trends have been accumulated rapidly worldwide, for India these are scarce. Hence the formal efforts have been undertaken to distinguish whether the recent changes in seasonal temperature over India occurred due to natural internal variation of climate system or human influence using rigorous detection and attribution (D&A) procedure. The surface temperature is the most widely cited indicator of climate fluctuation. Hence maximum and minimum temperatures (Tmax & Tmin) which are among the six most commonly used variables for impact assessment studies are analyzed here. Seasonal divisions are based on conventional meteorological seasons: January-February (winter); March-May (pre monsoon); June-September (monsoon); October-December (post monsoon). Time span considered for this study is 1950-2005. Climate Research Unit (Version 3.21) gridded monthly temperature datasets are considered as observed data. Initially TFPW-MK (Trend Free Pre Whitening Mann Kendall) test is used to search the significant trends in the four seasons over all India. Temporal change detection analysis in evapotranspiration (which is one of the key processes in hydrological cycle) is essential for progress in water resources planning and management. Hence along with Tmax and Tmin, potential evapotranspiration (PET) has also been analyzed for the similar conditions. Significant upward trends in Tmax, Tmin and PET are observed over most of the grid points in Interior Peninsula (IP) region over India. Significant correlation was obtained between PET and Tmax compared to PET and Tmin. Trends in Tmin clearly indicate the impact of anthropogenic GHGs (as it occurs during clear cloudless nights).Hence both Tmax and Tmin are considered for further analysis. In the next step formal D&A analysis is carried out to assess the change in seasonal temperature of IP region considering seasonal Tmax and Tmin. While simulating historical temperature changes over India, climate models from CMIP5 performed better than CMIP3. Therefore, simulations from five different sets of experiments (piControl, historical, historicalNat, historicalMisc, historicalGHG) from CMIP5 are used. Fingerprint based D&A (Hasselmann, 1979) approach is employed here. Fingerprint is the expected pattern of climate response to anthropogenic forcing and it is searched in the observed and model responses with respect to different experiments. It is observed from the D&A analysis that variability in Tmax during post monsoon season and Tmin during pre monsoon and monsoon seasons are beyond the range of natural internal variability. Hasselmann, K. 1979. On the signal-to-noise problem in atmospheric response studies. Meteorol.trop. oceans, 251-259.

  12. Volume and density changes of biological fluids with temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal expansion of human blood, plasma, ultrafiltrate, and erythrocycte concentration at temperatures in the range of 4-48 C is studied. The mechanical oscillator technique which has an accuracy of 1 x 10 to the -5 th g/ml is utilized to measure fluid density. The relationship between thermal expansion, density, and temperature is analyzed. The study reveals that: (1) thermal expansion increases with increasing temperature; (2) the magnitude of the increase declines with increasing temperature; (3) thermal expansion increases with density at temperatures below 40 C; and (4) the thermal expansion of intracellular fluid is greater than that of extracellular fluid in the temperature range of 4-10 C, but it is equal at temperatures greater than or equal to 40 C.

  13. Metabolic features of the cell danger response.

    PubMed

    Naviaux, Robert K

    2014-05-01

    The cell danger response (CDR) is the evolutionarily conserved metabolic response that protects cells and hosts from harm. It is triggered by encounters with chemical, physical, or biological threats that exceed the cellular capacity for homeostasis. The resulting metabolic mismatch between available resources and functional capacity produces a cascade of changes in cellular electron flow, oxygen consumption, redox, membrane fluidity, lipid dynamics, bioenergetics, carbon and sulfur resource allocation, protein folding and aggregation, vitamin availability, metal homeostasis, indole, pterin, 1-carbon and polyamine metabolism, and polymer formation. The first wave of danger signals consists of the release of metabolic intermediates like ATP and ADP, Krebs cycle intermediates, oxygen, and reactive oxygen species (ROS), and is sustained by purinergic signaling. After the danger has been eliminated or neutralized, a choreographed sequence of anti-inflammatory and regenerative pathways is activated to reverse the CDR and to heal. When the CDR persists abnormally, whole body metabolism and the gut microbiome are disturbed, the collective performance of multiple organ systems is impaired, behavior is changed, and chronic disease results. Metabolic memory of past stress encounters is stored in the form of altered mitochondrial and cellular macromolecule content, resulting in an increase in functional reserve capacity through a process known as mitocellular hormesis. The systemic form of the CDR, and its magnified form, the purinergic life-threat response (PLTR), are under direct control by ancient pathways in the brain that are ultimately coordinated by centers in the brainstem. Chemosensory integration of whole body metabolism occurs in the brainstem and is a prerequisite for normal brain, motor, vestibular, sensory, social, and speech development. An understanding of the CDR permits us to reframe old concepts of pathogenesis for a broad array of chronic, developmental, autoimmune, and degenerative disorders. These disorders include autism spectrum disorders (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), asthma, atopy, gluten and many other food and chemical sensitivity syndromes, emphysema, Tourette's syndrome, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), traumatic brain injury (TBI), epilepsy, suicidal ideation, organ transplant biology, diabetes, kidney, liver, and heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer and Parkinson disease, and autoimmune disorders like lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. PMID:23981537

  14. Low Temperature Adaptation Is Not the Opposite Process of High Temperature Adaptation in Terms of Changes in Amino Acid Composition

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ling-Ling; Tang, Shu-Kun; Huang, Ying; Zhi, Xiao-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies focused on psychrophilic adaptation generally have demonstrated that multiple mechanisms work together to increase protein flexibility and activity, as well as to decrease the thermostability of proteins. However, the relationship between high and low temperature adaptations remains unclear. To investigate this issue, we collected the available predicted whole proteome sequences of species with different optimal growth temperatures, and analyzed amino acid variations and substitutional asymmetry in pairs of homologous proteins from related species. We found that changes in amino acid composition associated with low temperature adaptation did not exhibit a coherent opposite trend when compared with changes in amino acid composition associated with high temperature adaptation. This result indicates that during their evolutionary histories the proteome-scale evolutionary patterns associated with prokaryotes exposed to low temperature environments were distinct from the proteome-scale evolutionary patterns associated with prokaryotes exposed to high temperature environments in terms of changes in amino acid composition of the proteins. PMID:26614525

  15. Low Temperature Adaptation Is Not the Opposite Process of High Temperature Adaptation in Terms of Changes in Amino Acid Composition.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ling-Ling; Tang, Shu-Kun; Huang, Ying; Zhi, Xiao-Yang

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies focused on psychrophilic adaptation generally have demonstrated that multiple mechanisms work together to increase protein flexibility and activity, as well as to decrease the thermostability of proteins. However, the relationship between high and low temperature adaptations remains unclear. To investigate this issue, we collected the available predicted whole proteome sequences of species with different optimal growth temperatures, and analyzed amino acid variations and substitutional asymmetry in pairs of homologous proteins from related species. We found that changes in amino acid composition associated with low temperature adaptation did not exhibit a coherent opposite trend when compared with changes in amino acid composition associated with high temperature adaptation. This result indicates that during their evolutionary histories the proteome-scale evolutionary patterns associated with prokaryotes exposed to low temperature environments were distinct from the proteome-scale evolutionary patterns associated with prokaryotes exposed to high temperature environments in terms of changes in amino acid composition of the proteins. PMID:26614525

  16. Complex coupled metabolic and prokaryotic community responses to increasing temperatures in anaerobic marine sediments: critical temperatures and substrate changes

    PubMed Central

    Roussel, Erwan G.; Cragg, Barry A.; Webster, Gordon; Sass, Henrik; Tang, Xiaohong; Williams, Angharad S.; Gorra, Roberta; Weightman, Andrew J.; Parkes, R. John

    2015-01-01

    The impact of temperature (0–80°C) on anaerobic biogeochemical processes and prokaryotic communities in marine sediments (tidal flat) was investigated in slurries for up to 100 days. Temperature had a non-linear effect on biogeochemistry and prokaryotes with rapid changes over small temperature intervals. Some activities (e.g. methanogenesis) had multiple ‘windows’ within a large temperature range (∼10 to 80°C). Others, including acetate oxidation, had maximum activities within a temperature zone, which varied with electron acceptor [metal oxide (up to ∼34°C) and sulphate (up to ∼50°C)]. Substrates for sulphate reduction changed from predominantly acetate below, and H2 above, a 43°C critical temperature, along with changes in activation energies and types of sulphate-reducing Bacteria. Above ∼43°C, methylamine metabolism ceased with changes in methanogen types and increased acetate concentrations (>1 mM). Abundances of uncultured Archaea, characteristic of deep marine sediments (e.g. MBGD Euryarchaeota, ‘Bathyarchaeota’) changed, indicating their possible metabolic activity and temperature range. Bacterial cell numbers were consistently higher than archaeal cells and both decreased above ∼15°C. Substrate addition stimulated activities, widened some activity temperature ranges (methanogenesis) and increased bacterial (×10) more than archaeal cell numbers. Hence, additional organic matter input from climate-related eutrophication may amplify the impact of temperature increases on sedimentary biogeochemistry. PMID:26207045

  17. Complex coupled metabolic and prokaryotic community responses to increasing temperatures in anaerobic marine sediments: critical temperatures and substrate changes.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Erwan G; Cragg, Barry A; Webster, Gordon; Sass, Henrik; Tang, Xiaohong; Williams, Angharad S; Gorra, Roberta; Weightman, Andrew J; Parkes, R John

    2015-08-01

    The impact of temperature (0-80C) on anaerobic biogeochemical processes and prokaryotic communities in marine sediments (tidal flat) was investigated in slurries for up to 100 days. Temperature had a non-linear effect on biogeochemistry and prokaryotes with rapid changes over small temperature intervals. Some activities (e.g. methanogenesis) had multiple 'windows' within a large temperature range (?10 to 80C). Others, including acetate oxidation, had maximum activities within a temperature zone, which varied with electron acceptor [metal oxide (up to ?34C) and sulphate (up to ?50C)]. Substrates for sulphate reduction changed from predominantly acetate below, and H2 above, a 43C critical temperature, along with changes in activation energies and types of sulphate-reducing Bacteria. Above ?43C, methylamine metabolism ceased with changes in methanogen types and increased acetate concentrations (>1 mM). Abundances of uncultured Archaea, characteristic of deep marine sediments (e.g. MBGD Euryarchaeota, 'Bathyarchaeota') changed, indicating their possible metabolic activity and temperature range. Bacterial cell numbers were consistently higher than archaeal cells and both decreased above ?15C. Substrate addition stimulated activities, widened some activity temperature ranges (methanogenesis) and increased bacterial (10) more than archaeal cell numbers. Hence, additional organic matter input from climate-related eutrophication may amplify the impact of temperature increases on sedimentary biogeochemistry. PMID:26207045

  18. The uncertainties of the net primary production due to regional and seasonal temperature changes in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guodong

    2015-04-01

    A kind of temperature change scenario is supplied by the approach of conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation related to parameter (CNOP-P) to estimate the variation of the net primary production (NPP)in North-South transect of eastern China within a state-of-the-art Lund-Potsdam-Jena dynamical global vegetation model (LPJ DGVM). There are two traits for the kind of temperature change scenario. Firstly, the kind of temperature change scenario considers the regional and seasonal differences in North-South transect of eastern China. The character of the temperature change is similar to the observation data due to the observational constraint. Secondly, the kind of temperature change scenario causes the maximal possible impact on the simulated NPP to discuss the maximal uncertainty in the simulated NPP to the temperature change in North-South transect of eastern China. Other two kinds of temperature change scenarios are also applied to explain the above two traits and to analyze variations due to different kinds of temperature change scenarios. It is shown that the kind of temperature change scenario resulted of the CNOP-P approach, which is called as the CNOP-P-type temperature change scenario, exhibits the regional and seasonal temperature differences in North-South transect of eastern China. The NPP decreases by 1.84% in northern China, and respectively increases by 4.09% and 18.99% in northeastern and southern China as the results of the CNOP-P-type temperature change scenario, though the NPP increases in small part of northern China and decreases in part of northeastern China. The variations in the NPP caused by the CNOP-P-type temperature change scenario are different to those by the other two types of temperature change scenarios in northern, northeastern China and southern China. The impact of the CNOP-P-type temperature change scenario on the NPP is intenser than that of the other two types of temperature change scenarios. The seasonal analyses demonstrate that the differences among the variations in the NPP due to three types of temperature change scenarios principally stem from the variations in spring, summer and autumn. The above results imply that the regional and seasonal temperature change play a key role in estimating the uncertainty of the NPP, and the CNOP-P approach could afford a possible temperature change scenarioto reflect the regional and seasonal temperature change.

  19. Assessing the Influence of Precipitation on Diurnal Temperature Range Changes: Implications for Climate Change Projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Hoof, C.; Garreaud, R.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we investigate up to what extent the spatial heterogeneity in the projected changes in DTR during the rest of the 21st century (under several emission scenarios) is explained by the regional variability in projected precipitation changes. DTR is indeed a suitable index of climate variability and change [1] and several studies have highlighted the existence of a negative correlation with both the cloud cover and the precipitation rate over land throughout last century [2]. Precipitation reduces DTR mainly by decreasing surface solar radiation through increased cloud cover and by increasing daytime surface evaporative cooling through increased soil moisture content. Whether or not these processes are captured in the current generation of global and regional models is matter of research. To achieve our objective, we make use of the climate projections made available by the CMIP5 project as well as their historical runs, along with reanalysis and station data. At inter-annual timescale, the seasonal mean DTR simulated by an ensemble of CMIP5 models for the last decades shows a negative relationship over land with the simulated precipitation at zero lag. The correlation is globally very strong except during winter at higher latitudes. This corresponds well with the correlations observed in the re-analysis datasets. Some spatial variability in correlation strength is however noticeable between both datasets. Concerning the projected changes, the negative correlation between DTR and precipitation does not hold globally; no correlation or even positive correlations are observed in different climate regions, including Northern South America and Central Europe. Within this study we will further investigate the physical process that could explain this change in correlation sign as well as the reason why positive correlations are rarely observed or simulated at inter-annual timescale under current climate during summer and at lower latitudes during winter. [1] K. Braganza, D.J. Karoly, and J.M. Arblaster. Diurnal temperature range as an index of global climate change during the twentieth century. Geophysical Research Letters, 31:1-4, 2004. [2] A. Dai, A.D. Del Genio, and I.Y. Fung. Clouds, precipitation and temperature range. Nature, 386:665-666, 1997.

  20. Personal Safety in Dangerous Places

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Terry; Dunlap, Eloise; Johnson, Bruce D.; Hamid, Ansley

    2009-01-01

    Personal safety during fieldwork is seldom addressed directly in the literature. Drawing from many prior years of ethnographic research and from field experience while studying crack distributors in New York City, the authors provide a variety of strategies by which ethnographic research can be safely conducted in dangerous settings. By projecting an appropriate demeanor, ethnographers can seek others for protector and locator roles, routinely create a safety zone in the field, and establish compatible field roles with potential subjects. The article also provides strategies for avoiding or handling sexual approaches, common law crimes, fights, drive-by shootings, and contacts with the police. When integrated with other standard qualitative methods, ethnographic strategies help to ensure that no physical harm comes to the field-worker and other staff members. Moreover, the presence of researchers may actually reduce (and not increase) potential and actual violence among crack distributors/abusers or others present in the field setting. PMID:19809525

  1. Spatio-temporal relations between temperature and precipitation regimes: Implications for temperature-induced changes in the hydrological cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiang; Li, Jianfeng; Singh, Vijay P.; Xiao, Mingzhong

    2013-12-01

    Changes in the precipitation regime as a result of temperature changes are important for water resources management and management of water-related natural hazards. In this study, daily temperature and precipitation datasets from 590 stations from across China are analyzed to investigate possible relations between precipitation and temperature regimes in both space and time. The K-means method is applied to group 590 stations into 4 homogenous sub-regions and then trends are detected by the modified Mann-Kendall test. The field significance test and false discovery rate approaches are used to determine spatial correlations. Results show that: (1) significant increases in temperature extremes are detected across China. However, the magnitude of increase in the minimum temperature is larger than that in the maximum temperature. The warming in China is reflected mainly by the remarkable increase in the minimum temperature; (2) precipitation changes are extremely uneven in both space and time. Generally, a wetting tendency is detected in western China, and a drying tendency in northeastern China annually and in summer. In winter, however, a wetting tendency is observed; and (3) different regional responses of precipitation extremes to increasing temperature can be identified across China. Under the influence of increasing temperature, precipitation is intensifying in southeastern China and winter is having a wetting tendency. The responses of changes in weak precipitation extremes to climate warming are comparatively complicated and diverse. Even then it can be confirmed that increasing temperature tends to trigger the intensification of precipitation. Temporal and spatial changes of water vapor divergence can well aid in the interpretation of seasonal and spatial alterations of precipitation regimes. Temperature changes can influence precipitation changes by altering thermo-dynamic properties of air mass and hence the moisture transportation.

  2. Dangerous Spaces, Dangerous Memories, Dangerous Emotions: Informal Education and Heteronormativity--A Manchester UK Youth Work Vignette

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batsleer, Janet

    2012-01-01

    This article makes a connection between youth work spaces, emotions and some elements of memory, exploring the construction of spaces dangerous for social justice in both meanings of the term "dangerous for". It investigates the contribution to social justice of lesbian and gay youth work and other non-heteronormative youth work in a British

  3. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Forest Fire Risk and Danger Using LANDSAT Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Sa?lam, Blent; Bilgili, Ertu?rul; Durmaz, Bahar Din; Kad?o?ullar?, Ali ?hsan; Kk, mer

    2008-01-01

    Computing fire danger and fire risk on a spatio-temporal scale is of crucial importance in fire management planning, and in the simulation of fire growth and development across a landscape. However, due to the complex nature of forests, fire risk and danger potential maps are considered one of the most difficult thematic layers to build up. Remote sensing and digital terrain data have been introduced for efficient discrete classification of fire risk and fire danger potential. In this study, two time-series data of Landsat imagery were used for determining spatio-temporal change of fire risk and danger potential in Korudag forest planning unit in northwestern Turkey. The method comprised the following two steps: (1) creation of indices of the factors influencing fire risk and danger; (2) evaluation of spatio-temporal changes in fire risk and danger of given areas using remote sensing as a quick and inexpensive means and determining the pace of forest cover change. Fire risk and danger potential indices were based on species composition, stand crown closure, stand development stage, insolation, slope and, proximity of agricultural lands to forest and distance from settlement areas. Using the indices generated, fire risk and danger maps were produced for the years 1987 and 2000. Spatio-temporal analyses were then realized based on the maps produced. Results obtained from the study showed that the use of Landsat imagery provided a valuable characterization and mapping of vegetation structure and type with overall classification accuracy higher than 83%.

  4. Diagnosing temperature change inside sonoluminescing bubbles by calculating line spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yu; Li, Chaohui

    2009-10-01

    With the numerical calculation of the spectrum of single bubble sonoluminescence, we find that when the maximum temperature inside a dimly luminescing bubble is relatively low, the spectral lines are prominent. As the maximum temperature of the bubble increases, the line spectrum from the bright bubble weakens or even fades away relative to the background continuum. The calculations in this paper effectively interpret the observed phenomena, indicating that the calculated results, which are closely related to the spectrum profile, such as temperature and pressure, should be reliable. The present calculation tends to negate the existence of a hot plasma core inside a sonoluminescing bubble.

  5. Geothermal consequences of surface warming: borehole temperatures, surface air temperatures, and multi-century proxy reconstructions of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, R. N.; Chapman, D. S.; Bartlett, M. G.

    2003-04-01

    A strong coupling between temperature variations in the atmosphere and those in the solid Earth provide rationale for interpreting surface ground temperature histories in terms of atmospheric warming and for coupling low-frequency surface ground temperature histories with proxy records of climate change. We verify that the mid latitude (30^o-60^oN) transient temperature profile, constructed from the global database of temperature profiles, shares much information in common with the NH surface air temperature (SAT) record. The combination of an initial temperature (the primary free parameter) with the last 140 years of SAT data yields a synthetic temperature profile that is an excellent fit to observations, accounting for 99% of the observed variance. This strong correlation suggests that over large areas and long time-scales ground and air temperatures are responding to similar forcings. Our analysis indicates 0.70.1^oC of ground warming between pre-industrial time and the 1961-1990 mean SAT. SAT data show another 0.4^oC of most recent warming; thus the total surface warming in the Northern Hemisphere may be as much as 1.1^oC. We next examine the extent to which various surface temperature histories for the NH are consistent with the geothermal record of climate change by using proxy records as forcing functions and calculating the subsurface response. Our transient temperature profile indicates greater overall warming than by proxy records. Transient seasonal snow cover has been suggested as a possible systematic bias in the ground temperature record. Our modeling of this effect suggests that snow's influence on decoupling changes in ground and air temperature is minimal. We conclude that borehole temperature profiles contain a valuable signal for measuring the magnitude and timing of global warming since pre-industrial time and provide a low-frequency complement to proxy reconstructions.

  6. Saturn ring temperature changes before and after ring equinox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, Linda; Flandes, Alberto; Morishima, Ryuji; Leyrat, Cedric; Altobelli, Nicolas; Ferrari, Cecile; Brooks, Shawn; Pilorz, Stu

    2010-05-01

    The Cassini Composite infrared spectrometer (CIRS) retrieved the temperatures of Saturn's main rings at solar elevations ranging from 24 degrees to zero degrees at equinox (August 2009) as the sun traversed from the south to north side of the rings. Over this broad range of solar elevation the CIRS data show that the ring temperatures vary as much as 29K- 38K for the A ring, 22K-34K for the B ring and 18K-23K for the C ring. Interestingly the unlit sides of the rings show a similar decrease in temperature with the decreasing solar elevation. As equinox approached, the main rings cooled to their lowest temperatures measured to date. At equinox the solar input is very small and the primary heat sources for the rings are Saturn thermal and visible energy. Temperatures are almost identical for similar geometries on the north and south sides of the rings. The ring temperatures at equinox were: C ring, 55-75 K; B ring, 45-60 K; Cassini Division, 45 - 58 K; and A ring, 43 - 52 K. After Saturn equinox the solar elevation angle began to increase again and the temperatures on both the lit (north) and unlit (south) sides of the rings have begun to increase as well. Ring thermal models developed by Flandes and Morishima are able to reproduce most of the equinox temperatures observed by CIRS. Results before and after equinox will be presented. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with NASA and at CEA Saclay supported by the "Programme National de Planetologie". Copyright 2010 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.

  7. Surface Temperatures on Titan: Changes During the Cassini Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.

    2010-10-01

    Surface brightness temperatures on Titan measured by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) aboard Cassini span the period from late northern winter to early spring. CIRS previously reported surface temperatures from the earlier portion of the mission (2004-08) that showed a temperature of 93.7 K at the equator with decreases of 2 K toward the south pole and 3 K toward the north pole (1). From a comparison of the equinox period with data from the earlier period, CIRS now detects a seasonal shift in the latitudinal distribution of temperatures. Around the time of the equinox the meridional distribution was more symmetric about the equator than had been found earlier in the mission. At equinox the equatorial surface temperatures remained close to 94 K, but in the south the temperatures had decreased by about 0.5 K and in the north had increased by about 0.5 K. The CIRS equinox results are similar to what was seen near the previous northern vernal equinox by Voyager IRIS (2, 3). The observed surface temperatures can help constrain the type of surface material by comparison with predictions from general circulation models. Of the three cases treated by Tokano (4), our measurements most closely match a porous-icy regolith. As Cassini continues through Titan's northern spring CIRS will extend its temporal and spatial coverage and will continue to search for seasonal variations in surface temperature. (1)Jennings et al., Astrophysical Journal Letters 69, L103 (2009). (2)Flasar, F. M., Samuelson, R. E., & Conrath, B. J., Nature 292, 693 (1981). (3)Courtin, R., & Kim, S. J., Planetary and Space Science 50, 309 (2002). (4)Tokano, T., Icarus 204, 619 (2005).

  8. Temperature changes across porcelain during multiple exposure CO2 lasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, Joseph R.; Zakariasen, Kenneth L.; Peacocke, Larry

    1990-06-01

    Research indicates that laser energy may provide a useful method for glazing and fusing porcelain for intraoral prosthetic purposes. However, it is not known whether such lasing will result in the production of heat levels that may be damaging to adjacent vital tissues such as the dental pulp and periodontal tissues. This research is designed to measure the magnitude of temperature rise across porcelain observed during multiple exposure C02 lasing. Fifteen porcelain examples of 1000 jim (5), 1500 pm (5) and 2000 tm (5) x each received five C02 laser exposures on the same exposure site at 1.0 sec. intervals at 8.0 watts (0.2 sec. per exposure with a 1 mm focal spot). A YSI 144201 thermilinear precision thermistor was placed on the porcelain surface opposite each laser exposure site. Temperature rise above ambient was recorded by an HP3421A data acquisition unit and HP9816 technical microcomputer. Recording continued for sufficient time to allow temperatures to return to ambient. The mean temperature elevations ranged from a low of 2.97 0C (2000 pm) to a high of 7.77 °C (1000 μm). ANOVA and Duncan's Multiple Range Test indicated significant differences in temperature rise by porcelain thickness. It would appear from the results of this research that temperature elevations adjacent to lased porcelain may be sufficiently controllable that safe intraoral porcelain lasing will be possible.

  9. The Secret of Safety Lies in Danger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildavsky, Aaron

    In creating and maintaining public safety, risks which entail some amount of danger are necessary. These risks must be rated regarding the amount of benefit and danger they would bring in order to ascertain the worthiness of the risk. It is important to realize that risks can often bring greater safety, that many safety devices themselves involve

  10. 29 CFR 1903.13 - Imminent danger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Imminent danger. 1903.13 Section 1903.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.13 Imminent danger. Whenever and as soon as a Compliance Safety and Health Officer concludes on...

  11. Preferred levels of auditory danger signals.

    PubMed

    Zera, J; Nagórski, A

    2000-01-01

    An important issue at the design stage of the auditory danger signal for a safety system is the signal audibility under various conditions of background noise. The auditory danger signal should be clearly audible but it should not be too loud to avoid fright, startling effects, and nuisance complaints. Criteria for designing auditory danger signals are the subject of the ISO 7731 (International Organization for Standardization [ISO], 1986) international standard and the EN 457 European standard (European Committee for Standardization [CEN], 1992). It is required that the A-weighted sound pressure level of the auditory danger signal is higher in level than the background noise by 15 dB. In this paper, the results of an experiment are reported, in which listeners adjusted most preferred levels of 3 danger signals (tone, sweep, complex sound) in the presence of a noise background (pink noise and industrial noise). The measurements were done for 60-, 70-, 80-, and 90-dB A-weighted levels of noise. Results show that for 60-dB level of noise the most preferred level of the danger signal is 10 to 20 dB above the noise level. However, for 90-dB level of noise, listeners selected a level of the danger signal that was equal to the noise level. Results imply that the criterion in the existing standards is conservative as it requires the level of the danger signal to be higher than the level of noise regardless of the noise level. PMID:10828157

  12. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Danger signs. 56.12021 Section 56.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger...

  13. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Danger signs. 56.12021 Section 56.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger...

  14. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Danger signs. 56.12021 Section 56.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger...

  15. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Danger signs. 56.12021 Section 56.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger...

  16. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Danger signs. 56.12021 Section 56.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger...

  17. Climate Change: A New Metric to Measure Changes in the Frequency of Extreme Temperatures using Record Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munasinghe, L.; Jun, T.; Rind, D. H.

    2012-01-01

    Consensus on global warming is the result of multiple and varying lines of evidence, and one key ramification is the increase in frequency of extreme climate events including record high temperatures. Here we develop a metric- called "record equivalent draws" (RED)-based on record high (low) temperature observations, and show that changes in RED approximate changes in the likelihood of extreme high (low) temperatures. Since we also show that this metric is independent of the specifics of the underlying temperature distributions, RED estimates can be aggregated across different climates to provide a genuinely global assessment of climate change. Using data on monthly average temperatures across the global landmass we find that the frequency of extreme high temperatures increased 10-fold between the first three decades of the last century (1900-1929) and the most recent decade (1999-2008). A more disaggregated analysis shows that the increase in frequency of extreme high temperatures is greater in the tropics than in higher latitudes, a pattern that is not indicated by changes in mean temperature. Our RED estimates also suggest concurrent increases in the frequency of both extreme high and extreme low temperatures during 2002-2008, a period when we observe a plateauing of global mean temperature. Using daily extreme temperature observations, we find that the frequency of extreme high temperatures is greater in the daily minimum temperature time-series compared to the daily maximum temperature time-series. There is no such observable difference in the frequency of extreme low temperatures between the daily minimum and daily maximum.

  18. Simulating global and local surface temperature changes due to Holocene anthropogenic land cover change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Feng; Vavrus, Steve J.; Kutzbach, John E.; Ruddiman, William F.; Kaplan, Jed O.; Krumhardt, Kristen M.

    2014-01-01

    Surface albedo changes from anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC) represent the second largest negative radiative forcing behind aerosol during the industrial era. Using a new reconstruction of ALCC during the Holocene era by Kaplan et al. (2011), we quantify the local and global temperature response induced by Holocene ALCC in the Community Climate System Model, version 4. We find that Holocene ALCC causes a global cooling of 0.17C due to the biogeophysical effects of land-atmosphere exchange of momentum, moisture, and radiative and heat fluxes. On the global scale, the biogeochemical effects of Holocene ALCC from carbon emissions dominate the biogeophysical effects by causing 0.9C global warming. The net effects of Holocene ALCC amount to a global warming of 0.73C during the preindustrial era, which is comparable to the ~0.8C warming during industrial times. On local to regional scales, such as parts of Europe, North America, and Asia, the biogeophysical effects of Holocene ALCC are significant and comparable to the biogeochemical effect.

  19. Microbially Induced Temperature Changes in a Petroleum Hydrocarbon Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, E.; Bekins, B.

    2007-12-01

    The degradation reactions of organic contaminants are often exothermic. Given this, the degradation of organic contaminants in an aquifer should produce measurable temperature increases if the heat is generated faster than it is dissipated. The groundwater contaminant plume at a crude oil spill site near Bemidji, Minnesota, USA, has been undergoing aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation for 28 years. At this site, the theoretical degradation of 100 mg/L phenol, a representative compound, under aerobic conditions could generate a 2C increase in groundwater temperature with no heat loss and an aquifer heat capacity of 2,494 J/L-C. The temperature in the aquifer was measured with an accurate thermistor (?0.01C) that was lowered to multiple depths in 13 monitoring wells along a groundwater flowpath. The measurements were taken from 0.15 to 12.62 m below the water table. Temperatures ranged from 6.35C in the background aquifer to 9.19C just under the crude oil source. These data revealed a thermal plume co-located with a previously observed area of BTEX biodegradation under iron-reducing and methanogenic conditions. The results indicate that evidence of exothermal microbial reactions within contaminant plumes can be detected using sensitive and detailed temperature measurements in wells.

  20. Trends and Patterns of Change in Temperature and Evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragno, E.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2014-12-01

    Global mean monthly temperature has increased substantially in the past decades. On the other hand, there are contradictory reports on the response of the potential evaporation to a warming climate. In this study, ground based observations of temperature, and direct measurements of pan potential evaporation are evaluated across the United States. Furthermore, empirical simulations of the potential evaporation have been evaluated against observations. The results show that empirical (e.g., Thornthwaite method) estimates of the potential evapotranspiration show trends inconsistent with the ground-based observations. In fact, while temperature data show a significant upward trend across most of the United States, ground-based evaporation data in most locations do not exhibit a statistically significant trend. Empirical methods of potential evaporation estimation, including the Thornthwaite method, show trends similar to temperature. The primary reason is that many of the empirical approaches are dominated by temperature. Currently, empirical estimates of potential evaporation are widely used for numerous applications including water stress analysis. This indicates that using empirical estimates of potential estimation for irrigation water demand estimation and also drought assessment could lead to unrealistic results.

  1. [Dangerous sharks in tropical seas].

    PubMed

    Maslin, J; Menard, G; Drouin, C; Pollet, L

    2000-01-01

    Sightseeing travel in tropical zones is a growing industry. The risks incurred by travelers depend on the destination, duration of stay, individual behavior, and type of leisure activity. Water sports expose visitors to encounters with dangerous marine animals. Shark attacks are rare but always serious occurrences. Divers should handle any shark, regardless of size, with due precaution. Prevention of shark attack depends on avoiding encounters by not attracting the attention of the shark and knowing the proper attitude to adopt in case an encounter should occur. Active and passive protection can be used, but each method has advantages and disadvantages depending on the situation. Rescue operations are difficult due to the gravity of injuries and their occurrence in a marine environment. This along with the nature of the aggressor explain that many attacks are immediately fatal. Wounds are often deep with involvement of bone, blood vessels, and nerves. A possible source of complication in survivors is infection, which can involve uncommon microorganisms associated with bacteria in sharks mouth or marine environment. PMID:11100446

  2. A Method to Convert MRI Images of Temperature Change Into Images of Absolute Temperature in Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Ryan M.; Viglianti, Benjamin L.; Yarmolenko, Pavel; Park, Ji-Young; Stauffer, Paul; Needham, David; Dewhirst, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose During hyperthermia (HT), the therapeutic response of tumors varies substantially within the target temperature range (3943C). Current thermometry methods are either invasive or measure only temperature change, which limits the ability to study tissue responses to HT. This study combines manganese-containing low-temperature sensitive liposomes (Mn-LTSL) with proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) thermometry to measure absolute temperature in tumors with high spatial and temporal resolution using MRI. Methods Liposomes were loaded with 300mM MnSO4. The phase transition temperature (Tm) of Mn-LTSL samples was measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The release of manganese from Mn-LTSL in saline was characterized with inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. A 2T GE small animal scanner was used to acquire dynamic T1-weighted images and temperature change images of Mn-LTSL in saline phantoms and fibrosarcoma-bearing Fisher 344 rats receiving hyperthermia after Mn-LTSL injection. Results The Tm of Mn-LTSL in rat blood was 42.9 0.2 C (DSC). For Mn-LTSL samples (0.06mM 0.5mM Mn2+ in saline) heated monotonically from 30C to 50C, a peak in the rate of MRI signal enhancement occurred at 43.1 0.3 C. The same peak in signal enhancement rate was observed during heating of fibrosarcoma tumors (N=3) after injection of Mn-LTSL, and the peak was used to convert temperature change images into absolute temperature. Accuracies of calibrated temperature measurements were in the range 0.9 1.8C. Conclusion The release of Mn2+ from Mn-LTSL affects the rate of MR signal enhancement which enables conversion of MRI-based temperature change images to absolute temperature. PMID:23957326

  3. Effect of climate change on water temperature and attainment of water temperature criteria in the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Cheryl A.; Sharp, Darrin; Mochon Collura, T. Chris

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that our planet is warming and this warming is also resulting in rising sea levels. Estuaries which are located at the interface between land and ocean are impacted by these changes. We used CE-QUAL-W2 water quality model to predict changes in water temperature as a function of increasing air temperatures and rising sea level for the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon (USA). Annual average air temperature in the Yaquina watershed is expected to increase about 0.3 °C per decade by 2040-2069. An air temperature increase of 3 °C in the Yaquina watershed is likely to result in estuarine water temperature increasing by 0.7-1.6 °C. Largest water temperature increases are expected in the upper portion of the estuary, while sea level rise may mitigate some of the warming in the lower portion of the estuary. Smallest changes in water temperature are predicted to occur in the summer, and maximum changes during the winter and spring. Increases in air temperature may result in an increase in the number of days per year that the 7-day maximum average temperature exceeds 18 °C (criterion for protection of rearing and migration of salmonids and trout) as well as other water quality concerns. In the upstream portion of the estuary, a 4 °C increase in air temperature is predicted to cause an increase of 40 days not meeting the temperature criterion, while in the lower estuary the increase will depend upon rate of sea level rise (ranging from 31 to 19 days).

  4. Changes in hydrogen utilization with temperature during direct coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Finseth, D.H.; Bockrath, B.C.; Illig, E.G.; Lett, R.G.; Oillo, D.L.; Retcofsky, H.L.; Sprecher, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    The approach outlined yields a rather detailed description of the net utilization of hydrogen during direct liquefaction, partitioning it into contributions from gas generation, heteroatom removal, hydrogenation, and matrix breakdown. Preliminary results indicate that internal hydrogen reorganization, with little consumption, predominates at low temperatures, with hydrogenation being compensated for by the hydrogen liberated in condensations. As the temperature is increased, bond cleavage reactions and aromatization reactions appear to become more important, and the net hydrogen consumption increases. Additional studies of the assumptions in the model and of uncertainties in the analytical data are needed to critically evaluate the utility of this approach.

  5. Assessing Climate Change: Temperatures, Solar Radiation and Heat Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Marvin

    2008-08-01

    The science of climate change is being investigated by thousands of scientists, is constantly in the news, and is discussed in the political arena worldwide. My Internet search on the words ``climate change'' produced about 40,600,000 hits. The 2007 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to former U.S. vice president Al Gore and the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Of course, the subject goes beyond the science. The debate on what, if anything, should be done about humankind's influence on climate is the subject of U.S. and international political debate.

  6. Volcanic Contribution to Decadal Changes in Tropospheric Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santer, Benjamin D.; Bonfils, Celine; Painter, Jeffrey F.; Zelinka, Mark D.; Mears, Carl; Solomon, Susan; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Fyfe, John C.; Cole, Jason N.S.; Nazarenko, Larissa; Taylor, Karl E.; Wentz, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite continued growth in atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, global mean surface and tropospheric temperatures have shown slower warming since 1998 than previously. Possible explanations for the slow-down include internal climate variability, external cooling influences and observational errors. Several recent modelling studies have examined the contribution of early twenty-first-century volcanic eruptions to the muted surface warming. Here we present a detailed analysis of the impact of recent volcanic forcing on tropospheric temperature, based on observations as well as climate model simulations. We identify statistically significant correlations between observations of stratospheric aerosol optical depth and satellite-based estimates of both tropospheric temperature and short-wave fluxes at the top of the atmosphere. We show that climate model simulations without the effects of early twenty-first-century volcanic eruptions overestimate the tropospheric warming observed since 1998. In two simulations with more realistic volcanic influences following the 1991 Pinatubo eruption, differences between simulated and observed tropospheric temperature trends over the period 1998 to 2012 are up to 15% smaller, with large uncertainties in the magnitude of the effect. To reduce these uncertainties, better observations of eruption-specific properties of volcanic aerosols are needed, as well as improved representation of these eruption-specific properties in climate model simulations.

  7. Changes in Population Occupancy of Bradyrhizobia under Diffrent Temperature Regimes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains (USDA 6T, 38, and 123) and Bradyrhizobium elkanii strain (USDA 76T) were conducted to compare their respective proliferation traits under different cultivation temperature conditions with yeast-extract mannitol broth medium and to estimate the strain p...

  8. Instrument accurately measures small temperature changes on test surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, W. D.; Miller, H. B.

    1966-01-01

    Calorimeter apparatus accurately measures very small temperature rises on a test surface subjected to aerodynamic heating. A continuous thin sheet of a sensing material is attached to a base support plate through which a series of holes of known diameter have been drilled for attaching thermocouples to the material.

  9. Water Temperature changes in the Mississippi River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we demonstrate the transfer of a physically based semi-Lagrangian water temperature model (RBM) to EPA, its linkage with the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model, and its calibration to and demonstration for the Mississippi River Basin (MRB). The r...

  10. A simplified physically-based model to calculate surface water temperature of lakes from air temperature in climate change scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccolroaz, S.; Toffolon, M.

    2012-12-01

    Modifications of water temperature are crucial for the ecology of lakes, but long-term analyses are not usually able to provide reliable estimations. This is particularly true for climate change studies based on Global Circulation Models, whose mesh size is normally too coarse for explicitly including even some of the biggest lakes on Earth. On the other hand, modeled predictions of air temperature changes are more reliable, and long-term, high-resolution air temperature observational datasets are more available than water temperature measurements. For these reasons, air temperature series are often used to obtain some information about the surface temperature of water bodies. In order to do that, it is common to exploit regression models, but they are questionable especially when it is necessary to extrapolate current trends beyond maximum (or minimum) measured temperatures. Moreover, water temperature is influenced by a variety of processes of heat exchange across the lake surface and by the thermal inertia of the water mass, which also causes an annual hysteresis cycle between air and water temperatures that is hard to consider in regressions. In this work we propose a simplified, physically-based model for the estimation of the epilimnetic temperature in lakes. Starting from the zero-dimensional heat budget, we derive a simplified first-order differential equation for water temperature, primarily forced by a seasonally varying external term (mainly related to solar radiation) and an exchange term explicitly depending on the difference between air and water temperatures. Assuming annual sinusoidal cycles of the main heat flux components at the atmosphere-lake interface, eight parameters (some of them can be disregarded, though) are identified, which can be calibrated if two temporal series of air and water temperature are available. We note that such a calibration is supported by the physical interpretation of the parameters, which provide good initial conditions. As a general result, the model allows one to obtain long-term series of estimated water temperatures, which can be valuably considered in climate change studies. The model has been applied to different lakes (Lake Baikal, Siberia; Lake Garda, Italy; Great Lakes, Canada and USA; Lake Mara, Canada) showing a noticeable agreement with the validation datasets and allowing for predictions of future trends of lake surface water temperature. Finally, it is worth noting that if the model is calibrated using air temperature series from climate models (global scale) and measured records of water temperature (lake scale), air temperatures are contemporaneously converted and downscaled. In conclusion, the model can be used as a downscaling tool, both for historical conditions and projected scenarios.

  11. Spring temperature change and its implication in the change of vegetation growth in North America from 1982 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuhui; Piao, Shilong; Ciais, Philippe; Li, Junsheng; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Koven, Charlie; Chen, Anping

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how vegetation growth responds to climate change is a critical requirement for projecting future ecosystem dynamics. Parts of North America (NA) have experienced a spring cooling trend over the last three decades, but little is known about the response of vegetation growth to this change. Using observed climate data and satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from 1982 to 2006, we investigated changes in spring (April–May) temperature trends and their impact on vegetation growth in NA. A piecewise linear regression approach shows that the trend in spring temperature is not continuous through the 25-year period. In the northwestern region of NA, spring temperature increased until the late 1980s or early 1990s, and stalled or decreased afterwards. In response, a spring vegetation greening trend, which was evident in this region during the 1980s, stalled or reversed recently. Conversely, an opposite phenomenon occurred in the northeastern region of NA due to different spring temperature trends. Additionally, the trends of summer vegetation growth vary between the periods before and after the turning point (TP) of spring temperature trends. This change cannot be fully explained by summer drought stress change alone and is partly explained by changes in the trends of spring temperature as well as those of summer temperature. As reported in previous studies, summer vegetation browning trends have occurred in the northwestern region of NA since the early 1990s, which is consistent with the spring and summer cooling trends in this region during this period. PMID:21220297

  12. Changes in hydrogen utilization with temperature during direct coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Finseth, D.H.; Bockrath, B.C.; Cillo, D.L.; Illig, E.G.; Sprecher, R.F., Retcofsky, H.L.; Lett, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    A reliable means of monitoring the major pathways of hydrogen utilization, in contrast to only measuring net hydrogen comsumption, would be very useful for process optimization. The goal of this work was to develop an analytical approach for quantitatively distinguishing hydrogen consumed in hydrogenation from that utilized to stabilize thermolysis fragments. The approach outlined yields a rather detailed description of the net utilization of hydrogen during direct liquefaction, partitioning it into contributions from gas generation, heteroatom removal, hydrogenation, and matrix breakdown. Preliminary results indicate that internal hydrogen reorganization, with little consumption, predominates at low temperatures, with hydrogenation being compensated for by the hydrogen liberated in condensations. As the temperature is increased, bond cleavage reactions and aromatization reactions appear to become more important, and the net hydrogen consumption increases. (3 tables 1 figs., 11 refs.)

  13. Metastable Changes to the Temperature Coefficients of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Deceglie, M. G.; Silverman, T. J.; Marion, B.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2014-07-01

    Transient changes in the performance of thin-film modules with light exposure are a well-known and widely reported phenomenon. These changes are often the result of reversible metastabilities rather than irreversible changes. Here we consider how these metastable changes affect the temperature dependence of photovoltaic performance. We find that in CIGS modules exhibiting a metastable increase in performance with light exposure, the light exposure also induces an increase in the magnitude of the temperature coefficient. It is important to understand such changes when characterizing temperature coefficients and when analyzing the outdoor performance of newly installed modules.

  14. Predicting global average thermospheric temperature changes resulting from auroral heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weimer, D. R.; Bowman, B. R.; Sutton, E. K.; Tobiska, W. K.

    2011-01-01

    The total Poynting flux flowing into both polar hemispheres as a function of time, computed with an empirical model, is compared with measurements of neutral densities in the thermosphere at two altitudes obtained from accelerometers on the CHAMP and GRACE satellites. The Jacchia-Bowman 2008 empirical thermospheric density model (JB2008) is used to facilitate the comparison. This model calculates a background level for the global nighttime minimum exospheric temperature, Tc, from solar indices. Corrections to this background level due to auroral heating, ?Tc, are presently computed from the Dst index. A proxy measurement of this temperature difference, ?Tc, is obtained by matching the CHAMP and GRACE density measurements with the JB2008 model. Through the use of a differential equation, the ?Tc correction can be predicted from IMF values. The resulting calculations correlate very well with the orbit-averaged measurements of ?Tc, and correlate better than the values derived from Dst. Results indicate that the thermosphere cools faster following time periods with greater ionospheric heating. The enhanced cooling is likely due to nitric oxide (NO) that is produced at a higher rate in proportion to the ionospheric heating, and this effect is simulated in the differential equations. As the ?Tc temperature correction from this model can be used as a direct substitute for the Dst-derived correction that is now used in JB200, it could be possible to predict ?Tc with greater accuracy and lead time.

  15. Seasonal Temperature Changes Do Not Affect Cardiac Glucose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Schildt, Jukka; Loimaala, Antti; Hippeläinen, Eero; Nikkinen, Päivi; Ahonen, Aapo

    2015-01-01

    FDG-PET/CT is widely used to diagnose cardiac inflammation such as cardiac sarcoidosis. Physiological myocardial FDG uptake often creates a problem when assessing the possible pathological glucose metabolism of the heart. Several factors, such as fasting, blood glucose, and hormone levels, influence normal myocardial glucose metabolism. The effect of outdoor temperature on myocardial FDG uptake has not been reported before. We retrospectively reviewed 29 cancer patients who underwent PET scans in warm summer months and again in cold winter months. We obtained myocardial, liver, and mediastinal standardized uptake values (SUVs) as well as quantitative cardiac heterogeneity and the myocardial FDG uptake pattern. We also compared age and body mass index to other variables. The mean myocardial FDG uptake showed no significant difference between summer and winter months. Average outdoor temperature did not correlate significantly with myocardial SUVmax in either summer or winter. The heterogeneity of myocardial FDG uptake did not differ significantly between seasons. Outdoor temperature seems to have no significant effect on myocardial FDG uptake or heterogeneity. Therefore, warming the patients prior to attending cardiac PET studies in order to reduce physiological myocardial FDG uptake seems to be unnecessary. PMID:26858844

  16. Observed and projected changes in absolute temperature records across the contiguous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abatzoglou, John T.; Barbero, Renaud

    2014-09-01

    Changes in the extent of absolute, all-time, daily temperature records across the contiguous United States were examined using observations and climate model simulations. Observations from station data and reanalysis from 1980 to 2013 show increased extent of absolute highest temperature records and decreased extent of absolute lowest temperature records. Conversely, station data from 1920 to 2013 showed decreased extent of absolute highest records with nearly half of such records occurring in the 1930s during exceptional widespread drought. Simulated changes in the extent of absolute temperature records from climate model experiments were in general agreement with observed changes for recent decades. However, fewer lowest temperature records and highest temperature records were observed since 2000 than simulated by most models. Climate models project a continued increase in the occurrence of highest temperature records and decline in lowest temperature records through the mid-21st century.

  17. Amplification and dampening of soil respiration by changes in temperature variability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sierra, C.A.; Harmon, M.E.; Thomann, E.; Perakis, S.S.; Loescher, H.W.

    2011-01-01

    Accelerated release of carbon from soils is one of the most important feed backs related to anthropogenically induced climate change. Studies addressing the mechanisms for soil carbon release through organic matter decomposition have focused on the effect of changes in the average temperature, with little attention to changes in temperature vari-ability. Anthropogenic activities are likely to modify both the average state and the variability of the climatic system; therefore, the effects of future warming on decomposition should not only focus on trends in the average temperature, but also variability expressed as a change of the probability distribution of temperature.Using analytical and numerical analyses we tested common relationships between temperature and respiration and found that the variability of temperature plays an important role determining respiration rates of soil organic matter. Changes in temperature variability, without changes in the average temperature, can affect the amount of carbon released through respiration over the long term. Furthermore, simultaneous changes in the average and variance of temperature can either amplify or dampen there release of carbon through soil respiration as climate regimes change. The effects depend on the degree of convexity of the relationship between temperature and respiration and the magnitude of the change in temperature variance. A potential consequence of this effect of variability would be higher respiration in regions where both the mean and variance of temperature are expected to increase, such as in some low latitude regions; and lower amounts of respiration where the average temperature is expected to increase and the variance to decrease, such as in northern high latitudes.

  18. Intruder-induced change in condensation temperature of granular gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kuo-Ching; Hsieh, Wan-Lin; Lin, Chi-Hao

    2011-02-01

    The process from a gaseous state to a clustering state for a compartmentalized monodisperse granular gas is accompanied by a drop in the granular temperature to a condensation point. We show experimentally that adding an intruder generally results in a decrease in the condensation point, and a heavier intruder makes this decrease more pronounced. However, once the Brazil nut effect (the intruder on the top of clustering grains) occurs, the condensation point will rise. Through the balance of particle fluxes and the hydrodynamic balance of driving forces, we analytically calculated the condensation point for the monodisperse gases and the intruder-fluid mixtures. The analytical results match the experimental data.

  19. Parameterization of temperature sensitivity of spring phenology and its application in explaining diverse phenological responses to temperature change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huanjiong; Ge, Quansheng; Rutishauser, This; Dai, Yuxiao; Dai, Junhu

    2015-03-01

    Existing evidence of plant phenological change to temperature increase demonstrates that the phenological responsiveness is greater at warmer locations and in early-season plant species. Explanations of these findings are scarce and not settled. Some studies suggest considering phenology as one functional trait within a plant's life history strategy. In this study, we adapt an existing phenological model to derive a generalized sensitivity in space (SpaceSens) model for calculating temperature sensitivity of spring plant phenophases across species and locations. The SpaceSens model have three parameters, including the temperature at the onset date of phenophases (Tp), base temperature threshold (Tb) and the length of period (L) used to calculate the mean temperature when performing regression analysis between phenology and temperature. A case study on first leaf date of 20 plant species from eastern China shows that the change of Tp and Tb among different species accounts for interspecific difference in temperature sensitivity. Moreover, lower Tp at lower latitude is the main reason why spring phenological responsiveness is greater there. These results suggest that spring phenophases of more responsive, early-season plants (especially in low latitude) will probably continue to diverge from the other late-season plants with temperatures warming in the future.

  20. Parameterization of temperature sensitivity of spring phenology and its application in explaining diverse phenological responses to temperature change

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huanjiong; Ge, Quansheng; Rutishauser, This; Dai, Yuxiao; Dai, Junhu

    2015-01-01

    Existing evidence of plant phenological change to temperature increase demonstrates that the phenological responsiveness is greater at warmer locations and in early-season plant species. Explanations of these findings are scarce and not settled. Some studies suggest considering phenology as one functional trait within a plant's life history strategy. In this study, we adapt an existing phenological model to derive a generalized sensitivity in space (SpaceSens) model for calculating temperature sensitivity of spring plant phenophases across species and locations. The SpaceSens model have three parameters, including the temperature at the onset date of phenophases (Tp), base temperature threshold (Tb) and the length of period (L) used to calculate the mean temperature when performing regression analysis between phenology and temperature. A case study on first leaf date of 20 plant species from eastern China shows that the change of Tp and Tb among different species accounts for interspecific difference in temperature sensitivity. Moreover, lower Tp at lower latitude is the main reason why spring phenological responsiveness is greater there. These results suggest that spring phenophases of more responsive, early-season plants (especially in low latitude) will probably continue to diverge from the other late-season plants with temperatures warming in the future. PMID:25743934

  1. Interpreting ice core records of inter-annual temperature change across the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sime, L.; Marshall, G.

    2009-04-01

    The Antarctica Peninsula has a rapidly changing climate, however there is a paucity of long term meterological observations of temperature across the region. Decadal to centennial ice cores records can potentially help to fill this gap. Interpretation of the ice cores requires an understanding of the relationship between temperature change and the accumulation record recovered from each Peninsula core site. To facilitate this interpretation, we present an analysis of 22 years (1980-2002) of ECMWF ERA40 surface temperature, precipitation, and accumulation data. Inter-annual variability in temperature is quite is similar across the Peninsula. However, changes in the covariance between accumulation and temperature over the Peninsula region at the seasonal and synoptic time periods strongly affect the potential ice core recording of temperature change: with a clear trend in the fraction of inter-annual temperature change recorded along the Peninsula. It is likely that only about 25% of the actual inter-annual temperature change will be visible in the accumulation record at the northern end of the Peninsula near James Ross Island, 70% at Dyer in the central regions, and 120% at the southern end in the Gomez region. This study is likely to facilitate understand of decadal to centennial temperature change obtained from stable water isotopes in this sensitive polar region.

  2. Simulation of regional temperature change effect of land cover change in agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tingxiang; Zhang, Shuwen; Yu, Lingxue; Bu, Kun; Yang, Jiuchun; Chang, Liping

    2016-02-01

    The Northeast China is one of typical regions experiencing intensive human activities within short time worldwide. Particularly, as the significant changes of agriculture land and forest, typical characteristics of pattern and process of agroforestry ecotone change formed in recent decades. The intensive land use change of agroforestry ecotone has made significant change for regional land cover, which had significant impact on the regional climate system elements and the interactions among them. This paper took agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China as study region and simulated temperature change based on land cover change from 1950s to 1978 and from 1978 to 2010. The analysis of temperature difference sensitivity to land cover change based on Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model showed that the land cover change from 1950s to 1978 induced warming effect over all the study area, including the change of grassland to agriculture land, grassland to deciduous broad-leaved forest, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to shrub land. The land cover change from 1978 to 2010 induced cooling effect over all the study area, including the change of deciduous broad-leaved forest to agriculture land, grassland to agriculture land, shrub land to agriculture land, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to grassland. In addition, the warming and cooling effect of land cover change was more significant in the region scale than specific land cover change area.

  3. Using Spectral Methods to Quantify Changes in Temperature Variability across Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, S.; McInerney, D.; Stein, M.; Leeds, W.; Poppick, A. N.; Nazarenko, L.; Schmidt, G. A.; Moyer, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    Changes in future surface temperature variability are of great scientific and societal interest. Since the impact of variability on human society depends on not only the magnitude but also the frequency of variations, shifts in the marginal distribution of temperatures do not provide enough information for impacts assessment. Leeds et al (2014) proposed a method to quantify changes in variability of temperature at distinct temporal frequencies by estimating the ratio of the spectral densities of temperature between pre-industrial and equilibrated future climates. This spectral ratio functions well as a metric to quantify temperature variability shifts in climate model output. In this study, we apply the method of Leeds et al (2014) to explore the temperature variability changes under increased radiative forcing. We compare changes in variability in higher-CO2 climates across two different climate models (CCSM3 from the National Center for Atmospheric Research and GISS-E2-R from NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies), and changes driven by two different forcing agents (CO2 and solar radiation) within the same model (CCSM3). In all cases we use only the equilibrium stages of model runs extended several thousand years after an abrupt forcing change is imposed. We find a number of results. First, changes in temperature variability differ by frequency in most regions, confirming the need for spectral methods. Second, changes are similar regardless of forcing agents. In experiments with abruptly increased CO2 and solar forcing designed to produce the same change in global mean temperature, the distributions and magnitudes of spectral ratio changes are nearly identical. Finally, projections of variability changes differ across models. In CCSM3, temperature variability decreases in most regions and at most frequencies. Conversely, in GISS-E2-R, temperature variability tends to increase over land. The discrepancy between CCSM3 and the GISS-E-R highlights the need for further inter-model comparisons of variability projections. This study provides a potential framework for such comparisons.

  4. Morphometry and average temperature affect lake stratification responses to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, Benjamin M.; Anneville, Orlane; Chandra, Sudeep; Dix, Margaret; Kuusisto, Esko; Livingstone, David M.; Rimmer, Alon; Schladow, S. Geoffrey; Silow, Eugene; Sitoki, Lewis M.; Tamatamah, Rashid; Vadeboncoeur, Yvonne; McIntyre, Peter B.

    2015-06-01

    Climate change is affecting lake stratification with consequences for water quality and the benefits that lakes provide to society. Here we use long-term temperature data (1970-2010) from 26 lakes around the world to show that climate change has altered lake stratification globally and that the magnitudes of lake stratification changes are primarily controlled by lake morphometry (mean depth, surface area, and volume) and mean lake temperature. Deep lakes and lakes with high average temperatures have experienced the largest changes in lake stratification even though their surface temperatures tend to be warming more slowly. These results confirm that the nonlinear relationship between water density and water temperature and the strong dependence of lake stratification on lake morphometry makes lake temperature trends relatively poor predictors of lake stratification trends.

  5. Estimation of surface temperature variations due to changes in sky and solar flux with elevation.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hummer-Miller, S.

    1981-01-01

    Sky and solar radiance are of major importance in determining the ground temperature. Knowledge of their behavior is a fundamental part of surface temperature models. These 2 fluxes vary with elevation and this variation produces temperature changes. Therefore, when using thermal-property differences to discriminate geologic materials, these flux variations with elevation need to be considered. -from Author

  6. Evidence for changes in the microwave brightness temperature and spectrum of Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batty, M. J.; Jauncey, D. L.; Rayner, P. T.; Gulkis, S.

    1981-01-01

    A new measurement of the microwave brightness temperature of Uranus at 13.1 cm wavelength yields an effective disk temperature of 255 + or - 18 K. Comparison with earlier measurements at nearby wavelengths reveals a doubling in brightness temperature in 14 yr. Observations at shorter wavelengths show significant changes in the shape of the microwave spectrum of the planet over the last decade.

  7. Climate change, global warming and coral reefs: modelling the effects of temperature.

    PubMed

    Crabbe, M James C

    2008-10-01

    Climate change and global warming have severe consequences for the survival of scleractinian (reef-building) corals and their associated ecosystems. This review summarizes recent literature on the influence of temperature on coral growth, coral bleaching, and modelling the effects of high temperature on corals. Satellite-based sea surface temperature (SST) and coral bleaching information available on the internet is an important tool in monitoring and modelling coral responses to temperature. Within the narrow temperature range for coral growth, corals can respond to rate of temperature change as well as to temperature per se. We need to continue to develop models of how non-steady-state processes such as global warming and climate change will affect coral reefs. PMID:18565794

  8. Validation of climate model-inferred regional temperature change for late-glacial Europe.

    PubMed

    Heiri, Oliver; Brooks, Stephen J; Renssen, Hans; Bedford, Alan; Hazekamp, Marjolein; Ilyashuk, Boris; Jeffers, Elizabeth S; Lang, Barbara; Kirilova, Emiliya; Kuiper, Saskia; Millet, Laurent; Samartin, Stéphanie; Toth, Monika; Verbruggen, Frederike; Watson, Jenny E; van Asch, Nelleke; Lammertsma, Emmy; Amon, Leeli; Birks, Hilary H; Birks, H John B; Mortensen, Morten F; Hoek, Wim Z; Magyari, Enikö; Muñoz Sobrino, Castor; Seppä, Heikki; Tinner, Willy; Tonkov, Spassimir; Veski, Siim; Lotter, André F

    2014-01-01

    Comparisons of climate model hindcasts with independent proxy data are essential for assessing model performance in non-analogue situations. However, standardized palaeoclimate data sets for assessing the spatial pattern of past climatic change across continents are lacking for some of the most dynamic episodes of Earth's recent past. Here we present a new chironomid-based palaeotemperature dataset designed to assess climate model hindcasts of regional summer temperature change in Europe during the late-glacial and early Holocene. Latitudinal and longitudinal patterns of inferred temperature change are in excellent agreement with simulations by the ECHAM-4 model, implying that atmospheric general circulation models like ECHAM-4 can successfully predict regionally diverging temperature trends in Europe, even when conditions differ significantly from present. However, ECHAM-4 infers larger amplitudes of change and higher temperatures during warm phases than our palaeotemperature estimates, suggesting that this and similar models may overestimate past and potentially also future summer temperature changes in Europe. PMID:25208610

  9. Validation of climate model-inferred regional temperature change for late-glacial Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiri, Oliver; Brooks, Stephen J.; Renssen, Hans; Bedford, Alan; Hazekamp, Marjolein; Ilyashuk, Boris; Jeffers, Elizabeth S.; Lang, Barbara; Kirilova, Emiliya; Kuiper, Saskia; Millet, Laurent; Samartin, Stphanie; Toth, Monika; Verbruggen, Frederike; Watson, Jenny E.; van Asch, Nelleke; Lammertsma, Emmy; Amon, Leeli; Birks, Hilary H.; Birks, H. John B.; Mortensen, Morten F.; Hoek, Wim Z.; Magyari, Enik; Muoz Sobrino, Castor; Sepp, Heikki; Tinner, Willy; Tonkov, Spassimir; Veski, Siim; Lotter, Andr F.

    2014-09-01

    Comparisons of climate model hindcasts with independent proxy data are essential for assessing model performance in non-analogue situations. However, standardized palaeoclimate data sets for assessing the spatial pattern of past climatic change across continents are lacking for some of the most dynamic episodes of Earths recent past. Here we present a new chironomid-based palaeotemperature dataset designed to assess climate model hindcasts of regional summer temperature change in Europe during the late-glacial and early Holocene. Latitudinal and longitudinal patterns of inferred temperature change are in excellent agreement with simulations by the ECHAM-4 model, implying that atmospheric general circulation models like ECHAM-4 can successfully predict regionally diverging temperature trends in Europe, even when conditions differ significantly from present. However, ECHAM-4 infers larger amplitudes of change and higher temperatures during warm phases than our palaeotemperature estimates, suggesting that this and similar models may overestimate past and potentially also future summer temperature changes in Europe.

  10. Investigation of medium and high temperature phase change materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heine, D.; Kraehling, H.

    1979-01-01

    A detailed description of the programs for acquisition and analysis of the test results is given. Basically it concerns three programs. The TEST program controls the recording of the test data. With the THELLI program it is possible to follow the temperature curve recorded for each individual thermoelement during the test. With the AUSW program the test data can be analyzed, to determine, for example, the melting point and the start of melting. The first results of the service life tests are discussed. From these it is attempted to draw inferences for the subsequent tests. An attempt is made to focus on the determination of the area-related mass loss, the reduction in thickness and the corrosion rate as well as optical and scanning electron microscope evaluation.

  11. 29 CFR 1903.13 - Imminent danger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.13 Imminent danger. Whenever and as soon as a Compliance... relief in accordance with the provisions of section 13(a) of the Act. Appropriate citations and...

  12. 29 CFR 1903.13 - Imminent danger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.13 Imminent danger. Whenever and as soon as a Compliance... relief in accordance with the provisions of section 13(a) of the Act. Appropriate citations and...

  13. 29 CFR 1903.13 - Imminent danger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.13 Imminent danger. Whenever and as soon as a Compliance... relief in accordance with the provisions of section 13(a) of the Act. Appropriate citations and...

  14. 29 CFR 1903.13 - Imminent danger.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INSPECTIONS, CITATIONS AND PROPOSED PENALTIES § 1903.13 Imminent danger. Whenever and as soon as a Compliance... relief in accordance with the provisions of section 13(a) of the Act. Appropriate citations and...

  15. Potentially Dangerous Items for Your Pet

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Veterinary Home Animal & Veterinary Resources for You Animal Health Literacy Potentially Dangerous Items for Your Pet Share Tweet ... at 1-888-426-4435. More in Animal Health Literacy CVM Kid's Page Page Last Updated: 08/27/ ...

  16. [Changes in various indicators of nonspecific immunity in operators exposed to high environmental temperature].

    PubMed

    Pozdniakova, V S; Azhaev, A N

    1991-01-01

    30 degrees C temperature conditions caused no vivid changes in the non-specific immunity indices in operators. Temperature levels at 40 degrees C and 60 degrees C caused non-specific immunity marked decrease. The changes registered immediately after exposing to high temperatures were less vivid as compared to those registered three hours later. Repeated exposing to 60 degrees C 1 week later displayed more expressive shifts in the non-specific immunity indices. PMID:1916402

  17. Impacts of Low-Flow and Stream-Temperature Changes on Endangered Atlantic Salmon - Current Research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.; Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Letcher, Benjamin H.

    2008-01-01

    Recent climate studies in New England and the northeastern United States have shown evidence of physical changes over time, including trends toward earlier snowmelt runoff, decreasing river ice, and increasing spring water temperatures. A U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study funded by the National Global Warming and Wildlife Science Center will be investigating changes in summer low streamflows and stream temperatures and the potential effects of those changes on endangered Atlantic salmon populations. The study also will evaluate management options that would be most likely to mitigate the effects of any changes in streamflow and temperature.

  18. Potential effects of diurnal temperature oscillations on potato late blight with special reference to climate change.

    PubMed

    Shakya, S K; Goss, E M; Dufault, N S; van Bruggen, A H C

    2015-02-01

    Global climate change will have effects on diurnal temperature oscillations as well as on average temperatures. Studies on potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans) development have not considered daily temperature oscillations. We hypothesize that growth and development rates of P. infestans would be less influenced by change in average temperature as the magnitude of fluctuations in daily temperatures increases. We investigated the effects of seven constant (10, 12, 15, 17, 20, 23, and 27C) and diurnally oscillating (5 and 10C) temperatures around the same means on number of lesions, incubation period, latent period, radial lesion growth rate, and sporulation intensity on detached potato leaves inoculated with two P. infestans isolates from clonal lineages US-8 and US-23. A four-parameter thermodynamic model was used to describe relationships between temperature and disease development measurements. Incubation and latency progression accelerated with increasing oscillations at low mean temperatures but slowed down with increasing oscillations at high mean temperatures (P < 0.005), as hypothesized. Infection efficiency, lesion growth rate, and sporulation increased under small temperature oscillations compared with constant temperatures but decreased when temperature oscillations were large. Thus, diurnal amplitude in temperature should be considered in models of potato late blight, particularly when predicting effects of global climate change on disease development. PMID:25140388

  19. Operational perspective of remote sensing-based forest fire danger forecasting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Ehsan H.; Hassan, Quazi K.

    2015-06-01

    Forest fire is a natural phenomenon in many ecosystems across the world. One of the most important components of forest fire management is the forecasting of fire danger conditions. Here, our aim was to critically analyse the following issues, (i) current operational forest fire danger forecasting systems and their limitations; (ii) remote sensing-based fire danger monitoring systems and usefulness in operational perspective; (iii) remote sensing-based fire danger forecasting systems and their functional implications; and (iv) synergy between operational forecasting systems and remote sensing-based methods. In general, the operational systems use point-based measurements of meteorological variables (e.g., temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, precipitations, cloudiness, solar radiation, etc.) and generate danger maps upon employing interpolation techniques. Theoretically, it is possible to overcome the uncertainty associated with the interpolation techniques by using remote sensing data. During the last several decades, efforts were given to develop fire danger condition systems, which could be broadly classified into two major groups: fire danger monitoring and forecasting systems. Most of the monitoring systems focused on determining the danger during and/or after the period of image acquisition. A limited number of studies were conducted to forecast fire danger conditions, which could be adaptable. Synergy between the operational systems and remote sensing-based methods were investigated in the past but too much complex in nature. Thus, the elaborated understanding about these developments would be worthwhile to advance research in the area of fire danger in the context of making them operational.

  20. AO/NAO Response to Climate Change. 2; Relative Importance of Low- and High-Latitude Temperature Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, D.; Perlwitz, J.; Lonergan, P.; Lerner, J.

    2005-01-01

    Using a variety of GCM experiments with various versions of the GISS model, we investigate how different aspects of tropospheric climate changes affect the extratropical Arctic Oscillation (AO)/North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) circulation indices. The results show that low altitude changes in the extratropical latitudinal temperature gradient can have a strong impact on eddy forcing of the extratropical zonal wind, in the sense that when this latitudinal temperature gradient increases, it helps force a more negative AO/NAO phase. In addition, local conditions at high latitudes can stabilize/destabilize the atmosphere, inducing negative/positive phase changes. To the extent that there is not a large temperature change in the tropical upper troposphere (either through reduced tropical sensitivity at the surface, or limited transport of this change to high levels), the changes in the low level temperature gradient can provide the dominate influence on the extratropical circulation, so that planetary wave meridional refraction and eddy angular momentum transport changes become uncorrelated with potential vorticity transports. In particular, the climate change that produces the most positive NAO phase change would have substantial warming in the tropical upper troposphere over the Pacific Ocean, with high latitude warming in the North Atlantic. An increase in positive phase of these circulation indices is still more likely than not, but it will depend on the degree of tropical and high latitude temperature response and the transport of low level warming into the upper troposphere. These are aspects that currently differ among the models used for predicting the effects of global warning, contributing to the lack of consensus of future changes in the AO/NAO.

  1. Effect of Climate Change on Soil Temperature in Swedish Boreal Forests

    PubMed Central

    Jungqvist, Gunnar; Oni, Stephen K.; Teutschbein, Claudia; Futter, Martyn N.

    2014-01-01

    Complex non-linear relationships exist between air and soil temperature responses to climate change. Despite its influence on hydrological and biogeochemical processes, soil temperature has received less attention in climate impact studies. Here we present and apply an empirical soil temperature model to four forest sites along a climatic gradient of Sweden. Future air and soil temperature were projected using an ensemble of regional climate models. Annual average air and soil temperatures were projected to increase, but complex dynamics were projected on a seasonal scale. Future changes in winter soil temperature were strongly dependent on projected snow cover. At the northernmost site, winter soil temperatures changed very little due to insulating effects of snow cover but southern sites with little or no snow cover showed the largest projected winter soil warming. Projected soil warming was greatest in the spring (up to 4°C) in the north, suggesting earlier snowmelt, extension of growing season length and possible northward shifts in the boreal biome. This showed that the projected effects of climate change on soil temperature in snow dominated regions are complex and general assumptions of future soil temperature responses to climate change based on air temperature alone are inadequate and should be avoided in boreal regions. PMID:24747938

  2. Water temperature of streams in the Cook Inlet basin, Alaska, and implications of climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kyle, Rebecca E.; Brabets, Timothy P.

    2001-01-01

    Water-temperature data from 32 sites in the Cook Inlet Basin, south-central Alaska, indicate various trends that depend on watershed characteristics. Basins with 25 percent or more of their area consisting of glaciers have the coldest water temperatures during the open-water season, mid-May to mid-October. Streams and rivers that drain lowlands have the warmest water temperatures. A model that uses air temperature as input to predict water temperature as output was utilized to simulate future trends in water temperature based on increased air temperatures due to climate warming. Based on the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient, the model produced acceptable results for 27 sites. For basins with more than 25 percent glacial coverage, the model was not as accurate. Results indicate that 15 sites had a predicted water-temperature change of 3 degrees Celsius or more, a magnitude of change that is considered significant for the incidence of disease in fish populations.

  3. On the electrical intestine turbulence induced by temperature changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizzi, A.; Cherubini, C.; Migliori, S.; Alloni, R.; Portuesi, R.; Filippi, S.

    2010-03-01

    Paralytic ileus is a temporary syndrome with impairment of peristalsis and no passage of food through the intestine. Although improvements in supportive measures have been achieved, no therapy useful to specifically reduce or eliminate the motility disorder underlying postoperative ileus has been developed yet. In this paper, we draw a plausible, physiologically fine-tuned scenario, which explains a possible cause of paralytic ileus. To this aim we extend the existing 1D intestinal electrophysiological Aliev-Richards-Wikswo ionic model based on a double-layered structure in two and three dimensions. Thermal coupling is introduced here to study the influence of temperature gradients on intestine tissue which is an important external factor during surgery. Numerical simulations present electrical spiral waves similar to those experimentally observed already in the heart, brain and many other excitable tissues. This fact seems to suggest that such peculiar patterns, here electrically and thermally induced, may play an important role in clinically experienced disorders of the intestine, then requiring future experimental analyses in the search for possible implications for medical and physiological practice and bioengineering.

  4. Evaluation of photobioreactor heat balance for predicting changes in culture medium temperature due to light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Morita, M; Watanabe, Y; Saiki, H

    2001-09-20

    Microalgal photosynthesis requires appropriate culture medium temperatures to achieve high photosynthetic performance and to maintain production of a high-quality biomass product. Enclosed systems, such as our conical, helical tubular photobioreactor (HTP), can accomplish high photosynthetic efficiency and the small amount of culture medium used by these systems means that the culture medium temperature may be effectively controlled. On the other hand, because a high ratio of surface area to culture medium volume leads to rapid heating under the illumination condition and substantial heat loss at night, maintaining a suitable culture medium temperature is necessary to achieve efficient, commercially practical biomass production. In order to predict changes in the culture medium temperature caused by changes in solar irradiance and ambient temperature, it is necessary to understand the heat balance within the photobioreactor. We therefore investigated the heat balance in three major parts (photostage, degasser, and helical heat exchanger) of our conical HTP, analyzed the time-dependent changes in medium temperature at various room temperatures and radiant energy inputs, and predicted changes in the culture medium temperature based on the characteristics of heat transfer among the three parts. Using this model, the predicted changes in culture medium temperature were very similar to the changes observed experimentally in the laboratory and under field conditions. This means that by calculating the time-dependent changes in the culture medium temperature, based on measurements of solar energy input and ambient temperature, we should be able to estimate the energy required to maintain the culture medium temperature within a range where photosynthetic performance of microalgae is high. PMID:11494213

  5. PERSPECTIVE: On the verge of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriegler, Elmar

    2007-03-01

    The recent publication of the summary for policy makers by Working Group I of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) [1] has injected a renewed sense of urgency to address climate change. It is therefore timely to review the notion of preventing 'dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system' as put forward in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The article by Danny Harvey in this issue [2] offers a fresh perspective by rephrasing the concept of 'dangerous interference' as a problem of risk assessment. As Harvey points out, identification of 'dangerous interference' does not require us to know with certainty that future climate change will be dangerous—an impossible task given that our knowledge about future climate change includes uncertainty. Rather, it requires the assertion that interference would lead to a significant probability of dangerous climate change beyond some risk tolerance, and therefore would pose an unacceptable risk. In his article [2], Harvey puts this idea into operation by presenting a back-of-the-envelope calculation to identify allowable CO2 concentrations under uncertainty about climate sensitivity to anthropogenic forcing and the location of a temperature threshold beyond which dangerous climate change will occur. Conditional on his assumptions, Harvey delivers an interesting result. With the current atmospheric CO2 concentration exceeding 380 ppm, a forcing contribution from other greenhouse gases adding an approximate 100 110 ppm CO2 equivalent on top of it, and a global dimming effect of aerosols that roughly compensates for this contribution (albeit still subject to considerable uncertainty) ([1], figures SPM-1 and 2), we are on the verge of or even committed to dangerous interference with the climate system if we (1) set the risk tolerance for experiencing dangerous climate change to 1% and (2) allocate at least 5% probability to the belief that climate sensitivity is 4.5 °C or higher. In the language of the IPCC, the latter would mean that such a high climate sensitivity is anything but extremely unlikely ([1], footnote 6 and p 9), a view that is shared by many in the scientific community. Even if the risk tolerance is increased to 10%, the maximum allowable CO2 equivalent concentration remains below 460 ppm ([2], figure 7(c)). We are bound to reach that concentration in the near future, as it can be surpassed both by addition of new greenhouse gases and by a reduction of global dimming. Given the potential significance of this result, let us take a step back, and investigate its underlying assumptions. The concept of 'dangerous anthropogenic interference' is inextricably linked to the idea of a threshold beyond which climate change can be labeled dangerous. This idea enters Harvey's analysis in the form of a probability distribution for the—as he calls it—'harm threshold' measured in terms of global mean temperature increase since preindustrial time. It might be due to the presumption of such a threshold that climate science and society at large have had a difficult relationship with the concept of 'dangerous anthropogenic interference' (Dessai et al [3]). Nevertheless, I want to argue here, as many have done before (see Oppenheimer and Petsonk [4] for an overview), that this concept is not ill-defined. First of all, it is clear that 'dangerous interference' and the stipulation of a 'harm threshold' carry a value judgment, and therefore cannot be decided upon purely by science. This does not prevent science, however, from providing information and conceptual frameworks to facilitate such judgment (Schellnhuber et al [5]). Secondly, it is certainly true that our interference with the climate system emanates from local and national action, and that the consequences of such interference will first and foremost be felt on the local to regional scale. However, this does not need to conflict with the assessment of a global 'harm threshold'. The nexus of climate policy is inevitably global since our interference with the climate system is determined by the sum total of greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we are living in a highly interconnected world, and it would be foolish not to take global patterns of drivers and impacts of climate change into account. Finally, some may find the assumption of a harm threshold at odds with a cost benefit approach, since the latter implies trading off avoided climate damage with the costs of mitigation measures. However, even if such a trade-off is made, harm thresholds will occur if damage rises sharply beyond some critical amount of climate change. A look into the climate history will convince us that this is not a far-fetched idea. Climate changes in the past have often exhibited highly non-linear behaviour (see figure 1). Although the paleoclimatic record does not provide a perfect analogue to the current situation, it offers little comfort that abrupt climate change in response to our massive and rapid increase of atmospheric CO2 concentrations might not happen in the future. Consequently, cost benefit analyses accounting for the prospect of dangerous climate change have surfaced in recent years (e.g. Keller et al [6]). In addition, society has been prepared to set thresholds, e.g., to limit exposure to contaminants, even in situations where no clear jump in damage could be identified. And often such identification of thresholds was aided by cost benefit analysis (e.g. Gurian et al [7]). Is it appropriate to offer a deep time perspective on climate change such as presented in figure 1 in a discussion of 'dangerous anthropogenic interference'? Yes, because the magnitude of the anthropogenic perturbation of the carbon cycle forces us to go back far into the past, if we want to look for clues of what might happen in the future. Certainly, some of the climate changes reflected in figure 1 are a result of volcanism and continental drift, in particular the opening and closing of sea passages. However, recent data indicate that the carbon cycle was a major player in the transition from the Eocene hothouse to the modern-day icehouse world (e.g. Moran et al [11], Zachos et al [12]). The studies by Zachos et al [12] and Pearson and Palmer [13] found that carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere decreased from well above 1000 ppm during the Eocene to below or around 300 ppm during the Mio-, Plio- and Pleistocene. On the basis of their data, it is likely that present-day levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide have not occurred for the last 23 million years. Moreover, projections of the growing anthropogenic perturbation of the carbon cycle in the 21st century, including scenarios that aim at stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentration at twice its preindustrial value, carry us to carbon dioxide levels that were last seen during the Oligocene, where major restructuring of the climate system occurred. But what about time scales? Certainly, climate policy cannot be concerned with climate changes that unravel over millions of years. However, the slowest processes in the climate system, i.e., heat penetration into the deep ocean and changes in ice sheet volume, operate on time scales of thousands of years, with deglaciation potentially occurring much faster within hundreds of years. Hence, if the driver is sufficiently fast, rapid climate change can occur. This is evidenced in the paleoclimatic record shown in figure 1 by the event called Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) 55 million years ago. During the PETM, global temperatures rose by 5 10 °C to presumably the hottest conditions during the Cenozoic era in a matter of several thousand years (Zachos et al [14]) due to a large perturbation of the carbon cycle (Zachos et al [15]) of hitherto unknown cause (Pagani et al [16]). A millennial time scale is still far beyond the time horizon of current socio-economic activity, but this is just the time scale for the system to equilibrate (bar the removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere ocean-biosphere reservoir which proceeds much more slowly [15]). Significant changes will be felt much earlier. And when it comes to assessing 'dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system' that has the potential to change the face of the planet for a hundred thousand or more years to come, an extension of our time horizon to several hundred years seems to be appropriate. Oxygen-18 stable isotope ratios in benthic foraminifera for the last 65 million years Figure 1. Any harm threshold here? Shown are δ18O stable isotope ratios (18O:16O relative to standard mean ocean water) in benthic foraminifera for the last 65 million years from Zachos et al [8]. The stable isotope ratio of the oxygen contained in the calcium carbonate of the foram shells depends on the water temperature in which they calcified (the warmer the water, the smaller δ18O). A complication arises from the fact that it also depends on the δ18O of the surrounding sea water, which is affected by latitude, evaporation and rainfall, and the presence or absence of large ice sheets. Therefore, these measurements can only be tied uniquely to past ocean temperatures for the early Cenozoic hothouse (Paleo- and Eocene) where no ice sheets existed, and for the most recent period by observing that the oxygen isotope measurements by Lisiecki and Raymo [9] are tightly correlated to temperature changes identified in the Vostok ice core (Petit et al [10]). Present day is indicated as 0. The large shifts of isotope ratio during the Oligocene also reflect changes in ice sheet volume. The figure was prepared by Robert A Rohde from published and publicly available data, and is distributed under the GNU free documentation license at www.globalwarmingart.com/wiki/Image:65_Myr_Climate_Change_Rev_png. While the paleoclimatic record in figure 1 can inform us that 'dangerous interference with the climate system' may be in store for a species that evolved during icehouse conditions, it can not yet point us to specific harm thresholds in the climate system. Our knowledge about the climate in the past is still too sparse, and the analogy to present-day conditions too limited. In order to get a better idea about harm thresholds as the global mean temperature continues to increase, we need to turn to model projections of future climate change and associated impacts, as well as our own normative assessment of what might be labeled dangerous and what not. Given the imperfection of state-of-the-art model projections, e.g., in terms of extreme event statistics (although some have become available, see Tebaldi et al [17]), agreement on the regional scale (although improving, see [1], p 12 and figure SPM-6), and ability to model abrupt climate change, and the foreseeable disagreement between societal groups on what might be dangerous, this will certainly be an exercise in guestimating and consensus finding on some sort of uncertainty measure for the location of thresholds to dangerous climate change. In his article, Harvey offers his own take on the problem by presenting two different harm-threshold probability distributions: a stringent variant with median at 1.5 °C and 95% quantile at 2.7 °C of global mean temperature increase since preindustrial time, and a more lenient variant with median at 2.5 °C and 95% quantile at 3.8 °C. Whether or not one believes the temperature values attached to the list of impacts that Harvey offers in support of his harm assessment, there is still a value judgment about the 'dangerousness' of these impacts to be made. As Harvey points out himself, this is a question that can be informed, but not answered by science. Consequently, the allowable CO2 concentrations to prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system presented in Harvey's article reflect a value judgment. So it is for you, the reader, and society at large to decide whether or not these findings are significant. If your judgment about the onset of dangerous climate change lies somewhere in the range of Harvey's harm-threshold probability distributions, his results will carry meaning for you. I, for my part, can certainly answer this question in the affirmative. Once we accept this range of harm-threshold probabilities, the natural question emerges whether Harvey's result indicating that we are on the verge of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system is inevitable. Is there an easy way out by adjusting the methodological framework that would present us considerably larger allowances of carbon in the atmosphere? It does not seem so. The virtue of Harvey's back-of-the-envelope calculation is that it includes the dominant factors in a simple, but fairly robust manner, which makes it hard to significantly alter the outcome by changing the details. Harvey has considered a wide range of medians and 95% quantiles for the probability distribution of climate sensitivity, but what if we changed the shape of both the climate sensitivity and harm-threshold probability density function (PDF)? After all, there is no particular reason why they should follow a lognormal distribution as Harvey assumed. The answer to this question is harbored by equation (1) of his article. The smaller the overlap between the climate sensitivity PDF and the harm-threshold CDF, the greater the carbon allowance available without committing dangerous interference with the climate system will be. And in this respect, Harvey's assumption of lognormality for both distributions goes some way in minimizing the overlap across possible shapes for fixed median and 95% quantiles. So what about peaking concentrations that can reach higher carbon dioxide levels because the part of the equilibrium warming they would entail will never be realized due to the time lag of the temperature response? Harvey has included this—as he calls it—climate-disequilibrium credit in his analysis, and thus his dire assessment of the proximity of dangerous interference extends to the case of transient climate change. True, he has not considered uncertainty in the heat uptake of the ocean that dominates the time lag of the temperature response along with climate sensitivity. But assuming a larger heat uptake and a slower temperature response within the confidence bounds allowed by the 20th century temperature and ocean heat content records is unlikely to change the carbon allowance by more than a few tens of ppm. Thus, Harvey's findings seem to stand firm once we underwrite the value judgment that the probability of dangerous climate change lies somewhere in the range of the harm-threshold probability distributions put forward in his article. The new sense of urgency to address climate change mirrors this judgment. References [1] IPCC 2007 Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis - Summary for Policymakers. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) in preparation (available for download at http://www.ipcc.ch) [2] Harvey L D D 2007 Allowable CO2 concentrations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a function of the climate sensitivity probability distribution function Environ. Res. Lett. 2 014001 [3] Dessai S, Adger W N, Hulme M, Turnpenny J, Köhler J and Warren R 2004 Defining and experiencing dangerous climate change Clim. Change 64 11 25 [4] Oppenheimer M and Petsonk A 2005 Article 2 of the UNFCCC: historical origins, recent interpretations Clim. Change 73 195 226 [5] Schellnhuber H J, Cramer W, Nakicenovic N, Wigley T and Yohe G (ed) 2006 Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) pp 392 [6] Keller K, Hall M, Kim S R, Bradford D F and Oppenheimer M 2005 Avoiding dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system Clim. Change 73 227 38 [7] Gurian P L, Small M J, Lockwood J R and Schervish M J 2001 Benefit-cost estimation for alternative drinking water maximum contaminant levels Water Resources Res. 37 2213 16 [8] Zachos J C, Pagani M, Sloan L, Thomas E and Billups K 2001 Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present Science 292 686 93 [9] Lisiecki L E and Raymo M E 2005 A Pliocene Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic δ18O records Paleoceanography 20 PA1003 [10] Petit J R, Jouzel J, Raynaud D, Barkov N I, Barnola J M, Basile I, Bender M, Chappellaz J, Davis J, Delaygue G, Delmotte M, Kotlyakov V M, Legrand M, Lipenkov V, Lorius C, Pépin L, Ritz C, Saltzman E and Stievenard M 1999 Climate and Atmospheric History of the Past 420 000 years from the Vostok Ice Core, Antarctica Nature 399 429 36 [11] Morgan K and the ACEX expedition team 2006 The Cenozic paleoenvironment of the Arctic Ocean Nature 441 601 5 [12] Pagani M, Zachos J C, Freeman K H, Tipple B and Bohaty S 2005 Marked decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations during the paleogene Science 309 600 3 [13] Pearson P N and Palmer M R 2000 Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations over the past 60 million years Nature 406 695 9 [14] Zachos J C, Wara M W, Bohaty S, Delaney M L, Petrizzo M R, Brill A, Bralower, T J and Premoli-Silva I 2003 A transient rise in tropical sea surface temperature during the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum Science 302 1551 4 [15] Zachos J C, Röhl U, Schellenberg S A, Sluijs A, Hodell D A, Kelly D C, Thomas E, Nicolo M, Raffi I, Lourens L J, McCarren H and Kroon D 2005 Rapid acidification of the ocean during the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum Science 308 1611 5 [16] Pagani M, Caldeira K, Archer D, Zachos J C 2006 An ancient carbon mystery Science 314 1556 7 [17] Tebaldi C, Hayhoe K, Arblaster J M and Meehl G A 2006 Going to the extremes: an intercomparison of model-simulated historical and future changes in extreme events Clim. Change 79 185 211 Photo of Elmar Kriegler Elmar Kriegler received a diploma (MS equivalent) degree in physics from the Albert-Ludwigs-University of Freiburg, Germany, in 1998, and a PhD degree in physics from the University of Potsdam, Germany, in 2005. He worked for seven years as a graduate/post-doctoral researcher at the Potsdam Institute of Climate Impact Research on topics relating to the integrated assessment of climate change. He is now a visiting researcher at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, USA, where he works—with support by a Marie-Curie Outgoing International Fellowship from the European Union—on the evaluation of climate policies under large uncertainty about climate change.

  6. Coffee and chocolate in danger.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2014-06-01

    As a rapidly growing global consumer base appreciates the pleasures of coffee and chocolate and health warnings are being replaced by more encouraging sounds from medical experts, their supply is under threat from climate change, pests and financial problems. Coffee farmers in Central America, in particular, are highly vulnerable to the impact of climate change, made worse by financial insecurity. Michael Gross reports. PMID:24944039

  7. Differential effects of temperature change and human impact on European Late Quaternary mammalian extinctions.

    PubMed

    Varela, Sara; Lima-Ribeiro, Matheus Souza; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Storch, David

    2015-04-01

    Species that inhabited Europe during the Late Quaternary were impacted by temperature changes and early humans, resulting in the disappearance of half of the European large mammals. However, quantifying the relative importance that each factor had in the extinction risk of species has been challenging, mostly due to the spatio-temporal biases of fossil records, which complicate the calibration of realistic and accurate ecological niche modeling. Here, we overcome this problem by using ecotypes, and not real species, to run our models. We created 40 ecotypes with different temperature requirements (mean temperature from -20 °C to 25 °C and temperature range from 10 °C to 40 °C) and used them to quantify the effect of climate change and human impact. Our results show that cold-adapted ecotypes would have been highly affected by past temperature changes in Europe, whereas temperate and warm-adapted ecotypes would have been positively affected by temperature change. Human impact affected all ecotypes negatively, and temperate ecotypes suffered the greatest impacts. Based on these results, the extinction of cold-adapted species like Mammuthus primigenius may be related to temperature change, while the extinction of temperate species, like Crocuta crocuta, may be related to human impact. Our results suggest that temperature change and human impact affected different ecotypes in distinct ways, and that the interaction of both impacts may have shaped species extinctions in Europe. PMID:25311114

  8. Rainfall and temperatures changes have confounding impacts on Phytophthora cinnamomi occurrence risk in the southwestern USA under climate change scenarios.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Sally E; Levin, Simon; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2014-04-01

    Global change will simultaneously impact many aspects of climate, with the potential to exacerbate the risks posed by plant pathogens to agriculture and the natural environment; yet, most studies that explore climate impacts on plant pathogen ranges consider individual climatic factors separately. In this study, we adopt a stochastic modeling approach to address multiple pathways by which climate can constrain the range of the generalist plant pathogen Phytophthora cinnamomi (Pc): through changing winter soil temperatures affecting pathogen survival; spring soil temperatures and thus pathogen metabolic rates; and changing spring soil moisture conditions and thus pathogen growth rates through host root systems. We apply this model to the southwestern USA for contemporary and plausible future climate scenarios and evaluate the changes in the potential range of Pc. The results indicate that the plausible range of this pathogen in the southwestern USA extends over approximately 200,000 km(2) under contemporary conditions. While warming temperatures as projected by the IPCC A2 and B1 emissions scenarios greatly expand the range over which the pathogen can survive winter, projected reductions in spring rainfall reduce its feasible habitat, leading to spatially complex patterns of changing risk. The study demonstrates that temperature and rainfall changes associated with possible climate futures in the southwestern USA have confounding impacts on the range of Pc, suggesting that projections of future pathogen dynamics and ranges should account for multiple pathways of climate-pathogen interaction. PMID:24515971

  9. Large ground surface temperature changes of the last three centuries inferred from borehole temperatures in the Southern Canadian Prairies, Saskatchewan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorowicz, Jacek A.; Safanda, Jan; Harris, Robert N.; Skinner, Walter R.

    1999-05-01

    New temperature logs in wells located in the grassland ecozone in the Southern Canadian Prairies in Saskatchewan, where surface disturbance is considered minor, show a large curvature in the upper 100 m. The character of this curvature is consistent with ground surface temperature (GST) warming in the 20th century. Repetition of precise temperature logs in southern Saskatchewan (years 1986 and 1997) shows the conductive nature of warming of the subsurface sediments. The magnitude of surface temperature change during that time (11 years) is high (0.3-0.4C). To assess the conductive nature of temperature variations at the grassland surface interface, several precise air and soil temperature time series in the southern Canadian Prairies (1965-1995) were analyzed. The combined anomalies correlated at 0.85. Application of the functional space inversion (FSI) technique with the borehole temperature logs and site-specific lithology indicates a warming to date of approximately 2.5C since a minimum in the late 18th century to mid 19th century. This warming represents an approximate increase from 4C around 1850 to 6.5C today. The significance of this record is that it suggests almost half of the warming occurred prior to 1900, before dramatic build up of atmospheric green house gases. This result correlates well with the proxy record of climatic change further to the north, beyond the Arctic Circle [Overpeck, J., Hughen, K., Hardy, D., Bradley, R., Case, R., Douglas, M., Finney, B., Gajewski, K., Jacoby, G., Jennings, A., Lamourex, S., Lasca, A., MacDonald, G., Moore, J., Retelle, M., Smith, S., Wolfe, A., Zielinski, G., 1997. Arctic environmental change of the last four centuries, Science 278, 1251-1256.].

  10. The relationships between temperature changes and reproductive investment in a Mediterranean goby: Insights for the assessment of climate change effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchetta, M.; Cipolato, G.; Pranovi, F.; Antonetti, P.; Torricelli, P.; Franzoi, P.; Malavasi, S.

    2012-04-01

    The relationships between changes in water temperature and the timing and level of reproductive investment were investigated in an estuarine fish, inhabiting the Venice lagoon: the grass goby Zosterisessor ophiocephalus. A time series of the mean monthly values of gonado-somatic index was coupled with thermal profiles of lagoon water temperatures over 14 years, from 1997 to 2010. Results showed that the reproductive investment was positively affected by water temperature changes, both in terms of monthly thermal anomalies and cumulative degree days. A predictive model was also developed to assess the temporal shift of reproductive peaks as a response to inter-annual thermal fluctuations. This model allowed the detection of deviations from the median level, indicating that during warmer years, the reproductive peak tended to occur earlier than during colder years. The model is therefore proposed as a tool to predict anticipated consequences of climate change on fish phenology in transitional waters, regarding recurrent biological phenomena, such as reproduction and recruitment.

  11. Linkage Between Hourly Precipitation Events and Atmospheric Temperature Changes over China during the Warm Season.

    PubMed

    Miao, Chiyuan; Sun, Qiaohong; Borthwick, Alistair G L; Duan, Qingyun

    2016-01-01

    We investigated changes in the temporospatial features of hourly precipitation during the warm season over mainland China. The frequency and amount of hourly precipitation displayed latitudinal zonation, especially for light and moderate precipitation, which showed successive downward change over time in northeastern and southern China. Changes in the precipitation amount resulted mainly from changes in frequency rather than changes in intensity. We also evaluated the linkage between hourly precipitation and temperature variations and found that hourly precipitation extreme was more sensitive to temperature than other categories of precipitation. A strong dependency of hourly precipitation on temperature occurred at temperatures colder than the median daily temperature; in such cases, regression slopes were greater than the Clausius-Clapeyron (C-C) relation of 7% per degree Celsius. Regression slopes for 31.6%, 59.8%, 96.9%, and 99.1% of all stations were greater than 7% per degree Celsius for the 75th, 90th, 99th, and 99.9th percentiles for precipitation, respectively. The mean regression slopes within the 99.9th percentile of precipitation were three times the C-C rate. Hourly precipitation showed a strong negative relationship with daily maximum temperature and the diurnal temperature range at most stations, whereas the equivalent correlation for daily minimum temperature was weak. PMID:26931350

  12. Linkage Between Hourly Precipitation Events and Atmospheric Temperature Changes over China during the Warm Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Chiyuan; Sun, Qiaohong; Borthwick, Alistair G. L.; Duan, Qingyun

    2016-03-01

    We investigated changes in the temporospatial features of hourly precipitation during the warm season over mainland China. The frequency and amount of hourly precipitation displayed latitudinal zonation, especially for light and moderate precipitation, which showed successive downward change over time in northeastern and southern China. Changes in the precipitation amount resulted mainly from changes in frequency rather than changes in intensity. We also evaluated the linkage between hourly precipitation and temperature variations and found that hourly precipitation extreme was more sensitive to temperature than other categories of precipitation. A strong dependency of hourly precipitation on temperature occurred at temperatures colder than the median daily temperature; in such cases, regression slopes were greater than the Clausius-Clapeyron (C-C) relation of 7% per degree Celsius. Regression slopes for 31.6%, 59.8%, 96.9%, and 99.1% of all stations were greater than 7% per degree Celsius for the 75th, 90th, 99th, and 99.9th percentiles for precipitation, respectively. The mean regression slopes within the 99.9th percentile of precipitation were three times the C-C rate. Hourly precipitation showed a strong negative relationship with daily maximum temperature and the diurnal temperature range at most stations, whereas the equivalent correlation for daily minimum temperature was weak.

  13. Linkage Between Hourly Precipitation Events and Atmospheric Temperature Changes over China during the Warm Season

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Chiyuan; Sun, Qiaohong; Borthwick, Alistair G. L.; Duan, Qingyun

    2016-01-01

    We investigated changes in the temporospatial features of hourly precipitation during the warm season over mainland China. The frequency and amount of hourly precipitation displayed latitudinal zonation, especially for light and moderate precipitation, which showed successive downward change over time in northeastern and southern China. Changes in the precipitation amount resulted mainly from changes in frequency rather than changes in intensity. We also evaluated the linkage between hourly precipitation and temperature variations and found that hourly precipitation extreme was more sensitive to temperature than other categories of precipitation. A strong dependency of hourly precipitation on temperature occurred at temperatures colder than the median daily temperature; in such cases, regression slopes were greater than the Clausius-Clapeyron (C-C) relation of 7% per degree Celsius. Regression slopes for 31.6%, 59.8%, 96.9%, and 99.1% of all stations were greater than 7% per degree Celsius for the 75th, 90th, 99th, and 99.9th percentiles for precipitation, respectively. The mean regression slopes within the 99.9th percentile of precipitation were three times the C-C rate. Hourly precipitation showed a strong negative relationship with daily maximum temperature and the diurnal temperature range at most stations, whereas the equivalent correlation for daily minimum temperature was weak. PMID:26931350

  14. Quantifying stream temperature response to environmental change in a groundwater-dominated catchment, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, R.; Byrne, J. M.; Boon, S.

    2012-12-01

    The ecological significance of steam temperature response to environmental change has been discussed in many recent studies across a range of disciplines. We couple a stream energy and mass balance model with a catchment-scale hydrometeorological model to quantify stream temperature response to environmental change in a groundwater-dominated catchment. Given the importance of surface-subsurface interactions in simulating stream temperature, we propose a baseflow separation technique to parameterize these interactions within the model. This method forms the basis of a catchment-scale modelling approach designed specifically for data sparse regions. Using this approach we applied a sensitivity analysis to examine the effects of forest disturbance (harvest with riparian buffer) and climate change (mean air temperature and precipitation change for the 2040-2069 period) on stream temperature. We find that stream temperature following forest disturbance and climate change is primarily affected by a predicted shift towards earlier snowmelt runoff timing, which advances subsurface recharge early in the spring and subsequently decreases subsurface discharge in the summer, fall and winter. Changes in seasonal stream temperature regime may have important ecological consequences, particularly during the spawning and rearing stages of the salmonid lifecycle.

  15. Uncovering physical processes responsible for the asymmetry of day-to-day temperature changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huth, Radan; Piskala, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Day-to-day temperature changes, and especially those of minimum temperature in winter and maximum temperature in summer, are asymmetrical: in winter, large warmings occur more frequently than large coolings and small coolings occur more frequently than small warmings. In summer, the opposite is the case. We investigate causes of this asymmetry for Prague, Czech Republic. First, we relate strong temperature changes to passages of atmospheric fronts. More specifically, large warmings in winter are related with passages of warm fronts and large coolings in summer are related with passages of cold fronts. In particular, we test the hypothesis that the days with large temperature changes (changes exceeding 3°C or 5°C) are accompanied with passages of corresponding atmospheric fronts more frequently than other days. We prove statistical significance of such a relationship between front passages and large temperature changes by means of a two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Second, we demonstrate that small temperature changes (by up to 2°C), namely, small warmings in summer and small coolings in winter, are tightly related to anticyclonic circulation conditions and, hence, occur due to radiative processes. This relationship is investigated by comparing frequencies of anticyclonic circulation types in selected classifications from the COST733 database between the days with small temperature changes and all other days. The relationship appears to be highly statistically significant. Although the findings may seem a bit trivial, we are not aware of any study that would examine and prove the relationships between front passages and anticyclonic circulation conditions on one side, and the asymmetry of day-to-day temperature changes on the other side.

  16. Climate Change Inferred From Borehole Temperatures: How Wrong Might We Be?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, D. S.; Harris, R. N.; Bartlett, M.; Putnam, S. N.

    2002-12-01

    Many studies over the past decade have interpreted anomalous borehole temperature-depth measurements in terms of past surface temperature variations and climate change reconstruction. A fundamental assumption in these studies has been that departures from linear temperature-depth profiles in regions of constant lithology, or departures from a constant heat flow condition at more complex geological sites, are transient features and are caused by changes in surface temperature with time. Any errors in that assumption lead directly to errors in reconstructing surface temperature histories. Although Chisholm and Chapman (JGR, 97, 14,155-14,175. 1992) compiled the possible processes or disturbances that may produce curvature in temperature-depth profiles, we have reexamined those processes and subjected them to a more rigorous quantitative analysis. The candidate processes and properties that could produce spurious curvature in temperature-depth profiles are: (1) systematic variation of thermal conductivity with depth, (2) heat production of rocks, (3) surface elevation effects, (4) lateral variation of surface temperature caused by surface orientation and /or vegetation effects, (5) uplift and erosion or subsidence and burial at the site, and (6) vertical groundwater flow. We ask the following question. How wrong might we be in misinterpreting borehole temperature profiles in terms of climate change signals? The answer: several of these effects would have to combine in an unlikely manner to negate the magnitude and timing of climate change inferred from borehole studies around the world.

  17. Projected changes in extreme temperature events based on the NARCCAP model suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Radley M.; Coffel, Ethan D.; Winter, Jonathan M.; Bader, Daniel A.

    2015-09-01

    Once-per-year (annual) maximum temperature extremes in North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) models are projected to increase more (less) than mean daily maximum summer temperatures over much of the eastern (western) United States. In contrast, the models almost everywhere project greater warming of once-per-year minimum temperatures as compared to mean daily minimum winter temperatures. Under projected changes associated with extremes of the temperature distribution, Baltimore's maximum temperature that was met or exceeded once per year historically is projected to occur 17 times per season by midcentury, a 28% increase relative to projections based on summer mean daily maximum temperature change. Under the same approach, historical once-per-year cold events in Baltimore are projected to occur once per decade. The models are generally able to capture observed geopotential height anomalies associated with temperature extremes in two subregions. Projected changes in extreme temperature events cannot be explained by geopotential height anomalies or lower boundary conditions as reflected by soil moisture anomalies or snow water equivalent.

  18. The Effect of Land Use Change on Land Surface Temperature in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youneszadeh, S.; Amiri, N.; Pilesjo, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Netherlands is a small country with a relatively large population which experienced a rapid rate of land use changes from 2000 to 2008 years due to the industrialization and population increase. Land use change is especially related to the urban expansion and open agriculture reduction due to the enhanced economic growth. This research reports an investigation into the application of remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) in combination with statistical methods to provide a quantitative information on the effect of land use change on the land surface temperature. In this study, remote sensing techniques were used to retrieve the land surface temperature (LST) by using the MODIS Terra (MOD11A2) Satellite imagery product. As land use change alters the thermal environment, the land surface temperature (LST) could be a proper change indicator to show the thermal changes in relation with land use changes. The Geographical information system was further applied to extract the mean yearly land surface temperature (LST) for each land use type and each province in the 2003, 2006 and 2008 years, by using the zonal statistic techniques. The results show that, the inland water and offshore area has the highest night land surface temperature (LST). Furthermore, the Zued (South)-Holland province has the highest night LST value in the 2003, 2006 and 2008 years. The result of this research will be helpful tool for urban planners and environmental scientists by providing the critical information about the land surface temperature.

  19. Yawning and Stretching Predict Brain Temperature Changes in Rats: Support for the Thermoregulatory Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Shoup-Knox, Melanie L.; Gallup, Andrew C.; Gallup, Gordon G.; McNay, Ewan C.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research suggests that yawning is an adaptive behavior that functions to promote brain thermoregulation among homeotherms. To explore the relationship between brain temperature and yawning we implanted thermocoupled probes in the frontal cortex of rats to measure brain temperature before, during and after yawning. Temperature recordings indicate that yawns and stretches occurred during increases in brain temperature, with brain temperatures being restored to baseline following the execution of each of these behaviors. The circulatory changes that accompany yawning and stretching may explain some of the thermal similarities surrounding these events. These results suggest that yawning and stretching may serve to maintain brain thermal homeostasis. PMID:21031034

  20. Investigation of microstructural changes in polyetherether-ketone films at cryogenic temperatures by positron lifetime spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J.; Eftekhari, Abe; St.clair, Terry L.; Sprinkle, Danny R.

    1991-01-01

    Microstructural changes in Polyetherether-ketone (PEEK) films were investigated in the temperature ranges of 23 to -196 C, using Positron Lifetime Spectroscopy (PLS) technique. It was determined that the total free volume decreases by about 46 percent in amorphous PEEK samples and about 36 percent in semicrystalline PEEK samples when they are cooled down from room temperature to liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperature. If this trend in reduction in free volume with decreasing temperature continues, as expected, it is surmised that PEEK will be able to withstand cooling down to liquid hydrogen (LH2) temperature without any detrimental effect on its diffusivity for liquid hydrogen.

  1. The effect on engine performance of change in jacket-water outlet temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garlock, E A; Ellis, Greer

    1933-01-01

    Tests made on a Curtiss D-12 engine in the Altitude Laboratory at the Bureau of Standards show the following effects on engine performance of change in jacket-water outlet temperature: 1) Friction at all altitudes is a linear function of the jacket-water temperature, decreasing with increasing temperature. 2) The brake horsepower below an altitude of about 9,000 feet decreases, and at higher altitudes increases, with jacket-water temperature. 3) The brake specific fuel consumption tends to decrease, at all altitudes, with increasing jacket-water temperature. 4) The percentage change in brake power output is roughly equal to the algebraic sum of the percentage change in volumetric efficiency and mechanical efficiency.

  2. Interstitial nanopore change of single wall carbon nanohorn assemblies with high temperature treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohba, T.; Omori, T.; Kanoh, H.; Yudasaka, M.; Iijima, S.; Kaneko, K.

    2004-05-01

    Single wall carbon nanohorns (SWNHs) were treated in vacuum at different temperatures of 473 to 1073 K. The nanostructural change due to the heat-treatment was studied by adsorption of N 2 at 77 K and H 2O at 303 K. The determined particle density showed that gas is not adsorbed in internal pores, but in interstitial pores. The high temperature treatment (HTT) in vacuo changed water adsorption, but it gave almost no influence on N 2 adsorption. The maximum nanopore volume from H 2O adsorption was observed at 673 K, indicating the interstitial nanopore change due to a local orientational change of SWNH particles.

  3. EFFECTS ON ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATION OF CHANGES IN GRAIN LOADING, SIZE DISTRIBUTION, RESISTIVITY, AND TEMPERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the simulation of the effects of changes to particle loading, particle size distribution, and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) operating temperatures using ESP models. It also illustrates the usefulness of modern ESP models for this type of analysis. Increasin...

  4. Soil Temperature and Moisture Change and the Impacts on Vegetation over the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuo, L.; Bohn, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Permafrost soil covers 25% of the area in the Northern Hemisphere, it is especially important on the Tibetan Plateau, with almost 75% the Tibetan Plateau land covered by the permafrost. Continuous, isolated and discontinuous permafrost soil and seasonally frozen soil coexist on the plateau. Changes in frozen soil are likely to have impact on ecosystems, hydrology and infrastructure. In this study, we use both modeling approach to study the historical changes in soil temperature and moisture over the past 50 years. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model was modified and used to simulate the soil temperature and moisture on the plateau. Observed soil temperature and moisture down to 7 m were used to evaluate the VIC model. The evaluated model is then used to study the historical change of the frozen soil. The effects of the frozen soil change on the vegetation growth in the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau are examined by using empirical relationships between soil temperature/moisture and biomass.

  5. THEMIS Observation of Diurnal Temperature Change in the Pit Craters on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, E.; Jung, J.; Yi, Y.; Yu, J.; Oh, S.

    2015-10-01

    The cave candidates have been found on Pavonis Mons and Ascraeus Mons in Tharsis Montes. And we have examined the temperature change at daytime and at nighttime for cave candidates using the method of Cushing et al. (2007).

  6. Daily estimates of fire danger using multitemporal satellite MODIS data: the experience of FIRE-SAT in the Basilicata Region (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanorte, R.; Lasaponara, R.; De Santis, F.; Aromando, A.; Nole, G.

    2012-04-01

    Daily estimates of fire danger using multitemporal satellite MODIS data: the experience of FIRE-SAT in the Basilicata Region (Italy) A. Lanorte, F. De Santis , A. Aromando, G. Nolè, R. Lasaponara, CNR-IMAA, Potenza, Italy In the recent years the Basilicata Region (Southern Italy) has been characterized by an increasing incidence of fire disturbance which also tends to affect protected (Regional and national parks) and natural vegetated areas. FIRE_SAT project has been funded by the Civil Protection of the Basilicata Region in order to set up a low cost methodology for fire danger/risk monitoring based on satellite Earth Observation techniques. To this aim, NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data were used. The spectral capability and daily availability makes MODIS products especially suitable for estimating the variations of fuel characteristics. This work presents new significant results obtained in the context of FIRE-SAT project. In order to obtain a dynamical indicator of fire susceptibility based on multitemporal MODIS satellite data, up-datable in short-time periods (daily), we used the spatial/temporal variations of following parameters: (1) Relative Greenness Index (2) Live and dead fuel moisture content (3) Temperature In particular, the dead fuel moisture content is a key factor in fire ignition. Dead fuel moisture dynamics are significantly faster than those observed for live fuel. Dead fine vegetation exhibits moisture and density values dependent on rapid atmospheric changes and strictly linked to local meteorological conditions. For this reason, commonly, the estimation of dead fuel moisture content is based on meteorological variables. In this study we propose to use MODIS data to estimate meteorological data (specifically Relative Humidity) at an adequate spatial and temporal resolution. The assessment of dead fuel moisture content plays a decisive role in determining a fire dynamic danger index in combination with other factors. This greatly improves the reliability of fire danger maps obtained on the basis of a integrated approach of the dynamic factors mentioned above and the static factors (fuel physical properties, morphological parameters and social-historical factors). The validation of the fire danger indices was carried out by the use of statistics of occurred forest fires. The validation results show satisfactory agreement with the fire danger map taking into account that . fire events are indirect indicator of fire danger; indeed, many factor influence fire ignition and spread such as human pressure, fire-fighting conditions, wind, etc.. Therefore, in this study we have defined and used several fire statistic data useful for the validation of the fire danger maps in order to create the basic elements for the design of a validation protocol.

  7. Neurones in the somatosensory cortex of the rat responding to scrotal skin temperature changes

    PubMed Central

    Hellon, R. F.; Misra, N. K.; Provins, K. A.

    1973-01-01

    1. In rats the scrotal temperature was raised or lowered with a water-perfused thermode while micro-electrode recordings were made of unit activity in the somatosensory (SI) cortex. The electrodes were inserted in the area where the largest evoked potentials had been found from electrical stimulation of the scrotum. 2. Changes in firing rate of cortical neurones were found only in the scrotal temperature range of 32-41 C. Within this range 40% of all the cells tested were excited or suppressed by skin warming. At temperatures above or below this range, activity was not affected. Most of the cells responded just to temperature and only 14% were also excited by touch. 3. Raising temperature in the range 33-41 C caused 83% of the thermally responding cells to decrease their firing rate and 17% to increase their rate. Individual neurones showed a sudden and maintained change in their activity for scrotal temperature increases of only 2, 1 or even 05 C. Mean firing rates changed several-fold with these temperature increases and further warming did not change the rate. These step-like changes in firing rate were found at different points over the whole skin temperature range of 33-41 C but most were between 35 and 39 C. 4. For a given neurone the step-like change in activity occurred once its critical temperature was reached, irrespective of whether this was achieved by a step increase of skin temperature over 1-2 sec, or by a slow ramp increase lasting several minutes. 5. The results are very similar to those found in the thalamus (preceding paper), but the proportions of cortical cells which were excited or suppressed on skin warming were the reverse of the proportions seen in the thalamus. PMID:4727088

  8. Multi-century climate change determined from borehole temperatures: an examination of bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, D. S.; Harris, R. N.; Bartlett, M. G.

    2003-12-01

    Northern hemisphere, continental surface temperature reconstructions from borehole temperature profiles suggest roughly twice the warming since preindustrial times as inferred from some proxy studies. Several possible causes of this discrepancy have been attributed to biases in borehole temperature records including: 1) inadequate spatial sampling; 2) noise in borehole temperatures; 3) different frequency sampling; 4) land-surface changes over time; and 5) seasonal snow cover influences. Sampling biases and the ability of surface ground temperature (SGT) to track changes in surface air temperature (SAT) at frequencies appropriate for climate change studies are presented elsewhere in this session. This paper focuses on seasonal snow cover influences and specifically a recent publication (Mann and Schmidt, GRL, 2003) erroneously concluding that "past SAT trends from borehole-based SGT reconstructions may therefore be substantially biased by seasonal influences and snow cover changes." There are several flaws in the Mann and Schmidt analysis. (1) Borehole temperatures respond to a continuous temperature signal at the surface, therefore any useful comparison of SGT and SAT tracking must be based on continuous (i.e. annual) signals rather than separated seasonal effects. When one makes the appropriate comparison for climate tracking, the correlation coefficient between annual SGT and SAT changes using their model results is extremely high (r=0.96). (2) Borehole temperatures integrate surface temperature fluctuations, providing a low-pass filter that is particularly useful in climate change studies. Thus while the Mann and Schmidt focus on explaining seasonal variance may be interesting from other aspects it has little relevance for tracking climate change. (3) The Mann and Schmidt result that snow can have both a warming and cooling effect on SGT relative to SAT agrees with our previous model studies and field observatory results. However, it is misleading for them to use end points in short, fluctuating time series, rather than statistical trends to conclude that "mean SGT increases are {0.2 } C less than those in SAT." Slightly changing the time interval reverses this particular conclusion. In summary, by using the Mann and Schmidt model output and an appropriate analysis we find that SGT tracks SAT extremely well, and that their modeled seasonal snow cover changes are unimportant at the relevant frequencies for climate change studies. The borehole temperature record of climate change remains a robust indicator of warming and indicates greater climatic sensitivity than some hemispheric proxy reconstructions.

  9. Global patterns of cloud optical thickness variation with temperature and the implications for climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Tselioudis, G.

    1992-01-01

    This thesis presents a correlative analysis of cloud optical thickness and cloud temperature in large space and time scales. The analysis is designed to document and explain the patterns of cloud optical thickness variation with temperature, and to produce an understanding of cloud optical property feedbacks on climate change. The results of the global correlations between cloud optical thickness and temperature are presented. The analysis focuses on low clouds to limit variations in cloud vertical extent, particle size and water phase. Coherent patterns of change are observed on several time and space scales. On the planetary and the seasonal scales, clouds in the colder latitudes and seasons are optically thicker than clouds in the warmer latitudes and seasons. The seasonal, latitudinal, and day-to-day variations of this relation show that in cold continental clouds optical thickness increases with temperature consistent with the temperature variation of the adiabatic cloud water content, but in warm continental and in most maritime clouds optical thickness decreases with temperature. Case studies are presented to identify the cloud parameters responsible for the optical thickness changes and to resolve the atmospheric processes that produce those changes. The temperature variation of low cloud optical thickness primarily reflect changes in the liquid water content of the clouds, and changes in cloud particle size and vertical extent play a secondary role. It is proposed that an increase in the efficiency of formation of warm rain at higher temperatures relative to condensation, raises the probability of occurrence of optically thin clouds at warmer temperatures and produces the observed negative optical thickness slopes. A two dimensional radiative convective model is used to estimate the magnitude and sign of the feedback that the observed cloud optical thickness changes would produce in a climate warming scenario.

  10. A model for evaluating stream temperature response to climate change scenarios in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Stewart, Jana S.; Buchwald, Cheryl A.; Mitro, Matthew G.; Lyons, John D.; Greb, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Global climate change is expected to alter temperature and flow regimes for streams in Wisconsin over the coming decades. Stream temperature will be influenced not only by the predicted increases in average air temperature, but also by changes in baseflow due to changes in precipitation patterns and amounts. In order to evaluate future stream temperature and flow regimes in Wisconsin, we have integrated two existing models in order to generate a water temperature time series at a regional scale for thousands of stream reaches where site-specific temperature observations do not exist. The approach uses the US Geological Survey (USGS) Soil-Water-Balance (SWB) model, along with a recalibrated version of an existing artificial neural network (ANN) stream temperature model. The ANN model simulates stream temperatures on the basis of landscape variables such as land use and soil type, and also includes climate variables such as air temperature and precipitation amounts. The existing ANN model includes a landscape variable called DARCY designed to reflect the potential for groundwater recharge in the contributing area for a stream segment. SWB tracks soil-moisture and potential recharge at a daily time step, providing a way to link changing climate patterns and precipitation amounts over time to baseflow volumes, and presumably to stream temperatures. The recalibrated ANN incorporates SWB-derived estimates of potential recharge to supplement the static estimates of groundwater flow potential derived from a topographically based model (DARCY). SWB and the recalibrated ANN will be supplied with climate drivers from a suite of general circulation models and emissions scenarios, enabling resource managers to evaluate possible changes in stream temperature regimes for Wisconsin.

  11. Changes in fatty acid branching and unsaturation of Streptomyces griseus and Brevibacterium fermentans as a response to growth temperature.

    PubMed Central

    Suutari, M; Laakso, S

    1992-01-01

    Streptomyces griseus showed three different modes of changing fatty acids in response to temperature change. In Brevibacterium fermentans, two such responses were found. The responses involved changes in fatty acid branching, unsaturation, or chain length, depending on growth temperature range. Changes in unsaturation of branched-chain acids were characteristic at low growth temperatures. PMID:1637171

  12. The danger model: questioning an unconvincing theory.

    PubMed

    Jzefowski, Szczepan

    2016-02-01

    Janeway's pattern recognition theory holds that the immune system detects infection through a limited number of the so-called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). These receptors bind specific chemical compounds expressed by entire groups of related pathogens, but not by host cells (pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). In contrast, Matzinger's danger hypothesis postulates that products released from stressed or damaged cells have a more important role in the activation of immune system than the recognition of nonself. These products, named by analogy to PAMPs as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), are proposed to act through the same receptors (PRRs) as PAMPs and, consequently, to stimulate largely similar responses. Herein, I review direct and indirect evidence that contradict the widely accepted danger theory, and suggest that it may be false. PMID:26215791

  13. CHANGES IN AMBIENT TEMPERATURE TRIGGER YAWNING BUT NOT STRETCHING IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Gallup, Andrew C.; Miller, Ralph R.; Clark, Anne B.

    2010-01-01

    Yawning appears to be involved in arousal, state change, and activity across vertebrates. Recent research suggests that yawning may support effective changes in mental state or vigilance through cerebral cooling. To further investigate the relationship between yawning, state change, and thermoregulation, 12 Sprague-Dawley rats (Rattus norvegicus) were exposed to a total of two hours of ambient temperature manipulation over a period of 48 hours. Using a repeated measures design, each rat experienced a range of increasing (22→32°C), decreasing (32→22°C), and constant temperatures (22°C; 32°C). Yawning and locomotor activity occurred most frequently during initial changes in temperature, irrespective of direction, compared to more extended periods of temperature manipulation. The rate of yawning also diminished during constant high temperatures (32°C) compared to low temperatures (22°C). Unlike yawning, however, stretching was unaffected by ambient temperature variation. These findings are compared to recent work on budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), and the ecological selective pressures for yawning in challenging thermal environments are discussed. The results support previous comparative research connecting yawning with arousal and state change, and contribute to refining the predictions of the thermoregulatory hypothesis across vertebrates. PMID:21132114

  14. Temperature-related degradation and colour changes of historic paintings containing vivianite.

    PubMed

    ?ermkov, Zde?ka; varcov, Silvie; Hradilov, Janka; Bezdi?ka, Petr; Lan?ok, Adriana; Vautov, Vlasta; Blaek, Jan; Hradil, David

    2015-04-01

    Temperature-related degradation of pure synthetic as well as partly oxidised natural vivianite has been studied by high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) covering the whole extent of the temperature-related stability of its structure. While temperatures around 70C are already damaging to vivianite, exposition to 160C results in complete amorphisation of both the vivianite and its oxidation products. As indicated by Mssbauer spectroscopy, temperature-induced oxidation of vivianite starts at 90C. To study the occurring structural as well as accompanying colour changes in more detail, model vivianite paint layer samples with different historic binders were prepared and subjected to increased temperatures. Exposition to 80C caused pronounced colour changes of all the samples: ground natural blue vivianite became grey--a colour change which has been described in actual works of art. Regarding the binders, the oil seemed to facilitate the transfer of heat to vivianite's grains. To simulate conditions of conservation treatment under which the painting is exposed to increased temperatures, oil-on-canvas mock-ups with vivianite were prepared and relined in a traditional way using iron. The treatment affected preferentially larger grains of vivianite; the micro-samples documented their change to grey, and their Raman spectra showed the change from vivianite to metavivianite. PMID:25589392

  15. Temperature-related degradation and colour changes of historic paintings containing vivianite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?ermkov, Zde?ka; varcov, Silvie; Hradilov, Janka; Bezdi?ka, Petr; Lan?ok, Adriana; Vautov, Vlasta; Blaek, Jan; Hradil, David

    2015-04-01

    Temperature-related degradation of pure synthetic as well as partly oxidised natural vivianite has been studied by high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) covering the whole extent of the temperature-related stability of its structure. While temperatures around 70 C are already damaging to vivianite, exposition to 160 C results in complete amorphisation of both the vivianite and its oxidation products. As indicated by Mssbauer spectroscopy, temperature-induced oxidation of vivianite starts at 90 C. To study the occurring structural as well as accompanying colour changes in more detail, model vivianite paint layer samples with different historic binders were prepared and subjected to increased temperatures. Exposition to 80 C caused pronounced colour changes of all the samples: ground natural blue vivianite became grey - a colour change which has been described in actual works of art. Regarding the binders, the oil seemed to facilitate the transfer of heat to vivianite's grains. To simulate conditions of conservation treatment under which the painting is exposed to increased temperatures, oil-on-canvas mock-ups with vivianite were prepared and relined in a traditional way using iron. The treatment affected preferentially larger grains of vivianite; the micro-samples documented their change to grey, and their Raman spectra showed the change from vivianite to metavivianite.

  16. Implications of solar irradiance variability upon long-term changes in the Earth's atmospheric temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III

    1992-01-01

    From 1979 through 1987, it is believed that variability in the incoming solar energy played a significant role in changing the Earth's climate. Using high-precision spacecraft radiometric measurements, the incoming total solar irradiance (total amount of solar power per unit area) and the Earth's mean, global atmospheric temperatures were found to vary in phase with each other. The observed irradiance and temperature changes appeared to be correlated with the 11-year cycle of solar magnetic activity. During the period from 1979 through 1985, both the irradiance and temperature decreased. From 1985 to 1987, they increased. The irradiance changed approximately 0.1 percent, while the temperature varied as much as 0.6 C. During the 1979-1987 period, the temperatures were forecasted to rise linearly because of the anthropogenic build-up of carbon dioxide and the hypothesized 'global warming', 'greenhouse effect', scenarios. Contrary to these scenarios, the temperatures were found to vary in a periodic manner in phase with the solar irradiance changes. The observed correlations between irradiance and temperature variabilily suggest that the mean, global temperature of the Earth may decline between 1990 and 1997 as solar magnetic activity decreases.

  17. Further studies of the atmospheric temperature change produced by the Mt. Agung volcanic eruption in 1963

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, R.E.

    1980-03-26

    The eruption of Mt. Agung in March 1963 introduced an aerosol layer into the stratosphere that was associated with stratospheric temperature increases of several degrees Kelvin. The mechanics of this temperature change in the tropical troposphere are examined by observations of its distribution in altitutde and time. (ACR)

  18. Effect of Conceptual Change Oriented Instruction on Students' Understanding of Heat and Temperature Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baser, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the effectiveness of conceptual change oriented instruction and standard science instruction and contribution of logical thinking ability on seventh grade students' understanding of heat and temperature concepts. Misconceptions related to heat and temperature concepts were determined by related literature on this subject.

  19. Effects of Climate Change on Temperature and Salinity in the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon (USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a larger study to examine the effect of climate change (CC) on estuarine resources, we simulated the effect of rising sea level, alterations in river discharge, and increasing atmospheric temperatures on water properties (temperature and salinity) in the Yaquina Estuar...

  20. Do Changes in Tympanic Temperature Predict Changes in Affective Valence during High-Intensity Exercise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legrand, Fabien D.; Joly, Philippe M.; Bertucci, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Increased core (brain or body) temperature that accompanies exercise has been posited to play an influential role in affective responses to exercise. However, findings in support of this hypothesis have been equivocal, and most of the performed studies have been done in relation to anxiety. The aim of the present study was to investigate…

  1. Do Changes in Tympanic Temperature Predict Changes in Affective Valence during High-Intensity Exercise?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legrand, Fabien D.; Joly, Philippe M.; Bertucci, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Increased core (brain or body) temperature that accompanies exercise has been posited to play an influential role in affective responses to exercise. However, findings in support of this hypothesis have been equivocal, and most of the performed studies have been done in relation to anxiety. The aim of the present study was to investigate

  2. Influence of stem temperature changes on heat pulse sap flux density measurements.

    PubMed

    Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Burgess, Stephen S O; Downey, Alec; Steppe, Kathy

    2015-04-01

    While natural spatial temperature gradients between measurement needles have been thoroughly investigated for continuous heat-based sap flow methods, little attention has been given to how natural changes in stem temperature impact heat pulse-based methods through temporal rather than spatial effects. By modelling the theoretical equation for both an ideal instantaneous pulse and a step pulse and applying a finite element model which included actual needle dimensions and wound effects, the influence of a varying stem temperature on heat pulse-based methods was investigated. It was shown that the heat ratio (HR) method was influenced, while for the compensation heat pulse and Tmax methods changes in stem temperatures of up to 0.002?C?s(-1) did not lead to significantly different results. For the HR method, rising stem temperatures during measurements led to lower heat pulse velocity values, while decreasing stem temperatures led to both higher and lower heat pulse velocities, and to imaginary results for high flows. These errors of up to 40% can easily be prevented by including a temperature correction in the data analysis procedure, calculating the slope of the natural temperature change based on the measured temperatures before application of the heat pulse. Results of a greenhouse and outdoor experiment on Pinus pinea L. show the influence of this correction on low and average sap flux densities. PMID:25145698

  3. Assessing Danger: What Judges Need To Know

    PubMed Central

    Nichols-Hadeed, Corey; Cerulli, Catherine; Kaukeinen, Kimberly; Rhodes, Karin V.; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2011-01-01

    Every day, judges are faced with decisions regarding intimate partner violence (IPV) victims' requests for protection orders, custody arrangements, and visitation schedules. To make informed decisions, judges must understand victims' risk for future violence. This mixed method study explores the extent to which protection order petitions (n=169) communicate victims' current danger and future risk of violence. Methods included interviews coupled with an archival review of court petitions. Findings suggest judges are inadequately prepared to render decisions to improve victim safety in the absence of standardized risk assessments. The Danger Assessment provides an evidence-based solution to routinize intake interviews with victims petitioning the court. PMID:22661908

  4. Principles of estimation of Radiative danger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korogodin, V. I.

    1990-08-01

    The main principles of the estimation of Radiative danger has been discussed. Two main particularities of the danger were pointed out: negatve consequencies of small doses, which does not lead to radiation sickness, but lead to disfunctions of sanguine organs and thin intestines; absolute estimation of biological anomalies, which was forwarded by A.D. Sakharov (1921-1989). The ethic aspects of the use of Nuclear weapons on the fate of Human civilization were pointed out by A.D. Sakharov (1921-1990).

  5. Diurnal physical temperature at Sinus Iridum area retrieved from observations of Chinese Chang'E-1 microwave radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xiaohui; Jin, Ya-Qiu

    2012-04-01

    According to the incidence and azimuth angles of the Sun during observations of Chinese Chang'E-1 (CE-1) lunar satellite, brightness temperatures (Tb) at different lunar local time observed by the CE-1 multi-channel radiometers, especially at the Sinus Iridum (i.e. Bay of Rainbow) area, are collected from the transformation between the principal and local coordinates at the observed site, which demonstrates the Tb distribution and its diurnal variation. Based on a three-layer radiative transfer model of the lunar media, the CE-1 Tb data at 19.35 and 37.0 GHz channels are applied to invert the physical temperatures of both the dust and the regolith layer at Sinus Iridum area, where might be the CE-3 landing site, at different lunar local times. The physical temperature variations with the lunar local time and other geophysical parameters of lunar layered media are discussed.

  6. Fire Danger Estimation in Siberia Using SMOS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvetsov, Eugene

    2013-04-01

    One of the most important tasks of fire monitoring is to forecast the conditions that determine the possibility of occurrence and spread of fire in forests. Weather fire danger assessment is mainly based on the analysis of the meteorological parameters recorded by weather stations. The main drawback of such a method for the fire danger assessment is an absence of regular network of weather stations. This situation takes place, for example, in Siberia. The area of possible interpolation of weather stations data is generally up to 30 km. The analysis of the existing network of weather stations shows that there should be an interpolation in the zone up to 100 - 150 km between weather stations which restricts the correctness of weather fire danger distribution maps for the forest zone of Siberia. The area of research associated with the development of methodologies for the forest fire danger assessment remains urgent today. To solve this problem it is necessary to perform a geospatial analysis of fire distribution and distribution of forest fuel moisture which can only be done with the involvement of satellite monitoring. This can provide the necessary spatial coverage and frequency of data updates. Over the past 30 years the technical means of remote sensing and methods of land cover moisture measurement were developed. In 2009 the SMOS spacecraft was launched by the European Space Agency, equipped with microwave radiometer operating at the frequency of 1.4 GHz. Moisture is restored based on the angular dependence of the brightness of temperatures measured by spacecraft (Level 1C product). Geospatial analysis of the relationship between occurrence of fires, burned areas as well as fire radiative power during the fire season and land cover moisture measured by SMOS was performed. Daily updated database of forest fires detected using MODIS radiometer over the fire seasons of 2010 - 2012 as well as the land cover moisture data obtained from SMOS measurements were used in the analysis. The study area covered the territory of Siberia, including areas where extreme fire behavior was observed. Also the time series of land cover moisture measured by SMOS satellite and weather fire danger indices calculated using ground weather stations were compared. The results showed that in most cases the relationship between moisture and fire danger index values can be found. The increase in soil moisture was accompanied by a reduction of weather fire danger indices values. The highest correlation coefficients between moisture measurements and fire danger indices were obtained for southern regions (-0.5 - -0.6), however for the stations located in the central and northern regions the relationship was weaker. The analyses indicated that it was difficult to obtain a reliable relationship between remote sensed land cover moisture and fire weather indices for the whole territory of Siberia. However such dependencies can be apparent for individual regions.

  7. Characteristics of Wind Velocity and Temperature Change Near an Escarpment-Shaped Road Embankment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Moon; You, Ki-Pyo; You, Jang-Youl

    2014-01-01

    Artificial structures such as embankments built during the construction of highways influence the surrounding airflow. Various types of damage can occur due to changes in the wind velocity and temperature around highway embankments. However, no study has accurately measured micrometeorological changes (wind velocity and temperature) due to embankments. This study conducted a wind tunnel test and field measurement to identify changes in wind velocity and temperature before and after the construction of embankments around roads. Changes in wind velocity around an embankment after its construction were found to be influenced by the surrounding wind velocity, wind angle, and the level difference and distance from the embankment. When the level difference from the embankment was large and the distance was up to 3H, the degree of wind velocity declines was found to be large. In changes in reference wind velocities around the embankment, wind velocity increases were not proportional to the rate at which wind velocities declined. The construction of the embankment influenced surrounding temperatures. The degree of temperature change was large in locations with large level differences from the embankment at daybreak and during evening hours when wind velocity changes were small. PMID:25136681

  8. Characteristics of wind velocity and temperature change near an escarpment-shaped road embankment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Moon; You, Ki-Pyo; You, Jang-Youl

    2014-01-01

    Artificial structures such as embankments built during the construction of highways influence the surrounding airflow. Various types of damage can occur due to changes in the wind velocity and temperature around highway embankments. However, no study has accurately measured micrometeorological changes (wind velocity and temperature) due to embankments. This study conducted a wind tunnel test and field measurement to identify changes in wind velocity and temperature before and after the construction of embankments around roads. Changes in wind velocity around an embankment after its construction were found to be influenced by the surrounding wind velocity, wind angle, and the level difference and distance from the embankment. When the level difference from the embankment was large and the distance was up to 3H, the degree of wind velocity declines was found to be large. In changes in reference wind velocities around the embankment, wind velocity increases were not proportional to the rate at which wind velocities declined. The construction of the embankment influenced surrounding temperatures. The degree of temperature change was large in locations with large level differences from the embankment at daybreak and during evening hours when wind velocity changes were small. PMID:25136681

  9. Changing temperature response turned boreal forest from carbon sink into carbon source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grelle, Achim; Hadden, David

    2015-04-01

    19 years of flux measurements reveal that a boreal forest in northern Sweden has turned from a carbon sink into a carbon source. A consistent annual uptake of about 4 tonnes CO2 per hectare turned into annual emissions of the same magnitude within a few years. While biomass increment and gross CO2 uptake remained unchanged, gross respiration has increased, mainly during the autumn periods. This increasingly reduced the annual number of days with net CO2 uptake. No significant trend towards higher temperatures could be observed during the measurement period. However, the temperature responses of ecosystem respiration have changed with time, leading to higher respiration rates in the temperature range between 0 C and 5 C, which is the most common range during spring and autumn. Consequently, respiration fluxes under those temperature conditions have increased, both in spring and - even more - in autumn. Thus the change of the carbon balance is not directly caused by climate warming, as stated in other studies, but by changes in ecosystem functioning. The reasons for the rapid change in temperature response are still unknown and may be sought in changes of litterfall and dead wood distribution, changes in fungi- and microbial communities, or hydrological changes.

  10. Temperature Pill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Ingestible Thermal Monitoring System was developed at Johns Hopkins University as means of getting internal temperature readings for treatments of such emergency conditions as dangerously low (hypothermia) and dangerously high (hyperthermia) body temperatures. ITMS's accuracy is off no more than one hundredth of a degree and provides the only means of obtaining deep body temperature. System has additional applicability in fertility monitoring and some aspects of surgery, critical care obstetrics, metabolic disease treatment, gerontology (aging) and food processing research. Three-quarter inch silicone capsule contains telemetry system, micro battery, and a quartz crystal temperature sensor inserted vaginally, rectally, or swallowed.

  11. Temperature driven changes in the diet preference of omnivorous copepods: no more meat when it's hot?

    PubMed

    Boersma, Maarten; Mathew, K Avarachen; Niehoff, Barbara; Schoo, Katherina L; Franco-Santos, Rita M; Meunier, Cédric L

    2016-01-01

    Herbivory is more prevalent in the tropics than at higher latitudes. If differences in ambient temperature are the direct cause for this phenomenon, then the same pattern should be visible in a seasonal gradient, as well as in experiments manipulating temperature. Using (15) N stable isotope analyses of natural populations of the copepod Temora longicornis we indeed observed seasonal differences in the trophic level of the copepod and a decrease in trophic level with increasing temperature. In a grazing experiment, with a mixed diet of the cryptophyte Rhodomonas salina and the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina, T. longicornis preferred the cryptophyte at higher temperatures, whereas at lower temperatures it preferred the non-autotrophic prey. We explain these results by the higher relative carbon content of primary producers compared to consumers, in combination with the higher demand for metabolic carbon at higher temperatures. Thus, currently increasing temperatures may cause changes in dietary preferences of many consumers. PMID:26567776

  12. On the causes of temperature change in inhomogeneous low-density astrophysical plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scudder, Jack D.

    1992-01-01

    The temperature changes that are possible in inhomogeneous low-density astrophysical plasmas were investigated for a variety of boundary distribution functions that occur in astrophysics, with emphasis placed on the spatial changes in temperature and their correlations with those of the density caused by time-independent, but spatially varying, conservative potentials. It is proven that decelerating forces produce equilibrium temperatures that are anticorrelated with densities, provided that the boundary condition is non-Maxwellian, and the proof is extended analytically for a generalized Lorentzian distribution, showing that they obey a polytrope relation with the value of gamma between 0 and l.

  13. Sensitivity of the equilibrium surface temperature of a GCM to systematic changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglesby, Robert J.; Saltzman, Barry

    1990-01-01

    The equilibrium response of surface temperature to atmospheric CO2 concentration, for six values between 100 and 1000 ppm, is calculated from a series of GCM experiments. This response is nonlinear, showing greater sensitivity for lower values of CO2 than for the higher values. It is suggested that changes in CO2 concentration of a given magnitude (e.g., 100 ppm) played a larger role in the Pleistocene ice-age-type temperature variations than in causing global temperature changes due to anthropogenic increases.

  14. PERMEABILITY CHANGES IN CRYSTALLINE ROCKS DUE TO TEMPERATURE: EFFECTS OF MINERAL ASSEMBLAGE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrow, C.A.; Moore, Diane E.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The change in permeability with time of granite, quartzite, anorthosite and gabbro was measured while these rocks were subjected to a temperature gradient. Permeability reductions of up to two orders of magnitude were observed, with the greatest reactions occurring in the quartzite. These changes are thought to be caused by dissolution of minerals at high temperatures, and redeposition of the dissolved material at lower temperatures. Quartz appears to be an important mineral in this self-sealing process. If very low permeability is desired around a nuclear waste repository in crystalline rocks, then a quartz-rich rock may be the most appropriate host.

  15. Changes in Body Temperature in Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury by Digital Infrared Thermographic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yun-Gyu; Won, Yu Hui; Park, Sung-Hee; Ko, Myoung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate changes in the core temperature and body surface temperature in patients with incomplete spinal cord injuries (SCI). In incomplete SCI, the temperature change is difficult to see compared with complete spinal cord injuries. The goal of this study was to better understand thermal regulation in patients with incomplete SCI. Methods Fifty-six SCI patients were enrolled, and the control group consisted of 20 healthy persons. The spinal cord injuries were classified according to International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury. The patients were classified into two groups: upper (neurological injury level T6 or above) and lower (neurological injury level T7 or below) SCIs. Body core temperature was measured using an oral thermometer, and body surface temperature was measured using digital infrared thermographic imaging. Results Twenty-nine patients had upper spinal cord injuries, 27 patients had lower SCIs, and 20 persons served as the normal healthy persons. Comparing the skin temperatures of the three groups, the temperatures at the lower abdomen, anterior thigh and anterior tibia in the patients with upper SCIs were lower than those of the normal healthy persons and the patients with lower SCIs. No significant temperature differences were observed between the normal healthy persons and the patients with lower SCIs. Conclusion In our study, we found thermal dysregulation in patients with incomplete SCI. In particular, body surface temperature regulation was worse in upper SCIs than in lower injuries. Moreover, cord injury severity affected body surface temperature regulation in SCI patients. PMID:26605167

  16. Sensitive Indicators of Zonal Stipa Species to Changing Temperature and Precipitation in Inner Mongolia Grassland, China

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Xiaomin; Zhou, Guangsheng; Wang, Yuhui; Song, Xiliang

    2016-01-01

    Climate change often induces shifts in plant functional traits. However, knowledge related to sensitivity of different functional traits and sensitive indicator representing plant growth under hydrothermal change remains unclear. Inner Mongolia grassland is predicted to be one of the terrestrial ecosystems which are most vulnerable to climate change. In this study, we analyzed the response of four zonal Stipa species (S. baicalensis, S. grandis, S. breviflora, and S. bungeana) from Inner Mongolia grassland to changing temperature (control, increased 1.5, 2, 4, and 6°C), precipitation (decreased 30 and 15%, control, increased 15 and 30%) and their combined effects via climate control chambers. The relative change of functional traits in the unit of temperature and precipitation change was regarded as sensitivity coefficient and sensitive indicators were examined by pathway analysis. We found that sensitivity of the four Stipa species to changing temperature and precipitation could be ranked as follows: S. bungeana > S. grandis > S. breviflora > S. baicalensis. In particular, changes in leaf area, specific leaf area and root/shoot ratio could account for 86% of the changes in plant biomass in the four Stipa species. Also these three measurements were more sensitive to hydrothermal changes than the other functional traits. These three functional indicators reflected the combination of plant production capacity (leaf area), adaptive strategy (root/shoot ratio), instantaneous environmental effects (specific leaf area), and cumulative environmental effects (leaf area and root/shoot ratio). Thus, leaf area, specific leaf area and root/shoot ratio were chosen as sensitive indicators in response to changing temperature and precipitation for Stipa species. These results could provide the basis for predicting the influence of climate change on Inner Mongolia grassland based on the magnitude of changes in sensitive indicators. PMID:26904048

  17. Sensitive Indicators of Zonal Stipa Species to Changing Temperature and Precipitation in Inner Mongolia Grassland, China.

    PubMed

    Lv, Xiaomin; Zhou, Guangsheng; Wang, Yuhui; Song, Xiliang

    2016-01-01

    Climate change often induces shifts in plant functional traits. However, knowledge related to sensitivity of different functional traits and sensitive indicator representing plant growth under hydrothermal change remains unclear. Inner Mongolia grassland is predicted to be one of the terrestrial ecosystems which are most vulnerable to climate change. In this study, we analyzed the response of four zonal Stipa species (S. baicalensis, S. grandis, S. breviflora, and S. bungeana) from Inner Mongolia grassland to changing temperature (control, increased 1.5, 2, 4, and 6C), precipitation (decreased 30 and 15%, control, increased 15 and 30%) and their combined effects via climate control chambers. The relative change of functional traits in the unit of temperature and precipitation change was regarded as sensitivity coefficient and sensitive indicators were examined by pathway analysis. We found that sensitivity of the four Stipa species to changing temperature and precipitation could be ranked as follows: S. bungeana > S. grandis > S. breviflora > S. baicalensis. In particular, changes in leaf area, specific leaf area and root/shoot ratio could account for 86% of the changes in plant biomass in the four Stipa species. Also these three measurements were more sensitive to hydrothermal changes than the other functional traits. These three functional indicators reflected the combination of plant production capacity (leaf area), adaptive strategy (root/shoot ratio), instantaneous environmental effects (specific leaf area), and cumulative environmental effects (leaf area and root/shoot ratio). Thus, leaf area, specific leaf area and root/shoot ratio were chosen as sensitive indicators in response to changing temperature and precipitation for Stipa species. These results could provide the basis for predicting the influence of climate change on Inner Mongolia grassland based on the magnitude of changes in sensitive indicators. PMID:26904048

  18. Assessment of a Forest-fire Danger Index for Russia Using Remote Sensing Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhinin, Anatoly; McRae, Douglas; Ji-Zhong, Jin; Dubrovskaya, Olga; Ponomarev, Eugene

    2010-05-01

    Intensive exploitation of Siberian forest resources requires to increase the level of their protection. In Russia, forests annually disturbed by fire make up about 6% of the total forest area, whereas they account for hundredth or even thousandth of percent in the West European countries and Canada. Devastating forest fires associated with long draughts have become very common over recent decades in some parts of Siberia and the Russian Far East. Fires burning under these conditions disturb hundreds of thousands hectares of forest lands. Forest fires impact essentially on different biogeocenosis and on ecological situation in region as well. Thus their detrimental effects, including economic damage, are hard to overestimate. Remote sensing data using is more perspective method for forests monitoring in Russia. Moreover satellite data is only available information for non-protected Russian boreal forests and tundra also. To be efficient, modern forest fire managers require a reliable method for estimating fire danger. For large remote forested areas, such as found in Russia where a dense network of local weather station needed to calculate fire danger does not exist, this can be a major problem. However, remote sensing using satellite data can provide reasonable estimates of fire danger across Russia to allow for an understanding of the current fire situation. An algorithm has been developed that can assess current fire danger by inputting ambient weather conditions derived from remote sensing data obtained from NOAA, TERRA-series satellites. Necessary inputs for calculating fire danger, such as surface temperature, dew-point temperature, and precipitation, are obtained from AVHRR, MODIS and ATOVS satellite data. By generating the final products as maps a concise picture can be presented of fire danger across Russia. In order to understand future fire suppression needs, fire danger predictions for an advanced 7-day period can be made using meteorological forecasts of near surface pressure and air temperatures. The only problem with this type of forecasting is the absence of knowing exactly what precipitation will occur during the forecasted period. This is resolved using an interactive method that continually updates the forecasted fire danger map using current precipitation. One important application of this product for remote sensing will be the ability to classify fire severity on burn scar areas for predicting carbon release better over the vast areas of Russia. This will require the development of fire behavior models that use components of the fire danger systems as key independent variables. Modern wildfire prevention programs cannot be successful unless they are fully supported by fire-danger analysis acquired from detailed daily fire-danger mapping. This enables better coordination and potential success of limited suppression forces. Currently the existing network of weather stations in Russia, especially in remote areas, does not allow for the estimation of fire danger over the entire country. Thus, northern forests are deprived of badly needed fire protection information because of the lack of weather stations. Remote sensing analysis and diagnosis of forest fire danger conditions is an emerging field both in Russia and abroad. V.N. Sukachev Institute of Forest, located in Krasnoyarsk, is supporting research this field and is proposing the development of methodology for generating daily fire weather danger maps based on the digital multispectral images obtained from satellites. This will allow the computation of fire danger for remote areas without the need for supplementary on-ground weather stations. KEYWORDS: Fire weather danger system, meteorological data, remote sensing data, wildfires, Siberian boreal forests.

  19. Climate change and Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae): Impacts of temperature and carbon dioxide on life history

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change is relevant to life around the globe. A rise in ambient temperature and CO2 may have various impacts on arthropods such as altered life cycles, modified reproductive patterns, and changes in distribution. The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), is a global agricultural...

  20. Late Glacial to Holocene abrupt temperature changes recorded by Crenarchaeota in Lake Lucerne (Vierwaldstttersee, Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaga, Cornelia I.; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Lotter, Andr F.; Anselmetti, Flavio; Sinninghe Damst, Jaap S.

    2010-05-01

    In this study we applied the TEX86 (TetraEther Index of 86 carbon atoms) temperature proxy to a sediment core from Lake Lucerne (Vierwaldstttersee) to reconstruct, in almost decadal resolution, temperature changes during the Younger Dryas and the Early Holocene (ca. 14600 to 10600 cal. BP). The TEX86 proxy suggests a sequence of shifts during the late glacial period that strongly resemble the shifts in ?18O values from the Greenland ice core record. The TEX86-reconstructed lake temperature record indicates a step-wise pattern of climate changes across the studied interval with a shift from colder to warmer temperatures at the onset of the late-glacial interstadial, followed by an abrupt cooling at the onset of Younger Dryas and a rapid warming from 5.5 to 9C at the Younger Dryas/Holocene transition in less than 200 years. The temperature change associated with the Interstadial-Younger Dryas alternation is ca. 4 C and is in line with previous temperature reconstructions based on different proxies. The rapid changes in temperature associated with the last deglaciation are reflected in the highest possible detail in the TEX86 record. It is thus clear that our proxy, based on the isoprenoidal GDGTs (Glycerol Dialkyl Glycerol Tetraethers), is capable to reflect high resolution records of rapid (decadal to century scale oscillations) environmental fluctuations comparable with those obtained from ice cores.

  1. A dynamic model for plant growth: validation study under changing temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wann, M.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    A dynamic simulation model to describe vegetative growth of plants, for which some functions and parameter values have been estimated previously by optimization search techniques and numerical experimentation based on data from constant temperature experiments, is validated under conditions of changing temperatures. To test the predictive capacity of the model, dry matter accumulation in the leaves, stems, and roots of tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.) was measured at 2- or 3-day intervals during a 5-week period when temperatures in controlled-environment rooms were programmed for changes at weekly and daily intervals and in ascending or descending sequences within a range of 14 to 34 degrees C. Simulations of dry matter accumulation and distribution were carried out using the programmed changes for experimental temperatures and compared with the measured values. The agreement between measured and predicted values was close and indicates that the temperature-dependent functional forms derived from constant-temperature experiments are adequate for modelling plant growth responses to conditions of changing temperatures with switching intervals as short as 1 day.

  2. Upper-air temperature change trends above arid region of Northwest China during 1960-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhongsheng; Chen, Yaning; Xu, Jianhua; Bai, Ling

    2015-04-01

    This study summarized upper-air temperature change trends based on the monthly datasets of 14 sounding stations in the arid region of Northwest China during 1960-2009. Over the investigated period, the change in upper-air temperature measured at eight standard pressure levels shows that an obvious warming at 850-400 hPa, which decreases with altitude, changes to an apparent cooling at 300-50 hPa. There is a positive correlation between the surface and 850-300-hPa temperatures, but a negative correlation between the surface and 200-50-hPa temperatures. Over the full 1960-2009 record, patterns of statistically significant mid-lower tropospheric warming and upper tropospheric and mid-lower stratospheric cooling are clearly evident. Also, the annual temperature cycle indicates that the peak temperature shifts from July in the troposphere to February in the mid-lower stratosphere, suggesting the importance of seasonal trend analysis. We found that the warming in the mid-lower troposphere is more pronounced during the summer, autumn, and winter, whereas the cooling in the upper troposphere and mid-lower stratosphere is larger during the summer and autumn. Furthermore, there are also many regional differences in the upper-air temperature change, regardless of both season and layer.

  3. Short-tailed temperature distributions over North America and implications for future changes in extremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loikith, Paul C.; Neelin, J. David

    2015-10-01

    Some regions of North America exhibit nonnormal temperature distributions. Shorter-than-Gaussian warm tails are a special subset of these cases, with potentially meaningful implications for future changes in extreme warm temperatures under anthropogenic global warming. Locations exhibiting shorter-than-Gaussian warm tails would experience a greater increase in extreme warm temperature exceedances than a location with a Gaussian or long warm-side tail under a simple uniform warm shift in the distribution. Here we identify regions exhibiting such behavior over North America and demonstrate the effect of a simple warm shift on changes in extreme warm temperature exceedances. Some locations exceed the 95th percentile of the original distribution by greater than 40% of the time after this uniform shift. While the manner in which distributions change under global warming may be more complex than a simple shift, these results provide an observational baseline for climate model evaluation.

  4. Correlation of hippocampal theta rhythm with changes in cutaneous temperature. [evoked neuron response in thermoregulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, J. M.; Saleh, M. A.; Karem, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    A possible role for the hippocampus in alerting an animal to changes in cutaneous temperature was examined. Following local warming or cooling of the ears of unanesthetized, loosely restrained rabbits, theta waves (4-7 Hz EEG waves) were recorded from electrodes straddling the hippocampus. The onset of the hippocampal theta rhythm was correlated with changes in cutaneous temperature, an observation consistent with studies indicating that the theta rhythm is a nonspecific response evoked by stimulation of several sensory modalities. Additional data from cats and rabbits were correlated with specific neurons within the hippocampus, namely pyramidal cells. Post stimulus time histograms obtained by excitation of the dorsal fornix were interpreted in terms of excitatory and inhibitory inputs to pyramidal cells. Thus, the theta rhythm, which appears to be evoked by changes in cutaneous temperature, can be related to a specific type of hippocampal neuron which is in turn connected with other areas of the brain involved in temperature regulation.

  5. Temperature changes caused by light curing of fiber-reinforced composite resins

    PubMed Central

    Ilday, Nurcan Ozakar; Sagsoz, Omer; Karatas, Ozcan; Bayindir, Yusuf Ziya; elik, Neslihan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study is to evaluate temperature change in fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) resin photopolymerized with a light-emitting diode (LED) light-curing unit (LCU). Materials and Methods: Forty dentine disks (1 mm thick and 8 mm diameter) were prepared from human molars. The FRC specimens (2 mm thickness and 8 mm diameter) consisted of polyethylene fiber (Construct (CT)) products or glass fiber (ever Stick (ES)) and one hybrid composite bonded to the dentin disks and polymerized with an LED LCU. Control groups were prepared using the hybrid composite. Temperature rise in dentine samples under the FRC bonded disks was measured using a K-type thermocouple, and data were recorded. Temperature change data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's test. Results: The results show that addition of fiber (one or two layers) did not change temperature rise values at any of the exposure times (P > 0.05). The CT fiber/two layer/40 s group exhibited the greatest temperature rise (5.49 0.62) and the ES/one layer/10 s group the lowest rise (1.75 0.32). A significant difference was observed in temperature rise measured during 10 and 20 s exposures (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Maximal temperature rise determined in all groups was not critical for pulpal health, although clinicians need to note temperature rises during polymerization. PMID:26069409

  6. Temperature changes in the North-Western Italian Alps from 1961 to 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acquaotta, Fiorella; Fratianni, Simona; Garzena, Diego

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify any possible temperature changes within the last 50 years in the North-Western Italian Alps by examining data from 16 high-altitude weather stations in the period 1961-2010. The daily temperature time series were collected, digitized and subjected to a historical research to individuate discontinuities and retrieve metadata. We also carried out the data quality control and the homogenization which allowed the climatic indices trend detection. The analysis of the temperature values showed an increase in temperature, particularly at high-altitudes sites. In fact, the stations located above 1600 m asl revealed a rise in temperatures and a decrease in the number of cold periods. For the maximum temperatures, greater increases in spring and winter have been observed, for minimum temperatures in the summer. These trends confirm that climate change is occurring in an environment particularly sensitive to temperature changes, especially during the season of snow accumulation and vegetative growth. These results may be important for policy makers to define the best adaptation strategies in order to protect one of the most sensitive environments such as mountains.

  7. Thermal stresses in the wall of pipes caused by periodic change of temperature of medium fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atefi, Gholamali; Mahmoudi, Hamid

    2012-06-01

    The problem of thermal stresses induced in pipes due to periodic change of medium fluid temperature has never been considered completely. In this paper an analytical solution for obtaining thermal stresses in a pipe caused by periodic time varying of temperature of medium fluid is offered. Transient heat conduction equation in cylindrical coordinates for a long hollow cylinder under periodic change of ambient temperature condition is solved analytically using Fourier series and Temperature distribution in the wall of pipe as a function of time and radial direction is specified. Then resulting thermal stresses are obtained using thermoelasticity relations. Because of the use of Fourier series expansion in obtaining the transient temperature field the proposed method is very comprehensive and covers many theoretical and practical problems. The results for thermal stresses have been compared with former works and show excellent agreement for the same conditions.

  8. Synchronous change of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature during the last deglacial warming.

    PubMed

    Parrenin, F; Masson-Delmotte, V; Köhler, P; Raynaud, D; Paillard, D; Schwander, J; Barbante, C; Landais, A; Wegner, A; Jouzel, J

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the role of atmospheric CO2 during past climate changes requires clear knowledge of how it varies in time relative to temperature. Antarctic ice cores preserve highly resolved records of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature for the past 800,000 years. Here we propose a revised relative age scale for the concentration of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic temperature for the last deglacial warming, using data from five Antarctic ice cores. We infer the phasing between CO2 concentration and Antarctic temperature at four times when their trends change abruptly. We find no significant asynchrony between them, indicating that Antarctic temperature did not begin to rise hundreds of years before the concentration of atmospheric CO2, as has been suggested by earlier studies. PMID:23449589

  9. Sensitivity of biogenic silica oxygen isotopes to changes in surface water temperature and palaeoclimatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moschen, Robert; Lcke, Andreas; Schleser, Gerhard H.

    2005-04-01

    Oxygen isotope ratios of biogenic silica derived from planktonic diatoms living in the pelagial of a freshwater lake are used to determine the temperature effect on the isotope fractionation between water and biogenic silica under ecosystem conditions. Our data show a deterministic relation between seasonally changing water temperatures (4C-22C) and the oxygen isotope fractionation during valve formation. The temperature dependent fractionation appears to be independent of diatom cell sizes indicating a mere physical control of this process. The isotopic change induced per degree centigrade, the temperature coefficient, amounts to a value of -0.2/C. This implies that previous studies have overestimated the temperature relationship of this proxy by using coefficients of up to -0.5/C for climate reconstructions.

  10. Changes in the frequency of extreme temperature records for Toronto, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Shannon M. J.; Gough, William A.; Mohsin, Tanzina

    2015-02-01

    Temperature extremes in Toronto, Ontario, Canada are examined using an under-utilized approach. The frequency of temperature extreme records per year is examined for the period of 1971 to 2000. Consistent with other published metrics, record extreme cold temperatures is decreasing at five weather observing stations in the Greater Toronto Area. This was confirmed using three different statistical tests indicating the change signal was stronger for weather stations on the fringe of the urban area suggesting that expanding urbanization was a major factor in this net change. However, this was not found to be the case for record extreme warm temperatures where increasing trends were not statistically significant. The effects of the Mt. Pinatubo eruption in 1991 were detected in both the minimum and maximum temperatures records.

  11. The role of land use change in the recent warming of daily extreme temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christidis, Nikolaos; Stott, Peter A.; Hegerl, Gabriele C.; Betts, Richard A.

    2013-02-01

    Abstract Understanding how <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes respond in a climate forced by human activity is of great importance, as extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are detrimental to health and often responsible for mortality increases. While previous detection and attribution studies demonstrated a significant human influence on the recent warming of daily extremes, contributions of individual anthropogenic forcings like <span class="hlt">changes</span> in land use have not yet been investigated in such studies. Here we apply an optimal fingerprinting technique to data from observations and experiments with a new earth system model to examine whether <span class="hlt">changing</span> land use has led to detectable <span class="hlt">changes</span> in daily extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on a quasi-global scale. We find that loss of trees and increase of grassland since preindustrial times has caused an overall cooling trend in both mean and extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> which is detectable in the observed <span class="hlt">changes</span> of warm but not cold extremes. The warming in both mean and extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> due to anthropogenic forcings other than land use is detected in all cases, whereas the weaker effect of natural climatic forcings is not detected in any. This is the first formal attribution of observed climatic <span class="hlt">changes</span> to <span class="hlt">changing</span> land use, suggesting further investigations are justified, particularly in studies of warm extremes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12868207','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12868207"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> during application of ultrasonic vibration to intra-radicular posts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Satterthwaite, Julian D; Stokes, Alastair N; Frankel, Nicholas T N</p> <p>2003-06-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to assess the potential for heat production when intra-radicular posts were subjected to ultrasonic vibration. Thirty zirconium ceramic posts and thirty stainless steel posts were luted into canine roots. Ultrasonic vibration was applied to the top of each post for thirty minutes and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on the root surface was measured. The mean peak <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise from baseline was 18.7 degrees C. Post type had no influence on peak <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> increase on the external root surfaces increased as the thickness of dentine between post and root surface reduced. PMID:12868207</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5481083','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5481083"><span id="translatedtitle">Interannual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the Antarctic lower stratosphere - A relation to the ozone hole</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kawahira, Kohji ); Hirooka, Toshihiko )</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Interannual <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the daily zonal mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Antarctic lower stratosphere are analyzed for the past seven years from 1980 to 1986 by using NMC data. It is found that the Antarctic polar region tends to cool not only in spring but also in all seasons, remarkably in winter and spring. Further analysis concerning the meridional gradient of the zonal mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> showed that the period per year of the winter pattern (<span class="hlt">temperature</span> decrease toward the south pole) becomes longer as the ozone hole becomes deeper. From this evidence, the interrelation between the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decline and the ozone depletion is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3698464','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3698464"><span id="translatedtitle">Keep Away from <span class="hlt">Danger</span>: <span class="hlt">Dangerous</span> Objects in Dynamic and Static Situations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Anelli, Filomena; Nicoletti, Roberto; Bolzani, Roberto; Borghi, Anna M.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Behavioral and neuroscience studies have shown that objects observation evokes specific affordances (i.e., action possibilities) and motor responses. Recent findings provide evidence that even <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> objects can modulate the motor system evoking aversive affordances. This sounds intriguing since so far the majority of behavioral, brain imaging, and transcranial magnetic stimulation studies with painful and <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> stimuli strictly concerned the domain of pain, with the exception of evidence suggesting sensitivity to objects affordances when neutral objects are located in participants peripersonal space. This study investigates whether the observation of a neutral or <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> object in a static or dynamic situation differently influences motor responses, and the time-course of the <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> objects processing. In three experiments we manipulated: object <span class="hlt">dangerousness</span> (neutral vs. <span class="hlt">dangerous</span>); object category (artifact vs. natural); manual response typology (press vs. release a key); object presentation (Experiment 1: dynamic, Experiments 2 and 3: static); object movement direction (Experiment 1: away vs. toward the participant) or size (Experiments 2 and 3: big vs. normal vs. small). The task required participants to decide whether the object was an artifact or a natural object, by pressing or releasing one key. Results showed a facilitation for neutral over <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> objects in the static situation, probably due to an affordance effect. Instead, in the dynamic condition responses were modulated by the object movement direction, with a dynamic affordance effect elicited by neutral objects and an escape-avoidance effect provoked by <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> objects (neutral objects were processed faster when they moved toward-approached the participant, whereas <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> objects were processed faster when they moved away from the participant). Moreover, static stimuli influenced the manual response typology. These data indicate the emergence of dynamic affordance and escaping-avoidance effects. PMID:23847512</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC41B0548K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC41B0548K"><span id="translatedtitle">People as sensors: mass media and local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> influence climate <span class="hlt">change</span> discussion on Twitter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kirilenko, A.; Molodtsova, T.; Stepchenkova, S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We examined whether people living under significant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies connect their sensory experiences to climate <span class="hlt">change</span> and the role that media plays in this process. We used Twitter messages containing words "climate <span class="hlt">change</span>" and "global warming" as the indicator of attention that public pays to the issue. Specifically, the goals were: (1) to investigate whether people immediately notice significant local weather anomalies and connect them to climate <span class="hlt">change</span> and (2) to examine the role of mass media in this process. Over 2 million tweets were collected for a two-year period (2012 - 2013) and were assigned to 157 urban areas in the continental USA (Figure 1). Geographical locations of the tweets were identified with a geolocation resolving algorithm based the profile of the users. Daily number of tweets (tweeting rate) was computed for 157 conterminous USA urban areas and adjusted for data acquisition errors. The USHCN daily minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were obtained for the station locations closest to the centers of the urban areas and the 1981-2010 30-year <span class="hlt">temperature</span> mean and standard deviation were used as the climate normals. For the analysis, we computed the following indices for each day of 2012 - 2013 period: standardized <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly, absolute standardized <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly, and extreme cold and hot <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies for each urban zone. The extreme cold and hot <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies were then transformed into country-level values that represent the number of people living in extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions. The rate of tweeting on climate <span class="hlt">change</span> was regressed on the time variables, number of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> publications in the mass media, and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In the majority of regression models, the mass media and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variables were significant at the p<0.001 level. Additionally, we did not find convincing evidence that the media acts as a mediator in the relationship between local weather and climate <span class="hlt">change</span> discourse intensity. Our analysis of Twitter data confirmed that the public is able to recognize extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies and connects these anomalies to climate <span class="hlt">change</span>. Finally, we demonstrated the utility of social network data for research on public climate <span class="hlt">change</span> perception.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=prostitution&pg=4&id=EJ966955','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=prostitution&pg=4&id=EJ966955"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Danger</span> and the Decision to Offend</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McCarthy, Bill; Hagan, John</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Humiliation; incarceration; stigma; loss of income, freedom, and respect: most research on offending emphasizes these sanctions. Yet classical theorists recognized other costs including physical harm. We revive this abandoned insight, arguing that <span class="hlt">danger</span>--the possibility of pain--figures largely in people's decisions to offend. Although modern</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title49-vol2-sec172-521.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title49-vol2-sec172-521.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 172.521 - <span class="hlt">DANGEROUS</span> placard.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false <span class="hlt">DANGEROUS</span> placard. 172.521 Section 172.521... area and 1/2-inch (12.7 mm.) border must be white. The inscription must be black with the 1/8-inch (3.2 mm.) border marker in the white area at each end of the inscription red....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Behaviorist+AND+theories&pg=4&id=EJ128124','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Behaviorist+AND+theories&pg=4&id=EJ128124"><span id="translatedtitle">Accountability: A <span class="hlt">Danger</span> to Humanistic Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hirsch, Elisabeth S.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Warns of the pitfalls in rigid performance-based teacher education programs by discussing: (1) the goals teacher education should include; (2) the <span class="hlt">dangers</span> inherent in "teaching to the test" evaluation procedures, and learning models based on behaviorist theories, and (3) the "true" role of accountability in our educational system. (ED)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=playpen&id=EJ356822','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=playpen&id=EJ356822"><span id="translatedtitle">Decreasing <span class="hlt">Dangerous</span> Infant Behaviors through Parent Instruction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mathews, Judith R.; And Others</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Four young mothers with one-year-old infants were successfully taught to reduce their children's potential for injury in the home through interventions which included increasing positive interactions with the infant, child-proofing the home, using playpen time-out for potentially <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> behaviors, and giving positive attention for safe</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26062275','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26062275"><span id="translatedtitle">Ebola: a very <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> viral haemorrhagic fever.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scully, Crispian</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Ebola is a highly <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> infectious disease seen mainly in West Africa or travellers from there. All healthcare workers should check the recent travel history of their patients and follow formal guidance issued. Clinical Relevance: This article discusses the relevance of the Ebola virus in dentistry. PMID:26062275</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014pas..conf..173W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014pas..conf..173W"><span id="translatedtitle">The potentially <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> asteroid (99942) Apophis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wlodarczyk, Ireneusz</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We computed impact solution of the potentially <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> asteroid (99942) Apophis for 2068. Our computations are based on 4022 optical observations and seven radar observations from 2013 March 15.10789 UTC through March 28.089569 UTC. We used the freely available OrbFit software package.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title49-vol2-sec172-521.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title49-vol2-sec172-521.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">49 CFR 172.521 - <span class="hlt">DANGEROUS</span> placard.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false <span class="hlt">DANGEROUS</span> placard. 172.521 Section 172.521 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL PROVISIONS, HAZARDOUS...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=independent+AND+crime&id=EJ966955','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=independent+AND+crime&id=EJ966955"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Danger</span> and the Decision to Offend</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McCarthy, Bill; Hagan, John</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Humiliation; incarceration; stigma; loss of income, freedom, and respect: most research on offending emphasizes these sanctions. Yet classical theorists recognized other costs including physical harm. We revive this abandoned insight, arguing that <span class="hlt">danger</span>--the possibility of pain--figures largely in people's decisions to offend. Although modern…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3032790','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3032790"><span id="translatedtitle">A Large <span class="hlt">Change</span> in <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> between Neighbouring Days Increases the Risk of Mortality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Guo, Yuming; Barnett, Adrian G.; Yu, Weiwei; Pan, Xiaochuan; Ye, Xiaofang; Huang, Cunrui; Tong, Shilu</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Background Previous studies have found high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> increase the risk of mortality in summer. However, little is known about whether a sharp decrease or increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> between neighbouring days has any effect on mortality. Method Poisson regression models were used to estimate the association between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and mortality in summer in Brisbane, Australia during 19962004 and Los Angeles, United States during 19872000. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> was calculated as the current day's mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> minus the previous day's mean. Results In Brisbane, a drop of more than 3C in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> between days was associated with relative risks (RRs) of 1.157 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.024, 1.307) for total non-external mortality (NEM), 1.186 (95%CI: 1.002, 1.405) for NEM in females, and 1.442 (95%CI: 1.099, 1.892) for people aged 6574 years. An increase of more than 3C was associated with RRs of 1.353 (95%CI: 1.033, 1.772) for cardiovascular mortality and 1.667 (95%CI: 1.146, 2.425) for people aged <65 years. In Los Angeles, only a drop of more than 3C was significantly associated with RRs of 1.133 (95%CI: 1.053, 1.219) for total NEM, 1.252 (95%CI: 1.131, 1.386) for cardiovascular mortality, and 1.254 (95%CI: 1.135, 1.385) for people aged ?75 years. In both cities, there were joint effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on NEM. Conclusion A significant <span class="hlt">change</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of more than 3C, whether positive or negative, has an adverse impact on mortality even after controlling for the current <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. PMID:21311772</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H31H0741D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H31H0741D"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Shasta Dam operations to regulate <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for Chinook salmon under extreme climate and climate <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dai, A.; Saito, L.; Sapin, J. R.; Rajagopalan, B.; Hanna, R. B.; Kauneckis, D. L.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Chinook salmon populations have declined significantly after the construction of Shasta Dam on the Sacramento River in 1945 prevented them from spawning in the cold waters upstream. In 1994, the winter-run Chinook were listed under the Endangered Species Act and 3 years later the US Bureau of Reclamation began operating a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control device (TCD) on the dam that allows for selective withdrawal for downstream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control to promote salmon spawning while also maximizing power generation. However, dam operators are responsible to other interests that depend on the reservoir for water such as agriculture, municipalities, industry, and recreation. An increase in <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> due to climate <span class="hlt">change</span> may place additional strain on the ability of dam operations to maintain spawning habitat for salmon downstream of the dam. We examined the capability of Shasta Dam to regulate downstream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> under extreme climates and climate <span class="hlt">change</span> by using stochastically generated streamflow, stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and weather inputs with a two-dimensional CE-QUAL-W2 model under several operational options. Operation performance was evaluated using degree days and cold pool volume (volume of water below a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> threshold). Model results indicated that a generalized operations release schedule, in which release elevations varied over the year to match downstream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> targets, performed best overall in meeting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> targets while preserving cold pool volume. Releasing all water out the bottom throughout the year tended to meet <span class="hlt">temperature</span> targets at the expense of depleting the cold pool, and releasing all water out uppermost gates preserved the cold pool, but released water that was too warm during the critical spawning period. With higher air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> due to climate <span class="hlt">change</span>, both degree day and cold pool volume metrics were worse than baseline conditions, which suggests that Chinook salmon may be more negatively affected under climate <span class="hlt">change</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014QSRv..106..262B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014QSRv..106..262B"><span id="translatedtitle">To what extent did <span class="hlt">changes</span> in July <span class="hlt">temperature</span> influence Lateglacial vegetation patterns in NW Europe?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Birks, Hilary H.; Birks, H. John B.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>What was the impact of July <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> on vegetation patterns during the Lateglacial period in north-west Europe? Chironomid-inferred mean July air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimates (C-Tjul) are proxy <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records independent of terrestrial vegetation. The relationships between Lateglacial vegetation inferred from pollen percentages and these <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimates are explored using data synthesised geographically from 15 sites where both pollen percentages and C-Tjul are published to assess the influence of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> on regional vegetation. Direct impacts of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on a species involve passing the range limits or realised niche of that species. The Bølling warming allowed vegetation to develop. The Younger Dryas cooling had direct impacts on species and vegetation types that were at a critical ecotone and thus sensitive to <span class="hlt">change</span>. Precipitation is extremely important and its interaction with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controlled most of the vegetation patterns inferred from these NW European pollen data. High precipitation was important in W Norway, whereas aridity in the YD was a controlling factor in N Norway, the Netherlands, and NE Germany. Under constant climate, ecological processes occurred such as immigration, succession, and soil development that resulted in vegetation <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Biotic interactions were also important, such as the impact of grazing by mega-herbivores during Allerød time in Ireland that may have restricted the development of birch woodland. At the coarse scale of this synthesis, July <span class="hlt">temperature</span> alone is seen not to be a good predictor of the patterns of pollen percentages and hence of vegetation through the Lateglacial. Rather, it is the interactions of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation, combined with ecological processes that appear to be the major factors influencing Lateglacial palynological and vegetation patterns in NW Europe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24312614','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24312614"><span id="translatedtitle">Millennial-scale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocity in the continental northern Neotropics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Correa-Metrio, Alexander; Bush, Mark; Lozano-Garca, Socorro; Sosa-Njera, Susana</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Climate has been inherently linked to global diversity patterns, and yet no empirical data are available to put modern climate <span class="hlt">change</span> into a millennial-scale context. High tropical species diversity has been linked to slow rates of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> during the Quaternary, an assumption that lacks an empirical foundation. Thus, there is the need for quantifying the velocity at which the bioclimatic space <span class="hlt">changed</span> during the Quaternary in the tropics. Here we present rates of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> for the late Pleistocene and Holocene from Mexico and Guatemala. An extensive modern pollen survey and fossil pollen data from two long sedimentary records (30,000 and 86,000 years for highlands and lowlands, respectively) were used to estimate past <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Derived <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles show a parallel long-term trend and a similar cooling during the Last Glacial Maximum in the Guatemalan lowlands and the Mexican highlands. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> estimates and digital elevation models were used to calculate the velocity of isotherm displacement (<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocity) for the time period contained in each record. Our analyses showed that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocities in Mesoamerica during the late Quaternary were at least four times slower than values reported for the last 50 years, but also at least twice as fast as those obtained from recent models. Our data demonstrate that, given extremely high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocities, species survival must have relied on either microrefugial populations or persistence of suppressed individuals. Contrary to the usual expectation of stable climates being associated with high diversity, our results suggest that Quaternary tropical diversity was probably maintained by centennial-scale oscillatory climatic variability that forestalled competitive exclusion. As humans have simplified modern landscapes, thereby removing potential microrefugia, and climate <span class="hlt">change</span> is occurring monotonically at a very high velocity, extinction risk for tropical species is higher than at any time in the last 86,000 years. PMID:24312614</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3846729','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3846729"><span id="translatedtitle">Millennial-Scale <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> Velocity in the Continental Northern Neotropics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Correa-Metrio, Alexander; Bush, Mark; Lozano-García, Socorro; Sosa-Nájera, Susana</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Climate has been inherently linked to global diversity patterns, and yet no empirical data are available to put modern climate <span class="hlt">change</span> into a millennial-scale context. High tropical species diversity has been linked to slow rates of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> during the Quaternary, an assumption that lacks an empirical foundation. Thus, there is the need for quantifying the velocity at which the bioclimatic space <span class="hlt">changed</span> during the Quaternary in the tropics. Here we present rates of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> for the late Pleistocene and Holocene from Mexico and Guatemala. An extensive modern pollen survey and fossil pollen data from two long sedimentary records (30,000 and 86,000 years for highlands and lowlands, respectively) were used to estimate past <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Derived <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles show a parallel long-term trend and a similar cooling during the Last Glacial Maximum in the Guatemalan lowlands and the Mexican highlands. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> estimates and digital elevation models were used to calculate the velocity of isotherm displacement (<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocity) for the time period contained in each record. Our analyses showed that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocities in Mesoamerica during the late Quaternary were at least four times slower than values reported for the last 50 years, but also at least twice as fast as those obtained from recent models. Our data demonstrate that, given extremely high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocities, species survival must have relied on either microrefugial populations or persistence of suppressed individuals. Contrary to the usual expectation of stable climates being associated with high diversity, our results suggest that Quaternary tropical diversity was probably maintained by centennial-scale oscillatory climatic variability that forestalled competitive exclusion. As humans have simplified modern landscapes, thereby removing potential microrefugia, and climate <span class="hlt">change</span> is occurring monotonically at a very high velocity, extinction risk for tropical species is higher than at any time in the last 86,000 years. PMID:24312614</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JEMat.tmp..439M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JEMat.tmp..439M"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic Performance of Maximum Power Point Trackers in TEG Systems Under Rapidly <span class="hlt">Changing</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Man, E. A.; Sera, D.; Mathe, L.; Schaltz, E.; Rosendahl, L.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Characterization of thermoelectric generators (TEG) is widely discussed and equipment has been built that can perform such analysis. One method is often used to perform such characterization: constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with variable thermal power input. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods for TEG systems are mostly tested under steady-state conditions for different constant input <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. However, for most TEG applications, the input <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient <span class="hlt">changes</span>, exposing the MPPT to variable tracking conditions. An example is the exhaust pipe on hybrid vehicles, for which, because of the intermittent operation of the internal combustion engine, the TEG and its MPPT controller are exposed to a cyclic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile. Furthermore, there are no guidelines on how fast the MPPT must be under such dynamic conditions. In the work discussed in this paper, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients for TEG integrated in several applications were evaluated; the results showed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation up to 5°C/s for TEG systems. Electrical characterization of a calcium-manganese oxide TEG was performed at steady-state for different input <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and a maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 401°C. By using electrical data from characterization of the oxide module, a solar array simulator was emulated to perform as a TEG. A trapezoidal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile with different gradients was used on the TEG simulator to evaluate the dynamic MPPT efficiency. It is known that the perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm may have difficulty accurately tracking under rapidly <span class="hlt">changing</span> conditions. To solve this problem, a compromise must be found between the magnitude of the increment and the sampling frequency of the control algorithm. The standard P&O performance was evaluated experimentally by using different <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients for different MPPT sampling frequencies, and efficiency values are provided for all cases. The results showed that a tracking speed of 2.5 Hz can be successfully implemented on a TEG system to provide ˜95% MPPT efficiency when the input <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is <span class="hlt">changing</span> at 5°C/s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JEMat..45.1309M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JEMat..45.1309M"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic Performance of Maximum Power Point Trackers in TEG Systems Under Rapidly <span class="hlt">Changing</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Man, E. A.; Sera, D.; Mathe, L.; Schaltz, E.; Rosendahl, L.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Characterization of thermoelectric generators (TEG) is widely discussed and equipment has been built that can perform such analysis. One method is often used to perform such characterization: constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with variable thermal power input. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods for TEG systems are mostly tested under steady-state conditions for different constant input <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. However, for most TEG applications, the input <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient <span class="hlt">changes</span>, exposing the MPPT to variable tracking conditions. An example is the exhaust pipe on hybrid vehicles, for which, because of the intermittent operation of the internal combustion engine, the TEG and its MPPT controller are exposed to a cyclic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile. Furthermore, there are no guidelines on how fast the MPPT must be under such dynamic conditions. In the work discussed in this paper, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients for TEG integrated in several applications were evaluated; the results showed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation up to 5°C/s for TEG systems. Electrical characterization of a calcium-manganese oxide TEG was performed at steady-state for different input <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and a maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 401°C. By using electrical data from characterization of the oxide module, a solar array simulator was emulated to perform as a TEG. A trapezoidal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile with different gradients was used on the TEG simulator to evaluate the dynamic MPPT efficiency. It is known that the perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm may have difficulty accurately tracking under rapidly <span class="hlt">changing</span> conditions. To solve this problem, a compromise must be found between the magnitude of the increment and the sampling frequency of the control algorithm. The standard P&O performance was evaluated experimentally by using different <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients for different MPPT sampling frequencies, and efficiency values are provided for all cases. The results showed that a tracking speed of 2.5 Hz can be successfully implemented on a TEG system to provide ˜95% MPPT efficiency when the input <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is <span class="hlt">changing</span> at 5°C/s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25965185','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25965185"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Changing</span> patterns of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-mortality association by time and location in the US, and implications for climate <span class="hlt">change</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nordio, Francesco; Zanobetti, Antonella; Colicino, Elena; Kloog, Itai; Schwartz, Joel</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The shape of the non-linear relationship between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and mortality varies among cities with different climatic conditions. There has been little examination of how these curves <span class="hlt">change</span> over space and time. We evaluated the short-term effects of hot and cold <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on daily mortality over six 7-year periods in 211 US cities, comprising over 42 million deaths. Cluster analysis was used to group the cities according to similar <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and relative humidity. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-mortality functions were calculated using B-splines to model the heat effect (lag 0) and the cold effect on mortality (moving average lags 1-5). The functions were then combined through meta-smoothing and subsequently analyzed by meta-regression. We identified eight clusters. At lag 0, Cluster 5 (West Coast) had a RR of 1.14 (95% CI: 1.11,1.17) for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of 27 °C vs 15.6 °C, and Cluster 6 (Gulf Coast) has a RR of 1.04 (95% CI: 1.03,1.05), suggesting that people are acclimated to their respective climates. Controlling for cluster effect in the multivariate-meta regression we found that across the US, the excess mortality from a 24-h <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 27 °C decreased over time from 10.6% to 0.9%. We found that the overall risk due to the heat effect is significantly affected by summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> mean and air condition usage, which could be a potential predictor in building climate-<span class="hlt">change</span> scenarios. PMID:25965185</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610086S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610086S"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition to simultaneous <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sierra, Carlos; Trumbore, Susan; Davidson, Eric; Vicca, Sara; Janssens, Ivan</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Soil organic matter decomposition depends on multiple factors that are being altered simultaneously as a result of global environmental <span class="hlt">change</span>. For this reason it is important to study the overall sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition with respect to multiple and interacting drivers. Here we present an analysis of the potential response of decomposition rates to simultaneous <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture. To address this problem, we first present a theoretical framework to study the sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition when multiple driving factors <span class="hlt">change</span> simultaneously. We then apply this framework to models and data at different levels of abstraction: 1) to a mechanistic model that addresses the limitation of enzyme activity by simultaneous effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and soil water content, the latter controlling substrate supply and oxygen concentration for microbial activity; 2) to different mathematical functions used to represent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture effects on decomposition in biogeochemical models. To contrast model predictions at these two levels of organization, we compiled different datasets of observed responses in field and laboratory studies. Then we applied our conceptual framework to: 3) observations of soil respiration at the ecosystem level; 4) laboratory experiments looking at the response of heterotrophic respiration to independent <span class="hlt">changes</span> in moisture and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>; and 5) ecosystem-level experiments manipulating soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and water content simultaneously. The combined theoretical and empirical evidence reviewed suggests: first, large uncertainties still remain regarding the combined controls of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture on decomposition rates, particularly at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and the extremes of the soil moisture range; second, the highest sensitivities of decomposition rates are likely in systems where <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture are high such as tropical peatlands, and at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> near the freezing point of water such as in soils under freeze-thaw cycles. These regions also exhibit the largest differences in projected <span class="hlt">changes</span> in decomposition rates among different models. Third, the lowest sensitivity of decomposition rates to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture is expected in soils with <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> well below the freezing point. Uncertainty in models can be reduced if some of the functions representing the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture on decomposition can be discredited based on empirical observations or experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4000386','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4000386"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploring potential mechanisms responsible for observed <span class="hlt">changes</span> of ultrasonic backscattered energy with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Xin; Ghoshal, Goutam; Lavarello, Roberto J.; Oelze, Michael L.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: Previous studies have provided the observation that the ultrasonic backscattered energy from a tissue region will <span class="hlt">change</span> due to a <span class="hlt">change</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The mechanism responsible for the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in backscattered energy (CBE) with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has been hypothesized to be from the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in scattering properties of local aqueous and lipid scatterers. An alternative mechanism is hypothesized here to be capable of producing similar CBE curves, i.e., <span class="hlt">changes</span> in speckle resulting from <span class="hlt">changes</span> in summation of scattered wavelets. Methods: Both simulations and experiments were conducted with a 5.5 MHz, 128-element linear array and synthetic and physical phantoms containing randomly spaced scatterers. The speckle pattern resulting from summation of scattered wavelets was <span class="hlt">changed</span> in simulations and experiments by directly increasing the background sound speed from 1520 to 1540 m/s, and <span class="hlt">changing</span> the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from 37 °C to 48 °C, respectively. Shifts in the backscattered signal were compensated using 2D cross-correlation techniques. Results: Excellent agreement between simulations and experiments was observed, with each pixel in the CBE images on average undergoing either a monotonic increase (up to 3.2 dB) or a monotonic decrease (down to −1.9 dB) with increasing sound speed or <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Similar CBE curves were also produced by shifting the image plane in the elevational and axial directions even after correcting for apparent motion. Conclusions: CBE curves were produced by <span class="hlt">changing</span> the sound speed or <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in tissue mimicking phantoms or by shifting the image plane in the elevational and axial directions and the production of these CBE curves did not require the presence of lipid and aqueous scatterers. PMID:24784401</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp....5W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp....5W"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional <span class="hlt">change</span> in snow water equivalent-surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> relationship over Eurasia during boreal spring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Renguang; Chen, Shangfeng</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Present study investigates local relationship between surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and snow water equivalent (SWE) <span class="hlt">change</span> over mid- and high-latitudes of Eurasia during boreal spring. Positive correlation is generally observed around the periphery of snow covered region, indicative of an effect of snow on surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. In contrast, negative correlation is usually found over large snow amount area, implying a response of snow <span class="hlt">change</span> to wind-induced surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies. With the seasonal retreat of snow covered region, region of positive correlation between SWE and surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> shifts northeastward from March to May. A diagnosis of surface heat flux anomalies in April suggests that the snow impact on surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is dominant in east Europe and west Siberia through modulating surface shortwave radiation. In contrast, atmospheric effect on SWE is important in Siberia and Russia Far East through wind-induced surface sensible heat flux <span class="hlt">change</span>. Further analysis reveals that atmospheric circulation anomalies in association with snowmelt over east Siberia may be partly attributed to sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies in the North Atlantic and the atmospheric circulation anomaly pattern associated with snowmelt over Russia Far East has a close association with the Arctic Oscillation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24550714','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24550714"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> of pulp chamber during in vitro laser welding of orthodontic attachments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Işman, Eren; Okşayan, Rıdvan; Sökücü, Oral; Üşümez, Serdar</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The use of lasers has been suggested for orthodontists to fabricate or repair orthodontic appliances by welding metals directly in the mouth. This work aimed to evaluate the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the pulp chamber during welding of an orthodontic wire to an orthodontic molar band using Nd : YAG laser in vitro. A freshly extracted human third molar with eliminated pulpal tissues was used. J-type thermocouple wire was positioned in the pulp chamber. A conductor gel was used in the transferring of outside <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> to the thermocouple wire. An orthodontic band was applied to the molar tooth and bonded using light cured orthodontic cement. Twenty five mm length of 0.6 mm diameter orthodontic stainless steel wires was welded to the orthodontic band using Nd : YAG laser operated at 9.4 watt. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> variation was determined as the <span class="hlt">change</span> from baseline <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to the highest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was recorded during welding. The recorded <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> were between 1.8 and 6.8°C (mean: 3.3±1.1°C). The reported critical 5.5°C level was exceeded in only one sample. The results of this study suggest that intraoral use of lasers holds great potential for the future of orthodontics and does not present a thermal risk. Further studies with larger samples and structural analysis are required. PMID:24550714</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033722','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033722"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> responses to land-use <span class="hlt">change</span> in the western United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kueppers, L.M.; Snyder, M.A.; Sloan, L.C.; Cayan, D.; Jin, J.; Kanamaru, H.; Kanamitsu, M.; Miller, N.L.; Tyree, Mary; Du, H.; Weare, B.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In the western United States, more than 79 000??km2 has been converted to irrigated agriculture and urban areas. These <span class="hlt">changes</span> have the potential to alter surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by modifying the energy budget at the land-atmosphere interface. This study reports the seasonally varying <span class="hlt">temperature</span> responses of four regional climate models (RCMs) - RSM, RegCM3, MM5-CLM3, and DRCM - to conversion of potential natural vegetation to modern land-cover and land-use over a 1-year period. Three of the RCMs supplemented soil moisture, producing large decreases in the August mean (- 1.4 to - 3.1????C) and maximum (- 2.9 to - 6.1????C) 2-m air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> where natural vegetation was converted to irrigated agriculture. Conversion to irrigated agriculture also resulted in large increases in relative humidity (9% to 36% absolute <span class="hlt">change</span>). Modeled <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the August minimum 2-m air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were not as pronounced or consistent across the models. Converting natural vegetation to urban land-cover produced less pronounced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects in all models, with the magnitude of the effect dependent upon the preexisting vegetation type and urban parameterizations. Overall, the RCM results indicate that the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> impacts of land-use <span class="hlt">change</span> are most pronounced during the summer months, when surface heating is strongest and differences in surface soil moisture between irrigated land and natural vegetation are largest. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3336117','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3336117"><span id="translatedtitle">Alternative Splicing Mediates Responses of the Arabidopsis Circadian Clock to <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Changes</span>[W</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>James, Allan B.; Syed, Naeem Hasan; Bordage, Simon; Marshall, Jacqueline; Nimmo, Gillian A.; Jenkins, Gareth I.; Herzyk, Pawel; Brown, John W.S.; Nimmo, Hugh G.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Alternative splicing plays crucial roles by influencing the diversity of the transcriptome and proteome and regulating protein structure/function and gene expression. It is widespread in plants, and alteration of the levels of splicing factors leads to a wide variety of growth and developmental phenotypes. The circadian clock is a complex piece of cellular machinery that can regulate physiology and behavior to anticipate predictable environmental <span class="hlt">changes</span> on a revolving planet. We have performed a system-wide analysis of alternative splicing in clock components in Arabidopsis thaliana plants acclimated to different steady state <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> or undergoing <span class="hlt">temperature</span> transitions. This revealed extensive alternative splicing in clock genes and dynamic <span class="hlt">changes</span> in alternatively spliced transcripts. Several of these <span class="hlt">changes</span>, notably those affecting the circadian clock genes LATE ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (LHY) and PSEUDO RESPONSE REGULATOR7, are <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent and contribute markedly to functionally important <span class="hlt">changes</span> in clock gene expression in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> transitions by producing nonfunctional transcripts and/or inducing nonsense-mediated decay. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> effects on alternative splicing contribute to a decline in LHY transcript abundance on cooling, but LHY promoter strength is not affected. We propose that <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-associated alternative splicing is an additional mechanism involved in the operation and regulation of the plant circadian clock. PMID:22408072</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3914460','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3914460"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Changes</span> of Pulp Chamber during In Vitro Laser Welding of Orthodontic Attachments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>??man, Eren; Ok?ayan, R?dvan; Skc, Oral; ?mez, Serdar</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The use of lasers has been suggested for orthodontists to fabricate or repair orthodontic appliances by welding metals directly in the mouth. This work aimed to evaluate the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the pulp chamber during welding of an orthodontic wire to an orthodontic molar band using Nd?:?YAG laser in vitro. A freshly extracted human third molar with eliminated pulpal tissues was used. J-type thermocouple wire was positioned in the pulp chamber. A conductor gel was used in the transferring of outside <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> to the thermocouple wire. An orthodontic band was applied to the molar tooth and bonded using light cured orthodontic cement. Twenty five mm length of 0.6?mm diameter orthodontic stainless steel wires was welded to the orthodontic band using Nd?:?YAG laser operated at 9.4?watt. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> variation was determined as the <span class="hlt">change</span> from baseline <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to the highest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was recorded during welding. The recorded <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> were between 1.8 and 6.8C (mean: 3.3??1.1C). The reported critical 5.5C level was exceeded in only one sample. The results of this study suggest that intraoral use of lasers holds great potential for the future of orthodontics and does not present a thermal risk. Further studies with larger samples and structural analysis are required. PMID:24550714</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2269725','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2269725"><span id="translatedtitle">A Simulation Model for Ultrasonic <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Imaging Using <span class="hlt">Change</span> in Backscattered Energy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Trobaugh, Jason W.; Arthur, R. Martin; Straube, William L.; Moros, Eduardo G.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Ultrasound backscattered from tissue has previously been shown theoretically and experimentally to <span class="hlt">change</span> predictably with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the hyperthermia range, i.e., 37 to 45C, motivating use of the <span class="hlt">change</span> in backscattered ultrasonic energy (CBE) for ultrasonic thermometry. Our earlier theoretical model predicts that CBE from an individual scatterer will be monotonic with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, with, e.g., positive <span class="hlt">change</span> for lipid-based scatterers and negative for aqueous-based scatterers. Experimental results have previously confirmed the presence of these positive and negative <span class="hlt">changes</span> in one-dimensional ultrasonic signals and in two-dimensional images acquired from in vitro bovine, porcine and turkey tissues. In order to investigate CBE for populations of scatterers, we have developed an ultrasonic image simulation model, including <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence for individual scatterers based on predictions from our theoretical model. CBE computed from images simulated for populations of randomly distributed scatterers behaves similarly to experimental results, with monotonic variation for individual pixel measurements and for image regions. Effects on CBE of scatterer type and distribution, size of the image region, and signal-to-noise ratio have been examined. This model also provides the basis for future work regarding significant issues relevant to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> imaging based on ultrasonic CBE such as effects of motion on CBE, limitations of motion-compensation techniques, and accuracy of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimation, including tradeoffs between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> accuracy and available spatial resolution. PMID:17935869</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3686262','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3686262"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Changes</span> in skin surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at an acupuncture point with moxibustion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lin, Li-Mei; Wang, Shu-Fang; Lee, Ru-Ping; Hsu, Bang-Gee; Tsai, Nu-Man; Peng, Tai-Chu</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Objective This study evaluates the thermographic <span class="hlt">changes</span> associated with moxa burner moxibustion at the SP6 acupuncture point to establish an appropriate, safe distance of efficacy for moxibustion. Methods Baseline <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> using a moxa burner were obtained for a paper substrate at various distances and times, and the tested with volunteers in a pilot study. A single-group trial was then conducted with 36 healthy women to monitor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> on the body surface at the acupuncture point (SP6). Results Based on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> seen for the paper substrate and in the pilot study, a distance of 3?cm was chosen as the intervention distance. Moxibustion significantly increased the SP6 point skin surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, with a peak increase of 11C at 4?min (p?<0.001). This study also found that during moxibustion the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the moxa burner's rubber layer and moxa cautery were 56.90.9C and 65.81.2C, as compared to baseline values of 35.1C and 43.8C (p<0.001). Conclusions We determined 3?cm was a safe distance between the moxa burner and acupuncture point. Moxibustion can increase the skin surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at the SP6 point. This data will aid traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practitioners in gauging safer treatment distances when using moxibustion treatments. PMID:23598824</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035357','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035357"><span id="translatedtitle">A century of climate and ecosystem <span class="hlt">change</span> in Western Montana: What do <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends portend?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Pederson, G.T.; Graumlich, L.J.; Fagre, D.B.; Kipfer, T.; Muhlfeld, C.C.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The physical science linking human-induced increases in greenhouse gasses to the warming of the global climate system is well established, but the implications of this warming for ecosystem processes and services at regional scales is still poorly understood. Thus, the objectives of this work were to: (1) describe rates of <span class="hlt">change</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> averages and extremes for western Montana, a region containing sensitive resources and ecosystems, (2) investigate associations between Montana <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> to hemispheric and global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, (3) provide climate analysis tools for land and resource managers responsible for researching and maintaining renewable resources, habitat, and threatened/endangered species and (4) integrate our findings into a more general assessment of climate impacts on ecosystem processes and services over the past century. Over 100 years of daily and monthly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data collected in western Montana, USA are analyzed for long-term <span class="hlt">changes</span> in seasonal averages and daily extremes. In particular, variability and trends in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> above or below ecologically and socially meaningful thresholds within this region (e.g., -17.8??C (0??F), 0??C (32??F), and 32.2??C (90??F)) are assessed. The daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series reveal extremely cold days (??? -17.8??C) terminate on average 20 days earlier and decline in number, whereas extremely hot days (???32??C) show a three-fold increase in number and a 24-day increase in seasonal window during which they occur. Results show that regionally important thresholds have been exceeded, the most recent of which include the timing and number of the 0??C freeze/thaw <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during spring and fall. Finally, we close with a discussion on the implications for Montana's ecosystems. Special attention is given to critical processes that respond non-linearly as <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> exceed critical thresholds, and have positive feedbacks that amplify the <span class="hlt">changes</span>. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3863578','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3863578"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dangers</span> and opportunities for social media in medicine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>George, Daniel R.; Rovniak, Liza S.; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Health professionals have begun using social media to benefit patients, enhance professional networks, and advance understanding of individual and contextual factors influencing public health. However, discussion of the <span class="hlt">dangers</span> of these technologies in medicine has overwhelmed consideration of positive applications. This article summarizes the hazards of social media in medicine and explores how <span class="hlt">changes</span> in functionality on sites like Facebook may make these technologies less perilous for health professionals. Finally, it describes the most promising avenues through which professionals can use social media in medicine improving patient communication, enhancing professional development, and contributing to public health research and service. PMID:23903375</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3288523','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3288523"><span id="translatedtitle">A <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-Dependent Conformational <span class="hlt">Change</span> of NADH Oxidase from Thermus thermophilus HB8</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Merkley, Eric D.; Daggett, Valerie; Parson, William W.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Using molecular dynamics simulations and steady-state fluorescence spectroscopy, we have identified a conformational <span class="hlt">change</span> in the active site of a thermophilic flavoenzyme, NADH oxidase from Thermus thermophilus HB8 (NOX). The enzymes far-UV circular dichroism spectrum, intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence, and apparent molecular weight measured by dynamic light scattering varied little between 25 and 75 C. However, the fluorescence of the tightly bound FAD cofactor increased ~4-fold over this <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range. This effect appears not to be due to aggregation, unfolding, cofactor dissociation, or <span class="hlt">changes</span> in quaternary structure. We therefore attribute the <span class="hlt">change</span> in flavin fluorescence to a <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent conformational <span class="hlt">change</span> involving the NOX active site. Molecular dynamics simulations and the effects of mutating aromatic residues near the flavin suggest that the <span class="hlt">change</span> in fluorescence results from a decrease in quenching by electron transfer from tyrosine 137 to the flavin. PMID:22081476</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20571150','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20571150"><span id="translatedtitle">Global climate <span class="hlt">change</span> and tree nutrition: effects of elevated CO2 and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lukac, Martin; Calfapietra, Carlo; Lagomarsino, Alessandra; Loreto, Francesco</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Although tree nutrition has not been the primary focus of large climate <span class="hlt">change</span> experiments on trees, we are beginning to understand its links to elevated atmospheric CO? and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>. This review focuses on the major nutrients, namely N and P, and deals with the effects of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on the processes that alter their cycling and availability. Current knowledge regarding biotic and abiotic agents of weathering, mobilization and immobilization of these elements will be discussed. To date, controlled environment studies have identified possible effects of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on tree nutrition. Only some of these findings, however, were verified in ecosystem scale experiments. Moreover, to be able to predict future effects of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on tree nutrition at this scale, we need to progress from studying effects of single factors to analysing interactions between factors such as elevated CO?, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> or water availability. PMID:20571150</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9221G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9221G"><span id="translatedtitle">Decreasing sensitivity of permafrost <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to environmental <span class="hlt">change</span> challenges monitoring and data interpretation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gruber, S.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Permafrost is sensitive to climate <span class="hlt">change</span> and yet, more and more boreholes have nearly unchanging <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. This is a known effect of phase <span class="hlt">change</span> that has important consequences for the communication of monitoring results and for the planning of monitoring activities. Publications, prominently including those resulting from the IPY Thermal State of Permafrost Snapshot, show many examples of near-isothermal boreholes. Near-isothermal here refers to the shape of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-depth profiles and to weak seasonal and inter-annual variation due to phase <span class="hlt">change</span>. Using a mean annual ground <span class="hlt">temperature</span> little below 0C as an indicator and Version 1 of the IPA-IPY Thermal State of Permafrost Snapshot Borehole Inventory, one can estimate an approximate proportion of boreholes that are or may soon become isothermal. After removing boreholes flagged as having no permafrost or with above-zero or missing MAGT, 559 locations remain. Of those, 62% are warmer than -2C, 45% warmer than -1C, and 29% warmer than -0.5C. The properties of warming permafrost near 0C are investigated based on simple model experiments that approximate freezing characteristic curves as a function of soil texture. Ground <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are considered to be a measure of two important phenomena: (a) the uptake of heat from the atmosphere, and (b) the <span class="hlt">change</span> of liquid water content due to thaw that causes altered physical properties of the subsurface and often emergent geomorphic phenomena such as thermokarst or subsidence. In the experiments, the gradual and often sustained loss of sensitivity of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements to reveal those phenomena is demonstrated. Isothermal boreholes in permafrost are a clear indicator of drastic <span class="hlt">change</span> in the subsurface. Near the melting point of water, <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in soil only have a strongly reduced value for monitoring the real phenomena of interest and forward-looking strategies for monitoring environmental <span class="hlt">change</span> should account for the foreseeable <span class="hlt">change</span> of character of many current boreholes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.tmp..333J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.tmp..333J"><span id="translatedtitle">Historical and potential <span class="hlt">changes</span> of precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of Alberta subjected to climate <span class="hlt">change</span> impact: 1900-2100</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jiang, Rengui; Gan, Thian Yew; Xie, Jiancang; Wang, Ni; Kuo, Chun-Chao</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>We investigated <span class="hlt">changes</span> to precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of Alberta for historical and future periods. First, the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope were used to test for historical trends and trend magnitudes from the climate data of Alberta, respectively. Second, the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) (A1B, A2, and B1) of CMIP3 (Phase 3 of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project), projected by seven general circulation models (GCM) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> (IPCC) for three 30 years periods (2020s, 2050s, and 2080s), were used to evaluate the potential impact of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of Alberta. Third, trends of projected precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were investigated, and differences between historical versus projected trends were estimated. Using the 50-km resolution dataset from CANGRD (Canadian Grid Climate Data), we found that Alberta had become warmer and somewhat drier for the past 112 years (1900-2011), especially in central and southern Alberta. For observed precipitation, upward trends mainly occurred in northern Alberta and at the leeward side of Canadian Rocky Mountains. However, only about 13 to 22 % of observed precipitation showed statistically significant increasing trends at 5 % significant level. Most observed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> showed significant increasing trends, up to 0.05 C/year in DJF (December, January, and February) in northern Alberta. GCMs' SRES projections indicated that seasonal precipitation of Alberta could <span class="hlt">change</span> from -25 to 36 %, while the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> would increase from 2020s to 2080s, with the largest increase (6.8 C) in DJF. In all 21 GCM-SRES cases considered, precipitation in both DJF and MAM (March, April, and May) is projected to increase, while <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is consistently projected to increase in all seasons, which generally agree with the trends of historical precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The SRES A1B scenario of CCSM3 might project more realistic future climate for Alberta, where its water resources can become more critical in the future as its streamflow is projected to decrease continually in the future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H13H1451S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.H13H1451S"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of River Runoff in Bhutan to <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Precipitation and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sonessa, M. Y.; Nijssen, B.; Dorji, C.; Wangmo, D.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Richey, J. E.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>In the past decades there has been increasing concern about the potential effects of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on runoff and water resources all over the world under different conditions. Various studies have indicated that climate <span class="hlt">change</span> will have an impact on runoff and stream flow. Bhutan is one of the countries in the Hindu Kush-Himalayan region which shows more warming than the global average. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, a macroscale hydrological model, was used to assess the hydrology of the country and the potential impacts of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on water availability. Precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were perturbed to study the runoff sensitivity to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">changes</span>. The VIC model was run at 1/24 latitude-longitude resolution. The modeled mean annual runoff elasticity which measures fractional <span class="hlt">change</span> in annual runoff divided by fractional <span class="hlt">change</span> in annual precipitation ranges from 1.08 to 2.16. The elasticity value is lower for higher reference precipitations and vice versa. The runoff sensitivity to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> represents the percentage <span class="hlt">change</span> in annual runoff per 1C <span class="hlt">change</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Runoff sensitivities are negative and range from -1.36%/C to -1.70%/C. Spatially, both greater elasticity and sensitivity occur towards the northern part of the country where elevation is more than 5000 m above sea level. Based on the coupled model inter-comparison project phase five (CMIP5) average model results, both precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are predicted to increase in Bhutan in the 21st century. Annually, P is expected to increase by 0.45 to 8.7% under RCP4.5 emission scenario and 1.95 to 14.26% under RCP8.5 emission. The mean annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increment ranges from +1.1 to +2.6C under RCP4.5 and +1.2 to +4.5C under RCP8.5 emission scenario. These <span class="hlt">changes</span> in precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are expected to result in runoff <span class="hlt">changes</span> ranging from -1.0 to +14.3% and +2.2 to +23.1% increments under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 emission scenarios, respectively, with the increment getting bigger towards the end of the century. Keywords: Climate <span class="hlt">change</span>; runoff elasticity; runoff sensitivity; Bhutan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26323334','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26323334"><span id="translatedtitle">Proteomic <span class="hlt">changes</span> in rice leaves grown under open field high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Das, Smruti; Krishnan, P; Mishra, Vagish; Kumar, Ritesh; Ramakrishnan, B; Singh, N K</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The interactive effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with other climatic and soil factors has profound influences on the growth and development of rice. The responses of rice to high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> under field conditions are more important than those under the controlled conditions. To understand the genes associated with high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress response in general and tolerance in particular, the expression of all those genes associated with adaptation and tolerance in rice requires proteomic analysis. High <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress-tolerant cv. N22 was subjected to 28/18 C (control) and 42/32 C (high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress) at flowering stage. The plants were grown in the field under the free air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increment condition. The proteomic <span class="hlt">changes</span> in rice leaves due to high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress were discussed. The proteomes of leaves had about 3000 protein spots, reproducibly detected on 2-dimensional electrophoretic gels with 573 proteins differentially expressed between the control and the high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatments. Putative physiological functions suggested five categories such as growth (15.4%), heat shock proteins (7.7%), regulatory proteins (26.9%), redox homeostasis proteins (11.5%) and energy and metabolism (38.5%) related proteins. The results of the present study suggest that cv. N22, an agronomically recognized <span class="hlt">temperature</span> tolerant rice cultivar copes with high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress in a complex manner. Several functional proteins play important roles in its responses. The predicted climate <span class="hlt">change</span> events necessitate more studies using this cultivar under different simulated ecological conditions to identify proteomic <span class="hlt">changes</span> and the associated genes to be used as biomarkers and to gain a better understanding on the biochemical pathways involved in tolerance. PMID:26323334</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10176177','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10176177"><span id="translatedtitle">Hanford facility <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> waste permit application, 616 Nonradioactive <span class="hlt">Dangerous</span> Waste Storage Facility. Revision 2A</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bowman, R.C.</p> <p>1994-04-01</p> <p>This permit application for the 616 Nonradioactive <span class="hlt">Dangerous</span> Waste Storage Facility consists for 15 chapters. Topics of discussion include the following: facility description and general provisions; waste characteristics; process information; personnel training; reporting and record keeping; and certification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HESS...19.3093F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015HESS...19.3093F"><span id="translatedtitle">Attribution of European precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in synoptic circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fleig, A. K.; Tallaksen, L. M.; James, P.; Hisdal, H.; Stahl, K.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Surface climate in Europe is <span class="hlt">changing</span> and patterns in trends have been found to vary at sub-seasonal scales. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of these <span class="hlt">changes</span> across space and time by analysing to what degree observed climatic trends can be attributed to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in synoptic atmospheric circulation. The relative importance of synoptic circulation <span class="hlt">changes</span> (i.e. trends in synoptic type frequencies) as opposed to trends in the hydrothermal properties of synoptic types (within-type trends) on precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends in Europe is assessed on a monthly basis. The study is based on mapping spatial and temporal trend patterns and their variability at a relatively high resolution (0.5 0.5; monthly) across Europe. Gridded precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data (1963-2001) originate from the Watch Forcing Data set and synoptic types are defined by the objective SynopVis Grosswetterlagen (SVG). During the study period, relatively high influence of synoptic circulation <span class="hlt">changes</span> are found from January to March, contributing to wetting trends in northern Europe and drying in the south. Simultaneously, particularly dry synoptic types get warmer first in south-western Europe in November and/or December and affect most of Europe in March and/or April. Strong influence of synoptic circulation <span class="hlt">changes</span> is again found in June and August. In general, <span class="hlt">changes</span> in synoptic circulation has a stronger effect on climate trends in north-western Europe than in the south-east. The exact locations of the strongest influence of synoptic circulation <span class="hlt">changes</span> vary with the time of year and to some degree between precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Throughout the year and across the whole of Europe, precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends are caused by a combination of synoptic circulation <span class="hlt">changes</span> and within-type <span class="hlt">changes</span> with their relative influence varying between regions, months and climate variables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19371450','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19371450"><span id="translatedtitle">A re-evaluation of the impact of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on foodborne illness.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lake, I R; Gillespie, I A; Bentham, G; Nichols, G L; Lane, C; Adak, G K; Threlfall, E J</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>The effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on reported cases of a number of foodborne illnesses in England and Wales were investigated. We also explored whether the impact of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> had <span class="hlt">changed</span> over time. Food poisoning, campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, Salmonella Typhimurium infections and Salmonella Enteritidis infections were positively associated (P<0.01) with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the current and previous week. Only food poisoning, salmonellosis and S. Typhimurium infections were associated with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> 2-5 weeks previously (P<0.01). There were significant reductions also in the impact of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on foodborne illnesses over time. This applies to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the current and previous week for all illness types (P<0.01) except S. Enteritidis infection (P=0.079). <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> 2-5 weeks previously diminished in importance for food poisoning and S. Typhimurium infection (P<0.001). The results are consistent with reduced pathogen concentrations in food and improved food hygiene over time. These adaptations to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> imply that current estimates of how climate <span class="hlt">change</span> may alter foodborne illness burden are overly pessimistic. PMID:19371450</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70048621','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70048621"><span id="translatedtitle">The effects of elevated water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on native juvenile mussels: implications for climate <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ganser, Alissa M.; Newton, Teresa J.; Haro, Roger J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Native freshwater mussels are a diverse but imperiled fauna and may be especially sensitive to increasing water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> because many species already may be living near their upper thermal limits. We tested the hypothesis that elevated water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (20, 25, 30, and 35°C) adversely affected the survival and physiology of 2-mo-old juvenile mussels (Lampsilis abrupta, Lampsilis siliquoidea, and Megalonaias nervosa) in 28-d laboratory experiments. The 28-d LT50s (lethal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> affecting 50% of the population) ranged from 25.3 to 30.3°C across species, and were lowest for L. abrupta and L. siliquoidea. Heart rate of L. siliquoidea was not affected by <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, but heart rate declined at higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in L. abrupta and M. nervosa. However, for both of these species, heart rate also declined steadily during the experiment and a strong <span class="hlt">temperature</span> × time interaction was detected. Juvenile growth was low for all species in all treatments and did not respond directly to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, but growth of some species responded to a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> × time interaction. Responses to thermal stress differed among species, but potential laboratory artifacts may limit applicability of these results to real-world situations. Environmentally relevant estimates of upper thermal tolerances in native mussels are urgently needed to assess the extent of assemblage <span class="hlt">changes</span> that can be expected in response to global climate <span class="hlt">change</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070017413&hterms=differences&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Ddifferences','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070017413&hterms=differences&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Ddifferences"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of AIRS, MODIS, and HIRS 11 Micron Brightness <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Difference <span class="hlt">Changes</span> from 2002 through 2006</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Broberg, Steven E.; Aumann, Hartmut H.; Gregorich, David T.; Xiong, X.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>In an effort to validate the accuracy and stability of AIRS data at low scene <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (200-250 K range), we evaluated brightness <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at 11 microns with Aqua MODIS band 31 and HIRS/3 channel 8 for Antarctic granules between September 2002 and May 2006. We found excellent agreement with MODIS (at the 0.2 K level) over the full emperature range in data from early in the Aqua mission. However, in more recent data, starting in April 2005, we found a scene <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence in MODIS-AIRS brightness <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences, with a discrepancy of 1- 1.5 K at 200 K. The comparison between AIRS and HIRS/3 (channel 8) on NOAA 16 for the same time period yields excellent agreement. The cause and time dependence of the disagreement with MODIS is under evaluation, but the <span class="hlt">change</span> was coincident with a <span class="hlt">change</span> in the MODIS production software from collection 4 to 5.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC23C0958M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC23C0958M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Snowmelt Runoff Timing: Potential Implications for Stream <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Native Salmonid Habitat</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>MacDonald, R.; Boon, S.; Byrne, J. M.; Silins, U.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Atmospheric warming is expected to maintain the trend towards an earlier onset of spring snowmelt across western North America in the future. An advanced spring streamflow peak has important implications for aquatic ecosystems, particularly cold-water salmonids that are sensitive to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in stream hydrological and thermal regimes. We tested stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity to atmospheric warming scenarios in a headwater catchment on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains by applying a process-based hydrometeorological and stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> model. We used a field study in three thermally and hydrologically distinct catchments to provide context for modelling. Results indicate that stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity to atmospheric warming is variable and corresponds with <span class="hlt">changes</span> in streamflow. Predictions of lower spring, higher summer and fall, and lower winter stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are consistent with field study results. This analysis suggests the thermal habitat of native salmonids could become less suitable under future climatic conditions, favouring non-native species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212403P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212403P"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and its consequences for drinking water production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peailillo Burgos, Reinaldo; Boderie, Pascal; Rijk, Sacha; Loos, Sibren</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The average water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the Rhine at Lobith has increased in the past hundred years by 3?C, as a result of thermal discharges and climate <span class="hlt">change</span>. Also, a growing trend in the number of days per year that the water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reaches values above 25C is observed, exceeding the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> standard for drinking water production as imposed by the European Drinking Water Directive. During the heat wave of 2006, the water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at Lobith increased above 25C during almost the entire month of July. Besides the risks for the production of drinking water, this limits the potential for the cooling capacities of the water for the industrial and energy sectors. The main objective of this study is providing insight into the <span class="hlt">change</span> of water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Dutch main rivers caused by climate <span class="hlt">change</span> and the consequences for the drinking water production at selected intake sites. Two KNMI'06 climate scenarios (W and W+) based on a global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise of 2?C, were applied to the Dutch <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Model (DTM) to simulate the water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> around 2050 relative to the current situation (1970-2000). The DTM is a SOBEK River application and appropriate for calculating the regional effects of the natural warming and the warming due to cooling water discharges on the daily water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of Dutch rivers. According to the analysis of model results, more days with a higher water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are expected for both scenarios around 2050 in comparison with the current situation. In the most extreme scenario (W+) the inter-annual variation of water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> will be higher. In the Rhine and in the Meuse, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise in winter will be about 2.1C and will reach values above 2.5C in the summer months at the selected locations. At all intake sites for the water supply the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> standard is exceeded in the current situation in less than 0.5% of the time (2 days). For the W and W+ scenarios the predicted duration of exceeding the drinking water standard at the site with the highest increase is 5 and 11 days, respectively. In these cases, only measures such as cooling between intake and final product in reservoirs or a temporary intake stop may prevent exceeding the legal standard.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26046269','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26046269"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and beverage on mechanical and tribological properties of dental restorative composites.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ayatollahi, M R; Yahya, Mohd Yazid; Karimzadeh, A; Nikkhooyifar, M; Ayob, Amran</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and immersion in two common beverages on the mechanical and tribological properties for three different types of dental restorative materials. Thermocycling procedure was performed for simulating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in oral conditions. Black tea and soft drink were considered for beverages. Universal composite, universal nanohybrid composite and universal nanofilled composite, were used as dental materials. The nanoindentation and nanoscratch experiments were utilized to determine the elastic modulus, hardness, plasticity index and wear resistance of the test specimens. The results showed that thermocycling and immersion in each beverage had different effects on the tested dental materials. The mechanical and tribological properties of nanohybrid composite and nanocomposite were less sensitive to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and to immersion in beverages in comparison with those of the conventional dental composite. PMID:26046269</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43..812D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43..812D"><span id="translatedtitle">Midlatitude daily summer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> reshaped by soil moisture under climate <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Douville, H.; Colin, J.; Krug, E.; Cattiaux, J.; Thao, S.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Projected <span class="hlt">changes</span> in daily <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are highly model dependent, particularly in the summer midlatitudes where the spread in the response of heat waves represents a major obstacle for the design of adaptation strategies. Understanding the main reasons for such uncertainties is obviously a research priority. Here we use a set of global atmospheric simulations to assess the contribution of the soil moisture feedback to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the full distribution of daily maximum summer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> projected in the late 21st century. Results show that this feedback (i) accounts for up to one third of the mean increase in daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, (ii) dominates <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the shape of the distribution, and (iii) explains about half of the increase in the severity of heat waves over densely populated areas of the northern midlatitudes. A dedicated intercomparison project is therefore needed to assess and constrain land surface feedbacks in the new generation Earth System Models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2859956','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2859956"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on acid-base regulation in skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) blood.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Perry, S F; Daxboeck, C; Emmett, B; Hochachka, P W; Brill, R W</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> (in vitro) on acid-base balance of skipjack tuna blood were investigated. By examining the relationship between blood pH and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (in vitro) under conditions of constant CO2 tension (open system), it was observed that dpH/dT = -0.013 U/degrees C. This value falls well within the range of in vivo values reported for other ectothermic vertebrates, and is only slightly different than results obtained in vitro under conditions of constant CO2 content (closed system; dpH/dT = -0.0165 U/degrees C). It is concluded that <span class="hlt">changes</span> in pH following <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> can be accounted for solely by the passive, in vitro behaviour of the chemical buffer system found in the blood, so that active regulatory mechanisms of pH adjustment need not be postulated for skipjack tuna. PMID:2859956</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT........87D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PhDT........87D"><span id="translatedtitle">Projected <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in the Annual Cycle of Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation Due to Greenhouse Gas Increases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dwyer, John G.</p> <p></p> <p>When forced with increasing greenhouse gases, global climate models project <span class="hlt">changes</span> to the seasonality of several key climate variables. These include delays in the phase of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, precipitation, and vertical motion indicating maxima and minima occurring later in the year. The <span class="hlt">changes</span> also include an increase in the amplitude (or annual range) of low-latitude surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and tropical precipitation and a decrease in the amplitude of high-latitude surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and vertical motion. The aim of this thesis is to detail these <span class="hlt">changes</span>, understand the links between them and ultimately relate them to simple physical mechanisms. At high latitudes, all of the global climate models of the CMIP3 intercomparison suite project a phase delay and amplitude decrease in surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Evidence is provided that the <span class="hlt">changes</span> are mainly driven by sea ice loss: as sea ice melts during the 21st century, the previously unexposed open ocean increases the effective heat capacity of the surface layer, slowing and damping the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response at the surface. In the tropics and subtropics, <span class="hlt">changes</span> in phase and amplitude are smaller and less spatially uniform than near the poles, but they are still prevalent in the models. These regions experience a small phase delay, but an amplitude increase of the surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cycle, a combination that is inconsistent with <span class="hlt">changes</span> to the effective heat capacity of the system. Evidence suggests that <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the tropics and subtropics are linked to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in surface heat fluxes. The next chapter investigates the nature of the projected phase delay and amplitude increase of precipitation using AGCM experiments forced by SST perturbations representing idealizations of the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in annual mean, amplitude, and phase as simulated by CMIP5 models. A uniform SST warming is sufficient to force both an amplification and a delay of the annual cycle of precipitation. The amplification is due to an increase in the annual mean vertical water vapor gradient, while the delay is linked to a phase delay in the annual cycle of the circulation. A budget analysis of this simulation reveals a large degree of similarity with the CMIP5 results. In the second experiment, only the seasonal characteristics of SST are <span class="hlt">changed</span>. For an amplified annual cycle of SST there is an amplified annual cycle of precipitation, while for a delayed SST there is a delayed annual cycle of precipitation. Assuming that SST <span class="hlt">changes</span> can entirely explain the seasonal precipitation <span class="hlt">changes</span>, the AGCM simulations suggest that the annual mean warming explains most of the amplitude increase and much of the phase delay in the CMIP5 models. However, imperfect agreement between the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the SST-forced AGCM simulations and the CMIP5 coupled simulations suggests that coupled effects may play a significant role. Finally, the connections between <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the seasonality of precipitation, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and circulation are studied in the tropics using models of varying complexity. These models include coupled model simulations with idealized forcing, a simple, semi-empirical model to describe the effect of land-ocean interactions, an aquaplanet model, and a dry, dynamical model. Each gives insights into the projected CMIP <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Taken together they suggest that <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the amplitude of vertical motions are consistent with a weakening of the annual mean circulation and can explain part of the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the amplitude of precipitation over both ocean and land, when combined with the thermodynamic effect described previously. By increasing the amplitude of the annual cycle of surface winds, the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in circulation may also increase the amplitude of the surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> via the surface energy balance. The delay in the phase of circulation directly leads to a delay in the phase of precipitation, especially over ocean.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3174G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3174G"><span id="translatedtitle">Kamchatkan Volcanoes Explosive Eruptions in 2014 and <span class="hlt">Danger</span> to Aviation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Girina, Olga; Manevich, Alexander; Melnikov, Dmitry; Demyanchuk, Yury; Nuzhdaev, Anton; Petrova, Elena</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>There are 30 active volcanoes in the Kamchatka, and several of them are continuously active. In 2014, three of the Kamchatkan volcanoes - Sheveluch, Karymsky and Zhupanovsky - had strong and moderate explosive eruptions. Moderate gas-steam activity was observing of Klyuchevskoy, Bezymianny, Avachinsky, Koryaksky, Gorely, Mutnovsky and other volcanoes. Strong explosive eruption of volcanoes is the most <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> for aircraft because in a few hours or days in the atmosphere and the stratosphere can produce about several cubic kilometers of volcanic ash and aerosols. Ash plumes and the clouds, depending on the power of the eruption, the strength and wind speed, can travel thousands of kilometers from the volcano for several days, remaining hazardous to aircraft, as the melting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of small particles of ash below the operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of jet engines. The eruptive activity of Sheveluch Volcano began since 1980 (growth of the lava dome) and is continuing at present. Strong explosive events of the volcano occurred in 2014: on January 08 and 12, May 12, September 24, October 02 and 28, November 16, 22 and 26, and December 05, 17, 26 and 29: ash plumes rose up to 9-12 km a.s.l. and extended more 900 km to the eastern and western directions of the volcano. Ashfalls occurred at Klyuchi Village (on January 12, June 11, and November 16). Activity of the volcano was <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> to international and local aviation. Karymsky volcano has been in a state of explosive eruption since 1996. The moderate ash explosions of this volcano were noting during 2014: from March 24 till April 02; and from September 03 till December 10. Ash plumes rose up to 5 km a.s.l. and extended more 300 km mainly to the eastern directions of the volcano. Activity of the volcano was <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> to local aviation. Explosive eruption of Zhupanovsky volcano began on June 06, 2014 and continues in January 2015 too. Ash explosions rose up to 8-10 km a.s.l. on June 19, September 05 and 07, October 11, November 07 and 22; in the other days - up to 5-6 km a.s.l. Ash plumes extended for about 1000 km mainly to the eastern directions of the volcano. Ashfalls occurred at Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky on September 07. Activity of the volcano was <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> to international and local aviation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018765','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018765"><span id="translatedtitle">Large arctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> at the Wisconsin-Holocene glacial transition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cuffey, Kurt M.; Clow, G.D.; Alley, R.B.; Stuiver, M.; Waddington, E.D.; Saltus, R.W.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Analysis of borehole <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and Greenland Ice Sheet Project II ice-core isotopic composition reveals that the warming from average glacial conditions to the Holocene in central Greenland was large, approximately 15??C. This is at least three times the coincident <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in the tropics and mid-latitudes. The coldest periods of the last glacial were probably 21??C colder than at present over the Greenland ice sheet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/183569','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/183569"><span id="translatedtitle">Large arctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> at the Wisconsin-Holocene glacial transition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cuffey, K.M.; Clow, G.D.; Alley, R.B.</p> <p>1995-10-20</p> <p>Analysis of borehole <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and Greenland Ice Sheet Project II ice-core isotopic composition reveals that the warming from average glacial conditions to the Holocene in central Greenland was large, approximately 15{degrees}C. This is at least three times the coincident <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in the tropics and mid-latitudes. The coldest periods of the last glacial were probably 21{degrees}C colder than at present over the Greenland ice sheet. 47 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7417B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.7417B"><span id="translatedtitle">Statistical downscaling of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes in the Mediterranean area under future climate <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beck, Alexander; Hertig, Elke; Jacobeit, Jucundus</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Statistical approaches are developed to estimate parameters of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> in the Mediterranean area with a focus on non-stationarities arising in the relationship between regional climate variables and their large-scale predictors. Hereby particular attention is paid to the analysis of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes which affect many components of the geosystem and therefore are of particular interest in the scope of future climate <span class="hlt">change</span>. The E-OBS dataset (Haylock et al., 2008) delivers gridded data of the maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on a daily basis for the period from January 1950 till December 2012 with a spatial resolution of 0.25 x 0.25. In order to analyze the data of different regions, a principal component analysis is performed and the representative grid box, i.e. the grid box with the highest loading, is separated for every principal component. The daily 95%-percentile for every month and season is computed. Additionally, time series with 5 consecutive days exceeding the 95%-percentiles were generated. Furthermore, extreme value distributions like the generalized pareto distribution (GPD) are fitted to the time series. Non-stationarities in the predictors-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> relationships are analyzed in the percentile-based time series as well as in the parameters of the extreme value distribution. In addition to the analysis of the extreme part of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution, analyses will concentrate on the whole distribution in order to get a more complete idea regarding <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the Mediterranean area. This is achieved by fitting mixture models to the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data. Subsequently, a perfect prog downscaling approach is used to to assess future <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> under enhanced greenhouse gas conditions. Haylock, M. R., N. Hofstra, A. M. G. Klein Tank, E. J. Klok, P. D. Jones, and M. New (2008), A European daily high-resolution gridded data set of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation for 1950 - 2006, J. Geophys. Res., 113, D20119, doi:10.1029/2008JD010201.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP44A..02M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP44A..02M"><span id="translatedtitle">The structure of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> across mid-latitude North America over the Holocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marsicek, J.; Brewer, S.; Foster, D. R.; Oswald, W.; Shuman, B. N.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Lake-level, isotope, and fossil pollen data highlight abrupt <span class="hlt">changes</span> during the Holocene in mid-latitude North America, but associated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in this region have not been well constrained. Here we generate a new summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstruction by applying the modern analog technique to a transect of 16 highly-resolved fossil pollen records from North Dakota to Maine. We infer pronounced cooling of ~0.4C in the regional mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> history at ca. 5.8-5.0 ka coincident with millennial-scale effective-moisture anomalies indicated by aeolian-activity and lake-level <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Individual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstructions and sub-regional averages reveal that the <span class="hlt">changes</span> span multiple biomes (pollen assemblages) with more pronounced cooling in the west (Minnesota, Iowa) than at sites in the northeastern U.S. (Massachusetts). At 5.0 ka, inferred <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients rapidly shifted in response to warming of >0.7C at sites from Ontario, New York, and inland Massachusetts, and cooling of 0.2-2.7C along the northeast coast and west of the Great Lakes. Insolation, the area of the Laurentide Ice sheet, and a record of North Atlantic Deep Water production explain 77% of the variance in the mean reconstruction, and indicate that dynamical linkages between the continent and North Atlantic may underlie the reconstructed abrupt <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Overall, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> inferences highlight the importance of abrupt centennial and millennial-scale <span class="hlt">changes</span> even after the end of major ice-meltwater-ocean interactions at ca. 8.2 ka, and indicate that other external forcing or intrinsic climate variability also shaped mid-latitude Holocene climate history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014HESSD..1112799F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014HESSD..1112799F"><span id="translatedtitle">Attribution of European precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in circulation types</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fleig, A. K.; Tallaksen, L. M.; James, P.; Hisdal, H.; Stahl, K.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Surface climate in Europe is <span class="hlt">changing</span> and patterns in trends have been found to vary at sub-seasonal scales. This study aims to contribute to a better understanding of these <span class="hlt">changes</span> across space and time by analysing to what degree observed climatic trends can be attributed to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in atmospheric circulation. The relative importance of circulation <span class="hlt">changes</span> (i.e. trends in circulation type frequencies) as opposed to trends in the hydrothermal properties of circulation types (within-type trends) on precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends in Europe is assessed on a monthly basis. Gridded precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data originate from the Watch Forcing Dataset and circulation types (CTs) are defined by the objective SynopVis Grosswetterlagen. Relatively high influence of circulation <span class="hlt">changes</span> are found from January to March, contributing to wetting trends in northern Europe and drying in the South. Simultaneously, in particular dry CTs get warmer first in south-western Europe in November/December and affecting most of Europe in March/April. Strong influence of circulation <span class="hlt">changes</span> is again found in June and August. In general, circulation influence affects climate trends in north-western Europe stronger than the South-East. The exact locations of the strongest influence of circulation <span class="hlt">changes</span> vary with time of the year and to some degree between precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Throughout the year and across the whole of Europe, precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends are caused by a combination of circulation <span class="hlt">changes</span> and within-type <span class="hlt">changes</span> with their relative influence varying between regions, months and climate variables.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B23K0144P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B23K0144P"><span id="translatedtitle">Response of Soil <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> to Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> in the CMIP5 Earth System Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Phillips, C. L.; Torn, M. S.; Koven, C. D.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Predictions of soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> are as critical to policy development and climate <span class="hlt">change</span> adaptation as predictions of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, but have received comparatively little attention. Soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> determines seed germination and growth of wild and agricultural plants, and impacts climate through both geophysical and carbon-cycle feedbacks. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> 5th Assessment Report does not report soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> predictions, but focuses instead on surface air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, despite the fact that mean annual soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and mean surface air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are often different from each other. Here we aim to fill this important knowledge gap by reporting soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture predictions for 15 earth system models (ESMs) that participated in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison 5 Project (CMIP5). Under the RCP 4.5 and 8.5 emissions scenarios, soil warming is predicted to almost keep pace with soil air warming, with about 10% less warming in soil than air, globally. The slower warming of soil compared to air is likely related to predictions of soil drying, with drier soils having reduced soil heat capacity and thermal conductivity. Mollisol soils, which are typically regarded as the most productive soil order for cultivating cereal crops, are anticipated to see warming in North America of 3.5 to 5.5 °C at the end of the 21st century (2080-2100) compared to 1986-2005. One impact of soil warming is likely to be an acceleration of germination timing, with the 3°C <span class="hlt">temperature</span> threshold for wheat germination anticipated to advance by several weeks in Mollisol regions. Furthermore, soil warming at 1 m depth is predicted to be almost equivalent to warming at 1 cm depth in frost-free regions, indicating vulnerability of deep soil carbon pools to destabilization. To assess model performance we compare the models' predictions with observations of damping depth, and offsets between mean annual soil and air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the historic period. We find ESMs generally predict warmer mean annual air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> than soil, whereas observations show air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are cooler or similar to soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in many locations. To improve future assessments of soil carbon, it is important to benchmark soil-air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> linkages of global land models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26265493','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26265493"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation of gender difference in human response to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> step <span class="hlt">changes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xiong, Jing; Lian, Zhiwei; Zhou, Xin; You, Jianxiong; Lin, Yanbing</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to examine gender difference in human response to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> step <span class="hlt">changes</span>. A total of three step-<span class="hlt">change</span> conditions (S5: 32 C-37 C-32 C, S11: 26 C-37 C-26 C, and S15: 22 C-37 C-22 C) were designed and a laboratory experiment with 12 males and 12 females was performed. Results of this study support our hypothesis that females differ from males in human response to sudden <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> from the perspectives of psychology, physiology and biomarkers. Females are more prone to show thermal dissatisfaction to cool environments while males are more likely to feel thermal discomfort in warm environments. It is logical that men have a stronger thermoregulation ability than women as male skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> amplitude is smaller while the time to be stable for skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is shorter than that of females after both up-steps and down-steps. In S15, males witnessed a more intensive decrease in RMSSD while females underwent a remarkable instant reduce in oral <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> after the up-step. Marginal significance was observed in male IL-6 before and after the up-step in S15 while female IL-6 prominently increased after the down-step in S15. PMID:26265493</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26511054','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26511054"><span id="translatedtitle">Geographical variation in species' population responses to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pearce-Higgins, James W; Ockendon, Nancy; Baker, David J; Carr, Jamie; White, Elizabeth C; Almond, Rosamunde E A; Amano, Tatsuya; Bertram, Esther; Bradbury, Richard B; Bradley, Cassie; Butchart, Stuart H M; Doswald, Nathalie; Foden, Wendy; Gill, David J C; Green, Rhys E; Sutherland, William J; Tanner, Edmund V J</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Despite increasing concerns about the vulnerability of species' populations to climate <span class="hlt">change</span>, there has been little overall synthesis of how individual population responses to variation in climate differ between taxa, with trophic level or geographically. To address this, we extracted data from 132 long-term (greater than or equal to 20 years) studies of population responses to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation covering 236 animal and plant species across terrestrial and freshwater habitats. Our results identify likely geographical differences in the effects of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on populations and communities in line with macroecological theory. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> tended to have a greater overall impact on populations than precipitation, although the effects of increased precipitation varied strongly with latitude, being most positive at low latitudes. Population responses to increased <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were generally positive, but did not vary significantly with latitude. Studies reporting significant climatic trends through time tended to show more negative effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and more positive effects of precipitation upon populations than other studies, indicating climate <span class="hlt">change</span> has already impacted many populations. Most studies of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> impacts on biodiversity have focused on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and are from middle to high northern latitudes. Our results suggest their findings may be less applicable to low latitudes. PMID:26511054</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC23C0954B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC23C0954B"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigating the impacts of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Northeast US</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brennan, L.; Palmer, R. N.; Polebitski, A.; Demaria, E. M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a critical factor in the persistence of aquatic ecosystems. In the Northeast, increasing stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> due to climate <span class="hlt">change</span> pose a significant threat to cool and coldwater fish communities. Climate projections indicate warmer conditions in the region, particularly during the summer months when fish are more susceptible to extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. In this study, a macroscale hydrology model coupled with a stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> component (VIC-RBM model) was developed for two Connecticut River subbasins and one Great Lakes subbasin to predict stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>. The VIC-RBM model relies on headwater stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> calibration through the use of an existing four-parameter nonlinear regression model. The White (1,840km2), Westfield (1,338 km2), and Milwaukee (2,280 km2 ) river basins, located in central Vermont, western Massachusetts, and southeastern Wisconsin respectively, were selected for analysis due to the significant amount of historical stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data available, the presence of USGS HCDN reference gages, and their largely unaltered flow patterns. For the climate <span class="hlt">change</span> analysis, future projections of climate were obtained from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 archives (CMIP5). Two emission scenarios were chosen: a low emission scenario (RCP 4.5) and a high emission scenario (RCP 8.5). Monthly precipitation and maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were statistically downscaled and bias-corrected (BCSD) at a resolution of 1/8 degree (~12.5km) for the period 1950-2099. Daily values were obtained by resampling from the observed records. Stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> simulations for the 21st century will be used to assess the vulnerability of aquatic ecosystems under warmer conditions and will help local wildlife managers develop adaptation plans for fish communities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4297512','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4297512"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrophysiological <span class="hlt">Changes</span> Correlated with <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Increases Induced by High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wu, Z.; Kumon, R. E.; Laughner, J. I.; Efimov, I. R.; Deng, C. X.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>To gain better understanding of the detailed mechanisms of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation for cardiac arrhythmias, we investigated how the cellular electrophysiological (EP) <span class="hlt">changes</span> were correlated with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases and thermal dose (cumulative equivalent minutes [CEM43]) during HIFU application using Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts. Employing voltage-sensitive dye di-4-ANEPPS, we measured the EP and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during HIFU using simultaneous optical mapping and infrared imaging. Both action potential amplitude (APA) and AP duration at 50% repolarization (APD50) decreased with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases, and APD50 was more thermally sensitive than APA. EP and tissue <span class="hlt">changes</span> were irreversible when HIFU-induced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased above 52.3 ± 1.4 °C and log10(CEM43) above 2.16 ± 0.51 (n = 5), but were reversible when <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was below 50.1 ± 0.8 °C and log10(CEM43) below −0.9 ± 0.3 (n = 9). EP and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/thermal dose <span class="hlt">changes</span> were spatially correlated with HIFU induced tissue necrosis surrounded by a transition zone. PMID:25516446</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25828407','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25828407"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulating the effect of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Trout Lake Watershed, Wisconsin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Selbig, William R</p> <p>2015-07-15</p> <p>The potential for increases in stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> across many spatial and temporal scales as a result of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> can pose a difficult challenge for environmental managers, especially when addressing thermal requirements for sensitive aquatic species. This study evaluates simulated <span class="hlt">changes</span> to the thermal regime of three northern Wisconsin streams in response to a projected <span class="hlt">changing</span> climate using a modeling framework and considers implications of thermal stresses to the fish community. The Stream Network <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Model (SNTEMP) was used in combination with a coupled groundwater and surface water flow model to assess forecasts in climate from six global circulation models and three emission scenarios. Model results suggest that annual average stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> will steadily increase approximately 1.1 to 3.2C (varying by stream) by the year 2100 with differences in magnitude between emission scenarios. Daily mean stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the months of July and August, a period when cold-water fish communities are most sensitive, showed excursions from optimal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with increased frequency compared to current conditions. Projections of daily mean stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, in some cases, were no longer in the range necessary to sustain a cold water fishery. PMID:25828407</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713057M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713057M"><span id="translatedtitle">Observed <span class="hlt">changes</span> in seasonal heat waves and warm <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes in the Romanian Carpathians</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Micu, Dana; Birsan, Marius-Victor; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Cheval, Sorin</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Extreme high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have a large impact on environment and human activities, especially in high elevation areas particularly sensitive to the recent climate warming. The climate of the Romanian Carpathians became warmer particularly in winter, spring and summer, exibiting a significant increasing frequency of warm extremes. The paper investigates the seasonal <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the frequency, duration and intensity of heat waves in relation to the shifts in the daily distribution of maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over a 50-year period of meteorological observations (1961-2010). The paper uses the heat wave definition recommended by the Expert Team on Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) and exploits the gridded daily dataset of maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at 0.1 resolution (~10 km) developed in the framework of the CarpatClim project (www.carpatclim.eu). The seasonal <span class="hlt">changes</span> in heat waves behavior were identified using the Mann-Kendall non-parametric trend test. The results suggest an increase in heat wave frequency and a lengthening of intervals affected by warm <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes all over the study region, which are explained by the shifts in the upper (extreme) tail of the daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution in most seasons. The trends are consistent across the region and are well correlated to the positive phases of the East Atlantic Oscillation. Our results are in good agreement with the previous <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-related studies concerning the Carpathian region. This study was realized within the framework of the project GENCLIM, financed by UEFISCDI, code PN-II 151/2014.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24375891','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24375891"><span id="translatedtitle">Warming <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and smaller body sizes: synchronous <span class="hlt">changes</span> in growth of North Sea fishes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baudron, Alan R; Needle, Coby L; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D; Marshall, C Tara</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Decreasing body size has been proposed as a universal response to increasing <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The physiology behind the response is well established for ectotherms inhabiting aquatic environments: as higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> decrease the aerobic capacity, individuals with smaller body sizes have a reduced risk of oxygen deprivation. However, empirical evidence of this response at the scale of communities and ecosystems is lacking for marine fish species. Here, we show that over a 40-year period six of eight commercial fish species in the North Sea examined underwent concomitant reductions in asymptotic body size with the synchronous component of the total variability coinciding with a 1-2C increase in water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Smaller body sizes decreased the yield-per-recruit of these stocks by an average of 23%. Although it is not possible to ascribe these phenotypic <span class="hlt">changes</span> unequivocally to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, four aspects support this interpretation: (i) the synchronous trend was detected across species varying in their life history and life style; (ii) the decrease coincided with the period of increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span>; (iii) the direction of the phenotypic <span class="hlt">change</span> is consistent with physiological knowledge; and (iv) no cross-species synchrony was detected in other species-specific factors potentially impacting growth. Our findings support a recent model-derived prediction that fish size will shrink in response to climate-induced <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and oxygen. The smaller body sizes being projected for the future are already detectable in the North Sea. PMID:24375891</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70144678','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70144678"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulating the effect of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Trout Lake Watershed, Wisconsin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Selbig, William R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The potential for increases in stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> across many spatial and temporal scales as a result of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> can pose a difficult challenge for environmental managers, especially when addressing thermal requirements for sensitive aquatic species. This study evaluates simulated <span class="hlt">changes</span> to the thermal regime of three northern Wisconsin streams in response to a projected <span class="hlt">changing</span> climate using a modeling framework and considers implications of thermal stresses to the fish community. The Stream Network <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Model (SNTEMP) was used in combination with a coupled groundwater and surface water flow model to assess forecasts in climate from six global circulation models and three emission scenarios. Model results suggest that annual average stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> will steadily increase approximately 1.1 to 3.2 °C (varying by stream) by the year 2100 with differences in magnitude between emission scenarios. Daily mean stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the months of July and August, a period when cold-water fish communities are most sensitive, showed excursions from optimal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with increased frequency compared to current conditions. Projections of daily mean stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, in some cases, were no longer in the range necessary to sustain a cold water fishery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3959131','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3959131"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> on the dimensional stability of elastomeric impression materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kambhampati, Sujan; Subhash, Vaddavalli; Vijay, Chellagulla; Das, Aruna</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the <span class="hlt">changed</span> dimensions of dies obtained from impressions made with different combinations of addition sillicones which were subjected to variations in storage <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Materials & Methods: 45 die stone models were obtained of 45 impressions of which 15 each were stored at three different storage <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>(25C, 37C and 42C). 15 impressions each were made using one impression technique. The measurements of the dies made from the impressions were measured with the help of Profile Projector with a accuracy of 0.001mm. Results: The results were statistically analyzed. The results indicated the significant decrease in dimensions when the storage <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reduced from the mouth <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. As compared to this there was a marginal increase in overall dimensions of all variables when storage <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased. Conclusion: More <span class="hlt">changes</span> were seen in putty/light body combination followed by monophase and least in heavy/light body combination. How to cite the article: Kambhampati S, Subhash V, Vijay C, Das A. Effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> on the dimensional stability of elastomeric impression materials. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):12-9. PMID:24653597</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21371111','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21371111"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of the <span class="hlt">change</span> of electron <span class="hlt">temperature</span> inside magnetic island caused by localized radio frequency heating</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yang, J.; Zhu, S.; Yu, Q.; Zhuang, G.</p> <p>2010-05-15</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">change</span> in the electron <span class="hlt">temperature</span> inside magnetic island caused by localized radio frequency (rf) heating is studied numerically by solving the two-dimensional energy transport equation, to investigate the dependence of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on the location and width of the rf power deposition along the minor radius and the helical angle, the island width, and the ratio between the parallel and the perpendicular heat conductivity. Based on obtained numerical results, suggestions for optimizing the island stabilization by localized rf heating are made.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4057399','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4057399"><span id="translatedtitle">Daily <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>, Not the Circadian Clock, Regulate Growth Rate in Brachypodium distachyon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Matos, Dominick A.; Cole, Benjamin J.; Whitney, Ian P.; MacKinnon, Kirk J.-M.; Kay, Steve A.; Hazen, Samuel P.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Plant growth is commonly regulated by external cues such as light, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, water availability, and internal cues generated by the circadian clock. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in the rate of growth within the course of a day have been observed in the leaves, stems, and roots of numerous species. However, the relative impact of the circadian clock on the growth of grasses has not been thoroughly characterized. We examined the influence of diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and light <span class="hlt">changes</span>, and that of the circadian clock on leaf length growth patterns in Brachypodium distachyon using high-resolution time-lapse imaging. Pronounced <span class="hlt">changes</span> in growth rate were observed under combined photocyles and thermocycles or with thermocycles alone. A considerably more rapid growth rate was observed at 28°C than 12°C, irrespective of the presence or absence of light. In spite of clear circadian clock regulated gene expression, plants exhibited no <span class="hlt">change</span> in growth rate under conditions of constant light and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and little or no effect under photocycles alone. Therefore, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> appears to be the primary cue influencing observed oscillations in growth rate and not the circadian clock or photoreceptor activity. Furthermore, the size of the leaf meristem and final cell length did not <span class="hlt">change</span> in response to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Therefore, the nearly five-fold difference in growth rate observed across thermocycles can be attributed to proportionate <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the rate of cell division and expansion. A better understanding of the growth cues in B. distachyon will further our ability to model metabolism and biomass accumulation in grasses. PMID:24927130</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JTePh..60.1705F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JTePh..60.1705F"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of the thermal stabilization <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the <span class="hlt">change</span> in the texture of polyacrylonitrile fiber</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fazlitdinova, A. G.; Tyumentsev, V. A.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of isothermal treatment on the <span class="hlt">change</span> in sizes L 010 of coherent scattering regions and texture of a polyacrylonitrile fiber during its transition to the structure of a thermally stabilized fiber is analyzed using X-ray structure analysis. An increase in the thermostabilization <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at a constant stretching load stimulates simultaneously a more active increase in size L 010 and texturing of polyacrylonitrile fibers at the initial stage. Active evolution of the phase transformation at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> 275-290°C during further thermostabilization is accompanied by a substantial decrease in the texture of the polymer that has not experienced the phase transformation by this instant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23907532','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23907532"><span id="translatedtitle">Recurrent insect outbreaks caused by <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-driven <span class="hlt">changes</span> in system stability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nelson, William A; Bjrnstad, Ottar N; Yamanaka, Takehiko</p> <p>2013-08-16</p> <p>Insects often undergo regular outbreaks in population density but identifying the causal mechanism for such outbreaks in any particular species has proven difficult. Here, we show that outbreak cycles in the tea tortrix Adoxophyes honmai can be explained by <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-driven <span class="hlt">changes</span> in system stability. Wavelet analysis of a 51-year time series spanning more than 200 outbreaks reveals a threshold in outbreak amplitude each spring when <span class="hlt">temperature</span> exceeds 15C and a secession of outbreaks each fall as <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decreases. This is in close agreement with our independently parameterized mathematical model that predicts the system crosses a Hopf bifurcation from stability to sustained cycles as <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases. These results suggest that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can alter system stability and provide an explanation for generation cycles in multivoltine insects. PMID:23907532</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1024059','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1024059"><span id="translatedtitle">High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Phase <span class="hlt">Change</span> Materials for Thermal Energy Storage Applications: Preprint</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gomez, J.; Glatzmaier, G. C.; Starace, A.; Turchi, C.; Ortega, J.</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>To store thermal energy, sensible and latent heat storage materials are widely used. Latent heat thermal energy storage (TES) systems using phase <span class="hlt">change</span> materials (PCM) are useful because of their ability to charge and discharge a large amount of heat from a small mass at constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during a phase transformation. Molten salt PCM candidates for cascaded PCMs were evaluated for the <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> near 320 degrees C, 350 degrees C, and 380 degrees C. These <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were selected to fill the 300 degrees C to 400 degrees C operating range typical for parabolic trough systems, that is, as one might employ in three-PCM cascaded thermal storage. Based on the results, the best candidate for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> near 320 degrees C was the molten salt KNO3-4.5wt%KCl. For the 350 degrees C and 380 degrees C <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, the evaluated molten salts are not good candidates because of the corrosiveness and the high vapor pressure of the chlorides.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JNuM..212..471Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994JNuM..212..471Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of cyclic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on microstructural evolution in austenitic stainless steels under fission neutron irradiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yoshida, N.; Xu, Q.; Watanabe, H.; Miyamoto, Y.; Muroga, T.</p> <p>1994-09-01</p> <p>To understand mechanistically the influence of cyclic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on microstructural evolution in Fe-Cr-Ni austenitic alloys, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-cycle neutron irradiations of 473 K/673 K and 573 K/723 K were carried out at JMTR (0.9-1.4 10 24 n/m 2 (> 1.0 MeV)). Suppression of interstitial loop formation was remarkable. Only a few large voids were formed in Fe-Cr-Ni and Fe-Cr-Ni-P alloys, but unexpectedly large void swelling (1.5-1.6%, 9-11%/dpa) was observed in Fe-Cr-Ni-Ti alloy. Rate theory of defect clustering for <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-variant irradiation indicates that vacancy-rich condition appears temporarily at the beginning of the high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> period due to the reclustering of the vacancies formed in the low-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> period through the reactions with radiation-induced vacancies and interstitials.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1522975G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1522975G"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of radiatively forced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in enhanced semi-arid warming over East Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guan, X.; Huang, J.; Guo, R.; Lin, P.; Zhang, Y.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>As the climate <span class="hlt">change</span> occurred over East Asia since 1950s, intense interest and debate have arisen concerning the contribution of human activities to the warming observed in previous decades. In this study, we investigate surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> using a recently developed methodology that can successfully identify and separate the dynamically induced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (DIT) and radiatively forced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (RFT) <span class="hlt">changes</span> in raw surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT) data. For regional averages, DIT and RFT make 43.7 and 56.3 % contributions to the SAT over East Asia, respectively. The DIT <span class="hlt">changes</span> dominate the SAT decadal variability and are mainly determined by internal climate variability, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO). The radiatively forced SAT <span class="hlt">changes</span> made major contribution to the global-scale warming trend and the regional-scale enhanced semi-arid warming (ESAW). Such enhanced warming is also found in radiatively forced daily maximum and minimum SAT. The long-term global-mean SAT warming trend is mainly related to radiative forcing produced by global well-mixed greenhouse gases. The regional anthropogenic radiative forcing, however, caused the enhanced warming in the semi-arid region, which may be closely associated with local human activities. Finally, the relationship between global warming hiatus and regional enhanced warming is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSA43C..03G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMSA43C..03G"><span id="translatedtitle">Interpreting Recent Global-Mean <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in the Lower Stratosphere Simulated by Climate Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Geller, M. A.; Zhou, T.; Martin, W. G. K.; Song, H.; Wang, S.; Nazarenko, L.; Lo, K. W. K.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>It has been suggested that state-of-the-art climate models, both with interactive chemistry and without interactive chemistry (CCMVal-2 and CMIP5) do not reproduce the observed lower stratosphere <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies that are observed by satellite microwave sounding instruments. We find that making two <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the analysis can eliminate this disagreement. One is a <span class="hlt">change</span> in the definition of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies as being zero for the 4-year mean (1979-1982) at the beginning of the data and modeling analysis period. Such a definition of the zero <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly does not take into proper account that observations over a relatively short period represent a single realization of several possible climate states, and thus this zero anomaly definition can be misleading when comparing anomalies from observations and models. The other <span class="hlt">change</span> is our taking into account all CMIP-5 and CCMVal-2 model runs that ran realistic scenarios for the period 1979-2005. With these two <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the analysis, we conclude that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> from both CMIP-5 and CCMVal-2 models agree well with MSU-4 observations over the period 1979-2005.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.A42A0096P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001AGUFM.A42A0096P"><span id="translatedtitle">Inference of Global Mean <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Trend and Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> From MSU and AMSU</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prabhakara, C.; Iacovazzi, R. A.; Yoo, J.</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) and Advanced MSU (AMSU) radiometers flown on the NOAA operational satellite series are potentially valuable as global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> monitoring devices. Spencer and Christy (1990) pioneered the analysis of mid-tropospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, given by MSU Channel 2 (Ch 2) at 53.74 GHz,, to derive the global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trend. Also, in addition to monitoring global <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, these microwave radiometers have the potential to reveal interannual climate signals in tropics (Yulaeva and Wallace, 1994). We have analyzed the data of MSU Ch 2 and AMSU Ch 5 (53.6 GHz) from the NOAA operational satellites for the period 1980 to 2000, utilizing the NOAA calibration procedure. The data are corrected for the satellite orbital drift based on the temporal <span class="hlt">changes</span> of the on-board warm blackbody <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. From our analysis, we find that the global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased at a rate of 0.13 (+ - ) 0.05 Kdecade-1 during 1980 to 2000. From an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis of the MSU global data, we find that the mid-tropospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in middle and high latitudes responds to the ENSO forcing during the Northern Hemisphere Winter in a distinct manner. This mid-latitude response is opposite in phase to that in the tropics. This result is in accord with simulations performed with an ECMWF global spectral model by May and Bengtsson, (1998). This study shows a potential use of the satellite observations for climatic <span class="hlt">change</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4261957','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4261957"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative Neuropeptidomics Study of the Effects of <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> in the Crab Cancer borealis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> influence the reaction rates of all biological processes, which can pose dramatic challenges to cold-blooded organisms, and the capability to adapt to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations is crucial for the survival of these animals. In order to understand the roles that neuropeptides play in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress response, we employed a mass spectrometry-based approach to investigate the neuropeptide <span class="hlt">changes</span> associated with acute <span class="hlt">temperature</span> elevation in three neural tissues from the Jonah crab Cancer borealis. At high <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, members from two neuropeptide families, including RFamide and RYamide, were observed to be significantly reduced in one of the neuroendocrine structures, the pericardial organ, while several orcokinin peptides were detected to be decreased in another major neuroendocrine organ, the sinus gland. These results implicate that the observed neuropeptides may be involved with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> perturbation response via hormonal regulation. Furthermore, a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress marker peptide with the primary sequence of SFRRMGGKAQ (m/z 1137.7) was detected and de novo sequenced in the circulating fluid (hemolymph) from animals under thermal perturbation. PMID:25214466</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=retrieve&db=pubmed&list_uids=20187574&dopt=AbstractPlus','TOXNETTOXLINE'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=retrieve&db=pubmed&list_uids=20187574&dopt=AbstractPlus"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> corrected transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurement to quantify rapid <span class="hlt">changes</span> in paracellular permeability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?TOXLINE">TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information</a></p> <p>Blume LF; Denker M; Gieseler F; Kunze T</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Determining the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) is a widely used method to functionally analyze tight junction dynamics in cell culture models of physiological barriers. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are known to have strong effects on TEER and can pose problems during the process of TEER measurements in cell culture vessels, complicating comparisons of TEER data across different experiments and studies. Here, we set out to devise a strategy to obtain <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-independent TEER values based on the physical correlation between parameters such as TEER, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, medium viscosity and pore size of the cell culture inserts. By measuring the impact of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and different electrode types on TEER measurements on Caco-2 and HPDE (normal human pancreatic ductal epithelium) monolayers, we were able to derive a mathematical method that is suitable for the correction of TEER values for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Applying this method to raw TEER values yields <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-corrected TEER (tcTEER) values. Validity of tcTEER was demonstrated by showing a direct correlation with permeability of monolayers as determined by flux of RITC dextran. Taken together, the mathematical solution presented here allows for a simple and accurate determination of paracellular permeability independent of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation during the process of TEER recording.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20187574','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20187574"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> corrected transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurement to quantify rapid <span class="hlt">changes</span> in paracellular permeability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Blume, L-F; Denker, M; Gieseler, F; Kunze, T</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Determining the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) is a widely used method to functionally analyze tight junction dynamics in cell culture models of physiological barriers. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are known to have strong effects on TEER and can pose problems during the process of TEER measurements in cell culture vessels, complicating comparisons of TEER data across different experiments and studies. Here, we set out to devise a strategy to obtain <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-independent TEER values based on the physical correlation between parameters such as TEER, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, medium viscosity and pore size of the cell culture inserts. By measuring the impact of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and different electrode types on TEER measurements on Caco-2 and HPDE (normal human pancreatic ductal epithelium) monolayers, we were able to derive a mathematical method that is suitable for the correction of TEER values for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Applying this method to raw TEER values yields <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-corrected TEER (tcTEER) values. Validity of tcTEER was demonstrated by showing a direct correlation with permeability of monolayers as determined by flux of RITC dextran. Taken together, the mathematical solution presented here allows for a simple and accurate determination of paracellular permeability independent of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation during the process of TEER recording. PMID:20187574</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020022493&hterms=temperature+Monitoring&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dtemperature%2BMonitoring','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020022493&hterms=temperature+Monitoring&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dtemperature%2BMonitoring"><span id="translatedtitle">Inference of Global Mean <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Trend and Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> from MSU and AMSU</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Prabhakara, Cuddapah; Iacovazzi, R. A., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) and Advanced MSU (AMSU) radiometers flown on the NOAA operational satellite series are potentially valuable as global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> monitoring devices. Spencer and Christy pioneered the analysis of mid-tropospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, given by MSU Channel 2 (Ch 2) at 53.74 GHz, to derive the global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trend. Also, in addition to monitoring global <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, these microwave radiometers have the potential to reveal interannual climate signals in tropics. We have analyzed the data of MSU Ch 2 and AMSU Ch 5 (53.6 GHz) from the NOAA operational satellites for the period 1980 to 2000, utilizing the NOAA calibration procedure. The data are corrected for the satellite orbital drift based on the temporal <span class="hlt">changes</span> of the on-board warm blackbody <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. From our analysis, we find that the global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased at a rate of 0.13 +/- 0.05 Kdecade(sup -1) during 1980 to 2000. From an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis of the MSU global data, we find that the mid-tropospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in middle and high latitudes responds to the ENSO forcing during the Northern Hemisphere Winter in a distinct manner. This mid-latitude response is opposite in phase to that in the tropics. This result is in accord with simulations performed with an ECMWF global spectral model. This study shows a potential use of the satellite observations for climatic <span class="hlt">change</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8553E..21Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8553E..21Z"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the pulp chamber during dentin ablation with Er:YAG laser</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Xianzeng; Zhao, Haibin; Zhan, Zhenlin; Guo, Wenqing; Xie, Shusen</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>To examine the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the pulp chamber during cavity preparation in dentin with the Er:YAG laser (2940 nm), a total 20 intact premolars teeth were divided into 4 groups for dentin ablation with different radiant exposures at 4Hz and 8Hz with and without water spray. A K-type thermocouple was used to monitor the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in pulp chamber during laser treatment. The total time of irradiation was 70 sec. the water spray rate was 3 mL/min. It showed that maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise increases with the increasing of radiant exposure and pulse repetition rate and the additional water cooling during laser ablation can significantly reduce the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise in pulp chamber which will benefit to avoid or reduce thermal damage to tooth structure and dental pulp. The highest rise of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the pulp was achieved with 20 J/cm2 and 8 Hz (19.83°C ). For all sample without water spray, the rise of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was exceed 5 °C . In contrast, with water spray, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise in the pulp can be firmly controlled under 1°C. The results also indicated that ablation rate and efficiency can be enhanced by increasing the incident radiant exposure and pulse repetition rate, which simultaneously producing more heat accumulation in dental tissue and causing thermal damage to dental tissue. By applying an additional water spray, thermal damage can be significantly reduced in clinical application.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1285967','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1285967"><span id="translatedtitle">Decreasing <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> infant behaviors through parent instruction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mathews, J R; Friman, P C; Barone, V J; Ross, L V; Christophersen, E R</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>One adult and three adolescent mothers with 1-year-old infants were taught to reduce their infants' potential for injury in the home. After being taught to increase their positive interactions with their infants, the mothers were taught to child-proof the home, to use playpen time-out for potentially <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> behaviors, and to give positive attention for safe behaviors. A multiple baseline design across subjects was used to evaluate functional control. Potentially <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> behaviors, observed during 10 min of free play, decreased from variable and, at times, high rates during baseline to stable near-zero rates after treatment. These target behaviors remained low at a 7-month follow-up assessment. PMID:3610895</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21315296','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21315296"><span id="translatedtitle">Potential <span class="hlt">dangers</span> of accelerant use in arson.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Heath, Karen; Kobus, Hilton; Byard, Roger W</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>Accelerant-enhanced combustion often characterizes a fire that has been deliberately set to disguise a murder scene or to destroy property for insurance purposes. The intensity and rapidity of spread of fires where accelerants have been used are often underestimated by perpetrators who may sustain heat-related injuries. The case of a 49-year-old male who was using gasoline (petrol) as an accelerant is reported to demonstrate another <span class="hlt">danger</span> of this type of activity. After ignition, an explosion occurred that destroyed the building and caused the death of the victim who was crushed beneath a rear wall of the commercial premises. Gasoline vapour/air mixtures are extremely volatile and may cause significant explosions if exposed to flame. Given the potential <span class="hlt">danger</span> of explosion, arsonists using accelerants do so at significant risk to themselves and to others in the vicinity. PMID:21315296</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC31B1047K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC31B1047K"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> for the last 1,000 years inferred from borehole <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kitaoka, K.; Arimoto, H.; Hamamoto, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Takeuchi, T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are an archive of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> occurred at the ground surface in the recent past (Lachenbruch and Marshall, 1986; Pollack, 1993). In order to investigate the local surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> histories in Osaka Plane, Japan, we observed subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in existing boreholes, using a thermometer logger. Many <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-depth profiles within 200 m depth from the ground surface have been obtained, but they show considerable variability. The geological formations in the area consist of horizontally stratified sedimentary layers of about 1,000 m in thickness overlaid on bedrock of granite. There exists a vertical disordered structure in the formations, which may be relating to an active fault (Uemachi fault) in the bedrock (Takemura, et al, 2013). It is considered that groundwater in the horizontal layers cannot move vertically, but can move vertically along the vertical disordered zone. Various <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles might be related to occurrence of vertical groundwater flow in the zone. Analytical models of subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> which include heat conduction and convection due to vertical groundwater flow in the zone have been constructed under the boundary conditions of prescribing time dependent surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and uniform geothermal flux from greater depths. To solve as one-dimensional problem, heat transfer between the vertical zone and the surrounding medium of no groundwater flow is assumed. Prescribing surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were given as exponential and periodic functions of the time. Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> can be considered to comprise both natural and artificial <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Artificial <span class="hlt">change</span>, which occurs by the increasing combustion of fossil fuels, is considered roughly to be an exponential increase of the ground surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the last 150 years. Natural <span class="hlt">change</span>, which can correlate to solar activity (Lassen and Friis-Christensen, 1995), is assumed roughly to be periodic with the period of about 1200 y at the minimum time of 1620 AD for the last 2,000 years, based on the proxy data in literature (Kitagawa, 1995; Moberg, et al, 2005). Analytical solutions have been obtained by applying a superimpose method. Optimum values of parameters included in the model have been obtained by fitting the solutions to the data of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-depth profiles by a least-square method. As a result, the amplitude of natural oscillation in the area is about 0.8 degree in average, which is in agreement with the result of tree ring analysis of Yakushima cedar (Kitagawa, 1995). Greater upward groundwater flow rates (up to 1.0 m/y, Darcy flux) are seen along the vertical disordered structure. However, the increasing rate of ground surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is greater than that in atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the last 140 years at Osaka Meteorological Observatory, Japan Meteorological Agency. The high increasing rate of the ground surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> suggests that the <span class="hlt">change</span> in atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is influenced by the <span class="hlt">change</span> in long wave radiation from the ground surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/AlcoholOverdoseFactsheet/Overdosefact.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/AlcoholOverdoseFactsheet/Overdosefact.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Alcohol Overdose: The <span class="hlt">Dangers</span> of Drinking Too Much</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... The <span class="hlt">Dangers</span> of Drinking Too Much Print version Alcohol Overdose: The <span class="hlt">Dangers</span> of Drinking Too Much Celebrating at parties, cheering a favorite sports team, and simply enjoying a break from work ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155864.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_155864.html"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Danger</span> Persists for Young Women After Heart Attack, Stroke</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... <span class="hlt">Danger</span> Persists for Young Women After Heart Attack, Stroke Odds of another life-threatening event are much ... Young women who survive a heart attack or stroke may not be out of <span class="hlt">danger</span> once they ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Arsenic&pg=2&id=EJ313025','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Arsenic&pg=2&id=EJ313025"><span id="translatedtitle">Help Protect Children from <span class="hlt">Dangers</span> in the Environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Reynolds, Pamela</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Children may be exposed to environmental hazards such as lead, arsenic, and <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> pesticides more often than parents may realize. <span class="hlt">Dangers</span> of more commonly used chemicals found in the environment are listed. (DF)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157682.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157682.html"><span id="translatedtitle">For 'Ironman' Athletes, Study Shows <span class="hlt">Danger</span> of Too Much Water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Ironman' Athletes, Study Shows <span class="hlt">Danger</span> of Too Much Water Frequent fluid stops entice racers to drink more ... News) -- Long-distance triathletes who drink too much water during competition may end up with <span class="hlt">dangerously</span> low ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22142608','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22142608"><span id="translatedtitle">[Treatment with disulfiram can be <span class="hlt">dangerous</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bakke, Skule Arnesen; Laursen, Sren Bjrn</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>A 66 year-old woman developed severe hypotension and bronchospasm as a result of disulfiram-ethanol reaction (DER). She presented with sudden onset of severe life-threatening symptoms. The clinical signs of DER were treated successfully and symptomatically with intravenous fluids, catecholamines, inhalations and benzodiazepines in the intensive care unit. Fomepizole, an alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor, was advocated as a specific treatment for DER. This case highlights the potential <span class="hlt">danger</span> of DER. PMID:22142608</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety-fact-sheets/safe-food-handling/molds-on-food-are-they-dangerous_/','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety-fact-sheets/safe-food-handling/molds-on-food-are-they-dangerous_/"><span id="translatedtitle">Molds on Food: Are They <span class="hlt">Dangerous</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePLUS</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... Molds on Food: Are they <span class="hlt">dangerous</span>? Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Z7_ ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5242096','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5242096"><span id="translatedtitle">Tropical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations since 20,000 years ago: Modulating interhemispheric climate <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Guilderson, T.P.; Fairbanks, R.G.; Rubenstone, J.L. )</p> <p>1994-02-04</p> <p>Tropical sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SSTs), as thermodynamically recorded in Barbados corals, were 5[degrees]C colder than present values 19,000 years ago. Variable tropical SSTs may explain the interhemispheric synchroneity of global climate <span class="hlt">changes</span> as recorded in ice cores, snowline reconstructions, and vegetation records. Radiative <span class="hlt">changes</span> due to cloud type and cloud cover are plausible mechanisms for maintaining cooler tropical SSTs in the past.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4044431','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4044431"><span id="translatedtitle">Phase maintenance in a rhythmic motor pattern during <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in vivo</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Soofi, Wafa; Goeritz, Marie L.; Kispersky, Tilman J.; Prinz, Astrid A.; Marder, Eve</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Central-pattern-generating neural circuits function reliably throughout an animal's life, despite constant molecular turnover and environmental perturbations. Fluctuations in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> pose a problem to the nervous systems of poikilotherms because their body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> follows the ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, thus affecting the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent dynamics of various subcellular components that constitute neuronal circuits. In the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system, the pyloric circuit produces a triphasic rhythm comprising the output of the pyloric dilator, lateral pyloric, and pyloric constrictor neurons. In vitro, the phase relationships of these neurons are maintained over a fourfold <span class="hlt">change</span> in pyloric frequency as <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases from 7C to 23C. To determine whether these <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects are also found in intact crabs, in the presence of sensory feedback and neuromodulator-rich environments, we measured the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the pyloric frequency and phases in vivo by implanting extracellular electrodes into Cancer borealis and Cancer pagurus and shifting tank water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from 11C to 26C. Pyloric frequency in the intact crab increased significantly with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Q10 = 22.5), while pyloric phases were generally conserved. For a subset of the C. borealis experiments, animals were subsequently dissected and the stomatogastric ganglion subjected to a similar <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ramp in vitro. We found that the maximal frequency attained at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in vivo is lower than it is under in vitro conditions. Our results demonstrate that, over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range, the phases of the pyloric rhythm in vivo are generally preserved, but that the frequency range is more restricted than it is in vitro. PMID:24671541</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24671541','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24671541"><span id="translatedtitle">Phase maintenance in a rhythmic motor pattern during <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in vivo.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Soofi, Wafa; Goeritz, Marie L; Kispersky, Tilman J; Prinz, Astrid A; Marder, Eve; Stein, Wolfgang</p> <p>2014-06-15</p> <p>Central-pattern-generating neural circuits function reliably throughout an animal's life, despite constant molecular turnover and environmental perturbations. Fluctuations in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> pose a problem to the nervous systems of poikilotherms because their body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> follows the ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, thus affecting the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent dynamics of various subcellular components that constitute neuronal circuits. In the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system, the pyloric circuit produces a triphasic rhythm comprising the output of the pyloric dilator, lateral pyloric, and pyloric constrictor neurons. In vitro, the phase relationships of these neurons are maintained over a fourfold <span class="hlt">change</span> in pyloric frequency as <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases from 7C to 23C. To determine whether these <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects are also found in intact crabs, in the presence of sensory feedback and neuromodulator-rich environments, we measured the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the pyloric frequency and phases in vivo by implanting extracellular electrodes into Cancer borealis and Cancer pagurus and shifting tank water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from 11C to 26C. Pyloric frequency in the intact crab increased significantly with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Q10 = 2-2.5), while pyloric phases were generally conserved. For a subset of the C. borealis experiments, animals were subsequently dissected and the stomatogastric ganglion subjected to a similar <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ramp in vitro. We found that the maximal frequency attained at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in vivo is lower than it is under in vitro conditions. Our results demonstrate that, over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range, the phases of the pyloric rhythm in vivo are generally preserved, but that the frequency range is more restricted than it is in vitro. PMID:24671541</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24831180','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24831180"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture on Mormon cricket reproduction with implications for responses to climate <span class="hlt">change</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Srygley, Robert B</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>During the last decade, populations of flightless Mormon crickets Anabrus simplex (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) increased suddenly over vast areas of the Western United States, suggesting that climate is an important factor driving outbreaks. Moreover summer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are predicted to increase and precipitation is expected to decrease in most areas of the U.S. Great Basin, but little is known of the response of Mormon crickets to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and soil moisture. In a laboratory study, we varied ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and lighting and measured the propensity of mating pairs to mate, and the proportion of eggs that developed into embryos. We found that reproduction was optimal when ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reached 30°C and the insects were beneath broad-spectrum lights such that maternal body and soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> reached 35°C. Fewer eggs that developed fully were laid when maternal body and soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> reached 30°C or 37-39°C. We also varied initial soil moisture from 0% to 100% saturated and found that more eggs reached embryonic diapause when initial soil moisture was 25% or 50% of saturated volume. However more of the developed eggs hatched when treated in summer soils with 0-25% of saturated moisture. We conclude that small <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> had large effects on reproduction, whereas large <span class="hlt">changes</span> in moisture had very small effects on reproduction. This is the first report of Mormon crickets mating in a laboratory setting and laying eggs that hatched, facilitating further research on the role of maternal and embryonic environments in <span class="hlt">changes</span> in population size. PMID:24831180</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JHyd..342..336F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JHyd..342..336F"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling <span class="hlt">changes</span> in summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the Fraser River during the next century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ferrari, Michael R.; Miller, James R.; Russell, Gary L.</p> <p>2007-09-01</p> <p>SummaryThe Fraser River basin in British Columbia has significant environmental, economic and cultural importance. Healthy river conditions through sufficient flows and optimal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are of paramount importance for the survival of Pacific salmon, which migrate upriver toward the headwaters to spawn near the end of their lives. Trends have been detected which indicate that the annual flow and summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have been increasing since the middle of the last century. In this study we examine the observed trend in summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the Fraser River and compare it with <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> calculated as part of a global climate model (GCM) simulation in which atmospheric greenhouse gases are increasing. We then use the GCM to consider how these trends might continue through the present century. Both the observations and model indicate that during the last half of the 20th century, the summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> near the river mouth has been increasing at a rate of approximately 0.12 C per decade in August. In this study we use an online method in which river <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are calculated directly as part of a GCM simulation and project how summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> near the mouth of the Fraser River might <span class="hlt">change</span> by the end of the present century. The results indicate that between 2000 and 2100 river <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> will increase in all summer months with a maximum increase of 0.14 C per decade in August. This result is consistent with an offline modeling study by [Morrison, J., Quick, M.C., Goreman, M.G.G. 2002. Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> in the Fraser River watershed: flow and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> projections. Journal of Hydrology, 263, 230-244] in which they used output from two GCMS to drive a hydrologic model and predict future <span class="hlt">changes</span> in river <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and supports their contention that the timing and magnitude of the increase could be crucial for salmon migration. Future work can extend this analysis to other river systems in an effort to project the potential effects of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on the behavior of the world's large river basins, as well as identify the potential biological effects that may accompany these <span class="hlt">changes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP33B1684S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP33B1684S"><span id="translatedtitle">Deglacial Subsurface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> in the Tropical North Atlantic Linked to Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation Variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmidt, M. W.; Chang, P.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Coupled ocean-atmosphere modeling experiments indicate that Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability is tightly coupled to abrupt tropical North Atlantic (TNA) climate <span class="hlt">change</span> through both atmospheric and oceanic processes (Zhang, 2007; <span class="hlt">Chang</span> et al., 2008; and Chiang et al., 2008). While a slowdown of AMOC in these experiments results in an atmospheric-induced surface cooling in the entire TNA, the subsurface experiences an even larger warming due to rapid reorganizations of ocean circulation patterns (Wan et al., 2009). In addition, observational records of detrended 20th century ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity variability show a strong anticorrelation between surface cooling and subsurface warming in the TNA over the past several decades, suggesting <span class="hlt">changing</span> vertical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients in this region may be a distinct fingerprint of AMOC variability (Zhang 2007). In order to test the hypothesis that subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in the TNA is coupled to AMOC variability across abrupt climate events over the last deglacial, we reconstructed high-resolution Mg/Ca-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> and δ18O records from both surface (G. ruber) and sub-thermocline dwelling (G. truncatulinoides, 350-500 m depth and G. crassaformis, 450-580 m) planktonic foraminifera in the southern Caribbean Sea sediment core VM12-107 (11.33oN, 66.63oW; 1079 m; 18 cm/kyr sedimentation rate). Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> indicate a gradual warming in the TNA starting at ~19 kyr BP with small cold reversals of ~1.5oC during Heinrich Event 1 (H1) and the Younger Dryas (YD). In contrast, last glacial maximum subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were as much as 2.5oC warmer than Late Holocene values and H1 and the YD are marked by the warmest subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> characterized by abrupt <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases as large as 4-5oC. Furthermore, a comparison of our subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record with the Bermuda Rise 231Pa/230Th proxy record of AMOC variability (McManus et al., 2004) indicates a strong correlation between periods of reduced AMOC and subsurface warming in the TNA. Our results suggest that western TNA subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> is a sensitive indicator of AMOC strength with the potential to determine AMOC variability during marine isotope stage 3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2014/5186/pdf/sir2014-5186.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2014/5186/pdf/sir2014-5186.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A model for evaluating stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response to climate <span class="hlt">change</span> in Wisconsin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stewart, Jana S.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Mitro, Matthew G.; Lyons, John D.; Kammel, Leah E.; Buchwald, Cheryl A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Integrating the SWB Model with the ANN Model provided a mechanism by which downscaled global or regional climate model results could be used to estimate the potential effects of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on future stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on a daily time step. To address future climate scenarios, statistically downscaled air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation projections from 10 GCMs and 2 time periods were used with the SWB-ANNv1 Model to project future stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Projections of future stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at mid- (2046–65) and late- (2081–2100) 21st century showed the July mean water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increasing for all stream segments with about 80 percent of stream kilometers increasing by 1 to 2 degrees Celsius (°C) by mid-century and about 99 percent increasing by 1 to 3 °C by late-century. Projected <span class="hlt">changes</span> in stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> also affected <span class="hlt">changes</span> in thermal classes with a loss in the total amount of cold-water, cold-transition, and warm-transition thermal habitat and a gain in warm-water and very warm thermal habitat for both mid- and late-21st century time periods. The greatest losses occurred for cold-water streams and the greatest gains for warm-water streams, with a contraction of cold-water streams in the Driftless Area of western and southern Wisconsin and an expansion of warm-water streams across northern Wisconsin. Results of this study suggest that such <span class="hlt">changes</span> will affect the composition of fish assemblages, with a loss of suitable habitat for cold-water fishes and gain in suitable habitat for warm-water fishes. In the end, these projected <span class="hlt">changes</span> in thermal habitat attributable to climate may result in a net loss of fisheries, because many warm-water species may be unable to colonize habitats formerly occupied by cold-water species because of other habitat limitations (e.g., stream size, gradient). Although projected stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> may vary greatly, depending on the emissions scenario and models used, the results presented in this report represent one possibility. The relative <span class="hlt">change</span> in stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can provide useful information for planning for potential climate impacts to aquatic ecosystems. Model results can be used to help identify vulnerabilities of streams to climate <span class="hlt">change</span>, guide stream surveys and thermal classifications, prioritize the allocation of scarce financial resources, identify approaches to climate adaptation to best protect and enhance resiliency in stream thermal habitat, and provide information to make quantitative assessments of statewide stream resources.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/716491','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/716491"><span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Danger</span> of silicosis in pottery (author's transl)].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ahlendorf, W; Thon, G</p> <p>1978-04-01</p> <p>The trade of pottery was practised already in antiquity. This very old art had culmination points of its artistic performance in several epochs. The ornamentation of the body of the ware by glazing came in use in Germany (Rhine Territory) in the 12th century. The raw material applied were plastic argils baking with colour, at that time just as now. After dressing with water the plastic material was shaped to the most different objects. It was done, either off-hand or by the aid of the potter's wheel. Dust is developing when the argils are crushed representing a <span class="hlt">danger</span> to health if technical control of the dust is not made effective. Wearing respiratory protection apparatuses is sufficient in shorttime work but must be regularly checked according to our experience. In the production of earthenware relatively high concentrations of dust occur only temporarily, but in very few cases they may cause silicosis. Among the 35 cases of silicosis in potters observed by the different special services for prophylaxis and control of dust 25 developed by exposition in plants of the GDR. 8 of the 10 diseased persons with exposition in plants outside the GDR had worked as potters in Bunzau (Silesia). The <span class="hlt">danger</span> of silicosis is by for less than in the porcelain industry; it can be prevented by keeping clean the places of employment. This low <span class="hlt">danger</span> is proven also by the very long exposition time of 30--40 years in average. PMID:716491</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=retrieve&db=pubmed&list_uids=716491&dopt=AbstractPlus','TOXNETTOXLINE'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=retrieve&db=pubmed&list_uids=716491&dopt=AbstractPlus"><span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Danger</span> of silicosis in pottery (author's transl)].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/htmlgen?TOXLINE">TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information</a></p> <p>Ahlendorf W; Thon G</p> <p>1978-04-01</p> <p>The trade of pottery was practised already in antiquity. This very old art had culmination points of its artistic performance in several epochs. The ornamentation of the body of the ware by glazing came in use in Germany (Rhine Territory) in the 12th century. The raw material applied were plastic argils baking with colour, at that time just as now. After dressing with water the plastic material was shaped to the most different objects. It was done, either off-hand or by the aid of the potter's wheel. Dust is developing when the argils are crushed representing a <span class="hlt">danger</span> to health if technical control of the dust is not made effective. Wearing respiratory protection apparatuses is sufficient in shorttime work but must be regularly checked according to our experience. In the production of earthenware relatively high concentrations of dust occur only temporarily, but in very few cases they may cause silicosis. Among the 35 cases of silicosis in potters observed by the different special services for prophylaxis and control of dust 25 developed by exposition in plants of the GDR. 8 of the 10 diseased persons with exposition in plants outside the GDR had worked as potters in Bunzau (Silesia). The <span class="hlt">danger</span> of silicosis is by for less than in the porcelain industry; it can be prevented by keeping clean the places of employment. This low <span class="hlt">danger</span> is proven also by the very long exposition time of 30--40 years in average.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS44B..05G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS44B..05G"><span id="translatedtitle">Where to Look for Recent Decadal Ocean <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Salinity <span class="hlt">Changes</span>: a CMIP Model Density Analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guilyardi, E.; Durack, P. J.; Gleckler, P. J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Multi-decadal ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity <span class="hlt">changes</span>, a key element of climate variability and <span class="hlt">change</span>, is not well constrained by available observations. Recent observed assessments have highlighted coherent long-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity <span class="hlt">changes</span> that appear consistent with CMIP multi-model mean assessments, however there are discrepancies in the absolute magnitude of these observed and simulated <span class="hlt">changes</span>. In this study, we use global climate models (from the CMIP5 and CMIP3 model suites) and a number of available observational analyses to investigate the global and regional distribution of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity <span class="hlt">changes</span> in neutral density space. Unlike the classical fixed-depth diagnostics, isopycnal analysis provides a lagrangian view of ocean property <span class="hlt">changes</span> that can be directly related to surface fluxes and upper ocean water mass transformation, while essentially ignoring isopycnal heave. The comparison of pre-industrial and historical (1860-2005) simulations allows us to precisely describe where the heat and salt is stored as a result of modified forcing, leveraging off a large suite of similarly forced simulations. We also evaluate the modeled global and regional isopycnal climatologies against recent (ARGO) observations with better spatio-temporal coverage, to investigate model performance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GPC...122..122C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GPC...122..122C"><span id="translatedtitle">Sharper detection of winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the Romanian higher-elevations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Croitoru, Adina-Eliza; Drignei, Dorin; Dragotă, Carmen Sofia; Imecs, Zoltan; Burada, Doina Cristina</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>This paper investigates winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends in the Romanian higher-altitude areas, for three types of topographies: depression, slope and summit. The main challenge is that some winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends, by comparison with the other seasons, are milder and harder to detect. We used a <span class="hlt">change</span>-point regression model with statistically dependent errors and compared it with a standard <span class="hlt">change</span>-point model with independent errors. Statistical theory ensures that the former model gives a more accurate trend analysis than the latter. The model with statistically dependent errors detects <span class="hlt">change</span>-points in the mid 70s and statistically significant increasing trends both before and after the <span class="hlt">change</span>-point. On the other hand, the model with independent errors does not detect statistically significant increasing trends after the <span class="hlt">change</span>-points for the winter series. These general results occur for all topography types. A separate multiple regression model reveals that the winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trend <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the Romanian higher-elevations can be described by a linear additive effect of several global atmospheric circulation patterns.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9k5007D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ERL.....9k5007D"><span id="translatedtitle">Constructing scenarios of regional sea level <span class="hlt">change</span> using global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> pathways</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>de Vries, Hylke; Katsman, Caroline; Drijfhout, Sybren</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The effects of sea level <span class="hlt">change</span> become increasingly relevant for the Dutch coast. Therefore we construct two scenarios for regional sea-level <span class="hlt">change</span> in the 21st century. They are designed to follow two <span class="hlt">temperature</span> pathways, in which global mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rises moderately (G, +1.5 K in 2085) or more substantially (W, +3.5 K in 2085). Contributions from all major processes leading to sea level rise are included (ocean expansion, glacier melt, ice-sheet <span class="hlt">changes</span>, and landwater <span class="hlt">changes</span>), except glacial isostatic adjustment and surface elevation <span class="hlt">changes</span>. As input we use data from 42 coupled global climate models that contributed to CMIP5. The approach is consistent with the recent fifth assessment Report of IPCC, but provides an alternative viewpoint based on global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> rather than RCPs. This makes them rather accessible and readily applicable to policy makers and the general public. We find a likely range for the G-scenario of +25-60 cm in 2085, and +45-80 cm for the W-scenario. These numbers have been rounded to 5 cm precision, to emphasise to any end-user of these scenarios that estimated lower and upper limits themselves are uncertain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014QuRes..81..355S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014QuRes..81..355S"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivities of the equilibrium line altitude to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">changes</span> along the Andes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sagredo, Esteban A.; Rupper, Summer; Lowell, Thomas V.</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs) of alpine glaciers are sensitive indicators of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> and have been commonly used to reconstruct paleoclimates at different temporal and spatial scales. However, accurate interpretations of ELA fluctuations rely on a quantitative understanding of the sensitivity of ELAs to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in climate. We applied a full surface energy- and mass-balance model to quantify ELA sensitivity to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">changes</span> across the range of climate conditions found in the Andes. Model results show that ELA response has a strong spatial variability across the glaciated regions of South America. This spatial variability correlates with the distribution of the present-day mean climate conditions observed along the Andes. We find that ELAs respond linearly to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, with the magnitude of the response being prescribed by the local lapse rates. ELA sensitivities to precipitation <span class="hlt">changes</span> are nearly linear and are inversely correlated with the emissivity of the atmosphere. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> sensitivities are greatest in the inner tropics; precipitation becomes more important in the subtropics and northernmost mid-latitudes. These results can be considered an important step towards developing a framework for understanding past episodes of glacial fluctuations and ultimately for predicting glacier response to future climate <span class="hlt">changes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.2738Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRD..120.2738Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Interdecadal <span class="hlt">change</span> of Eurasian snow, surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and atmospheric circulation in the late 1980s</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ye, Kunhui; Wu, Renguang; Liu, Yong</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Boreal winter and spring snow cover extent and snow water equivalent over Eurasia experienced an obvious decrease in late 1980s. A concurrent surface warming is observed over the North Atlantic and Eurasia. The present study documents the relationship among the interdecadal <span class="hlt">changes</span> in snow, surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and wind and the plausible reason for this <span class="hlt">change</span>. Analysis shows that the snow decrease contributes to the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase only in some limited regions and that the surface warming is largely related to the <span class="hlt">change</span> in atmospheric circulation. The effect of atmospheric circulation <span class="hlt">change</span> on surface warming is manifested in wind-induced heat advection and cloud-radiation <span class="hlt">changes</span>. The wind <span class="hlt">changes</span> over the North Atlantic and Eurasia feature a wave train with an anomalous anticyclone over Europe and anomalous southerly winds over midlatitude east Europe and Asia. The anomalous southerly winds contribute to surface warming through advection of warmer air from lower latitudes. The anomalous anticyclone contributes to surface warming over Europe through anomalous warm advection by bringing warmer air from ocean and enhanced downward shortwave radiation by suppressing upward motion. The wave pattern appears to be connected to equatorial Atlantic warming. Warmer sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) in the equatorial Atlantic Ocean enhances convection and induces a lower level anomalous cyclone to the northwest of the SST warming. The role of equatorial North Atlantic SST increase in the formation of the wave train over Eurasia is supported by numerical experiments with an atmospheric general circulation model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21115514','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21115514"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">changes</span> under high-end (?4C) global warming.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sanderson, M G; Hemming, D L; Betts, R A</p> <p>2011-01-13</p> <p>Climate models vary widely in their projections of both global mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise and regional climate <span class="hlt">changes</span>, but are there any systematic differences in regional <span class="hlt">changes</span> associated with different levels of global climate sensitivity? This paper examines model projections of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> over the twenty-first century from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> Fourth Assessment Report which used the A2 scenario from the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, assessing whether different regional responses can be seen in models categorized as 'high-end' (those projecting 4C or more by the end of the twenty-first century relative to the preindustrial). It also identifies regions where the largest climate <span class="hlt">changes</span> are projected under high-end warming. The mean spatial patterns of <span class="hlt">change</span>, normalized against the global rate of warming, are generally similar in high-end and 'non-high-end' simulations. The exception is the higher latitudes, where land areas warm relatively faster in boreal summer in high-end models, but sea ice areas show varying differences in boreal winter. Many continental interiors warm approximately twice as fast as the global average, with this being particularly accentuated in boreal summer, and the winter-time Arctic Ocean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> rise more than three times faster than the global average. Large <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases and precipitation decreases are projected in some of the regions that currently experience water resource pressures, including Mediterranean fringe regions, indicating enhanced pressure on water resources in these areas. PMID:21115514</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7478E..22X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009SPIE.7478E..22X"><span id="translatedtitle">A study of forest fire <span class="hlt">danger</span> district division in Lushan Mountain based on RS and GIS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiao, Jinxiang; Huang, Shu-E.; Zhong, Anjian; Zhu, Biqin; Ye, Qing; Sun, Lijun</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>The study selected 9 factors, average maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, average <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, average precipitation, average the longest days of continuous drought and average wind speed during fire prevention period, vegetation type, altitude, slope and aspect as the index of forest fire <span class="hlt">danger</span> district division, which has taken the features of Lushan Mountain's forest fire history into consideration, then assigned subjective weights to each factor according to their sensitivity to fire or their fire-inducing capability. By remote sensing and GIS, vegetation information layer were gotten from Landsat TM image and DEM with a scale of 1:50000 was abstracted from the digital scanned relief map. Topography info. (elevation, slope, aspect) layers could be gotten after that. A climate resource databank that contained the data from the stations of Lushan Mountain and other nearby 7 stations was built up and extrapolated through the way of grid extrapolation in order to make the distribution map of climate resource. Finally synthetical district division maps were made by weighing and integrating all the single factor special layers,and the study area were divided into three forest fire <span class="hlt">danger</span> district, include special fire <span class="hlt">danger</span> district, I-fire <span class="hlt">danger</span> district and II-fire <span class="hlt">danger</span> district. It could be used as a basis for developing a forest fire prevention system, preparing the annual investment plan, allocating reasonably the investment of fire prevention, developing the program of forest fire prevention and handle, setting up forest fire brigade, leaders' decisions on forest fire prevention work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.438...37G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.438...37G"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative estimates of tropical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in lowland Central America during the last 42 ka</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grauel, Anna-Lena; Hodell, David A.; Bernasconi, Stefano M.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Determining the magnitude of tropical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> during the last glacial period is a fundamental problem in paleoclimate research. Large discrepancies exist in estimates of tropical cooling inferred from marine and terrestrial archives. Here we present a reconstruction of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the last 42 ka from a lake sediment core from Lake Petén Itzá, Guatemala, located at 17°N in lowland Central America. We compared three independent methods of glacial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstruction: pollen-based <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimates, tandem measurements of δ18O in biogenic carbonate and gypsum hydration water, and clumped isotope thermometry. Pollen provides a near-continuous record of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> for most of the glacial period but the occurrence of a no-analog pollen assemblage during cold, dry stadials renders <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimates unreliable for these intervals. In contrast, the gypsum hydration and clumped isotope methods are limited mainly to the stadial periods when gypsum and biogenic carbonate co-occur. The combination of palynological and geochemical methods leads to a continuous record of tropical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in lowland Central America over the last 42 ka. Furthermore, the gypsum hydration water method and clumped isotope thermometry provide independent estimates of not only <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, but also the δ18O of lake water that is dependent on the hydrologic balance between evaporation and precipitation over the lake surface and its catchment. The results show that average glacial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was cooler in lowland Central America by 5-10 °C relative to the Holocene. The coldest and driest times occurred during North Atlantic stadial events, particularly Heinrich stadials (HSs), when <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decreased by up to 6 to 10 °C relative to today. This magnitude of cooling is much greater than estimates derived from Caribbean marine records and model simulations. The extreme dry and cold conditions during HSs in the lowland Central America were associated with fresh water forcing in the North Atlantic, which led to reduced Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, cooling of the North Atlantic, southern advance of sea-ice, and southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Although some models correctly predict the sign of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">changes</span>, they consistently underestimate the degree of observed cooling and decreased precipitation over land in lowland Central America.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..339H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..339H"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbial community responses to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase the potential for soil carbon losses under climate <span class="hlt">change</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hartley, Iain; Karhu, Kristiina; Auffret, Marc; Hopkins, David; Prosser, Jim; Singh, Brajesh; Subke, Jens-Arne; Wookey, Philip; Ågren, Göran</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>There are concerns that global warming may stimulate decomposition rates in soils, with the extra CO2 released representing a positive feedback to climate <span class="hlt">change</span>. However, there is growing recognition that adaptation of soil microbial communities to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> may alter the potential rate of carbon release. Critically, recent studies have produced conflicting results in terms of whether the medium-term soil microbial community response to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reduces (compensatory thermal adaptation) or enhances (enhancing thermal adaptation) the instantaneous direct positive effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on microbial activity. This lack of understanding adds considerably to uncertainty in predictions of the magnitude and direction of carbon-cycle feedbacks to climate <span class="hlt">change</span>. In this talk, I present results from one of the most extensive investigations ever undertaken into the role that microbial adaptation plays in controlling the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity of decomposition. Soils were collected from a range of ecosystem types, representing a thermal gradient from the Arctic to the Amazon. Our novel soil-cooling approach minimises issues associated with substrate depletion in warming studies, but still tests whether adaptation enhances or reduces the direct impact of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> on microbial activity. We also investigated the mechanisms underlying <span class="hlt">changes</span> in microbial respiration by quantifying <span class="hlt">changes</span> in microbial community composition, microbial biomass, mass-specific activity, carbon-use efficiency, and enzyme activities. Our results indicate that enhancing responses are much more common than compensatory thermal acclimation, with the latter being observed in less than 10% of cases. However, identifying the mechanisms underlying enhancing and compensatory adaptation remained elusive. No consistent <span class="hlt">changes</span> were observed in terms of mass-specific activity, biomass or enzyme activity, indicating that current theory is inadequate in explaining observed patterns. Importantly, initial microbial community composition was the best predictor of the sign and magnitude of the adaptation response, but further research is required to develop process-based understanding. In terms of the implications of our findings, although enhancing responses were observed in soils from all geographical regions, Arctic soils showed the strongest evidence for microbial community responses enhancing the direct effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>. This suggests that the long-term effect of warming on soil respiration rates in the Arctic could be larger than predicted based on short-term measurements of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity. Consequently, the substantial stores of carbon present in high-latitude soils may be more vulnerable to climate warming than currently estimated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUSMGC44A..06B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUSMGC44A..06B"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> inferred from borehole <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>: minimal "snow effect" from North America</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bartlett, M. G.; Harris, R. N.; Chapman, D. S.</p> <p>2004-05-01</p> <p>Borehole <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-depth profiles contain information about surface ground <span class="hlt">temperature</span> histories over time scales of several centuries and in particular prior to the widespread availability of surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records [Huang et al, Nature, 2000; Harris and Chapman, GRL, 2001]. Borehole-based reconstructions on the regional and hemispheric scale yield significantly different magnitudes of warming in the past 500 years when compared to proxy-based reconstructions. Borehole reconstructions suggest that the Northern Hemisphere warming has been about 1.1 C while proxy methods indicate warming closer to 0.7 C [Mann et al, Nature, 1999]. One suggested reconciliation of borehole and proxy reconstructions is that long-term variations in seasonal snow cover may bias the borehole record. A spurious long-term warming signal relative to SAT trends could be introduced by alteration of the duration or onset of seasonal snow cover over the course of decades or longer. We have developed a "snow effect" model that predicts transient warming or cooling of the surface ground <span class="hlt">temperature</span> due to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the onset, duration, and depth of snow events [Bartlett et al, in review]. We use our model to compute the response of ground <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at the regional scale to seasonal snow cover of the past century in North America. Snow and air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data used in the model come from the United States Historical Climatology Network (NOAA-NCDC NDP-070) and the Canadian Daily Climatic Dataset (CDCD). Results indicate that variations in snow onset and duration have had the greatest influence in Central North America, leading to ground warming on the order of 0.1-0.2 C / 100 yrs in this region relative to SAT trends. Other regions within North America have experienced negligible effects over the past century. We conclude that the magnitude of the snow effect in North America is insufficient to reconcile completely regional borehole and proxy reconstructions of climate <span class="hlt">change</span>. References: Bartlett, M.G., D. S. Chapman, and R. N. Harris, Snow and the ground <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record of climate <span class="hlt">change</span>, JGR - Earth Surface, submitted, 2004. Harris, R. N. and D. S. Chapman, Mid-Latitude (30 -60 N) climatic warming inferred by combining borehole <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with surface air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. GRL, 28, 747-750, 2001. Huang, S., H. N. Pollack, and P. Y. Shen, <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> trends over the past five centuries reconstructed from borehole <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, Nature, 403, 756-758, 2000. Mann, M. E., R. S. Bradley, and M. K. Hughes, Global-scale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns and climate forcing over the past six centuries, Nature, 392, 779-787, 1998.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4063080','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4063080"><span id="translatedtitle">A Multipoint Correction Method for Environmental <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Airborne Double-Antenna Microwave Radiometers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sun, Jian; Zhao, Kai; Jiang, Tao</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This manuscript describes a new type Ka-band airborne double-antenna microwave radiometer (ADAMR) designed for detecting atmospheric supercooled water content (SCWC). The source of the measurement error is investigated by analyzing the model of the system gain factor and the principle of the auto-gain compensative technique utilized in the radiometer. Then, a multipoint <span class="hlt">temperature</span> correction method based on the two-point calibration method for this radiometer is proposed. The multipoint <span class="hlt">temperature</span> correction method can eliminate the effect of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in environmental <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by establishing the relationship between the measurement error and the physical <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-sensitive units. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of the correction method, the long-term outdoor <span class="hlt">temperature</span> experiment is carried out. The multipoint <span class="hlt">temperature</span> correction equations are obtained by using the least square regression method. The comparison results show that the measuring accuracy of the radiometer can be increased more effectively by using the multipoint <span class="hlt">temperature</span> correction method. PMID:24787639</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24620574','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24620574"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> dependent mortality and behavioral <span class="hlt">changes</span> in a freshwater mussel Lamellidens marginalis to dimethoate exposure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kumar, Saurabh; Pandey, Rakesh Kumar; Das, Shobha; Das, Vijai Krishna</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> is a crucial determinant of biogeography, directly affecting the behavioral responses of the organisms. An acute static bioassay was conducted to evaluate the effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on dimethoate toxicity in a freshwater mussel Lamellidens marginalis. The mussel, were exposed for 96 hr at different concentrations of dimethoate (155.00, 160.00, 165.00, 170.00, 175.00, 180.00, 185.00, 190.00, 195.00, and 200.00 mgl(-1)) in the month of January when water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was 14.9 +/- 1.2 degrees C and at concentration 35.00, 37.00, 39.00, 41.00, 43.00, 45.00, 47.00, and 49.00 mgl(-1) in the month of August when the water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was 28.0 +/- 0.5 degrees C. The LC50 values were calculated from the mortality data obtained (using EPA-Probit analysis version 1.5, statistical software). The 96 hr LC50 value recorded at higher <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was 36.34 mgl(-1) and at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was 163.59 mgl(-1). The mussel exposed at higher <span class="hlt">temperature</span> showed more sensitive behavioral responses like huge mucus secretion, sudden closure of shell valves, quick post-mortem <span class="hlt">changes</span> and increased oxygen consumption in comparison to exposure at low <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Therefore, the increasing threat of global warming increases the risk of pesticide toxicity in the exposed organisms. PMID:24620574</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdAtS..33..247W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdAtS..33..247W"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic responses of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration to global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> between 1850 and 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Weile; Nemani, Ramakrishna</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Earth's <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have significant impacts on the global carbon cycle that vary at different time scales, yet to quantify such impacts with a simple scheme is traditionally deemed difficult. Here, we show that, by incorporating a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity parameter (1.64 ppm yr-1 °C-1) into a simple linear carbon-cycle model, we can accurately characterize the dynamic responses of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration to anthropogenic carbon emissions and global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> between 1850 and 2010 ( r 2 > 0.96 and the root-mean-square error < 1 ppm for the period from 1960 onward). Analytical analysis also indicates that the multiplication of the parameter with the response time of the atmospheric carbon reservoir (~12 year) approximates the long-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity of global atmospheric CO2 concentration (~15 ppm °C-1), generally consistent with previous estimates based on reconstructed CO2 and climate records over the Little Ice Age. Our results suggest that recent increases in global surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, which accelerate the release of carbon from the surface reservoirs into the atmosphere, have partially offset surface carbon uptakes enhanced by the elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and slowed the net rate of atmospheric CO2 sequestration by global land and oceans by ~30% since the 1960s. The linear modeling framework outlined in this paper thus provides a useful tool to diagnose the observed atmospheric CO2 dynamics and monitor their future <span class="hlt">changes</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title46-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title46-vol4-sec91-25-37.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title46-vol4/pdf/CFR-2010-title46-vol4-sec91-25-37.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">46 CFR 91.25-37 - Tanks containing <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> cargoes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tanks containing <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> cargoes. 91.25-37 Section 91... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-37 Tanks containing <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> cargoes. (a) For inspection and tests of tanks containing certain <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> cargoes in bulk, see part...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title46-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title46-vol5-sec148-02-3.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title46-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title46-vol5-sec148-02-3.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">46 CFR 148.02-3 - <span class="hlt">Dangerous</span> cargo manifest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Dangerous</span> cargo manifest. 148.02-3 Section 148.02-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) <span class="hlt">DANGEROUS</span> CARGOES CARRIAGE OF SOLID HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN BULK Vessel Requirements § 148.02-3 <span class="hlt">Dangerous</span> cargo manifest. (a) Each vessel, except for unmanned barges, transporting...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title46-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title46-vol4-sec91-25-37.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title46-vol4/pdf/CFR-2012-title46-vol4-sec91-25-37.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">46 CFR 91.25-37 - Tanks containing <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> cargoes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tanks containing <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> cargoes. 91.25-37 Section 91... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-37 Tanks containing <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> cargoes. (a) For inspection and tests of tanks containing certain <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> cargoes in bulk, see part...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title46-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title46-vol4-sec91-25-37.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title46-vol4/pdf/CFR-2013-title46-vol4-sec91-25-37.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">46 CFR 91.25-37 - Tanks containing <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> cargoes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tanks containing <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> cargoes. 91.25-37 Section 91... VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 91.25-37 Tanks containing <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> cargoes. (a) For inspection and tests of tanks containing certain <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> cargoes in bulk, see part...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.H53C0937B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.H53C0937B"><span id="translatedtitle">Northern Watershed <span class="hlt">Change</span>, Modeled Permafrost <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> in the Yukon River Watershed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bryan, R.; Hinzman, L. D.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Changes</span> in the terrestrial hydrologic cycle in northern watersheds can be seen through permafrost warming. Furthermore, vegetation shifts occur with climate <span class="hlt">changes</span> coupled with permafrost degradation. Permafrost warming is resultant from warming air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and the collection of buffers between the atmosphere and the cryosphere: the active layer, snow, and vegetation. Our modeling methods combine a meteorological model with a permafrost <span class="hlt">temperature</span> model in 1 km2 resolution in the 847,642 km2 Yukon River Watershed. The MicroMet model is a quasi-physically based model developed in 2006 by Liston & Elder to spatially interpolate irregularly spaced point meteorological data using known <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-elevation, wind-topography, humidity-cloudiness, and radiation-cloud-topography relationships. We call on 1997-2007 data from 104 Integrated Surface Data meteorological stations and 100 grid points in a 5 best models ensemble A1B 2090-2100 projection. The <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> at the Top of the Permafrost (TTOP) model is a numerical model for estimating the thermal state of permafrost. This model is attributed to Smith & Riseborough, 1996. TTOP relates more readily available near surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> to <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at the depth of seasonal variation using user-defined landcover n-factors (to relate air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to soil surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) and soil thermal conductivities (to simulate the propagation of heat through the active layer). TTOP simulates warm top of the permafrost <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for high soil thermal conductivity, land cover with high n-factor, and a high number of thawing degree-days/ year. Here we compare the present and future thermal stability of permafrost in the Yukon River Watershed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJMPC..16..389S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJMPC..16..389S"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation and Experiment of Extinction or Adaptation of Biological Species after <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Changes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stauffer, D.; Arndt, H.</p> <p></p> <p>Can unicellular organisms survive a drastic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, and adapt to it after many generations? In simulations of the Penna model of biological aging, both extinction and adaptation were found for asexual and sexual reproduction as well as for parasex. These model investigations are the basis for the design of evolution experiments with heterotrophic flagellates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=139594','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=139594"><span id="translatedtitle">EFFECT OF TRANSIENT <span class="hlt">TEMPERATURE</span> <span class="hlt">CHANGE</span> ON SUCROSE METABOLISM IN SUGARCANE INTERNODES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>It was previously observed that a decrease in total soluble solids concentration in sugarcane (Saccharum sp. hybrids) juice was proportional to the magnitude of the <span class="hlt">change</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the week prior to harvest (Eggleston and Vinyard, 1999. J. Am. Soc. Sugar Cane Technol. 19:62-63). I teste...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=model+AND+materials&pg=3&id=EJ1068332','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=model+AND+materials&pg=3&id=EJ1068332"><span id="translatedtitle">The Heat Is On! Using Particle Models to <span class="hlt">Change</span> Students' Conceptions of Heat and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hitt, Austin Manning; Townsend, J. Scott</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Elementary, middle-level, and high school science teachers commonly find their students have misconceptions about heat and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Unfortunately, student misconceptions are difficult to modify or <span class="hlt">change</span> and can prevent students from learning the accurate scientific explanation. In order to improve our students' understanding of heat and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=48337&keyword=heat+AND+exchange&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=62496150&CFTOKEN=45781307','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=48337&keyword=heat+AND+exchange&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=62496150&CFTOKEN=45781307"><span id="translatedtitle">PROJECTED GLOBAL CLIMATE <span class="hlt">CHANGE</span> IMPACT ON WATER <span class="hlt">TEMPERATURE</span> IN FIVE NORTH CENTRAL U.S. STREAMS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The effect of projected global climate <span class="hlt">change</span> due to a doubling of atmospheric CO2 on water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in five streams in Minnesota was estimated using a deterministic heat transport model. he model calculates heat exchange between the atmosphere and the water and is driven by ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JASS...31..141J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JASS...31..141J"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification of Martian Cave Skylights Using the <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> During Day and Night</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jung, Jongil; Yi, Yu; Kim, Eojin</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Recently, cave candidates have been discovered on other planets besides the Earth, such as the Moon and Mars. When we go to other planets, caves could be possible human habitats providing natural protection from cosmic threats. In this study, seven cave candidates have been found on Pavonis Mons and Ascraeus Mons in Tharsis Montes on Mars. The cave candidates were selected using the images of the Context Camera (CTX) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). The Context Camera could provide images with the high resolution of 6 meter per pixel. The diameter of the candidates ranges from 50 to 100m. Cushing et al. (2007) have analyzed the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> at daytime and nighttime using the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) for the sites of potential cave candidates. Similarly, we have examined the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> at daytime and at nighttime for seven cave candidates using the method of Cushing et al. (2007). Among those, only one candidate showed a distinct <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. However, we cannot verify a cave based on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> only and further study is required for the improvement of this method to identify caves more clearly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=temperature&pg=2&id=EJ1068332','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=temperature&pg=2&id=EJ1068332"><span id="translatedtitle">The Heat Is On! Using Particle Models to <span class="hlt">Change</span> Students' Conceptions of Heat and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hitt, Austin Manning; Townsend, J. Scott</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Elementary, middle-level, and high school science teachers commonly find their students have misconceptions about heat and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Unfortunately, student misconceptions are difficult to modify or <span class="hlt">change</span> and can prevent students from learning the accurate scientific explanation. In order to improve our students' understanding of heat and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=312634','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=312634"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> and potato: Responses to carbon dioxide, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and drought</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) ranks fifth worldwide in annual production among food crops. It is sensitive to warm <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (T) and water availability (W), two factors which are expected to be profoundly impacted by climate <span class="hlt">change</span>. Since 2003, over seven studies and 12 experiments have been co...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RScI...85b6115K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014RScI...85b6115K"><span id="translatedtitle">Note: Surface acoustic wave resonators for detecting of small <span class="hlt">changes</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>: A thermometric "magnifying glass"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kryshtal, R. G.; Medved, A. V.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Application of surface acoustic wave resonators with a phase format of an output signal as the thermometric "magnifying glass" is suggested. Possibilities of monitoring and measuring of small <span class="hlt">changes</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from 0.001 K to 0.3 K of objects having thermal contact with the resonator's substrate are shown experimentally.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=236373&keyword=ocean+AND+climate&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=55710837&CFTOKEN=54962742','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=236373&keyword=ocean+AND+climate&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=55710837&CFTOKEN=54962742"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity in the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>As part of a larger study to examine the effect of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> (CC) on estuarine resources, we simulated the effect of rising sea level, alterations in river discharge, and increasing atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on water properties in estuaries along the Pacific coast of the Unit...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=216632','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=216632"><span id="translatedtitle">Detecting Root Rot Stress in Geranium by Measuring <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Leaf <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Our objective was to determine if <span class="hlt">changes</span> in geranium leaf <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, measured by infrared (IR) transducers aimed at the plant canopy or individual leaves, correlate with root infection by pathogenic water molds. This is the first report to our knowledge that addresses the use of environmental se...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24593415','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24593415"><span id="translatedtitle">Note: surface acoustic wave resonators for detecting of small <span class="hlt">changes</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>: a thermometric "magnifying glass".</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kryshtal, R G; Medved, A V</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Application of surface acoustic wave resonators with a phase format of an output signal as the thermometric "magnifying glass" is suggested. Possibilities of monitoring and measuring of small <span class="hlt">changes</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from 0.001 K to 0.3 K of objects having thermal contact with the resonator's substrate are shown experimentally. PMID:24593415</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJCli..25.1507P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJCli..25.1507P"><span id="translatedtitle">Air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the Canadian Arctic from the early instrumental period to modern times</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Przybylak, Rajmund; Vizi, Zsuzsanna</p> <p>2005-09-01</p> <p>This article presents a detailed account of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (using four thermal parameters: mean daily air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (MDAT), maximum daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TMAX), minimum daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (TMIN), and diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR)) in the Canadian Arctic from 1819 to 1859. As source data, the authors have used hourly, two-hourly, four-hourly, or six-hourly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements carried out during exploratory (land or marine) expeditions sent mainly by the Royal Navy to find the Northwest Passage and later also during a lost expedition under the command of Sir John Franklin. Standard climate analyses (using monthly means) and more detailed and precise analyses based on daily data showing a wide spectrum of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regimes were conducted. The latter analysis examined the frequency of occurrence of MDAT in particular intervals, day-to-day variability of MDAT, annual courses of MDAT and DTR, and the frequency of occurrence of different kinds of characteristic days (e.g. very warm, warm, severe cold, very cold). All studied aspects of historical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the Canadian Arctic from 1819 to 1859 were compared with present-day (1961-1990) values.All the results obtaine