Science.gov

Sample records for dangerous temperature change

  1. Avoiding dangerous climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Hans Joachim Schellnhuber; Wolfgang Cramer; Nebojsa Nakicenovic; Tom Wigley; Gary Yohe

    2006-02-15

    In 2005 the UK Government hosted the Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change conference to take an in-depth look at the scientific issues associated with climate change. This volume presents the most recent findings from the leading international scientists that attended the conference. The topics addressed include critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, socioeconomic costs and benefits of emissions pathways, and technological options for meeting different stabilisation levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Contents are: Foreword from Prime Minister Tony Blair; Introduction from Rajendra Pachauri, Chairman of the IPCC; followed by 41 papers arranged in seven sections entitled: Key Vulnerabilities of the Climate System and Critical Thresholds; General Perspectives on Dangerous Impacts; Key Vulnerabilities for Ecosystems and Biodiversity; Socio-Economic Effects; Regional Perspectives; Emission Pathways; and Technological Options. Four papers have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

  2. Beyond 'dangerous' climate change: emission scenarios for a new world.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kevin; Bows, Alice

    2011-01-13

    The Copenhagen Accord reiterates the international community's commitment to 'hold the increase in global temperature below 2 degrees Celsius'. Yet its preferred focus on global emission peak dates and longer-term reduction targets, without recourse to cumulative emission budgets, belies seriously the scale and scope of mitigation necessary to meet such a commitment. Moreover, the pivotal importance of emissions from non-Annex 1 nations in shaping available space for Annex 1 emission pathways received, and continues to receive, little attention. Building on previous studies, this paper uses a cumulative emissions framing, broken down to Annex 1 and non-Annex 1 nations, to understand the implications of rapid emission growth in nations such as China and India, for mitigation rates elsewhere. The analysis suggests that despite high-level statements to the contrary, there is now little to no chance of maintaining the global mean surface temperature at or below 2°C. Moreover, the impacts associated with 2°C have been revised upwards, sufficiently so that 2°C now more appropriately represents the threshold between 'dangerous' and 'extremely dangerous' climate change. Ultimately, the science of climate change allied with the emission scenarios for Annex 1 and non-Annex 1 nations suggests a radically different framing of the mitigation and adaptation challenge from that accompanying many other analyses, particularly those directly informing policy. PMID:21115511

  3. Our contaminated atmosphere: The danger of climate change, phases 1 and 2. [effect of atmospheric particulate matter on surface temperature and earth's radiation budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cimorelli, A. J.; House, F. B.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of increased concentrations of atmospheric particulate matter on average surface temperature and on the components of the earth's radiation budget are studied. An atmospheric model which couples particulate loading to surface temperature and to changes in the earth's radiation budget was used. A determination of the feasibility of using satellites to monitor the effect of increased atmospheric particulate concentrations is performed. It was found that: (1) a change in man-made particulate loading of a factor of 4 is sufficient to initiate an ice age; (2) variations in the global and hemispheric weighted averages of surface temperature, reflected radiant fluz and emitted radiant flux are nonlinear functions of particulate loading; and (3) a black satellite sphere meets the requirement of night time measurement sensitivity, but not the required day time sensitivity. A nonblack, spherical radiometer whose external optical properties are sensitive to either the reflected radiant fluz or the emitted radiant flux meets the observational sensitivity requirements.

  4. Global atmospheric methane: budget, changes and dangers.

    PubMed

    Dlugokencky, Edward J; Nisbet, Euan G; Fisher, Rebecca; Lowry, David

    2011-05-28

    A factor of 2.5 increase in the global abundance of atmospheric methane (CH(4)) since 1750 contributes 0.5 Wm(-2) to total direct radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases (2.77 Wm(-2) in 2009), while its role in atmospheric chemistry adds another approximately 0.2 Wm(-2) of indirect forcing. Since CH(4) has a relatively short lifetime and it is very close to a steady state, reductions in its emissions would quickly benefit climate. Sensible emission mitigation strategies require quantitative understanding of CH(4)'s budget of emissions and sinks. Atmospheric observations of CH(4) abundance and its rate of increase, combined with an estimate of the CH(4) lifetime, constrain total global CH(4) emissions to between 500 and 600 Tg CH(4) yr(-1). While total global emissions are constrained reasonably well, estimates of emissions by source sector vary by up to a factor of 2. Current observation networks are suitable to constrain emissions at large scales (e.g. global) but not at the regional to national scales necessary to verify emission reductions under emissions trading schemes. Improved constraints on the global CH(4) budget and its break down of emissions by source sector and country will come from an enhanced observation network for CH(4) abundance and its isotopic composition (δ(13)C, δD(D=(2)H) and δ(14)C). Isotopic measurements are a valuable tool in distinguishing among various sources that contribute emissions to an air parcel, once fractionation by loss processes is accounted for. Isotopic measurements are especially useful at regional scales where signals are larger. Reducing emissions from many anthropogenic source sectors is cost-effective, but these gains may be cancelled, in part, by increasing emissions related to economic development in many parts of the world. An observation network that can quantitatively assess these changing emissions, both positive and negative, is required, especially in the context of emissions trading schemes. PMID

  5. Communicating the Need to Avoid Dangerous Climate Change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Kharecha, P. A.; Sato, M.

    2013-12-01

    We describe our past, ongoing and planned efforts to communicate the need for humanity to avoid dangerous climate change. Communications with governments have been largely fruitless, with substantial indication that governments are more disposed to be responsive to financial interests rather than scientific information. Communication with the public is essential to create pressure on governments for appropriate policies, but it is made difficult by the massive resources of the fossil fuel industry. Communication with influential individuals can be effective in reaching both governments and the public.

  6. The 2003 heat wave in France: dangerous climate change here and now.

    PubMed

    Poumadère, Marc; Mays, Claire; Le Mer, Sophie; Blong, Russell

    2005-12-01

    In an analysis of the French episode of heat wave in 2003, this article highlights how heat wave dangers result from the intricate association of natural and social factors. Unusually high temperatures, as well as socioeconomic vulnerability, along with social attenuation of hazards, in a general context where the anthropogenic contribution to climate change is becoming more plausible, led to an excess of 14,947 deaths in France, between August 4 and 18, 2003. The greatest increase in mortality was due to causes directly attributable to heat: dehydration, hyperthermia, heat stroke. In addition to age and gender, combinatorial factors included preexisting disease, medication, urban residence, isolation, poverty, and, probably, air pollution. Although diversely impacted or reported, many parts of Europe suffered human and other losses, such as farming and forestry through drought and fires. Summer 2003 was the hottest in Europe since 1500, very likely due in part to anthropogenic climate change. The French experience confirms research establishing that heat waves are a major mortal risk, number one among so-called natural hazards in postindustrial societies. Yet France had no policy in place, as if dangerous climate were restricted to a distant or uncertain future of climate change, or to preindustrial countries. We analyze the heat wave's profile as a strongly attenuated risk in the French context, as well as the causes and the effects of its sudden shift into amplification. Research and preparedness needs are highlighted. PMID:16506977

  7. Climate-society feedbacks and the avoidance of dangerous climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, A. J.; Leedal, D. T.; Hewitt, C. N.

    2012-09-01

    The growth in anthropogenic CO2 emissions experienced since the onset of the Industrial Revolution is the most important disturbance operating on the Earth's climate system. To avoid dangerous climate change, future greenhouse-gas emissions will have to deviate from business-as-usual trajectories. This implies that feedback links need to exist between climate change and societal actions. Here, we show that, consciously or otherwise, these feedbacks can be represented by linking global mean temperature change to the growth dynamics of CO2 emissions. We show that the global growth of new renewable sources of energy post-1990 represents a climate-society feedback of ~0.25%yr-1 per degree increase in global mean temperature. We also show that to fulfil the outcomes negotiated in Durban in 2011, society will have to become ~ 50 times more responsive to global mean temperature change than it has been since 1990. If global energy use continues to grow as it has done historically then this would result in amplification of the long-term endogenous rate of decarbonization from -0.6%yr-1 to ~-13%yr-1. It is apparent that modest levels of feedback sensitivity pay large dividends in avoiding climate change but that the marginal return on this effort diminishes rapidly as the required feedback strength increases.

  8. Potential forest fire danger over Northern Eurasia: Changes during the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherstyukov, B. G.; Razuvaev, V. N.; Groisman, P. Y.; Knight, R. W.; Enloe, J. G.

    2004-12-01

    Significant climatic changes over Northern Eurasia during the 20th century have been reflected in numerous variables of economic, social, and ecological interests, including the natural frequency of forest fires. For the former USSR, we are now using the Global Daily Climatology Network (Gleason et al. 2002) and a new Global Synoptic Data Network archive, GSDN, created jointly by NCDC an RIHMI. Data from these archives are employed to estimate systematic changes in indices used in the United States and Russia to assess potential forest fire danger. Within the boundaries of the former USSR, each of the archives, GHCN and GSDN, includes more than 2100 stations with only approximately 1500 of them having sufficiently long meteorological time series suitable for participation in our analyses. We use three indices: (1) Keetch-Byram Drought Index, (KBDI; this index uses only daily data on maximum temperature and precipitation and is developed and widely used in the United States); (2) Modified Nesterov, and (3) Zhdanko Indices (these indices are developed and widely used in Russia; their computation requires synoptic daytime data on temperature and humidity and daily precipitation and snow on the ground). Analyses show that after calibration, time series of the days with increased potential forest fire danger constructed using each of these three indices (a) are well correlated and (b) deliver similar conclusions about systematic changes in the weather conditions conducive to forest fires. Specifically, over the entire Eastern half of Northern Eurasia (Siberia and the Russian Far East) we found a statistically significant increase in indices that characterize the weather conditions conducive to forest fires. These areas coincide with the areas of most significant warming during the past several decades south of the Arctic Circle. West of the Ural Mountains, the same indices show a steady decrease in the frequency of the "dry weather summer days" during the past sixty

  9. Changing Horses in Midstream: The Dangers of Unplanned Head Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinby, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Quick leadership transitions may succeed in other industries, but they don't usually work in the "business of relationships" we call school. Boards that respond to a solvable problem by firing the head may believe that action is necessary and good for the school. In truth, these abrupt changes almost always hurt schools, with devastating…

  10. Living Dangerously--Changing Press Law in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Timothy

    An examination of the changes in press laws after India gained its independence in 1947 shows how a free press is shaped mostly by the structure and evolution of the democratic society that it is intended to serve. The most salient features that have characterized the Indian press, from the early nineteenth century to the present day, are…

  11. Temporal variations and change of forest fire danger in Europe in 1960-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venäläinen, A.; Korhonen, N.; Koutsias, N.; Xystrakis, F.; Urbieta, I. R.; Moreno, J. M.

    2013-11-01

    Understanding how fire-weather danger indices changed in the past, and detecting how changes affected forest fire activity is important in changing climate. We used the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI), calculated from two reanalysis datasets, ERA 40 and ERA Interim, to examine the temporal variation of forest fire danger in Europe in 1960-2012. Additionally, we used national forest-fires statistical data from Greece and Spain to relate fire danger and fire activity. There is no obvious trend in fire danger for the time period covered by ERA 40 (1960-1999) whereas for the period 1980-2012 covered by ERA Interim, the mean FWI and the number of high fire risk days shows an increasing trend which is significant at the 99% confidence level for South and East Europe. The cross-correlation calculated at national level in Greece and Spain between mean yearly area burned and mean FWI of the current season is of the order 0.5-0.6, and demonstrates the importance of the fire-season weather on forest fires. Our results show that, fire risk is multifaceted, and factors like changes in fire fighting capacity, ignition patterns, or landscapes might have played a role in forest fires trends. However, weather trends remain as important determinants of forest fires.

  12. Enzymatic temperature change indicator

    DOEpatents

    Klibanov, Alexander M.; Dordick, Jonathan S.

    1989-01-21

    A temperature change indicator is described which is composed of an enzyme and a substrate for that enzyme suspended in a solid organic solvent or mixture of solvents as a support medium. The organic solvent or solvents are chosen so as to melt at a specific temperature or in a specific temperature range. When the temperature of the indicator is elevated above the chosen, or critical temperature, the solid organic solvent support will melt, and the enzymatic reaction will occur, producing a visually detectable product which is stable to further temperature variation.

  13. The collective-risk social dilemma and the prevention of simulated dangerous climate change.

    PubMed

    Milinski, Manfred; Sommerfeld, Ralf D; Krambeck, Hans-Jürgen; Reed, Floyd A; Marotzke, Jochem

    2008-02-19

    Will a group of people reach a collective target through individual contributions when everyone suffers individually if the target is missed? This "collective-risk social dilemma" exists in various social scenarios, the globally most challenging one being the prevention of dangerous climate change. Reaching the collective target requires individual sacrifice, with benefits to all but no guarantee that others will also contribute. It even seems tempting to contribute less and save money to induce others to contribute more, hence the dilemma and the risk of failure. Here, we introduce the collective-risk social dilemma and simulate it in a controlled experiment: Will a group of people reach a fixed target sum through successive monetary contributions, when they know they will lose all their remaining money with a certain probability if they fail to reach the target sum? We find that, under high risk of simulated dangerous climate change, half of the groups succeed in reaching the target sum, whereas the others only marginally fail. When the risk of loss is only as high as the necessary average investment or even lower, the groups generally fail to reach the target sum. We conclude that one possible strategy to relieve the collective-risk dilemma in high-risk situations is to convince people that failure to invest enough is very likely to cause grave financial loss to the individual. Our analysis describes the social window humankind has to prevent dangerous climate change. PMID:18287081

  14. Dangerous climate change and the importance of adaptation for the Arctic's Inuit population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, James D.

    2009-04-01

    The Arctic's climate is changing rapidly, to the extent that 'dangerous' climate change as defined by the United Nations Framework on Climate Change might already be occurring. These changes are having implications for the Arctic's Inuit population and are being exacerbated by the dependence of Inuit on biophysical resources for livelihoods and the low socio-economic-health status of many northern communities. Given the nature of current climate change and projections of a rapidly warming Arctic, climate policy assumes a particular importance for Inuit regions. This paper argues that efforts to stabilize and reduce greenhouse gas emissions are urgent if we are to avoid runaway climate change in the Arctic, but unlikely to prevent changes which will be dangerous for Inuit. In this context, a new policy discourse on climate change is required for Arctic regions—one that focuses on adaptation. The paper demonstrates that states with Inuit populations and the international community in general has obligations to assist Inuit to adapt to climate change through international human rights and climate change treaties. However, the adaptation deficit, in terms of what we know and what we need to know to facilitate successful adaptation, is particularly large in an Arctic context and limiting the ability to develop response options. Moreover, adaptation as an option of response to climate change is still marginal in policy negotiations and Inuit political actors have been slow to argue the need for adaptation assistance. A new focus on adaptation in both policy negotiations and scientific research is needed to enhance Inuit resilience and reduce vulnerability in a rapidly changing climate.

  15. Dangerous drivers foster social dilemma structures hidden behind a traffic flow with lane changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Jun; Fujiki, Takuya; Wang, Zhen; Hagishima, Aya; Ikegaya, Naoki

    2014-11-01

    Motivated by the fact that there are quite a few ill-mannered drivers who disregard traffic rules concerning lane-changing and maximum speed, we investigated an interesting question: whether or not social dilemma structures can be formed from a frequent dangerous lane-changing attitude in a typical traffic flow without any explicit bottlenecks. In our model system, two classes of driver-agents coexist: C agents (cooperative strategy) always keep to traffic regulations with respect to lane-changing and speed, while D agents (defective strategy) disregard them to move ahead. In relatively high-density flows, such as the metastable and high-density phases, we found structures that correspond to either n-person Prisoner's Dilemma (n-PD) games or to quasi-PD games. In these situations, existing ill-mannered drivers create heavy traffic jams that reduce social efficiency.

  16. Global temperature change

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, James; Sato, Makiko; Ruedy, Reto; Lo, Ken; Lea, David W.; Medina-Elizade, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Global surface temperature has increased ≈0.2°C per decade in the past 30 years, similar to the warming rate predicted in the 1980s in initial global climate model simulations with transient greenhouse gas changes. Warming is larger in the Western Equatorial Pacific than in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific over the past century, and we suggest that the increased West–East temperature gradient may have increased the likelihood of strong El Niños, such as those of 1983 and 1998. Comparison of measured sea surface temperatures in the Western Pacific with paleoclimate data suggests that this critical ocean region, and probably the planet as a whole, is approximately as warm now as at the Holocene maximum and within ≈1°C of the maximum temperature of the past million years. We conclude that global warming of more than ≈1°C, relative to 2000, will constitute “dangerous” climate change as judged from likely effects on sea level and extermination of species. PMID:17001018

  17. Potential forest fire danger over Northern Eurasia: Changes during the 20th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel Ya.; Sherstyukov, Boris G.; Razuvaev, Vyacheslav N.; Knight, Richard W.; Enloe, Jesse G.; Stroumentova, Nina S.; Whitfield, Paul H.; Førland, Eirik; Hannsen-Bauer, Inger; Tuomenvirta, Heikki; Aleksandersson, Hans; Mescherskaya, Anna V.; Karl, Thomas R.

    2007-04-01

    Significant climatic changes over Northern Eurasia during the 20th century have been reflected in numerous variables of economic, social, and ecological interest, including the natural frequency of forest fires. For the former USSR, we are now using the Global Daily Climatology Network and a new Global Synoptic Data Network archive, GSDN, created jointly by U.S. National Climatic Data Center and Russian Research Institute for Hydrometeorological Information. Data from these archives (approximately 1500 of them having sufficiently long meteorological time series suitable for participation in our analyses) are employed to estimate systematic changes in indices used in the United States and Russia to assess potential forest fire danger. We use four indices: (1) Keetch-Byram Drought Index, (KBDI; this index was developed and widely used in the United States); (2) Nesterov, (3) Modified Nesterov, and (4) Zhdanko Indices (these indices were developed and widely used in Russia). Analyses show that after calibration, time series of the days with increased potential forest fire danger constructed using each of these three indices (a) are well correlated and (b) deliver similar conclusions about systematic changes in the weather conditions conducive to forest fires. Specifically, over the Eastern half of Northern Eurasia (Siberia and the Russian Far East) statistically significant increases in indices that characterize the weather conditions conducive to forest fires were found. These areas coincide with the areas of most significant warming during the past several decades south of the Arctic Circle. West of the Ural Mountains, the same indices show a steady decrease in the frequency of "dry weather summer days" during the past 60 yr. This study is corroborated with available statistics of forest fires and with observed changes in drought statistics in agricultural regions of Northern Eurasia.

  18. Embedded Temperature-Change Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thakoor, Sarita; Thakoor, Anil; Karmon, Dan

    1995-01-01

    Transducers sensitive to rates of change of temperature embedded in integrated circuits and discrete electronic components damaged by overheating, according to proposal. Used to detect onset of rapid heating and to trigger shutoffs of power or other corrective actions before temperatures rise beyond safe limits. Sensors respond fast and reliably to incipient overheating because they are in direct thermal contact with vulnerable circuit elements.

  19. Phase Change Fabrics Control Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Originally featured in Spinoff in 1997, Outlast Technologies Inc. (formerly Gateway Technologies Inc.) has built its entire product line on microencapsulated phase change materials, developed in Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Johnson Space Center after initial development for the U.S. Air Force. The Boulder, Colorado-based company acquired the exclusive patent rights and now integrates these materials into textiles or onto finished apparel, providing temperature regulation in bedding materials and a full line of apparel for both ordinary and extreme conditions.

  20. The Danger of Selectively Changing the Rules in Youth Sport: The Case of the Strike Zone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Cesar R.

    2010-01-01

    Albeit well-intentioned, the practice of selectively changing the strike zone to promote young players' welfare is critically flawed. After discussing the central purpose of competitive sport, the duty of officials, and the significance of impartiality in officiating, this article demonstrates that this practice presents numerous practical…

  1. [Dangerous aquaria].

    PubMed

    Satora, Leszek; Morawska, Jowanka; Szkolnicka, Beata; Mitrus, Małgorzata; Targosz, Dorota; Gwiazdowski, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    World trends for a home breeding of exotic freshwater and marine fishes did not miss Poland. There are almost all species of aquarium fishes available in Polish pet shops, but there is not enough information about threat given to customers. In some fish, there are masses of one-cell glands, mainly serous, in the proximity of the spines. In others, those one-cell glands may be grouped in larger aggregates of cells called venom glands, that may form organs resembling multicellular glands of terrestrial animals. They are usually located around the spines or hard rays of the fins. Even if covered with a connective tissue sheath, the aggregates of the venom cells do not have any common outlet; they are not, therefore, proper multicellular glands. The venom glands of the catfish are covered with a thin sheath and they release their contents when the fin ray is pressed. Spines are derived from fin rays. When the spine penetrates the body of its prey, it presses its base against the cells, squashes them and squeezes the venomous contents into the wound. Catfish, lionfish and stonefish have the venom glands producing secretion which could be dangerous. The eels and morays blood is also dangerous, as well as slime of reduced squamae. Poison information centers noted several cases of fishes' stings in Poland. PMID:16225137

  2. Headaches - danger signs

    MedlinePlus

    Migraine headache - danger signs; Tension headache - danger signs; Cluster headache - danger signs; Vascular headache - danger signs ... and bleeding in the brain can cause a headache. These problems include: Abnormal connection between the arteries ...

  3. [Dangerous animals].

    PubMed

    Hasle, Gunnar

    2002-06-30

    As travellers seek ever more exotic destinations they are more likely to encounter dangerous animals. Compared to risks such as AIDS, traffic accidents and malaria, the risk is not so great; many travellers are, however, concerned about this and those who give pre-travel vaccines and advice should know something about it. This article is mainly based on medical and zoological textbooks. Venomous stings and bites may be prevented by adequate clothing and by keeping safe distance to the animals. Listening to those who live in the area is of course important. Travellers should not carry antisera with them, but antisera should be available at local hospitals. It should be borne in mind that plant eaters cause just as many deaths as large predators. In some cases it is necessary to carry a sufficiently powerful firearm. PMID:12555616

  4. Undulator Changes Due To Temperature Excursions

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, Zachary; Levashov, Yurii; Reese, Ed; /SLAC

    2010-11-17

    The temperature of the LCLS undulators has not been controlled during storage. The effects of the temperature excursions are documented in this note. After a number of LCLS undulators were tuned, fiducialized, and placed in storage anticipating their use, a test was made to ensure that their properties had not changed. The test revealed, however, that indeed the undulators had changed. Detailed study of this problem followed. We now believe that the gap of the undulators changes permanently when the undulators go through temperature excursions. We have tested the other possible cause, transportation, and do not see gap changes. In this note, we document how the undulators have changed since they were originally tuned. The undulators were tuned and fiducialized in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF). Afterward, many of them (approximately 18) were taken to building 750 for storage during summer and fall 2007. Building 750 had no temperature control. The undulator temperatures went from 20 C, used for tuning, down to approximately 11 C during the winter. In January 2008, three of the undulators were brought back to the MMF for a check. All three undulators showed similar changes. Trajectories, phases, and most undulator properties stayed the same, but the fiducialization (beam axis position relative to tooling balls on the undulator) had changed. Further investigation showed that the undulator gap was altered in a periodic way along the magnetic axis with a net average gap change causing the fiducialization change. A new storage location in building 33 was found and future undulators were placed there. A failure in the temperature control, however, caused the undulators to get too hot. Again the gap changed, but with a different periodic pattern. This note documents the measured changes in the undulators. In particular, it shows the detailed history of undulator 39 which went through both negative and positive temperature excursions.

  5. GISS Analysis of Surface Temperature Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, J.; Ruedy, R.; Glascoe, J.; Sato, M.

    1999-01-01

    We describe the current GISS analysis of surface temperature change based primarily on meteorological station measurements. The global surface temperature in 1998 was the warmest in the period of instrumental data. The rate of temperature change is higher in the past 25 years than at any previous time in the period of instrumental data. The warmth of 1998 is too large and pervasive to be fully accounted for by the recent El Nino, suggesting that global temperature may have moved to a higher level, analogous to the increase that occurred in the late 1970s. The warming in the United States over the past 50 years is smaller than in most of the world, and over that period there is a slight cooling trend in the Eastern United States and the neighboring Atlantic ocean. The spatial and temporal patterns of the temperature change suggest that more than one mechanism is involved in this regional cooling.

  6. GISS Analysis of Surface Temperature Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, J.; Ruedy, R.; Glascoe, J.; Sato, M.

    1999-01-01

    We describe the current GISS analysis of surface temperature change for the period 1880-1999 based primarily on meteorological station measurements. The global surface temperature in 1998 was the warmest in the period of instrumental data. The rate of temperature change was higher in the past 25 years than at any previous time in the period of instrumental data. The warmth of 1998 was too large and pervasive to be fully accounted for by the recent El Nino. Despite cooling in the first half of 1999, we suggest that the mean global temperature, averaged over 2-3 years, has moved to a higher level, analogous to the increase that occurred in the late 1970s. Warming in the United States over the past 50 years has been smaller than in most of the world, and over that period there was a slight cooling trend in the Eastern United States and the neighboring Atlantic Ocean. The spatial and temporal patterns of the temperature change suggest that more than one mechanism was involved in this regional cooling. The cooling trend in the United States, which began after the 1930s and is associated with ocean temperature change patterns, began to reverse after 1979. We suggest that further warming in the United States to a level rivaling the 1930s is likely in the next decade, but reliable prediction requires better understanding of decadal oscillations of ocean temperature.

  7. [Dangerous games in schoolchildren].

    PubMed

    Le Heuzey, M-F

    2011-02-01

    Dangerous games inside or outside school are a serious social phenomenon, but unfortunately underrecognized. Aggressive games are a part of school bullying, which is in expansion. Choking games are very dangerous, with many deaths or serious neurologic complications. Pediatricians should be knowledgeable about risky behaviors encountered by their patients, and provide guidance about its dangers. PMID:21146376

  8. Wildfire Danger Potential in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafatos, M.; Myoung, B.; Kim, S. H.; Fujioka, F. M.; Kim, J.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfires are an important concern in California (CA) which is characterized by the semi-arid to arid climate and vegetation types. Highly variable winter precipitation and extended hot and dry warm season in the region challenge an effective strategic fire management. Climatologically, the fire season which is based on live fuel moisture (LFM) of generally below 80% in Los Angeles County spans 4 months from mid-July to mid-November, but it has lasted over 7 months in the past several years. This behavior is primarily due to the ongoing drought in CA during the last decade, which is responsible for frequent outbreaks of severe wildfires in the region. Despite their importance, scientific advances for the recent changes in wildfire risk and effective assessments of wildfire risk are lacking. In the present study, we show impacts of large-scale atmospheric circulations on an early start and then extended length of fire seasons. For example, the strong relationships of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) with springtime temperature and precipitation in the SWUS that was recently revealed by our team members have led to an examination of the possible impact of NAO on wildfire danger in the spring. Our results show that the abnormally warm and dry spring conditions associated with positive NAO phases can cause an early start of a fire season and high fire risks throughout the summer and fall. For an effective fire danger assessment, we have tested the capability of satellite vegetation indices (VIs) in replicating in situ LFM of Southern CA chaparral ecosystems by 1) comparing seasonal/interannual characteristics of in-situ LFM with VIs and 2) developing an empirical model function of LFM. Unlike previous studies attempting a point-to-point comparison, we attempt to examine the LFM relationship with VIs averaged over different areal coverage with chamise-dominant grids (i.e., 0.5 km to 25 km radius circles). Lastly, we discuss implications of the results for fire danger

  9. Changes in Soil Temperature Regimes under Regional Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millar, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    Soil temperatures can provide a smoothed record of regional changes in atmospheric conditions due to soil thermal properties that reduce the annual air and surface temperature amplitude. In areas with seasonal snow cover, however, its insulating effect isolates the soil thermal regime from winter air temperatures. Under changing regional climate patterns, snow cover extent, depth and duration are decreasing. The net effect is thus an expected winter cooling of soil temperature. However, the extent to which this might be mitigated by warmer summer conditions, and changing soil moisture remains to be seen. To examine the relative strength of a cold-season cooling signal versus enhanced summer warming, a network of soil temperature loggers has recorded hourly soil temperatures over the period 2005-2013 within a single watershed experiencing 'lake effect snow'. Elevations range from 168 m to 612 m, on Silurian and Ordovician shale, limestone, and sandstone that have been heavily glaciated. Most of the sites are located on NY Department of Environmental Conservation land in mixed, hardwood and spruce forests. At six sites in varied topographic and land-use setting, two ONSET HOBO Outdoor 4 channel soil temperature loggers are deployed in order to reduce concerns of data reliability and systematic logger drift. Five sites also record air temperature using HOBO Pro Series Temperature loggers at three sites and HOBO Weather Stations at two. Soil temperature data are recorded at hourly intervals at depths of 2-, 5-, 10-, and 25-cm. Several other sites have been operationalized over the 8 year period, but have been tampered with, damaged, stolen, or have failed. These partial records are included to provide greater geographic representation of changing conditions where possible. Data indicate decreasing winter soil temperatures in specific land-use and topographic settings. Only one site, located in a dense spruce plantation, experiences soil freezing within the top 5 cm

  10. Seasonal Changes in Surface Temperatures on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.

    2010-01-01

    The surface brightness temperatures on Titan have been measured by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) aboard Cassini during the period spanning late northern winter through vernal equinox. CIRS observes radiance from the surface through a spectral window at 19 microns where the atmosphere has an opacity minimum [I]. CIRS is now seeing a shift in the latitudinal distribution of temperatures froth a distinctly warmer south to a more symmetrical north -south pattern, similar to that found by Voyager IRIS [2,3] at the time of the previous vernal equinox. Near the equator the temperatures remain close to the 93.7 K value found at the surface by Huygens [4]. From the equator to the poles the temperature gradients are 2-3 K. When compared with predictions froth general circulation models [5] the measured temperatures and their seasonal changes constrain the possible types of surface material. As Cassini continues through Titan's northern spring CiRS will extend its, global coverage to took for correlations between surface temperatures and albedo and to search for diurnal temperature variations

  11. Effects of temperature changes on groundwater ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griebler, Christian; Kellermann, Claudia; Schreglmann, Kathrin; Lueders, Tillmann; Brielmann, Heike; Schmidt, Susanne; Kuntz, David; Walker-Hertkorn, Simone

    2014-05-01

    The use of groundwater as a carrier of thermal energy is becoming more and more important as a sustainable source of heating and cooling. At the same time, the present understanding of the effects of aquifer thermal usage on geochemical and biological aquifer ecosystem functions is extremely limited. Recently we started to assess the effects of temperature changes in groundwater on the ecological integrity of aquifers. In a field study, we have monitored hydrogeochemical, microbial, and faunal parameters in groundwater of an oligotrophic aquifer in the vicinity of an active thermal discharge facility. The observed seasonal variability of abiotic and biotic parameters between wells was considerable. Yet, due to the energy-limited conditions no significant temperature impacts on bacterial or faunal abundances and on bacterial productivity were observed. In contrast, the diversity of aquifer bacterial communities and invertebrate fauna was either positively or negatively affected by temperature, respectively. In follow-up laboratory experiments temperature effects were systematically evaluated with respect to energy limitation (e.g. establishment of unlimited growth conditions), geochemistry (e.g. dynamics of DOC and nutrients), microbiology (e.g. survival of pathogens), and fauna (temperature preference and tolerance). First, with increased nutrient and organic carbon concentrations even small temperature changes revealed microbiological dynamics. Second, considerable amounts of adsorbed DOC were mobilized from sediments of different origin with an increase in temperatures. No evidence was obtained for growth of pathogenic bacteria and extended survival of viruses at elevated temperatures. Invertebrates clearly preferred natural thermal conditions (10-12°C), where their highest frequency of appearance was measured in a temperature gradient. Short-term incubations (48h) of invertebrates in temperature dose-response tests resulted in LT50 (lethal temperature) values

  12. Changes in Concurrent Precipitation and Temperature Extremes

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Phillips, Thomas J.

    2013-08-01

    While numerous studies have addressed changes in climate extremes, analyses of concurrence of climate extremes are scarce, and climate change effects on joint extremes are rarely considered. This study assesses the occurrence of joint (concurrent) monthly continental precipitation and temperature extremes in Climate Research Unit (CRU) and University of Delaware (UD) observations, and in 13 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate simulations. Moreover, the joint occurrences of precipitation and temperature extremes simulated by CMIP5 climate models are compared with those derived from the CRU and UD observations for warm/wet, warm/dry, cold/wet, and cold/dry combinations of joint extremes. The number of occurrences of these four combinations during the second half of the 20th century (1951–2004) is assessed on a common global grid. CRU and UD observations show substantial increases in the occurrence of joint warm/dry and warm/wet combinations for the period 1978–2004 relative to 1951–1977. The results show that with respect to the sign of change in the concurrent extremes, the CMIP5 climate model simulations are in reasonable overall agreement with observations. The results reveal notable discrepancies between regional patterns and the magnitude of change in individual climate model simulations relative to the observations of precipitation and temperature.

  13. Changes in Concurrent Precipitation and Temperature Extremes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hao, Zengchao; AghaKouchak, Amir; Phillips, Thomas J.

    2013-08-01

    While numerous studies have addressed changes in climate extremes, analyses of concurrence of climate extremes are scarce, and climate change effects on joint extremes are rarely considered. This study assesses the occurrence of joint (concurrent) monthly continental precipitation and temperature extremes in Climate Research Unit (CRU) and University of Delaware (UD) observations, and in 13 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) global climate simulations. Moreover, the joint occurrences of precipitation and temperature extremes simulated by CMIP5 climate models are compared with those derived from the CRU and UD observations for warm/wet, warm/dry, cold/wet, and cold/dry combinations of joint extremes.more » The number of occurrences of these four combinations during the second half of the 20th century (1951–2004) is assessed on a common global grid. CRU and UD observations show substantial increases in the occurrence of joint warm/dry and warm/wet combinations for the period 1978–2004 relative to 1951–1977. The results show that with respect to the sign of change in the concurrent extremes, the CMIP5 climate model simulations are in reasonable overall agreement with observations. The results reveal notable discrepancies between regional patterns and the magnitude of change in individual climate model simulations relative to the observations of precipitation and temperature.« less

  14. SEASONAL CHANGES IN TITAN'S SURFACE TEMPERATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Samuelson, R. E.; Romani, P. N.; Hesman, B. E.; Carlson, R. C.; Gorius, N. J. P.; Coustenis, A.; Tokano, T.

    2011-08-10

    Seasonal changes in Titan's surface brightness temperatures have been observed by Cassini in the thermal infrared. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer measured surface radiances at 19 {mu}m in two time periods: one in late northern winter (LNW; L{sub s} = 335 deg.) and another centered on northern spring equinox (NSE; L{sub s} = 0 deg.). In both periods we constructed pole-to-pole maps of zonally averaged brightness temperatures corrected for effects of the atmosphere. Between LNW and NSE a shift occurred in the temperature distribution, characterized by a warming of {approx}0.5 K in the north and a cooling by about the same amount in the south. At equinox the polar surface temperatures were both near 91 K and the equator was at 93.4 K. We measured a seasonal lag of {Delta}L{sub S} {approx} 9{sup 0} in the meridional surface temperature distribution, consistent with the post-equinox results of Voyager 1 as well as with predictions from general circulation modeling. A slightly elevated temperature is observed at 65{sup 0} S in the relatively cloud-free zone between the mid-latitude and southern cloud regions.

  15. Seasonal Changes in Titan's Surface Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennins, Donald E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Samuelson, R. E.; Romani, P. N.; Hesman, B. E.; Carlson, R. C.; Gorius, N. J. P.; Coustenis, A.; Tokano, T.

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal changes in Titan's surface brightness temperatures have been observed by Cassini in the thermal infrared. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) measured surface radiances at 19 micron in two time periods: one in late northern winter (Ls = 335d eg) and another centered on northern spring equinox (Ls = 0 deg). In both periods we constructed pole-to-pole maps of zonally averaged brightness temperatures corrected for effects of the atmosphere. Between late northern winter and northern spring equinox a shift occurred in the temperature distribution, characterized by a warming of approximately 0.5 K in the north and a cooling by about the same amount in the south. At equinox the polar surface temperatures were both near 91 K and the equator was 93.4 K. We measured a seasonal lag of delta Ls approximately 9 in the meridional surface temperature distribution, consistent with the post-equinox results of Voyager 1 as well as with predictions from general circulation modeling. A slightly elevated temperature is observed at 65 deg S in the relatively cloud-free zone between the mid-latitude and southern cloud regions.

  16. Dangerous marine life.

    PubMed

    Harrison, L J

    1992-09-01

    All physicians must be educated in treating injuries incurred when a diver comes into contact with any dangerous marine life. Stinging invertebrates are the most commonly encountered dangerous marine animals. Venomous vertebrate marine animals are less common than stinging invertebrates and easier to recognize. However, they may be much more deadly. Sharks pose the greatest danger to divers. However, bites from other marine animals can be painful, become infected and require extensive medical treatment. PMID:1358999

  17. Fitting the observed changes of global surface temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtillot, V.; Le Mouël, J.; Kossobokov, V. G.; Gibert, D.; Lopes, F.

    2012-12-01

    The quality of the fit of a trivial or, conversely, delicately-designed model to the observed natural phenomena is the fundamental pillar stone of any forecasting, including forecasting of the Earth's Climate. Using precise mathematical and logical systems outside their range of applicability can be scientifically groundless, unwise, and even dangerous. The temperature data sets are naturally in the basis of any hypothesizing on variability and forecasting the Earth's Climate. Leaving open the question of the global temperature definitions and their determination (T), we have analyzed hemispheric and global monthly temperature anomaly series produced by the Climate Research Unit of the University of East Anglia (CRUTEM4 database) and more recently by the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature consortium (BEST database). We first fit the data in 1850-2010 with polynomials of degrees 1 to 9 and compare it with exponential fit by the adjusted R-squared criterion that takes into consideration the number of free parameters of the model. In all the cases considered, the adjusted R-squared values for polynomials are larger than for the exponential as soon as the degree exceeds 1 or 2. The polynomial fits become even more satisfactory as soon as degree 5 or 6 is reached. Extrapolations of these trends outside of the data domain show quick divergence. For example, the CRUTEM4vNH fit in the decade 2010-2020, for degrees 2 to 5, rises steeply then, for degrees 6 to 9, reverses to steep decreasing: the reversal in extrapolated trends arises from improved ability to fit the observed "~60-yr" wave in 150 years of data prior to 2010. The extrapolations prior to 1850 are even more erratic, linked with the increased dispersion of the early data. When focusing the analysis of fits on 1900-2010 we find that the apparent oscillations of T can be modeled by a series of linear segments: An optimal fit suggests 4 slope breaks indicating two clear transitions in 1940 and 1975, and two that

  18. Assessing 'Dangerous Climate Change': Required Reduction of Carbon Emissions to Protect Young People, Future Generations and Nature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Demotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J.; Hearty, Paul J.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrum, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J.; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Conrad; VanSusteren, Lise; VonShuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C.

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of approx.500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of approx.1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2 C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4 C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels.

  19. Assessing "dangerous climate change": required reduction of carbon emissions to protect young people, future generations and nature.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Ackerman, Frank; Beerling, David J; Hearty, Paul J; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Hsu, Shi-Ling; Parmesan, Camille; Rockstrom, Johan; Rohling, Eelco J; Sachs, Jeffrey; Smith, Pete; Steffen, Konrad; Van Susteren, Lise; von Schuckmann, Karina; Zachos, James C

    2013-01-01

    We assess climate impacts of global warming using ongoing observations and paleoclimate data. We use Earth's measured energy imbalance, paleoclimate data, and simple representations of the global carbon cycle and temperature to define emission reductions needed to stabilize climate and avoid potentially disastrous impacts on today's young people, future generations, and nature. A cumulative industrial-era limit of ∼500 GtC fossil fuel emissions and 100 GtC storage in the biosphere and soil would keep climate close to the Holocene range to which humanity and other species are adapted. Cumulative emissions of ∼1000 GtC, sometimes associated with 2°C global warming, would spur "slow" feedbacks and eventual warming of 3-4°C with disastrous consequences. Rapid emissions reduction is required to restore Earth's energy balance and avoid ocean heat uptake that would practically guarantee irreversible effects. Continuation of high fossil fuel emissions, given current knowledge of the consequences, would be an act of extraordinary witting intergenerational injustice. Responsible policymaking requires a rising price on carbon emissions that would preclude emissions from most remaining coal and unconventional fossil fuels and phase down emissions from conventional fossil fuels. PMID:24312568

  20. Seasonal Changes in Titan's Surface Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Nixon, Conor A.; Cottini, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    Cassini's extended mission has provided the opportunity to search for seasonal variations on Titan. In particular, surface temperatures are expected to have shifted significantly in latitude during the completed portion of the mission. Spectra recorded by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) during the nominal mission (2004-08) and the Equinox mission. (2008-10) have already shown changes in temperature. CIRS has detected a seasonal shift in the latitudinal distribution of surface brightness temperatures by comparing zonal averages from two time segments, one period in late northern winter centered on L(sub s) approximately 335 deg and a second period centered on the equinox (L(sub s) approximately 0 deg.). The earlier period had a meridional distribution similar to that previously reported: 93.5 K at the equator, 91.7 K at 85 S and 899 K at 85 N. The newly measured distribution near equinox shows a cooling in the south and a warming in the north, both by about 0.5 K. We estimate that. the centroid of the distribution moved from approximately 16 S to 7 S between the two periods. This gives a seasonal lag behind insolation of delta L(sub s) approximately 13 deg. The CIRS equinox results are consistent with those of Voyager IRIS, which encountered Titan in November 1980, just following the previous northern equinox (L(sub s) = 10 deg.). When compared with predictions from general circulation models, seasonal variations of surface temperature can help constrain the identification of surface materials. Our measurements most closely match the case of a porous ice regolith treated by Tokano, but with some apparent differences between the northern and southern hemispheres. CIRS will extend its study of seasonal variations in surface temperature on Titan as Cassini continues through northern spring.

  1. Stratospheric Temperature Changes: Observations and Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Chanin, M.-L.; Angell, J.; Barnett, J.; Gaffen, D.; Gelman, M.; Keckhut, P.; Koshelkov, Y.; Labitzke, K.; Lin, J.-J. R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews observations of stratospheric temperatures that have been made over a period of several decades. Those observed temperatures have been used to assess variations and trends in stratospheric temperatures. A wide range of observation datasets have been used, comprising measurements by radiosonde (1940s to the present), satellite (1979 - present), lidar (1979 - present) and rocketsonde (periods varying with location, but most terminating by about the mid-1990s). In addition, trends have also been assessed from meteorological analyses, based on radiosonde and/or satellite data, and products based on assimilating observations into a general circulation model. Radiosonde and satellite data indicate a cooling trend of the annual-mean lower stratosphere since about 1980. Over the period 1979-1994, the trend is 0.6K/decade. For the period prior to 1980, the radiosonde data exhibit a substantially weaker long-term cooling trend. In the northern hemisphere, the cooling trend is about 0.75K/decade in the lower stratosphere, with a reduction in the cooling in mid-stratosphere (near 35 km), and increased cooling in the upper stratosphere (approximately 2 K per decade at 50 km). Model simulations indicate that the depletion of lower stratospheric ozone is the dominant factor in the observed lower stratospheric cooling. In the middle and upper stratosphere both the well-mixed greenhouse gases (such as CO) and ozone changes contribute in an important manner to the cooling.

  2. Relative outcomes of climate change mitigation related to global temperature versus sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meehl, Gerald A.; Hu, Aixue; Tebaldi, Claudia; Arblaster, Julie M.; Washington, Warren M.; Teng, Haiyan; Sanderson, Benjamin M.; Ault, Toby; Strand, Warren G.; White, James B.

    2012-08-01

    There is a common perception that, if human societies make the significant adjustments necessary to substantively cut emissions of greenhouse gases, global temperature increases could be stabilized, and the most dangerous consequences of climate change could be avoided. Here we show results from global coupled climate model simulations with the new representative concentration pathway mitigation scenarios to 2300 to illustrate that, with aggressive mitigation in two of the scenarios, globally averaged temperature increase indeed could be stabilized either below 2 °C or near 3 °C above pre-industrial values. However, even as temperatures stabilize, sea level would continue to rise. With little mitigation, future sea-level rise would be large and continue unabated for centuries. Though sea-level rise cannot be stopped for at least the next several hundred years, with aggressive mitigation it can be slowed down, and this would buy time for adaptation measures to be adopted.

  3. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Sep. 26, 2013 It ... she first put in a pair of colored contact lenses, Laura Butler of Parkersburg, W.Va., had " ...

  4. Beyond the Mean: Biological Impacts of Cryptic Temperature Change.

    PubMed

    Sheldon, Kimberly S; Dillon, Michael E

    2016-07-01

    Studies have typically used shifts in mean temperatures to make predictions about the biotic impacts of climate change. Though shifts in mean temperatures correlate with changes in phenology and distributions, other hidden, or cryptic, changes in temperature, such as temperature variation and extreme temperatures, could pose greater risks to species and ecological communities. Yet, these cryptic temperature changes have received relatively little attention because mean temperatures are readily available and the organism-appropriate temperature response is often elusive. An alternative to using mean temperatures is to view organisms as physiological filters of hourly temperature data. We explored three classes of physiological filters: (1) nonlinear thermal responses using performance curves of insect fitness, (2) cumulative thermal effects using degree-day models for corn emergence, and (3) threshold temperature effects using critical thermal maxima and minima for diverse ectotherms. For all three physiological filters, we determined the change in biological impacts of hourly temperature data from a standard reference period (1961-90) to a current period (2005-10). We then examined how well mean temperature changes during the same time period predicted the biotic impacts we determined from hourly temperature data. In all cases, mean temperature alone provided poor predictions of the impacts of climate change. These results suggest that incorporating high frequency temperature data can provide better predictions for how species will respond to temperature change. PMID:27081192

  5. A Danger-Theory-Based Immune Network Optimization Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Xiao, Xin; Shi, Yuanquan

    2013-01-01

    Existing artificial immune optimization algorithms reflect a number of shortcomings, such as premature convergence and poor local search ability. This paper proposes a danger-theory-based immune network optimization algorithm, named dt-aiNet. The danger theory emphasizes that danger signals generated from changes of environments will guide different levels of immune responses, and the areas around danger signals are called danger zones. By defining the danger zone to calculate danger signals for each antibody, the algorithm adjusts antibodies' concentrations through its own danger signals and then triggers immune responses of self-regulation. So the population diversity can be maintained. Experimental results show that the algorithm has more advantages in the solution quality and diversity of the population. Compared with influential optimization algorithms, CLONALG, opt-aiNet, and dopt-aiNet, the algorithm has smaller error values and higher success rates and can find solutions to meet the accuracies within the specified function evaluation times. PMID:23483853

  6. Temperature Trapping: Energy-Free Maintenance of Constant Temperatures as Ambient Temperature Gradients Change.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiangying; Li, Ying; Jiang, Chaoran; Huang, Jiping

    2016-07-29

    It is crucial to maintain constant temperatures in an energy-efficient way. Here we establish a temperature-trapping theory for asymmetric phase-transition materials with thermally responsive thermal conductivities. Then we theoretically introduce and experimentally demonstrate a concept of an energy-free thermostat within ambient temperature gradients. The thermostat is capable of self-maintaining a desired constant temperature without the need of consuming energy even though the environmental temperature gradient varies in a large range. As a model application of the concept, we design and show a different type of thermal cloak that has a constant temperature inside its central region in spite of the changing ambient temperature gradient, which is in sharp contrast to all the existing thermal cloaks. This work has relevance to energy-saving heat preservation, and it provides guidance both for manipulating heat flow without energy consumption and for designing new metamaterials with temperature-responsive or field-responsive parameters in many disciplines such as thermotics, optics, electromagnetics, acoustics, mechanics, electrics, and magnetism. PMID:27517778

  7. Temperature Trapping: Energy-Free Maintenance of Constant Temperatures as Ambient Temperature Gradients Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xiangying; Li, Ying; Jiang, Chaoran; Huang, Jiping

    2016-07-01

    It is crucial to maintain constant temperatures in an energy-efficient way. Here we establish a temperature-trapping theory for asymmetric phase-transition materials with thermally responsive thermal conductivities. Then we theoretically introduce and experimentally demonstrate a concept of an energy-free thermostat within ambient temperature gradients. The thermostat is capable of self-maintaining a desired constant temperature without the need of consuming energy even though the environmental temperature gradient varies in a large range. As a model application of the concept, we design and show a different type of thermal cloak that has a constant temperature inside its central region in spite of the changing ambient temperature gradient, which is in sharp contrast to all the existing thermal cloaks. This work has relevance to energy-saving heat preservation, and it provides guidance both for manipulating heat flow without energy consumption and for designing new metamaterials with temperature-responsive or field-responsive parameters in many disciplines such as thermotics, optics, electromagnetics, acoustics, mechanics, electrics, and magnetism.

  8. [Dangerous, illegal captivities].

    PubMed

    Winnik, Lidia; Lis, Leszek

    2005-01-01

    On the 21st of August 1997 the Polish legislature introduced the first animal protection law nr 724. This act however failed to specify in a clear and proper manner the problem of possession and maintenance of dangerous animals, which allows its multiple interpretations. Poland ratified the Washington Convention in 1990 restricting the trade of animals classified as endangered species. The present regulations enable illegal purchase and trade of those animals. According to the available data illegal trade of such animals, as well as the trade of products obtained from them, ranks in the third position in terms of crime generated income, only after the trade of drugs and weapons. In our country the sales of such animals have been growing at an alarming rate. The animals often get out of the control of their owners, or are abandoned by them. The presented work describes cases of reptiles being found in public places in our region. It also mentions the problem of possible dangers associated with intentional letting out of such animals in public places. The aim of the following paper is the analysis of the problem of raising of exotic animals, in particular venomous snakes and other animals, the possession of which may be dangerous not only for the owner but also for the people around. The existing laws and executive procedures have been discussed. Both, the family doctors as well as toxicologists have little knowledge as far as diagnosis and treatment of cases of stinging and biting by exotic animals is concerned. The authors suggest providing medical emergency doctors, family doctors and surgeons, with clinic toxicology programs, as well as introduction of special courses for middle medical personnel. Establishment of a central database and a database concerned with basic polyvalent serums are crucial in our country in order have the Toxicology Centers ready to face possible dangers associated with dangerous animals, and to prepare emergency solutions in cases of

  9. Dangers of the vagina.

    PubMed

    Beit-Hallahmi, B

    1985-12-01

    Beliefs, myths, and literary expressions of men's fear of female genitals are reviewed. Both clinical evidence and folklore provide evidence that men imagine female genitals not only as a source of pleasure and attraction, but also as a source of danger in a very physical sense. The vagina dentata myth has many versions, including some modern ones, and its message is always the same: an awesome danger emanating from a woman's body. The prevalence of such feelings in folklore and in literature is noted. PMID:3841494

  10. Reflections on Dangerous Fieldwork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peritore, N. Patrick

    1990-01-01

    Stresses the danger of sociological fieldwork in Latin America for researcher and subject. Recommends that the researcher build a network of contacts for support and protection. Discusses the interpersonal relations, problems of security, and field entry techniques involved in sensitive research situations. Suggests unobtrusive methods of research…

  11. Radon: The Silent Danger.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoffel, Jennifer

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses the public health dangers associated with radon exposure in homes and schools. In addition, testing and corrective efforts by federal and state agencies are discussed. A map indicating areas in the U.S. with potentially high radon levels is included. (IAH)

  12. A Danger to Ourselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In this article Richard Barbieri asserts that the biggest danger to our own safety and well-being, and that of our children, comes not from adult predators, environmental hazards, or the class bully, but from traits common to us all. The enemy is us, and not least because we too often jump to such strategies as clobbering. Writers from such varied…

  13. Noble Gas Temperature Proxy for Climate Change

    EPA Science Inventory

    Noble gases in groundwater appear to offer a practical approach for quantitatively determining past surface air temperatures over recharge areas for any watershed. The noble gas temperature (NGT) proxy should then permit a paleothermometry of a region over time. This terrestria...

  14. Sensitivity of flowering phenology to changing temperature in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haicheng; Yuan, Wenping; Liu, Shuguang; Dong, Wenjie; Fu, Yang

    2015-08-01

    Plant phenology is one of the preferred indicators of climate change, and its variation potentially impacts community dynamics and ecosystem functions. To better understand the responses of plants' flowering phenology to rising temperatures, we investigated the temperature sensitivity (expressed as the date of changes in phenology per change in temperature in degree Celsius, d °C-1) of flowering phenology for more than 220 plant species at 59 sites in China during the period 1963-1988. Our results indicated that most flowerings in China were significantly sensitive to the temperature in the 2 months (60 days) prior to the flowering dates. Plants in warmer regions showed larger sensitivities to increased temperatures. Species flowering in the late spring and early summer were generally less sensitive to changing temperature than species flowering at other times of the year. For plants flowering in the spring, species that flower earlier showed higher temperature sensitivity; however, for plants flowering in the summer and autumn, species that flower earlier showed lower temperature sensitivity. The responses of the first and last flowering times to changing temperature were mostly consistent, so flowering durations were rarely (6.1%) sensitive to changing temperature. We hypothesize that plants in cold regions may have adapted to the more variable temperatures and thus showed lower temperature sensitivities than plants in warm regions. Overall, the responses of flowering phenology to temperature varied significantly among temperature zones and plant species, so it should be considered carefully when estimating the impacts of climate warming on the terrestrial biosphere.

  15. Assessing stream temperature response to environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, R. J.; Boon, S.; Byrne, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Stream temperature controls aquatic ecosystem function by directly influencing water quality, ecosystem productivity, and the physiological functioning of aquatic organisms. To date, there are limited studies of the impacts of environmental disturbance on stream temperature, particularly on the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains. This region provides key habitat for native salmonid species such as westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) and bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), which are listed as ‘threatened’ and ‘species of special concern’, respectively. Increases in stream temperature could limit habitat availability, reduce competitive advantage, and potentially increase mortality rates for these native species. This study uses field data collected at high spatiotemporal resolution to develop a spatial stream temperature model that simulates the mass and energy balance of the stream system. Preliminary field results demonstrate the high spatial and temporal variability in processes governing stream temperature in three study stream reaches. Groundwater/surface water interactions, topographic setting, and local meteorological conditions all contribute in determining stream thermal regimes. This work discusses how these primary drivers of stream temperature can be incorporated into a physically based spatial model, and demonstrates how depending on the scale of interest, the temperature of a stream can be governed by very different contributing factors.

  16. Seasonal Surface Temperature Changes on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Cottini, Valeria; Nixon, Conor A.; Coustenis, Athena; Tokano, Tetsuya

    2015-11-01

    The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on Cassini has been measuring surface brightness temperatures on Titan since 2004 (Jennings et al. 2011; Cottini et al. 2012; Tan et al. 2015). Radiation from the surface reaches space through a window of minimum opacity in Titan’s atmosphere near 19 microns wavelength. We mapped surface temperatures in five time periods, each about 2 years, centered on solar longitudes Ls = 313°, 335°, 0°, 28° and 53° degrees. Using zonally-averaged spectra binned in 10-degree latitude intervals, we clearly see the seasonal progression of the pole-to-pole temperature distribution. Whereas peak temperatures in the vicinity of the Equator have been close to 94 K throughout the Cassini mission, early in the mission temperatures at the North Pole were as low as 90 K and at the South Pole were 92 K. Late in the mission the pattern has reversed: 92 K in the north and 90 K in the south. Over 2005 to 2014 the peak temperature moved in latitude from about 15 S to 15 N. We estimate a seasonal lag of 0.2 Titan month. In 2010 the temperature distribution was approximately symmetric north and south, agreeing with Voyager 1 from one Titan year earlier. The surface temperatures follow closely the predictions of Tokano (2005). Our measurements may indicate a lower thermal inertia in the south than in the north.Jennings, D.E. et al., ApJ Lett. 737, L15 (2011)Cottini, V. et al., 2012. Planet. Space Sci. 60, 62 (2012)Tan, S. P. et al., Icarus 250, 64 (2015)Tokano, T., Icarus 204, 619 (2005)

  17. Effect of temperature change on anammox activity.

    PubMed

    Lotti, T; Kleerebezem, R; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-01-01

    Autotrophic nitrogen removal appears as a prerequisite for the implementation of energy autarchic municipal wastewater treatment plants. Whilst the application of anammox-related technologies in the side-stream is at present state of the art, the feasibility of this energy-efficient process in main-stream conditions is still under investigation. Lower operating temperatures and ammonium concentrations, together with a demand for high and stable nitrogen removal efficiency, represent the main challenges to overcome for this appealing new frontier of the wastewater treatment field. In this study, we report the short-term effect of temperature on the maximum biomass specific activity of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria as evaluated by means of batch tests. The experiments were performed on anammox biomass sampled from two full-scale reactors and two lab-scale reactors, all characterized by different reactor configurations and operating conditions. The results indicate that for the anammox conversion, the temperature dependency cannot be accurately modeled by one single Arrhenius coefficient (i.e., θ) as typically applied for other biological processes. The temperature effect is increasing at lower temperatures. Adaptation of anammox bacteria after long-term cultivation at 20 and 10°C was observed. Implications for modeling and process design are finally discussed. PMID:25042674

  18. Recording Rapidly Changing Cylinder-wall Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, Adolph

    1942-01-01

    The present report deals with the design and testing of a measuring plug suggested by H. Pfriem for recording quasi-stationary cylinder wall temperatures. The new device is a resistance thermometer, the temperature-susceptible part of which consists of a gold coating applied by evaporation under high vacuum and electrolytically strengthened. After overcoming initial difficulties, calibration of plugs up to and beyond 400 degrees C was possible. The measurements were made on high-speed internal combustion engines. The increasing effect of carbon deposit at the wall surface with increasing operating period is indicated by means of charts.

  19. Potential dangers of cannabis.

    PubMed

    Kaymakçalan, S

    1975-01-01

    Cannabis is not a harmless drug. The potential dangers of cannabis are briefly reviewed in this report. The above-mentioned observations on cannabis users should be kept in mind and carefully examined by all physicians. One could expect that as more potent cannabis preparations become available, some of the toxic manifestations which now seem rare might become more frequent. Some of the remarks about the dangers of cannabis may not be proved in future studies, and they may represent only our anxiety. However, prior to the elimination of these fears, no steps should be taken toward the legalizing of marijuana. At present there is no scientific evidence that cannabis is less harmful than either tobacco or alcohol. The opposite may be true. The analogy can be drawn between opium and cannabis. The permissive attitude toward the use of opium can easily lead to the use of morphine and other opiates. If we legalize the use of marijuana, we cannot prevent the use of more dangerous derivatives of cannabis; namely, hashish, cannabis oil and THC, itself. In my opinion, in the light of our present knowledge, legalizing of marijuana could be hazardous both for the individual and for society. PMID:1181294

  20. Perceived temperature in the course of climate change: an analysis of global heat index from 1979-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D.; Brenner, T.

    2015-03-01

    The increase in global mean temperatures resulting from climate change has wide reaching consequences for the earth's ecosystems and other natural systems. Many studies have been devoted to evaluating the distribution and effects of these changes. We go a step further and evaluate global changes to the heat index, a measure of temperature as perceived by humans. Heat index, which is computed from temperature and relative humidity, is more important than temperature for the health of humans and other animals. Even in cases where the heat index does not reach dangerous levels from a health perspective, it has been shown to be an important factor in worker productivity and thus in economic productivity. We compute heat index from dewpoint temperature and absolute temperature 2 m above ground from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset for the years 1979-2013. The data is provided aggregated to daily minima, means and maxima (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.841057). Furthermore, the data is temporally aggregated to monthly and yearly values and spatially aggregated to the level of countries after being weighted by population density in order to demonstrate its usefulness for the analysis of its impact on human health and productivity. The resulting data deliver insights into the spatiotemporal development of near-ground heat index during the course of the past 3 decades. It is shown that the impact of changing heat index is unevenly distributed through space and time, affecting some areas differently than others. The likelihood of dangerous heat index events has increased globally. Also, heat index climate groups that would formerly be expected closer to the tropics have spread latitudinally to include areas closer to the poles. The data can serve in future studies as a basis for evaluating and understanding the evolution of heat index in the course of climate change, as well as its impact on human health and productivity.

  1. Temperature, global climate change and food security

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accelerated climate change is expected to have a significant, but variable impact on the world’s major cropping zones. Crops will experience increasingly warmer, drier and more variable growing conditions in the temperate to subtropical latitudes towards 2050 and beyond. Short-term (1-5 day) spikes ...

  2. The Effect of Temperature Changes in Vitreoretinal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Mario R.; Romano, Vito; Mauro, Alessandro; Angi, Martina; Costagliola, Ciro; Ambrosone, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies on temperature control in biology and medicine have found the temperature as a new instrument in healthcare. In this manuscript, we reviewed the effects of temperature and its potential role in pars plana vitrectomy. We also examined the relationship between intraocular pressure, viscosity, and temperature in order to determine the best balance to manipulate the tamponades during the surgery. Methods A literature review was performed to identify potentially relevant studies on intraocular temperature. Physics equations were applied to explain the described effects of temperature changes on the behavior of the endotamponades commonly used during vitreoretinal surgery. We also generated an operating diagram on the pressure–temperature plane for the values of both vapor–liquid equilibrium and intraocular pressure. Results The rapid circulation of fluid in the vitreous cavity reduces the heat produced by the retinal and choroidal surface, bringing the temperature toward room temperature (22°C, deep hypothermia). Temperature increases with endolaser treatment, air infusion, and the presence of silicone oil. The variations in temperature during vitreoretinal surgery are clinically significant, as the rheology of tamponades can be better manipulated by modulating intraocular pressure and temperature. Conclusions During vitreoretinal surgery, the intraocular temperature showed rapid and significant fluctuations at different steps of the surgical procedure inside the vitreous cavity. Temperature control can modulate the rheology of tamponades. Translational Relevance Intraoperative temperature control can improve neuroprotection during vitreoretinal surgery, induce the vaporization of perfluorcarbon liquid, and change the shear viscosity of silicone oil. PMID:26929884

  3. Correlation of hippocampal theta rhythm with changes in cutaneous temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, J. M.; Saleh, M. A.; Karem, R. D.

    1974-01-01

    Investigation of the possibility that the hippocampus performs the function of alerting an animal to changes in cutaneous temperature, using unanesthetized, loosely restrained rabbits. The results indicate that the hippocampal theta rhythm, which appears to be evoked by changes in cutaneous temperature, can be related to a specific type of hyppocampal neuron which is, in turn, connected with other areas of the brain involved in temperature regulation.

  4. Stratospheric temperature changes during the satellite era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Dian J.; Li, Jian; Mears, Carl; Moradi, Isaac; Nash, John; Randel, William J.; Saunders, Roger; Thompson, David W. J.; Zou, Cheng-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Satellite-based layer average stratospheric temperature (T) climate data records (CDRs) now span more than three decades and so can elucidate climate variability associated with processes on multiple time scales. We intercompare and analyze available published T CDRs covering at least two decades, with a focus on Stratospheric Sounding Unit (SSU) and Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) CDRs. Recent research has reduced but not eliminated discrepancies between SSU CDRs developed by NOAA and the UK Meteorological Office. The MSU CDRs from NOAA and Remote Sensing Systems are in closer agreement than the CDR from the University of Alabama in Huntsville. The latter has a previously unreported inhomogeneity in 2005, revealed by an abrupt increase in the magnitude and spatial variability of T anomaly differences between CDRs. Although time-varying biases remain in both SSU and MSU CDRs, multiple linear regression analyses reveal consistent solar, El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), quasi-biennial oscillation, aerosol, and piecewise-linear trend signals. Together, these predictors explain 80 to 90% of the variance in the near-global-average T CDRs. The most important predictor variables (in terms of percent explained variance in near-global-average T) for lower stratospheric T measured by MSU are aerosols, solar variability, and ENSO. Trends explain the largest percentage of variance in observations from all three SSU channels. In MSU and SSU CDRs, piecewise-linear trends, with a 1995 break point, indicate cooling during 1979-1994 but no trend during 1995-2013 for MSU and during 1995-2005 for SSU. These observational findings provide a basis for evaluating climate model simulations of stratospheric temperature during the past 35 years.

  5. Temperature variation makes ectotherms more sensitive to climate change.

    PubMed

    Paaijmans, Krijn P; Heinig, Rebecca L; Seliga, Rebecca A; Blanford, Justine I; Blanford, Simon; Murdock, Courtney C; Thomas, Matthew B

    2013-08-01

    Ectotherms are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate warming. Descriptions of habitat temperatures and predicted changes in climate usually consider mean monthly, seasonal or annual conditions. Ectotherms, however, do not simply experience mean conditions, but are exposed to daily fluctuations in habitat temperatures. Here, we highlight how temperature fluctuation can generate 'realized' thermal reaction (fitness) norms that differ from the 'fundamental' norms derived under standard constant temperatures. Using a mosquito as a model organism, we find that temperature fluctuation reduces rate processes such as development under warm conditions, increases processes under cool conditions, and reduces both the optimum and the critical maximum temperature. Generalizing these effects for a range of terrestrial insects reveals that prevailing daily fluctuations in temperature should alter the sensitivity of species to climate warming by reducing 'thermal safety margins'. Such effects of daily temperature dynamics have generally been ignored in the climate change literature. PMID:23630036

  6. Temperature variation makes ectotherms more sensitive to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Paaijmans, Krijn P; Heinig, Rebecca L; Seliga, Rebecca A; Blanford, Justine I; Blanford, Simon; Murdock, Courtney C; Thomas, Matthew B

    2013-01-01

    Ectotherms are considered to be particularly vulnerable to climate warming. Descriptions of habitat temperatures and predicted changes in climate usually consider mean monthly, seasonal or annual conditions. Ectotherms, however, do not simply experience mean conditions, but are exposed to daily fluctuations in habitat temperatures. Here, we highlight how temperature fluctuation can generate ‘realized’ thermal reaction (fitness) norms that differ from the ‘fundamental’ norms derived under standard constant temperatures. Using a mosquito as a model organism, we find that temperature fluctuation reduces rate processes such as development under warm conditions, increases processes under cool conditions, and reduces both the optimum and the critical maximum temperature. Generalizing these effects for a range of terrestrial insects reveals that prevailing daily fluctuations in temperature should alter the sensitivity of species to climate warming by reducing ‘thermal safety margins’. Such effects of daily temperature dynamics have generally been ignored in the climate change literature. PMID:23630036

  7. Seasonal mean temperature changes control future heat waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argüeso, Daniel; Di Luca, Alejandro; Perkins-Kirkpatrick, Sarah E.; Evans, Jason P.

    2016-07-01

    Increased temperature will result in longer, more frequent, and more intense heat waves. Changes in temperature variability have been deemed necessary to account for future heat wave characteristics. However, this has been quantified only in Europe and North America, while the rest of the globe remains unexplored. Using late century global climate projections, we show that annual mean temperature increases is the key factor defining heat wave changes in most regions. We find that commonly studied areas are an exception rather than the standard and the mean climate change signal generally outweighs any influence from variability changes. More importantly, differences in warming across seasons are responsible for most of the heat wave changes and their consideration relegates the contribution of variability to a marginal role. This reveals that accurately capturing mean seasonal changes is crucial to estimate future heat waves and reframes our interpretation of future temperature extremes.

  8. Modeling Climate Change Effects on Stream Temperatures in Regulated Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Null, S. E.; Akhbari, M.; Ligare, S. T.; Rheinheimer, D. E.; Peek, R.; Yarnell, S. M.; Viers, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    We provide a method for examining mesoscale stream temperature objectives downstream of dams with anticipated climate change using an integrated multi-model approach. Changing hydroclimatic conditions will likely impact stream temperatures within reservoirs and below dams, and affect downstream ecology. We model hydrology and water temperature using a series of linked models that includes a hydrology model to predict natural unimpaired flows in upstream reaches, a reservoir temperature simulation model , an operations model to simulate reservoir releases, and a stream temperature simulation model to simulate downstream conditions . All models are 1-dimensional and operate on either a weekly or daily timestep. First, we model reservoir thermal dynamics and release operations of hypothetical reservoirs of different sizes, elevations, and latitudes with climate-forced inflow hydrologies to examine the potential to manage stream temperatures for coldwater habitat. Results are presented as stream temperature change from the historical time period and indicate that reservoir releases are cooler than upstream conditions, although the absolute temperatures of reaches below dams warm with climate change. We also apply our method to a case study in California's Yuba River watershed to evaluate water regulation and hydropower operation effects on stream temperatures with climate change. Catchments of the upper Yuba River are highly-engineered, with multiple, interconnected infrastructure to provide hydropower, water supply, flood control, environmental flows, and recreation. Results illustrate climate-driven versus operations-driven changes to stream temperatures. This work highlights the need for methods to consider reservoir regulation effects on stream temperatures with climate change, particularly for hydropower relicensing (which currently ignores climate change) such that impacts to other beneficial uses like coldwater habitat and instream ecosystems can be

  9. Phase change based cooling for high burst mode heat loads with temperature regulation above the phase change temperature

    SciTech Connect

    The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy

    2009-12-15

    An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load.

  10. Influence of temperature changes on migraine occurrence in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidt, Jörg; Koppe, Christina; Rill, Sven; Reinel, Dirk; Wogenstein, Florian; Drescher, Johannes

    2013-07-01

    Many factors trigger migraine attacks. Weather is often reported to be one of the most common migraine triggers. However, there is little scientific evidence about the underlying mechanisms and causes. In our pilot study, we used smartphone apps and a web form to collect around 4,700 migraine messages in Germany between June 2011 and February 2012. Taking interdiurnal temperature changes as an indicator for changes in the prevailing meteorological conditions, our analyses were focused on the relationship between temperature changes and the frequency of occurrence of migraine attacks. Linear trends were fitted to the total number of migraine messages with respect to temperature changes. Statistical and systematic errors were estimated. Both increases and decreases in temperature lead to a significant increase in the number of migraine messages. A temperature increase (decrease) of 5 °C resulted in an increase of 19 ± 7 % (24 ± 8 %) in the number of migraine messages.

  11. Influence of temperature changes on migraine occurrence in Germany.

    PubMed

    Scheidt, Jörg; Koppe, Christina; Rill, Sven; Reinel, Dirk; Wogenstein, Florian; Drescher, Johannes

    2013-07-01

    Many factors trigger migraine attacks. Weather is often reported to be one of the most common migraine triggers. However, there is little scientific evidence about the underlying mechanisms and causes. In our pilot study, we used smartphone apps and a web form to collect around 4,700 migraine messages in Germany between June 2011 and February 2012. Taking interdiurnal temperature changes as an indicator for changes in the prevailing meteorological conditions, our analyses were focused on the relationship between temperature changes and the frequency of occurrence of migraine attacks. Linear trends were fitted to the total number of migraine messages with respect to temperature changes. Statistical and systematic errors were estimated. Both increases and decreases in temperature lead to a significant increase in the number of migraine messages. A temperature increase (decrease) of 5 °C resulted in an increase of 19 ± 7 % (24 ± 8 %) in the number of migraine messages. PMID:22895651

  12. Photovoltage response to temperature change at oxide semiconductor electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reichman, B.; Byvik, C. E.

    1981-01-01

    A study has been carried out on single crystal electrodes of TiO2, SrTiO3, and alpha-Fe2O3 and polycrystalline WO3 to investigate the effect of cell temperature on the onset potential of n-type oxide semiconductor electrodes. It is found that the change of the onset potential with temperature is due to the potential change across the Helmholtz layer. The amount of this change depends on the point of zero zeta potential (pzzp) of the semiconductor electrode. The possibility of increasing the solar-to-chemical energy conversion efficiency of a photochemical cell by increasing the cell temperature is discussed.

  13. Observation of temperature trace, induced by changing of temperature inside the human body, on the human body skin using commercially available IR camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Trofimov, Vladislav V.

    2015-05-01

    As it is well-known, application of the passive THz camera for the security problems is very promising way. It allows seeing concealed object without contact with a person and this camera is non-dangerous for a person. In previous papers, we demonstrate new possibility of the passive THz camera using for a temperature difference observing on the human skin if this difference is caused by different temperatures inside the body. For proof of validity of our statement we make the similar physical experiment using the IR camera. We show a possibility of temperature trace on human body skin, caused by changing of temperature inside the human body due to water drinking. We use as a computer code that is available for treatment of images captured by commercially available IR camera, manufactured by Flir Corp., as well as our developed computer code for computer processing of these images. Using both codes we demonstrate clearly changing of human body skin temperature induced by water drinking. Shown phenomena are very important for the detection of forbidden samples and substances concealed inside the human body using non-destructive control without X-rays using. Early we have demonstrated such possibility using THz radiation. Carried out experiments can be used for counter-terrorism problem solving. We developed original filters for computer processing of images captured by IR cameras. Their applications for computer processing of images results in a temperature resolution enhancing of cameras.

  14. Compensating temperature-induced ultrasonic phase and amplitude changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Peng; Hay, Thomas R.; Greve, David W.; Junker, Warren R.; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2016-04-01

    In ultrasonic structural health monitoring (SHM), environmental and operational conditions, especially temperature, can significantly affect the propagation of ultrasonic waves and thus degrade damage detection. Typically, temperature effects are compensated using optimal baseline selection (OBS) or optimal signal stretch (OSS). The OSS method achieves compensation by adjusting phase shifts caused by temperature, but it does not fully compensate phase shifts and it does not compensate for accompanying signal amplitude changes. In this paper, we develop a new temperature compensation strategy to address both phase shifts and amplitude changes. In this strategy, OSS is first used to compensate some of the phase shifts and to quantify the temperature effects by stretching factors. Based on stretching factors, empirical adjusting factors for a damage indicator are then applied to compensate for the temperature induced remaining phase shifts and amplitude changes. The empirical adjusting factors can be trained from baseline data with temperature variations in the absence of incremental damage. We applied this temperature compensation approach to detect volume loss in a thick wall aluminum tube with multiple damage levels and temperature variations. Our specimen is a thick-walled short tube, with dimensions closely comparable to the outlet region of a frac iron elbow where flow-induced erosion produces the volume loss that governs the service life of that component, and our experimental sequence simulates the erosion process by removing material in small damage steps. Our results show that damage detection is greatly improved when this new temperature compensation strategy, termed modified-OSS, is implemented.

  15. Is Brain Emulation Dangerous?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckersley, Peter; Sandberg, Anders

    2013-12-01

    Brain emulation is a hypothetical but extremely transformative technology which has a non-zero chance of appearing during the next century. This paper investigates whether such a technology would also have any predictable characteristics that give it a chance of being catastrophically dangerous, and whether there are any policy levers which might be used to make it safer. We conclude that the riskiness of brain emulation probably depends on the order of the preceding research trajectory. Broadly speaking, it appears safer for brain emulation to happen sooner, because slower CPUs would make the technology`s impact more gradual. It may also be safer if brains are scanned before they are fully understood from a neuroscience perspective, thereby increasing the initial population of emulations, although this prediction is weaker and more scenario-dependent. The risks posed by brain emulation also seem strongly connected to questions about the balance of power between attackers and defenders in computer security contests. If economic property rights in CPU cycles1 are essentially enforceable, emulation appears to be comparatively safe; if CPU cycles are ultimately easy to steal, the appearance of brain emulation is more likely to be a destabilizing development for human geopolitics. Furthermore, if the computers used to run emulations can be kept secure, then it appears that making brain emulation technologies ―open‖ would make them safer. If, however, computer insecurity is deep and unavoidable, openness may actually be more dangerous. We point to some arguments that suggest the former may be true, tentatively implying that it would be good policy to work towards brain emulation using open scientific methodology and free/open source software codebases

  16. The Trends of Soil Temperature Change Associated with Air Temperature Change in Korea from 1973 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bo-Hyun; Park, Byeong-Hak; Koh, Eun-Hee; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2015-04-01

    Examining long-term trends of the soil temperature can contribute to assessing subsurface thermal environment. The recent 40-year (1973-2012) meteorological data from 14 Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) stations was analyzed in this study to estimate the temporal variations of air and soil temperatures (at depths 0.5 and 1.0m) in Korea and their relations. The information on regional characteristics of study sites was also collected to investigate the local and regional features influencing the soil temperature. The long-term increasing trends of both air and soil temperatures were estimated by using simple linear regression analysis. The air temperature rise and soil temperature rise were compared for every site to reveal the relation between air and soil temperature changes. In most sites, the proportion of soil temperature rise to air temperature rise was nearly one to one except a few sites. The difference between the air and soil temperature trends at those sites may be attributed to the combined effect of soil properties such as thermal diffusivity and soil moisture content. The impact of urbanization on the air and soil temperature was also investigated in this study. Establishment of the relationship between the air and soil temperatures can help predicting the soil temperature change in a region where no soil temperature data is obtained by using air temperature data. For rigorous establishment of the relationship between soil and air temperatures, more thorough investigation on the soil thermal properties is necessary through additional monitoring and accompanied validation of the proposed relations. Keywords : Soil temperature, Air temperature, Cross-correlation analysis, Soil thermal diffusivity, Urbanization effect Acknowledgement This work was supported by the research project of "Advanced Technology for Groundwater Development and Application in Riversides (Geowater+)" in "Water Resources Management Program (code 11 Technology Innovation C05

  17. Climate change signal analysis for Northeast Asian surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong-Hyeong; Kim, Byungsoo; Sohn, Keon-Tae; Kown, Won-Tae; Min, Seung-Ki

    2005-03-01

    Climate change detection, attribution, and prediction were studied for the surface temperature in the Northeast Asian region using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and three coupled-model simulations from ECHAM4/OPYC3, HadCM3, and CCCma GCMs (Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis general circulation model). The Bayesian fingerprint approach was used to perform the detection and attribution test for the anthropogenic climate change signal associated with changes in anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfate aerosol (SO{4/2-}) concentrations for the Northeast Asian temperature. It was shown that there was a weak anthropogenic climate change signal in the Northeast Asian temperature change. The relative contribution of CO2 and SO{4/2-} effects to total temperature change in Northeast Asia was quantified from ECHAM4/OPYC3 and CCCma GCM simulations using analysis of variance. For the observed temperature change for the period of 1959 1998, the CO2 effect contributed 10% 21% of the total variance and the direct cooling effect of SO{4/2-} played a less important role (0% 7%) than the CO2 effect. The prediction of surface temperature change was estimated from the second CO2+SO{4/2-} scenario run of ECHAM4/OPYC3 which has the least error in the simulation of the present-day temperature field near the Korean Peninsula. The result shows that the area-mean surface temperature near the Korean Peninsula will increase by about 1.1° by the 2040s relative to the 1990s.

  18. The Climate Policy Narrative for a Dangerously Warming World

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, Todd; Frumhoff, Peter; Luers, Amy; Gulledge, Jay

    2014-01-01

    It is time to acknowledge that global average temperatures will likely rise above the 2 C policy target and consider how that deeply troubling prospect should affect priorities for communicating and managing the risks of a dangerously warming climate.

  19. Behavioral responses of Atlantic cod to sea temperature changes

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Carla; Olsen, Esben Moland; Moland, Even; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Knutsen, Halvor

    2015-01-01

    Understanding responses of marine species to temperature variability is essential to predict impacts of future climate change in the oceans. Most ectotherms are expected to adjust their behavior to avoid extreme temperatures and minimize acute changes in body temperature. However, measuring such behavioral plasticity in the wild is challenging. Combining 4 years of telemetry-derived behavioral data on juvenile and adult (30–80 cm) Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), and in situ ocean temperature measurements, we found a significant effect of sea temperature on cod depth use and activity level in coastal Skagerrak. During summer, cod were found in deeper waters when sea surface temperature increased. Further, this effect of temperature was stronger on larger cod. Diel vertical migration, which consists in a nighttime rise to shallow feeding habitats, was stronger among smaller cod. As surface temperature increased beyond ∼15°C, their vertical migration was limited to deeper waters. In addition to larger diel vertical migrations, smaller cod were more active and travelled larger distances compared to larger specimens. Cold temperatures during winter tended, however, to reduce the magnitude of diel vertical migrations, as well as the activity level and distance moved by those smaller individuals. Our findings suggest that future and ongoing rises in sea surface temperature may increasingly deprive cod in this region from shallow feeding areas during summer, which may be detrimental for local populations of the species. PMID:26045957

  20. Phase Change Material Systems for High Temperature Heat Storage.

    PubMed

    Perraudin, David Y S; Binder, Selmar R; Rezaei, Ehsan; Ortonaa, Alberto; Haussener, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Efficient, cost effective, and stable high-temperature heat storage material systems are important in applications such as high-temperature industrial processes (metal processing, cement and glass manufacturing, etc.), or electricity storage using advanced adiabatic compressed air energy storage. Incorporating phase change media into heat storage systems provides an advantage of storing and releasing heat at nearly constant temperature, allowing steady and optimized operation of the downstream processes. The choice of, and compatibility of materials and encapsulation for the phase change section is crucial, as these must guarantee good and stable performance and long lifetime at low cost. Detailed knowledge of the material properties and stability, and the coupled heat transfer, phase change, and fluid flow are required to allow for performance and lifetime predictions. We present coupled experimental-numerical techniques allowing prediction of the long-term performance of a phase change material-based high-temperature heat storage system. The experimental investigations focus on determination of material properties (melting temperature, heat of fusion, etc.) and phase change material and encapsulation interaction (stability, interface reactions, etc.). The computational investigations focus on an understanding of the multi-mode heat transfer, fluid flow, and phase change processes in order to design the material system for enhanced performance. The importance of both the experimental and numerical approaches is highlighted and we give an example of how both approaches can be complementarily used for the investigation of long-term performance. PMID:26842330

  1. Snow and the ground temperature record of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Marshall G.; Chapman, David S.; Harris, Robert N.

    2004-12-01

    Borehole temperature-depth profiles contain a record of surface ground temperature (SGT) changes with time and complement surface air temperature (SAT) analysis to infer climate change over multiple centuries. Ground temperatures are generally warmer than air temperatures due to solar radiation effects in the summer and the insulating effect of snow cover during the winter. The low thermal diffusivity of snow damps surface temperature variations; snow effectively acts as an insulator of the ground during the coldest part of the year. A numerical model of snow-ground thermal interactions is developed to investigate the effect of seasonal snow cover on annual ground temperatures. The model is parameterized in terms of three snow event parameters: onset time of the annual snow event, duration of the event, and depth of snow during the event. These parameters are commonly available from meteorological and remotely sensed data making the model broadly applicable. The model is validated using SAT, subsurface temperature from a depth of 10 cm, and snow depth data from the 6 years of observations at Emigrant Pass climate observatory in northwestern Utah and 217 station years of National Weather Service data from sites across North America. Measured subsurface temperature-time series are compared to changes predicted by the model. The model consistently predicts ground temperature changes that compare well with those observed. Sensitivity analysis of the model leads to a nonlinear relationship between the three snow event parameters (onset, duration, and depth of the annual snow event) and the influence snow has on mean annual SGT.

  2. Dangers of limited SDI

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, G.E.

    1987-03-01

    Recent efforts to redefine the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) are mostly aimed at building support for a system to defend US land-based missiles. This is thought to be a more feasible goal than President Reagan's dream of an impregnable shield to defend the US population against ballistic missiles. But a feasible idea is not necessarily a good one. While chasing the population-defense fantasy would destroy the existing arms control regime and waste the national treasure of money and talent, defending land-based missiles would be dangerous and destabilizing. Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger held fast to the idea of population defense in January, when he told the Senate Armed Services Committee that even early deployments of SDI systems that could be developed in the near future should be the first phase of a system that would protect the continent. But such statements may reflect the administration's determination to do away with the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty more than its belief that population defense is a reasonable goal. The author notes that, to those longstanding problems of defense decision making, they must now add the pressures of SDI. Furthermore, whatever the motives of those who advocate redirecting SDI, it is clear that concerns about the vulnerability of land-based missiles could be addressed in more sensible ways. 5 references.

  3. Historical changes in air temperature are evident in temperature fluxes measured in the sub-soil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Fiona; McCormick, Benjamin; Hallett, Paul; Wookey, Philip; Hopkins, David

    2013-04-01

    Warming trends in soil temperature have implications for a plethora of soil processes, including exacerbated climate change through the net release of greenhouse gases. Whereas long-term datasets of air temperature changes are abundant, a search of scientific literature reveals a lack of information on soil temperature changes and their specific consequences. We analysed five long-term data series collected in the UK (Dundee and Armagh) and Canada (Charlottetown, Ottawa and Swift Current). They show that the temperatures of soils at 5 - 20 cm depth, and sub-soils at 30 - 150 cm depth, increased in line with air temperature changes over the period 1958 - 2003. Differences were found, however, between soil and air temperatures when data were sub-divided into seasons. In spring, soil temperature warming ranged from 0.19°C at 30 cm in Armagh to 4.30°C at 50 cm in Charlottetown. In summer, however, the difference was smaller and ranged from 0.21°C at 10 cm in Ottawa to 3.70°C at 50 cm in Charlottetown. Winter temperatures were warmer in soil and ranged from 0.45°C at 5 cm in Charlottetown to 3.76°C at 150 cm in Charlottetown. There were significant trends in changes to soil temperature over time, whereas air temperature trends tended only to be significant in winter (changes range from 1.27°C in Armagh to 3.35°C in Swift Current). Differences in the seasonal warming patterns between air and soil temperatures have potential implications for the parameterization of models of biogeochemical cycling.

  4. Changes in precipitation and temperature in Xiangjiang River Basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chong; Pan, Suli; Wang, Guoqing; Liao, Yufang; Xu, Yue-Ping

    2016-02-01

    Global warming brings a huge challenge to society and human being. Understanding historic and future potential climate change will be beneficial to regional crop, forest, and water management. This study aims to analyze the precipitation and temperature changes in the historic period and future period 2021-2050 in the Xiangjiang River Basin, China. The Mann-Kendall rank test for trend and change point analysis was used to analyze the changes in trend and magnitude based on historic precipitation and temperature time series. Four global climate models (GCMs) and a statistical downscaling approach, LARS-WG, were used to estimate future precipitation and temperature under RCP4.5. The results show that annual precipitation in the basin is increasing, although not significant, and will probably continue to increase in the future on the basis of ensemble projections of four GCMs. Temperature is increasing in a significant way and all GCMs projected continuous temperature increase in the future. There will be more extreme events in the future, including both extreme precipitation and temperature.

  5. Mitigating Climate Change with Ocean Pipes: Influencing Land Temperature and Hydrology and Termination Overshoot Risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, L.; Caldeira, K.; Ricke, K.

    2014-12-01

    With increasing risk of dangerous climate change geoengineering solutions to Earth's climate problems have attracted much attention. One proposed geoengineering approach considers the use of ocean pipes as a means to increase ocean carbon uptake and the storage of thermal energy in the deep ocean. We use a latest generation Earth System Model (ESM) to perform simulations of idealised extreme implementations of ocean pipes. In our simulations, downward transport of thermal energy by ocean pipes strongly cools the near surface atmosphere - by up to 11°C on a global mean. The ocean pipes cause net thermal energy to be transported from the terrestrial environment to the deep ocean while increasing the global net transport of water to land. By cooling the ocean surface more than the land, ocean pipes tend to promote a monsoonal-type circulation, resulting in increased water vapour transport to land. Throughout their implementation, ocean pipes prevent energy from escaping to space, increasing the amount of energy stored in Earth's climate system despite reductions in surface temperature. As a consequence, our results indicate that an abrupt termination of ocean pipes could cause dramatic increases in surface temperatures beyond that which would have been obtained had ocean pipes not been implemented.

  6. Geothermics of Climate Change: Linking Ground and Air Temperature Change Through Repeat Temperature Measurements in Boreholes From Northwest Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, M. G.; Harris, R. N.; Chapman, D. S.

    2007-12-01

    Temperature-depth profiles measured in boreholes contain important information about the Earth's changing surface temperature and provide a direct method for reconstructing surface temperature variations over the past several centuries. Differences between temperature-depth logs, on annual to decadal timescales, provide an important test of borehole thermometry. Twelve temperature-depth logs at the northwestern Utah Emigrant Pass Observatory (EPO) borehole, GC-1, seven at borehole SI-1 and five at borehole DM-1, were acquired between the years 1978 and 2007. Differences in temperature logs extend to about 100 m. Below 100 m, differences between temperature logs are effectively zero. SAT data from the meteorological station at EPO and nearby Historical Climatology Network stations are used as a forcing function at the Earth's surface and diffused into the subsurface. These transients reproduce observed subsurface temperature variations reasonably well at each borehole. Comparisons between repeated temperature-depth profiles and diffused SAT transients over the same time period offer strong support for using GST histories to complement SAT data and multi-proxy reconstructions in climate change studies.

  7. Change point analysis of mean annual air temperature in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirvani, A.

    2015-06-01

    The existence of change point in the mean of air temperature is an important indicator of climate change. In this study, Student's t parametric and Mann-Whitney nonparametric Change Point Models (CPMs) were applied to test whether a change point has occurred in the mean of annual Air Temperature Anomalies Time Series (ATATS) of 27 synoptic stations in different regions of Iran for the period 1956-2010. The Likelihood Ratio Test (LRT) was also applied to evaluate the detected change points. The ATATS of all stations except Bandar Anzali and Gorgan stations, which were serially correlated, were transformed to produce an uncorrelated pre-whitened time series as an input file for the CPMs and LRT. Both the Student's t and Mann-Whitney CPMs detected the change point in the ATATS of (a) Tehran Mehrabad, Abadan, Kermanshah, Khoramabad and Yazd in 1992, (b) Mashhad and Tabriz in 1993, (c) Bandar Anzali, Babolsar and Ramsar in 1994, (d) Kerman and Zahedan in 1996 at 5% significance level. The likelihood ratio test shows that the ATATS before and after detected change points in these 12 stations are normally distributed with different means. The Student's t and Mann-Whitney CPMs suggested different change points for individual stations in Bushehr, Bam, Shahroud, and Gorgan. However, the LRT confirmed the change points in these four stations as 1997, 1996, 1993, and 1996, respectively. No change points were detected in the remaining 11 stations.

  8. Associations of Inter- and Intraday Temperature Change With Mortality.

    PubMed

    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Forsberg, Bertil; Tobias, Aurelio; Zanobetti, Antonella; Schwartz, Joel; Armstrong, Ben; Gasparrini, Antonio

    2016-02-15

    In this study we evaluated the association between temperature variation and mortality and compared it with the contribution due to mean daily temperature in 6 cities with different climates. Quasi-Poisson time series regression models were applied to estimate the associations (relative risk and 95% confidence interval) of mean daily temperature (99th and 1st percentiles, with temperature of minimum mortality as the reference category), interday temperature variation (difference between the mean temperatures of 2 neighboring days) and intraday temperature variation (diurnal temperature range (DTR)) (referred to as median variation) with mortality in 6 cities: London, United Kingdom; Madrid, Spain; Stockholm, Sweden; New York, New York; Miami, Florida; and Houston, Texas (date range, 1985-2010). All cities showed a substantial increase in mortality risk associated with mean daily temperature, with relative risks reaching 1.428 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.329, 1.533) for heat in Madrid and 1.467 (95% CI: 1.385, 1.555) for cold in London. Inconsistent results for inter-/intraday change were obtained, except for some evidence of protective associations on hot and cold days (relative risk (RR) = 0.977 (95% CI: 0.955, 0.999) and RR = 0.981 (95% CI: 0.971, 0.991), respectively) in Madrid and on cold days in Stockholm (RR = 0.989, 95% CI: 0.980, 0.998). Our results indicate that the association between mortality and temperature variation is generally minimal compared with mean daily temperatures, although further research on intraday changes is needed. PMID:26811244

  9. Changes in exposure temperature lead to changes in pesticide toxicity to earthworms: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Velki, Mirna; Ečimović, Sandra

    2015-11-01

    The occurring climate changes will have direct consequences to all ecosystems, including the soil ecosystems. The effects of climate change include, among other, the changes in temperature and greater frequency and intensity of extreme weather conditions. Temperature is an important factor in ecotoxicological investigations since it can act as a stressor and influence the physiological status of organisms, as well as affect the fate and transport of pollutants present in the environment. However, most of so far conducted (eco)toxicological investigations neglected the possible effects of temperature and focused solely on the effects of toxicants on organisms. Considering that temperature can contribute to the toxicity of pollutants, it is of immense importance to investigate whether the change in the exposure temperature will impact the strength of the toxic effects of pollutants present in soil ecosystems. Therefore, in the present study the toxicity of several commonly used pesticides to earthworms was assessed under different exposure temperatures (15, 20 and 25°C). The results showed that changes in exposure temperature lead to changes in susceptibility of earthworms to particular pesticides. Namely, exposures to the same pesticide concentration at different temperatures lead to different toxicity responses. Increase in exposure temperature in most cases caused increase in toxicity, whereas decrease in temperature mostly caused decrease in toxicity. This preliminary study points to need for an in-depth investigation of mechanisms by which temperature affects the toxicity of pesticides and also provides important data for future research on the effects of temperature change on the soil ecosystems. PMID:26436694

  10. Cryosurgery: ultrastructural changes in pancreas tissue after low temperature exposure.

    PubMed

    Korpan, N N

    2007-04-01

    A number of theoretical and experimental studies, both in vitro and in vivo, have been performed to explain the action of low temperatures on tissue. It is now evident that the thermal parameters used in the past for freezing during cryosurgery were not precise; this may have resulted in the failure of treatment. For the first time, this report describes the early ultrastructural features of pancreatic parenchyma after low temperature exposure, i.e., cryosurgery, in vivo. We demonstrate the effect of freeze-thawing processes using temperatures of various intensities. The cryosurgical response of pancreas parenchyma, i.e., ultrastructural cellular changes in pancreas tissue, was investigated. The electronic microscopic analysis showed that, after local cryodestruction at temperatures of -80 degrees C and -180 degrees C, similar processes occurred within the pancreas tissue in the early postcryosurgical phase -- immediately and up to 24 hours after low temperature exposure on tissue. The exocrine pancreatic cells in the center of the cryozone changed upon thawing. Ultrastructural changes in the exocrine pancreatic cells, where the first signs of dystrophic processes had been noticed, were increased. These ultrastructural changes in the pancreatic cells provide a platform to better understand the mechanisms of damage and the pathogenesis of frostbite after cryosurgery. The properties of the pancreas parenchyma response after low temperature exposure provide important insights into the mechanisms of damage and the cryogenic lesion immediately after thawing in cryosurgery. Our new insights prove on the cell level that suddenly and progressively damaged pancreatic cells in the postcryosurgical zone lead to aseptic cryonecrosis and then to aseptic cryoapoptosis of vital normal tissue. The vascular capillary changes and circulatory stagnation demonstrate the anti-angiogenesis mechanism, which, together with cryoaponecrosis and cryoapoptosis, are some of the main mechanisms

  11. Rearing Temperature Influences Adult Response to Changes in Mating Status.

    PubMed

    Westerman, Erica; Monteiro, Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Rearing environment can have an impact on adult behavior, but it is less clear how rearing environment influences adult behavior plasticity. Here we explore the effect of rearing temperature on adult mating behavior plasticity in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, a species that has evolved two seasonal forms in response to seasonal changes in temperature. These seasonal forms differ in both morphology and behavior. Females are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at warm temperatures (WS butterflies), and males are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at cooler temperatures (DS butterflies). Rearing temperature also influences mating benefits and costs. In DS butterflies, mated females live longer than virgin females, and mated males live shorter than virgin males. No such benefits or costs to mating are present in WS butterflies. Given that choosiness and mating costs are rearing temperature dependent in B. anynana, we hypothesized that temperature may also impact male and female incentives to remate in the event that benefits and costs of second matings are similar to those of first matings. We first examined whether lifespan was affected by number of matings. We found that two matings did not significantly increase lifespan for either WS or DS butterflies relative to single matings. However, both sexes of WS but not DS butterflies experienced decreased longevity when mated to a non-virgin relative to a virgin. We next observed pairs of WS and DS butterflies and documented changes in mating behavior in response to changes in the mating status of their partner. WS but not DS butterflies changed their mating behavior in response to the mating status of their partner. These results suggest that rearing temperature influences adult mating behavior plasticity in B. anynana. This developmentally controlled behavioral plasticity may be adaptive, as lifespan depends on the partner's mating status in one seasonal form, but not in the other. PMID:26863319

  12. Rearing Temperature Influences Adult Response to Changes in Mating Status

    PubMed Central

    Westerman, Erica; Monteiro, Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Rearing environment can have an impact on adult behavior, but it is less clear how rearing environment influences adult behavior plasticity. Here we explore the effect of rearing temperature on adult mating behavior plasticity in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana, a species that has evolved two seasonal forms in response to seasonal changes in temperature. These seasonal forms differ in both morphology and behavior. Females are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at warm temperatures (WS butterflies), and males are the choosy sex in cohorts reared at cooler temperatures (DS butterflies). Rearing temperature also influences mating benefits and costs. In DS butterflies, mated females live longer than virgin females, and mated males live shorter than virgin males. No such benefits or costs to mating are present in WS butterflies. Given that choosiness and mating costs are rearing temperature dependent in B. anynana, we hypothesized that temperature may also impact male and female incentives to remate in the event that benefits and costs of second matings are similar to those of first matings. We first examined whether lifespan was affected by number of matings. We found that two matings did not significantly increase lifespan for either WS or DS butterflies relative to single matings. However, both sexes of WS but not DS butterflies experienced decreased longevity when mated to a non-virgin relative to a virgin. We next observed pairs of WS and DS butterflies and documented changes in mating behavior in response to changes in the mating status of their partner. WS but not DS butterflies changed their mating behavior in response to the mating status of their partner. These results suggest that rearing temperature influences adult mating behavior plasticity in B. anynana. This developmentally controlled behavioral plasticity may be adaptive, as lifespan depends on the partner’s mating status in one seasonal form, but not in the other. PMID:26863319

  13. Laser-tissue photothermal interaction and tissue temperature change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ives, Andrea K.; Chen, Wei R.; Jassemnejad, Baha; Bartels, Kenneth E.; Liu, Hong; Nordquist, John A.; Nordquist, Robert E.

    2000-06-01

    Responses of tissue to laser stimulation are crucial in both disease diagnostics and treatment. In general, when tissue absorbs laser energy photothermal interaction occurs. The most important signature of the photothermal reaction is the tissue temperature change during and after the laser irradiation. Experimentally, the tissue reaction to laser irradiation can be measured by numerous methods including direct temperature measurement and measurement of perfusion change. In this study, a multiple-channel temperature probe was used to measure tissue temperature change during irradiation of lasers with different wavelengths at different power settings. Tissue temperature in chicken breast tissue as well as skin and breast tumor of rats was measured during irradiation of an 805-nm diode laser. The vertical profiles of temperature were obtained using simultaneous measurement at several different locations. The absorption of laser energy by tissue was enhanced by injecting laser-absorbing dye into the tissue. A Nd:YAG laser of 1064-nm wavelength was also used to irradiate turkey breast tissue. Our results showed that both laser penetration ability and photothermal reaction depended on the wavelength of lasers. In the case of 805-nm laser, the temperature increased rapidly only in the region close to the laser source and the thermal equilibrium could be reached within a short time period. The laser absorbing dye drastically enhanced the thermal reaction, resulting in approximately 4-fold temperature increase. On the contrary, the laser beam with 1064-nm wavelength penetrated deeply into tissue and the tissue temperature continued increasing even after a 10-minute laser irradiation.

  14. Exploring Terrestrial Temperature Changes during the Early Eocene Hyperthermals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snell, K. E.; Clyde, W. C.; Fricke, H. C.; Eiler, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Early Eocene is marked by a number of rapid global warming events called hyperthermals. These hyperthermals are associated with negative carbon isotope excursions (CIE) in both marine and terrestrial records. Multiple theories exist to explain the connection of these hyperthermals with the CIEs and each theory predicts different responses by the climate system. Characterizing the timing, duration and magnitude of temperature change that is associated with these hyperthermals is important for determining whether the hyperthermals are all driven by the same underlying climate dynamics or perhaps differ from one another in cause and climatic consequences. In the simplest case, all share a common underlying mechanism; this predicts that the associated temperature changes scale in a predictable way with the magnitude of the CIE (and perhaps exhibit other similarities, such as the relative amplitudes of marine and terrestrial temperature change). To our knowledge, however, the only hyperthermal with paleotemperature data from land is the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM). Here we present preliminary carbonate clumped isotope paleotemperature estimates for Early Eocene hyperthermal ETM2/H2 from paleosol carbonates from the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming, USA. We compare the results to existing clumped isotope paleotemperature estimates for the PETM in the Bighorn Basin. Temperatures recorded by paleosol carbonates (which likely reflect near-peak summer ground temperatures) prior to each CIE are ~30°C and increase to ~40-43°C during the apex of each CIE. Following both CIEs, temperatures drop back to pre-CIE values. In the case of ETM2/H2, temperatures begin to rise again immediately, possibly in association with a later hyperthermal, though further work needs to be done to establish this with certainty. These preliminary data suggest that both the absolute values and the magnitudes of temperature changes associated with the PETM and ETM2/H2 are similar; the

  15. Global Surface Temperature Change and Uncertainties Since 1861

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Samuel S. P.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this talk is to analyze the warming trend and its uncertainties of the global and hemi-spheric surface temperatures. By the method of statistical optimal averaging scheme, the land surface air temperature and sea surface temperature observational data are used to compute the spatial average annual mean surface air temperature. The optimal averaging method is derived from the minimization of the mean square error between the true and estimated averages and uses the empirical orthogonal functions. The method can accurately estimate the errors of the spatial average due to observational gaps and random measurement errors. In addition, quantified are three independent uncertainty factors: urbanization, change of the in situ observational practices and sea surface temperature data corrections. Based on these uncertainties, the best linear fit to annual global surface temperature gives an increase of 0.61 +/- 0.16 C between 1861 and 2000. This lecture will also touch the topics on the impact of global change on nature and environment. as well as the latest assessment methods for the attributions of global change.

  16. Summer hot temperature Return Levels in the climate change context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parey, Sylvie; Thu Huong Hoang, Thi

    2015-04-01

    Climate change and the role of human activities are now attested, and IPCC stated in its last assessment report issued in 2013-2014 that "continued emissions of greenhouse gases will cause further warming and changes in all components of the climate system". In such a context, it is now impossible to consider temperature time series as stationary to estimate extreme values like Return Levels (RL) of hot summer temperature. The first approach, used to estimate near future RLs, consists in identifying and extrapolating trends in the parameters of the classical extreme value distributions. For the design of new installations and a farther time scale, a new methodology has been proposed in order to take climate model results into account. This methodology is based on the link between trends in mean and variance and trends in extremes. Climate model results allow inferring far future mean and variance of temperature, which are more robust outputs than the changes in extreme events, and then future extremes can be estimated through the extremes of the stationary residuals obtained when mean and variance trends have been removed and these future mean and variance. Both approaches will be illustrated using an observed temperature time series and different climate models as in Parey et al. 2010. Parey, S., T. T. H. Hoang, and D. Dacunha-Castelle (2010b), Different ways to compute temperature return levels in the climate change context, Environmetrics, 21, 698-718.

  17. Climate change and the impact of extreme temperatures on aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffel, E.; Horton, R.

    2014-12-01

    Weather is the most significant factor affecting aircraft operations, accounting for 70-80% of passenger delays and costing airlines hundreds of millions of dollars per year in lost revenue. Temperature and airport elevation significantly influence the maximum allowable takeoff weight of an aircraft by changing the surface air density and thus the lift produced at a given speed. For a given runway length, airport elevation, and aircraft type there is a temperature threshold above which the airplane cannot take off at its maximum weight and thus must be weight restricted. The number of summer days necessitating weight restriction has increased since 1980 along with the observed increase in surface temperature. Climate change is projected to increase mean temperatures at all airports and significantly increase the frequency and severity of extreme heat events at some. These changes will negatively affect aircraft performance, leading to increased weight restrictions especially at airports with short runways and little room to expand. For a Boeing 737-800 aircraft, we find that the number of weight restriction days between May and September will increase by 50-100% at four major airports in the United States by 2050-2070 under the RCP8.5 high emissions scenario. These performance reductions may have a significant economic effect on the airline industry, leading to lower profits and higher passenger fares. Increased weight restrictions have previously been identified as potential impacts of climate change, but this study is the first to quantify the effect of higher temperatures on commercial aviation.

  18. Scaling law for electrocaloric temperature change in antiferroelectrics

    PubMed Central

    Lisenkov, S.; Mani, B. K.; Glazkova, E.; Miller, C. W.; Ponomareva, I.

    2016-01-01

    A combination of theoretical and first-principles computational methods, along with experimental evidence from the literature, were used to predict the existence of a scaling law for the electrocaloric temperature change in antiferroelectric materials. We show that the temperature change scales quadratically with electric field, allowing a simple transformation to collapse the set of ΔT(E) onto a single curve. This offers a unique method that can be used to predict electrocaloric behavior beyond the limits of present measurement ranges or in regions where data are not yet available. PMID:26796343

  19. Phase change material for temperature control and material storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessling, Jr., Francis C. (Inventor); Blackwood, James M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A phase change material comprising a mixture of water and deuterium oxide is described, wherein the mole fraction of deuterium oxide is selected so that the mixture has a selected phase change temperature within a range between 0.degree. C. and 4.degree. C. The mixture is placed in a container and used for passive storage and transport of biomaterials and other temperature sensitive materials. Gels, nucleating agents, freezing point depression materials and colorants may be added to enhance the characteristics of the mixture.

  20. Thermally chargeable supercapacitor working in a homogeneous, changing temperature field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hyuck; Shi, Yang; Qiao, Yu

    2016-04-01

    A thermally chargeable supercapacitor (TCS) system is developed to harvest electrical energy from a uniform temperature field of a changing low-grade heat source. Without any temperature gradient, the TCS absorbs heat when temperature rises and releases electricity during discharging. As temperature decreases, the system configuration returns to the initial condition, so that the thermal-to-electrical energy conversion can be continuously conducted. With a nickel-coated carbon nanotube or nanoporous carbon-based electrode, the thermal sensitivity and the electrode surface area are enhanced simultaneously, leading to a high output voltage around 100-160 mV and a high specific energy of 600-1800 mJ per gram of electrode material in each thermal cycle, with a mild temperature range of ~50 °C.

  1. Ambient Temperature Changes and the Impact to Time Measurement Error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogrizovic, V.; Gucevic, J.; Delcev, S.

    2012-12-01

    Measurements in Geodetic Astronomy are mainly outdoors and performed during a night, when the temperature often decreases very quickly. The time-keeping during a measuring session is provided by collecting UTC time ticks from a GPS receiver and transferring them to a laptop computer. An interrupt handler routine processes received UTC impulses in real-time and calculates the clock parameters. The characteristics of the computer quartz clock are influenced by temperature changes of the environment. We exposed the laptop to different environmental temperature conditions, and calculate the clock parameters for each environmental model. The results show that the laptop used for time-keeping in outdoor measurements should be kept in a stable temperature environment, at temperatures near 20° C.

  2. Global Stream Temperatures and Flows under Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vliet, M. T.; Yearsley, J. R.; Franssen, W. H.; Ludwig, F.; Haddeland, I.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Kabat, P.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change will affect thermal and hydrologic regimes of rivers, having a direct impact on human water use and freshwater ecosystems. Here we assess the impact of climate change on stream temperature and streamflow globally. We used a physically-based stream temperature river basin model (RBM) linked to the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. The modelling framework was adapted for global application including impacts of reservoirs and thermal heat discharges, and was validated using observed water temperature and river discharge records in large river basins globally. VIC-RBM was forced with an ensemble of bias-corrected Global Climate Model (GCM) output resulting in global projections of daily streamflow and water temperature for the 21st century. Global mean and high (95th percentile) stream temperatures are projected to increase on average by 0.8-1.6 (1.0-2.2)°C for the SRES B1-A2 scenario for 2071-2100 relative to 1971-2000. The largest water temperature increases are projected for Europe, North America, Southeast Asia, South Africa and parts of Australia. In these regions, the sensitivities for warming are exacerbated by projected decreases in summer low flows. Large increases in water temperature combined with decreases in low flows are found for the southeastern U.S., Europe and eastern China. These regions could potentially be affected by increased deterioration of water quality and freshwater habitats, and reduced water available for beneficial uses such as thermoelectric power production.

  3. Can air temperature be used to project influences of climate change on stream temperature?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arismendi, Ivan; Safeeq, Mohammad; Dunham, Jason B.; Johnson, Sherri L.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, lack of data on stream temperature has motivated the use of regression-based statistical models to predict stream temperatures based on more widely available data on air temperatures. Such models have been widely applied to project responses of stream temperatures under climate change, but the performance of these models has not been fully evaluated. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the performance of two widely used linear and nonlinear regression models that predict stream temperatures based on air temperatures. We evaluated model performance and temporal stability of model parameters in a suite of regulated and unregulated streams with 11–44 years of stream temperature data. Although such models may have validity when predicting stream temperatures within the span of time that corresponds to the data used to develop them, model predictions did not transfer well to other time periods. Validation of model predictions of most recent stream temperatures, based on air temperature–stream temperature relationships from previous time periods often showed poor performance when compared with observed stream temperatures. Overall, model predictions were less robust in regulated streams and they frequently failed in detecting the coldest and warmest temperatures within all sites. In many cases, the magnitude of errors in these predictions falls within a range that equals or exceeds the magnitude of future projections of climate-related changes in stream temperatures reported for the region we studied (between 0.5 and 3.0 °C by 2080). The limited ability of regression-based statistical models to accurately project stream temperatures over time likely stems from the fact that underlying processes at play, namely the heat budgets of air and water, are distinctive in each medium and vary among localities and through time.

  4. Temporal changes and variability in temperature series over Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaila, Jamaludin

    2015-02-01

    With the current concern over climate change, the descriptions on how temperature series changed over time are very useful. Annual mean temperature has been analyzed for several stations over Peninsular Malaysia. Non-parametric statistical techniques such as Mann-Kendall test and Theil-Sen slope estimation are used primarily for assessing the significance and detection of trends, while a nonparametric Pettitt's test and sequential Mann-Kendall test are adopted to detect any abrupt climate change. Statistically significance increasing trends for annual mean temperature are detected for almost all studied stations with the magnitude of significant trend varied from 0.02°C to 0.05°C per year. The results shows that climate over Peninsular Malaysia is getting warmer than before. In addition, the results of the abrupt changes in temperature using Pettitt's and sequential Mann-Kendall test reveal the beginning of trends which can be related to El Nino episodes that occur in Malaysia. In general, the analysis results can help local stakeholders and water managers to understand the risks and vulnerabilities related to climate change in terms of mean events in the region.

  5. Climate Change Effects on Soil Water and Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyfried, M. S.; Chandler, D. G.; Marks, D. G.

    2011-12-01

    Soil serves as the critical interface between physical changes in climate and the biological impacts of those changes. While there is general agreement among Global Climate Models concerning the amount and trend of world air temperature change in the upcoming decades, there is less agreement regarding precipitation trends and much less agreement with respect to trends in the "soil climate" (soil water content and temperature). The difficulties with soil are probably related to variable and poorly tested land surface parameterizations. Working at sites spanning a 1000 m elevation gradient in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW) in Idaho, we showed that, over a 45 year period, the annual air temperature increased about 2° C. During that time, the amount of precipitation remained constant, but the precipitation phase shifted considerably from snow to rain depending on site elevation. Most predictions for this environment are for drier, warmer soils. We used soil water and temperature data collected at the same sites for the past 30 years in the RCEW to determine if those trends occurred. We found no significant trend in either soil water content or temperature at any site over the 30 year period. The lack of a soil water trend is related to the vegetation dynamics in this semiarid environment, where very low leaf are index values, and very dry soils much of the year, serve to restrict the impact of increased evaporative demand on transpiration. The lack of soil temperature trends is related to interactions with vegetative and snow cover, especially snow cover, which can effectively modulate exceptionally cold air temperatures. In both cases, it is clear that climate change is not directly imprinted on the soil, but affected by interactions with what is growing in, or laying on the soil.

  6. Long-term changes in sea surface temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.E.

    1994-12-31

    Historical observations of sea surface temperature since 1856 have been improved by applying corrections to compensate for the predominant use of uninsulated or partly insulated buckets until the Second World War. There are large gaps in coverage in the late nineteenth century and around the two world wars, but a range of statistical techniques suggest that these gaps do not severely prejudice estimates of global and regional climatic change. Nonetheless, to improve the analysis on smaller scales, many unused historical data are to be digitized and incorporated. For recent years, satellite-based sea surface temperatures have improved the coverage, after adjustments for their biases relative to in situ data. An initial version of a nominally globally complete sea ice and interpolated sea surface temperature data set, beginning in 1871, has been created for use in numerical simulations of recent climate. Long time series of corrected regional, hemispheric, and global sea surface temperatures are mostly consistent with corresponding night marine air temperature series, and confirm the regionally specific climatic changes portrayed in the Scientific Assessments of the intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The observations also show an El Nino-like oscillation on bidecadal and longer time scales.

  7. Changes of temperature-related agroclimatic indices in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graczyk, D.; Kundzewicz, Z. W.

    2016-04-01

    The agricultural sector in Poland is of considerable social and economic importance for the nation. Climate variability and change are of primary relevance to this largely climate-dependent sector. Changes in seven temperature-related agroclimatic indices (lengths of the growing season and of the frost-free season, days of occurrence of the last spring frost and of the first autumn frost; and annual sums of growing degree-days for three values of temperature threshold) in Poland in 1951-2010 are examined. As expected, they generally correspond to the overwhelming and ubiquitous warming. Many, but not all, detected trends are statistically significant. However, for some indices, strong natural variability overshadows eventual trends. Projections of temperature-related agroclimatic indices for the future, based on regional climate models, are also discussed.

  8. Near-term acceleration in the rate of temperature change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Steven J.; Edmonds, James; Hartin, Corinne A.; Mundra, Anupriya; Calvin, Katherine

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenically driven climate changes, which are expected to impact human and natural systems, are often expressed in terms of global-mean temperature. The rate of climate change over multi-decadal scales is also important, with faster rates of change resulting in less time for human and natural systems to adapt. We find that present trends in greenhouse-gas and aerosol emissions are now moving the Earth system into a regime in terms of multi-decadal rates of change that are unprecedented for at least the past 1,000 years. The rate of global-mean temperature increase in the CMIP5 (ref. ) archive over 40-year periods increases to 0.25 +/- 0.05 °C (1σ) per decade by 2020, an average greater than peak rates of change during the previous one to two millennia. Regional rates of change in Europe, North America and the Arctic are higher than the global average. Research on the impacts of such near-term rates of change is urgently needed.

  9. Near-Term Acceleration In The Rate of Temperature Change

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Edmonds, James A.; Hartin, Corinne A.; Mundra, Anupriya; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2015-03-09

    Anthropogenically-driven climate changes, which are expected to impact human and natural systems, are often expressed in terms of global-mean temperature . The rate of climate change over multi-decadal scales is also important, with faster rates of change resulting in less time for human and natural systems to adapt . We find that current trends in greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions are now moving the Earth system into a regime in terms of multi-decadal rates of change that are unprecedented for at least the last 1000 years. The rate of global-mean temperature increase in the CMIP5 archive over 40-year periods increases to 0.25±0.05 (1σ) °C per decade by 2020, an average greater than peak rates of change during the previous 1-2 millennia. Regional rates of change in Europe, North America and the Arctic are higher than the global average. Research on the impacts of such near-term rates of change is urgently needed.

  10. Pain Measurement through Temperature Changes in Children Undergoing Dental Extractions

    PubMed Central

    Kolosovas-Machuca, Eleazar S.; Martínez-Jiménez, Mario A.; Ramírez-GarcíaLuna, José L.; González, Francisco J.; Campos-Lara, Nadia P.; Pierdant-Perez, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. Pain evaluation in children can be a difficult task, since it possesses sensory and affective components that are often hard to discriminate. Infrared thermography has previously been used as a diagnostic tool for pain detection in animals; therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the presence of temperature changes during dental extractions and to evaluate its correlation with heart rate changes as markers of pain and discomfort. Methods. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle and heart rate measurements were recorded in healthy children scheduled for dental extraction before and during the procedure and compared. Afterwards, correlation between temperature and heart rate was assessed. Results. We found significant differences in temperature and heart rate before the procedure and during the dental extraction (mean difference 4.07°C, p < 0.001, and 18.11 beats per minute, p < 0.001) and no evidence of correlation between both measurements. Conclusion. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle can be detected in patients who undergo dental extractions. These changes appear to be stable throughout time and to possess very little intersubject variation, thus making them a candidate for a surrogate marker of pain and discomfort. Future studies should be performed to confirm this claim. PMID:27445611

  11. Pain Measurement through Temperature Changes in Children Undergoing Dental Extractions.

    PubMed

    Kolosovas-Machuca, Eleazar S; Martínez-Jiménez, Mario A; Ramírez-GarcíaLuna, José L; González, Francisco J; Pozos-Guillen, Amaury J; Campos-Lara, Nadia P; Pierdant-Perez, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. Pain evaluation in children can be a difficult task, since it possesses sensory and affective components that are often hard to discriminate. Infrared thermography has previously been used as a diagnostic tool for pain detection in animals; therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the presence of temperature changes during dental extractions and to evaluate its correlation with heart rate changes as markers of pain and discomfort. Methods. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle and heart rate measurements were recorded in healthy children scheduled for dental extraction before and during the procedure and compared. Afterwards, correlation between temperature and heart rate was assessed. Results. We found significant differences in temperature and heart rate before the procedure and during the dental extraction (mean difference 4.07°C, p < 0.001, and 18.11 beats per minute, p < 0.001) and no evidence of correlation between both measurements. Conclusion. Thermographic changes in the lacrimal caruncle can be detected in patients who undergo dental extractions. These changes appear to be stable throughout time and to possess very little intersubject variation, thus making them a candidate for a surrogate marker of pain and discomfort. Future studies should be performed to confirm this claim. PMID:27445611

  12. Enhanced temperature variability in high-altitude climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmura, Atsumu

    2012-12-01

    In the present article, monthly mean temperature at 56 stations assembled in 18 regional groups in 10 major mountain ranges of the world were investigated. The periods of the analysis covered the last 50 to 110 years. The author found that the variability of temperature in climatic time scale tends to increase with altitude in about 65 % of the regional groups. A smaller number of groups, 20 %, showed the fastest change at an intermediate altitude between the peaks (or ridges) and their foot, while the remaining small number of sites, 15 %, showed the largest trends at the foot of mountains. This tendency provides a useful base for considering and planning the climate impact evaluations. The reason for the amplification of temperature variation at high altitudes is traced back to the increasing diabatic processes in the mid- and high troposphere as a result of the cloud condensation. This situation results from the fact that the radiation balance at the earth's surface is transformed more efficiently into latent heat of evaporation rather than sensible heat, the ratio between them being 4 to 1. Variation in the surface evaporation is converted into heat upon condensation into cloud particles and ice crystals in the mid- and high troposphere. Therefore, this is the altitude where the result of the surface radiation change is effectively transferred. Further, the low temperature of the environment amplifies the effect of the energy balance variation on the surface temperature, as a result of the functional shape of Stefan-Boltzmann law. These processes altogether contribute to enhancing temperature variability at high altitudes. The altitude play s an important role in determining the temperature variability, besides other important factors such as topography, surface characteristics, cryosphere/temperature feedback and the frequency and intensity of an inversion. These processes have a profound effect not only on the ecosystem but also on glaciers and permafrost.

  13. Effect of microorganism on Greenland ice sheet surface temperature change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, R.; Takeuchi, N.; Aoki, T.

    2012-12-01

    Greenland ice sheet holds approximately 10% of the fresh water on earth. If it melts all, sea level rises about 7.2meter. It is reported that mass of Greenland ice sheet is decreasing with temperature rising of climate change. Melting of the coastal area is particularly noticeable. It is established that 4 to 23% of the sea level rising from 1993 to 2005 is caused by the melting of Greenland ice sheet. In 2010, amount of melting per year became the largest than the past. However many climate models aren't able to simulate the recent melting of snow and ice in the Arctic including Greenland. One of the possible causes is albedo reduction of snow and ice surface by light absorbing snow impurities such as black carbon and dust and by glacial microorganisms. But there are few researches for effect of glacial microorganism in wide area. So it is important to clarify the impact of glacial microorganisms in wide area. The purpose of this study is to clarify the effect of microorganism on Greenland ice sheet surface temperature change using satellite images of visible, near infrared and thermal infrared wavelength range and observation carried out in northwestern Greenland. We use MODIS Land Surface Temperature Product as ice sheet surface temperature. It estimates land surface temperature based on split window method using thermal infrared bands. MODIS data is bound to cover the whole of Greenland, and calculated the ratio of the temperature change per year. Analysis period is from December 2002 to November 2010. Results of calculating Greenland ice sheet surface temperature change using the MODIS data, our analysis shows that it is upward trend in the whole region. We find a striking upward trend in northern and western part of Greenland. The rate is 0.33±0.03 degree Celsius per a year from 47.5°W to 49°W. While in the coastal area from 49°W to 50.7°W, the rate is 0.26±0.06 degree Celsius per a year. This large upward trend area is the same area as dark region

  14. Surface Temperatures on Titan; Changes During the Cassini Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Cottini, Valeria; Nixon, Conor A.

    2010-01-01

    Surface brightness temperatures on Titan measured by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) aboard Cassini span the period from late northern winter to early spring. The CIRS observations cover all latitudes and can be used to study meridional changes with season. CIRS previously reported surface temperatures from 2004-2008 which were 93.7 K at the equator with decreases of 2 K toward the south pole and 3 K toward the north pole'. From a comparison of the equinox period with the earlier data, CIRS can now detect a seasonal shift in the latitudinal distribution of temperatures. Around the time of the equinox the meridional distribution was more symmetric about the equator than had been found earlier in the mission. The equatorial surface temperatures remained close to 94 K, but in the south the temperatures had decreased by about 0.5 K and in the north had increased by about 0.5 K. The CIRS equinox results are similar to what was seen near the previous vernal equinox by Voyager IRIS Z. The observed surface temperatures can help constrain the type of surface material by comparison with predictions from general circulation models. Of the three cases treated by Tokano t , our measurements most closely match a porous-ice regolith. As Cassini continues through Titan's northern spring CIRS will extend its temporal and spatial coverage and will continue to search for seasonal variations in surface temperature.

  15. Perceived temperature in the course of climate change: an analysis of global heat index from 1979 to 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D.; Brenner, T.

    2015-08-01

    The increase in global mean temperatures resulting from climate change has wide reaching consequences for the earth's ecosystems and other natural systems. Many studies have been devoted to evaluating the distribution and effects of these changes. We go a step further and propose the use of the heat index, a measure of the temperature as perceived by humans, to evaluate global changes. The heat index, which is computed from temperature and relative humidity, is more important than temperature for the health of humans and animals. Even in cases where the heat index does not reach dangerous levels from a health perspective, it has been shown to be an important factor in worker productivity and thus in economic productivity. We compute the heat index from dew point temperature and absolute temperature 2 m above ground from the ERA-Interim reanalysis data set for the years 1979-2013. The described data set provides global heat index aggregated to daily minima, means and maxima per day (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.841057). This paper examines these data, as well as showing aggregations to monthly and yearly values. Furthermore, the data are spatially aggregated to the level of countries after being weighted by population density in order to facilitate the analysis of its impact on human health and productivity. The resulting data deliver insights into the spatiotemporal development of near-ground heat index during the course of the past three decades. It is shown that the impact of changing heat index is unevenly distributed through space and time, affecting some areas differently than others. The data can serve as a basis for evaluating and understanding the evolution of heat index in the course of climate change, as well as its impact on human health and productivity.

  16. Attribution of extreme temperature changes during 1951-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yeon-Hee; Min, Seung-Ki; Zhang, Xuebin; Zwiers, Francis; Alexander, Lisa V.; Donat, Markus G.; Tung, Yu-Shiang

    2016-03-01

    An attribution analysis of extreme temperature changes is conducted using updated observations (HadEX2) and multi-model climate simulation (CMIP5) datasets for an extended period of 1951-2010. Compared to previous HadEX/CMIP3-based results, which identified human contributions to the observed warming of extreme temperatures on global and regional scales, the current results provide better agreement with observations, particularly for the intensification of warm extremes. Removing the influence of two major modes of natural internal variability (the Arctic Oscillation and Pacific Decadal Oscillation) from observations further improves attribution results, reducing the model-observation discrepancy in cold extremes. An optimal fingerprinting technique is used to compare observed changes in annual extreme temperature indices of coldest night and day (TNn, TXn) and warmest night and day (TNx, TXx) with multi-model simulated changes that were simulated under natural-plus-anthropogenic and natural-only (NAT) forcings. Extreme indices are standardized for better intercomparisons between datasets and locations prior to analysis and averaged over spatial domains from global to continental regions following a previous study. Results confirm previous HadEX/CMIP3-based results in which anthropogenic (ANT) signals are robustly detected in the increase in global mean and northern continental regional means of the four indices of extreme temperatures. The detected ANT signals are also clearly separable from the response to NAT forcing, and results are generally insensitive to the use of different model samples as well as different data availability.

  17. Small lakes show muted climate change signal in deepwater temperatures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winslow, Luke A.; Read, Jordan S.; Hansen, Gretchen J. A.; Hanson, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Water temperature observations were collected from 142 lakes across Wisconsin, USA, to examine variation in temperature of lakes exposed to similar regional climate. Whole lake water temperatures increased across the state from 1990 to 2012, with an average trend of 0.042°C yr−1 ± 0.01°C yr−1. In large (>0.5 km2) lakes, the positive temperature trend was similar across all depths. In small lakes (<0.5 km2), the warming trend was restricted to shallow waters, with no significant temperature trend observed in water >0.5 times the maximum lake depth. The differing response of small versus large lakes is potentially a result of wind-sheltering reducing turbulent mixing magnitude in small lakes. These results demonstrate that small lakes respond differently to climate change than large lakes, suggesting that current predictions of impacts to lakes from climate change may require modification.

  18. Bhutan Rivers Runoff Sensitivity to Changes in Precipitation and Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonessa, M. Y.; Richey, J. E.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    The Kingdom of Bhutan harnesses its water resources mostly for hydropower generation. Hydroelectricity represents 96% of the country's electricity generating capacity and 99.9% of its electricity generation. About 87% of the electricity generated within Bhutan is exported to India. Assessment of this crucial resource is vital for its proper usage and management especially in the light of potential land use and climate changes. A land surface hydrologic model, Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC), was used to assess the hydrology of the country. The model was forced using data obtained from three sources: NCEP/NCAR, Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and ERA Interim. The NCEP/NCAR forcing resulted in better flow simulation for most of the stations than WRF and ERA forcings. Thus, NCEP/NCAR forcing data was used to evaluate the runoff sensitivity to temperature and precipitation changes. In both steps, VIC was run at 1/24° latitude-longitude resolution. The modeled mean annual runoff elasticity which measures fractional change in annual runoff divided by fractional change in annual precipitation ranges from 1.08 to 2.16. The elasticity value is lower for higher reference precipitations and vice versa. The runoff sensitivity to temperature change computed as percentage change in annual runoff per 1°C change in temperature are all declines and ranges from -1.38 to -1.54. Spatially, both higher elasticity and sensitivity (big negatives) are towards the northern part the country where elevation is more than 5000 m above sea level.

  19. Negativity Bias in Dangerous Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jing; Qu, Weina; Sun, Xianghong; Zhang, Kan; Ge, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The behavioral and cognitive characteristics of dangerous drivers differ significantly from those of safe drivers. However, differences in emotional information processing have seldom been investigated. Previous studies have revealed that drivers with higher anger/anxiety trait scores are more likely to be involved in crashes and that individuals with higher anger traits exhibit stronger negativity biases when processing emotions compared with control groups. However, researchers have not explored the relationship between emotional information processing and driving behavior. In this study, we examined the emotional information processing differences between dangerous drivers and safe drivers. Thirty-eight non-professional drivers were divided into two groups according to the penalty points that they had accrued for traffic violations: 15 drivers with 6 or more points were included in the dangerous driver group, and 23 drivers with 3 or fewer points were included in the safe driver group. The emotional Stroop task was used to measure negativity biases, and both behavioral and electroencephalograph data were recorded. The behavioral results revealed stronger negativity biases in the dangerous drivers than in the safe drivers. The bias score was correlated with self-reported dangerous driving behavior. Drivers with strong negativity biases reported having been involved in mores crashes compared with the less-biased drivers. The event-related potentials (ERPs) revealed that the dangerous drivers exhibited reduced P3 components when responding to negative stimuli, suggesting decreased inhibitory control of information that is task-irrelevant but emotionally salient. The influence of negativity bias provides one possible explanation of the effects of individual differences on dangerous driving behavior and traffic crashes. PMID:26765225

  20. Phasic temperature change patterns affect growth and tuberization in potatoes

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, W.; Tibbitts, T.W. . Dept. of Horticulture)

    1994-07-01

    This study determined the response of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cv. Norland) plants to various patterns of air temperature changes over different growth periods. In each of two experiments under controlled environments, eight treatments of temperature changes were carried out in two growth rooms maintained at 17 and 22 C and a constant vapor pressure deficit of 0.60 kPa and 14-hour photoperiod. Plants were grown for 63 days after transplanting of tissue culture plantlets in 20-liter pots containing peat-vermiculite mix. Temperature changes were imposed on days 21 and 42, which were essentially at the beginning of tuber initiation and tuber enlargement, respectively, for this cultivar. Plants were moved between two temperature rooms to obtain eight temperature change patterns: 17-17-17, 17-17-22, 17-22-17, 22-17-17, 17-22-22, 22-17-22, 22-22-17, and 22-22-22C over three 21-day growth periods. At harvest on day 63, total plant dry weight was higher for the treatments beginning with 22 C than for those beginning with 17C, with highest biomass obtained at 22-22-17 and 22-17-17C. Shoot dry weight increased with temperature increased from 17-17-17 to 22-22-22C during the three growth periods. Tuber dry weight was highest with 22-17-17C, and lowest with 17-17-22 and 17-22-22C. With 22-17-17C, both dry weights of stolons and roots were lowest. Total tuber number and number of small tubers were highest with 17-17-17 and 17-17-22C, and lowest with 17-22-22 and 22-22-22C, whereas number of medium tubers was highest with 22-17-22C, and number of large tubers was highest with 22-17-17C. This study indicates that tuber development of potatoes is optimized with a phasic pattern of high temperature during early growth and low temperature during later growth.

  1. Changes in diurnal temperature range and national cereal yields

    SciTech Connect

    Lobell, D

    2007-04-26

    Models of yield responses to temperature change have often considered only changes in average temperature (Tavg), with the implicit assumption that changes in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) can safely be ignored. The goal of this study was to evaluate this assumption using a combination of historical datasets and climate model projections. Data on national crop yields for 1961-2002 in the 10 leading producers of wheat, rice, and maize were combined with datasets on climate and crop locations to evaluate the empirical relationships between Tavg, DTR, and crop yields. In several rice and maize growing regions, including the two major nations for each crop, there was a clear negative response of yields to increased DTR. This finding reflects a nonlinear response of yields to temperature, which likely results from greater water and heat stress during hot days. In many other cases, the effects of DTR were not statistically significant, in part because correlations of DTR with other climate variables and the relatively short length of the time series resulted in wide confidence intervals for the estimates. To evaluate whether future changes in DTR are relevant to crop impact assessments, yield responses to projected changes in Tavg and DTR by 2046-2065 from 11 climate models were estimated. The mean climate model projections indicated an increase in DTR in most seasons and locations where wheat is grown, mixed projections for maize, and a general decrease in DTR for rice. These mean projections were associated with wide ranges that included zero in nearly all cases. The estimated impacts of DTR changes on yields were generally small (<5% change in yields) relative to the consistently negative impact of projected warming of Tavg. However, DTR changes did significantly affect yield responses in several cases, such as in reducing US maize yields and increasing India rice yields. Because DTR projections tend to be positively correlated with Tavg, estimates of yields

  2. Main Dangers of Our Times.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synek, Miroslav

    2003-03-01

    Terrorism and threatening dictatorships are the main, man-made, dangers of our times. They are run by master demagogues, or, brain-washing manipulators. ----- Our next step in coping with terrorism is to counter master demagoguery. Therefore, supporting EDUCATION that would emphasize the most unifying (and the least controversial), yet, BASIC CIVIC RESPECT for lives of people in a civilian human society, is a priority everywhere on our planet. ----- At the same time we start facing mostly small, threatening, dictatorships, capable of producing weapons of mass destruction. Therefore, we have to try to contribute to developing systems of FREE ELECTIONS, controlling weapons of mass destruction, wherever such dangers exist. ----- In a foreseeable future, unfortunately, we are facing a danger even by orders of magnitude greater. We are facing a possibility of a mass-produced heavy accumulation of inter-continental nuclear missiles, on a computerized "push-button" control, by a very powerful (and, quite possibly, miscalculating, or, suicidal) dictator, dangerous to the very existence of humanity on our planet. Therefore, it is a historical urgency that such a technological power be under the control by a government of the people, by the people and for the people, based on a sufficiently reliable system of FREE ELECTIONS, wherever, on our planet, such a potential danger may originate.

  3. Skin temperature changes induced by strong static magnetic field exposure.

    PubMed

    Ichioka, Shigeru; Minegishi, Masayuki; Iwasaka, Masakazu; Shibata, Masahiro; Nakatsuka, Takashi; Ando, Joji; Ueno, Shoogo

    2003-09-01

    High intensity static magnetic fields, when applied to the whole body of the anesthetized rat, have previously been reported to decrease skin temperature. The hypothesis of the present study was that in diamagnetic water, molecules in the air play significant roles in the mechanism of skin temperature decrease. We used a horizontal cylindrical superconducting magnet. The magnet produced 8 T at its center. A thermistor probe was inserted in a subcutaneous pocket of the anesthetized rats to measure skin temperature. Animals (n=10) were placed in an open plastic holder in which the ambient air was free to move in any direction (group I). Animals (n=10) were placed in a closed holder in which the air circulation toward the direction of weak magnetic field was restricted (group II). Each holder was connected to a hydrometer to measure humidity around the animal in the holder. The data acquisition phase consisted of a 5 min baseline interval, followed by inserting the animal together with the holder into the center of the magnet bore for a 5 min exposure and a 5 min postexposure period outside the bore. In group I, skin temperature and humidity around the animal significantly decreased during exposure, followed by recovery after exposure. In group II, skin temperature and humidity did not decrease during the measurement. The skin temperature decrease was closely related to the decrease in humidity around the body of the animal in the holder, and the changes were completely blocked by restricting the air circulation in the direction of the bore entrance. Possible mechanisms responsible for the decrease in skin temperature may be associated with magnetically induced movement of water vapor at the skin surface, leading to skin temperature decrease. PMID:12929156

  4. Reconciling anthropogenic climate change with observed temperature 1998-2008.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Robert K; Kauppi, Heikki; Mann, Michael L; Stock, James H

    2011-07-19

    Given the widely noted increase in the warming effects of rising greenhouse gas concentrations, it has been unclear why global surface temperatures did not rise between 1998 and 2008. We find that this hiatus in warming coincides with a period of little increase in the sum of anthropogenic and natural forcings. Declining solar insolation as part of a normal eleven-year cycle, and a cyclical change from an El Nino to a La Nina dominate our measure of anthropogenic effects because rapid growth in short-lived sulfur emissions partially offsets rising greenhouse gas concentrations. As such, we find that recent global temperature records are consistent with the existing understanding of the relationship among global surface temperature, internal variability, and radiative forcing, which includes anthropogenic factors with well known warming and cooling effects. PMID:21730180

  5. Reconciling anthropogenic climate change with observed temperature 1998–2008

    PubMed Central

    Kaufmann, Robert K.; Kauppi, Heikki; Mann, Michael L.; Stock, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Given the widely noted increase in the warming effects of rising greenhouse gas concentrations, it has been unclear why global surface temperatures did not rise between 1998 and 2008. We find that this hiatus in warming coincides with a period of little increase in the sum of anthropogenic and natural forcings. Declining solar insolation as part of a normal eleven-year cycle, and a cyclical change from an El Nino to a La Nina dominate our measure of anthropogenic effects because rapid growth in short-lived sulfur emissions partially offsets rising greenhouse gas concentrations. As such, we find that recent global temperature records are consistent with the existing understanding of the relationship among global surface temperature, internal variability, and radiative forcing, which includes anthropogenic factors with well known warming and cooling effects. PMID:21730180

  6. Danger warrants rescuing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, George H.

    A plea as plaintive as that of Marcia Neugebauer should not go unheeded. The problem she cites presents potentially serious problems for science and deserves further thought and discussion. Linguists will tell us that the inevitable evolution of language results from modifications of meaning and usage in response to changing aspects of the human condition. Nevertheless, in the misappropriation of “data” there is enough at stake to warrant strong efforts to oppose the trend.

  7. Generating a wave from a wall with changing temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, A.; Tsukamoto, M.; Takahashi, S.

    2012-11-01

    Under the purpose to provide a foundation for the numerical approach, the problem of wave generation from a wall with changing temperature is considered to analytically solve the linear Boltzmann-BGK equation with diffuse reflection at a wall by successive approximation. Convergence is verified, and approximate solutions used in its proof are utilized to demonstrate its wave-like features observed in the numerical solution.

  8. Effects of temperature changes on maize production in Mozambique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, L.; Michaelsen, J.; Funk, C.; Husak, G.

    2011-01-01

    We examined intraseasonal changes in maize phenology and heat stress exposure over the 1979-2008 period, using Mozambique meteorological station data and maize growth requirements in a growing degree-day model. Identifying historical effects of warming on maize growth is particularly important in Mozambique because national food security is highly dependent on domestic food production, most of which is grown in already warm to hot environments. Warming temperatures speed plant development, shortening the length of growth periods necessary for optimum plant and grain size. This faster phenological development also alters the timing of maximum plant water demand. In hot growing environments, temperature increases during maize pollination threaten to make midseason crop failure the norm. In addition to creating a harsher thermal environment, we find that early season temperature increases have caused the maize reproductive period to start earlier, increasing the risk of heat and water stress. Declines in time to maize maturation suggest that, independent of effects to water availability, yield potential is becoming increasingly limited by warming itself. Regional variations in effects are a function of the timing and magnitude of temperature increases and growing season characteristics. Continuation of current climatic trends could induce substantial yield losses in some locations. Farmers could avoid some losses through simple changes to planting dates and maize varietal types.

  9. Power change in amorphous silicon technology by low temperature annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Ankit; Rennhofer, Marcus; Dangel, Angelika; Duman, Bogdan; Schlosser, Victor

    2015-07-01

    Amorphous silicon (a-Si) is one of the best established thin-film solar-cell technologies. Despite its long history of research, it still has many critical issues because of its defect rich material and its susceptibility to degrade under light also called as Staebler-Wronski effect (SWE). This leads to an increase in the defect density of a-Si, but as a metastable effect it can be completely healed at temperatures above 170 °C. Our study is focused on investigating the behavior of annealing of different a-Si modules under low temperature conditions below 80 °C indicated by successive change of module power. These conditions reflect the environmental temperature impact of the modules in the field, or integrated in buildings as well. The power changes were followed by STC power rating and investigation of module-power evolution under low irradiance conditions at 50 W/m2. Our samples were recovered close to their initial state of power, reaching as high as 99% from its degraded value. This shows the influence of low temperature annealing and light on metastable module behavior in a-Si thin-film modules.

  10. What matters most: Are summer stream temperatures more sensitive to changing air temperature, changing discharge, or changing riparian vegetation under future climates?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diabat, M.; Haggerty, R.; Wondzell, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    We investigated stream temperature responses to changes in both air temperature and stream discharge projected for 2040-2060 from downscaled GCMs and changes in the height and canopy density of streamside vegetation. We used Heat Source© calibrated for a 37 km section of the Middle Fork John Day River located in Oregon, USA. The analysis used the multiple-variable-at-a-time (MVAT) approach to simulate various combinations of changes: 3 levels of air warming, 5 levels of stream flow (higher and lower discharges), and 6 types of streamside vegetation. Preliminary results show that, under current discharge and riparian vegetation conditions, projected 2 to 4 °C increase in air temperature will increase the 7-day Average Daily Maximum Temperature (7dADM) by 1 to 2 °C. Changing stream discharge by ±30% changes stream temperature by ±0.5 °C, and the influence of changing discharge is greatest when the stream is poorly shaded. In contrast, the 7dADM could change by as much as 11°C with changes in riparian vegetation from unshaded conditions to heavily shaded conditions along the study section. The most heavily shaded simulations used uniformly dense riparian vegetation over the full 37-km reach, and this vegetation was composed of the tallest trees and densest canopies that can currently occur within the study reach. While this simulation represents an extreme case, it does suggest that managing riparian vegetation to substantially increase stream shade could decrease 7dADM temperatures relative to current temperatures, even under future climates when mean air temperatures have increased from 2 to 4 °C.

  11. Temperature Changes in Brown Adipocytes Detected with a Bimaterial Microcantilever

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Masaaki K.; Toda, Masaya; Inomata, Naoki; Maruyama, Hisataka; Okamatsu-Ogura, Yuko; Arai, Fumihito; Ono, Takahito; Ishijima, Akihiko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian cells must produce heat to maintain body temperature and support other biological activities. Methods to measure a cell’s thermogenic ability by inserting a thermometer into the cell or measuring the rate of oxygen consumption in a closed vessel can disturb its natural state. Here, we developed a noninvasive system for measuring a cell’s heat production with a bimaterial microcantilever. This method is suitable for investigating the heat-generating properties of cells in their native state, because changes in cell temperature can be measured from the bending of the microcantilever, without damaging the cell and restricting its supply of dissolved oxygen. Thus, we were able to measure increases in cell temperature of <1 K in a small number of murine brown adipocytes (n = 4–7 cells) stimulated with norepinephrine, and observed a slow increase in temperature over several hours. This long-term heat production suggests that, in addition to converting fatty acids into heat energy, brown adipocytes may also adjust protein expression to raise their own temperature, to generate more heat. We expect this bimaterial microcantilever system to prove useful for determining a cell’s state by measuring thermal characteristics. PMID:24896125

  12. LED Curing Lights and Temperature Changes in Different Tooth Sites

    PubMed Central

    Armellin, E.; Bovesecchi, G.; Coppa, P.; Pasquantonio, G.; Cerroni, L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this in vitro study was to assess thermal changes on tooth tissues during light exposure using two different LED curing units. The hypothesis was that no temperature increase could be detected within the dental pulp during polymerization irrespective of the use of a composite resin or a light-curing unit. Methods. Caries-free human first molars were selected, pulp residues were removed after root resection, and four calibrated type-J thermocouples were positioned. Two LED lamps were tested; temperature measurements were made on intact teeth and on the same tooth during curing of composite restorations. The data was analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Wilcoxon test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Pearson's χ2. After ANOVA, the Bonferroni multiple comparison test was performed. Results. Polymerization data analysis showed that in the pulp chamber temperature increase was higher than that without resin. Starlight PRO, in the same condition of Valo lamp, showed a lower temperature increase in pre- and intrapolymerization. A control group (without composite resin) was evaluated. Significance. Temperature increase during resin curing is a function of the rate of polymerization, due to the exothermic polymerization reaction, the energy from the light unit, and time of exposure. PMID:27195282

  13. Large diurnal temperature range increases bird sensitivity to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Briga, Michael; Verhulst, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Climate variability is changing on multiple temporal scales, and little is known of the consequences of increases in short-term variability, particularly in endotherms. Using mortality data with high temporal resolution of zebra finches living in large outdoor aviaries (5 years, 359.220 bird-days), we show that mortality rate increases almost two-fold per 1°C increase in diurnal temperature range (DTR). Interestingly, the DTR effect differed between two groups with low versus high experimentally manipulated foraging costs, reflecting a typical laboratory ‘easy’ foraging environment and a ‘hard’ semi-natural environment respectively. DTR increased mortality on days with low minimum temperature in the easy foraging environment, but on days with high minimum temperature in the semi-natural environment. Thus, in a natural environment DTR effects will become increasingly important in a warming world, something not detectable in an ‘easy’ laboratory environment. These effects were particularly apparent at young ages. Critical time window analyses showed that the effect of DTR on mortality is delayed up to three months, while effects of minimum temperature occurred within a week. These results show that daily temperature variability can substantially impact the population viability of endothermic species. PMID:26563993

  14. Changing fitness of a necrotrophic plant pathogen under increasing temperature.

    PubMed

    Sabburg, Rosalie; Obanor, Friday; Aitken, Elizabeth; Chakraborty, Sukumar

    2015-08-01

    Warmer temperatures associated with climate change are expected to have a direct impact on plant pathogens, challenging crops and altering plant disease profiles in the future. In this study, we have investigated the effect of increasing temperature on the pathogenic fitness of Fusarium pseudograminearum, an important necrotrophic plant pathogen associated with crown rot disease of wheat in Australia. Eleven wheat lines with different levels of crown rot resistance were artificially inoculated with F. pseudograminearum and maintained at four diurnal temperatures 15/15°C, 20/15°C, 25/15°C and 28/15°C in a controlled glasshouse. To quantify the success of F. pseudograminearum three fitness measures, these being disease severity, pathogen biomass in stem base and flag leaf node, and deoxynivalenol (DON) in stem base and flag leaf node of mature plants were used. F. pseudograminearum showed superior overall fitness at 15/15°C, and this was reduced with increasing temperature. Pathogen fitness was significantly influenced by the level of crown rot resistance of wheat lines, but the influence of line declined with increasing temperature. Lines that exhibited superior crown rot resistance in the field were generally associated with reduced overall pathogen fitness. However, the relative performance of the wheat lines was dependent on the measure of pathogen fitness, and lines that were associated with one reduced measure of pathogen fitness did not always reduce another. There was a strong correlation between DON in stem base tissue and disease severity, but length of browning was not a good predictor of Fusarium biomass in the stem base. We report that a combination of host resistance and rising temperature will reduce pathogen fitness under increasing temperature, but further studies combining the effect of rising CO2 are essential for more realistic assessments. PMID:25767051

  15. Rapid Middle Eocene temperature change in western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Methner, Katharina; Mulch, Andreas; Fiebig, Jens; Wacker, Ulrike; Gerdes, Axel; Graham, Stephan A.; Chamberlain, C. Page

    2016-09-01

    Eocene hyperthermals are among the most enigmatic phenomena of Cenozoic climate dynamics. These hyperthermals represent temperature extremes superimposed on an already warm Eocene climate and dramatically affected the marine and terrestrial biosphere, yet our knowledge of temperature and rainfall in continental interiors is still rather limited. We present stable isotope (δ18O) and clumped isotope temperature (Δ47) records from a middle Eocene (41 to 40 Ma) high-elevation mammal fossil locality in the North American continental interior (Montana, USA). Δ47 paleotemperatures of soil carbonates delineate a rapid +9/-11 °C temperature excursion in the paleosol record. Δ47 temperatures progressively increase from 23 °C ± 3 °C to peak temperatures of 32 °C ± 3 °C and subsequently drop by 11 °C. This hyperthermal event in the middle Eocene is accompanied by low δ18O values and reduced pedogenic carbonate concentrations in paleosols. Based on laser ablation U/Pb geochronology of paleosol carbonates in combination with magnetostratigraphy, biostratigraphy, stable isotope, and Δ47 evidence, we suggest that this pronounced warming event reflects the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) in western North America. The terrestrial expression of northern hemisphere MECO in western North America appears to be characterized by warmer and wetter (sub-humid) conditions, compared to the post-MECO phase. Large and rapid shifts in δ18O values of precipitation and pedogenic CaCO3 contents parallel temperature changes, indicating the profound impact of the MECO on atmospheric circulation and rainfall patterns in the western North American continental interior during this transient warming event.

  16. Carbon dioxide dangers demonstration model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina; Wessells, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide is a dangerous volcanic gas. When carbon dioxide seeps from the ground, it normally mixes with the air and dissipates rapidly. However, because carbon dioxide gas is heavier than air, it can collect in snowbanks, depressions, and poorly ventilated enclosures posing a potential danger to people and other living things. In this experiment we show how carbon dioxide gas displaces oxygen as it collects in low-lying areas. When carbon dioxide, created by mixing vinegar and baking soda, is added to a bowl with candles of different heights, the flames are extinguished as if by magic.

  17. Interdecadal changes of surface temperature since the late nineteenth century

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.E.; Folland, C.K.; Bevan, A.; Jones, P.D.

    1994-07-20

    The authors present global fields of decadal annual surface temperature anomalies, referred to the period 1951-1980, for each decade from 1881-1890 to 1981-1990 and for 1984-1993. In addition, they show decadal calendar-seasonal anomaly fields for the warm decades 1936-1945 and 1981-1990. The fields are based on sea surface temperature (SST) and land surface air temperature data. The SSTs are corrected for the pre-World War II use of uninsulated sea temperature buckets and incorporate adjusted satellite-based SSTs from 1982 onward. These results extend those published in the 1990 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Scientific Assessment. Despite poor data coverage initially and around the two World Wars the generally cold end of the nineteenth century and start to the twentieth century are confirmed, together with the substantial warming between about 1920 and 1940. Slight cooling of the northern hemisphere took place between the 1950s and the mid-1970s, although slight warming continued south of the equator. Recent warmth has been most marked over the northern continents in winter and spring, but the 1980s were warm almost everywhere apart from Greenland, the northwestern Atlantic and the midlatitude North Pacific. Parts of the middle- to high-latitude southern ocean may also have been cool in the 1980s, but in this area the 1951-1980 climatology is unreliable. The impact of the satellite data is reduced because the record of blended satellite and in situ SST is still too short to yield a climatology from which to calculate representative anomalies reflecting climatic change in the southern ocean. However, the authors propose a method of using existing satellite data in a step toward this target. The maps are condensed into global and hemispheric decadal surface temperature anomalies. The authors show the sensitivity of these estimated anomalies to alternative methods of compositing the spatially incomplete fields. 58 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Temperature changes across CO2-lased dentin during multiple exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakariasen, Kenneth L.; Barron, Joseph R.; Boran, Thomas L.

    1990-06-01

    The literature increasingly indicates that lasers will have a multitude of applications for dental hard tissue procedures, e.g. preventive therapy, caries removal, laser etching and endodontic therapy. However, it is critical that such laser therapies avoid the production of heat levels which will be damaging to the surrounding vital tissues, such as the dental pulp and periodontal tissues. Our preliminary research on temperature changes across C02 lased dentin indicated that for single preventive therapeutic exposures (1.2 W., 0. 1 sec., 1.0 mm focal spot) the mean temperature rise across 350 j.tm of dentin was 0.57 0C while across 1000 .tm of dentin the mean rise was only 0.18 °C. Further research utilizing multiple preventive therapeutic exposures (1.2 W., 0. 1 sec., 1.0 mm focal spot, 3 x 1.0 sec. intervals) showed mean temperature elevations of 1.56 0C across 350 m of dentin and 0.66 O across 1000 xm of dentin. While these temperature elevations, which would be associated with preventive therapy, are very low and would be biologically acceptable, it must be noted that exposures of higher intensities are required to fuse enamel and porcelain, or remove decay. This current research investigates temperature elevations which occuT during C02 lasing utilizing the following exposure parameters: 8.0 W., 1.0 mm focal spot, 0.1 sec. exposures, 2 or 4 exposures per site pulsed 1.0 sec. apart. Three dentin thicknesses were utilized, i.e. 1000 jim, 1500 p.tm and 2000 .tm. Four sections of each thickness were utilized with four exposure sites per specimen (2 with 2 exposures, 2 with 4 exposures). All dentin sections were prepared from non-carious third molars using a hard tissue microtome. A thermistor was placed on the dentin surface opposite each lased site and temperature changes were recorded for approximately 50 sec. following lasing. Mean temperature elevations ranged from a high of 3.07 C for the 1000 xm section utilizing four exposures to a low of 0.37 0C for the

  19. Improving the estimation of historical marine surface temperature changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carella, Giulia; Kent, Elizabeth C.; Berry, David I.

    2015-04-01

    Global Surface Temperature (GST) is one of the main indicators of climate change and Sea Surface Temperature (SST) forms its marine component. Historical SST observations extend back more than 150 years and are used for monitoring climate change and variability over the oceans, for validation of climate models and to provide boundary conditions for atmospheric models. SST observations from ships form our longest instrumental record of surface marine temperature change, but over the years different methods of measuring SST have been used, each of which potentially has different biases. Changes in technology and observational practice can be rapid and undocumented: generally, it is assumed that almost all SST data collected before the 1940s were derived from bucket samples although the measurement practice is almost never known in detail. Especially prior to the 1940s where buckets measurements prevailed, SST biases are expected to be large, namely comparable to the climatic increase in the GST over the past two centuries. Currently, SST datasets use bias models representing only large-scale effects, based on 5˚ area average monthly climatological environmental conditions or on large-scale variations in air-sea temperature difference, which is also uncertain. There are major differences between the bias adjustment fields used to date, which limits our confidence in global and regional estimates of historical SST as well as in long term trends, which are expected to be controlled by uncertainty in systematic biases. The main barrier to finer-scale adjustments of SST is that information about measurement methods and ambient environmental conditions is usually insufficient. As a result, many reports cannot be confidently assigned to a particular vessel and hence, cautiously, to the same measurement methodology. Here we present a new approach to the quantification of SST biases that can be applied on a ship-by-ship basis. These ship dependent adjustments are expected to

  20. Piglets’ Surface Temperature Change at Different Weights at Birth

    PubMed Central

    Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro; dos Santos, Luan Sousa; Machado, Sivanilza Teixeira; Moi, Marta; de Alencar Nääs, Irenilza; Foppa, Luciana; Garcia, Rodrigo Garófallo; de Kássia Silva dos Santos, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The study was carried out in order to verify the effects of piglets’ weight at birth on their surface temperature change (ST) after birth, and its relationship with ingestion time of colostrum. Piglets from four different sows were weighed at birth and divided into a totally randomized design with three treatments according to birth weight (PBW): T1 - less than 1.00 kg, T2 - 1.00 to 1.39 kg, and T3 - higher than or equal to 1.40 kg. The time spent for the first colostrum ingestion was recorded (TFS). Images of piglets’ surface by thermal imaging camera were recorded at birth (STB) and 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 min after birth. The air temperature and relative humidity were recorded every 30 min and the indexes of temperature and humidity (THI) were calculated. A ST drop after 15 min from birth was observed, increasing again after sixty minutes. Positive correlations were found between the PBW and the ST at 30 and 45 min after birth. The PBW was negatively correlated with the TFS. The THI showed high negative correlations (−0.824 and −0.815) with STB and after 15 min from birth. The piglet’s surface temperature at birth was positively correlated with temperature thereof to 15 min, influencing therefore the temperatures in the interval of 45 to 120 min. The birth weight contributes significantly to postnatal hypothermia and consequently to the time it takes for piglets ingest colostrum, requiring special attention to those of low birth weight. PMID:25049971

  1. Method for Measuring Collimator-Pointing Sensitivity to Temperature Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramovici, Alex; Cox, Timothy E.; Hein, Randall C.; MacDonald, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    For a variety of applications, it is important to measure the sensitivity of the pointing of a beam emerging from a collimator, as a function of temperature changes. A straightforward method for carrying out this measurement is based on using interferometry for monitoring the changes in beam pointing, which presents its own problems. The added temperature dependence and complexity issues relating to using an interferometer are addressed by not using an interferometer in the first place. Instead, the collimator is made part of an arrangement that uses a minimum number of low-cost, off-the-shelf materials and by using a quad diode to measure changes in beam pointing. In order to minimize the influence of the test arrangement on the outcome of the measurement, several steps are taken. The collimator assembly is placed on top of a vertical, 1-m-long, fused silica tube. The quad diode is bonded to a fused silica bar, which, in turn, is bonded to the lower end of the fused silica tube. The lower end of the tube rests on a self-aligning support piece, while the upper end of the tube is kept against two rounded setscrew tips, using a soft rubber string. This ensures that very little stress is applied to the tube as the support structure changes dimensions due to thermal expansion. Light is delivered to the collimator through a bare fiber in order to minimize variable bending torque caused by a randomly relaxing, rigid fiber jacket. In order to separate the effect of temperature on the collimator assembly from the effect temperature has on the rest of the setup, multiple measurements are taken with the collimator assembly rotated from measurement to measurement. Laboratory testing, with 1-m spacing between the collimator and the quad diode, has shown that the sensitivity of the arrangement is better than 100 nm rms, over time spans of at least one hour, if the beam path is protected from atmospheric turbulence by a tube. The equivalent sensitivity to detecting changes in

  2. Temperature changes along the Spanish Mediterranean shelf waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Yanez, M.; Lopez-Jurado, J. L.; Salat, J.; Pascual, J.

    2003-04-01

    Temperature and salinity of intermediate and deep waters of the western Mediterranean have rised during the XX century. These changes are well documented in the specialised literature (Bethoux et al., 1998, Rholing and Bryden, 1992, Tsimplis and Baker, 2000). Nevertheless it is not yet clear whether these changes are due to global warming and a change in the deep water formation conditions in the western Mediterranean or if it is imported from the eastern basin. In the second case, an increase of salinity of the eastern basin due to damming of the main rivers would be the main cause. Trend detection in coastal waters where intermediate waters influence is negligible, would help to clarify this problem. Nevertheless, it is more difficult to detect significant trends in coastal waters due to the intense noise and seasonal cycles superimposed to these trends (if existing). The number of degrees of freedom needed for the significant detection is higher and regular sampling programs are needed. Unfortunately, standard stations periodically sampled are scarce. Here we present results from two of these periodic programs conducted by IEO and ICM along the Spanish Mediterranean shelf (RADIALES project and L'startit coastal station). This work is divided into two parts. The first one is devoted to the revision of the main hypothesis involved in the statistic treatment of time series, such as normal distribution, independence of residuals, seasonal cycles removing, etc...., while the second part will focus on the comparison of time series along the Spanish coast, the study of temperature trends and its possible relation with NAO index. The most striking result is the detection of a intense warming trend which is common to the north-western and south-western stations for the last part of the XX century. Bibliography. Bethoux, J.P., B. Gentili, D. Taillez, warming and freshwater budget change in the Mediterranean since the 1940s, their possible relation to the greenhouse effect

  3. Students' Ideas about Dangerous Animals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardak, Osman

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article was to study the concepts and thoughts of primary education students about dangerous animals. A total of 316 primary education students attending a primary school in Turkey participated in the study. The research data was obtained through open-ended questions and word association tests. Data obtained from the questions…

  4. Northwestern Pacific typhoon intensity controlled by changes in ocean temperatures.

    PubMed

    Mei, Wei; Xie, Shang-Ping; Primeau, François; McWilliams, James C; Pasquero, Claudia

    2015-05-01

    Dominant climatic factors controlling the lifetime peak intensity of typhoons are determined from six decades of Pacific typhoon data. We find that upper ocean temperatures in the low-latitude northwestern Pacific (LLNWP) and sea surface temperatures in the central equatorial Pacific control the seasonal average lifetime peak intensity by setting the rate and duration of typhoon intensification, respectively. An anomalously strong LLNWP upper ocean warming has favored increased intensification rates and led to unprecedentedly high average typhoon intensity during the recent global warming hiatus period, despite a reduction in intensification duration tied to the central equatorial Pacific surface cooling. Continued LLNWP upper ocean warming as predicted under a moderate [that is, Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5] climate change scenario is expected to further increase the average typhoon intensity by an additional 14% by 2100. PMID:26601179

  5. Northwestern Pacific Typhoon Intensity Controlled by Changes in Ocean Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, W.; Xie, S. P.; Primeau, F.; McWilliams, J. C.; Pasquero, C.

    2015-12-01

    Dominant climatic factors controlling the lifetime peak intensity of typhoons are determined from six decades of Pacific typhoon data. We find that upper ocean temperatures in the low-latitude northwestern Pacific (LLNWP) and sea surface temperatures in the central equatorial Pacific control the seasonal average lifetime peak intensity by setting the rate and duration of typhoon intensification, respectively. An anomalously strong LLNWP upper ocean warming has favored increased intensification rates and led to unprecedentedly high average typhoon intensity during the recent global warming hiatus period, despite a reduction in intensification duration tied to the central equatorial Pacific surface cooling. Continued LLNWP upper ocean warming as predicted under a moderate (i.e., RCP 4.5) climate change scenario is expected to further increase the average typhoon intensity by an additional 14% by 2100.

  6. Northwestern Pacific typhoon intensity controlled by changes in ocean temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Wei; Xie, Shang-Ping; Primeau, François; McWilliams, James C.; Pasquero, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Dominant climatic factors controlling the lifetime peak intensity of typhoons are determined from six decades of Pacific typhoon data. We find that upper ocean temperatures in the low-latitude northwestern Pacific (LLNWP) and sea surface temperatures in the central equatorial Pacific control the seasonal average lifetime peak intensity by setting the rate and duration of typhoon intensification, respectively. An anomalously strong LLNWP upper ocean warming has favored increased intensification rates and led to unprecedentedly high average typhoon intensity during the recent global warming hiatus period, despite a reduction in intensification duration tied to the central equatorial Pacific surface cooling. Continued LLNWP upper ocean warming as predicted under a moderate [that is, Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5] climate change scenario is expected to further increase the average typhoon intensity by an additional 14% by 2100. PMID:26601179

  7. Repeat temperature measurements in borehole GC-1, northwestern Utah - Towards isolating a climate-change signal in borehole temperature profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, D.S.; Harris, R.N. )

    1993-09-01

    Temperature-depth profiles in borehole GC-1, northwestern Utah, were measured in 1978, 1990, and 1992. Borehole temperatures below 80 m depth are highly reproducible over the 14 year period indicating long term thermal stability. A slowly changing temperature field above 80 m depth has similiar characteristics to synthetic temperature profiles computed from a 100 year record of air temperature changes at Park Valley weather station 50 km northeast of the borehole site. 6 refs.

  8. Temperature changes in spectral characteristics of electrons in metallic lithium

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, V.A.

    1995-12-01

    Self-consistent calculations of the electron energy structure in metallic lithium are performed taking into account atomic vibrations in the crystal lattice. A satisfactory agreement between the results of calculations and experimental data is achieved. The most significant changes in the electron spectrum of lithium revealed with rising temperature are as follows: (1) shift and broadening of core states of the 1s-asymmetry and (2) transition of outer electrons of the 2s-symmetry to the states of the 2p-symmetry leading to strengthening of the directional bonds. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Repeat temperature measurements in boreholes from northwestern Utah link ground and air temperature changes at the decadal time scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Michael G.; Harris, Robert N.; Chapman, David S.

    2010-05-01

    Borehole temperature profiles provide a record of ground surface temperature (GST) change at the decadal to centennial time scale. GST histories reconstructed from boreholes are particularly useful in climate reconstruction if changes in GST and surface air temperature (SAT) are effectively coupled at decadal and longer time periods and it can be shown that borehole temperatures respond faithfully to surface temperature changes. We test these assumptions using three boreholes in northwestern Utah that have been repeatedly logged for temperature over a time span of 29 years. We report 13 temperature-depth logs at the Emigrant Pass Observatory borehole GC-1, eight at borehole SI-1 and five at borehole DM-1, acquired between 1978 and 2007. Systematic subsurface temperature changes of up to 0.6°C are observed over this time span in the upper sections of the boreholes; below approximately 100 m any temperature transients are within observational noise. We difference the temperature logs to highlight subsurface transients and to remove any ambiguity resulting from steady state source of curvature. Synthetic temperature profiles computed from SAT data at nearby meteorological stations reproduce both the amplitude and pattern of the transient temperature observations, fitting the observations to within 0.03°C or better. This observational confirmation of the strong coupling between surface temperature change and borehole temperature transients lends further support to the use of borehole temperatures to complement SAT and multiproxy reconstructions of climate change.

  10. Sudden change of geometric quantum discord in finite temperature reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Ming-Liang Sun, Jian

    2015-03-15

    We investigate sudden change (SC) behaviors of the distance-based measures of geometric quantum discords (GQDs) for two non-interacting qubits subject to the two-sided and the one-sided thermal reservoirs. We found that the GQDs defined by different distances exhibit different SCs, and thus the SCs are the combined result of the chosen discord measure and the property of a state. We also found that the thermal reservoir may generate states having different orderings related to different GQDs. These inherent differences of the GQDs reveal that they are incompatible in characterizing quantum correlations both quantitatively and qualitatively. - Highlights: • Comparable study of different distance-based geometric quantum discords. • Evolution of the geometric quantum discords in finite temperature reservoirs. • Different geometric quantum discords exhibit distinct sudden changes. • Nonunique states ordering imposed by different geometric quantum discords.

  11. Sensitivity of Local Temperature CDFs to Global Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stainforth, D.; Chapman, S. C.; Watkins, N. W.

    2011-12-01

    The sensitivity of climate to increasing atmospheric greenhouse gases at the global scale has been much studied [Knutti and Hegerl 2008, and references therein]. Scientific information to support climate change adaptation activities, however, is often sought at regional or local scales; the scales on which most adaptation decisions are made. Information on these scales is most often based on simulations of complex climate models [Murphy et al. 2009, Tebaldi et al. 2005] and have questionable reliability [Stainforth et al., 2007]. Rather than using data derived or obtained from models we focus on observational timeseries to evaluate the sensitivity of different parts of the local climatic distribution. Such an approach has many advantages: it avoids issues relating to model imperfections [Stainforth et al. 2007], it can be focused on decision relevant thresholds [e.g. Porter and Semenov, 2005], and it inherently integrates information relating to local climatic influences. Taking a timeseries of local daily temperatures for various locations across the United Kingdom we extract the changing cumulative distribution functions over time. We present a simple mathematical deconstruction of how two different observations from two different time periods can be assigned to the combination of natural variability and/or the consequences of climate change. Using this deconstruction we analyse the changing shape of the distributions and thus the sensitivity of different quartiles of the distribution. These sensitivities are found to be both regionally consistent and geographically varying across the United Kingdom; as one would expect given the different influences on local climate between, say, Western Scotland and South East England. We nevertheless find a common pattern of increased sensitivity in the 60th to 80th percentiles; above the mean but below the greatest extremes. The method has the potential to be applied to many other variables in addition to temperature and to

  12. Stress-induced core temperature changes in pigeons (Columba livia).

    PubMed

    Bittencourt, Myla de Aguiar; Melleu, Fernando Falkenburger; Marino-Neto, José

    2015-02-01

    Changes in body temperature are significant physiological consequences of stressful stimuli in mammals and birds. Pigeons (Columba livia) prosper in (potentially) stressful urban environments and are common subjects in neurobehavioral studies; however, the thermal responses to stress stimuli by pigeons are poorly known. Here, we describe acute changes in the telemetrically recorded celomatic (core) temperature (Tc) in pigeons given a variety of potentially stressful stimuli, including transfer to a novel cage (ExC) leading to visual isolation from conspecifics, the presence of the experimenter (ExpR), gentle handling (H), sham intracelomatic injections (SI), and the induction of the tonic immobility (TI) response. Transfer to the ExC cage provoked short-lived hyperthermia (10-20 min) followed by a long-lasting and substantial decrease in Tc, which returned to baseline levels 2 h after the start of the test. After a 2-hour stay in the ExC, the other potentially stressful stimuli evoked only weak, marginally significant hyperthermic (ExpR, IT) or hypothermic (SI) responses. Stimuli delivered 26 h after transfer to the ExC induced definite and intense increases in Tc (ExpR, H) or hypothermic responses (SI). These Tc changes appear to be unrelated to modifications in general activity (as measured via telemetrically recorded actimetric data). Repeated testing failed to affect the hypothermic responses to the transference to the ExC, even after nine trials and at 1- or 8-day intervals, suggesting that the social (visual) isolation from conspecifics may be a strong and poorly controllable stimulus in this species. The present data indicated that stress-induced changes in Tc may be a consistent and reliable physiological parameter of stress but that they may also show stressor type-, direction- and species-specific attributes. PMID:25479572

  13. A new approach to quantifying soil temperature responses to changing air temperature and snow cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackiewicz, Michael C.

    2012-08-01

    Seasonal snow cover provides an effective insulating barrier, separating shallow soil (0.25 m) from direct localized meteorological conditions. The effectiveness of this barrier is evident in a lag in the soil temperature response to changing air temperature. The causal relationship between air and soil temperatures is largely because of the presence or absence of snow cover, and is frequently characterized using linear regression analysis. However, the magnitude of the dampening effect of snow cover on the temperature response in shallow soils is obscured in linear regressions. In this study the author used multiple linear regression (MLR) with dummy predictor variables to quantify the degree of dampening between air and shallow soil temperatures in the presence and absence of snow cover at four Greenland sites. The dummy variables defining snow cover conditions were z = 0 for the absence of snow and z = 1 for the presence of snow cover. The MLR was reduced to two simple linear equations that were analyzed relative to z = 0 and z = 1 to enable validation of the selected equations. Compared with ordinary linear regression of the datasets, the MLR analysis yielded stronger coefficients of multiple determination and less variation in the estimated regression variables.

  14. Cholera toxin effects on body temperature changes induced by morphine.

    PubMed

    Basilico, L; Parenti, M; Fumagalli, A; Parolaro, D; Giagnoni, G

    1997-03-01

    The present study evaluates the influence of cholera toxin and its B-subunit on thermic responses to morphine in the rats. The holotoxin (1 microg/rat) and the B-subunit (5 microg) were administered ICV and three days later rats were challenged ICV with morphine and tested for changes of body temperature. Cholera toxin, but not its B-subunit, modified the time course of the hyperthermic response induced by a low dose of morphine (2.5 microg), converted the hypothermia due to a higher dose of morphine (18 microg) to a consistent hyperthermia and only partially reduced the greater hypothermia induced by 36 microg of morphine. Cholera toxin-induced modifications of thermic responses to morphine were paralleled with a decreased Gs(alpha) immunoreactivity and a reduced ability for the toxin to catalyse the "in vitro" ADP-ribosylation of Gs(alpha) in hypothalamic membranes. In contrast, at the same time when morphine-induced effects on body temperature were assessed, no changes in pertussis toxin-mediated ADP-ribosylation of Gi(alpha)/Go(alpha), or basal adenylate cyclase activity, or binding of mu-opioid receptor selective ligand [3H]-DAMGO were observed in hypothalamic areas from rats treated with cholera toxin. These findings suggest that adaptative events secondary to prolonged activation of Gs(alpha) play a role in the modifications of thermic responses to morphine induced by CTX. PMID:9077589

  15. Dangerous Near-Earth Asteroids and Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Grigoryan, A. E.

    2015-07-01

    The problem of Near-Earth Objects (NEOs; Astreoids and Meteorites) is discussed. To have an understanding on the probablity of encounters with such objects, one may use two different approaches: 1) historical, based on the statistics of existing large meteorite craters on the Earth, estimation of the source meteorites size and the age of these craters to derive the frequency of encounters with a given size of meteorites and 2) astronomical, based on the study and cataloging of all medium-size and large bodies in the Earth's neighbourhood and their orbits to estimate the probability, angles and other parameters of encounters. Therefore, we discuss both aspects and give our present knowledge on both phenomena. Though dangerous NEOs are one of the main source for cosmic catastrophes, we also focus on other possible dangers, such as even slight changes of Solar irradiance or Earth's orbit, change of Moon's impact on Earth, Solar flares or other manifestations of Solar activity, transit of comets (with impact on Earth's atmosphere), global climate change, dilution of Earth's atmosphere, damage of ozone layer, explosion of nearby Supernovae, and even an attack by extraterrestrial intelligence.

  16. Changes in temperature and precipitation extremes observed in Modena, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccolari, M.; Malmusi, S.

    2013-03-01

    Climate changes has become one of the most analysed subjects from researchers community, mainly because of the numerous extreme events that hit the globe. To have a better view of climate changes and trends, long observations time series are needed. During last decade a lot of Italian time series, concerning several surface meteorological variables, have been analysed and published. No one of them includes one of the longest record in Italy, the time series of the Geophysical Observatory of the University of Modena and Reggio Emilia. Measurements, collected since early 19th century, always in the same position, except for some months during the second world war, embrace daily temperature, precipitation amount, relative humidity, pressure, cloudiness and other variables. In this work we concentrated on the analysis of yearly and seasonal trends and climate extremes of temperature, both minimum and maximum, and precipitation time series, for the periods 1861-2010 and 1831-2010 respectively, in which continuous measurements are available. In general, our results confirm quite well those reported by IPCC and in many other studies over Mediterranean area. In particular, we found that minimum temperature has a non significant positive trend of + 0.1 °C per decade considering all the period, the value increases to 0.9 °C per decade for 1981-2010. For maximum temperature we observed a non significant + 0.1 °C trend for all the period, while + 0.8 °C for the last thirty years. On the other hand precipitation is decreasing, -6.3 mm per decade, considering all the analysed period, while the last thirty years are characterised by a great increment of 74.8 mm per decade. For both variables several climate indices have been analysed and they confirm what has been found for minimum and maximum temperatures and precipitation. In particular, during last 30 years frost days and ice days are decreasing, whereas summer days are increasing. During the last 30-year tropical nights

  17. Perceiving object dangerousness: an escape from pain?

    PubMed

    Anelli, Filomena; Ranzini, Mariagrazia; Nicoletti, Roberto; Borghi, Anna M

    2013-08-01

    A variety of studies showed that participants are facilitated when responding to graspable objects, while it has not been fully investigated what happens during interactions with graspable objects that are potentially dangerous. The present study focuses on the mechanisms underlying the processing of dangerous objects. In two experiments, we adopted a paradigm that has never been employed in this context, a bisection task. The line was flanked by objects belonging to different categories. We explored the sensitivity to the distinction between neutral and dangerous objects, by measuring whether the performance was biased toward a specific object category. In Experiment 1 both teenagers and adults bisected lines flanked by dangerous and neutral graspable objects, and they misperceived the line midpoint toward the neutral graspable object or, stated differently, on the opposite side of the dangerous graspable object. In Experiment 2 adults bisected lines flanked by dangerous and neutral objects matched on graspability (both graspable and ungraspable, Experiment 2a), or by graspable and ungraspable objects matched on dangerousness (both neutral and dangerous, Experiment 2b). Results confirmed the finding of Experiment 1, but also indicated that participants misperceived the line midpoint toward the ungraspable object when it was presented, being it dangerous or not. This evidence demonstrated sensitivity to object dangerousness maintained across lifespan. The emergence of aversive affordances evoked by dangerous graspable objects strenghtens the importance to consider graspability in the investigation of dangerous objects. Possible neural mechanisms involved in the processing of dangerous graspable objects are discussed. PMID:23743714

  18. Rice and Climate Change: Danger, or Opportunity?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon dioxide (CO2), the principle gas associated with global warming, is also one of four resources needed for plants to complete their life cycle (i.e. water, light, nutrients, CO2). The ongoing increase in its concentration may allow rice breeders to begin selecting for optimal varieties among ...

  19. Low temperature induced changes in gene expression in low temperature-sensitive and -tolerant tomatoes

    SciTech Connect

    Vallejos, C.E.; Camp, S.F. )

    1989-04-01

    The objective of this project is to identify genes that control low temperature (LT) tolerance/acclimation in a high altitude ecotype of the wild tomato L. hirsutum. LT induced changes in gene expression were monitored via 2-D gel electrophoresis and fluorography of radiolabeled in vitro translation products. Two types of changes were detected when both LT-sensitive (L. esculentum, L. hirsutum 100m) and LT-tolerant (L. hirsutum 3100m) genotypes were exposed to 6{degrees}C for 12 h in the dark: (a) specific LT induction or up-regulation or up-regulation of some genes; and (b) changes in the turnover rate of day specific mRNA's. Increased exposure lead to the disappearance of some mRNA's. These comparisons will lead to the identification of mRNA's involved in acclimation, and those involved in stress response.

  20. Projected changes in precipitation extremes linked to temperature over Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, S.; Dairaku, K.; Takayabu, I.; Suzuki-Parker, A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have argued that the extreme precipitation intensities are increasing in many regions across the globe due to atmospheric warming. This argument is based on the principle of Clausius-Clapeyron relationship which states that the atmosphere can hold more moisture in warmer air temperature (~7%/°C). In our study, we have investigated the precipitation extremes linked to temperature in current climate (1981-2000) and their projected changes in late 21st century (2081-2100, RCP4.5) over Japan from multi-model ensemble downscaling experiments by three RCMs (NHRCM, NRAMS, WRF) forced by JRA25 as well as three GCMs (CCSM4, MIROC5, MRI-GCM3). To do this, the precipitation intensities of wet days (defined as ≥ 0.05 mm/d) are stratified to different bins with 1°C temperature interval. We have also identified the occurrences of precipitation extremes in different spell durations and associated peak intensities exceeding various thresholds in two climate periods. We found that extreme precipitation intensities are increased by 5 mm/d in future climate for temperatures above 21°C (Fig. 1). Precipitation extremes of higher percentiles are projected to have larger increase rates in future climate scenarios (3-5%/°C in the current climate and 4-6%/°C in the future climate scenarios). The joint probability distribution of wet hours (≥1mm/h) with various peak intensities under future climate scenarios (RCP4.5) of the late 21st century suggests an increase of long-lived (>10hr) and short-lived (1-2hr) events. On the other hand, a relatively decrease of medium-lived events (3-10hr) are noticed in future climate scenario. The increase of extreme precipitation intensities in future climate is due to the increase in temperature under RCP4.5 (~2°C). Increase in temperature causes more evapotranspiration and subsequently increases the water vapor in the atmosphere.

  1. Surface roughness change on sandstone induced by temperature increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlcko, J.; Kompanikova, Z.; Gomez-Heras, M.; Greif, V.; Durmekova, T.; Brcek, M.

    2012-04-01

    Optical surface profilometer allows capturing the information necessary to provide 3D surface measurements in a single image acquisition with a vertical micrometric resolution. The surface topography can be used for analyses, such as roughness evaluation. In this research, roughness changes of two types of sandstone samples were studied before and after heating to 60, 200, 400, 600 and 800 °C. Measurements obtained were converted into 3D 5 mm x 5 mm (25 mm2) topographic maps with a resolution of 2.5 µm. Surface roughness parameter Sq represents quantifies roughness from the maximum deviation along a mean surface and it is calculated as the root mean squared of five peaks and valleys of the specimen using Gaussian filter and 0.80 mm cut-off. The high spatial resolution obtained from visible-light optical surface profilometer is an ideal tool for observing rock surface alterations caused by decay factors. The authors present complete original process of surface roughness determination on rock samples adopting the portable profilometer using free accessible software packages. The different stability of the fabric of sandstones from Králiky and Oravská Jasenica after heating is due to their different mineral composition and different ratio of minerals that are more or less chemically stable at high temperatures, their resistance to thermal stress and other textural factors related to the distribution of grains and matrix. Percentage of minerals chemically stable at higher temperature, such as quartz, calcite, illite and muscovite, in fresh sandstone samples from Králiky is approximately 48%. Conversely, sandstones from Oravská Jasenica have significantly greater percentage of minerals stable at higher temperatures, such as quartz, albite, orthoclase, muscovite, illite and calcite than of other, less stable, minerals such as chlorite, biotite and kaolinite. Hence, percentage of minerals stable at higher temperatures was approximately 81 %. The results show how the

  2. Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... back to top Why is Xylitol Dangerous to Dogs, but Not People? In both people and dogs, ...

  3. Long-term change in thermospheric temperature above Saint Santin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaldson, J. K.; Wellman, T. J.; Oliver, W. L.

    2010-11-01

    The 1966-1987 Saint Santin/Nançay incoherent scatter radar database is analyzed to determine long-term trends beyond those associated with the "natural" variations of solar and magnetic activity, season, and time of day. Trends averaging some -3 K/yr are found in the F region. Positive trends in the E region may be explained by the subsidence of an overlying warmer regime of air. The trend line seems to change slope around the "breakpoint" year 1979, with the cooling changing from -0.8 K/yr before that time to -5.5 K/yr afterward at 350 km altitude. These trends greatly exceed those predicted by model simulations for increases in greenhouse gas concentrations. Further, carbon dioxide shows no such breakpoint year, but ozone does, near the time of the change in thermospheric trend, and a surface climatic regime shift has also been reported near this time. It is not clear that greenhouse gases are driving the long-term trend in thermospheric temperature. Restriction of analysis to a particular time of day results in greatly different trends, from near zero at midnight to -6 K/yr at noon at 350 km altitude. A separate analysis to determine the long-term trend in the amplitude of the 24 h tide at 350 km altitude shows a large change, with the amplitude diminishing from 136 K in 1966 to 89 K in 1988. Our results show the great need to remove all other natural variations from long-term data sets in determining long-term trends to avoid great ambiguity in trend interpretation.

  4. Decadal Changes in the World's Coastal Latitudinal Temperature Gradients

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Hannes; Doherty, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Most of the world's living marine resources inhabit coastal environments, where average thermal conditions change predictably with latitude. These coastal latitudinal temperature gradients (CLTG) coincide with important ecological clines,e.g., in marine species diversity or adaptive genetic variations, but how tightly thermal and ecological gradients are linked remains unclear. A first step is to consistently characterize the world's CLTGs. We extracted coastal cells from a global 1°×1° dataset of weekly sea surface temperatures (SST, 1982–2012) to quantify spatial and temporal variability of the world's 11 major CLTGs. Gradient strength, i.e., the slope of the linear mean-SST/latitude relationship, varied 3-fold between the steepest (North-American Atlantic and Asian Pacific gradients: −0.91°C and −0.68°C lat−1, respectively) and weakest CLTGs (African Indian Ocean and the South- and North-American Pacific gradients: −0.28, −0.29, −0.32°C lat−1, respectively). Analyzing CLTG strength by year revealed that seven gradients have weakened by 3–10% over the past three decades due to increased warming at high compared to low latitudes. Almost the entire South-American Pacific gradient (6–47°S), however, has considerably cooled over the study period (−0.3 to −1.7°C, 31 years), and the substantial weakening of the North-American Atlantic gradient (−10%) was due to warming at high latitudes (42–60°N, +0.8 to +1.6°C,31 years) and significant mid-latitude cooling (Florida to Cape Hatteras 26–35°N, −0.5 to −2.2°C, 31 years). Average SST trends rarely resulted from uniform shifts throughout the year; instead individual seasonal warming or cooling patterns elicited the observed changes in annual means. This is consistent with our finding of increased seasonality (i.e., summer-winter SST amplitude) in three quarters of all coastal cells (331 of 433). Our study highlights the regionally variable footprint of global climate change

  5. 30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Danger signs. 57.12021 Section 57.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

  6. 30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Danger signs. 57.12021 Section 57.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

  7. 30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Danger signs. 57.12021 Section 57.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

  8. 30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Danger signs. 57.12021 Section 57.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

  9. 30 CFR 57.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Danger signs. 57.12021 Section 57.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Underground § 57.12021 Danger signs. Suitable danger signs shall be posted at all major...

  10. Change In Minimum Temperature As A Response To Land Cover Change In South Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, H. P.; Melesse, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    Replacement of higher evapotranspirative surface materials such as water and vegetation cover by other materials such as buildings, roads, and pavements increases the Bowen's ratio from about 0.5-2.0 in rural to about ≈ 5.0 in urban areas resulting in higher surface and near surface atmospheric temperatures in the urban areas (Taha, 1997). This effect is intensified by low emissivity surfaces of the urban covers storing more heat energy during day time, but emitting less during night compared to the energy emitted by rural covers causing higher night time temperatures in urban centers, an effect called Urban Heat Island (UHI). South Florida has undergone tremendous land cover change from its pre-drainage vegetated and wetlands to post drainage agricultural and urban lands, especially after late 20th century. The objective of this study was to simultaneously analyze the land use/ land cover change and the rural/ urban minimum temperatures in south Florida for the period representing pre and post drainage states. The result shows urban sprawl increased from 8% at the beginning of the analysis period to about 14% at the end. Green vegetated areas, shrubs, and forests are found to be declined. The minimum temperature is found increased as maximum as 2°F in the urbanized stations, which remained constant or shows negligible increase in rural stations. The study dictates further micro level scrutiny in order to reach a conclusion on the development of UHI in south Florida. Key words: Bowen's ratio, emissivity, urban heat island

  11. Global Changes in the Sea Ice Cover and Associated Surface Temperature Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2016-06-01

    The trends in the sea ice cover in the two hemispheres have been observed to be asymmetric with the rate of change in the Arctic being negative at -3.8 % per decade while that of the Antarctic is positive at 1.7 % per decade. These observations are confirmed in this study through analyses of a more robust data set that has been enhanced for better consistency and updated for improved statistics. With reports of anthropogenic global warming such phenomenon appears physically counter intuitive but trend studies of surface temperature over the same time period show the occurrence of a similar asymmetry. Satellite surface temperature data show that while global warming is strong and dominant in the Arctic, it is relatively minor in the Antarctic with the trends in sea ice covered areas and surrounding ice free regions observed to be even negative. A strong correlation of ice extent with surface temperature is observed, especially during the growth season, and the observed trends in the sea ice cover are coherent with the trends in surface temperature. The trend of global averages of the ice cover is negative but modest and is consistent and compatible with the positive but modest trend in global surface temperature. A continuation of the trend would mean the disappearance of summer ice by the end of the century but modelling projections indicate that the summer ice could be salvaged if anthropogenic greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are kept constant at the current level.

  12. A linear regression model for predicting PNW estuarine temperatures in a changing climate

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pacific Northwest coastal regions, estuaries, and associated ecosystems are vulnerable to the potential effects of climate change, especially to changes in nearshore water temperature. While predictive climate models simulate future air temperatures, no such projections exist for...

  13. Simulated Climate Change Effects of Snowpack Manipulations on Soil Temperature and Moisture in the Sierra Nevada Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. G.; Jasoni, R. L.; Arnone, J.

    2012-12-01

    Future changes in climate are predicted to significantly affect the type and amount of precipitation in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California and Nevada. Because most of the yearly precipitation in this region falls as snow, changes in snowfall amount, snowfall timing, and duration of the snowpack may dramatically affect the timing and persistence of soil temperature and moisture, and biological processes dependent on these soil factors. The objective of our study was to quantify the effects of manipulating snowpack amounts on soil temperature and moisture over a two year period, including both the addition and removal of snow in a Pinus jeffreii (Jeffrey Pine) forest located northeast of Lake Tahoe, Nevada. Soil temperatures measured during the first winter (above average snow year) remained higher in control plots when snow was present, and in snow-addition plots, than in snow-removal plots. However, these effects did not persist in the second year when total snowfall amounted to only 20% of that occurring in the first year. Surprisingly, the effects on soil moisture persisted through the summer of year two with soil VWC in snow removal plots averaging approximately 50% drier than the snow addition plots (6.5% average VWC in snow removal and 13.2% in snow addition plots) and 13% drier on average than the control plots (7.5% average VWC in control plots).These results suggest the possibility of prolonged reductions in soil moisture, soil microbial activity, plant growth, and even increased danger of wildfires if anthropogenic climate change reduces snowfall amount and snowpack duration.

  14. Pretest Caluculations of Temperature Changes for Field Thermal Conductivity Tests

    SciTech Connect

    N.S. Brodsky

    2002-07-17

    A large volume fraction of the potential monitored geologic repository at Yucca Mountain may reside in the Tptpll (Tertiary, Paintbrush Group, Topopah Spring Tuff, crystal poor, lower lithophysal) lithostratigraphic unit. This unit is characterized by voids, or lithophysae, which range in size from centimeters to meters. A series of thermal conductivity field tests are planned in the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) Cross Drift. The objective of the pretest calculation described in this document is to predict changes in temperatures in the surrounding rock for these tests for a given heater power and a set of thermal transport properties. The calculation can be extended, as described in this document, to obtain thermal conductivity, thermal capacitance (density x heat capacity, J {center_dot} m{sup -3} {center_dot} K{sup -1}), and thermal diffusivity from the field data. The work has been conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan For: Testing and Monitoring'' (BSC 2001). One of the outcomes of this analysis is to determine the initial output of the heater. This heater output must be sufficiently high that it will provide results in a reasonably short period of time (within several weeks or a month) and be sufficiently high that the heat increase is detectable by the instruments employed in the test. The test will be conducted in stages and heater output will be step increased as the test progresses. If the initial temperature is set too high, the experiment will not have as many steps and thus fewer thermal conductivity data points will result.

  15. Visual Aid to Demonstrate Change of State and Gas Pressure with Temperature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaffari, Shahrokh

    2011-01-01

    Demonstrations are used in chemistry lectures to improve conceptual understanding by direct observation. The visual aid described here is designed to demonstrate the change in state of matter with the change of temperature and the change of pressure with temperature. Temperature is presented by the rate of airflow and pressure is presented by…

  16. Response of California temperature to regional anthropogenic aerosol changes

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchstetter, Thomas; Novakov, T.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Menon, S.; Aguiar, J.

    2008-05-12

    In this paper, we compare constructed records of concentrations of black carbon (BC)--an indicator of anthropogenic aerosols--with observed surface temperature trends in California. Annual average BC concentrations in major air basins in California significantly decreased after about 1990, coincident with an observed statewide surface temperature increase. Seasonal aerosol concentration trends are consistent with observed seasonal temperature trends. These data suggest that the reduction in anthropogenic aerosol concentrations contributed to the observed surface temperature increase. Conversely, high aerosol concentrations may lower surface temperature and partially offset the temperature increase of greenhouse gases.

  17. Dangerousness and mental health policy.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, J L

    2008-04-01

    Mental health policy development in the UK has become increasingly dominated by the assumed need to prevent violence and alleviate public concerns about the dangers of the mentally ill living in the community. Risk management has become the expected focus of contemporary mental health services, and responsibility has increasingly been devolved to individual service professionals when systems fail to prevent violence. This paper analyses the development of mental health legislation and its impact on services users and mental health professionals at the micro level of service delivery. Historical precedence, media influence and public opinion are explored, and the reification of risk is questioned in practical and ethical terms. The government's newest proposals for compulsory treatment in the community are discussed in terms of practical efficacy and therapeutic impact. Dangerousness is far from being an objectively observable phenomenon arising from clinical pathology, but is a formulation of what is partially knowable through social analysis and unknowable by virtue of its situation in individual psychic motivation. Risk assessment can therefore never be completely accurate, and the solution of a 'better safe than sorry' approach to mental health policy is ethically and pragmatically flawed. PMID:18307647

  18. Atmospheric temperature changes over the 20th century at very high elevations in the European Alps from englacial temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, A.; Vincent, C.

    2013-05-01

    the paucity of observations, a great deal of uncertainty remains concerning temperature changes at very high altitudes over the last century. Englacial temperature measurements performed in boreholes provide a very good indicator of atmospheric temperatures for very high elevations although they are not directly related to air temperatures. Temperature profiles from seven deep boreholes drilled at three different sites between 4240 and 4300 m above sea level in the Mont Blanc area (French Alps) have been analyzed using a heat flow model and a Bayesian inverse modeling approach. Atmospheric temperature changes over the last century were estimated by simultaneous inversion of these temperature profiles. A mean warming rate of 0.14°C/decade between 1900 and 2004 was found. This is similar to the observed regional low altitude trend in the northwestern Alps, suggesting that air temperature trends are not altitude dependent.

  19. A study on the measurement of the core body temperature change after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) through MR temperature mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang-Bok; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Yu, Young; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Joo, Kyu-Ji

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the change in the heat generated during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using a self-manufactured phantom and used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to analyze the change in the temperature of the core body and the tissues surrounding the phantom. In this experiment, the image and the phase image were obtained simultaneously from a gradient echo-based sequence using 1.5-Tesla MRI equipment and a 12-channel head coil. The temperature mapping technique was used to calculate the change in temperature. The regions of interest (ROIs) (ROI 1 - ROI 6) were set with a focus on the area where the RFA was performed, according to the temperature distribution, before monitoring the temperature change for one hour in time intervals of five minutes. The results showed that the temperature change in the ROI with time was largest in the ROI 1 and smallest in the ROI 5. In addition, after the RFA procedure, the temperature decreased from the initial value to 0 °C in one hour. The temperature changes in the core body and the surrounding tissues were confirmed by MRI temperature mapping, which is a noninvasive method.

  20. Dangerous people or dangerous situations? Some further thoughts.

    PubMed

    Prins, H

    1991-01-01

    The author enlarges upon and develops some observations upon the assessment of dangerousness which appeared in this journal a decade ago. In the present contribution, particular attention is paid to identifying the type of person at risk of committing further acts of serious personal harm to persons and or property and to the factors or circumstances that may be conducive to this. Finally, the author puts forward some views on why cues and clues may be missed and how these omissions might be overcome. 'Between the acting of a dreadful thing And the first motion, all the interim is Like a phantasma, or a hideous dream' Julius Caesar, Act II Scene 1. PMID:2005765

  1. Volume and density changes of biological fluids with temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal expansion of human blood, plasma, ultrafiltrate, and erythrocycte concentration at temperatures in the range of 4-48 C is studied. The mechanical oscillator technique which has an accuracy of 1 x 10 to the -5 th g/ml is utilized to measure fluid density. The relationship between thermal expansion, density, and temperature is analyzed. The study reveals that: (1) thermal expansion increases with increasing temperature; (2) the magnitude of the increase declines with increasing temperature; (3) thermal expansion increases with density at temperatures below 40 C; and (4) the thermal expansion of intracellular fluid is greater than that of extracellular fluid in the temperature range of 4-10 C, but it is equal at temperatures greater than or equal to 40 C.

  2. Seasonal Change Detection and Attribution of Surface Temperature changes over Interior Peninsular Region of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattanayak, Sonali; Nagesh Kumar, Dasika

    2015-04-01

    A good number of studies have investigated recent trends in the observed and simulated hydrometeorological variables across the world. It has been challenging for the research community to address whether the significant change in climate over the course of 2nd half of 20th century is caused either due to natural or manmade effects. Although evidences for an anthropogenic contribution to climatic trends have been accumulated rapidly worldwide, for India these are scarce. Hence the formal efforts have been undertaken to distinguish whether the recent changes in seasonal temperature over India occurred due to natural internal variation of climate system or human influence using rigorous detection and attribution (D&A) procedure. The surface temperature is the most widely cited indicator of climate fluctuation. Hence maximum and minimum temperatures (Tmax & Tmin) which are among the six most commonly used variables for impact assessment studies are analyzed here. Seasonal divisions are based on conventional meteorological seasons: January-February (winter); March-May (pre monsoon); June-September (monsoon); October-December (post monsoon). Time span considered for this study is 1950-2005. Climate Research Unit (Version 3.21) gridded monthly temperature datasets are considered as observed data. Initially TFPW-MK (Trend Free Pre Whitening Mann Kendall) test is used to search the significant trends in the four seasons over all India. Temporal change detection analysis in evapotranspiration (which is one of the key processes in hydrological cycle) is essential for progress in water resources planning and management. Hence along with Tmax and Tmin, potential evapotranspiration (PET) has also been analyzed for the similar conditions. Significant upward trends in Tmax, Tmin and PET are observed over most of the grid points in Interior Peninsula (IP) region over India. Significant correlation was obtained between PET and Tmax compared to PET and Tmin. Trends in Tmin clearly

  3. Low Temperature Adaptation Is Not the Opposite Process of High Temperature Adaptation in Terms of Changes in Amino Acid Composition

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ling-Ling; Tang, Shu-Kun; Huang, Ying; Zhi, Xiao-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies focused on psychrophilic adaptation generally have demonstrated that multiple mechanisms work together to increase protein flexibility and activity, as well as to decrease the thermostability of proteins. However, the relationship between high and low temperature adaptations remains unclear. To investigate this issue, we collected the available predicted whole proteome sequences of species with different optimal growth temperatures, and analyzed amino acid variations and substitutional asymmetry in pairs of homologous proteins from related species. We found that changes in amino acid composition associated with low temperature adaptation did not exhibit a coherent opposite trend when compared with changes in amino acid composition associated with high temperature adaptation. This result indicates that during their evolutionary histories the proteome-scale evolutionary patterns associated with prokaryotes exposed to low temperature environments were distinct from the proteome-scale evolutionary patterns associated with prokaryotes exposed to high temperature environments in terms of changes in amino acid composition of the proteins. PMID:26614525

  4. Soil erosion under climate change: simulatingthe response of temperature and rainfall changes in three UK catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciampalini, Rossano; Walker-Springett, Kate J.; Constantine, José Antonio; Hales, Tristram C.

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion by water cost in environmental damages across the Great Britain is estimated in over £200m (2014 GBP) each year and could increase for the effect of climate change. Assessing the potential for increased climate-driven soil erosion, due to the several water processes involved (e.g., infiltration excess, return flow, direct precipitation onto saturated soil),is recognizedas a complex task. Climate change can have a positive and direct effect on soil erosionsuch the case of increasing rainfall in amount and intensity, or an indirect effect through the variation of the atmospheric CO2 level, which can improve plant productivityandwater infiltration capacity of soil reducing the likelihood of soil erosion. Changes in vegetation patterns and typologies with a different protection effect can lead also the soil system to dramatic changes in soil erosion rates, potentially amplifying or ameliorating the direct effects of climate change.Climate, vegetation and soil erosion are thus connected and several feedback effects could be accounted in the study of global change. Understanding these interactions may be a primary goal for clarifying the impact of global change on soil erosion and its consequences on related soil functions such as water and organic carbon storage support to vegetation and agricultural production. In this research, focused on three UK catchments (i.e. Conwy, 627 km2, Wales; Ehen, 225 km2, England; and Dee, 2100 km2, Scotland), we simulated soil erosionapplying SRES climatic scenarios(IPCC, 2000) for different CO2 emission levels. We modelled using Pesera "The Pan European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment" (Kirkby et al., 2004), a model for vegetation growing and soil erosion evaluation at regional scale. For each catchment,we realised a sensitivity - analysis - like test investigating different increments in temperature and rainfall, then, we compared the results of the SRES scenarios with the issues of the parametric sensitivity analysis. The

  5. Complex coupled metabolic and prokaryotic community responses to increasing temperatures in anaerobic marine sediments: critical temperatures and substrate changes.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Erwan G; Cragg, Barry A; Webster, Gordon; Sass, Henrik; Tang, Xiaohong; Williams, Angharad S; Gorra, Roberta; Weightman, Andrew J; Parkes, R John

    2015-08-01

    The impact of temperature (0-80°C) on anaerobic biogeochemical processes and prokaryotic communities in marine sediments (tidal flat) was investigated in slurries for up to 100 days. Temperature had a non-linear effect on biogeochemistry and prokaryotes with rapid changes over small temperature intervals. Some activities (e.g. methanogenesis) had multiple 'windows' within a large temperature range (∼10 to 80°C). Others, including acetate oxidation, had maximum activities within a temperature zone, which varied with electron acceptor [metal oxide (up to ∼34°C) and sulphate (up to ∼50°C)]. Substrates for sulphate reduction changed from predominantly acetate below, and H2 above, a 43°C critical temperature, along with changes in activation energies and types of sulphate-reducing Bacteria. Above ∼43°C, methylamine metabolism ceased with changes in methanogen types and increased acetate concentrations (>1 mM). Abundances of uncultured Archaea, characteristic of deep marine sediments (e.g. MBGD Euryarchaeota, 'Bathyarchaeota') changed, indicating their possible metabolic activity and temperature range. Bacterial cell numbers were consistently higher than archaeal cells and both decreased above ∼15°C. Substrate addition stimulated activities, widened some activity temperature ranges (methanogenesis) and increased bacterial (×10) more than archaeal cell numbers. Hence, additional organic matter input from climate-related eutrophication may amplify the impact of temperature increases on sedimentary biogeochemistry. PMID:26207045

  6. Complex coupled metabolic and prokaryotic community responses to increasing temperatures in anaerobic marine sediments: critical temperatures and substrate changes

    PubMed Central

    Roussel, Erwan G.; Cragg, Barry A.; Webster, Gordon; Sass, Henrik; Tang, Xiaohong; Williams, Angharad S.; Gorra, Roberta; Weightman, Andrew J.; Parkes, R. John

    2015-01-01

    The impact of temperature (0–80°C) on anaerobic biogeochemical processes and prokaryotic communities in marine sediments (tidal flat) was investigated in slurries for up to 100 days. Temperature had a non-linear effect on biogeochemistry and prokaryotes with rapid changes over small temperature intervals. Some activities (e.g. methanogenesis) had multiple ‘windows’ within a large temperature range (∼10 to 80°C). Others, including acetate oxidation, had maximum activities within a temperature zone, which varied with electron acceptor [metal oxide (up to ∼34°C) and sulphate (up to ∼50°C)]. Substrates for sulphate reduction changed from predominantly acetate below, and H2 above, a 43°C critical temperature, along with changes in activation energies and types of sulphate-reducing Bacteria. Above ∼43°C, methylamine metabolism ceased with changes in methanogen types and increased acetate concentrations (>1 mM). Abundances of uncultured Archaea, characteristic of deep marine sediments (e.g. MBGD Euryarchaeota, ‘Bathyarchaeota’) changed, indicating their possible metabolic activity and temperature range. Bacterial cell numbers were consistently higher than archaeal cells and both decreased above ∼15°C. Substrate addition stimulated activities, widened some activity temperature ranges (methanogenesis) and increased bacterial (×10) more than archaeal cell numbers. Hence, additional organic matter input from climate-related eutrophication may amplify the impact of temperature increases on sedimentary biogeochemistry. PMID:26207045

  7. The uncertainties of the net primary production due to regional and seasonal temperature changes in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Guodong

    2015-04-01

    A kind of temperature change scenario is supplied by the approach of conditional nonlinear optimal perturbation related to parameter (CNOP-P) to estimate the variation of the net primary production (NPP)in North-South transect of eastern China within a state-of-the-art Lund-Potsdam-Jena dynamical global vegetation model (LPJ DGVM). There are two traits for the kind of temperature change scenario. Firstly, the kind of temperature change scenario considers the regional and seasonal differences in North-South transect of eastern China. The character of the temperature change is similar to the observation data due to the observational constraint. Secondly, the kind of temperature change scenario causes the maximal possible impact on the simulated NPP to discuss the maximal uncertainty in the simulated NPP to the temperature change in North-South transect of eastern China. Other two kinds of temperature change scenarios are also applied to explain the above two traits and to analyze variations due to different kinds of temperature change scenarios. It is shown that the kind of temperature change scenario resulted of the CNOP-P approach, which is called as the CNOP-P-type temperature change scenario, exhibits the regional and seasonal temperature differences in North-South transect of eastern China. The NPP decreases by 1.84% in northern China, and respectively increases by 4.09% and 18.99% in northeastern and southern China as the results of the CNOP-P-type temperature change scenario, though the NPP increases in small part of northern China and decreases in part of northeastern China. The variations in the NPP caused by the CNOP-P-type temperature change scenario are different to those by the other two types of temperature change scenarios in northern, northeastern China and southern China. The impact of the CNOP-P-type temperature change scenario on the NPP is intenser than that of the other two types of temperature change scenarios. The seasonal analyses demonstrate

  8. Personal Safety in Dangerous Places

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Terry; Dunlap, Eloise; Johnson, Bruce D.; Hamid, Ansley

    2009-01-01

    Personal safety during fieldwork is seldom addressed directly in the literature. Drawing from many prior years of ethnographic research and from field experience while studying crack distributors in New York City, the authors provide a variety of strategies by which ethnographic research can be safely conducted in dangerous settings. By projecting an appropriate demeanor, ethnographers can seek others for protector and locator roles, routinely create a safety zone in the field, and establish compatible field roles with potential subjects. The article also provides strategies for avoiding or handling sexual approaches, common law crimes, fights, drive-by shootings, and contacts with the police. When integrated with other standard qualitative methods, ethnographic strategies help to ensure that no physical harm comes to the field-worker and other staff members. Moreover, the presence of researchers may actually reduce (and not increase) potential and actual violence among crack distributors/abusers or others present in the field setting. PMID:19809525

  9. Assessing the Influence of Precipitation on Diurnal Temperature Range Changes: Implications for Climate Change Projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van den Hoof, C.; Garreaud, R.

    2014-12-01

    . Braganza, D.J. Karoly, and J.M. Arblaster. Diurnal temperature range as an index of global climate change during the twentieth century. Geophysical Research Letters, 31:1-4, 2004. [2] A. Dai, A.D. Del Genio, and I.Y. Fung. Clouds, precipitation and temperature range. Nature, 386:665-666, 1997.

  10. The danger theory: 20 years later.

    PubMed

    Pradeu, Thomas; Cooper, Edwin L

    2012-01-01

    The self-non-self theory has dominated immunology since the 1950s. In the 1990s, Matzinger and her colleagues suggested a new, competing theory, called the "danger theory." This theory has provoked mixed acclaim: enthusiasm and criticism. Here we assess the danger theory vis-à-vis recent experimental data on innate immunity, transplantation, cancers and tolerance to foreign entities, and try to elucidate more clearly whether danger is well defined. PMID:23060876

  11. The danger theory: 20 years later

    PubMed Central

    Pradeu, Thomas; Cooper, Edwin L.

    2012-01-01

    The self–non-self theory has dominated immunology since the 1950s. In the 1990s, Matzinger and her colleagues suggested a new, competing theory, called the “danger theory.” This theory has provoked mixed acclaim: enthusiasm and criticism. Here we assess the danger theory vis-à-vis recent experimental data on innate immunity, transplantation, cancers and tolerance to foreign entities, and try to elucidate more clearly whether danger is well defined. PMID:23060876

  12. Skin sites to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment during periodical changes in air temperature.

    PubMed

    Kim, Siyeon; Lee, Joo-Young

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate stable and valid measurement sites of skin temperatures as a non-invasive variable to predict deep-body temperature while wearing firefighters' personal protective equipment (PPE) during air temperature changes. Eight male firefighters participated in an experiment which consisted of 60-min exercise and 10-min recovery while wearing PPE without self-contained breathing apparatus (7.75 kg in total PPE mass). Air temperature was periodically fluctuated from 29.5 to 35.5 °C with an amplitude of 6 °C. Rectal temperature was chosen as a deep-body temperature, and 12 skin temperatures were recorded. The results showed that the forehead and chest were identified as the most valid sites to predict rectal temperature (R(2) = 0.826 and 0.824, respectively) in an environment with periodically fluctuated air temperatures. This study suggests that particular skin temperatures are valid as a non-invasive variable when predicting rectal temperature of an individual wearing PPE in changing ambient temperatures. Practitioner Summary: This study should offer assistance for developing a more reliable indirect indicating system of individual heat strain for firefighters in real time, which can be used practically as a precaution of firefighters' heat-related illness and utilised along with physiological monitoring. PMID:26214379

  13. Corrosion fatigue behavior and life prediction method under changing temperature condition

    SciTech Connect

    Kanasaki, Hiroshi; Hirano, Akihiko; Iida, Kunihiro; Asada, Yasuhide

    1997-12-01

    Axially strain controlled low cycle fatigue tests of a carbon steel in oxygenated high temperature water were carried out under changing temperature conditions. Two patterns of triangular wave were selected for temperature cycling. One was in-phase pattern synchronizing with strain cycling and the other was an out-of-phase pattern in which temperature was changed in anti-phase to the strain cycling. The fatigue life under changing temperature condition was in the range of the fatigue life under various constant temperature within the range of the changing temperature. The fatigue life of in-phase pattern was equivalent to that of out-of-phase pattern. The corrosion fatigue life prediction method was proposed for changing temperature condition, and was based on the assumption that the fatigue damage increased in linear proportion to increment of strain during cycling. The fatigue life predicted by this method was in good agreement with the test results.

  14. Dangerous Spaces, Dangerous Memories, Dangerous Emotions: Informal Education and Heteronormativity--A Manchester UK Youth Work Vignette

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batsleer, Janet

    2012-01-01

    This article makes a connection between youth work spaces, emotions and some elements of memory, exploring the construction of spaces dangerous for social justice in both meanings of the term "dangerous for". It investigates the contribution to social justice of lesbian and gay youth work and other non-heteronormative youth work in a British…

  15. Distributional changes in gene-specific methylation associated with temperature.

    PubMed

    Bind, Marie-Abele C; Coull, Brent A; Baccarelli, Andrea; Tarantini, Letizia; Cantone, Laura; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-10-01

    Temperature has been related to mean differences in DNA methylation. However, heterogeneity in these associations may exist across the distribution of methylation outcomes. This study examined whether the association between three-week averaged of temperature and methylation differs across quantiles of the methylation distributions in nine candidate genes. We measured gene-specific blood methylation repeatedly in 777 elderly men participating in the Normative Aging Study (1999-2010). We fit quantile regressions for longitudinal data to investigate whether the associations of temperature on methylation (expressed as %5mC) varied across the distribution of the methylation outcomes. We observed heterogeneity in the associations of temperature across percentiles of methylation in F3, TLR-2, CRAT, iNOS, and ICAM-1 genes. For instance, an increase in three-week temperature exposure was associated with a longer left-tail of the F3 methylation distribution. A 5°C increase in temperature was associated with a 0.15%5mC (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.27,-0.04) decrease on the 20th quantile of F3 methylation, but was not significantly related to the 80th quantile of this distribution (Estimate:0.06%5mC, 95%CI: -0.22, 0.35). Individuals with low values of F3, TLR-2, CRAT, and iNOS methylation, as well as a high value of ICAM-1 methylation, may be more susceptible to temperature effects on systemic inflammation. PMID:27236570

  16. Global surface temperature changes since the 1850s

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.D.

    1996-12-31

    Temperature data from land and marine areas form the basis for many studies of climatic variations on local, regional and hemispheric scales, and the global mean temperature is a fundamental measure of the state of the climate system. In this paper it is shown that the surface temperature of the globe has warmed by about 0.5{degrees}C since the mid-nineteenth century. This is an important part of the evidence in the {open_quote}global warming{close_quote} debate. How certain are we about the magnitude of the warming? Where has it been greatest? In this paper, these and related issues will be addressed.

  17. Temperature changes across porcelain during multiple exposure CO2 lasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, Joseph R.; Zakariasen, Kenneth L.; Peacocke, Larry

    1990-06-01

    Research indicates that laser energy may provide a useful method for glazing and fusing porcelain for intraoral prosthetic purposes. However, it is not known whether such lasing will result in the production of heat levels that may be damaging to adjacent vital tissues such as the dental pulp and periodontal tissues. This research is designed to measure the magnitude of temperature rise across porcelain observed during multiple exposure C02 lasing. Fifteen porcelain examples of 1000 jim (5), 1500 pm (5) and 2000 tm (5) x each received five C02 laser exposures on the same exposure site at 1.0 sec. intervals at 8.0 watts (0.2 sec. per exposure with a 1 mm focal spot). A YSI 144201 thermilinear precision thermistor was placed on the porcelain surface opposite each laser exposure site. Temperature rise above ambient was recorded by an HP3421A data acquisition unit and HP9816 technical microcomputer. Recording continued for sufficient time to allow temperatures to return to ambient. The mean temperature elevations ranged from a low of 2.97 0C (2000 pm) to a high of 7.77 °C (1000 μm). ANOVA and Duncan's Multiple Range Test indicated significant differences in temperature rise by porcelain thickness. It would appear from the results of this research that temperature elevations adjacent to lased porcelain may be sufficiently controllable that safe intraoral porcelain lasing will be possible.

  18. Climate Change: A New Metric to Measure Changes in the Frequency of Extreme Temperatures using Record Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munasinghe, L.; Jun, T.; Rind, D. H.

    2012-01-01

    Consensus on global warming is the result of multiple and varying lines of evidence, and one key ramification is the increase in frequency of extreme climate events including record high temperatures. Here we develop a metric- called "record equivalent draws" (RED)-based on record high (low) temperature observations, and show that changes in RED approximate changes in the likelihood of extreme high (low) temperatures. Since we also show that this metric is independent of the specifics of the underlying temperature distributions, RED estimates can be aggregated across different climates to provide a genuinely global assessment of climate change. Using data on monthly average temperatures across the global landmass we find that the frequency of extreme high temperatures increased 10-fold between the first three decades of the last century (1900-1929) and the most recent decade (1999-2008). A more disaggregated analysis shows that the increase in frequency of extreme high temperatures is greater in the tropics than in higher latitudes, a pattern that is not indicated by changes in mean temperature. Our RED estimates also suggest concurrent increases in the frequency of both extreme high and extreme low temperatures during 2002-2008, a period when we observe a plateauing of global mean temperature. Using daily extreme temperature observations, we find that the frequency of extreme high temperatures is greater in the daily minimum temperature time-series compared to the daily maximum temperature time-series. There is no such observable difference in the frequency of extreme low temperatures between the daily minimum and daily maximum.

  19. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Danger signs. 56.12021 Section 56.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger...

  20. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Danger signs. 56.12021 Section 56.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger...

  1. 49 CFR 172.521 - DANGEROUS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... area and 1/2-inch (12.7 mm.) border must be white. The inscription must be black with the 1/8-inch (3.2 mm.) border marker in the white area at each end of the inscription red. ... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.521 DANGEROUS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the DANGEROUS...

  2. 49 CFR 172.521 - DANGEROUS placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... area and 1/2-inch (12.7 mm.) border must be white. The inscription must be black with the 1/8-inch (3.2 mm.) border marker in the white area at each end of the inscription red. ... SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.521 DANGEROUS placard. (a) Except for size and color, the DANGEROUS...

  3. The Dangers of Educated Girls and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Vaughn M.

    2016-01-01

    Why do educated girls and women constitute a danger in some societies and for this face extreme danger in their educational endeavours? This article argues that historical and contemporary educational discrimination of girls and women is the hallmark of a violently patriarchal society, and this stubborn injustice is exacerbated under conditions of…

  4. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Danger signs. 56.12021 Section 56.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger...

  5. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Danger signs. 56.12021 Section 56.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger...

  6. 30 CFR 56.12021 - Danger signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Danger signs. 56.12021 Section 56.12021 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Electricity § 56.12021 Danger...

  7. Tennessee Killing Underscores Job Dangers for Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonn, Jessica L.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author stresses the dangers facing school leaders on the job. The school shooting at Campbell County Comprehensive High School in Jacksboro, Tennessee, on November 8, 2005, which left one assistant principal dead and the principal and another assistant principal seriously wounded, is an extreme example of dangers school…

  8. Effect of climate change on water temperature and attainment of water temperature criteria in the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Cheryl A.; Sharp, Darrin; Mochon Collura, T. Chris

    2016-02-01

    There is increasing evidence that our planet is warming and this warming is also resulting in rising sea levels. Estuaries which are located at the interface between land and ocean are impacted by these changes. We used CE-QUAL-W2 water quality model to predict changes in water temperature as a function of increasing air temperatures and rising sea level for the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon (USA). Annual average air temperature in the Yaquina watershed is expected to increase about 0.3 °C per decade by 2040-2069. An air temperature increase of 3 °C in the Yaquina watershed is likely to result in estuarine water temperature increasing by 0.7-1.6 °C. Largest water temperature increases are expected in the upper portion of the estuary, while sea level rise may mitigate some of the warming in the lower portion of the estuary. Smallest changes in water temperature are predicted to occur in the summer, and maximum changes during the winter and spring. Increases in air temperature may result in an increase in the number of days per year that the 7-day maximum average temperature exceeds 18 °C (criterion for protection of rearing and migration of salmonids and trout) as well as other water quality concerns. In the upstream portion of the estuary, a 4 °C increase in air temperature is predicted to cause an increase of 40 days not meeting the temperature criterion, while in the lower estuary the increase will depend upon rate of sea level rise (ranging from 31 to 19 days).

  9. Trends and Patterns of Change in Temperature and Evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragno, E.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2014-12-01

    Global mean monthly temperature has increased substantially in the past decades. On the other hand, there are contradictory reports on the response of the potential evaporation to a warming climate. In this study, ground based observations of temperature, and direct measurements of pan potential evaporation are evaluated across the United States. Furthermore, empirical simulations of the potential evaporation have been evaluated against observations. The results show that empirical (e.g., Thornthwaite method) estimates of the potential evapotranspiration show trends inconsistent with the ground-based observations. In fact, while temperature data show a significant upward trend across most of the United States, ground-based evaporation data in most locations do not exhibit a statistically significant trend. Empirical methods of potential evaporation estimation, including the Thornthwaite method, show trends similar to temperature. The primary reason is that many of the empirical approaches are dominated by temperature. Currently, empirical estimates of potential evaporation are widely used for numerous applications including water stress analysis. This indicates that using empirical estimates of potential estimation for irrigation water demand estimation and also drought assessment could lead to unrealistic results.

  10. [The temperature and temperature gradient distribution in the thermophysical model of the rabbit body subjected internal and external changes of temperature].

    PubMed

    Rumiantsev, G V

    2002-03-01

    In a laboratory heat-physical model of the rabbit reflecting basic heat-physical parameters of animal body (weight, heat absorption and heat production, size of a relative surface, capacity heat-production etc.), the changes of radial distribution of temperature and size of a cross superficial temperature gradient of the body were investigated with various parities (ratio) of environmental temperature and size of capacity heat production imitated by an electrical heater. Superficial layer of the body dependent from capacity heat production and environmental temperature can serve for definition of general heat content changes in the body for maintaining its thermal balance within the environment. PMID:12013736

  11. Dynamics of cell membrane permeability changes at supraphysiological temperatures.

    PubMed Central

    Bischof, J C; Padanilam, J; Holmes, W H; Ezzell, R M; Lee, R C; Tompkins, R G; Yarmush, M L; Toner, M

    1995-01-01

    A quantitative fluorescent microscopy system was developed to characterize, in real time, the effects of supraphysiological temperatures between 37 degrees and 70 degrees C on the plasma membrane of mouse 3T3 fibroblasts and isolated rat skeletal muscle cells. Membrane permeability was assessed by monitoring the leakage as a function of time of the fluorescent membrane integrity probe calcein. The kinetics of dye leakage increased with increasing temperature in both the 3T3 fibroblasts and the skeletal muscle cells. Analytical solutions derived from a two-compartment transport model showed that, for both cell types, a time-dependent permeability assumption provided a statistically better fit of the model predictions to the data than a constant permeability assumption. This finding suggests that the plasma membrane integrity is continuously being compromised while cells are subjected to supraphysiological temperatures. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:7647264

  12. A simplified physically-based model to calculate surface water temperature of lakes from air temperature in climate change scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccolroaz, S.; Toffolon, M.

    2012-12-01

    Modifications of water temperature are crucial for the ecology of lakes, but long-term analyses are not usually able to provide reliable estimations. This is particularly true for climate change studies based on Global Circulation Models, whose mesh size is normally too coarse for explicitly including even some of the biggest lakes on Earth. On the other hand, modeled predictions of air temperature changes are more reliable, and long-term, high-resolution air temperature observational datasets are more available than water temperature measurements. For these reasons, air temperature series are often used to obtain some information about the surface temperature of water bodies. In order to do that, it is common to exploit regression models, but they are questionable especially when it is necessary to extrapolate current trends beyond maximum (or minimum) measured temperatures. Moreover, water temperature is influenced by a variety of processes of heat exchange across the lake surface and by the thermal inertia of the water mass, which also causes an annual hysteresis cycle between air and water temperatures that is hard to consider in regressions. In this work we propose a simplified, physically-based model for the estimation of the epilimnetic temperature in lakes. Starting from the zero-dimensional heat budget, we derive a simplified first-order differential equation for water temperature, primarily forced by a seasonally varying external term (mainly related to solar radiation) and an exchange term explicitly depending on the difference between air and water temperatures. Assuming annual sinusoidal cycles of the main heat flux components at the atmosphere-lake interface, eight parameters (some of them can be disregarded, though) are identified, which can be calibrated if two temporal series of air and water temperature are available. We note that such a calibration is supported by the physical interpretation of the parameters, which provide good initial

  13. Potential climate change effects on rice: Carbon dioxide and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, J.T.; Boote, K.J.; Allen, L.H. Jr. |

    1995-12-31

    The projected doubling of current levels of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration [CO{sub 2}] during the next century, along with increases in other radiatively active gases, has led to predictions of increases in global air temperature and shifts in precipitation patterns. Since 1987, several [CO{sub 2}] and temperature experiments have been conducted on rice (Oryza sativa L., cv. IR-30) in outdoor, naturally-sunlit, environmentally-controlled, plant growth chambers. The objectives of this chapter are to summarize some of the major findings of these experiments. In these experiments, season-long [CO{sub 2}] treatments ranged from 160 to 900 {micro}mol CO{sub 2} mol{sup {minus}1} air, while temperature treatments ranged from 25/18/21 to 40/33/37 C (daytime dry bulb air temperature/nighttime dry bulb air temperature/constant paddy water temperature). Total growth duration was shortened by 10 to 12 d as [CO{sub 2}] increased across a [CO{sub 2}] range from 160 to 500 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1}, due mainly to a shortened vegetative phase of development and a reduction in the number of mainstem leaves formed prior to panicle initiation. Photosynthesis, growth, and final grain yield increased with [CO{sub 2}] from 160 to 500 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1}, but were very similar from 500 to 900 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1}. Carbon dioxide enrichment from 330 to 660 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1} increased grain yield mainly by increasing the number of panicles per plant, and increasing temperature treatment above 28/21/25 C resulted in decreased grain yield, due largely to a decline in the number of filled grain per panicle. Evapotranspiration decreased and water-use efficiency increased with increasing [CO{sub 2}] treatment, while the reverse trends were found with increasing temperature treatment. 60 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Assessing Climate Change: Temperatures, Solar Radiation and Heat Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Marvin

    2008-08-01

    The science of climate change is being investigated by thousands of scientists, is constantly in the news, and is discussed in the political arena worldwide. My Internet search on the words ``climate change'' produced about 40,600,000 hits. The 2007 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to former U.S. vice president Al Gore and the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Of course, the subject goes beyond the science. The debate on what, if anything, should be done about humankind's influence on climate is the subject of U.S. and international political debate.

  15. Involvement of GABA in environmental temperature-induced change in body temperature.

    PubMed

    Biswas, S; Poddar, M K

    1988-12-01

    Acute exposure of adult male albino rats (110-120 g) to higher environmental temperature (40 +/- 1 degrees C) increased body temperature (BT). This increase of BT was also dependent on the duration of exposure. Treatment with muscimol (1 mg/kg, i.p.), a GABA agonist, produced hypothermia at room temperature (28 +/- 1 degree C) and resistance to increase the body temperature when exposed to higher temperature (40 +/- 1 degree C). Administration of bicuculline (1 mg/kg, i.p.), a GABA antagonist, on the other hand, enhanced BT more than that observed in control (normal) rat exposed to higher temperature (40 +/- 1 degree C), although at room temperature bicuculline treatment did not show any effect on BT. Pretreatment with ethanolamine-O-sulfate (EOS) (2 g/kg, s.c.), a GABA transaminase inhibitor, to rats exposed to higher temperature increased BT as in control (normal) rat. Inhibition of central GAD activity with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) (70 mg/kg, i.p.) produced resistance to increase BT during its period of action when rats were exposed to higher environmental temperature (28 +/- 1 degree C). These results thus suggest that central inhibitory neuron, GABA, plays a regulatory role in thermoregulation. PMID:3236943

  16. Volcanic Contribution to Decadal Changes in Tropospheric Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santer, Benjamin D.; Bonfils, Celine; Painter, Jeffrey F.; Zelinka, Mark D.; Mears, Carl; Solomon, Susan; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Fyfe, John C.; Cole, Jason N.S.; Nazarenko, Larissa; Taylor, Karl E.; Wentz, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite continued growth in atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases, global mean surface and tropospheric temperatures have shown slower warming since 1998 than previously. Possible explanations for the slow-down include internal climate variability, external cooling influences and observational errors. Several recent modelling studies have examined the contribution of early twenty-first-century volcanic eruptions to the muted surface warming. Here we present a detailed analysis of the impact of recent volcanic forcing on tropospheric temperature, based on observations as well as climate model simulations. We identify statistically significant correlations between observations of stratospheric aerosol optical depth and satellite-based estimates of both tropospheric temperature and short-wave fluxes at the top of the atmosphere. We show that climate model simulations without the effects of early twenty-first-century volcanic eruptions overestimate the tropospheric warming observed since 1998. In two simulations with more realistic volcanic influences following the 1991 Pinatubo eruption, differences between simulated and observed tropospheric temperature trends over the period 1998 to 2012 are up to 15% smaller, with large uncertainties in the magnitude of the effect. To reduce these uncertainties, better observations of eruption-specific properties of volcanic aerosols are needed, as well as improved representation of these eruption-specific properties in climate model simulations.

  17. Instrument accurately measures small temperature changes on test surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, W. D.; Miller, H. B.

    1966-01-01

    Calorimeter apparatus accurately measures very small temperature rises on a test surface subjected to aerodynamic heating. A continuous thin sheet of a sensing material is attached to a base support plate through which a series of holes of known diameter have been drilled for attaching thermocouples to the material.

  18. Water Temperature changes in the Mississippi River Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we demonstrate the transfer of a physically based semi-Lagrangian water temperature model (RBM) to EPA, its linkage with the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrology model, and its calibration to and demonstration for the Mississippi River Basin (MRB). The r...

  19. Changes in Population Occupancy of Bradyrhizobia under Diffrent Temperature Regimes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivation of Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains (USDA 6T, 38, and 123) and Bradyrhizobium elkanii strain (USDA 76T) were conducted to compare their respective proliferation traits under different cultivation temperature conditions with yeast-extract mannitol broth medium and to estimate the strain p...

  20. Spring temperature change and its implication in the change of vegetation growth in North America from 1982 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuhui; Piao, Shilong; Ciais, Philippe; Li, Junsheng; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Koven, Charlie; Chen, Anping

    2011-01-01

    Understanding how vegetation growth responds to climate change is a critical requirement for projecting future ecosystem dynamics. Parts of North America (NA) have experienced a spring cooling trend over the last three decades, but little is known about the response of vegetation growth to this change. Using observed climate data and satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data from 1982 to 2006, we investigated changes in spring (April–May) temperature trends and their impact on vegetation growth in NA. A piecewise linear regression approach shows that the trend in spring temperature is not continuous through the 25-year period. In the northwestern region of NA, spring temperature increased until the late 1980s or early 1990s, and stalled or decreased afterwards. In response, a spring vegetation greening trend, which was evident in this region during the 1980s, stalled or reversed recently. Conversely, an opposite phenomenon occurred in the northeastern region of NA due to different spring temperature trends. Additionally, the trends of summer vegetation growth vary between the periods before and after the turning point (TP) of spring temperature trends. This change cannot be fully explained by summer drought stress change alone and is partly explained by changes in the trends of spring temperature as well as those of summer temperature. As reported in previous studies, summer vegetation browning trends have occurred in the northwestern region of NA since the early 1990s, which is consistent with the spring and summer cooling trends in this region during this period. PMID:21220297

  1. A closer look at temperature changes with remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, Markus; Rocchini, Duccio; Neteler, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Temperature is a main driver for important ecological processes. Time series temperature data provide key environmental indicators for various applications and research fields. High spatial and temporal resolution is crucial in order to perform detailed analyses in various fields of research. While meteorological station data are commonly used, they often lack completeness or are not distributed in a representative way. Remotely sensed thermal images from polar orbiting satellites are considered to be a good alternative to the scarce meteorological data as they offer almost continuous coverage of the Earth with very high temporal resolution. A drawback of temperature data obtained by satellites is the occurrence of gaps (due to clouds, aerosols) that must be filled. We have reconstructed a seamless and gap-free time series for land surface temperature (LST) at continental scale for Europe from MODIS LST products (Moderate Resolution Imaging Sensor instruments onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites), keeping the temporal resolution of four records per day and enhancing the spatial resolution from 1 km to 250 m. Here we present a new procedure to reconstruct MODIS LST time series with unprecedented detail in space and time, at the same time providing continental coverage. Our method constitutes a unique new combination of weighted temporal averaging with statistical modeling and spatial interpolation. We selected as auxiliary variables datasets which are globally available in order to propose a worldwide reproducible method. Compared to existing similar datasets, the substantial quantitative difference translates to a qualitative difference in applications and results. We consider both our dataset and the new procedure for its creation to be of utmost interest to a broad interdisciplinary audience. Moreover, we provide examples for its implications and applications, such as disease risk assessment, epidemiology, environmental monitoring, and temperature anomalies. In

  2. Can air temperatures be used to project influences of climate change on stream temperatures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arismendi, I.; Safeeq, M.; Dunham, J.; Johnson, S. L.

    2013-12-01

    The lack of available in situ stream temperature records at broad spatiotemporal scales have been recognized as a major limiting factor in the understanding of thermal behavior of stream and river systems. This has motivated the promotion of a wide variety of models that use surrogates for stream temperatures including a regression approach that uses air temperature as the predictor variable. We investigate the long-term performance of widely used linear and non-linear regression models between air and stream temperatures to project the latter in future climate scenarios. Specifically, we examine the temporal variability of the parameters that define each of these models in long-term stream and air temperature datasets representing relatively natural and highly human-influenced streams. We selected 25 sites with long-term records that monitored year-round daily measurements of stream temperature (daily mean) in the western United States (California, Oregon, Idaho, Washington, and Alaska). Surface air temperature data from each site was not available. Therefore, we calculated daily mean surface air temperature for each site in contiguous US from a 1/16-degree resolution gridded surface temperature data. Our findings highlight several limitations that are endemic to linear or nonlinear regressions that have been applied in many recent attempts to project future stream temperatures based on air temperature. Our results also show that applications over longer time periods, as well as extrapolation of model predictions to project future stream temperatures are unlikely to be reliable. Although we did not analyze a broad range of stream types at a continental or global extent, our analysis of stream temperatures within the set of streams considered herein was more than sufficient to illustrate a number of specific limitations associated with statistical projections of stream temperature based on air temperature. Radar plots of Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) values for

  3. Forest fire danger rating in complex topography - results from a case study in the Bavarian Alps in autumn 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schunk, C.; Wastl, C.; Leuchner, M.; Schuster, C.; Menzel, A.

    2013-09-01

    Forest fire danger rating based on sparse meteorological stations is known to be potentially misleading when assigned to larger areas of complex topography. This case study examines several fire danger indices based on data from two meteorological stations at different elevations during a major drought period. This drought was caused by a persistent high pressure system, inducing a pronounced temperature inversion and its associated thermal belt with much warmer, dryer conditions in intermediate elevations. Thus, a massive drying of fuels, leading to higher fire danger levels, and multiple fire occurrences at mid-slope positions were contrasted by moderate fire danger especially in the valleys. The ability of fire danger indices to resolve this situation was studied based on a comparison with the actual fire danger as determined from expert observations, fire occurrences and fuel moisture measurements. The results revealed that, during temperature inversion, differences in daily cycles of meteorological parameters influence fire danger and that these are not resolved by standard meteorological stations and fire danger indices (calculated on a once-a-day basis). Additional stations in higher locations or high-resolution meteorological models combined with fire danger indices accepting at least hourly input data may allow reasonable fire danger calculations under these circumstances.

  4. Forest fire danger rating in complex topography - results from a case study in the Bavarian Alps in autumn 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schunk, C.; Wastl, C.; Leuchner, M.; Schuster, C.; Menzel, A.

    2013-04-01

    Forest fire danger rating based on sparse meteorological stations is known to be potentially misleading when assigned to larger areas with a complex topography. This case study examines outputs of several fire danger rating systems based on data from two meteorological stations in different elevations during a major drought period. This drought was caused by a persistent high pressure system, inducing a pronounced temperature inversion with cool, humid conditions in the lower and warmer, dryer conditions in the upper layer. Thus, a massive drying of fuels, leading to a high fire danger level and multiple fire occurrences at higher elevations were contrasted by moderate fire danger in the valleys. The relative accuracy of fire danger rating indices was studied based on a comparison with the actual fire danger as determined from expert observations, fire occurrences and fuel moisture measurements. The results revealed that, during temperature inversion, differences in daily cycles of meteorological parameters influence fire danger and that these are not resolved by standard meteorological stations and fire danger indices. Additional stations in higher locations or high-resolution meteorological models in combination with fire danger indices that accept hourly input data may allow reasonable fire danger calculations under these circumstances.

  5. Metastable Changes to the Temperature Coefficients of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Deceglie, M. G.; Silverman, T. J.; Marion, B.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2014-07-01

    Transient changes in the performance of thin-film modules with light exposure are a well-known and widely reported phenomenon. These changes are often the result of reversible metastabilities rather than irreversible changes. Here we consider how these metastable changes affect the temperature dependence of photovoltaic performance. We find that in CIGS modules exhibiting a metastable increase in performance with light exposure, the light exposure also induces an increase in the magnitude of the temperature coefficient. It is important to understand such changes when characterizing temperature coefficients and when analyzing the outdoor performance of newly installed modules.

  6. Amplification and dampening of soil respiration by changes in temperature variability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sierra, C.A.; Harmon, M.E.; Thomann, E.; Perakis, S.S.; Loescher, H.W.

    2011-01-01

    Accelerated release of carbon from soils is one of the most important feed backs related to anthropogenically induced climate change. Studies addressing the mechanisms for soil carbon release through organic matter decomposition have focused on the effect of changes in the average temperature, with little attention to changes in temperature vari-ability. Anthropogenic activities are likely to modify both the average state and the variability of the climatic system; therefore, the effects of future warming on decomposition should not only focus on trends in the average temperature, but also variability expressed as a change of the probability distribution of temperature.Using analytical and numerical analyses we tested common relationships between temperature and respiration and found that the variability of temperature plays an important role determining respiration rates of soil organic matter. Changes in temperature variability, without changes in the average temperature, can affect the amount of carbon released through respiration over the long term. Furthermore, simultaneous changes in the average and variance of temperature can either amplify or dampen there release of carbon through soil respiration as climate regimes change. The effects depend on the degree of convexity of the relationship between temperature and respiration and the magnitude of the change in temperature variance. A potential consequence of this effect of variability would be higher respiration in regions where both the mean and variance of temperature are expected to increase, such as in some low latitude regions; and lower amounts of respiration where the average temperature is expected to increase and the variance to decrease, such as in northern high latitudes.

  7. Optical glass: refractive index change with wavelength and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englert, Marion; Hartmann, Peter; Reichel, Steffen

    2014-05-01

    With the catalog of 1992 SCHOTT introduced two formulae each with six parameters for a better representation of the refractive index of optical glasses. The Sellmeier-equation improved the characterization of dispersion at room temperature and the Hoffmann equation that of its temperature dependence. Better representation had been expected because both formulae were derived from general dispersion theory. The original publication of Hoffmann et al. from 1992 contains first results on the accuracy of the fits. The extended use of the formulae has led to a collection of data allowing reviewing the adequacy of the Sellmeier-equation approach on a much broader basis. We compare fitted refractive index values with measured values for all wavelengths used at our precision refractive index goniometer. Data sets are available for specific melts of the four representative glass types N-BK7, N-FK5, LF5 and IRG2. For some materials, the optical glass N-LAF21, the IR glass IRG2 and the crystal CaF2, several sets of data for the temperature dependence of the refractive index are available thus giving evidence for the variation of these properties among melts of the same material.

  8. Telemetry pill versus rectal and esophageal temperature during extreme rates of exercise-induced core temperature change.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, L P J; de Haan, A; de Koning, J J; Daanen, H A M

    2012-06-01

    Core temperature measurement with an ingestible telemetry pill has been scarcely investigated during extreme rates of temperature change, induced by short high-intensity exercise in the heat. Therefore, nine participants performed a protocol of rest, (sub)maximal cycling and recovery at 30 °C. The pill temperature (T(pill)) was compared with the rectal temperature (T(re)) and esophageal temperature (T(es)). T(pill) corresponded well to T(re) during the entire trial, but deviated considerably from T(es) during the exercise and recovery periods. During maximal exercise, the average ΔT(pill)-T(re) and ΔT(pill)-T(es) were 0.13 ± 0.26 and -0.57 ± 0.53 °C, respectively. The response time from the start of exercise, the rate of change during exercise and the peak temperature were similar for T(pill) and T(re.) T(es) responded 5 min earlier, increased more than twice as fast and its peak value was 0.42 ± 0.46 °C higher than T(pill). In conclusion, also during considerable temperature changes at a very high rate, T(pill) is still a representative of T(re). The extent of the deviation in the pattern and peak values between T(pill) and T(es) (up to >1 °C) strengthens the assumption that T(pill) is unsuited to evaluate central blood temperature when body temperatures change rapidly. PMID:22551669

  9. Parameterization of temperature sensitivity of spring phenology and its application in explaining diverse phenological responses to temperature change.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huanjiong; Ge, Quansheng; Rutishauser, This; Dai, Yuxiao; Dai, Junhu

    2015-01-01

    Existing evidence of plant phenological change to temperature increase demonstrates that the phenological responsiveness is greater at warmer locations and in early-season plant species. Explanations of these findings are scarce and not settled. Some studies suggest considering phenology as one functional trait within a plant's life history strategy. In this study, we adapt an existing phenological model to derive a generalized sensitivity in space (SpaceSens) model for calculating temperature sensitivity of spring plant phenophases across species and locations. The SpaceSens model have three parameters, including the temperature at the onset date of phenophases (Tp), base temperature threshold (Tb) and the length of period (L) used to calculate the mean temperature when performing regression analysis between phenology and temperature. A case study on first leaf date of 20 plant species from eastern China shows that the change of Tp and Tb among different species accounts for interspecific difference in temperature sensitivity. Moreover, lower Tp at lower latitude is the main reason why spring phenological responsiveness is greater there. These results suggest that spring phenophases of more responsive, early-season plants (especially in low latitude) will probably continue to diverge from the other late-season plants with temperatures warming in the future. PMID:25743934

  10. Parameterization of temperature sensitivity of spring phenology and its application in explaining diverse phenological responses to temperature change

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huanjiong; Ge, Quansheng; Rutishauser, This; Dai, Yuxiao; Dai, Junhu

    2015-01-01

    Existing evidence of plant phenological change to temperature increase demonstrates that the phenological responsiveness is greater at warmer locations and in early-season plant species. Explanations of these findings are scarce and not settled. Some studies suggest considering phenology as one functional trait within a plant's life history strategy. In this study, we adapt an existing phenological model to derive a generalized sensitivity in space (SpaceSens) model for calculating temperature sensitivity of spring plant phenophases across species and locations. The SpaceSens model have three parameters, including the temperature at the onset date of phenophases (Tp), base temperature threshold (Tb) and the length of period (L) used to calculate the mean temperature when performing regression analysis between phenology and temperature. A case study on first leaf date of 20 plant species from eastern China shows that the change of Tp and Tb among different species accounts for interspecific difference in temperature sensitivity. Moreover, lower Tp at lower latitude is the main reason why spring phenological responsiveness is greater there. These results suggest that spring phenophases of more responsive, early-season plants (especially in low latitude) will probably continue to diverge from the other late-season plants with temperatures warming in the future. PMID:25743934

  11. Intruder-induced change in condensation temperature of granular gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kuo-Ching; Hsieh, Wan-Lin; Lin, Chi-Hao

    2011-02-01

    The process from a gaseous state to a clustering state for a compartmentalized monodisperse granular gas is accompanied by a drop in the granular temperature to a condensation point. We show experimentally that adding an intruder generally results in a decrease in the condensation point, and a heavier intruder makes this decrease more pronounced. However, once the Brazil nut effect (the intruder on the top of clustering grains) occurs, the condensation point will rise. Through the balance of particle fluxes and the hydrodynamic balance of driving forces, we analytically calculated the condensation point for the monodisperse gases and the intruder-fluid mixtures. The analytical results match the experimental data.

  12. Estimation of surface temperature variations due to changes in sky and solar flux with elevation.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hummer-Miller, S.

    1981-01-01

    Sky and solar radiance are of major importance in determining the ground temperature. Knowledge of their behavior is a fundamental part of surface temperature models. These 2 fluxes vary with elevation and this variation produces temperature changes. Therefore, when using thermal-property differences to discriminate geologic materials, these flux variations with elevation need to be considered. -from Author

  13. Evidence for changes in the microwave brightness temperature and spectrum of Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batty, M. J.; Jauncey, D. L.; Rayner, P. T.; Gulkis, S.

    1981-01-01

    A new measurement of the microwave brightness temperature of Uranus at 13.1 cm wavelength yields an effective disk temperature of 255 + or - 18 K. Comparison with earlier measurements at nearby wavelengths reveals a doubling in brightness temperature in 14 yr. Observations at shorter wavelengths show significant changes in the shape of the microwave spectrum of the planet over the last decade.

  14. REVIEW OF TERMS FOR REGULATED VERSUS FORCED, NEUROCHEMICAL-INDUCED CHANGES IN BODY TEMPERATURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Deviations of the body temperature of homeothermic animals may be regulated or forced. A regulated change in core temperature is caused by a natural or synthetic compound that displaces the set-point temperature. A forced shift occurs when an excessive environmental or endogenous...

  15. Substrate temperature changes during molecular beam epitaxy growth of GaMnAs

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, V.; Olejnik, K.; Cukr, M.; Smrcka, L.; Remes, Z.; Oswald, J.

    2007-10-15

    Our band gap spectroscopy measurements reveal a remarkably big increase of the substrate temperature during the low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy growth of GaMnAs layers. With the help of numerical simulations we explain the effect as a consequence of changing absorption/emission characteristics of the growing epilayer. We discuss possibilities for reducing the substrate temperature variations during the growth.

  16. Climate change implications of soil temperature in the Mojave Desert, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yanying; Scott, Thomas A.; Min, Qingwen

    2014-06-01

    Soil temperature plays an important role in physical, biological, and microbiological processes occurring in the soil, but it is rarely reported as an indicator of climate change. A long-term soil temperature database, collected in the Mojave Desert region from 1982-2000, was used to examine the relationship between regional climate change and soil temperature. During this 19-year study period, there was a warming trend in the Mojave Desert region. The soil temperature in this region, measured at 50-cm deep, increased at an average rate of 0.79°C per decade. The temporal changes of soil temperature and those of air temperature were highly correlated. Elevation was the dominating factor that affected the spatiotemporal variations of soil and air temperature.

  17. Simulation of regional temperature change effect of land cover change in agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tingxiang; Zhang, Shuwen; Yu, Lingxue; Bu, Kun; Yang, Jiuchun; Chang, Liping

    2016-02-01

    The Northeast China is one of typical regions experiencing intensive human activities within short time worldwide. Particularly, as the significant changes of agriculture land and forest, typical characteristics of pattern and process of agroforestry ecotone change formed in recent decades. The intensive land use change of agroforestry ecotone has made significant change for regional land cover, which had significant impact on the regional climate system elements and the interactions among them. This paper took agroforestry ecotone of Nenjiang River Basin in China as study region and simulated temperature change based on land cover change from 1950s to 1978 and from 1978 to 2010. The analysis of temperature difference sensitivity to land cover change based on Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model showed that the land cover change from 1950s to 1978 induced warming effect over all the study area, including the change of grassland to agriculture land, grassland to deciduous broad-leaved forest, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to shrub land. The land cover change from 1978 to 2010 induced cooling effect over all the study area, including the change of deciduous broad-leaved forest to agriculture land, grassland to agriculture land, shrub land to agriculture land, and deciduous broad-leaved forest to grassland. In addition, the warming and cooling effect of land cover change was more significant in the region scale than specific land cover change area.

  18. Is there really an upper limit to river water temperatures in a changing climate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, S. B.

    2011-12-01

    In recent efforts to model river temperatures in a changing climate, investigators have frequently applied an s-shaped logistic equation to relate water temperatures to air temperatures. This s-shaped model has been justified by the presence of the freezing point at low temperatures and supposed enhanced evapotranspiration (ET) at high temperatures. Looking at large river systems (> 5000 km2) where mean air and water temperatures are in relative equilibrium, we analyze the 5-day mean air/water temperature relationship of 12 river systems located in different climatological regions of the US to reassess whether there is actually an upper limit to maximum river temperatures. For all 12 systems, a logistic regression model performs better than a linear regression model in relating river water temperatures to air temperature. However, direct examination of the air/water relationship indicates that the improvement in fit often originates only at low temperatures. Of the five systems where an improvement occurs at high temperatures, they are either located in arid regions, have mountain snowmelt extending into the early summer, or exhibit strong hysteresis. An assessment of hourly energy balance data for varying geographic regions suggests that arid regions are the only locales where energy losses at high temperatures due to ET may exceed energy inputs, thus leading to a plateau in water temperatures. This research suggests that logistic regression equations should be applied only after carefully considering the processes that may control temperature in a changing climate on the river of interest.

  19. Validation of climate model-inferred regional temperature change for late-glacial Europe.

    PubMed

    Heiri, Oliver; Brooks, Stephen J; Renssen, Hans; Bedford, Alan; Hazekamp, Marjolein; Ilyashuk, Boris; Jeffers, Elizabeth S; Lang, Barbara; Kirilova, Emiliya; Kuiper, Saskia; Millet, Laurent; Samartin, Stéphanie; Toth, Monika; Verbruggen, Frederike; Watson, Jenny E; van Asch, Nelleke; Lammertsma, Emmy; Amon, Leeli; Birks, Hilary H; Birks, H John B; Mortensen, Morten F; Hoek, Wim Z; Magyari, Enikö; Muñoz Sobrino, Castor; Seppä, Heikki; Tinner, Willy; Tonkov, Spassimir; Veski, Siim; Lotter, André F

    2014-01-01

    Comparisons of climate model hindcasts with independent proxy data are essential for assessing model performance in non-analogue situations. However, standardized palaeoclimate data sets for assessing the spatial pattern of past climatic change across continents are lacking for some of the most dynamic episodes of Earth's recent past. Here we present a new chironomid-based palaeotemperature dataset designed to assess climate model hindcasts of regional summer temperature change in Europe during the late-glacial and early Holocene. Latitudinal and longitudinal patterns of inferred temperature change are in excellent agreement with simulations by the ECHAM-4 model, implying that atmospheric general circulation models like ECHAM-4 can successfully predict regionally diverging temperature trends in Europe, even when conditions differ significantly from present. However, ECHAM-4 infers larger amplitudes of change and higher temperatures during warm phases than our palaeotemperature estimates, suggesting that this and similar models may overestimate past and potentially also future summer temperature changes in Europe. PMID:25208610

  20. Validation of climate model-inferred regional temperature change for late-glacial Europe

    PubMed Central

    Heiri, Oliver; Brooks, Stephen J.; Renssen, Hans; Bedford, Alan; Hazekamp, Marjolein; Ilyashuk, Boris; Jeffers, Elizabeth S.; Lang, Barbara; Kirilova, Emiliya; Kuiper, Saskia; Millet, Laurent; Samartin, Stéphanie; Toth, Monika; Verbruggen, Frederike; Watson, Jenny E.; van Asch, Nelleke; Lammertsma, Emmy; Amon, Leeli; Birks, Hilary H.; Birks, H. John B.; Mortensen, Morten F.; Hoek, Wim Z.; Magyari, Enikö; Sobrino, Castor Muñoz; Seppä, Heikki; Tinner, Willy; Tonkov, Spassimir; Veski, Siim; Lotter, André F.

    2014-01-01

    Comparisons of climate model hindcasts with independent proxy data are essential for assessing model performance in non-analogue situations. However, standardized paleoclimate datasets for assessing the spatial pattern of past climatic change across continents are lacking for some of the most dynamic episodes of Earth's recent past. Here we present a new chironomid-based paleotemperature dataset designed to assess climate model hindcasts of regional summer temperature change in Europe during the late-glacial and early Holocene. Latitudinal and longitudinal patterns of inferred temperature change are in excellent agreement with simulations by the ECHAM-4 model, implying that atmospheric general circulation models like ECHAM-4 can successfully predict regionally diverging temperature trends in Europe, even when conditions differ significantly from present. However, ECHAM-4 infers larger amplitudes of change and higher temperatures during warm phases than our paleotemperature estimates, suggesting that this and similar models may overestimate past and potentially also future summer temperature changes in Europe. PMID:25208610

  1. The Temperature Changes of Refractive Indices and Thickness of Doped Triglycine Sulfate Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurlyak, V. Yu.; Stadnyk, V. Y.; Gaba, V. M.; Kohut, Z. O.; Matviishyn, I. M.

    2016-07-01

    The temperature dependences of the optical path difference δΔi and the relative changes in the thickness δli/l of TGS crystals doped with L-threonine are studied. The temperature dependences of the relative changes in the refractive indices δni/(n - 1), coefficients of anisotropy for refractive indices, and linear expansion have been calculated. Characteristic minimum has been detected on these curves near the phase transition temperature.

  2. AO/NAO response to climate change: 2. Relative importance of low- and high-latitude temperature changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rind, D.; Perlwitz, J.; Lonergan, P.; Lerner, J.

    2005-06-01

    We address the issue of why different models may be getting different responses of the AO/NAO in climate change experiments. The results from part 1 (Rind et al., 2005) suggest that for substantive climate changes, the differences are likely to be found in the patterns of tropospheric climate change, rather than from the stratosphere. We assess the various tropospheric forcings through a variety of experiments. We first use extreme paleoclimate experiments (Ice Age, Paleocene) which feature large variations in the low level latitudinal temperature gradient; the results show that under these circumstances, changes in the eddy transport of sensible heat, and in situ high latitude forcing, dominate the AO response. We next test the effect of more modest SST temperature gradient changes in the current climate, and find a similar result with a model configuration that does not easily transport the low level temperature changes into the upper troposphere. We then reanalyze the results from different 2 × CO2 experiments with the GISS model and find that they can be understood by assessing: (1) the magnitude of tropical SST warming; (2) the translations of that warming into the upper troposphere; (3) the change in the extratropical low altitude temperature gradient; and (4) the change in the high latitude SST/sea ice response. We suggest that these features might explain the varying results among modeling groups, and that forecasts will not converge until these features do.

  3. Investigation of medium and high temperature phase change materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heine, D.; Kraehling, H.

    1979-01-01

    A detailed description of the programs for acquisition and analysis of the test results is given. Basically it concerns three programs. The TEST program controls the recording of the test data. With the THELLI program it is possible to follow the temperature curve recorded for each individual thermoelement during the test. With the AUSW program the test data can be analyzed, to determine, for example, the melting point and the start of melting. The first results of the service life tests are discussed. From these it is attempted to draw inferences for the subsequent tests. An attempt is made to focus on the determination of the area-related mass loss, the reduction in thickness and the corrosion rate as well as optical and scanning electron microscope evaluation.

  4. Impacts of Low-Flow and Stream-Temperature Changes on Endangered Atlantic Salmon - Current Research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.; Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Letcher, Benjamin H.

    2008-01-01

    Recent climate studies in New England and the northeastern United States have shown evidence of physical changes over time, including trends toward earlier snowmelt runoff, decreasing river ice, and increasing spring water temperatures. A U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study funded by the National Global Warming and Wildlife Science Center will be investigating changes in summer low streamflows and stream temperatures and the potential effects of those changes on endangered Atlantic salmon populations. The study also will evaluate management options that would be most likely to mitigate the effects of any changes in streamflow and temperature.

  5. While Travelers Sleep, Brain Patrols for Danger

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158440.html While Travelers Sleep, Brain Patrols for Danger Study findings may explain ... THURSDAY, April 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- When you sleep in a new place, a part of your ...

  6. While Travelers Sleep, Brain Patrols for Danger

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158440.html While Travelers Sleep, Brain Patrols for Danger Study findings may explain ... THURSDAY, April 21, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- When you sleep in a new place, a part of your ...

  7. Booze, High Blood Pressure a Dangerous Mix

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158828.html Booze, High Blood Pressure a Dangerous Mix Study links moderate drinking to heart damage in people with hypertension To use the sharing features on this page, ...

  8. Contrasting effects of temperature and precipitation change on amphibian phenology, abundance and performance.

    PubMed

    Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Maiorano, Luigi

    2016-07-01

    Climate change is determining a generalized phenological advancement, and amphibians are among the taxa showing the strongest phenological responsiveness to warming temperatures. Amphibians are strongly influenced by climate change, but we do not have a clear picture of how climate influences important parameters of amphibian populations, such as abundance, survival, breeding success and morphology. Furthermore, the relative impact of temperature and precipitation change remains underappreciated. We used Bayesian meta-analysis and meta-regression to quantify the impact of temperature and precipitation change on amphibian phenology, abundance, individual features and performance. We obtained effect sizes from studies performed in five continents. Temperature increase was the major driver of phenological advancement, while the impact of precipitation on phenology was weak. Conversely, population dynamics was mostly determined by precipitation: negative trends were associated with drying regimes. The impact of precipitation on abundance was particularly strong in tropical areas, while the importance of temperature was feeble. Both temperature and precipitation influenced parameters representing breeding performance, morphology, developmental rate and survival, but the response was highly heterogeneous among species. For instance, warming temperature increased body size in some species, and decreased size in others. Similarly, rainy periods increased survival of some species and reduced the survival of others. Our study showed contrasting impacts of temperature and precipitation changes on amphibian populations. Both climatic parameters strongly influenced amphibian performance, but temperature was the major determinant of the phenological changes, while precipitation had the major role on population dynamics, with alarming declines associated with drying trends. PMID:27008454

  9. Effect of Climate Change on Soil Temperature in Swedish Boreal Forests

    PubMed Central

    Jungqvist, Gunnar; Oni, Stephen K.; Teutschbein, Claudia; Futter, Martyn N.

    2014-01-01

    Complex non-linear relationships exist between air and soil temperature responses to climate change. Despite its influence on hydrological and biogeochemical processes, soil temperature has received less attention in climate impact studies. Here we present and apply an empirical soil temperature model to four forest sites along a climatic gradient of Sweden. Future air and soil temperature were projected using an ensemble of regional climate models. Annual average air and soil temperatures were projected to increase, but complex dynamics were projected on a seasonal scale. Future changes in winter soil temperature were strongly dependent on projected snow cover. At the northernmost site, winter soil temperatures changed very little due to insulating effects of snow cover but southern sites with little or no snow cover showed the largest projected winter soil warming. Projected soil warming was greatest in the spring (up to 4°C) in the north, suggesting earlier snowmelt, extension of growing season length and possible northward shifts in the boreal biome. This showed that the projected effects of climate change on soil temperature in snow dominated regions are complex and general assumptions of future soil temperature responses to climate change based on air temperature alone are inadequate and should be avoided in boreal regions. PMID:24747938

  10. Temperature regulation and metabolism in rats exposed perinatally to dioxin: permanent change in regulated body temperature?

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J; Gray, L E; Monteiro-Riviere, N A; Miller, D B

    1995-07-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) has been shown to lower thyroxine levels and cause hypothermia in the adult rat; however, there is little known regarding the perinatal effects of TCDD on metabolism and temperature regulation of the offspring. To address this issue, thermoregulatory responses were assessed in adult male rat offspring exposed perinatally to 1.0 micrograms TCDD/kg body wt by gavage on Gestational Day 15. Individual castrated offspring were placed in a gradient-layer calorimeter for 5 hr during their nocturnal period while ambient temperature (Ta) was maintained at 10, 16, 24, or 28 degrees C. Metabolic rate (M), as measured from the total heat loss in the calorimeter, was determined along with evaporative heat loss (EHL), dry thermal conductance, and body core temperature (Tc). Animals exposed to TCDD had a significantly lower body temperature at TaS of 10, 16, and 24 degrees C and a higher thermal conductance. M was unaffected by TCDD, indicating that TCDD did not impair the effector to regulate Tc during cold exposure. EHL was also unaffected by TCDD. Skin blood flow of the interscapular area was measured in anesthetized rats with laser Doppler velocimetry and found to be the same in control and TCDD groups. The reduction in body temperature over a wide range of TaS concomitant with normal thermoregulatory effector function suggests that perinatal exposure to TCDD results in a reduction in the regulated body temperature (i.e., decrease in set-point). PMID:7597705

  11. AO/NAO Response to Climate Change. 2; Relative Importance of Low- and High-Latitude Temperature Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, D.; Perlwitz, J.; Lonergan, P.; Lerner, J.

    2005-01-01

    Using a variety of GCM experiments with various versions of the GISS model, we investigate how different aspects of tropospheric climate changes affect the extratropical Arctic Oscillation (AO)/North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) circulation indices. The results show that low altitude changes in the extratropical latitudinal temperature gradient can have a strong impact on eddy forcing of the extratropical zonal wind, in the sense that when this latitudinal temperature gradient increases, it helps force a more negative AO/NAO phase. In addition, local conditions at high latitudes can stabilize/destabilize the atmosphere, inducing negative/positive phase changes. To the extent that there is not a large temperature change in the tropical upper troposphere (either through reduced tropical sensitivity at the surface, or limited transport of this change to high levels), the changes in the low level temperature gradient can provide the dominate influence on the extratropical circulation, so that planetary wave meridional refraction and eddy angular momentum transport changes become uncorrelated with potential vorticity transports. In particular, the climate change that produces the most positive NAO phase change would have substantial warming in the tropical upper troposphere over the Pacific Ocean, with high latitude warming in the North Atlantic. An increase in positive phase of these circulation indices is still more likely than not, but it will depend on the degree of tropical and high latitude temperature response and the transport of low level warming into the upper troposphere. These are aspects that currently differ among the models used for predicting the effects of global warning, contributing to the lack of consensus of future changes in the AO/NAO.

  12. Operational perspective of remote sensing-based forest fire danger forecasting systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Ehsan H.; Hassan, Quazi K.

    2015-06-01

    Forest fire is a natural phenomenon in many ecosystems across the world. One of the most important components of forest fire management is the forecasting of fire danger conditions. Here, our aim was to critically analyse the following issues, (i) current operational forest fire danger forecasting systems and their limitations; (ii) remote sensing-based fire danger monitoring systems and usefulness in operational perspective; (iii) remote sensing-based fire danger forecasting systems and their functional implications; and (iv) synergy between operational forecasting systems and remote sensing-based methods. In general, the operational systems use point-based measurements of meteorological variables (e.g., temperature, wind speed and direction, relative humidity, precipitations, cloudiness, solar radiation, etc.) and generate danger maps upon employing interpolation techniques. Theoretically, it is possible to overcome the uncertainty associated with the interpolation techniques by using remote sensing data. During the last several decades, efforts were given to develop fire danger condition systems, which could be broadly classified into two major groups: fire danger monitoring and forecasting systems. Most of the monitoring systems focused on determining the danger during and/or after the period of image acquisition. A limited number of studies were conducted to forecast fire danger conditions, which could be adaptable. Synergy between the operational systems and remote sensing-based methods were investigated in the past but too much complex in nature. Thus, the elaborated understanding about these developments would be worthwhile to advance research in the area of fire danger in the context of making them operational.

  13. On the electrical intestine turbulence induced by temperature changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizzi, A.; Cherubini, C.; Migliori, S.; Alloni, R.; Portuesi, R.; Filippi, S.

    2010-03-01

    Paralytic ileus is a temporary syndrome with impairment of peristalsis and no passage of food through the intestine. Although improvements in supportive measures have been achieved, no therapy useful to specifically reduce or eliminate the motility disorder underlying postoperative ileus has been developed yet. In this paper, we draw a plausible, physiologically fine-tuned scenario, which explains a possible cause of paralytic ileus. To this aim we extend the existing 1D intestinal electrophysiological Aliev-Richards-Wikswo ionic model based on a double-layered structure in two and three dimensions. Thermal coupling is introduced here to study the influence of temperature gradients on intestine tissue which is an important external factor during surgery. Numerical simulations present electrical spiral waves similar to those experimentally observed already in the heart, brain and many other excitable tissues. This fact seems to suggest that such peculiar patterns, here electrically and thermally induced, may play an important role in clinically experienced disorders of the intestine, then requiring future experimental analyses in the search for possible implications for medical and physiological practice and bioengineering.

  14. PERSPECTIVE: On the verge of dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriegler, Elmar

    2007-03-01

    The recent publication of the summary for policy makers by Working Group I of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) [1] has injected a renewed sense of urgency to address climate change. It is therefore timely to review the notion of preventing 'dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system' as put forward in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The article by Danny Harvey in this issue [2] offers a fresh perspective by rephrasing the concept of 'dangerous interference' as a problem of risk assessment. As Harvey points out, identification of 'dangerous interference' does not require us to know with certainty that future climate change will be dangerous—an impossible task given that our knowledge about future climate change includes uncertainty. Rather, it requires the assertion that interference would lead to a significant probability of dangerous climate change beyond some risk tolerance, and therefore would pose an unacceptable risk. In his article [2], Harvey puts this idea into operation by presenting a back-of-the-envelope calculation to identify allowable CO2 concentrations under uncertainty about climate sensitivity to anthropogenic forcing and the location of a temperature threshold beyond which dangerous climate change will occur. Conditional on his assumptions, Harvey delivers an interesting result. With the current atmospheric CO2 concentration exceeding 380 ppm, a forcing contribution from other greenhouse gases adding an approximate 100 110 ppm CO2 equivalent on top of it, and a global dimming effect of aerosols that roughly compensates for this contribution (albeit still subject to considerable uncertainty) ([1], figures SPM-1 and 2), we are on the verge of or even committed to dangerous interference with the climate system if we (1) set the risk tolerance for experiencing dangerous climate change to 1% and (2) allocate at least 5% probability to the belief that climate sensitivity is 4

  15. Association between temperature change and outpatient visits for respiratory tract infections among children in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Guo, Yong; Wang, Changbing; Li, Weidong; Lu, Jinhua; Shen, Songying; Xia, Huimin; He, Jianrong; Qiu, Xiu

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the association between temperature change and clinical visits for childhood respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in Guangzhou, China. Outpatient records of clinical visits for pediatric RTIs, which occurred from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2013, were collected from Guangzhou Women and Children's Hospital. Records for meteorological variables during the same period were obtained from the Guangzhou Meteorological Bureau. Temperature change was defined as the difference between the mean temperatures on two consecutive days. A distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) was used to examine the impact of temperature change on pediatric outpatient visits for RTIs. A large temperature decrease was associated with a significant risk for an RTI, with the effect lasting for ~10 days. The maximum effect of a temperature drop (-8.8 °C) was reached at lag 2~3 days. Children aged 0-2 years, and especially those aged <1 year, were particularly vulnerable to the effects of temperature drop. An extreme temperature decrease affected the number of patient visits for both upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). A temperature change between consecutive days, and particularly an extreme temperature decrease, was significantly associated with increased pediatric outpatient visits for RTIs in Guangzhou. PMID:25568973

  16. Association between Temperature Change and Outpatient Visits for Respiratory Tract Infections among Children in Guangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Guo, Yong; Wang, Changbing; Li, Weidong; Lu, Jinhua; Shen, Songying; Xia, Huimin; He, Jianrong; Qiu, Xiu

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the association between temperature change and clinical visits for childhood respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in Guangzhou, China. Outpatient records of clinical visits for pediatric RTIs, which occurred from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2013, were collected from Guangzhou Women and Children’s Hospital. Records for meteorological variables during the same period were obtained from the Guangzhou Meteorological Bureau. Temperature change was defined as the difference between the mean temperatures on two consecutive days. A distributed lag non-linear model (DLNM) was used to examine the impact of temperature change on pediatric outpatient visits for RTIs. A large temperature decrease was associated with a significant risk for an RTI, with the effect lasting for ~10 days. The maximum effect of a temperature drop (−8.8 °C) was reached at lag 2~3 days. Children aged 0–2 years, and especially those aged <1 year, were particularly vulnerable to the effects of temperature drop. An extreme temperature decrease affected the number of patient visits for both upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs). A temperature change between consecutive days, and particularly an extreme temperature decrease, was significantly associated with increased pediatric outpatient visits for RTIs in Guangzhou. PMID:25568973

  17. Future projections of fire danger in Brazilian biomes in the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libonati, Renata; Silva, Patrícia; DaCamara, Carlos; Bastos, Ana

    2016-04-01

    In the global context, Brazil is one of the regions more severely affected by fire occurrences, with important consequences in the global CO2 balance, the state of the Amazon forest and the ecological diversity of the region. Brazil is also one of the few regions experiencing a raise in annual mean temperature above 2.5o during the 20th century, which may further increase between 2o and 7o until 2100 and, likely, be accompanied by a decrease in precipitation [1]. As the fire occurrence and severity largely depends on these two variables, it is worth assessing the evolution of fire danger for the coming decades. In order to obtain a detailed characterization of the future fire patterns in the different biomes of Brazil, we use outputs from a regional-downscaling of the EC-Earth climate model at 0.44 degrees spatial resolution for two future scenarios, an intermediate (RCP4.5) and a more severe (RCP8.5) one. We use a fire danger index specifically developed for the Brazilian climate and biome characteristics, the IFR from INPE. This index relies on values of maximum temperature, accumulated precipitation over different periods, minimum relative humidity and vegetation cover to estimate the likelihood of fire occurrence. We find a systematic increase of the days with critical fire risk, which is more pronounced in RCP8.5 and mostly affects months when fire activity takes place. Temperature increase is the most determinant factor for the increase in fire danger in the dry regions of savannah and shrubland, a result to be expected as fuel is already very dry. [1] Collins, M., R. Knutti, J. Arblaster, J.-L. Dufresne, T. Fichefet, P. Friedlingstein, X. Gao, W.J. Gutowski, T. Johns, G. Krinner, M. Shongwe, C. Tebaldi, A.J. Weaver and M. Wehner, 2013: Long-term Climate Change: Projections, Commitments and Irreversibility. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on

  18. Coffee and chocolate in danger.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael

    2014-06-01

    As a rapidly growing global consumer base appreciates the pleasures of coffee and chocolate and health warnings are being replaced by more encouraging sounds from medical experts, their supply is under threat from climate change, pests and financial problems. Coffee farmers in Central America, in particular, are highly vulnerable to the impact of climate change, made worse by financial insecurity. Michael Gross reports. PMID:24944039

  19. Body size change in various nematodes depending on bacterial food, sex and growth temperature.

    PubMed

    So, Shuhei; Garan, Yohei; Miyahara, Kohji; Ohshima, Yasumi

    2012-04-01

    We previously reported significant body size change in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, depending on the food strain of E. coli. Here, we examined this body size change in 11 other nematode species as well, and found that it is common to most of these nematodes. Furthermore, this food-dependent body size change is influenced by sex and growth temperature. PMID:24058830

  20. Body size change in various nematodes depending on bacterial food, sex and growth temperature

    PubMed Central

    So, Shuhei; Garan, Yohei; Miyahara, Kohji; Ohshima, Yasumi

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported significant body size change in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, depending on the food strain of E. coli. Here, we examined this body size change in 11 other nematode species as well, and found that it is common to most of these nematodes. Furthermore, this food-dependent body size change is influenced by sex and growth temperature. PMID:24058830

  1. Large ground surface temperature changes of the last three centuries inferred from borehole temperatures in the Southern Canadian Prairies, Saskatchewan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majorowicz, Jacek A.; Safanda, Jan; Harris, Robert N.; Skinner, Walter R.

    1999-05-01

    New temperature logs in wells located in the grassland ecozone in the Southern Canadian Prairies in Saskatchewan, where surface disturbance is considered minor, show a large curvature in the upper 100 m. The character of this curvature is consistent with ground surface temperature (GST) warming in the 20th century. Repetition of precise temperature logs in southern Saskatchewan (years 1986 and 1997) shows the conductive nature of warming of the subsurface sediments. The magnitude of surface temperature change during that time (11 years) is high (0.3-0.4°C). To assess the conductive nature of temperature variations at the grassland surface interface, several precise air and soil temperature time series in the southern Canadian Prairies (1965-1995) were analyzed. The combined anomalies correlated at 0.85. Application of the functional space inversion (FSI) technique with the borehole temperature logs and site-specific lithology indicates a warming to date of approximately 2.5°C since a minimum in the late 18th century to mid 19th century. This warming represents an approximate increase from 4°C around 1850 to 6.5°C today. The significance of this record is that it suggests almost half of the warming occurred prior to 1900, before dramatic build up of atmospheric green house gases. This result correlates well with the proxy record of climatic change further to the north, beyond the Arctic Circle [Overpeck, J., Hughen, K., Hardy, D., Bradley, R., Case, R., Douglas, M., Finney, B., Gajewski, K., Jacoby, G., Jennings, A., Lamourex, S., Lasca, A., MacDonald, G., Moore, J., Retelle, M., Smith, S., Wolfe, A., Zielinski, G., 1997. Arctic environmental change of the last four centuries, Science 278, 1251-1256.].

  2. Thermal conditions influence changes in body temperature induced by intragastric administration of capsaicin in mice.

    PubMed

    Mori, Noriyuki; Urata, Tomomi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2016-08-01

    Capsaicin has been reported to have unique thermoregulatory actions. However, changes in core temperature after the administration of capsaicin are a controversial point. Therefore, we investigated the effects of environmental thermal conditions on changes in body temperature caused by capsaicin in mice. We showed that intragastric administration of 10 and 15 mg/kg capsaicin increased tail temperature and decreased colonic temperatures in the core temperature (CT)-constant and CT-decreasing conditions. In the CT-increasing condition, 15 mg/kg capsaicin increased tail temperature and decreased colonic temperature. However, 10 mg/kg capsaicin increased colonic temperature. Furthermore, the amount of increase in tail temperature was greater in the CT-decreasing condition and lower in the CT-increasing condition, compared with that of the CT-constant condition. These findings suggest that the changes in core temperature were affected by the environmental thermal conditions and that preliminary thermoregulation state might be more important than the constancy of temperature to evaluate the effects of heat diffusion and thermogensis. PMID:27068136

  3. A review of terms for regulated vs. forced, neurochemical-induced changes in body temperature.

    PubMed

    Gordon, C J

    1983-03-21

    Deviations of the body temperature of homeothermic animals may be regulated or forced. A regulated change in core temperature is caused by a natural or synthetic compound that displaces the set-point temperature. A forced shift occurs when an excessive environmental or endogenous heat load, or heat sink, exceeds the body's capacity to thermoregulate but does not affect set-point. A fever is the paradigm of a regulated increase in body temperature, but the term fever has acquired a strict pathological definition over the past two decades. Consequently, other forms of nonpathological, regulated elevations in body temperature have generally been classified as hyperthermia; and decreases in core temperature--either forced or regulated--have generally been classified as hypothermia. Since the terms hyperthermia and hypothermia fail to distinguish a regulated vs. a forced temperature change, a confusion of terms has been created in the literature. It would appear that "resisted or unregulated hyperthermia" and "hypothermia," respectively, are appropriate terms for describing a forced increase and decrease in core temperature. A nonpathological but regulated elevation in temperature may be defined as unresisted or regulated hyperthermia, whereas a regulated decrease in temperature may be termed unresisted or regulated hypothermia. This simple scheme appears to be the most practical means for distinguishing between forced and regulated changes in core temperature. PMID:6339853

  4. Determination of enthalpy-temperature curves of phase change materials with the temperature-history method: improvement to temperature dependent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marín, José M.; Zalba, Belén; Cabeza, Luisa F.; Mehling, Harald

    2003-02-01

    The temperature-history method, proposed by Yinping et al, is a simple and economic way to determine the main thermophysical properties of materials used in thermal energy storage based on solid-liquid phase change. It is based on comparing the temperature history of a phase-change material sample and a sample of a well known material upon cooling down. In this paper we describe a further developed evaluation procedure to determine cp and h as temperature dependent values which was not the case in Yinping's method, based on the same experimental procedure. Given the suitability of these properties to calculate thermal energy storage using these materials, the method is proposed to present the results obtained in the form of enthalpy-temperature curves. A discussion about the errors produced by this method and an experimental improvement are proposed too.

  5. Effect of changes in viewing window transmission on high-temperature Thomson scattering data

    SciTech Connect

    McNeill, D.H. )

    1990-04-01

    Unmonitored changes in the transmission of viewing windows owing to deposited films can produce errors in Thomson scattering temperature measurements. This effect is illustrated by a recent run on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) where apparent errors of over 25% in peak temperatures of 9 keV owing to carbon films were noted. Since coatings can also be removed by hydrogen discharges, the transmission of a window may change with time, resulting in variable errors in the temperature. It is proposed that these changes be monitored by calibration {ital in} {ital situ} with the aid of a low-pressure hydrogen glow discharge.

  6. The relationships between temperature changes and reproductive investment in a Mediterranean goby: Insights for the assessment of climate change effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchetta, M.; Cipolato, G.; Pranovi, F.; Antonetti, P.; Torricelli, P.; Franzoi, P.; Malavasi, S.

    2012-04-01

    The relationships between changes in water temperature and the timing and level of reproductive investment were investigated in an estuarine fish, inhabiting the Venice lagoon: the grass goby Zosterisessor ophiocephalus. A time series of the mean monthly values of gonado-somatic index was coupled with thermal profiles of lagoon water temperatures over 14 years, from 1997 to 2010. Results showed that the reproductive investment was positively affected by water temperature changes, both in terms of monthly thermal anomalies and cumulative degree days. A predictive model was also developed to assess the temporal shift of reproductive peaks as a response to inter-annual thermal fluctuations. This model allowed the detection of deviations from the median level, indicating that during warmer years, the reproductive peak tended to occur earlier than during colder years. The model is therefore proposed as a tool to predict anticipated consequences of climate change on fish phenology in transitional waters, regarding recurrent biological phenomena, such as reproduction and recruitment.

  7. Linkage Between Hourly Precipitation Events and Atmospheric Temperature Changes over China during the Warm Season

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Chiyuan; Sun, Qiaohong; Borthwick, Alistair G. L.; Duan, Qingyun

    2016-01-01

    We investigated changes in the temporospatial features of hourly precipitation during the warm season over mainland China. The frequency and amount of hourly precipitation displayed latitudinal zonation, especially for light and moderate precipitation, which showed successive downward change over time in northeastern and southern China. Changes in the precipitation amount resulted mainly from changes in frequency rather than changes in intensity. We also evaluated the linkage between hourly precipitation and temperature variations and found that hourly precipitation extreme was more sensitive to temperature than other categories of precipitation. A strong dependency of hourly precipitation on temperature occurred at temperatures colder than the median daily temperature; in such cases, regression slopes were greater than the Clausius-Clapeyron (C-C) relation of 7% per degree Celsius. Regression slopes for 31.6%, 59.8%, 96.9%, and 99.1% of all stations were greater than 7% per degree Celsius for the 75th, 90th, 99th, and 99.9th percentiles for precipitation, respectively. The mean regression slopes within the 99.9th percentile of precipitation were three times the C-C rate. Hourly precipitation showed a strong negative relationship with daily maximum temperature and the diurnal temperature range at most stations, whereas the equivalent correlation for daily minimum temperature was weak. PMID:26931350

  8. Projected changes in extreme temperature events based on the NARCCAP model suite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Radley M.; Coffel, Ethan D.; Winter, Jonathan M.; Bader, Daniel A.

    2015-09-01

    Once-per-year (annual) maximum temperature extremes in North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP) models are projected to increase more (less) than mean daily maximum summer temperatures over much of the eastern (western) United States. In contrast, the models almost everywhere project greater warming of once-per-year minimum temperatures as compared to mean daily minimum winter temperatures. Under projected changes associated with extremes of the temperature distribution, Baltimore's maximum temperature that was met or exceeded once per year historically is projected to occur 17 times per season by midcentury, a 28% increase relative to projections based on summer mean daily maximum temperature change. Under the same approach, historical once-per-year cold events in Baltimore are projected to occur once per decade. The models are generally able to capture observed geopotential height anomalies associated with temperature extremes in two subregions. Projected changes in extreme temperature events cannot be explained by geopotential height anomalies or lower boundary conditions as reflected by soil moisture anomalies or snow water equivalent.

  9. Uncovering physical processes responsible for the asymmetry of day-to-day temperature changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huth, Radan; Piskala, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    Day-to-day temperature changes, and especially those of minimum temperature in winter and maximum temperature in summer, are asymmetrical: in winter, large warmings occur more frequently than large coolings and small coolings occur more frequently than small warmings. In summer, the opposite is the case. We investigate causes of this asymmetry for Prague, Czech Republic. First, we relate strong temperature changes to passages of atmospheric fronts. More specifically, large warmings in winter are related with passages of warm fronts and large coolings in summer are related with passages of cold fronts. In particular, we test the hypothesis that the days with large temperature changes (changes exceeding 3°C or 5°C) are accompanied with passages of corresponding atmospheric fronts more frequently than other days. We prove statistical significance of such a relationship between front passages and large temperature changes by means of a two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Second, we demonstrate that small temperature changes (by up to 2°C), namely, small warmings in summer and small coolings in winter, are tightly related to anticyclonic circulation conditions and, hence, occur due to radiative processes. This relationship is investigated by comparing frequencies of anticyclonic circulation types in selected classifications from the COST733 database between the days with small temperature changes and all other days. The relationship appears to be highly statistically significant. Although the findings may seem a bit trivial, we are not aware of any study that would examine and prove the relationships between front passages and anticyclonic circulation conditions on one side, and the asymmetry of day-to-day temperature changes on the other side.

  10. The Effect of Land Use Change on Land Surface Temperature in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youneszadeh, S.; Amiri, N.; Pilesjo, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Netherlands is a small country with a relatively large population which experienced a rapid rate of land use changes from 2000 to 2008 years due to the industrialization and population increase. Land use change is especially related to the urban expansion and open agriculture reduction due to the enhanced economic growth. This research reports an investigation into the application of remote sensing and geographical information system (GIS) in combination with statistical methods to provide a quantitative information on the effect of land use change on the land surface temperature. In this study, remote sensing techniques were used to retrieve the land surface temperature (LST) by using the MODIS Terra (MOD11A2) Satellite imagery product. As land use change alters the thermal environment, the land surface temperature (LST) could be a proper change indicator to show the thermal changes in relation with land use changes. The Geographical information system was further applied to extract the mean yearly land surface temperature (LST) for each land use type and each province in the 2003, 2006 and 2008 years, by using the zonal statistic techniques. The results show that, the inland water and offshore area has the highest night land surface temperature (LST). Furthermore, the Zued (South)-Holland province has the highest night LST value in the 2003, 2006 and 2008 years. The result of this research will be helpful tool for urban planners and environmental scientists by providing the critical information about the land surface temperature.

  11. Tracking changes in Isoëtes reproductive ecology responding to changes in lake water temperature and chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čtvrtlíková, Martina; Znachor, Petr; Nedoma, Jiří; Vrba, Jaroslav; Kopáček, Jiří; Hejzlar, Josef

    2013-04-01

    Biological response of aquatic macrophytes to changes in water chemistry and temperature has been studied on a background of the long-term research of Bohemian Forest lakes recovery from acid stress. Isoëtes lacustris and I. echinospora are common aquatic macrophytes adapted for living in soft-water lakes widely distributed in European lake districts; however, in central Europe they are rare glacial relicts. In Černé and Plešné lakes, two populations survived a thirty-year period of severe acidification but failed to reproduce. In our experimental and field studies on Isoëtes reproduction we identified early ontogenetic stages to be most vulnerable to changes in lake water pH, temperature, and aluminium (Al) toxicity .We described specific symptoms on plantlets reflecting various lake water acidity and Al-toxicity and defined critical limits of the stressors for plant survival. Using a mathematical model we also described temperature-related changes in species reproductive phenology and revealed their narrow temperature tolerance. The knowledge of critical environmental factors and their limits for species survival allows us to infer changes in species reproduction in response to both historical and ongoing changes in climate and lake water chemistry. Due to species-specific ecological traits, we can now explain the recent population recovery of I. echinospora contrasting with the poor reproduction of I. lacustris that will be constrained by environmental stressors for at least during the next 20 years.

  12. The effect on engine performance of change in jacket-water outlet temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garlock, E A; Ellis, Greer

    1933-01-01

    Tests made on a Curtiss D-12 engine in the Altitude Laboratory at the Bureau of Standards show the following effects on engine performance of change in jacket-water outlet temperature: 1) Friction at all altitudes is a linear function of the jacket-water temperature, decreasing with increasing temperature. 2) The brake horsepower below an altitude of about 9,000 feet decreases, and at higher altitudes increases, with jacket-water temperature. 3) The brake specific fuel consumption tends to decrease, at all altitudes, with increasing jacket-water temperature. 4) The percentage change in brake power output is roughly equal to the algebraic sum of the percentage change in volumetric efficiency and mechanical efficiency.

  13. Automated Non-invasive Video-Microscopy of Oyster Spat Heart Rate during Acute Temperature Change: Impact of Acclimation Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Domnik, Nicolle J.; Polymeropoulos, Elias T.; Elliott, Nicholas G.; Frappell, Peter B.; Fisher, John T.

    2016-01-01

    We developed an automated, non-invasive method to detect real-time cardiac contraction in post-larval (1.1–1.7 mm length), juvenile oysters (i.e., oyster spat) via a fiber-optic trans-illumination system. The system is housed within a temperature-controlled chamber and video microscopy imaging of the heart was coupled with video edge-detection to measure cardiac contraction, inter-beat interval, and heart rate (HR). We used the method to address the hypothesis that cool acclimation (10°C vs. 22°C—Ta10 or Ta22, respectively; each n = 8) would preserve cardiac phenotype (assessed via HR variability, HRV analysis and maintained cardiac activity) during acute temperature changes. The temperature ramp (TR) protocol comprised 2°C steps (10 min/experimental temperature, Texp) from 22°C to 10°C to 22°C. HR was related to Texp in both acclimation groups. Spat became asystolic at low temperatures, particularly Ta22 spat (Ta22: 8/8 vs. Ta10: 3/8 asystolic at Texp = 10°C). The rate of HR decrease during cooling was less in Ta10 vs. Ta22 spat when asystole was included in analysis (P = 0.026). Time-domain HRV was inversely related to temperature and elevated in Ta10 vs. Ta22 spat (P < 0.001), whereas a lack of defined peaks in spectral density precluded frequency-domain analysis. Application of the method during an acute cooling challenge revealed that cool temperature acclimation preserved active cardiac contraction in oyster spat and increased time-domain HRV responses, whereas warm acclimation enhanced asystole. These physiologic changes highlight the need for studies of mechanisms, and have translational potential for oyster aquaculture practices. PMID:27445833

  14. Automated Non-invasive Video-Microscopy of Oyster Spat Heart Rate during Acute Temperature Change: Impact of Acclimation Temperature.

    PubMed

    Domnik, Nicolle J; Polymeropoulos, Elias T; Elliott, Nicholas G; Frappell, Peter B; Fisher, John T

    2016-01-01

    We developed an automated, non-invasive method to detect real-time cardiac contraction in post-larval (1.1-1.7 mm length), juvenile oysters (i.e., oyster spat) via a fiber-optic trans-illumination system. The system is housed within a temperature-controlled chamber and video microscopy imaging of the heart was coupled with video edge-detection to measure cardiac contraction, inter-beat interval, and heart rate (HR). We used the method to address the hypothesis that cool acclimation (10°C vs. 22°C-Ta10 or Ta22, respectively; each n = 8) would preserve cardiac phenotype (assessed via HR variability, HRV analysis and maintained cardiac activity) during acute temperature changes. The temperature ramp (TR) protocol comprised 2°C steps (10 min/experimental temperature, Texp) from 22°C to 10°C to 22°C. HR was related to Texp in both acclimation groups. Spat became asystolic at low temperatures, particularly Ta22 spat (Ta22: 8/8 vs. Ta10: 3/8 asystolic at Texp = 10°C). The rate of HR decrease during cooling was less in Ta10 vs. Ta22 spat when asystole was included in analysis (P = 0.026). Time-domain HRV was inversely related to temperature and elevated in Ta10 vs. Ta22 spat (P < 0.001), whereas a lack of defined peaks in spectral density precluded frequency-domain analysis. Application of the method during an acute cooling challenge revealed that cool temperature acclimation preserved active cardiac contraction in oyster spat and increased time-domain HRV responses, whereas warm acclimation enhanced asystole. These physiologic changes highlight the need for studies of mechanisms, and have translational potential for oyster aquaculture practices. PMID:27445833

  15. Do great tits (Parus major) suppress basal metabolic rate in response to increased perceived predation danger? A field experiment.

    PubMed

    Mathot, Kimberley J; Abbey-Lee, Robin N; Kempenaers, Bart; Dingemanse, Niels J

    2016-10-01

    Several studies have shown that individuals with higher metabolic rates (MRs) feed at higher rates and are more willing to forage in the presence of predators. This increases the acquisition of resources, which in turn, may help to sustain a higher MR. Elevated predation danger may be expected to result in reduced MRs, either as a means of allowing for reduced feeding and risk-taking, or as a consequence of adaptively reducing intake rates via reduced feeding and/or risk-taking. We tested this prediction in free-living great tits (Parus major) using a playback experiment to manipulate perceived predation danger. There was evidence that changes in body mass and BMR differed as a function of treatment. In predator treatment plots, great tits tended to reduce their body mass, a commonly observed response in birds to increased predation danger. In contrast, birds from control treatment plots showed no overall changes in body mass. There was also evidence that great tits from control treatment plots increased their basal metabolic rate (BMR) over the course of the experiment, presumably due to decreasing ambient temperatures over the study period. However, there was no evidence for changes in BMR for birds from predator treatment plots. Although the directions of these results are consistent with the predicted directions of effects, the effects sizes and confidence intervals yield inconclusive support for the hypothesis that great tits would adaptively suppress BMR in response to increased perceived predation risk. The effect size observed in the present study was small (~1%) and would not be expected to result in substantive reductions in feeding rate and/or risk-taking. Whether or not ecological conditions that generate greater energetic stress (e.g. lower food availability, lower ambient temperatures) could produce an effect that produces biologically meaningful reductions in feeding activity and/or risk-taking remains an open question. PMID:27342428

  16. A model for evaluating stream temperature response to climate change scenarios in Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Stewart, Jana S.; Buchwald, Cheryl A.; Mitro, Matthew G.; Lyons, John D.; Greb, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Global climate change is expected to alter temperature and flow regimes for streams in Wisconsin over the coming decades. Stream temperature will be influenced not only by the predicted increases in average air temperature, but also by changes in baseflow due to changes in precipitation patterns and amounts. In order to evaluate future stream temperature and flow regimes in Wisconsin, we have integrated two existing models in order to generate a water temperature time series at a regional scale for thousands of stream reaches where site-specific temperature observations do not exist. The approach uses the US Geological Survey (USGS) Soil-Water-Balance (SWB) model, along with a recalibrated version of an existing artificial neural network (ANN) stream temperature model. The ANN model simulates stream temperatures on the basis of landscape variables such as land use and soil type, and also includes climate variables such as air temperature and precipitation amounts. The existing ANN model includes a landscape variable called DARCY designed to reflect the potential for groundwater recharge in the contributing area for a stream segment. SWB tracks soil-moisture and potential recharge at a daily time step, providing a way to link changing climate patterns and precipitation amounts over time to baseflow volumes, and presumably to stream temperatures. The recalibrated ANN incorporates SWB-derived estimates of potential recharge to supplement the static estimates of groundwater flow potential derived from a topographically based model (DARCY). SWB and the recalibrated ANN will be supplied with climate drivers from a suite of general circulation models and emissions scenarios, enabling resource managers to evaluate possible changes in stream temperature regimes for Wisconsin.

  17. Temperature-related degradation and colour changes of historic paintings containing vivianite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čermáková, Zdeňka; Švarcová, Silvie; Hradilová, Janka; Bezdička, Petr; Lančok, Adriana; Vašutová, Vlasta; Blažek, Jan; Hradil, David

    2015-04-01

    Temperature-related degradation of pure synthetic as well as partly oxidised natural vivianite has been studied by high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) covering the whole extent of the temperature-related stability of its structure. While temperatures around 70 °C are already damaging to vivianite, exposition to 160 °C results in complete amorphisation of both the vivianite and its oxidation products. As indicated by Mössbauer spectroscopy, temperature-induced oxidation of vivianite starts at 90 °C. To study the occurring structural as well as accompanying colour changes in more detail, model vivianite paint layer samples with different historic binders were prepared and subjected to increased temperatures. Exposition to 80 °C caused pronounced colour changes of all the samples: ground natural blue vivianite became grey - a colour change which has been described in actual works of art. Regarding the binders, the oil seemed to facilitate the transfer of heat to vivianite's grains. To simulate conditions of conservation treatment under which the painting is exposed to increased temperatures, oil-on-canvas mock-ups with vivianite were prepared and relined in a traditional way using iron. The treatment affected preferentially larger grains of vivianite; the micro-samples documented their change to grey, and their Raman spectra showed the change from vivianite to metavivianite.

  18. Temperature-related degradation and colour changes of historic paintings containing vivianite.

    PubMed

    Čermáková, Zdeňka; Švarcová, Silvie; Hradilová, Janka; Bezdička, Petr; Lančok, Adriana; Vašutová, Vlasta; Blažek, Jan; Hradil, David

    2015-04-01

    Temperature-related degradation of pure synthetic as well as partly oxidised natural vivianite has been studied by high-temperature X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) covering the whole extent of the temperature-related stability of its structure. While temperatures around 70°C are already damaging to vivianite, exposition to 160°C results in complete amorphisation of both the vivianite and its oxidation products. As indicated by Mössbauer spectroscopy, temperature-induced oxidation of vivianite starts at 90°C. To study the occurring structural as well as accompanying colour changes in more detail, model vivianite paint layer samples with different historic binders were prepared and subjected to increased temperatures. Exposition to 80°C caused pronounced colour changes of all the samples: ground natural blue vivianite became grey--a colour change which has been described in actual works of art. Regarding the binders, the oil seemed to facilitate the transfer of heat to vivianite's grains. To simulate conditions of conservation treatment under which the painting is exposed to increased temperatures, oil-on-canvas mock-ups with vivianite were prepared and relined in a traditional way using iron. The treatment affected preferentially larger grains of vivianite; the micro-samples documented their change to grey, and their Raman spectra showed the change from vivianite to metavivianite. PMID:25589392

  19. Changes in the association between summer temperature and mortality in Seoul, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Jongsik; Kim, Ho

    2013-07-01

    The health impact of climate change depends on various conditions at any given time and place, as well as on the person. Temporal variations in the relationship between high temperature and mortality need to be explored in depth to explain how changes in the level of exposure and public health interventions modify the temperature-mortality relationship. We examined changes in the relationship between human mortality and temperature in Seoul, which has the highest population in South Korea, considering the change in population structure from 1993-2009. Poisson regression models were used to estimate short-term temperature-related mortality impacts. Temperature-related risks were divided into two "time periods" of approximately equal length (1993 and 1995-2000, and 2001-2009), and were also examined according to early summer and late summer. Temperature-related mortality in summer over the past 17 years has declined. These decreasing patterns were stronger for cardiovascular disease-related mortality than for all non-accidental deaths. The novel finding is that declines in temperature-related mortality were particularly noteworthy in late summer. Our results indicate that temperature-related mortality is decreasing in Seoul, particularly during late summer and, to a lesser extent, during early summer. This information would be useful for detailed public health preparedness for hot weather.

  20. Further studies of the atmospheric temperature change produced by the Mt. Agung volcanic eruption in 1963

    SciTech Connect

    Newell, R. E.

    1980-03-26

    The eruption of Mt. Agung in March 1963 introduced an aerosol layer into the stratosphere that was associated with stratospheric temperature increases of several degrees Kelvin. The mechanics of this temperature change in the tropical troposphere are examined by observations of its distribution in altitutde and time. (ACR)

  1. Effects of Climate Change on Temperature and Salinity in the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon (USA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a larger study to examine the effect of climate change (CC) on estuarine resources, we simulated the effect of rising sea level, alterations in river discharge, and increasing atmospheric temperatures on water properties (temperature and salinity) in the Yaquina Estuar...

  2. Effect of Conceptual Change Oriented Instruction on Students' Understanding of Heat and Temperature Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baser, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the effectiveness of conceptual change oriented instruction and standard science instruction and contribution of logical thinking ability on seventh grade students' understanding of heat and temperature concepts. Misconceptions related to heat and temperature concepts were determined by related literature on this subject.…

  3. Implications of solar irradiance variability upon long-term changes in the Earth's atmospheric temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III

    1992-01-01

    From 1979 through 1987, it is believed that variability in the incoming solar energy played a significant role in changing the Earth's climate. Using high-precision spacecraft radiometric measurements, the incoming total solar irradiance (total amount of solar power per unit area) and the Earth's mean, global atmospheric temperatures were found to vary in phase with each other. The observed irradiance and temperature changes appeared to be correlated with the 11-year cycle of solar magnetic activity. During the period from 1979 through 1985, both the irradiance and temperature decreased. From 1985 to 1987, they increased. The irradiance changed approximately 0.1 percent, while the temperature varied as much as 0.6 C. During the 1979-1987 period, the temperatures were forecasted to rise linearly because of the anthropogenic build-up of carbon dioxide and the hypothesized 'global warming', 'greenhouse effect', scenarios. Contrary to these scenarios, the temperatures were found to vary in a periodic manner in phase with the solar irradiance changes. The observed correlations between irradiance and temperature variabilily suggest that the mean, global temperature of the Earth may decline between 1990 and 1997 as solar magnetic activity decreases.

  4. Temperature and pH Changes Associated with the Hydration of Amorphous Silicate Smokes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizmadia, L. J.; Lebrón-Rivera, S. A.

    2010-03-01

    The hydration of Fe-Si smokes results in acidic pH levels and negligible change in temperature. When mixed with Mg-Si smokes, pH becomes alkaline and temperature increases slightly. Water-rock ratio is a minor variable relative to composition.

  5. Historical changes in Australian temperature extremes as inferred from extreme value distribution analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolan L.; Trewin, Blair; Feng, Yang; Jones, David

    2013-02-01

    Abstract This study develops a generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution analysis approach, namely, a GEV tree approach that allows for both stationary and nonstationary cases. This approach is applied to a century-long homogenized daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data set for Australia to assess <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes from 1910 to 2010. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in 20 year return values are estimated from the most suitable GEV distribution chosen from a GEV tree. Twenty year return values of extreme low minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are found to have warmed strongly over the century in most parts of the continent. There is also a tendency toward warming of extreme high maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, but it is weaker than that for minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, with the majority of stations not showing significant trends. The observed <span class="hlt">changes</span> in extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are broadly consistent with observed <span class="hlt">changes</span> in mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and in the frequency of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above the ninetieth and below the tenth percentile (i.e., extreme indices). The GEV tree analysis provides insight into behavior of extremes with re-occurrence times of several years to decades that are of importance to engineering design/applications, while extreme indices represent moderately extreme events with re-occurrence times of a year or shorter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EGUGA..1414064L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012EGUGA..1414064L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Daily estimates of fire <span class="hlt">danger</span> using multitemporal satellite MODIS data: the experience of FIRE-SAT in the Basilicata Region (Italy)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lanorte, R.; Lasaponara, R.; De Santis, F.; Aromando, A.; Nole, G.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Daily estimates of fire <span class="hlt">danger</span> using multitemporal satellite MODIS data: the experience of FIRE-SAT in the Basilicata Region (Italy) A. Lanorte, F. De Santis , A. Aromando, G. Nolè, R. Lasaponara, CNR-IMAA, Potenza, Italy In the recent years the Basilicata Region (Southern Italy) has been characterized by an increasing incidence of fire disturbance which also tends to affect protected (Regional and national parks) and natural vegetated areas. FIRE_SAT project has been funded by the Civil Protection of the Basilicata Region in order to set up a low cost methodology for fire <span class="hlt">danger</span>/risk monitoring based on satellite Earth Observation techniques. To this aim, NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data were used. The spectral capability and daily availability makes MODIS products especially suitable for estimating the variations of fuel characteristics. This work presents new significant results obtained in the context of FIRE-SAT project. In order to obtain a dynamical indicator of fire susceptibility based on multitemporal MODIS satellite data, up-datable in short-time periods (daily), we used the spatial/temporal variations of following parameters: (1) Relative Greenness Index (2) Live and dead fuel moisture content (3) <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> In particular, the dead fuel moisture content is a key factor in fire ignition. Dead fuel moisture dynamics are significantly faster than those observed for live fuel. Dead fine vegetation exhibits moisture and density values dependent on rapid atmospheric <span class="hlt">changes</span> and strictly linked to local meteorological conditions. For this reason, commonly, the estimation of dead fuel moisture content is based on meteorological variables. In this study we propose to use MODIS data to estimate meteorological data (specifically Relative Humidity) at an adequate spatial and temporal resolution. The assessment of dead fuel moisture content plays a decisive role in determining a fire dynamic <span class="hlt">danger</span> index in combination with other</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020086589','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020086589"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Pill</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Ingestible Thermal Monitoring System was developed at Johns Hopkins University as means of getting internal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> readings for treatments of such emergency conditions as <span class="hlt">dangerously</span> low (hypothermia) and <span class="hlt">dangerously</span> high (hyperthermia) body <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. ITMS's accuracy is off no more than one hundredth of a degree and provides the only means of obtaining deep body <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. System has additional applicability in fertility monitoring and some aspects of surgery, critical care obstetrics, metabolic disease treatment, gerontology (aging) and food processing research. Three-quarter inch silicone capsule contains telemetry system, micro battery, and a quartz crystal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensor inserted vaginally, rectally, or swallowed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25145698','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25145698"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of stem <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> on heat pulse sap flux density measurements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vandegehuchte, Maurits W; Burgess, Stephen S O; Downey, Alec; Steppe, Kathy</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>While natural spatial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients between measurement needles have been thoroughly investigated for continuous heat-based sap flow methods, little attention has been given to how natural <span class="hlt">changes</span> in stem <span class="hlt">temperature</span> impact heat pulse-based methods through temporal rather than spatial effects. By modelling the theoretical equation for both an ideal instantaneous pulse and a step pulse and applying a finite element model which included actual needle dimensions and wound effects, the influence of a varying stem <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on heat pulse-based methods was investigated. It was shown that the heat ratio (HR) method was influenced, while for the compensation heat pulse and Tmax methods <span class="hlt">changes</span> in stem <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of up to 0.002 °C s(-1) did not lead to significantly different results. For the HR method, rising stem <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during measurements led to lower heat pulse velocity values, while decreasing stem <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> led to both higher and lower heat pulse velocities, and to imaginary results for high flows. These errors of up to 40% can easily be prevented by including a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> correction in the data analysis procedure, calculating the slope of the natural <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> based on the measured <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> before application of the heat pulse. Results of a greenhouse and outdoor experiment on Pinus pinea L. show the influence of this correction on low and average sap flux densities. PMID:25145698</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JHyd..536..208T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JHyd..536..208T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the major Chinese river basins during 1957-2013 and links to sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tian, Qing; Prange, Matthias; Merkel, Ute</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The variation characteristics of precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the three major Chinese river basins (Yellow River, Yangtze River and Pearl River) in the period of 1957-2013 were analyzed on an annual and seasonal basis, as well as their links to sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) variations in the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean on both interannual and decadal time scales. Annual mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the three river basins increased significantly overall since 1957, with an average warming rate of about 0.19 °C/10a, but the warming was characterized by a staircase form with steps around 1987 and 1998. The significant increase of annual mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> could mostly be attributed to the remarkable warming trend in spring, autumn and winter. Warming rates in the northern basins were generally much higher than in the southern basins. However, both the annual precipitation and seasonal mean precipitation of the three river basins showed little <span class="hlt">change</span> in the study area average, but distinct interannual variations since 1957 and clear regional differences. An overall warming-wetting tendency was found in the northwestern and southeastern river basins in 1957-2013, while the central regions tended to become warmer and drier. Results from a Maximum Covariance Analysis (MCA) showed that the interannual variations of seasonal mean precipitation and surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> over the three river basins were both associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) since 1957. ENSO SST patterns affected precipitation and surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability throughout the year, but with very different response patterns in the different seasons. For instance, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in most of the river basins was positively correlated with central-eastern equatorial Pacific SST in winter and spring, but negatively correlated in summer and autumn. On the decadal time scale, the seasonal mean precipitation and surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations were strongly associated with the Pacific</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ClDy..tmp..321R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ClDy..tmp..321R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">An energy balance perspective on regional CO2-induced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in CMIP5 models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Räisänen, Jouni</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>An energy balance decomposition of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> is conducted for idealized transient CO2-only simulations in the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. The multimodel global mean warming is dominated by enhanced clear-sky greenhouse effect due to increased CO2 and water vapour, but other components of the energy balance substantially modify the geographical and seasonal patterns of the <span class="hlt">change</span>. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in the net surface energy flux are important over the oceans, being especially crucial for the muted warming over the northern North Atlantic and for the seasonal cycle of warming over the Arctic Ocean. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in atmospheric energy flux convergence tend to smooth the gradients of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and reduce its land-sea contrast, but they also amplify the seasonal cycle of warming in northern North America and Eurasia. The three most important terms for intermodel differences in warming are the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the clear-sky greenhouse effect, clouds, and the net surface energy flux, making the largest contribution to the standard deviation of annual mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in 34, 29 and 20 % of the world, respectively. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in atmospheric energy flux convergence mostly damp intermodel variations of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> especially over the oceans. However, the opposite is true for example in Greenland and Antarctica, where the warming appears to be substantially controlled by heat transport from the surrounding sea areas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25131146','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25131146"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationships between facial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>, end-exercise affect and during-exercise <span class="hlt">changes</span> in affect: a preliminary study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Legrand, Fabien D; Bertucci, William M; Arfaoui, Ahlem</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The present study was performed as an evaluation of the relationships between <span class="hlt">changes</span> in facial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and self-reported pleasure-displeasure during an acute aerobic exercise bout. Ninety-two students performed a 10-minute long session of cycle ergometry at 80-85% of age-predicted maximal heart rate. Using infrared thermography and a single-item measure of pleasure-displeasure (the Feeling Scale, FS), facial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the FS score were sampled at the beginning (Min1:00) and at the end of the exercise session (Min9:00). Statistical analyses revealed that cheek (but not forehead) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was higher at the end of the exercise bout compared to Min1:00 (it increased by about 5%). <span class="hlt">Change</span> in cheek <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was negatively related to end-exercise affect (β = -0.28, P < 0.001) and to during-exercise affective <span class="hlt">changes</span> (β = -0.35, P < 0.001). No significant relationship with forehead <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was found. Some of the possible reasons for this differential effect as well as theoretical and practical implications of our findings are discussed. PMID:25131146</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PCE....47..128X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PCE....47..128X"><span id="translatedtitle">Water quality parameters response to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in small shallow lakes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Lei; Li, Hua; Liang, Xinqiang; Yao, Yuxin; Zhou, Li; Cui, Xinyi</p> <p></p> <p>Effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T) on water quality of three small shallow lakes in Taihu Lake region of China were investigated. The annual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was classified into three levels: low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (LT, 4 °C < T ⩽ 10 °C), middle <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (MT, 10 °C < T ⩽ 20 °C), and high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (HT, 20 °C < T ⩽ 30 °C). Results showed that total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations might go to a fixed value (or range) in small shallow lakes receiving domestic sewage and farm drainage water. Nitrogen concentrations in the lakes were mainly in the form of nitrate (NO3-) at above concerned three <span class="hlt">temperature</span> levels, and nitrogen concentrations in the forms of TN, TIN, and NO3- were increased with the increase of nutrient input. At the LT and MT levels, there was a series of good cubic curve relationships between <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and three N forms (TN, NO3- and NH4+). The <span class="hlt">temperatural</span> inflexion <span class="hlt">change</span> points in the curves were nearly at 7 °C and 14 °C, respectively. However, no significant relationship between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and any water quality parameter was observed at the HT level. The significant relationship of TIN to TN, NO3- to TN and NH4+ to dissolve oxygen (DO) was exist in three <span class="hlt">temperature</span> portions, and TP to Chemical oxygen demand (COD, determined by potassium permanganate oxidation methods) in LT and MT, TP to pH or DO in HT also exist. COD were less than 6 mg L-1 at each <span class="hlt">temperature</span> level, and pH values were the largest in HT than it in LT or MT. Thus, <span class="hlt">changes</span> between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and water quality parameters (TN, NO3-, NH4+ and TP) obviously nearly in 7 °C or 14 °C in lakes show that water self-purification of natural small shallow lakes were obviously with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changed</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Biofeedback+AND+anxiety&pg=2&id=EJ1072455','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Biofeedback+AND+anxiety&pg=2&id=EJ1072455"><span id="translatedtitle">Do <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Tympanic <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Predict <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Affective Valence during High-Intensity Exercise?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Legrand, Fabien D.; Joly, Philippe M.; Bertucci, William M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: Increased core (brain or body) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> that accompanies exercise has been posited to play an influential role in affective responses to exercise. However, findings in support of this hypothesis have been equivocal, and most of the performed studies have been done in relation to anxiety. The aim of the present study was to investigate…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7034E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7034E"><span id="translatedtitle">Can an influence of <span class="hlt">changing</span> aerosol emissions be detected in the pattern of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> between 1970 and 2000?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ekman, Annica; Anna, Lewinschal; Hamish, Struthers</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Since the 1970's, there has been a rapid <span class="hlt">change</span> in the magnitude and spatial distribution of anthropogenic aerosol particle and precursor emissions in the world with a significant decrease over e.g. Europe and North America and a substantial increase over large parts of Asia. During the same time period, there has been a significant increase in global greenhouse gas concentrations. In the present study, the global climate model CAM-Oslo is used to examine if the shift in aerosol emissions between 1970 and present day results in a clear fingerprint in the modeled atmospheric circulation, precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> patterns. CAM-Oslo includes a comprehensive module of the atmospheric aerosol cycle as well as descriptions of the direct and indirect effects of aerosol particles on radiation, cloud reflectivity and precipitation. We also examine if the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response pattern differs when aerosol effects are considered separately or simultaneously with a <span class="hlt">change</span> in greenhouse gas concentration. To evaluate the simulations, we make use of observations and re-analysis data of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, precipitation and 300 hPa geopotential. We investigate if the modeled results correspond better or worse with the observations when aerosol and greenhouse effects are included or excluded. For a few selected regions, we also examine more closely the underlying processes that determine the surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly pattern and if the importance of different processes <span class="hlt">change</span> when greenhouse effects and aerosol effects are considered separately or simultaneously.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMGC21A0152B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFMGC21A0152B"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection and Attribution of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the mountainous western United States.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bonfils, C.; Santer, B. D.; Pierce, D. W.; Bala, G.; Barnett, T. P.; Hidalgo, H. G.; Wood, A. W.; Dettinger, M.; Cayan, D. R.; Mirin, A.; Das, T.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Under climate <span class="hlt">change</span>, one of the major challenges that water managers face in the western United States is adequately meeting the water demand while minimizing the flood risk. It has been shown that, in the second half of the 20th century, winters and springs have warmed, the partition of precipitations has <span class="hlt">changed</span>, the snow pack melts earlier and that the timing of streamflows has shifted towards the winter. A better understanding of the primary causes of these <span class="hlt">changes</span> are crucial to reliably project future water availability. Hydrological <span class="hlt">changes</span> can be driven by <span class="hlt">temperature</span> or by precipitation <span class="hlt">changes</span>, or a combination of the two. In this study, which is part of a more integrated analysis focusing on the detection and attribution of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the hydrological cycle, we raise the following questions: What are the causes of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the mountainous regions in the second half of the 20th century? Can we verify whether the observed earlier melting of snow is driven by human-induced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>, rather than by <span class="hlt">changes</span> in precipitation or natural internal climate variability? To address these questions, we conduct a detection and attribution analysis based on daily minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variables that are more relevant to a potential shift in snowmelt (number of frost days and number of degree-days below 0C). We find that natural internal climate variability alone cannot explain the increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the reduction of frost days and the decline in degree-days below 0C. External forcings agents such as the solar variability and volcanic eruptions cannot explain those <span class="hlt">changes</span> either. Instead, we find a positive detection when the influence of anthropogenic greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols effects are included in the climate forcings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4127258','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4127258"><span id="translatedtitle">Characteristics of Wind Velocity and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> Near an Escarpment-Shaped Road Embankment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, Young-Moon; You, Ki-Pyo; You, Jang-Youl</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Artificial structures such as embankments built during the construction of highways influence the surrounding airflow. Various types of damage can occur due to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the wind velocity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> around highway embankments. However, no study has accurately measured micrometeorological <span class="hlt">changes</span> (wind velocity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) due to embankments. This study conducted a wind tunnel test and field measurement to identify <span class="hlt">changes</span> in wind velocity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> before and after the construction of embankments around roads. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in wind velocity around an embankment after its construction were found to be influenced by the surrounding wind velocity, wind angle, and the level difference and distance from the embankment. When the level difference from the embankment was large and the distance was up to 3H, the degree of wind velocity declines was found to be large. In <span class="hlt">changes</span> in reference wind velocities around the embankment, wind velocity increases were not proportional to the rate at which wind velocities declined. The construction of the embankment influenced surrounding <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The degree of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> was large in locations with large level differences from the embankment at daybreak and during evening hours when wind velocity <span class="hlt">changes</span> were small. PMID:25136681</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25136681','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25136681"><span id="translatedtitle">Characteristics of wind velocity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> near an escarpment-shaped road embankment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Young-Moon; You, Ki-Pyo; You, Jang-Youl</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Artificial structures such as embankments built during the construction of highways influence the surrounding airflow. Various types of damage can occur due to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the wind velocity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> around highway embankments. However, no study has accurately measured micrometeorological <span class="hlt">changes</span> (wind velocity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) due to embankments. This study conducted a wind tunnel test and field measurement to identify <span class="hlt">changes</span> in wind velocity and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> before and after the construction of embankments around roads. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in wind velocity around an embankment after its construction were found to be influenced by the surrounding wind velocity, wind angle, and the level difference and distance from the embankment. When the level difference from the embankment was large and the distance was up to 3H, the degree of wind velocity declines was found to be large. In <span class="hlt">changes</span> in reference wind velocities around the embankment, wind velocity increases were not proportional to the rate at which wind velocities declined. The construction of the embankment influenced surrounding <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The degree of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> was large in locations with large level differences from the embankment at daybreak and during evening hours when wind velocity <span class="hlt">changes</span> were small. PMID:25136681</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710637G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710637G"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Changing</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response turned boreal forest from carbon sink into carbon source</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grelle, Achim; Hadden, David</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>19 years of flux measurements reveal that a boreal forest in northern Sweden has turned from a carbon sink into a carbon source. A consistent annual uptake of about 4 tonnes CO2 per hectare turned into annual emissions of the same magnitude within a few years. While biomass increment and gross CO2 uptake remained unchanged, gross respiration has increased, mainly during the autumn periods. This increasingly reduced the annual number of days with net CO2 uptake. No significant trend towards higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> could be observed during the measurement period. However, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> responses of ecosystem respiration have <span class="hlt">changed</span> with time, leading to higher respiration rates in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range between 0 °C and 5 °C, which is the most common range during spring and autumn. Consequently, respiration fluxes under those <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions have increased, both in spring and - even more - in autumn. Thus the <span class="hlt">change</span> of the carbon balance is not directly caused by climate warming, as stated in other studies, but by <span class="hlt">changes</span> in ecosystem functioning. The reasons for the rapid <span class="hlt">change</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response are still unknown and may be sought in <span class="hlt">changes</span> of litterfall and dead wood distribution, <span class="hlt">changes</span> in fungi- and microbial communities, or hydrological <span class="hlt">changes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012Icar..218..807G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012Icar..218..807G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Diurnal physical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at Sinus Iridum area retrieved from observations of Chinese <span class="hlt">Chang'E</span>-1 microwave radiometer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gong, Xiaohui; Jin, Ya-Qiu</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>According to the incidence and azimuth angles of the Sun during observations of Chinese <span class="hlt">Chang'E</span>-1 (CE-1) lunar satellite, brightness <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (Tb) at different lunar local time observed by the CE-1 multi-channel radiometers, especially at the Sinus Iridum (i.e. Bay of Rainbow) area, are collected from the transformation between the principal and local coordinates at the observed site, which demonstrates the Tb distribution and its diurnal variation. Based on a three-layer radiative transfer model of the lunar media, the CE-1 Tb data at 19.35 and 37.0 GHz channels are applied to invert the physical <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of both the dust and the regolith layer at Sinus Iridum area, where might be the CE-3 landing site, at different lunar local times. The physical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations with the lunar local time and other geophysical parameters of lunar layered media are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3364605','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3364605"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing <span class="hlt">Danger</span>: What Judges Need To Know</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nichols-Hadeed, Corey; Cerulli, Catherine; Kaukeinen, Kimberly; Rhodes, Karin V.; Campbell, Jacquelyn</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Every day, judges are faced with decisions regarding intimate partner violence (IPV) victims' requests for protection orders, custody arrangements, and visitation schedules. To make informed decisions, judges must understand victims' risk for future violence. This mixed method study explores the extent to which protection order petitions (n=169) communicate victims' current <span class="hlt">danger</span> and future risk of violence. Methods included interviews coupled with an archival review of court petitions. Findings suggest judges are inadequately prepared to render decisions to improve victim safety in the absence of standardized risk assessments. The <span class="hlt">Danger</span> Assessment provides an evidence-based solution to routinize intake interviews with victims petitioning the court. PMID:22661908</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1990Prir....8...34K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1990Prir....8...34K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Principles of estimation of Radiative <span class="hlt">danger</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Korogodin, V. I.</p> <p>1990-08-01</p> <p>The main principles of the estimation of Radiative <span class="hlt">danger</span> has been discussed. Two main particularities of the <span class="hlt">danger</span> were pointed out: negatve consequencies of small doses, which does not lead to radiation sickness, but lead to disfunctions of sanguine organs and thin intestines; absolute estimation of biological anomalies, which was forwarded by A.D. Sakharov (1921-1989). The ethic aspects of the use of Nuclear weapons on the fate of Human civilization were pointed out by A.D. Sakharov (1921-1990).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26567776','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26567776"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> driven <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the diet preference of omnivorous copepods: no more meat when it's hot?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boersma, Maarten; Mathew, K Avarachen; Niehoff, Barbara; Schoo, Katherina L; Franco-Santos, Rita M; Meunier, Cédric L</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Herbivory is more prevalent in the tropics than at higher latitudes. If differences in ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are the direct cause for this phenomenon, then the same pattern should be visible in a seasonal gradient, as well as in experiments manipulating <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Using (15)N stable isotope analyses of natural populations of the copepod Temora longicornis we indeed observed seasonal differences in the trophic level of the copepod and a decrease in trophic level with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In a grazing experiment, with a mixed diet of the cryptophyte Rhodomonas salina and the heterotrophic dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina, T. longicornis preferred the cryptophyte at higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, whereas at lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> it preferred the non-autotrophic prey. We explain these results by the higher relative carbon content of primary producers compared to consumers, in combination with the higher demand for metabolic carbon at higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Thus, currently increasing <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> may cause <span class="hlt">changes</span> in dietary preferences of many consumers. PMID:26567776</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18..170L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18..170L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">First approach to the relationship between recent landscape <span class="hlt">changes</span> and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends in Spanish mainland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lopez Escolano, Carlos; Peña-Angulo, Dhais; Salinas-Solé, Celia; Pueyo Campos, Angel; Brunetti, Miquele; Gonzalez-Hidalgo, Jose Carlos</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The recent analyses of monthly and seasonal Spanish mainland <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (1951-2010) at high spatial resolution using the MOTEDAS dataset shown that the monthly mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values of maximum (Tmax) have risen mostly in late winter/early spring and the summer months, while the monthly mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of minimum (Tmin) values have increased in summer, spring and autumn in southern areas. Consequently, a north-south gradient in diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR) has been detected in summer months, with positive trends in the north and negative trends in the south, and negative pattern was found in the southeast in spring and autumn. During the same period, the Spanish mainland has suffered dramatic <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the landscape related to urban and industrial sprawl, transportation infrastructures development, or the extension of irrigated areas for intensive agriculture. Those <span class="hlt">changes</span> would be consistent with factors that affect Tmin, which are conditioned by the nature of the surfaces. In this research, we present the first approach to the relationship of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trend and landscapes <span class="hlt">changes</span> at high spatial resolution in the Spanish mainland. Thus, we have compared the spatial distribution of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trend with <span class="hlt">changes</span> in accessibility index and population potential simultaneously, and its spatial redistribution as indicator of landscape <span class="hlt">changes</span>. The significance of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends was evaluated by Mann-Kendal test, and its intensity by Seńs estimator. A mix model of population potential and accessibility index weighted by route factor has been used to assess landscape <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Crosstab analysis was applied to identify the association between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends and accessibility <span class="hlt">changes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2217S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.2217S"><span id="translatedtitle">Fire <span class="hlt">Danger</span> Estimation in Siberia Using SMOS Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shvetsov, Eugene</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>One of the most important tasks of fire monitoring is to forecast the conditions that determine the possibility of occurrence and spread of fire in forests. Weather fire <span class="hlt">danger</span> assessment is mainly based on the analysis of the meteorological parameters recorded by weather stations. The main drawback of such a method for the fire <span class="hlt">danger</span> assessment is an absence of regular network of weather stations. This situation takes place, for example, in Siberia. The area of possible interpolation of weather stations data is generally up to 30 km. The analysis of the existing network of weather stations shows that there should be an interpolation in the zone up to 100 - 150 km between weather stations which restricts the correctness of weather fire <span class="hlt">danger</span> distribution maps for the forest zone of Siberia. The area of research associated with the development of methodologies for the forest fire <span class="hlt">danger</span> assessment remains urgent today. To solve this problem it is necessary to perform a geospatial analysis of fire distribution and distribution of forest fuel moisture which can only be done with the involvement of satellite monitoring. This can provide the necessary spatial coverage and frequency of data updates. Over the past 30 years the technical means of remote sensing and methods of land cover moisture measurement were developed. In 2009 the SMOS spacecraft was launched by the European Space Agency, equipped with microwave radiometer operating at the frequency of 1.4 GHz. Moisture is restored based on the angular dependence of the brightness of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> measured by spacecraft (Level 1C product). Geospatial analysis of the relationship between occurrence of fires, burned areas as well as fire radiative power during the fire season and land cover moisture measured by SMOS was performed. Daily updated database of forest fires detected using MODIS radiometer over the fire seasons of 2010 - 2012 as well as the land cover moisture data obtained from SMOS measurements were used in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4654076','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4654076"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Body <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> in Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury by Digital Infrared Thermographic Imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Song, Yun-Gyu; Won, Yu Hui; Park, Sung-Hee; Ko, Myoung-Hwan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective To investigate <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and body surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in patients with incomplete spinal cord injuries (SCI). In incomplete SCI, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> is difficult to see compared with complete spinal cord injuries. The goal of this study was to better understand thermal regulation in patients with incomplete SCI. Methods Fifty-six SCI patients were enrolled, and the control group consisted of 20 healthy persons. The spinal cord injuries were classified according to International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury. The patients were classified into two groups: upper (neurological injury level T6 or above) and lower (neurological injury level T7 or below) SCIs. Body core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was measured using an oral thermometer, and body surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was measured using digital infrared thermographic imaging. Results Twenty-nine patients had upper spinal cord injuries, 27 patients had lower SCIs, and 20 persons served as the normal healthy persons. Comparing the skin <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of the three groups, the <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at the lower abdomen, anterior thigh and anterior tibia in the patients with upper SCIs were lower than those of the normal healthy persons and the patients with lower SCIs. No significant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> differences were observed between the normal healthy persons and the patients with lower SCIs. Conclusion In our study, we found thermal dysregulation in patients with incomplete SCI. In particular, body surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regulation was worse in upper SCIs than in lower injuries. Moreover, cord injury severity affected body surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regulation in SCI patients. PMID:26605167</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900054417&hterms=atmospheric+carbon+dioxide&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Datmospheric%2Bcarbon%2Bdioxide','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900054417&hterms=atmospheric+carbon+dioxide&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Datmospheric%2Bcarbon%2Bdioxide"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of the equilibrium surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of a GCM to systematic <span class="hlt">changes</span> in atmospheric carbon dioxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Oglesby, Robert J.; Saltzman, Barry</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The equilibrium response of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to atmospheric CO2 concentration, for six values between 100 and 1000 ppm, is calculated from a series of GCM experiments. This response is nonlinear, showing greater sensitivity for lower values of CO2 than for the higher values. It is suggested that <span class="hlt">changes</span> in CO2 concentration of a given magnitude (e.g., 100 ppm) played a larger role in the Pleistocene ice-age-type <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations than in causing global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> due to anthropogenic increases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012916','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012916"><span id="translatedtitle">PERMEABILITY <span class="hlt">CHANGES</span> IN CRYSTALLINE ROCKS DUE TO <span class="hlt">TEMPERATURE</span>: EFFECTS OF MINERAL ASSEMBLAGE.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Morrow, C.A.; Moore, Diane E.; Byerlee, J.D.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">change</span> in permeability with time of granite, quartzite, anorthosite and gabbro was measured while these rocks were subjected to a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient. Permeability reductions of up to two orders of magnitude were observed, with the greatest reactions occurring in the quartzite. These <span class="hlt">changes</span> are thought to be caused by dissolution of minerals at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, and redeposition of the dissolved material at lower <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Quartz appears to be an important mineral in this self-sealing process. If very low permeability is desired around a nuclear waste repository in crystalline rocks, then a quartz-rich rock may be the most appropriate host.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4744897','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4744897"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitive Indicators of Zonal Stipa Species to <span class="hlt">Changing</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation in Inner Mongolia Grassland, China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lv, Xiaomin; Zhou, Guangsheng; Wang, Yuhui; Song, Xiliang</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> often induces shifts in plant functional traits. However, knowledge related to sensitivity of different functional traits and sensitive indicator representing plant growth under hydrothermal <span class="hlt">change</span> remains unclear. Inner Mongolia grassland is predicted to be one of the terrestrial ecosystems which are most vulnerable to climate <span class="hlt">change</span>. In this study, we analyzed the response of four zonal Stipa species (S. baicalensis, S. grandis, S. breviflora, and S. bungeana) from Inner Mongolia grassland to <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (control, increased 1.5, 2, 4, and 6°C), precipitation (decreased 30 and 15%, control, increased 15 and 30%) and their combined effects via climate control chambers. The relative <span class="hlt">change</span> of functional traits in the unit of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">change</span> was regarded as sensitivity coefficient and sensitive indicators were examined by pathway analysis. We found that sensitivity of the four Stipa species to <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation could be ranked as follows: S. bungeana > S. grandis > S. breviflora > S. baicalensis. In particular, <span class="hlt">changes</span> in leaf area, specific leaf area and root/shoot ratio could account for 86% of the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in plant biomass in the four Stipa species. Also these three measurements were more sensitive to hydrothermal <span class="hlt">changes</span> than the other functional traits. These three functional indicators reflected the combination of plant production capacity (leaf area), adaptive strategy (root/shoot ratio), instantaneous environmental effects (specific leaf area), and cumulative environmental effects (leaf area and root/shoot ratio). Thus, leaf area, specific leaf area and root/shoot ratio were chosen as sensitive indicators in response to <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation for Stipa species. These results could provide the basis for predicting the influence of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on Inner Mongolia grassland based on the magnitude of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in sensitive indicators. PMID:26904048</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817475L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817475L"><span id="translatedtitle">Classification of land-sea shifts in tropical precipitation using <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lambert, Hugo; Ferraro, Angus; Chadwick, Robin</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Changes</span> in tropical precipitation under climate <span class="hlt">change</span> are dominated by shifts in precipitating features. Previous work has shown that meridional <span class="hlt">change</span> is driven primiarily by the hemispheric contrast of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and radiative forcing. What drives zonal <span class="hlt">changes</span> is less clear, but important to understand because large shifts of precipitation onto and away from land have the potential to cause large <span class="hlt">changes</span> in water availability. We present a simple compositing scheme based on earlier mean field theory that places climatological precipitation amounts into bins determined by surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity. When <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and humidity <span class="hlt">change</span> under climate <span class="hlt">change</span>, shifts in precipitation are predicted as the location of the warmest and moistest regions <span class="hlt">changes</span>. The prediction is successful in representing <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the CMIP5 model mean and large aspects of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in most of the individual CMIP5 models. Once the shifts are accounted for, we can more easily see how the result of well-known "thermodynamic" and "dynamic" <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the atmosphere lead to the "rich-get-richer" paradigm wherein the most heavily precipitating bins increase their precipitation the most in a warmer climate. We emphasise that our method is a classification and not a prognostic theory: it shows us the extent to which <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, moisture and precipitation <span class="hlt">change</span> are linked. However, it is important not only because it demonstrates that these variables may represent a coupled problem, but also intriguingly, because there is a small group of models for which the method has no skill at all. This suggests that very different processes dominate shifts in precipitation there, giving a focus for future research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=298247','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=298247"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> and Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae): Impacts of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and carbon dioxide on life history</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> is relevant to life around the globe. A rise in ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and CO2 may have various impacts on arthropods such as altered life cycles, modified reproductive patterns, and <span class="hlt">changes</span> in distribution. The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), is a global agricultural...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9360K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.9360K"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrological sensitivity and global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> to greenhouse gases and aerosols in CESM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kvalevag, M. M.; Samset, B. H.; Myhre, G.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>We present a set of climate model experiments using the NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM1.03) to investigate the relationship between precipitation <span class="hlt">changes</span> and surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> for several forcing mechanisms. The model simulations include forcing mechanisms since preindustrial times causing either warming or cooling, in order to study the energy budget at different levels (surface, atmosphere and top of atmosphere), <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">change</span>. On a short timescale the precipitation <span class="hlt">changes</span> are due to atmospheric instability and reduced convection caused by the presence of a forcing mechanism in the atmosphere. On longer timescale it is the adjusted surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> that drive the <span class="hlt">changes</span>. In particular we look at the precipitation response from black carbon and study the model sensitivity to absorbing aerosols by introducing black carbon at different altitudes in the model. Our results are similar to earlier studies regarding greenhouse gases and sulphate aerosols, but extend previous results on black carbon aerosols. We introduce BC aerosols in different altitudes and look at how sensitive the precipitation <span class="hlt">changes</span> are due to the placement of a warming forcing agent in the atmosphere. We find that while the surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response of a column of BC is positive, it is composed of a warming component at low altitudes and a cooling component at higher altitudes. The precipitation response of a <span class="hlt">change</span> in BC concentration is however always negative.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3720H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3720H"><span id="translatedtitle">Examining the interaction between land use <span class="hlt">change</span>, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes and land-atmosphere interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hirsch, Annette L.; Pitman, Andy J.; Kala, Jatin; Lorenz, Ruth; Donat, Markus G.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Using the Weather and Research Forecasting Model, we examine the combined impact of land-atmosphere coupling and land use <span class="hlt">change</span> (LUC) on simulated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes. The sensitivity of the impact of LUC on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes to the choice of planetary boundary layer (PBL) and cumulus parameterization schemes are also evaluated to examine whether the impact of LUC on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes is dependent on the atmospheric model physics and if this impact is modulated by <span class="hlt">changes</span> in land-atmosphere coupling. A decomposition of the surface energy balance is used to examine the different responses to LUC. Results show a consistent weakening in the soil moisture-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> coupling strength with LUC irrespective of the atmospheric model physics tested here. In contrast, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes show an asymmetric response to LUC dependent on the choice of PBL scheme, which is linked to differences in the parameterization of vertical transport. This influences convective precipitation, contributing a positive feedback on soil moisture and consequently on the partitioning of the surface turbulent fluxes. The results suggest that the impact of LUC on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes depends on the land-atmosphere coupling that in turn depends on the choice of PBL. Indeed, the sign of the <span class="hlt">change</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes due to LUC can be <span class="hlt">changed</span> simply by altering the choice of PBL schemes examined here.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040121523&hterms=distribution+plant&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Ddistribution%2Bplant','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040121523&hterms=distribution+plant&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Ddistribution%2Bplant"><span id="translatedtitle">A dynamic model for plant growth: validation study under <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wann, M.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A dynamic simulation model to describe vegetative growth of plants, for which some functions and parameter values have been estimated previously by optimization search techniques and numerical experimentation based on data from constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> experiments, is validated under conditions of <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. To test the predictive capacity of the model, dry matter accumulation in the leaves, stems, and roots of tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L.) was measured at 2- or 3-day intervals during a 5-week period when <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in controlled-environment rooms were programmed for <span class="hlt">changes</span> at weekly and daily intervals and in ascending or descending sequences within a range of 14 to 34 degrees C. Simulations of dry matter accumulation and distribution were carried out using the programmed <span class="hlt">changes</span> for experimental <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and compared with the measured values. The agreement between measured and predicted values was close and indicates that the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent functional forms derived from constant-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> experiments are adequate for modelling plant growth responses to conditions of <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with switching intervals as short as 1 day.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740022348','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740022348"><span id="translatedtitle">Correlation of hippocampal theta rhythm with <span class="hlt">changes</span> in cutaneous <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. [evoked neuron response in thermoregulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Horowitz, J. M.; Saleh, M. A.; Karem, R. D.</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>A possible role for the hippocampus in alerting an animal to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in cutaneous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was examined. Following local warming or cooling of the ears of unanesthetized, loosely restrained rabbits, theta waves (4-7 Hz EEG waves) were recorded from electrodes straddling the hippocampus. The onset of the hippocampal theta rhythm was correlated with <span class="hlt">changes</span> in cutaneous <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, an observation consistent with studies indicating that the theta rhythm is a nonspecific response evoked by stimulation of several sensory modalities. Additional data from cats and rabbits were correlated with specific neurons within the hippocampus, namely pyramidal cells. Post stimulus time histograms obtained by excitation of the dorsal fornix were interpreted in terms of excitatory and inhibitory inputs to pyramidal cells. Thus, the theta rhythm, which appears to be evoked by <span class="hlt">changes</span> in cutaneous <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, can be related to a specific type of hippocampal neuron which is in turn connected with other areas of the brain involved in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> regulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.122..619A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ThApC.122..619A"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the North-Western Italian Alps from 1961 to 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Acquaotta, Fiorella; Fratianni, Simona; Garzena, Diego</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to identify any possible <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> within the last 50 years in the North-Western Italian Alps by examining data from 16 high-altitude weather stations in the period 1961-2010. The daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series were collected, digitized and subjected to a historical research to individuate discontinuities and retrieve metadata. We also carried out the data quality control and the homogenization which allowed the climatic indices trend detection. The analysis of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values showed an increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, particularly at high-altitudes sites. In fact, the stations located above 1600 m asl revealed a rise in <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and a decrease in the number of cold periods. For the maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, greater increases in spring and winter have been observed, for minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the summer. These trends confirm that climate <span class="hlt">change</span> is occurring in an environment particularly sensitive to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>, especially during the season of snow accumulation and vegetative growth. These results may be important for policy makers to define the best adaptation strategies in order to protect one of the most sensitive environments such as mountains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23449589','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23449589"><span id="translatedtitle">Synchronous <span class="hlt">change</span> of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the last deglacial warming.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Parrenin, F; Masson-Delmotte, V; Köhler, P; Raynaud, D; Paillard, D; Schwander, J; Barbante, C; Landais, A; Wegner, A; Jouzel, J</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Understanding the role of atmospheric CO2 during past climate <span class="hlt">changes</span> requires clear knowledge of how it varies in time relative to <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Antarctic ice cores preserve highly resolved records of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the past 800,000 years. Here we propose a revised relative age scale for the concentration of atmospheric CO2 and Antarctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the last deglacial warming, using data from five Antarctic ice cores. We infer the phasing between CO2 concentration and Antarctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at four times when their trends <span class="hlt">change</span> abruptly. We find no significant asynchrony between them, indicating that Antarctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> did not begin to rise hundreds of years before the concentration of atmospheric CO2, as has been suggested by earlier studies. PMID:23449589</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1440...72A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AIPC.1440...72A"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal stresses in the wall of pipes caused by periodic <span class="hlt">change</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of medium fluid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Atefi, Gholamali; Mahmoudi, Hamid</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>The problem of thermal stresses induced in pipes due to periodic <span class="hlt">change</span> of medium fluid <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has never been considered completely. In this paper an analytical solution for obtaining thermal stresses in a pipe caused by periodic time varying of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of medium fluid is offered. Transient heat conduction equation in cylindrical coordinates for a long hollow cylinder under periodic <span class="hlt">change</span> of ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> condition is solved analytically using Fourier series and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> distribution in the wall of pipe as a function of time and radial direction is specified. Then resulting thermal stresses are obtained using thermoelasticity relations. Because of the use of Fourier series expansion in obtaining the transient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> field the proposed method is very comprehensive and covers many theoretical and practical problems. The results for thermal stresses have been compared with former works and show excellent agreement for the same conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhDT.......414K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004PhDT.......414K"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Changing</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and Precipitation Extremes in Europe's Climate of the 20th Century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Klein Tank, Albertus Maria Gerardus</p> <p>2004-10-01</p> <p>This thesis aims at increasing the knowledge on past <span class="hlt">changes</span> in extremes through the analysis of historical records of observations at meteorological stations. The key question addressed is: How did the extremes of daily surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">change</span> in Europe's climate of the 20th century, and what can we learn from this? The contents is structured along the lines of four follow-up questions: Are the available observational datasets adequate to analyse extremes? Which trends are observed for the daily extremes of surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation? Can the observed <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes in recent decades be regarded as a fingerprint of anthropogenic climate <span class="hlt">change</span>? Do the observed <span class="hlt">changes</span> guide the development of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scenarios for our future climate? Europe is one of the regions of the world that lacked a readily available and accessible dataset of high-resolution observational series with sufficient density and quality to study extremes. Such a dataset was developed for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation and used to detect statistically significant and non-trivial <span class="hlt">changes</span> in extremes. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends indicate a coarsening of our climate and the precipitation trends indicate an increase of wet extremes. The calculated trends represent <span class="hlt">changes</span> that can be due to natural internal processes within the climate system and/or external forcing, which can either be natural (solar irradiance, volcanic aerosols, ozone, etc.) or anthropogenic (greenhouse gases, etc.). Comparisons between the trend patterns of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes in the station records, the patterns associated with natural variability in the observations, and the patterns of future warming and natural variability as simulated by a climate model reveal fingerprints of anthropogenic warming over Europe. The last part of this thesis goes beyond the observations of the climate of the past and speculates on future <span class="hlt">changes</span> in extremes. It presents a 'what- if scenario</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10704767','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10704767"><span id="translatedtitle">Menstrual <span class="hlt">changes</span> in sleep, rectal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and melatonin rhythms in a subject with premenstrual syndrome.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shinohara, K; Uchiyama, M; Okawa, M; Saito, K; Kawaguchi, M; Funabashi, T; Kimura, F</p> <p>2000-03-10</p> <p>We studied a sighted woman with premenstrual syndrome who showed menstrual <span class="hlt">changes</span> in circadian rhythms. She showed alternative phase shifts in the sleep rhythm in the menstrual cycle: progressive phase advances in the follicular phase and phase delays in the luteal phase. Rectal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rhythm also showed similar menstrual <span class="hlt">changes</span>, but the phase advance and delay started a few days earlier than <span class="hlt">changes</span> in sleep-wake rhythm so that the two rhythms were dissociated around ovulation and menstruation. These results suggest that her circadian rhythms in sleep and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are under the control of ovarian steroid hormones and that these two rhythms have different sensitivity to the hormones. PMID:10704767</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC41B0548K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC41B0548K"><span id="translatedtitle">People as sensors: mass media and local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> influence climate <span class="hlt">change</span> discussion on Twitter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kirilenko, A.; Molodtsova, T.; Stepchenkova, S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We examined whether people living under significant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies connect their sensory experiences to climate <span class="hlt">change</span> and the role that media plays in this process. We used Twitter messages containing words "climate <span class="hlt">change</span>" and "global warming" as the indicator of attention that public pays to the issue. Specifically, the goals were: (1) to investigate whether people immediately notice significant local weather anomalies and connect them to climate <span class="hlt">change</span> and (2) to examine the role of mass media in this process. Over 2 million tweets were collected for a two-year period (2012 - 2013) and were assigned to 157 urban areas in the continental USA (Figure 1). Geographical locations of the tweets were identified with a geolocation resolving algorithm based the profile of the users. Daily number of tweets (tweeting rate) was computed for 157 conterminous USA urban areas and adjusted for data acquisition errors. The USHCN daily minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were obtained for the station locations closest to the centers of the urban areas and the 1981-2010 30-year <span class="hlt">temperature</span> mean and standard deviation were used as the climate normals. For the analysis, we computed the following indices for each day of 2012 - 2013 period: standardized <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly, absolute standardized <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomaly, and extreme cold and hot <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies for each urban zone. The extreme cold and hot <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies were then transformed into country-level values that represent the number of people living in extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions. The rate of tweeting on climate <span class="hlt">change</span> was regressed on the time variables, number of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> publications in the mass media, and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In the majority of regression models, the mass media and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variables were significant at the p<0.001 level. Additionally, we did not find convincing evidence that the media acts as a mediator in the relationship between local weather and climate <span class="hlt">change</span> discourse intensity</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014QSRv..106..262B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014QSRv..106..262B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">To what extent did <span class="hlt">changes</span> in July <span class="hlt">temperature</span> influence Lateglacial vegetation patterns in NW Europe?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Birks, Hilary H.; Birks, H. John B.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>What was the impact of July <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> on vegetation patterns during the Lateglacial period in north-west Europe? Chironomid-inferred mean July air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimates (C-Tjul) are proxy <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records independent of terrestrial vegetation. The relationships between Lateglacial vegetation inferred from pollen percentages and these <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimates are explored using data synthesised geographically from 15 sites where both pollen percentages and C-Tjul are published to assess the influence of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> on regional vegetation. Direct impacts of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on a species involve passing the range limits or realised niche of that species. The Bølling warming allowed vegetation to develop. The Younger Dryas cooling had direct impacts on species and vegetation types that were at a critical ecotone and thus sensitive to <span class="hlt">change</span>. Precipitation is extremely important and its interaction with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> controlled most of the vegetation patterns inferred from these NW European pollen data. High precipitation was important in W Norway, whereas aridity in the YD was a controlling factor in N Norway, the Netherlands, and NE Germany. Under constant climate, ecological processes occurred such as immigration, succession, and soil development that resulted in vegetation <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Biotic interactions were also important, such as the impact of grazing by mega-herbivores during Allerød time in Ireland that may have restricted the development of birch woodland. At the coarse scale of this synthesis, July <span class="hlt">temperature</span> alone is seen not to be a good predictor of the patterns of pollen percentages and hence of vegetation through the Lateglacial. Rather, it is the interactions of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation, combined with ecological processes that appear to be the major factors influencing Lateglacial palynological and vegetation patterns in NW Europe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRD..11521107W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JGRD..11521107W"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Changes</span> in the relationship between Northeast China summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and ENSO</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Renguang; Yang, Song; Liu, Shi; Sun, Li; Lian, Yi; Gao, Zongting</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>Northeast China (NEC) summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> tends to be lower (higher) than normal in El Niño (La Niña) developing years during 1950s through mid-1970s. The relationship between the NEC summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is weakened or even becomes opposite in 1980s and 1990s. The present study documents this interdecadal <span class="hlt">change</span> and investigates plausible reasons for this <span class="hlt">change</span>. Before the late 1970s, ENSO affects the NEC summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> through modulating the South Asian heating and consequently the midlatitude Asian circulation. After the late 1970s, the connection between ENSO and the Indian summer monsoon and that between the South Asian heating and the midlatitude Asian circulation have been weakened. This leads to a weakening of ENSO impacts on the NEC summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. It is found that the NEC summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variations are closely related to the North Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) and circulation <span class="hlt">changes</span> in 1980s and 1990s. In particular, a tripole North Atlantic SST anomaly pattern in boreal spring is a good precursory for the NEC summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies. The NEC summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> displays a negative correlation with the summer SST surrounding the Maritime Continent in 1980s and 1990s. In many years, the tropical North Pacific and the North Atlantic SST anomalies can contribute in concert to the midlatitude Asian circulation <span class="hlt">changes</span> and the NEC summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies. These effects overcome those of the central and eastern equatorial Pacific SST anomalies, leading to a same-sign relationship between the NEC summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and the central and eastern equatorial Pacific SST anomalies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFM.H31H0741D&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFM.H31H0741D&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Shasta Dam operations to regulate <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for Chinook salmon under extreme climate and climate <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dai, A.; Saito, L.; Sapin, J. R.; Rajagopalan, B.; Hanna, R. B.; Kauneckis, D. L.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Chinook salmon populations have declined significantly after the construction of Shasta Dam on the Sacramento River in 1945 prevented them from spawning in the cold waters upstream. In 1994, the winter-run Chinook were listed under the Endangered Species Act and 3 years later the US Bureau of Reclamation began operating a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control device (TCD) on the dam that allows for selective withdrawal for downstream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> control to promote salmon spawning while also maximizing power generation. However, dam operators are responsible to other interests that depend on the reservoir for water such as agriculture, municipalities, industry, and recreation. An increase in <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> due to climate <span class="hlt">change</span> may place additional strain on the ability of dam operations to maintain spawning habitat for salmon downstream of the dam. We examined the capability of Shasta Dam to regulate downstream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> under extreme climates and climate <span class="hlt">change</span> by using stochastically generated streamflow, stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and weather inputs with a two-dimensional CE-QUAL-W2 model under several operational options. Operation performance was evaluated using degree days and cold pool volume (volume of water below a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> threshold). Model results indicated that a generalized operations release schedule, in which release elevations varied over the year to match downstream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> targets, performed best overall in meeting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> targets while preserving cold pool volume. Releasing all water out the bottom throughout the year tended to meet <span class="hlt">temperature</span> targets at the expense of depleting the cold pool, and releasing all water out uppermost gates preserved the cold pool, but released water that was too warm during the critical spawning period. With higher air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> due to climate <span class="hlt">change</span>, both degree day and cold pool volume metrics were worse than baseline conditions, which suggests that Chinook salmon may be more negatively affected under climate <span class="hlt">change</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H21P..05M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.H21P..05M"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> impacts on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of recharge water in a temporate climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Murdock, E. A.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Groundwater outflows into headwater streams play an important role in controlling local stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and maintaining habitat for cool and cold water fisheries. Because of the ecological and economic importance of these fisheries, there is significant concern about the impacts of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on these habitats. Many studies of stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> under climate <span class="hlt">change</span> assume that groundwater outflows will vary with long-term mean air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, perhaps with a temporal lag to account for the relatively slow rate of heat diffusion through soils. This assumption, however, ignores the fact that climate <span class="hlt">change</span> will also impact the temporal patterns of recharge in some regions. In Southern Wisconsin, much of the annual recharge comes from the spring snowmelt event, as a large amount of meltwater is released onto saturated soils with little to no active transpiration. Using the Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) model populated with climate date from the North American Regional Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> Assessment Program (NARCCAP), we show that the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of water passing below the rooting zone in a simulated corn planting in Southern Wisconsin will <span class="hlt">change</span> significantly less than the air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by midcentury. This finding highlights the importance of understanding the variability of heat flow mechanisms in the subsurface while assessing climate <span class="hlt">change</span> impacts on surface water resources. In landscapes such as Wisconsin's driftless area, where deep aquifers feed numerous localized headwater streams, meltwater-driven recharge may provide a buffer against rising air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for some time into the future. Fully understanding this dynamic will allow for targeted conservation efforts in those streams that are likely to show higher than average resilience to rising <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, but which remain vulnerable to development, stormwater runoff, agricultural pollution and other ecological threats. In a world with dwindling coldwater resources, identifying and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Immanuel+AND+Kant&pg=3&id=EJ250383','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Immanuel+AND+Kant&pg=3&id=EJ250383"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Dangers</span> of Aestheticism in Schooling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Meager, Ruby</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Prompted by Immanuel Kant's analysis of the nature and operations of the imagination in his "Critique of the Aesthetical Judgment," this article points out the <span class="hlt">danger</span> of encouraging imagination-borne aesthetical judgments and explanatory hypotheses. Concludes that understanding requires submission to more stringent standards of objectivity and to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title29-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title29-vol5-sec1903-13.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title29-vol5/pdf/CFR-2010-title29-vol5-sec1903-13.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR 1903.13 - Imminent <span class="hlt">danger</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Safety and Health Officer concludes on the basis of an inspection that conditions or practices exist in... informed of such <span class="hlt">danger</span> by the Compliance Safety and Health Officer, the employer immediately...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Prostitution&pg=4&id=EJ966955','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Prostitution&pg=4&id=EJ966955"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Danger</span> and the Decision to Offend</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McCarthy, Bill; Hagan, John</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Humiliation; incarceration; stigma; loss of income, freedom, and respect: most research on offending emphasizes these sanctions. Yet classical theorists recognized other costs including physical harm. We revive this abandoned insight, arguing that <span class="hlt">danger</span>--the possibility of pain--figures largely in people's decisions to offend. Although modern…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=playpen&id=EJ356822','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=playpen&id=EJ356822"><span id="translatedtitle">Decreasing <span class="hlt">Dangerous</span> Infant Behaviors through Parent Instruction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Mathews, Judith R.; And Others</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Four young mothers with one-year-old infants were successfully taught to reduce their children's potential for injury in the home through interventions which included increasing positive interactions with the infant, child-proofing the home, using playpen time-out for potentially <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> behaviors, and giving positive attention for safe…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26062275','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26062275"><span id="translatedtitle">Ebola: a very <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> viral haemorrhagic fever.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scully, Crispian</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Ebola is a highly <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> infectious disease seen mainly in West Africa or travellers from there. All healthcare workers should check the recent travel history of their patients and follow formal guidance issued. Clinical Relevance: This article discusses the relevance of the Ebola virus in dentistry. PMID:26062275</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title29-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title29-vol5-sec1903-13.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title29-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title29-vol5-sec1903-13.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">29 CFR 1903.13 - Imminent <span class="hlt">danger</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Safety and Health Officer concludes on the basis of an inspection that conditions or practices exist in... informed of such <span class="hlt">danger</span> by the Compliance Safety and Health Officer, the employer immediately...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JEMat..45.1309M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JEMat..45.1309M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic Performance of Maximum Power Point Trackers in TEG Systems Under Rapidly <span class="hlt">Changing</span> <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Man, E. A.; Sera, D.; Mathe, L.; Schaltz, E.; Rosendahl, L.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Characterization of thermoelectric generators (TEG) is widely discussed and equipment has been built that can perform such analysis. One method is often used to perform such characterization: constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with variable thermal power input. Maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods for TEG systems are mostly tested under steady-state conditions for different constant input <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. However, for most TEG applications, the input <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient <span class="hlt">changes</span>, exposing the MPPT to variable tracking conditions. An example is the exhaust pipe on hybrid vehicles, for which, because of the intermittent operation of the internal combustion engine, the TEG and its MPPT controller are exposed to a cyclic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile. Furthermore, there are no guidelines on how fast the MPPT must be under such dynamic conditions. In the work discussed in this paper, <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients for TEG integrated in several applications were evaluated; the results showed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variation up to 5°C/s for TEG systems. Electrical characterization of a calcium-manganese oxide TEG was performed at steady-state for different input <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and a maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 401°C. By using electrical data from characterization of the oxide module, a solar array simulator was emulated to perform as a TEG. A trapezoidal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profile with different gradients was used on the TEG simulator to evaluate the dynamic MPPT efficiency. It is known that the perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm may have difficulty accurately tracking under rapidly <span class="hlt">changing</span> conditions. To solve this problem, a compromise must be found between the magnitude of the increment and the sampling frequency of the control algorithm. The standard P&O performance was evaluated experimentally by using different <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients for different MPPT sampling frequencies, and efficiency values are provided for all cases. The results showed that a tracking speed of 2.5 Hz can be successfully implemented on a TEG</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24312614','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24312614"><span id="translatedtitle">Millennial-scale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocity in the continental northern Neotropics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Correa-Metrio, Alexander; Bush, Mark; Lozano-García, Socorro; Sosa-Nájera, Susana</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Climate has been inherently linked to global diversity patterns, and yet no empirical data are available to put modern climate <span class="hlt">change</span> into a millennial-scale context. High tropical species diversity has been linked to slow rates of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> during the Quaternary, an assumption that lacks an empirical foundation. Thus, there is the need for quantifying the velocity at which the bioclimatic space <span class="hlt">changed</span> during the Quaternary in the tropics. Here we present rates of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> for the late Pleistocene and Holocene from Mexico and Guatemala. An extensive modern pollen survey and fossil pollen data from two long sedimentary records (30,000 and 86,000 years for highlands and lowlands, respectively) were used to estimate past <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Derived <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles show a parallel long-term trend and a similar cooling during the Last Glacial Maximum in the Guatemalan lowlands and the Mexican highlands. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> estimates and digital elevation models were used to calculate the velocity of isotherm displacement (<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocity) for the time period contained in each record. Our analyses showed that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocities in Mesoamerica during the late Quaternary were at least four times slower than values reported for the last 50 years, but also at least twice as fast as those obtained from recent models. Our data demonstrate that, given extremely high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocities, species survival must have relied on either microrefugial populations or persistence of suppressed individuals. Contrary to the usual expectation of stable climates being associated with high diversity, our results suggest that Quaternary tropical diversity was probably maintained by centennial-scale oscillatory climatic variability that forestalled competitive exclusion. As humans have simplified modern landscapes, thereby removing potential microrefugia, and climate <span class="hlt">change</span> is occurring monotonically at a very high velocity, extinction risk for tropical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3846729','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3846729"><span id="translatedtitle">Millennial-Scale <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> Velocity in the Continental Northern Neotropics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Correa-Metrio, Alexander; Bush, Mark; Lozano-García, Socorro; Sosa-Nájera, Susana</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Climate has been inherently linked to global diversity patterns, and yet no empirical data are available to put modern climate <span class="hlt">change</span> into a millennial-scale context. High tropical species diversity has been linked to slow rates of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> during the Quaternary, an assumption that lacks an empirical foundation. Thus, there is the need for quantifying the velocity at which the bioclimatic space <span class="hlt">changed</span> during the Quaternary in the tropics. Here we present rates of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> for the late Pleistocene and Holocene from Mexico and Guatemala. An extensive modern pollen survey and fossil pollen data from two long sedimentary records (30,000 and 86,000 years for highlands and lowlands, respectively) were used to estimate past <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Derived <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles show a parallel long-term trend and a similar cooling during the Last Glacial Maximum in the Guatemalan lowlands and the Mexican highlands. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> estimates and digital elevation models were used to calculate the velocity of isotherm displacement (<span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocity) for the time period contained in each record. Our analyses showed that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocities in Mesoamerica during the late Quaternary were at least four times slower than values reported for the last 50 years, but also at least twice as fast as those obtained from recent models. Our data demonstrate that, given extremely high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> velocities, species survival must have relied on either microrefugial populations or persistence of suppressed individuals. Contrary to the usual expectation of stable climates being associated with high diversity, our results suggest that Quaternary tropical diversity was probably maintained by centennial-scale oscillatory climatic variability that forestalled competitive exclusion. As humans have simplified modern landscapes, thereby removing potential microrefugia, and climate <span class="hlt">change</span> is occurring monotonically at a very high velocity, extinction risk for tropical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610086S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1610086S"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition to simultaneous <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sierra, Carlos; Trumbore, Susan; Davidson, Eric; Vicca, Sara; Janssens, Ivan</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Soil organic matter decomposition depends on multiple factors that are being altered simultaneously as a result of global environmental <span class="hlt">change</span>. For this reason it is important to study the overall sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition with respect to multiple and interacting drivers. Here we present an analysis of the potential response of decomposition rates to simultaneous <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture. To address this problem, we first present a theoretical framework to study the sensitivity of soil organic matter decomposition when multiple driving factors <span class="hlt">change</span> simultaneously. We then apply this framework to models and data at different levels of abstraction: 1) to a mechanistic model that addresses the limitation of enzyme activity by simultaneous effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and soil water content, the latter controlling substrate supply and oxygen concentration for microbial activity; 2) to different mathematical functions used to represent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture effects on decomposition in biogeochemical models. To contrast model predictions at these two levels of organization, we compiled different datasets of observed responses in field and laboratory studies. Then we applied our conceptual framework to: 3) observations of soil respiration at the ecosystem level; 4) laboratory experiments looking at the response of heterotrophic respiration to independent <span class="hlt">changes</span> in moisture and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>; and 5) ecosystem-level experiments manipulating soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and water content simultaneously. The combined theoretical and empirical evidence reviewed suggests: first, large uncertainties still remain regarding the combined controls of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture on decomposition rates, particularly at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and the extremes of the soil moisture range; second, the highest sensitivities of decomposition rates are likely in systems where <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture are high such as tropical peatlands, and at <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> near the freezing point</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033722','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033722"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> responses to land-use <span class="hlt">change</span> in the western United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kueppers, L.M.; Snyder, M.A.; Sloan, L.C.; Cayan, D.; Jin, J.; Kanamaru, H.; Kanamitsu, M.; Miller, N.L.; Tyree, Mary; Du, H.; Weare, B.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>In the western United States, more than 79 000??km2 has been converted to irrigated agriculture and urban areas. These <span class="hlt">changes</span> have the potential to alter surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> by modifying the energy budget at the land-atmosphere interface. This study reports the seasonally varying <span class="hlt">temperature</span> responses of four regional climate models (RCMs) - RSM, RegCM3, MM5-CLM3, and DRCM - to conversion of potential natural vegetation to modern land-cover and land-use over a 1-year period. Three of the RCMs supplemented soil moisture, producing large decreases in the August mean (- 1.4 to - 3.1????C) and maximum (- 2.9 to - 6.1????C) 2-m air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> where natural vegetation was converted to irrigated agriculture. Conversion to irrigated agriculture also resulted in large increases in relative humidity (9% to 36% absolute <span class="hlt">change</span>). Modeled <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the August minimum 2-m air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were not as pronounced or consistent across the models. Converting natural vegetation to urban land-cover produced less pronounced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects in all models, with the magnitude of the effect dependent upon the preexisting vegetation type and urban parameterizations. Overall, the RCM results indicate that the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> impacts of land-use <span class="hlt">change</span> are most pronounced during the summer months, when surface heating is strongest and differences in surface soil moisture between irrigated land and natural vegetation are largest. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24679977','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24679977"><span id="translatedtitle">Fitness costs associated with different frequencies and magnitudes of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Franke, Kristin; Heitmann, Nadja; Tobner, Anne; Fischer, Klaus</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Plastic responses to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in environmental conditions are ubiquitous and typically highly effective, but are predicted to incur costs. We here investigate the effects of different frequencies and magnitudes of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in the tropical butterfly Bicyclus anynana, considering developmental (Experiment 1) and adult stage plasticity (Experiment 2). We predicted negative effects of more frequent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> on development, immune function and/or reproduction. Results from Experiment 1 showed that repeated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> during development, if involving large amplitudes, negatively affect larval time, larval growth rate and pupal mass, while adult traits remained unaffected. However, results from treatment groups with smaller <span class="hlt">temperature</span> amplitudes yielded no clear patterns. In Experiment 2 prolonged but not repeated exposure to 39°C increased heat tolerance, potentially reflecting costs of repeatedly activating emergency responses. At the same time fecundity was more strongly reduced in the group with prolonged heat stress, suggesting a trade-off between heat tolerance and reproduction. Clear effects were restricted to conditions involving large <span class="hlt">temperature</span> amplitudes or high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. PMID:24679977</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24550714','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24550714"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> of pulp chamber during in vitro laser welding of orthodontic attachments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Işman, Eren; Okşayan, Rıdvan; Sökücü, Oral; Üşümez, Serdar</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The use of lasers has been suggested for orthodontists to fabricate or repair orthodontic appliances by welding metals directly in the mouth. This work aimed to evaluate the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the pulp chamber during welding of an orthodontic wire to an orthodontic molar band using Nd : YAG laser in vitro. A freshly extracted human third molar with eliminated pulpal tissues was used. J-type thermocouple wire was positioned in the pulp chamber. A conductor gel was used in the transferring of outside <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> to the thermocouple wire. An orthodontic band was applied to the molar tooth and bonded using light cured orthodontic cement. Twenty five mm length of 0.6 mm diameter orthodontic stainless steel wires was welded to the orthodontic band using Nd : YAG laser operated at 9.4 watt. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> variation was determined as the <span class="hlt">change</span> from baseline <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to the highest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was recorded during welding. The recorded <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> were between 1.8 and 6.8°C (mean: 3.3±1.1°C). The reported critical 5.5°C level was exceeded in only one sample. The results of this study suggest that intraoral use of lasers holds great potential for the future of orthodontics and does not present a thermal risk. Further studies with larger samples and structural analysis are required. PMID:24550714</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3914460','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3914460"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Changes</span> of Pulp Chamber during In Vitro Laser Welding of Orthodontic Attachments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>İşman, Eren; Okşayan, Rıdvan; Sökücü, Oral; Üşümez, Serdar</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The use of lasers has been suggested for orthodontists to fabricate or repair orthodontic appliances by welding metals directly in the mouth. This work aimed to evaluate the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the pulp chamber during welding of an orthodontic wire to an orthodontic molar band using Nd : YAG laser in vitro. A freshly extracted human third molar with eliminated pulpal tissues was used. J-type thermocouple wire was positioned in the pulp chamber. A conductor gel was used in the transferring of outside <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> to the thermocouple wire. An orthodontic band was applied to the molar tooth and bonded using light cured orthodontic cement. Twenty five mm length of 0.6 mm diameter orthodontic stainless steel wires was welded to the orthodontic band using Nd : YAG laser operated at 9.4 watt. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> variation was determined as the <span class="hlt">change</span> from baseline <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to the highest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was recorded during welding. The recorded <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> were between 1.8 and 6.8°C (mean: 3.3 ± 1.1°C). The reported critical 5.5°C level was exceeded in only one sample. The results of this study suggest that intraoral use of lasers holds great potential for the future of orthodontics and does not present a thermal risk. Further studies with larger samples and structural analysis are required. PMID:24550714</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035357','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70035357"><span id="translatedtitle">A century of climate and ecosystem <span class="hlt">change</span> in Western Montana: What do <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends portend?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Pederson, G.T.; Graumlich, L.J.; Fagre, D.B.; Kipfer, T.; Muhlfeld, C.C.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The physical science linking human-induced increases in greenhouse gasses to the warming of the global climate system is well established, but the implications of this warming for ecosystem processes and services at regional scales is still poorly understood. Thus, the objectives of this work were to: (1) describe rates of <span class="hlt">change</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> averages and extremes for western Montana, a region containing sensitive resources and ecosystems, (2) investigate associations between Montana <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> to hemispheric and global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, (3) provide climate analysis tools for land and resource managers responsible for researching and maintaining renewable resources, habitat, and threatened/endangered species and (4) integrate our findings into a more general assessment of climate impacts on ecosystem processes and services over the past century. Over 100 years of daily and monthly <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data collected in western Montana, USA are analyzed for long-term <span class="hlt">changes</span> in seasonal averages and daily extremes. In particular, variability and trends in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> above or below ecologically and socially meaningful thresholds within this region (e.g., -17.8??C (0??F), 0??C (32??F), and 32.2??C (90??F)) are assessed. The daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series reveal extremely cold days (??? -17.8??C) terminate on average 20 days earlier and decline in number, whereas extremely hot days (???32??C) show a three-fold increase in number and a 24-day increase in seasonal window during which they occur. Results show that regionally important thresholds have been exceeded, the most recent of which include the timing and number of the 0??C freeze/thaw <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> during spring and fall. Finally, we close with a discussion on the implications for Montana's ecosystems. Special attention is given to critical processes that respond non-linearly as <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> exceed critical thresholds, and have positive feedbacks that amplify the <span class="hlt">changes</span>. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6902772','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6902772"><span id="translatedtitle">Minimal <span class="hlt">changes</span> in hypothalamic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> accompany microwave-induced alteration of thermoregulatory behavior</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Adair, E.R.; Adams, B.W.; Akel, G.M.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>This study probed the mechanisms underlying microwave-induced alterations of thermoregulatory behavior. Adult male squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), trained to regulate the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of their immediate environment (Ta) behaviorally, were chronically implanted with Teflon reentrant tubes in the medical preoptic/anterior hypothalamic area (PO/AH), the brainstem region considered to control normal thermoregulatory processes. A Vitek <span class="hlt">temperature</span> probe inserted into the tube measured PO/AH <span class="hlt">temperature</span> continuously while <span class="hlt">changes</span> in thermoregulatory behavior were induced by either brief (10-min) or prolonged (2.5-h) unilateral exposures to planewave 2,450-MHz continuous wave (CW) microwaves (E polarization). Power densities explored ranged from 4 to 20 mW/cm2 (rate of energy absorption (SAR) . 0.05 (W/kg)/cm2)). Rectal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and four representative skin <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were also monitored, as was the Ta selected by the animal. When the power density was high enough to induce a monkey to select a cooler Ta (8 mW/cm2 and above), PO/AH <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rose approximately 0.3 degrees C but seldom more. Lower power densities usually produced smaller increases in PO/AH <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and no reliable <span class="hlt">change</span> in thermoregulatory behavior. Rectal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> remained constant while PO/AH <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rose only 0.2-0.3 degrees C during 2.5-h exposures at 20 mW/cm2 because the Ta selected was 2-3 degrees C cooler than normally preferred. Sometimes PO/AH <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increments greater than 0.3 degrees C were recorded, but they always accompanied inadequate thermoregulatory behavior. Thus, a PO/AH <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise of 0.2-0.3 degrees C, accompanying microwave exposure, appears to be necessary and sufficient to alter thermoregulatory behavior, which ensures in turn that no greater <span class="hlt">temperature</span> excursions occur in this hypothalamic thermoregulatory center.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998IJCli..18.1419S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998IJCli..18.1419S"><span id="translatedtitle">Downscaling local extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in south-eastern Australia from the CSIRO Mark2 GCM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schubert, Sascha</p> <p>1998-11-01</p> <p>Climate impact studies crucially rely on climate <span class="hlt">change</span> information at high spatial and temporal resolutions. Since the most developed tools for estimating future climate <span class="hlt">change</span> - the general circulation models (GCMs) - still operate on rather coarse spatial scales, their output has to be downscaled in order to provide the needed high resolution input for climate impact models.In this study, a perfect prognosis approach is employed to downscale daily local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes at several stations in south-eastern Australia from synoptic scale atmospheric circulation fields. The statistical model combines principal component analysis and linear multiple regression and is suitable to explain a considerable part of both short and long frequency variations of local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes. Using simulated and observed daily data the regional to local performance of the Mark2 GCM, developed by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), was validated over the Australian region. While the regional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes simulated under present-day climate conditions are in general agreement with the observed climate, there are highly significant differences on the local scale. The observed daily synoptic scale atmospheric circulation, however, is well reproduced by the GCM. This supports the idea of using these reliably simulated climatic parameters to estimate the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes under altered global climate conditions.The downscaling model was applied to synoptic scale atmospheric circulation fields generated by the CSIRO Mark2 GCM under 1×CO2 and 2×CO2 conditions. Compared to the extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> simulated by the GCM directly, the downscaled variations are much weaker. Several sources of uncertainty might be causing these differences. Firstly, the statistical model is stationary. Therefore, it is not capable of including <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the relationships between circulation and local <span class="hlt">temperature</span> which are likely</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26323334','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26323334"><span id="translatedtitle">Proteomic <span class="hlt">changes</span> in rice leaves grown under open field high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress conditions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Das, Smruti; Krishnan, P; Mishra, Vagish; Kumar, Ritesh; Ramakrishnan, B; Singh, N K</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>The interactive effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with other climatic and soil factors has profound influences on the growth and development of rice. The responses of rice to high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> under field conditions are more important than those under the controlled conditions. To understand the genes associated with high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress response in general and tolerance in particular, the expression of all those genes associated with adaptation and tolerance in rice requires proteomic analysis. High <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress-tolerant cv. N22 was subjected to 28/18 °C (control) and 42/32 °C (high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress) at flowering stage. The plants were grown in the field under the free air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increment condition. The proteomic <span class="hlt">changes</span> in rice leaves due to high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress were discussed. The proteomes of leaves had about 3000 protein spots, reproducibly detected on 2-dimensional electrophoretic gels with 573 proteins differentially expressed between the control and the high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatments. Putative physiological functions suggested five categories such as growth (15.4%), heat shock proteins (7.7%), regulatory proteins (26.9%), redox homeostasis proteins (11.5%) and energy and metabolism (38.5%) related proteins. The results of the present study suggest that cv. N22, an agronomically recognized <span class="hlt">temperature</span> tolerant rice cultivar copes with high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress in a complex manner. Several functional proteins play important roles in its responses. The predicted climate <span class="hlt">change</span> events necessitate more studies using this cultivar under different simulated ecological conditions to identify proteomic <span class="hlt">changes</span> and the associated genes to be used as biomarkers and to gain a better understanding on the biochemical pathways involved in tolerance. PMID:26323334</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20432090','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20432090"><span id="translatedtitle">Cooling vests with phase <span class="hlt">change</span> material packs: the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient, mass and covering area.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gao, Chuansi; Kuklane, Kalev; Holmer, Ingvar</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>Phase <span class="hlt">change</span> material (PCM) absorbs or releases latent heat when it <span class="hlt">changes</span> phases, making thermal-regulated clothing possible. The objective of this study was to quantify the relationships between PCM cooling rate and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient, mass and covering area on a thermal manikin in a climatic chamber. Three melting <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (24, 28, 32 degrees C) of the PCMs, different mass, covering areas and two manikin <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (34 and 38 degrees C) were used. The results showed that the cooling rate of the PCM vests tested is positively correlated with the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient between the thermal manikin and the melting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the PCMs. The required <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient is suggested to be greater than 6 degrees C when PCM vests are used in hot climates. With the same <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient, the cooling rate is mainly determined by the covering area. The duration of the cooling effect is dependent on PCM mass and the latent heat. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The study of factors affecting the cooling rate of personal cooling equipment incorporated with PCM helps to understand cooling mechanisms. The results suggest climatic conditions, the required <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient, PCM mass and covering area should be taken into account when choosing personal PCM cooling equipment. PMID:20432090</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23903375','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23903375"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Dangers</span> and opportunities for social media in medicine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>George, Daniel R; Rovniak, Liza S; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Health professionals have begun using social media to benefit patients, enhance professional networks, and advance understanding of individual and contextual factors influencing public health. However, discussion of the <span class="hlt">dangers</span> of these technologies in medicine has overwhelmed consideration of positive applications. This article summarizes the hazards of social media in medicine and explores how <span class="hlt">changes</span> in functionality on sites like Facebook may make these technologies less perilous for health professionals. Finally, it describes the most promising avenues through which professionals can use social media in medicine-improving patient communication, enhancing professional development, and contributing to public health research and service. PMID:23903375</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10176177','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10176177"><span id="translatedtitle">Hanford facility <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> waste permit application, 616 Nonradioactive <span class="hlt">Dangerous</span> Waste Storage Facility. Revision 2A</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bowman, R.C.</p> <p>1994-04-01</p> <p>This permit application for the 616 Nonradioactive <span class="hlt">Dangerous</span> Waste Storage Facility consists for 15 chapters. Topics of discussion include the following: facility description and general provisions; waste characteristics; process information; personnel training; reporting and record keeping; and certification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24588355','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24588355"><span id="translatedtitle">Is red the colour of <span class="hlt">danger</span>? Testing an implicit red-<span class="hlt">danger</span> association.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pravossoudovitch, Karyn; Cury, Francois; Young, Steve G; Elliot, Andrew J</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Research using participant's self-reports has documented a link between red and <span class="hlt">danger</span>. In this research, we used two different variants of a Stroop word evaluation task to test for the possibility of an implicit red-<span class="hlt">danger</span> association using carefully controlled colour stimuli (equated on lightness and chroma). Experiment 1, using words as stimuli, yielded strong evidence of a link between red and <span class="hlt">danger</span>, and weaker evidence of a green-safety association. Experiment 2, using symbols as stimuli, again yielded strong evidence of a link between red and <span class="hlt">danger</span>; no green effects were observed. The findings were discussed in terms of the power and promise of red in signal communication. PMID:24588355</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43..812D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeoRL..43..812D"><span id="translatedtitle">Midlatitude daily summer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> reshaped by soil moisture under climate <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Douville, H.; Colin, J.; Krug, E.; Cattiaux, J.; Thao, S.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Projected <span class="hlt">changes</span> in daily <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are highly model dependent, particularly in the summer midlatitudes where the spread in the response of heat waves represents a major obstacle for the design of adaptation strategies. Understanding the main reasons for such uncertainties is obviously a research priority. Here we use a set of global atmospheric simulations to assess the contribution of the soil moisture feedback to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the full distribution of daily maximum summer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> projected in the late 21st century. Results show that this feedback (i) accounts for up to one third of the mean increase in daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, (ii) dominates <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the shape of the distribution, and (iii) explains about half of the increase in the severity of heat waves over densely populated areas of the northern midlatitudes. A dedicated intercomparison project is therefore needed to assess and constrain land surface feedbacks in the new generation Earth System Models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26046269','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26046269"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and beverage on mechanical and tribological properties of dental restorative composites.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ayatollahi, M R; Yahya, Mohd Yazid; Karimzadeh, A; Nikkhooyifar, M; Ayob, Amran</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and immersion in two common beverages on the mechanical and tribological properties for three different types of dental restorative materials. Thermocycling procedure was performed for simulating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in oral conditions. Black tea and soft drink were considered for beverages. Universal composite, universal nanohybrid composite and universal nanofilled composite, were used as dental materials. The nanoindentation and nanoscratch experiments were utilized to determine the elastic modulus, hardness, plasticity index and wear resistance of the test specimens. The results showed that thermocycling and immersion in each beverage had different effects on the tested dental materials. The mechanical and tribological properties of nanohybrid composite and nanocomposite were less sensitive to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and to immersion in beverages in comparison with those of the conventional dental composite. PMID:26046269</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.5115T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JGRD..121.5115T"><span id="translatedtitle">Reassessing <span class="hlt">changes</span> in diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range: A new data set and characterization of data biases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thorne, P. W.; Menne, M. J.; Williams, C. N.; Rennie, J. J.; Lawrimore, J. H.; Vose, R. S.; Peterson, T. C.; Durre, I.; Davy, R.; Esau, I.; Klein-Tank, A. M. G.; Merlone, A.</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>It has been a decade since <span class="hlt">changes</span> in diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range (DTR) globally have been assessed in a stand-alone data analysis. The present study takes advantage of substantively improved basic data holdings arising from the International Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Initiative's databank effort and applies the National Centers for Environmental Information's automated pairwise homogeneity assessment algorithm to reassess DTR records. It is found that breakpoints are more prevalent in DTR than other <span class="hlt">temperature</span> elements and that the resulting adjustments have a broader distribution. This strongly implies that there is an overarching tendency, across the global meteorological networks, for nonclimatic artifacts to impart either random or anticorrelated rather than correlated biases in maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> series. Future homogenization efforts would likely benefit from simultaneous consideration of DTR and maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, in addition to average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Estimates of <span class="hlt">change</span> in DTR are relatively insensitive to whether adjustments are calculated directly or inferred from adjustments returned for the maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> series. The homogenized series exhibit a reduction in DTR since the midtwentieth century globally (-0.044 K/decade). Adjustments serve to approximately halve the long-term global reduction in DTR in the basic "raw" data. Most of the estimated DTR reduction occurred over 1960-1980. In several regions DTR has apparently increased over 1979-2012, while globally it has exhibited very little <span class="hlt">change</span> (-0.016 K/decade). Estimated <span class="hlt">changes</span> in DTR are an order of magnitude smaller than in maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, which have both been increasing rapidly on multidecadal timescales (0.186 K/decade and 0.236 K/decade, respectively, since the midtwentieth century).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018765','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018765"><span id="translatedtitle">Large arctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> at the Wisconsin-Holocene glacial transition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cuffey, Kurt M.; Clow, G.D.; Alley, R.B.; Stuiver, M.; Waddington, E.D.; Saltus, R.W.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Analysis of borehole <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and Greenland Ice Sheet Project II ice-core isotopic composition reveals that the warming from average glacial conditions to the Holocene in central Greenland was large, approximately 15??C. This is at least three times the coincident <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in the tropics and mid-latitudes. The coldest periods of the last glacial were probably 21??C colder than at present over the Greenland ice sheet.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999RvGeo..37..173J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999RvGeo..37..173J"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and its <span class="hlt">changes</span> over the past 150 years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jones, P. D.; New, M.; Parker, D. E.; Martin, S.; Rigor, I. G.</p> <p>1999-05-01</p> <p>We review the surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record of the past 150 years, considering the homogeneity of the basic data and the standard errors of estimation of the average hemispheric and global estimates. We present global fields of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> over the two 20-year periods of greatest warming this century, 1925-1944 and 1978-1997. Over these periods, global <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> rose by 0.37° and 0.32°C, respectively. The twentieth-century warming has been accompanied by a decrease in those areas of the world affected by exceptionally cool <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and to a lesser extent by increases in areas affected by exceptionally warm <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. In recent decades there have been much greater increases in night minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> than in day maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, so that over 1950-1993 the diurnal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range has decreased by 0.08°C per decade. We discuss the recent divergence of surface and satellite <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements of the lower troposphere and consider the last 150 years in the context of the last millennium. We then provide a globally complete absolute surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> climatology on a 1° × 1° grid. This is primarily based on data for 1961-1990. Extensive interpolation had to be undertaken over both polar regions and in a few other regions where basic data are scarce, but we believe the climatology is the most consistent and reliable of absolute surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions over the world. The climatology indicates that the annual average surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the world is 14.0°C (14.6°C in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and 13.4°C for the Southern Hemisphere). The annual cycle of global mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> follows that of the land-dominated NH, with a maximum in July of 15.9°C and a minimum in January of 12.2°C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFM.B23K0144P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFM.B23K0144P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Response of Soil <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> to Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> in the CMIP5 Earth System Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Phillips, C. L.; Torn, M. S.; Koven, C. D.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Predictions of soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> are as critical to policy development and climate <span class="hlt">change</span> adaptation as predictions of air <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, but have received comparatively little attention. Soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> determines seed germination and growth of wild and agricultural plants, and impacts climate through both geophysical and carbon-cycle feedbacks. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> 5th Assessment Report does not report soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> predictions, but focuses instead on surface air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, despite the fact that mean annual soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and mean surface air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are often different from each other. Here we aim to fill this important knowledge gap by reporting soil <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture predictions for 15 earth system models (ESMs) that participated in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison 5 Project (CMIP5). Under the RCP 4.5 and 8.5 emissions scenarios, soil warming is predicted to almost keep pace with soil air warming, with about 10% less warming in soil than air, globally. The slower warming of soil compared to air is likely related to predictions of soil drying, with drier soils having reduced soil heat capacity and thermal conductivity. Mollisol soils, which are typically regarded as the most productive soil order for cultivating cereal crops, are anticipated to see warming in North America of 3.5 to 5.5 °C at the end of the 21st century (2080-2100) compared to 1986-2005. One impact of soil warming is likely to be an acceleration of germination timing, with the 3°C <span class="hlt">temperature</span> threshold for wheat germination anticipated to advance by several weeks in Mollisol regions. Furthermore, soil warming at 1 m depth is predicted to be almost equivalent to warming at 1 cm depth in frost-free regions, indicating vulnerability of deep soil carbon pools to destabilization. To assess model performance we compare the models' predictions with observations of damping depth, and offsets between mean annual soil and air <span class="hlt">temperature</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..17.3174G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..17.3174G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Kamchatkan Volcanoes Explosive Eruptions in 2014 and <span class="hlt">Danger</span> to Aviation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Girina, Olga; Manevich, Alexander; Melnikov, Dmitry; Demyanchuk, Yury; Nuzhdaev, Anton; Petrova, Elena</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>There are 30 active volcanoes in the Kamchatka, and several of them are continuously active. In 2014, three of the Kamchatkan volcanoes - Sheveluch, Karymsky and Zhupanovsky - had strong and moderate explosive eruptions. Moderate gas-steam activity was observing of Klyuchevskoy, Bezymianny, Avachinsky, Koryaksky, Gorely, Mutnovsky and other volcanoes. Strong explosive eruption of volcanoes is the most <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> for aircraft because in a few hours or days in the atmosphere and the stratosphere can produce about several cubic kilometers of volcanic ash and aerosols. Ash plumes and the clouds, depending on the power of the eruption, the strength and wind speed, can travel thousands of kilometers from the volcano for several days, remaining hazardous to aircraft, as the melting <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of small particles of ash below the operating <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of jet engines. The eruptive activity of Sheveluch Volcano began since 1980 (growth of the lava dome) and is continuing at present. Strong explosive events of the volcano occurred in 2014: on January 08 and 12, May 12, September 24, October 02 and 28, November 16, 22 and 26, and December 05, 17, 26 and 29: ash plumes rose up to 9-12 km a.s.l. and extended more 900 km to the eastern and western directions of the volcano. Ashfalls occurred at Klyuchi Village (on January 12, June 11, and November 16). Activity of the volcano was <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> to international and local aviation. Karymsky volcano has been in a state of explosive eruption since 1996. The moderate ash explosions of this volcano were noting during 2014: from March 24 till April 02; and from September 03 till December 10. Ash plumes rose up to 5 km a.s.l. and extended more 300 km mainly to the eastern directions of the volcano. Activity of the volcano was <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> to local aviation. Explosive eruption of Zhupanovsky volcano began on June 06, 2014 and continues in January 2015 too. Ash explosions rose up to 8-10 km a.s.l. on June 19, September 05 and 07, October 11</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP44A..02M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP44A..02M"><span id="translatedtitle">The structure of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> across mid-latitude North America over the Holocene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marsicek, J.; Brewer, S.; Foster, D. R.; Oswald, W.; Shuman, B. N.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Lake-level, isotope, and fossil pollen data highlight abrupt <span class="hlt">changes</span> during the Holocene in mid-latitude North America, but associated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in this region have not been well constrained. Here we generate a new summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstruction by applying the modern analog technique to a transect of 16 highly-resolved fossil pollen records from North Dakota to Maine. We infer pronounced cooling of ~0.4°C in the regional mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> history at ca. 5.8-5.0 ka coincident with millennial-scale effective-moisture anomalies indicated by aeolian-activity and lake-level <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Individual <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstructions and sub-regional averages reveal that the <span class="hlt">changes</span> span multiple biomes (pollen assemblages) with more pronounced cooling in the west (Minnesota, Iowa) than at sites in the northeastern U.S. (Massachusetts). At 5.0 ka, inferred <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients rapidly shifted in response to warming of >0.7°C at sites from Ontario, New York, and inland Massachusetts, and cooling of 0.2-2.7°C along the northeast coast and west of the Great Lakes. Insolation, the area of the Laurentide Ice sheet, and a record of North Atlantic Deep Water production explain 77% of the variance in the mean reconstruction, and indicate that dynamical linkages between the continent and North Atlantic may underlie the reconstructed abrupt <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Overall, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> inferences highlight the importance of abrupt centennial and millennial-scale <span class="hlt">changes</span> even after the end of major ice-meltwater-ocean interactions at ca. 8.2 ka, and indicate that other external forcing or intrinsic climate variability also shaped mid-latitude Holocene climate history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815805M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815805M"><span id="translatedtitle">Reconstructions of global near-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> since the mid 19th century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morice, Colin; Rayner, Nick; Kennedy, John</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Incomplete and non-uniform global observational coverage is a prominent source of uncertainty in instrumental records of global near-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. In this study statistical methods are applied to the HadCRUT4 near-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data set to obtain improved estimates of global near-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> since the mid 19th century. Methods applied include those that interpolate according to local correlation structure (kriging) and reduced space methods that learn large-scale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> patterns. The performance of each statistical reconstruction method has been benchmarked in application to a subset of CMIP5 simulations. Model fields are sub-sampled and simulated observational errors added to emulate observational data, permitting assessment of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> field reconstruction algorithms in controlled tests in which globally complete <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fields are known. In application to HadCRUT4 data the statistical reconstructions show relatively increased warming in the global average over the 21st century owing to reconstruction of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in high northern latitudes, supporting the findings of Cowtan & Way (2014) and Karl et al. (2015). There is broad agreement between estimates of global and hemispheric <span class="hlt">changes</span> throughout much of the 20th and 21st century. Agreement is reduced in data sparse periods and regions, notably in the 19th century and in the southern hemisphere. This finding is supported by the results of the climate model based benchmarks and highlights the importance of continued data rescue activities, such as those of the International Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Initiative and ACRE. The results of this study will form an addition to the HadCRUT4 global near-surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data set.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713057M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713057M"><span id="translatedtitle">Observed <span class="hlt">changes</span> in seasonal heat waves and warm <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes in the Romanian Carpathians</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Micu, Dana; Birsan, Marius-Victor; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Cheval, Sorin</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Extreme high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have a large impact on environment and human activities, especially in high elevation areas particularly sensitive to the recent climate warming. The climate of the Romanian Carpathians became warmer particularly in winter, spring and summer, exibiting a significant increasing frequency of warm extremes. The paper investigates the seasonal <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the frequency, duration and intensity of heat waves in relation to the shifts in the daily distribution of maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over a 50-year period of meteorological observations (1961-2010). The paper uses the heat wave definition recommended by the Expert Team on Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) and exploits the gridded daily dataset of maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at 0.1° resolution (~10 km) developed in the framework of the CarpatClim project (www.carpatclim.eu). The seasonal <span class="hlt">changes</span> in heat waves behavior were identified using the Mann-Kendall non-parametric trend test. The results suggest an increase in heat wave frequency and a lengthening of intervals affected by warm <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes all over the study region, which are explained by the shifts in the upper (extreme) tail of the daily maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution in most seasons. The trends are consistent across the region and are well correlated to the positive phases of the East Atlantic Oscillation. Our results are in good agreement with the previous <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-related studies concerning the Carpathian region. This study was realized within the framework of the project GENCLIM, financed by UEFISCDI, code PN-II 151/2014.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4297512','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4297512"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrophysiological <span class="hlt">Changes</span> Correlated with <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Increases Induced by High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wu, Z.; Kumon, R. E.; Laughner, J. I.; Efimov, I. R.; Deng, C. X.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>To gain better understanding of the detailed mechanisms of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) ablation for cardiac arrhythmias, we investigated how the cellular electrophysiological (EP) <span class="hlt">changes</span> were correlated with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases and thermal dose (cumulative equivalent minutes [CEM43]) during HIFU application using Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts. Employing voltage-sensitive dye di-4-ANEPPS, we measured the EP and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during HIFU using simultaneous optical mapping and infrared imaging. Both action potential amplitude (APA) and AP duration at 50% repolarization (APD50) decreased with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases, and APD50 was more thermally sensitive than APA. EP and tissue <span class="hlt">changes</span> were irreversible when HIFU-induced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased above 52.3 ± 1.4 °C and log10(CEM43) above 2.16 ± 0.51 (n = 5), but were reversible when <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was below 50.1 ± 0.8 °C and log10(CEM43) below −0.9 ± 0.3 (n = 9). EP and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>/thermal dose <span class="hlt">changes</span> were spatially correlated with HIFU induced tissue necrosis surrounded by a transition zone. PMID:25516446</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25828407','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25828407"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulating the effect of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Trout Lake Watershed, Wisconsin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Selbig, William R</p> <p>2015-07-15</p> <p>The potential for increases in stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> across many spatial and temporal scales as a result of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> can pose a difficult challenge for environmental managers, especially when addressing thermal requirements for sensitive aquatic species. This study evaluates simulated <span class="hlt">changes</span> to the thermal regime of three northern Wisconsin streams in response to a projected <span class="hlt">changing</span> climate using a modeling framework and considers implications of thermal stresses to the fish community. The Stream Network <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Model (SNTEMP) was used in combination with a coupled groundwater and surface water flow model to assess forecasts in climate from six global circulation models and three emission scenarios. Model results suggest that annual average stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> will steadily increase approximately 1.1 to 3.2°C (varying by stream) by the year 2100 with differences in magnitude between emission scenarios. Daily mean stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the months of July and August, a period when cold-water fish communities are most sensitive, showed excursions from optimal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> with increased frequency compared to current conditions. Projections of daily mean stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, in some cases, were no longer in the range necessary to sustain a cold water fishery. PMID:25828407</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A23F0386M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A23F0386M"><span id="translatedtitle">Can human local activities worsen the rise of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> due to Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mateos, E.; Santana, J.; Deeb, A.; Grünwaldt, A.; Prieto, R.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Several studies have shown a global scale <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise which in consequence, have brought up the need to propose various impact scenarios for this <span class="hlt">change</span> on the planet and its life forms. Climate <span class="hlt">changes</span> have a direct effect on human activities. Particularly these alterations have a negative impact on economy which in turn affects the most vulnerable and marginal population on developing nations. In a recent study based on 30 years climatological observed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in ten Mexican watersheds, from the period between 1970 and 1999, positive trend on maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were found in all watersheds. At each watershed at least 10 climatological stations from the net operated by the National Meteorological Service (Servicio Meterologico Nacional), whose data are maintained in the CLICOM database (Computerized Climate database), were selected. The climatological stations have at least 70% valid data per decade. In eight watersheds a maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trend oscillates between +0.5 to +1 oC every 30 years with a 95% confidence level. Nonetheless, in Rio Bravo and Rio Verde watersheds the tendencies are +1.75 and +2.75 oC over 30 years. The result in these two last watersheds evinces that: 1) there are fragile systems; 2) the human activities have a strong impact in those places, and 3) a principal anthropogenic influence on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise is the <span class="hlt">change</span> in land use. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> rised on Jalostitlan within Rio Verde watershed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26511054','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26511054"><span id="translatedtitle">Geographical variation in species' population responses to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pearce-Higgins, James W; Ockendon, Nancy; Baker, David J; Carr, Jamie; White, Elizabeth C; Almond, Rosamunde E A; Amano, Tatsuya; Bertram, Esther; Bradbury, Richard B; Bradley, Cassie; Butchart, Stuart H M; Doswald, Nathalie; Foden, Wendy; Gill, David J C; Green, Rhys E; Sutherland, William J; Tanner, Edmund V J</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Despite increasing concerns about the vulnerability of species' populations to climate <span class="hlt">change</span>, there has been little overall synthesis of how individual population responses to variation in climate differ between taxa, with trophic level or geographically. To address this, we extracted data from 132 long-term (greater than or equal to 20 years) studies of population responses to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation covering 236 animal and plant species across terrestrial and freshwater habitats. Our results identify likely geographical differences in the effects of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on populations and communities in line with macroecological theory. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> tended to have a greater overall impact on populations than precipitation, although the effects of increased precipitation varied strongly with latitude, being most positive at low latitudes. Population responses to increased <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were generally positive, but did not vary significantly with latitude. Studies reporting significant climatic trends through time tended to show more negative effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and more positive effects of precipitation upon populations than other studies, indicating climate <span class="hlt">change</span> has already impacted many populations. Most studies of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> impacts on biodiversity have focused on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and are from middle to high northern latitudes. Our results suggest their findings may be less applicable to low latitudes. PMID:26511054</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016IJEaS.tmp...69C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016IJEaS.tmp...69C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Attribution of precipitation <span class="hlt">changes</span> on ground-air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> offset: Granger causality analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cermak, Vladimir; Bodri, Louise</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>This work examines the causal relationship between the value of the ground-air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> offset and the precipitation <span class="hlt">changes</span> for monitored 5-min data series together with their hourly and daily averages obtained at the Sporilov Geophysical Observatory (Prague). Shallow subsurface soil <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were monitored under four different land cover types (bare soil, sand, short-cut grass and asphalt). The ground surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (GST) and surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT) offset, ΔT(GST-SAT), is defined as the difference between the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measured at the depth of 2 cm below the surface and the air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measured at 5 cm above the surface. The results of the Granger causality test did not reveal any evidence of Granger causality for precipitation to ground-air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> offsets on the daily scale of aggregation except for the asphalt pavement. On the contrary, a strong evidence of Granger causality for precipitation to the ground-air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> offsets was found on the hourly scale of aggregation for all land cover types except for the sand surface cover. All results are sensitive to the lag choice of the autoregressive model. On the whole, obtained results contain valuable information on the delay time of ΔT(GST-SAT) caused by the rainfall events and confirmed the importance of using autoregressive models to understand the ground-air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> relationship.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1024059','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1024059"><span id="translatedtitle">High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Phase <span class="hlt">Change</span> Materials for Thermal Energy Storage Applications: Preprint</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gomez, J.; Glatzmaier, G. C.; Starace, A.; Turchi, C.; Ortega, J.</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>To store thermal energy, sensible and latent heat storage materials are widely used. Latent heat thermal energy storage (TES) systems using phase <span class="hlt">change</span> materials (PCM) are useful because of their ability to charge and discharge a large amount of heat from a small mass at constant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during a phase transformation. Molten salt PCM candidates for cascaded PCMs were evaluated for the <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> near 320 degrees C, 350 degrees C, and 380 degrees C. These <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were selected to fill the 300 degrees C to 400 degrees C operating range typical for parabolic trough systems, that is, as one might employ in three-PCM cascaded thermal storage. Based on the results, the best candidate for <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> near 320 degrees C was the molten salt KNO3-4.5wt%KCl. For the 350 degrees C and 380 degrees C <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, the evaluated molten salts are not good candidates because of the corrosiveness and the high vapor pressure of the chlorides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JSR....58..113B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JSR....58..113B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the tidal excursion front and surface sediment of a subtropical mudflat in autumn</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Birt, Mekiel J.; Tibbetts, Ian R.</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in sediment and the inundating water of a subtropical mudflat were determined using a series of data-loggers to monitor the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on fine days around the equinox at Lota, Queensland, Australia. On fine days the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the forward shallow (ca. 5 cm) section of an incoming tide is up to 8 °C higher than that of the body of water from which it originates. Stationary data-loggers in the sediment indicate that during the day heat exchange occurred between the sediment and inundating waters, the sediment <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> dropping from up to 10 °C higher than channel waters to <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> approaching that of channel water in as little as 30 min following inundation. The implications for intertidal nekton and benthos are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25179407','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25179407"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> tracking by North Sea benthic invertebrates in response to climate <span class="hlt">change</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hiddink, Jan G; Burrows, Michael T; García Molinos, Jorge</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> is a major threat to biodiversity and distributions shifts are one of the most significant threats to global warming, but the extent to which these shifts keep pace with a <span class="hlt">changing</span> climate is yet uncertain. Understanding the factors governing range shifts is crucial for conservation management to anticipate patterns of biodiversity distribution under future anthropogenic climate <span class="hlt">change</span>. Soft-sediment invertebrates are a key faunal group because of their role in marine biogeochemistry and as a food source for commercial fish species. However, little information exists on their response to climate <span class="hlt">change</span>. Here, we evaluate <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the distribution of 65 North Sea benthic invertebrate species between 1986 and 2000 by examining their geographic, bathymetric and thermal niche shifts and test whether species are tracking their thermal niche as defined by minimum, mean or maximum sea bottom (SBT) and surface (SST) <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> increased in the whole North Sea with many benthic invertebrates showing north-westerly range shifts (leading/trailing edges as well as distribution centroids) and deepening. Nevertheless, distribution shifts for most species (3.8-7.3 km yr(-1) interquantile range) lagged behind shifts in both SBT and SST (mean 8.1 km yr(-1)), resulting in many species experiencing increasing <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The velocity of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> (VoCC) of mean SST accurately predicted both the direction and magnitude of distribution centroid shifts, while maximum SST did the same for contraction of the trailing edge. The VoCC of SBT was not a good predictor of range shifts. No good predictor of expansions of the leading edge was found. Our results show that invertebrates need to shift at different rates and directions to track the climate velocities of different <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measures, and are therefore lagging behind most <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measures. If these species cannot withstand a <span class="hlt">change</span> in thermal habitat, this could ultimately lead to a drop in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1150550','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1150550"><span id="translatedtitle">Rabbit's ear in cold acclimation studied on the <span class="hlt">change</span> in ear <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harada, E; Kanno, T</p> <p>1975-03-01</p> <p>The role of the rabbit's ear in cold acclimation was studied by varying the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of a climatic room in the range from -10 to +30 degrees C; The skin <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in a nonanesthetized rabbit's ear showed a characteristic response to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>; plotting the ear <span class="hlt">temperature</span> against the ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> yielded an S-shaped curve. The mean ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> corresponding to the inflection point on the S-shaped curve shifted significantly from about 13 degrees C to about 8 degrees C after cold acclimated of a group fed for 7 wk at -10 degrees C. The shift of the S-shaped curve after cold acclimation may not be due to the <span class="hlt">change</span> in the norepinephrine sensitivity of the vascular beds of the ear: the effect of norepinephrine on the pressure-flow curve in the isolated rabbit's ear was almost unchanged between the control and the cold-acclimated groups. It is proposed that the shift of the inflection point gives a qualitative index of the acclimated state of the rabbit at a particular <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. PMID:1150550</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020022493&hterms=Climate+change+1980&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DClimate%2Bchange%2B1980','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020022493&hterms=Climate+change+1980&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DClimate%2Bchange%2B1980"><span id="translatedtitle">Inference of Global Mean <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Trend and Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> from MSU and AMSU</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Prabhakara, Cuddapah; Iacovazzi, R. A., Jr.; Yoo, J.-M.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) and Advanced MSU (AMSU) radiometers flown on the NOAA operational satellite series are potentially valuable as global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> monitoring devices. Spencer and Christy pioneered the analysis of mid-tropospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, given by MSU Channel 2 (Ch 2) at 53.74 GHz, to derive the global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trend. Also, in addition to monitoring global <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, these microwave radiometers have the potential to reveal interannual climate signals in tropics. We have analyzed the data of MSU Ch 2 and AMSU Ch 5 (53.6 GHz) from the NOAA operational satellites for the period 1980 to 2000, utilizing the NOAA calibration procedure. The data are corrected for the satellite orbital drift based on the temporal <span class="hlt">changes</span> of the on-board warm blackbody <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. From our analysis, we find that the global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased at a rate of 0.13 +/- 0.05 Kdecade(sup -1) during 1980 to 2000. From an Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis of the MSU global data, we find that the mid-tropospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in middle and high latitudes responds to the ENSO forcing during the Northern Hemisphere Winter in a distinct manner. This mid-latitude response is opposite in phase to that in the tropics. This result is in accord with simulations performed with an ECMWF global spectral model. This study shows a potential use of the satellite observations for climatic <span class="hlt">change</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012SPIE.8553E..21Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012SPIE.8553E..21Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the pulp chamber during dentin ablation with Er:YAG laser</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Xianzeng; Zhao, Haibin; Zhan, Zhenlin; Guo, Wenqing; Xie, Shusen</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>To examine the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the pulp chamber during cavity preparation in dentin with the Er:YAG laser (2940 nm), a total 20 intact premolars teeth were divided into 4 groups for dentin ablation with different radiant exposures at 4Hz and 8Hz with and without water spray. A K-type thermocouple was used to monitor the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in pulp chamber during laser treatment. The total time of irradiation was 70 sec. the water spray rate was 3 mL/min. It showed that maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise increases with the increasing of radiant exposure and pulse repetition rate and the additional water cooling during laser ablation can significantly reduce the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise in pulp chamber which will benefit to avoid or reduce thermal damage to tooth structure and dental pulp. The highest rise of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the pulp was achieved with 20 J/cm2 and 8 Hz (19.83°C ). For all sample without water spray, the rise of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was exceed 5 °C . In contrast, with water spray, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise in the pulp can be firmly controlled under 1°C. The results also indicated that ablation rate and efficiency can be enhanced by increasing the incident radiant exposure and pulse repetition rate, which simultaneously producing more heat accumulation in dental tissue and causing thermal damage to dental tissue. By applying an additional water spray, thermal damage can be significantly reduced in clinical application.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25214466','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25214466"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative neuropeptidomics study of the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in the crab Cancer borealis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Ruibing; Xiao, Mingming; Buchberger, Amanda; Li, Lingjun</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> influence the reaction rates of all biological processes, which can pose dramatic challenges to cold-blooded organisms, and the capability to adapt to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fluctuations is crucial for the survival of these animals. In order to understand the roles that neuropeptides play in the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress response, we employed a mass spectrometry-based approach to investigate the neuropeptide <span class="hlt">changes</span> associated with acute <span class="hlt">temperature</span> elevation in three neural tissues from the Jonah crab Cancer borealis. At high <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, members from two neuropeptide families, including RFamide and RYamide, were observed to be significantly reduced in one of the neuroendocrine structures, the pericardial organ, while several orcokinin peptides were detected to be decreased in another major neuroendocrine organ, the sinus gland. These results implicate that the observed neuropeptides may be involved with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> perturbation response via hormonal regulation. Furthermore, a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress marker peptide with the primary sequence of SFRRMGGKAQ (m/z 1137.7) was detected and de novo sequenced in the circulating fluid (hemolymph) from animals under thermal perturbation. PMID:25214466</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ACPD...1522975G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015ACPD...1522975G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of radiatively forced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in enhanced semi-arid warming over East Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guan, X.; Huang, J.; Guo, R.; Lin, P.; Zhang, Y.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>As the climate <span class="hlt">change</span> occurred over East Asia since 1950s, intense interest and debate have arisen concerning the contribution of human activities to the warming observed in previous decades. In this study, we investigate surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> using a recently developed methodology that can successfully identify and separate the dynamically induced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (DIT) and radiatively forced <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (RFT) <span class="hlt">changes</span> in raw surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT) data. For regional averages, DIT and RFT make 43.7 and 56.3 % contributions to the SAT over East Asia, respectively. The DIT <span class="hlt">changes</span> dominate the SAT decadal variability and are mainly determined by internal climate variability, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO). The radiatively forced SAT <span class="hlt">changes</span> made major contribution to the global-scale warming trend and the regional-scale enhanced semi-arid warming (ESAW). Such enhanced warming is also found in radiatively forced daily maximum and minimum SAT. The long-term global-mean SAT warming trend is mainly related to radiative forcing produced by global well-mixed greenhouse gases. The regional anthropogenic radiative forcing, however, caused the enhanced warming in the semi-arid region, which may be closely associated with local human activities. Finally, the relationship between global warming hiatus and regional enhanced warming is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24671541','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24671541"><span id="translatedtitle">Phase maintenance in a rhythmic motor pattern during <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in vivo.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Soofi, Wafa; Goeritz, Marie L; Kispersky, Tilman J; Prinz, Astrid A; Marder, Eve; Stein, Wolfgang</p> <p>2014-06-15</p> <p>Central-pattern-generating neural circuits function reliably throughout an animal's life, despite constant molecular turnover and environmental perturbations. Fluctuations in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> pose a problem to the nervous systems of poikilotherms because their body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> follows the ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, thus affecting the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent dynamics of various subcellular components that constitute neuronal circuits. In the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system, the pyloric circuit produces a triphasic rhythm comprising the output of the pyloric dilator, lateral pyloric, and pyloric constrictor neurons. In vitro, the phase relationships of these neurons are maintained over a fourfold <span class="hlt">change</span> in pyloric frequency as <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases from 7°C to 23°C. To determine whether these <span class="hlt">temperature</span> effects are also found in intact crabs, in the presence of sensory feedback and neuromodulator-rich environments, we measured the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependence of the pyloric frequency and phases in vivo by implanting extracellular electrodes into Cancer borealis and Cancer pagurus and shifting tank water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from 11°C to 26°C. Pyloric frequency in the intact crab increased significantly with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Q10 = 2-2.5), while pyloric phases were generally conserved. For a subset of the C. borealis experiments, animals were subsequently dissected and the stomatogastric ganglion subjected to a similar <span class="hlt">temperature</span> ramp in vitro. We found that the maximal frequency attained at high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in vivo is lower than it is under in vitro conditions. Our results demonstrate that, over a wide <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range, the phases of the pyloric rhythm in vivo are generally preserved, but that the frequency range is more restricted than it is in vitro. PMID:24671541</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC31B1047K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC31B1047K"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> for the last 1,000 years inferred from borehole <span class="hlt">temperatures</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kitaoka, K.; Arimoto, H.; Hamamoto, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Takeuchi, T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are an archive of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> occurred at the ground surface in the recent past (Lachenbruch and Marshall, 1986; Pollack, 1993). In order to investigate the local surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> histories in Osaka Plane, Japan, we observed subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in existing boreholes, using a thermometer logger. Many <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-depth profiles within 200 m depth from the ground surface have been obtained, but they show considerable variability. The geological formations in the area consist of horizontally stratified sedimentary layers of about 1,000 m in thickness overlaid on bedrock of granite. There exists a vertical disordered structure in the formations, which may be relating to an active fault (Uemachi fault) in the bedrock (Takemura, et al, 2013). It is considered that groundwater in the horizontal layers cannot move vertically, but can move vertically along the vertical disordered zone. Various <span class="hlt">temperature</span> profiles might be related to occurrence of vertical groundwater flow in the zone. Analytical models of subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> which include heat conduction and convection due to vertical groundwater flow in the zone have been constructed under the boundary conditions of prescribing time dependent surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and uniform geothermal flux from greater depths. To solve as one-dimensional problem, heat transfer between the vertical zone and the surrounding medium of no groundwater flow is assumed. Prescribing surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were given as exponential and periodic functions of the time. Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> can be considered to comprise both natural and artificial <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Artificial <span class="hlt">change</span>, which occurs by the increasing combustion of fossil fuels, is considered roughly to be an exponential increase of the ground surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the last 150 years. Natural <span class="hlt">change</span>, which can correlate to solar activity (Lassen and Friis-Christensen, 1995), is assumed roughly to be periodic with the period of about 1200 y at the minimum time</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27067101','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27067101"><span id="translatedtitle">Antipredator behaviours of a spider mite in response to cues of <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> and harmless predators.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dias, Cleide Rosa; Bernardo, Ana Maria Guimarães; Mencalha, Jussara; Freitas, Caelum Woods Carvalho; Sarmento, Renato Almeida; Pallini, Angelo; Janssen, Arne</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Prey are known to invest in costly antipredator behaviour when perceiving cues of <span class="hlt">dangerous</span>, but not of relatively harmless predators. Whereas most studies investigate one type of antipredator behaviour, we studied several types (<span class="hlt">changes</span> in oviposition, in escape and avoidance behaviour) in the spider mite Tetranychus evansi in response to cues from two predatory mites. The predator Phytoseiulus longipes is considered a <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> predator for T. evansi, whereas Phytoseiulus macropilis has a low predation rate on this prey, thus is a much less <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> predator. Spider mite females oviposited less on leaf disc halves with predator cues than on clean disc halves, independent of the predator species. On entire leaf discs, they laid fewer eggs in the presence of cues of the <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> predator than on clean discs, but not in the presence of cues of the harmless predator. Furthermore, the spider mites escaped more often from discs with cues of the <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> predator than from discs without predator cues, but they did not escape more from discs with cues of the harmless predator. The spider mites did not avoid plants with conspecifics and predators. We conclude that the spider mites displayed several different antipredator responses to the same predator species, and that some of these antipredator responses were stronger with cues of <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> predators than with cues of harmless predators. PMID:27067101</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27189404','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27189404"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping the Cultural Learnability Landscape of <span class="hlt">Danger</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Clark Barrett, H; Peterson, Christopher D; Frankenhuis, Willem E</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Cultural transmission is often viewed as a domain-general process. However, a growing literature suggests that learnability is influenced by content and context. The idea of a learnability landscape is introduced as a way of representing the effects of interacting factors on how easily information is acquired. Extending prior work (Barrett & Broesch, ), learnability of <span class="hlt">danger</span> and other properties is compared for animals, artifacts, and foods in the urban American children (ages 4-5) and in the Shuar children in Ecuador (ages 4-9). There is an advantage for acquiring <span class="hlt">danger</span> information that is strongest for animals and weakest for artifacts in both populations, with culture-specific variations. The potential of learnability landscapes for assessing biological and cultural influences on cultural transmission is discussed. PMID:27189404</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1285967','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1285967"><span id="translatedtitle">Decreasing <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> infant behaviors through parent instruction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mathews, J R; Friman, P C; Barone, V J; Ross, L V; Christophersen, E R</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>One adult and three adolescent mothers with 1-year-old infants were taught to reduce their infants' potential for injury in the home. After being taught to increase their positive interactions with their infants, the mothers were taught to child-proof the home, to use playpen time-out for potentially <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> behaviors, and to give positive attention for safe behaviors. A multiple baseline design across subjects was used to evaluate functional control. Potentially <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> behaviors, observed during 10 min of free play, decreased from variable and, at times, high rates during baseline to stable near-zero rates after treatment. These target behaviors remained low at a 7-month follow-up assessment. PMID:3610895</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4206678','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4206678"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Acute Alcohol Tolerance on Perceptions of <span class="hlt">Danger</span> and Willingness to Drive after Drinking</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Amlung, Michael T.; Morris, David H.; McCarthy, Denis M.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Rationale Drinking and driving is associated with elevated rates of motor vehicle accidents and fatalities. Previous research suggests that alcohol impairs judgments about the <span class="hlt">dangers</span> of risky behaviors; however, how alcohol affects driving-related judgments is less clear. Impairments have also been shown to differ across limbs of the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) curve, which is known as acute tolerance. Objectives Examine whether perceptions about the <span class="hlt">dangerousness</span> of driving after drinking and willingness to drive differed across ascending and descending limbs of the BAC curve. Test whether reductions in perceived <span class="hlt">danger</span> were associated with willingness to drive on the descending limb. Methods Fifty-six participants were randomly assigned to receive either a moderate dose of alcohol (peak BAC = 0.10 g%) or placebo. We assessed perceived <span class="hlt">dangerousness</span> and willingness to drive at matched BACs (~0.067-0.068 g%) on the ascending and descending limbs. Results Both perceived <span class="hlt">danger</span> and willingness to drive showed acute tolerance in the alcohol group. Participants judged driving to be significantly less <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> and were more willing to drive on the descending limb compared to the ascending limb. The magnitude of <span class="hlt">change</span> in perceived <span class="hlt">danger</span> significantly predicted willingness to drive on the descending limb. Conclusions Decreased impairment associated with acute tolerance may lead individuals to underestimate the <span class="hlt">dangerousness</span> of driving after drinking and in turn make poor decisions regarding driving. This study further emphasizes the descending limb as a period of increased risk and offers support for enhancing prevention efforts by targeting drivers at declining BAC levels. PMID:24752657</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.6986B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.6986B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Mean ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> over the last glacial transition based on atmospheric <span class="hlt">changes</span> in heavy noble mixing ratios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bereiter, Bernhard; Severinghaus, Jeff; Shackleton, Sarah; Baggenstos, Daniel; Kawamura, Kenji</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>On paleo-climatic timescales heavy noble gases (Krypton and Xenon) are passively cycled through the atmosphere-ocean system without seeing any significant sink or source. Since the solubility in water of each gas species is characterized by a specific <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dependency, mixing ratios in the atmosphere <span class="hlt">change</span> with <span class="hlt">changing</span> ocean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. In this study, we use this fact to reconstruct mean global ocean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (MOT) over the course of the last glacial transition based on measurements of trapped air in the WAIS Divide ice core. We analyzed 70 ice samples with a recently developed method which determines the isotopic ratios of N2, Ar, Kr (and in some cases also of Xe, though with less precision) and the elemental ratios of Kr/N2, Xe/N2 and Xe/Kr. We use the isotope ratios to correct the elemental ratios for gravitational enrichment in the firn column. The corrected elemental ratios are then used in a simple box model to reconstruct MOT. The three elemental ratio pairs are first interpreted as independent measures of MOT and then combined to a single "best-estimate" MOT record with an average uncertainty of 0.27°C. We find a clear link to Antarctic <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and a LGM-Holocene <span class="hlt">change</span> in MOT of 2.4°C. This value is in good agreement with results from marine sediment cores (which, however, have an uncertainty of 1°C). Our record provides an unprecedented constrain on ocean heat uptake over the last glacial transition and therefore gives new insights in the mechanisms underlying long term ocean heat fluxes. To our knowledge, this is the first time that MOT has been reconstructed in such great detail.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009EGUGA..11.4061W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009EGUGA..11.4061W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring of WUT grand hall roof in conditions of high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wozniak, M.</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>The geodetic control measurements of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in object's geometry should satisfy high accuracy and reliability. New tacheometers equipped with Automatic Target Recognition automatically moves the telescope to the center of the prism and supports control points measurements. The accuracy of using ATR system and stability of instrument in precise measurements were controlled in laboratory and field conditions. This paper will present the results of monitoring measurements using Leica TDA 5005 during investigations of roof geometry in conditions of high <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7609D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7609D"><span id="translatedtitle">Geothermal evidences of pre-industrial ground <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the Urals and Eastern Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Demezhko, D.; Kotlovanova, A.; Khachay, Yu.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>To characterize pre-industrial (17-19th centuries) climate <span class="hlt">changes</span> we reconstructed ground surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> histories from <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-depth profiles measured in boreholes at 83 sites in the Urals and Eastern Europe (Finland, Ukraine, and Belarus). Only upper 300-meters interval and constant value of thermal diffusivity of rocks = 10-6 m2/sec were used in all cases. Parts of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> histories for the 20th century were excluded from further analysis. Our investigation shows high degree of spatial-temporal variability of climatic <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the 17-19th centuries. Nevertheless, most of the histories have a minimum within the investigated period corresponding to the Little Ice Age and subsequent <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise. Cluster analysis reveals at least two types of histories: with early (1720-1760 years) and late (1820-1900 years) warming start date. Early start of warming appears in the north and northwest Urals as well as north and south area of Eastern Europe. Late start appears along the lines southwest - northeast along the Urals as well as in central part of Eastern European territory. Higher positive amplitude of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the 17-19 centuries are typical for the regions of early start, while for the regions of the late start there are low or even negative amplitude. In the report we discuss possible reasons of such ground <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> pattern including: i) a role of atmospheric circulation, ii) air/ground surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> interaction and precipitation, iii) influence of non-climatic factors such as deforestation and geological features.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP33B1684S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMPP33B1684S"><span id="translatedtitle">Deglacial Subsurface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> in the Tropical North Atlantic Linked to Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation Variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schmidt, M. W.; Chang, P.; Otto-Bliesner, B. L.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Coupled ocean-atmosphere modeling experiments indicate that Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) variability is tightly coupled to abrupt tropical North Atlantic (TNA) climate <span class="hlt">change</span> through both atmospheric and oceanic processes (Zhang, 2007; <span class="hlt">Chang</span> et al., 2008; and Chiang et al., 2008). While a slowdown of AMOC in these experiments results in an atmospheric-induced surface cooling in the entire TNA, the subsurface experiences an even larger warming due to rapid reorganizations of ocean circulation patterns (Wan et al., 2009). In addition, observational records of detrended 20th century ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity variability show a strong anticorrelation between surface cooling and subsurface warming in the TNA over the past several decades, suggesting <span class="hlt">changing</span> vertical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradients in this region may be a distinct fingerprint of AMOC variability (Zhang 2007). In order to test the hypothesis that subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in the TNA is coupled to AMOC variability across abrupt climate events over the last deglacial, we reconstructed high-resolution Mg/Ca-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> and δ18O records from both surface (G. ruber) and sub-thermocline dwelling (G. truncatulinoides, 350-500 m depth and G. crassaformis, 450-580 m) planktonic foraminifera in the southern Caribbean Sea sediment core VM12-107 (11.33oN, 66.63oW; 1079 m; 18 cm/kyr sedimentation rate). Sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> indicate a gradual warming in the TNA starting at ~19 kyr BP with small cold reversals of ~1.5oC during Heinrich Event 1 (H1) and the Younger Dryas (YD). In contrast, last glacial maximum subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were as much as 2.5oC warmer than Late Holocene values and H1 and the YD are marked by the warmest subsurface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> characterized by abrupt <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases as large as 4-5oC. Furthermore, a comparison of our subsurface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> record with the Bermuda Rise 231Pa/230Th proxy record of AMOC variability (McManus et al., 2004) indicates a strong</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety-fact-sheets/safe-food-handling/molds-on-food-are-they-dangerous_/','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.fsis.usda.gov/wps/portal/fsis/topics/food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety-fact-sheets/safe-food-handling/molds-on-food-are-they-dangerous_/"><span id="translatedtitle">Molds on Food: Are They <span class="hlt">Dangerous</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Administrative Forms Standard Forms Skip Navigation Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H1 Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... / Topics / ... 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Z7_ ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21899094','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21899094"><span id="translatedtitle">[Radioecological approaches to ranking radiation <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> objects].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Korenkov, I P; Lashchenova, T N; Veselov, E I; Shandala, N K; Maksimova, O A</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The paper gives complex criteria for evaluating the hazard of radiation <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> objects (RDO). The proposed criteria include the following indicators: the ratio of the cumulative activity of radioactive waste to a hazard factor (D value) or to the allowable level of i-radionuclide in the storage; the power of an effective gamma-radiation dose; the rate of radionuclide migration; the doses of human radiation. A scoring system for the hazard of RDO from the above indicators is given. PMID:21899094</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H21G1125F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H21G1125F"><span id="translatedtitle">Hindcasting 2000 years of Pacific sea and land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Friedel, M. J.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Studies of climate variability often rely on surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> anomalies. Here regional Pacific sea and land surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data were extended from a century to millennial scale using a type of unsupervised artificial neural network. In this approach, the imputation of annual climate fields was done based on the nonlinear and self-organized relations among modern (1897-2003) sea and land <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and paleo-proxy (0-2000) land-based Palmer Drought Severity Index data vectors. Stochastic crossvalidation (using median values from 30 Monte Carlo trials) of the model revealed that predictions of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> over the regions of 00N30N, 30N60N, 60N-90N, and 60S-60N latitude were globally unbiased and highly correlated (Spearman Rho > 0.94) with the modern observations. The prediction uncertainty was characterized as nonlinear with minor (<5%) local bias attributed to unaccounted for measurement uncertainty. Quantile modeling of the reconstructed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> data revealed interruptions in the long-term climate record by short-term <span class="hlt">changes</span> that coincided with the so-called Medieval Warm Period (~900 to ~1250) and Little Ice Age (~1400 to ~1850). These interruptions were present at all latitudes but the structure shifted toward lower magnitudes as the region moved toward the equator. In all cases, the maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> was slightly greater than during the Medieval Warm Period. These findings demonstrated that the El Niño Southern Oscillation operated over a continuum of temporal and spatial scales. These findings have broad economic, political, and social implications with respect to developing water resource policies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC23C0943Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC23C0943Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Climatological sensitivity analysis of crop yield to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation using particle filter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yokozawa, M.; Sakurai, G.; Iizumi, T.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The climatological sensitivities of crop yields to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation during a period of the growing season were statistically examined. The sensitivity is defined as the <span class="hlt">change</span> of yield in response to the <span class="hlt">change</span> of climatic condition in the growth period from sowing to harvesting. The objective crops are maize and soybean, which are being cultivated in United States, Brazil and China as the world major production countries. We collected the yield data of maize and soybean on county level of United States from USDA during a period of 1980-2006, on Município level of Brazil during a period of 1990-2006 and on Xiàn level of China during a period of 1980-2005. While the data on only four provinces in China are used (Heilongjiang, Henan, Liaoning, and Shandong), total production of the four provinces reaches about 40% (maize) and 51% (soybean) to the country total (USDA 1997). We used JRA-25 reanalysis climate data distributed from the Japanese Meteorological Agency during a period of 1980 through 2006 with a resolution of 1.125° in latitude and longitude. To coincide in resolution, the crop yield data were reallocated into the same grids as climate. To eliminate economical and technical effects on yield, we detrended the time series data of yield and climate. We applied a local regression model to conduct the detrend (cubic weighting and M estimator of Tukey's bi-weight function). The time series data on the deviation from the trend were examined with the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation for each grid using the particle filter. The particle filter used here is based on self-organizing state-space model. As a result, in the northern hemisphere, positive sensitivity, i.e. increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> shifts the crop yield positively, is generally found especially in higher latitude, while negative sensitivity is found in the lower latitude. The neutral sensitivity is found in the regions where the mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during growing season</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2014/5186/pdf/sir2014-5186.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2014/5186/pdf/sir2014-5186.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A model for evaluating stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response to climate <span class="hlt">change</span> in Wisconsin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Stewart, Jana S.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Mitro, Matthew G.; Lyons, John D.; Kammel, Leah E.; Buchwald, Cheryl A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Integrating the SWB Model with the ANN Model provided a mechanism by which downscaled global or regional climate model results could be used to estimate the potential effects of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on future stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on a daily time step. To address future climate scenarios, statistically downscaled air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation projections from 10 GCMs and 2 time periods were used with the SWB-ANNv1 Model to project future stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Projections of future stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> at mid- (2046–65) and late- (2081–2100) 21st century showed the July mean water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increasing for all stream segments with about 80 percent of stream kilometers increasing by 1 to 2 degrees Celsius (°C) by mid-century and about 99 percent increasing by 1 to 3 °C by late-century. Projected <span class="hlt">changes</span> in stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> also affected <span class="hlt">changes</span> in thermal classes with a loss in the total amount of cold-water, cold-transition, and warm-transition thermal habitat and a gain in warm-water and very warm thermal habitat for both mid- and late-21st century time periods. The greatest losses occurred for cold-water streams and the greatest gains for warm-water streams, with a contraction of cold-water streams in the Driftless Area of western and southern Wisconsin and an expansion of warm-water streams across northern Wisconsin. Results of this study suggest that such <span class="hlt">changes</span> will affect the composition of fish assemblages, with a loss of suitable habitat for cold-water fishes and gain in suitable habitat for warm-water fishes. In the end, these projected <span class="hlt">changes</span> in thermal habitat attributable to climate may result in a net loss of fisheries, because many warm-water species may be unable to colonize habitats formerly occupied by cold-water species because of other habitat limitations (e.g., stream size, gradient). Although projected stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> may vary greatly, depending on the emissions scenario and models used, the results presented in this report represent one</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016E%26PSL.438...37G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016E%26PSL.438...37G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative estimates of tropical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in lowland Central America during the last 42 ka</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grauel, Anna-Lena; Hodell, David A.; Bernasconi, Stefano M.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Determining the magnitude of tropical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> during the last glacial period is a fundamental problem in paleoclimate research. Large discrepancies exist in estimates of tropical cooling inferred from marine and terrestrial archives. Here we present a reconstruction of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the last 42 ka from a lake sediment core from Lake Petén Itzá, Guatemala, located at 17°N in lowland Central America. We compared three independent methods of glacial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reconstruction: pollen-based <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimates, tandem measurements of δ18O in biogenic carbonate and gypsum hydration water, and clumped isotope thermometry. Pollen provides a near-continuous record of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> for most of the glacial period but the occurrence of a no-analog pollen assemblage during cold, dry stadials renders <span class="hlt">temperature</span> estimates unreliable for these intervals. In contrast, the gypsum hydration and clumped isotope methods are limited mainly to the stadial periods when gypsum and biogenic carbonate co-occur. The combination of palynological and geochemical methods leads to a continuous record of tropical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in lowland Central America over the last 42 ka. Furthermore, the gypsum hydration water method and clumped isotope thermometry provide independent estimates of not only <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, but also the δ18O of lake water that is dependent on the hydrologic balance between evaporation and precipitation over the lake surface and its catchment. The results show that average glacial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was cooler in lowland Central America by 5-10 °C relative to the Holocene. The coldest and driest times occurred during North Atlantic stadial events, particularly Heinrich stadials (HSs), when <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decreased by up to 6 to 10 °C relative to today. This magnitude of cooling is much greater than estimates derived from Caribbean marine records and model simulations. The extreme dry and cold conditions during HSs in the lowland Central America were associated</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/AlcoholOverdoseFactsheet/Overdosefact.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/AlcoholOverdoseFactsheet/Overdosefact.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Alcohol Overdose: The <span class="hlt">Dangers</span> of Drinking Too Much</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... The <span class="hlt">Dangers</span> of Drinking Too Much Print version Alcohol Overdose: The <span class="hlt">Dangers</span> of Drinking Too Much Celebrating ... excess. And the results can be deadly. Identifying Alcohol Poisoning Critical Signs and Symptoms of Alcohol Poisoning ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157682.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157682.html"><span id="translatedtitle">For 'Ironman' Athletes, Study Shows <span class="hlt">Danger</span> of Too Much Water</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Ironman' Athletes, Study Shows <span class="hlt">Danger</span> of Too Much Water Frequent fluid stops entice racers to drink more ... News) -- Long-distance triathletes who drink too much water during competition may end up with <span class="hlt">dangerously</span> low ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Arsenic&pg=2&id=EJ313025','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Arsenic&pg=2&id=EJ313025"><span id="translatedtitle">Help Protect Children from <span class="hlt">Dangers</span> in the Environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Reynolds, Pamela</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Children may be exposed to environmental hazards such as lead, arsenic, and <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> pesticides more often than parents may realize. <span class="hlt">Dangers</span> of more commonly used chemicals found in the environment are listed. (DF)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21115514','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21115514"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">changes</span> under high-end (≥4°C) global warming.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sanderson, M G; Hemming, D L; Betts, R A</p> <p>2011-01-13</p> <p>Climate models vary widely in their projections of both global mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise and regional climate <span class="hlt">changes</span>, but are there any systematic differences in regional <span class="hlt">changes</span> associated with different levels of global climate sensitivity? This paper examines model projections of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> over the twenty-first century from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> Fourth Assessment Report which used the A2 scenario from the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, assessing whether different regional responses can be seen in models categorized as 'high-end' (those projecting 4°C or more by the end of the twenty-first century relative to the preindustrial). It also identifies regions where the largest climate <span class="hlt">changes</span> are projected under high-end warming. The mean spatial patterns of <span class="hlt">change</span>, normalized against the global rate of warming, are generally similar in high-end and 'non-high-end' simulations. The exception is the higher latitudes, where land areas warm relatively faster in boreal summer in high-end models, but sea ice areas show varying differences in boreal winter. Many continental interiors warm approximately twice as fast as the global average, with this being particularly accentuated in boreal summer, and the winter-time Arctic Ocean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> rise more than three times faster than the global average. Large <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases and precipitation decreases are projected in some of the regions that currently experience water resource pressures, including Mediterranean fringe regions, indicating enhanced pressure on water resources in these areas. PMID:21115514</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..339H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16..339H"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbial community responses to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase the potential for soil carbon losses under climate <span class="hlt">change</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hartley, Iain; Karhu, Kristiina; Auffret, Marc; Hopkins, David; Prosser, Jim; Singh, Brajesh; Subke, Jens-Arne; Wookey, Philip; Ågren, Göran</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>There are concerns that global warming may stimulate decomposition rates in soils, with the extra CO2 released representing a positive feedback to climate <span class="hlt">change</span>. However, there is growing recognition that adaptation of soil microbial communities to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> may alter the potential rate of carbon release. Critically, recent studies have produced conflicting results in terms of whether the medium-term soil microbial community response to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reduces (compensatory thermal adaptation) or enhances (enhancing thermal adaptation) the instantaneous direct positive effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on microbial activity. This lack of understanding adds considerably to uncertainty in predictions of the magnitude and direction of carbon-cycle feedbacks to climate <span class="hlt">change</span>. In this talk, I present results from one of the most extensive investigations ever undertaken into the role that microbial adaptation plays in controlling the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity of decomposition. Soils were collected from a range of ecosystem types, representing a thermal gradient from the Arctic to the Amazon. Our novel soil-cooling approach minimises issues associated with substrate depletion in warming studies, but still tests whether adaptation enhances or reduces the direct impact of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> on microbial activity. We also investigated the mechanisms underlying <span class="hlt">changes</span> in microbial respiration by quantifying <span class="hlt">changes</span> in microbial community composition, microbial biomass, mass-specific activity, carbon-use efficiency, and enzyme activities. Our results indicate that enhancing responses are much more common than compensatory thermal acclimation, with the latter being observed in less than 10% of cases. However, identifying the mechanisms underlying enhancing and compensatory adaptation remained elusive. No consistent <span class="hlt">changes</span> were observed in terms of mass-specific activity, biomass or enzyme activity, indicating that current theory is inadequate in explaining observed patterns</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19132875','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19132875"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-induced microstructural <span class="hlt">changes</span> in ionic liquid-based microemulsions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gao, Yanan; Li, Na; Hilfert, Liane; Zhang, Shaohua; Zheng, Liqiang; Yu, Li</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>In the present contribution, results concerning the effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the nonionic surfactant Triton X-100 based 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (bmimBF4)-in-cyclohexane and bmimBF4-in-toluene ionic liquid (IL) reverse microemulsions are reported. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) along with freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy (FF-TEM) measurements revealed that the sizes of single microemulsion droplets increased with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. However, a decreased <span class="hlt">temperature</span> led to the appearance of droplet clusters, which have also been observed previously when the single microemulsion droplets were swollen by added bmimBF4 to a certain extent (Gao, Y. A.; Vogit, A.; Hilfert, L.; Sundmacher, K. ChemPhysChem, 2008, 9, 1603-1609). Compared to traditional aqueous microemulsions, IL microemulsions revealed relatively high <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-independence. The droplet-shaped microstructure was always kept in a large range of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-independence is ascribed to the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-insensitive electrostatic attraction between the solubilized bmimBF4 and Triton X-100, which was considered to be the driving force for solubilizing bmimBF4 into the cores of Triton X-100 aggregates. Two-dimensional rotating frame nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) experiments (ROESY) further confirmed the microstructural <span class="hlt">change</span> with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. PMID:19132875</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1320244','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1320244"><span id="translatedtitle">Cold- and Hot-Pack Contrast Therapy: Subcutaneous and Intramuscular <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Myrer, J. William; Measom, Gary; Durrant, Earlene; Fellingham, Gilbert W.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Objective: To investigate the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in subcutaneous and intramuscular tissue during a 20-minute cold- and hot-pack contrast therapy treatment. Design and Setting: Subjects were randomly exposed to 20 minutes of contrast therapy (5 minutes of heat with a hydrocollator pack followed by 5 minutes of cold with an ice pack, repeated twice) and 20 minutes of cold therapy (ice pack only) in a university laboratory. Subjects: Nine men and seven women with no history of peripheral vascular disease and no allergy to cephalexin hydrochloride volunteered for the study. Measurements: Subcutaneous and intramuscular tissue <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were measured by 26-gauge hypodermic needle microprobes inserted into the left calf just below the skin or 1 cm below the skin and subcutaneous fat, respectively. Results: With contrast therapy, muscular <span class="hlt">temperature</span> did not fluctuate significantly over the 20-minute period compared with the subcutaneous <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, which fluctuated from 8°C to 14°C each 5-minute interval. When subjects were treated with ice alone, muscle <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decreased 7°C and subcutaneous <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decreased 17°C over the 20-minute treatment. Conclusions: Our results show that contrast therapy has little effect on deep muscle <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Therefore, if most of the physiologic effects attributed to cold and hot contrast therapy depend on substantial fluctuations in tissue <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, contrast therapy needs to be reconsidered as a viable therapeutic modality. ImagesFig 1.Fig 2.Fig 3. PMID:16558456</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMGC12C..04M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMGC12C..04M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends in major cropping systems and their relation to agricultural land use <span class="hlt">change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mueller, N. D.; Butler, E. E.; McKinnon, K. A.; Rhines, A. N.; Tingley, M.; Siebert, S.; Holbrook, N. M.; Huybers, P. J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>High <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes during the growing season can reduce agricultural production. At the same time, agricultural practices can modify <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by altering the surface energy budget. Here we investigate growing season climate trends in major cropping systems and their relationship with agricultural land use <span class="hlt">change</span>. In the US Midwest, 100-year trends exhibit a transition towards more favorable conditions, with cooler summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes and increased precipitation. Statistically significant correspondence is found between the cooling pattern and trends in cropland intensification, as well as with trends towards greater irrigated land over a small subset of the domain. Land conversion to cropland, often considered an important influence on historical <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, is not significantly associated with cooling. We suggest that cooling is primarily associated with agricultural intensification increasing the potential for evapotranspiration, consistent with our finding that cooling trends are greatest for the highest <span class="hlt">temperature</span> percentiles, and that increased evapotranspiration generally leads to greater precipitation. <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> over rainfed croplands show no cooling trend during drought conditions, consistent with evapotranspiration requiring adequate soil moisture, and implying that modern drought events feature greater warming as baseline cooler <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> revert to historically high extremes. Preliminary results indicate these relationships between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes, irrigation, and intensification are also observed in other major summer cropping systems, including northeast China, Argentina, and the Canadian Prairies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27382755','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27382755"><span id="translatedtitle">[Primary Study on Noninvasive Detection of Vascular Function Based on Finger <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dong, Qing; Li, Xia; Wan, Yungao; Lu, Gaoquan; Wang, Xinxin; Zhang, Kuan</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>By studying the relationship between fingertip <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> and arterial function during vascular reactivity test, we established a new non-invasive method for detecting vascular function, in order to provide an assistance for early diagnosis and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. We customized three modules respectively for blood occlusion, measurement of finger <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and blood oxygen acquisition, and then we established the hardware of data acquisition system. And the software was programmed with Labview. Healthy subjects [group A, n = 24, (44.6 ± 9.0) years] and subjects with cardiovascular diseases [group B, n = 33, (57.2 ± 9.9) years)] were chosen for the study. Subject's finger <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, blood oxygen and occlusion pressure of block side during and after unilateral arm brachial artery occlusion were recorded, as well as some other regular physiological indexes. By time-domain analysis, we extracted 12 parameters from fingertip <span class="hlt">temperature</span> signal, including the initial <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (Ti), <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rebound (TR), the time of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> recovering to initial status (RIt) and other parameters from the finger <span class="hlt">temperature</span> signal. We in the experiment also measured other regular physiological body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastiolic blood pressure (DBP) and so on. Results showed that 8 parameters difference between the two group of data were significant. based on the statistical results. A discriminant function of vascular function status was established afterwards. We found in the study that the <span class="hlt">changes</span> of finger <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during unilateral arms brachial artery occlusion and open were closely related to vascular function. We hope that the method presented in this article could lay a foundation of early detection of vascular function. PMID:27382755</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20478789','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20478789"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of repeated refrigerant spray applications using various carriers on pulpal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Garza, Christopher A; Vandewalle, Kraig S; Sabey, Kent A; Hamilton, Garrett J; Chong, Chol H</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This study sought to determine how repeated applications of a refrigerant spray on various cotton carriers affected the <span class="hlt">change</span> in pulpal <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. A thermocouple was placed at the roof of the pulp chamber of a human maxillary canine and connected to a thermometer logging at one-second intervals while the root was immersed in a water bath at 37 degrees C. Four different carrier types were used: large cotton pellets, small cotton pellets, cotton-tip applicators, and cotton rolls. Each carrier was sprayed with 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane and placed on the crown for five seconds. Pulpal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> was recorded after each five second application of the same carrier to the tooth until a total of six consecutive sprays and applications of the carrier were applied. Each carrier group consisted of 10 performances of the six sets of readings (n = 10). The difference between baseline and the low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reading was calculated to determine the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> (in degrees C) in the pulp chamber per application. When the refrigerant spray was used, the large cotton pellet carrier generally produced the largest decrease in pulpal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at each repeated application compared to the other types of carriers. However, the same large cotton pellet should not be sprayed with the refrigerant more than two times before it is replaced. PMID:20478789</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013QSRv...80...47H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013QSRv...80...47H"><span id="translatedtitle">Late Holocene coupled moisture and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> on the northern Tibetan Plateau</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>He, Yuxin; Zhao, Cheng; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Huanye; Song, Mu; Liu, Weiguo; Liu, Zhonghui</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>The northern Tibetan Plateau involves complex interactions between the mid-latitude westerly circulation and the subtropical Asia monsoon circulation, acting as a bridge communicating high and low latitude climatic processes. Previous studies from the region suggest relatively wet conditions in cold periods during the late Holocene, for instance, the Little Ice Age (LIA). However, the inference of such <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-moisture association is subject to the large uncertainty in lacustrine 14C chronology, due to the particularly large lake reservoir effect in the region. Here we take a different approach by reconstructing paired <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture records from the same sediment cores to assess the <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-moisture association, independent of chronology uncertainty. We use alkenone indices UK'37 and %C37:4 to reconstruct high resolution <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture <span class="hlt">changes</span> simultaneously from two lakes in the Qaidam Basin, northern Tibetan Plateau, over the last ˜2500 years. Characterized by marked climatic variability, our paired records confirm the warm-dry and cold-wet association in arid northwestern China during the late Holocene, opposite to the warm-wet and cold-dry association in subtropical Asian monsoonal regions. Our moisture records further suggest substantially drier conditions during the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) than the current warm period. Lastly, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and moisture <span class="hlt">changes</span> inferred from our records can be well correlated with solar irradiance <span class="hlt">changes</span>, suggesting a possible link between solar forcing and natural climate variability during the late Holocene on the northern Tibetan Plateau.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdAtS..33..247W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AdAtS..33..247W"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic responses of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration to global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> between 1850 and 2010</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Weile; Nemani, Ramakrishna</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Earth's <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have significant impacts on the global carbon cycle that vary at different time scales, yet to quantify such impacts with a simple scheme is traditionally deemed difficult. Here, we show that, by incorporating a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity parameter (1.64 ppm yr-1 °C-1) into a simple linear carbon-cycle model, we can accurately characterize the dynamic responses of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration to anthropogenic carbon emissions and global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> between 1850 and 2010 ( r 2 > 0.96 and the root-mean-square error < 1 ppm for the period from 1960 onward). Analytical analysis also indicates that the multiplication of the parameter with the response time of the atmospheric carbon reservoir (~12 year) approximates the long-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensitivity of global atmospheric CO2 concentration (~15 ppm °C-1), generally consistent with previous estimates based on reconstructed CO2 and climate records over the Little Ice Age. Our results suggest that recent increases in global surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, which accelerate the release of carbon from the surface reservoirs into the atmosphere, have partially offset surface carbon uptakes enhanced by the elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and slowed the net rate of atmospheric CO2 sequestration by global land and oceans by ~30% since the 1960s. The linear modeling framework outlined in this paper thus provides a useful tool to diagnose the observed atmospheric CO2 dynamics and monitor their future <span class="hlt">changes</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817661H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1817661H"><span id="translatedtitle">The large volcanic eruptions at different latitude bands and patterns of winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> over China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hao, Zhixin; Sun, Di</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Based on the chronology of 29 large volcanic eruptions events (Volcanic Explosivity Index≥4) since 1951 and gridded <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dataset from China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System, we identified the patterns of winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> over China after the large volcanic eruptions, comparing with the mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> within the five years before, then we analyzed the related dynamic mechanisms of different patterns by NCEP reanalysis data and model output data from Community Earth System Model (CESM). The results showed that the winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decreased more than 1°C in East China after volcanic eruptions on middle-lower latitudes and equatorial bands. After volcanic eruptions on different latitudes, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> spatial patterns were summarized as two types, which included that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was cooling centered on Northeast and warming in Tibets, and its opposite pattern. The first pattern was usually detected after tropical volcanic eruptions in spring/summer and it also appeared after volcanic eruptions on high latitudes in spring/autumn. After middle-lower latitude volcanic eruptions, the variation of geopotential height on 500hPa showed that the positive anomaly was existed at the East of Ural mountain, which caused the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decreased in Northwest , Central East and Southeast when east asian trough was intensified. After high latitudes volcanic eruptions, the zonal circulation was more obvious at middle latitudes, the cold air was not easy to transport,therefore winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased in China except for the Yangtze River Basin. The result of full forcing experiments by CESM showed that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decreased at most regions after large volcanic eruptions on equatorial /high bands, and troughs and wedges were developed on 500 hPa. The variation of geopotential height was nearly reversed after volcanic eruptions on high latitudes, only the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of Tibetan Plateau decreased. But how the variation of geopotential height</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V51F3109S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.V51F3109S"><span id="translatedtitle">The large volcanic eruptions at different latitude bands and patterns of winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> over China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, D.; Hao, Z.; Zheng, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Based on the chronology of 29 large volcanic eruptions events (Volcanic Explosivity Index≥4) since 1951 and gridded <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dataset from China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System, we identified the patterns of winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> over China after the large volcanic eruptions, comparing with the mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> within the five years before, then we analyzed the related dynamic mechanisms of different patterns by NCEP reanalysis data and model output data from Community Earth System Model (CESM). The results showed that the winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decreased more than 1°C in East China after volcanic eruptions on middle-lower latitudes and equatorial bands. After volcanic eruptions on different latitudes, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> spatial patterns were summarized as two types, which included that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was cooling centered on Northeast and warming in Tibets, and its opposite pattern. The first pattern was usually detected after equatorial volcanic eruptions in spring/summer and it also appeared after volcanic eruptions on high latitudes in spring/autumn. After middle-lower latitude volcanic eruptions, the variation of geopotential height on 500hPa showed that the positive anomaly was existed at the East of Ural mountain, which caused the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decreased in Northwest , Central East and Southeast when east asian trough was intensified. After high latitudes volcanic eruptions, the zonal circulation was more obvious at middle latitudes, the cold air was not easy to transport therefore winter <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increased in China except for the Yangtze River Basin. The result of full forcing experiments by CESM showed that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decreased at most regions after large volcanic eruptions on equatorial /high bands, and troughs and wedges were developed on 500 hPa. The variation of geopotential height was nearly reversed after volcanic eruptions on high latitudes, only the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of Tibetan Plateau decreased. But how the variation of geopotential height</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=139594','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=139594"><span id="translatedtitle">EFFECT OF TRANSIENT <span class="hlt">TEMPERATURE</span> <span class="hlt">CHANGE</span> ON SUCROSE METABOLISM IN SUGARCANE INTERNODES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>It was previously observed that a decrease in total soluble solids concentration in sugarcane (Saccharum sp. hybrids) juice was proportional to the magnitude of the <span class="hlt">change</span> of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the week prior to harvest (Eggleston and Vinyard, 1999. J. Am. Soc. Sugar Cane Technol. 19:62-63). I teste...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=48337&keyword=doubling&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76736813&CFTOKEN=27528009','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=48337&keyword=doubling&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=76736813&CFTOKEN=27528009"><span id="translatedtitle">PROJECTED GLOBAL CLIMATE <span class="hlt">CHANGE</span> IMPACT ON WATER <span class="hlt">TEMPERATURE</span> IN FIVE NORTH CENTRAL U.S. STREAMS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The effect of projected global climate <span class="hlt">change</span> due to a doubling of atmospheric CO2 on water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in five streams in Minnesota was estimated using a deterministic heat transport model. he model calculates heat exchange between the atmosphere and the water and is driven by ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=216632','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=216632"><span id="translatedtitle">Detecting Root Rot Stress in Geranium by Measuring <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Leaf <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Our objective was to determine if <span class="hlt">changes</span> in geranium leaf <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, measured by infrared (IR) transducers aimed at the plant canopy or individual leaves, correlate with root infection by pathogenic water molds. This is the first report to our knowledge that addresses the use of environmental se...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JASS...31..141J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JASS...31..141J"><span id="translatedtitle">Identification of Martian Cave Skylights Using the <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> During Day and Night</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jung, Jongil; Yi, Yu; Kim, Eojin</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Recently, cave candidates have been discovered on other planets besides the Earth, such as the Moon and Mars. When we go to other planets, caves could be possible human habitats providing natural protection from cosmic threats. In this study, seven cave candidates have been found on Pavonis Mons and Ascraeus Mons in Tharsis Montes on Mars. The cave candidates were selected using the images of the Context Camera (CTX) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). The Context Camera could provide images with the high resolution of 6 meter per pixel. The diameter of the candidates ranges from 50 to 100m. Cushing et al. (2007) have analyzed the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> at daytime and nighttime using the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) for the sites of potential cave candidates. Similarly, we have examined the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> at daytime and at nighttime for seven cave candidates using the method of Cushing et al. (2007). Among those, only one candidate showed a distinct <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>. However, we cannot verify a cave based on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> only and further study is required for the improvement of this method to identify caves more clearly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJMPC..16..389S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJMPC..16..389S"><span id="translatedtitle">Simulation and Experiment of Extinction or Adaptation of Biological Species after <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Changes</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stauffer, D.; Arndt, H.</p> <p></p> <p>Can unicellular organisms survive a drastic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, and adapt to it after many generations? In simulations of the Penna model of biological aging, both extinction and adaptation were found for asexual and sexual reproduction as well as for parasex. These model investigations are the basis for the design of evolution experiments with heterotrophic flagellates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1812633P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1812633P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> in Nicaragua: a dynamical downscaling of precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Porras, Ignasi; Domingo-Dalmau, Anna; Sole, Josep Maria; Arasa, Raul; Picanyol, Miquel; Ángeles Gonzalez-Serrano, M.°; Masdeu, Marta</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> affects weather patterns and modifies meteorological extreme events like tropical cyclones, heavy rainfalls, dry events, extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, etc. The aim of this study is to show the Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> projections over Nicaragua for the period 2010-2040 focused on precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In order to obtain the climate <span class="hlt">change</span> signal, the results obtained by modelling a past period (1980-2009) were compared with the ones obtained by modelling a future period (2010-2040). The modelling method was based on a dynamical downscaling, coupling global and regional models. The MPI-ESM-MR global climate model was selected due to the better performance over Nicaragua. Moreover, a detailed sensitivity analysis for different parameterizations and schemes of the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF-ARW) model was made to minimize the model uncertainty. To evaluate and validate the methodology, a comparison between model outputs and satellite measurements data was realized. The results show an expected increment of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and an increment of the number of days per year with <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> higher than 35°C. Monthly precipitation patterns will <span class="hlt">change</span> although annual total precipitation will be similar. In addition, number of dry days are expected to increase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7796635','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7796635"><span id="translatedtitle">Surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, cortical evoked potential and pain behavior elicited by CO2 lasers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yen, C T; Huang, C H; Fu, S E</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The performance of a self-designed CO2 laser stimulator, TL#2, was evaluated against a commercial product, model DE20XL of the Direct Energy Inc. (Irvine). The major items evaluated were the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> of the irradiated surface and the electrophysiological and behavior <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the rat elicited by single laser pulse irradiation. Single shots of TL#2 produced a profile of surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> similar to those of the DE20XL, as quantified by their maximal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>, rate of rise (half time to maximum) and rate of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> drop. TL#2 and DE20XL elicited the same pain behaviors and the same pattern of cortical evoked potential in awake, behaving rats. TL#2 differed from the DE20XL in its laser beam shape and focal depth. The cross sectional energy profile of the TL#2 was a Gaussian shape, i.e., most intense at its center point, whereas that of the DE20XL with the FL20XL attachment had a shape of an inverted Gaussian, i.e., most intense in the periphery. Consequently, the peak energy of the center of the TL#2 laser beam grows rapidly with an increase in the pulse intensity. Caution must be taken not to use this machine at high intensity or for long duration less permanent damage should be produced on tested animal or human subject. In summary, TL#2 when used properly, should be a useful tool in the study of pain mechanism. PMID:7796635</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4887871','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4887871"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-model attribution of upper-ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> using an isothermal approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Weller, Evan; Min, Seung-Ki; Palmer, Matthew D.; Lee, Donghyun; Yim, Bo Young; Yeh, Sang-Wook</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Both air-sea heat exchanges and <span class="hlt">changes</span> in ocean advection have contributed to observed upper-ocean warming most evident in the late-twentieth century. However, it is predominantly via <span class="hlt">changes</span> in air-sea heat fluxes that human-induced climate forcings, such as increasing greenhouse gases, and other natural factors such as volcanic aerosols, have influenced global ocean heat content. The present study builds on previous work using two different indicators of upper-ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> for the detection of both anthropogenic and natural external climate forcings. Using simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, we compare mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above a fixed isotherm with the more widely adopted approach of using a fixed depth. We present the first multi-model ensemble detection and attribution analysis using the fixed isotherm approach to robustly detect both anthropogenic and natural external influences on upper-ocean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Although contributions from multidecadal natural variability cannot be fully removed, both the large multi-model ensemble size and properties of the isotherm analysis reduce internal variability of the ocean, resulting in better observation-model comparison of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> since the 1950s. We further show that the high temporal resolution afforded by the isotherm analysis is required to detect natural external influences such as volcanic cooling events in the upper-ocean because the radiative effect of volcanic forcings is short-lived. PMID:27245575</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=236373&keyword=span&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65299282&CFTOKEN=82990854','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=236373&keyword=span&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=65299282&CFTOKEN=82990854"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and salinity in the Yaquina Estuary, Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>As part of a larger study to examine the effect of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> (CC) on estuarine resources, we simulated the effect of rising sea level, alterations in river discharge, and increasing atmospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on water properties in estuaries along the Pacific coast of the Unit...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=temperature&pg=3&id=EJ1068332','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=temperature&pg=3&id=EJ1068332"><span id="translatedtitle">The Heat Is On! Using Particle Models to <span class="hlt">Change</span> Students' Conceptions of Heat and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hitt, Austin Manning; Townsend, J. Scott</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Elementary, middle-level, and high school science teachers commonly find their students have misconceptions about heat and <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Unfortunately, student misconceptions are difficult to modify or <span class="hlt">change</span> and can prevent students from learning the accurate scientific explanation. In order to improve our students' understanding of heat and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp...71R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ThApC.tmp...71R"><span id="translatedtitle">Understanding the joint behavior of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation for climate <span class="hlt">change</span> impact studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rana, Arun; Moradkhani, Hamid; Qin, Yueyue</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The multiple downscaled scenario products allow us to assess the uncertainty of the variations of precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the current and future periods. Probabilistic assessments of both climatic variables help better understand the interdependence of the two and thus, in turn, help in assessing the future with confidence. In the present study, we use ensemble of statistically downscaled precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from various models. The dataset used is multi-model ensemble of 10 global climate models (GCMs) downscaled product from CMIP5 daily dataset using the Bias Correction and Spatial Downscaling (BCSD) technique, generated at Portland State University. The multi-model ensemble of both precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is evaluated for dry and wet periods for 10 sub-basins across Columbia River Basin (CRB). Thereafter, copula is applied to establish the joint distribution of two variables on multi-model ensemble data. The joint distribution is then used to estimate the <span class="hlt">change</span> in trends of said variables in future, along with estimation of the probabilities of the given <span class="hlt">change</span>. The joint distribution trends vary, but certainly positive, for dry and wet periods in sub-basins of CRB. Dry season, generally, is indicating a higher positive <span class="hlt">change</span> in precipitation than <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (as compared to historical) across sub-basins with wet season inferring otherwise. Probabilities of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in future, as estimated from the joint distribution, indicate varied degrees and forms during dry season whereas the wet season is rather constant across all the sub-basins.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27245575','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27245575"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-model attribution of upper-ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> using an isothermal approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weller, Evan; Min, Seung-Ki; Palmer, Matthew D; Lee, Donghyun; Yim, Bo Young; Yeh, Sang-Wook</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Both air-sea heat exchanges and <span class="hlt">changes</span> in ocean advection have contributed to observed upper-ocean warming most evident in the late-twentieth century. However, it is predominantly via <span class="hlt">changes</span> in air-sea heat fluxes that human-induced climate forcings, such as increasing greenhouse gases, and other natural factors such as volcanic aerosols, have influenced global ocean heat content. The present study builds on previous work using two different indicators of upper-ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> for the detection of both anthropogenic and natural external climate forcings. Using simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, we compare mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above a fixed isotherm with the more widely adopted approach of using a fixed depth. We present the first multi-model ensemble detection and attribution analysis using the fixed isotherm approach to robustly detect both anthropogenic and natural external influences on upper-ocean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Although contributions from multidecadal natural variability cannot be fully removed, both the large multi-model ensemble size and properties of the isotherm analysis reduce internal variability of the ocean, resulting in better observation-model comparison of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> since the 1950s. We further show that the high temporal resolution afforded by the isotherm analysis is required to detect natural external influences such as volcanic cooling events in the upper-ocean because the radiative effect of volcanic forcings is short-lived. PMID:27245575</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NatSR...626926W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016NatSR...626926W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-model attribution of upper-ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> using an isothermal approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weller, Evan; Min, Seung-Ki; Palmer, Matthew D.; Lee, Donghyun; Yim, Bo Young; Yeh, Sang-Wook</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Both air-sea heat exchanges and <span class="hlt">changes</span> in ocean advection have contributed to observed upper-ocean warming most evident in the late-twentieth century. However, it is predominantly via <span class="hlt">changes</span> in air-sea heat fluxes that human-induced climate forcings, such as increasing greenhouse gases, and other natural factors such as volcanic aerosols, have influenced global ocean heat content. The present study builds on previous work using two different indicators of upper-ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> for the detection of both anthropogenic and natural external climate forcings. Using simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, we compare mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> above a fixed isotherm with the more widely adopted approach of using a fixed depth. We present the first multi-model ensemble detection and attribution analysis using the fixed isotherm approach to robustly detect both anthropogenic and natural external influences on upper-ocean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Although contributions from multidecadal natural variability cannot be fully removed, both the large multi-model ensemble size and properties of the isotherm analysis reduce internal variability of the ocean, resulting in better observation-model comparison of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> since the 1950s. We further show that the high temporal resolution afforded by the isotherm analysis is required to detect natural external influences such as volcanic cooling events in the upper-ocean because the radiative effect of volcanic forcings is short-lived.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002IJCli..22.1757V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002IJCli..22.1757V"><span id="translatedtitle">The influence of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on the timing of pollen release in the Netherlands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>van Vliet, Arnold J. H.; Overeem, Aart; de Groot, Rudolf S.; Jacobs, Adrie F. G.; Spieksma, Frits T. M.</p> <p>2002-11-01</p> <p>In the last decade it has become clear that the timing of many phenological processes, like the start of flowering and leaf unfolding in spring, have <span class="hlt">changed</span>. The increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is believed to be the main cause. The earlier start of flowering will have consequences for the start of the pollen season, and thus for the start of the hay fever season. Millions of people world-wide will therefore experience the impact of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> in their daily lives during spring and summer. In this paper we analyse the relation between climate parameters, especially <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and the start of the pollen season in the western part of the Netherlands based on daily pollen counts of the Leiden University Medical Centre and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> measurements from 1969 till 2000 by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute in De Bilt. The results indicate that there is a strong correlation between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and start of the pollen season. An advance of the start of the pollen season of 3 to 22 days has been observed. The potential future <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the start of the pollen season under climate <span class="hlt">change</span> scenarios are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=heat+AND+effects&pg=2&id=EJ753589','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=heat+AND+effects&pg=2&id=EJ753589"><span id="translatedtitle">Effectiveness of Conceptual <span class="hlt">Change</span> Instruction on Understanding of Heat and <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Concepts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Baser, Mustafa; Geban, Omer</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This study investigated the differential effects of two modes of instructional program (conceptual <span class="hlt">change</span> oriented and traditionally designed) and gender difference on students' understanding of heat and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> concepts, and their attitudes toward science as a school subject. The subjects of this study consisted of 72 seventh grade students…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=312634','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=312634"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> and potato: Responses to carbon dioxide, <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and drought</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) ranks fifth worldwide in annual production among food crops. It is sensitive to warm <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (T) and water availability (W), two factors which are expected to be profoundly impacted by climate <span class="hlt">change</span>. Since 2003, over seven studies and 12 experiments have been co...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26559666','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26559666"><span id="translatedtitle">Prediction of color <span class="hlt">changes</span> in acetaminophen solution using the time-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> superposition principle.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mochizuki, Koji; Takayama, Kozo</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>A prediction method for color <span class="hlt">changes</span> based on the time-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> superposition principle (TTSP) was developed for acetaminophen solution. Color <span class="hlt">changes</span> of acetaminophen solution are caused by the degradation of acetaminophen, such as hydrolysis and oxidation. In principle, the TTSP can be applied to only thermal aging. Therefore, the impact of oxidation on the color <span class="hlt">changes</span> of acetaminophen solution was verified. The results of our experiment suggested that the oxidation products enhanced the color <span class="hlt">changes</span> in acetaminophen solution. Next, the color <span class="hlt">changes</span> of acetaminophen solution samples of the same head space volume after accelerated aging at various <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> were investigated using the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) LAB color space (a*, b*, L* and ΔE*ab), following which the TTSP was adopted to kinetic analysis of the color <span class="hlt">changes</span>. The apparent activation energies using the time-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> shift factor of a*, b*, L* and ΔE*ab were calculated as 72.4, 69.2, 72.3 and 70.9 (kJ/mol), respectively, which are similar to the values for acetaminophen hydrolysis reported in the literature. The predicted values of a*, b*, L* and ΔE*ab at 40 °C were obtained by calculation using Arrhenius plots. A comparison between the experimental and predicted values for each color parameter revealed sufficiently high R(2) values (>0.98), suggesting the high reliability of the prediction. The kinetic analysis using TTSP was successfully applied to predicting the color <span class="hlt">changes</span> under the controlled oxygen amount at any <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and for any length of time. PMID:26559666</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24348192','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24348192"><span id="translatedtitle">Air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> in the southern Tarim River Basin, China, 1964-2011.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhao, Benfu; Xu, Jianhua; Chen, Zhongsheng; Bai, Ling; Li, Peng</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">temperature</span> data from 3 meteorological stations (Kashi, Ruoqiang, and Hotan) in the South of Tarim River Basin (STRB) during 1964-2011 were analyzed by Mann-Kendall test and correlation analysis. The results from Mann-Kendall test show that the surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (ST), 850 hPa <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T850), and 700 hPa <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T700) exhibited upward trends, while 300 hPa <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (T300) revealed a downward trend. On the whole, the <span class="hlt">change</span> rate of ST, T850, T700, and T300 was 0.26~0.46°C/10a, 0.15~0.40°C/10a, 0.03~0.10°C/10a, and -0.38~-0.13°C/10a, respectively. For the periods, ST and T850 declined during 1964-1997 and then rose during 1998-2011. T700 declined during 1964-2005 and then rose during 2006-2011, while T300 rose from 1964 to 1970s and then declined. The results from correlation analysis show that T850 and T700 positively correlated with ST (P<0.01) at the all three stations and there was a negative correlation between T300 and ST at Hotan (P<0.1), while the correlation is not significant at Kashi and Ruoqiang. The results indicate that there were gradient differences in the response of upper-air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (UT) to ST <span class="hlt">change</span>. PMID:24348192</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016MAP...tmp...47A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016MAP...tmp...47A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the impact of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> on the climate of West Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Adeniyi, Mojisola O.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>This study assesses the impacts of warming/cooling of the Atlantic sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) on the climate of West Africa using Version 4.4 of Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.4) of International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy. The 1-2 K cooling and warming of the Atlantic SST both result in tripole <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">change</span> structure, having a northwest-southeast orientation over West Africa. Findings reveal that the responses of precipitation and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to the Atlantic SST cooling are opposite to those for the Atlantic SST warming and these responses intensify with increased warming/cooling of the Atlantic SST. The structure of the <span class="hlt">change</span> in climate is attributed to the response of atmospheric/soil moisture gradient and orientation of orography in West Africa.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRD..119.9376S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JGRD..119.9376S"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiative forcing and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> at Potsdam between 1893 and 2012</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stanhill, Gerald; Ahiman, Ori</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Radiative forcing in both the short and long-wave lengths reaching the Earth's surface accounted for more than 80% of the inter-annual variations in the mean yearly <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> measured at Potsdam, Germany, during the last 120 years. Three quarters of the increase in the long-wave flux was due to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the water content of the lower atmosphere; the remainder was attributed to increases in CO2 and other anthropogenic, radiatively active gases. Over the period radiative forcing in the short-wave flux slightly exceeded that in the long wave, but its effect on air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was much less as the climate sensitivity to atmospheric radiation, 0.187°C per W m-2, was three times greater than to short-wave global radiation. This anomalous finding, similar to that previously reported at two coastal sites, awaits explanation as does the complex interaction existing between radiative forcing and advection in determining <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm..tmp...52C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016IJBm..tmp...52C"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on ambulance dispatches and seasonal effect modification</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheng, Jian; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhao, Desheng; Xie, Mingyu; Yang, Huihui; Wen, Liying; Li, Kesheng; Su, Hong</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Ambulance dispatch is a proxy of acute health outcomes, and growing epidemiological evidence documented its relation to extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events. Research, however, on short-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and ambulance dispatches is scarce. We aimed to investigate the effect of short-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on ambulance dispatches and potential modification by season. Daily data on ambulance dispatch and weather factors were collected in Huainan, a Chinese inland city from December 2011 through December 2013. A Poison generalized linear regression model combined with distributed lag nonlinear model was constructed to examine the association of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> between neighboring days (TCN) with ambulance dispatches. The effect modification by season was also examined. There were 48,700 ambulance attendances during the study period. A statistically significant association of TCN with ambulance dispatches was observed. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> rise between neighboring days (TCN > 0) was associated with elevated adverse risk of ambulance dispatches, and the effects appeared to be acute (lag0, on the current day) and could last for at least a week, while <span class="hlt">temperature</span> drop between neighboring days (TCN < 0) had a protective effect. For a 1 °C increase of TCN at lag0 and lag06 (on the 7-day moving average), the risk of ambulance dispatches increased by 2 % (95 % CI 1-3 %) and 7 (95 % CI 1-13 %), respectively. Extreme TCN increase (95th percentile, 3.3 °C vs. 0 °C) at lag0 and lag05 was accompanied by 6 (95 % CI 3-8 %) and 27 % (95 % CI 12-44 %) increase in ambulance dispatches. Ambulance dispatches were more vulnerable to extremely great <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise in summer and autumn. TCN was adopted for the first time to quantify the impact of short-term <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on ambulance dispatches. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> drop between neighboring days (TCN < 0) had a protective effect on ambulance dispatches, while <span class="hlt">temperature</span> rise between neighboring days (TCN > 0) could acutely trigger the increase in</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED391171.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED391171.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Voice as a Lightning Rod for <span class="hlt">Dangerous</span> Thinking.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Elbow, Peter</p> <p></p> <p>"Voice" has become a <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> term. It has tended to imply romanticism, expressionism, and individualism--<span class="hlt">dangerous</span> things. There are, however, two safe or prudent thoughts that can be expressed about voice and writing and four <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> or adventuresome thoughts. The first point is that the choice between the use of terms such as text and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title30-vol1-sec77-511.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2010-title30-vol1-sec77-511.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 77.511 - <span class="hlt">Danger</span> signs at electrical installations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Danger</span> signs at electrical installations. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.511 <span class="hlt">Danger</span> signs at electrical installations. Suitable <span class="hlt">danger</span> signs shall be posted at all major electrical installations....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title30-vol1-sec77-511.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2013-title30-vol1-sec77-511.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 77.511 - <span class="hlt">Danger</span> signs at electrical installations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Danger</span> signs at electrical installations. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.511 <span class="hlt">Danger</span> signs at electrical installations. Suitable <span class="hlt">danger</span> signs shall be posted at all major electrical installations....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title30-vol1-sec77-511.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2012-title30-vol1-sec77-511.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 77.511 - <span class="hlt">Danger</span> signs at electrical installations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Danger</span> signs at electrical installations. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.511 <span class="hlt">Danger</span> signs at electrical installations. Suitable <span class="hlt">danger</span> signs shall be posted at all major electrical installations....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title30-vol1-sec77-511.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2011-title30-vol1-sec77-511.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 77.511 - <span class="hlt">Danger</span> signs at electrical installations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Danger</span> signs at electrical installations. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.511 <span class="hlt">Danger</span> signs at electrical installations. Suitable <span class="hlt">danger</span> signs shall be posted at all major electrical installations....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title30-vol1-sec77-511.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title30-vol1/pdf/CFR-2014-title30-vol1-sec77-511.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">30 CFR 77.511 - <span class="hlt">Danger</span> signs at electrical installations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Danger</span> signs at electrical installations. 77... UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 77.511 <span class="hlt">Danger</span> signs at electrical installations. Suitable <span class="hlt">danger</span> signs shall be posted at all major electrical installations....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title46-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title46-vol5-sec148-11.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title46-vol5/pdf/CFR-2011-title46-vol5-sec148-11.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">46 CFR 148.11 - Hazardous or potentially <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> characteristics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hazardous or potentially <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> characteristics. 148.11 Section 148.11 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) <span class="hlt">DANGEROUS</span> CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING General § 148.11 Hazardous or potentially <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> characteristics. (a)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGP53B1133J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGP53B1133J"><span id="translatedtitle">Reversible <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Curie <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> of Natural Titanomagnetites: Occurrences and Experimental Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jackson, M. J.; Bowles, J. A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We have previously reported that natural Al- and Mg- bearing titanomagnetites from historical pyroclastic deposits of Mount St Helens (1980) and of Novarupta (1912) have Curie <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> Tc that reflect their emplacement <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and cooling histories, and moreover that the physical effects can be reproduced experimentally through controlled <span class="hlt">temperature</span> histories in the laboratory. Curie <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> increase systematically as a function of time during moderate-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> (300-425° C) annealing, and then decrease rapidly on exposure to higher <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (500-550° C), and we have interpreted this behavior to be the result of <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-dependent cation redistribution between the tetrahedral and octahedral sites of the inverse spinel structure, with no <span class="hlt">change</span> in chemical composition or crystal structure. Here we present new results showing similar behavior in a variety of other natural titanomagnetite-bearing extrusive and intrusive rocks, including andesitic and dacitic lithic clasts within the 1993 pyroclastic deposits of Lascar Volcano; a feeder dike from the ~15 Ma Columbia River Basalt Group; and a troctolite from the basal cumulate layered peridotite-troctolite-gabbro sequence of the 1.1 Ga Duluth Complex. For each sample, initial measurement of susceptibility as a function of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (k(T) prior to any laboratory annealing) shows a substantial irreversibility, with a Curie <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during heating that exceeds that during subsequent cooling by a large amount, in some cases approaching 200°, with little or no <span class="hlt">change</span> in the room-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> susceptibility. As was the case with the Mt St Helens and Novarupta samples, the diminished Curie <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at the end of a thermomagnetic experiment can be increased again by heating for hours, days or weeks at moderate <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, which we interpret in terms of nonconvergent cation ordering. Tc then decreases again during subsequent k(T) measurements, which we attribute to disordering of the cation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014WRR....50.3253K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014WRR....50.3253K"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> impacts on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and magnitude of groundwater discharge from shallow, unconfined aquifers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kurylyk, Barret L.; MacQuarrie, Kerry T. B.; Voss, Clifford I.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Cold groundwater discharge to streams and rivers can provide critical thermal refuge for threatened salmonids and other aquatic species during warm summer periods. Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> may influence groundwater <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and flow rates, which may in turn impact riverine ecosystems. This study evaluates the potential impact of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on the timing, magnitude, and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of groundwater discharge from small, unconfined aquifers that undergo seasonal freezing and thawing. Seven downscaled climate scenarios for 2046-2065 were utilized to drive surficial water and energy balance models (HELP3 and ForHyM2) to obtain future projections for daily ground surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and groundwater recharge. These future surface conditions were then applied as boundary conditions to drive subsurface simulations of variably saturated groundwater flow and energy transport. The subsurface simulations were performed with the U.S. Geological Survey finite element model SUTRA that was recently modified to include the dynamic freeze-thaw process. The SUTRA simulations indicate a potential rise in the magnitude (up to 34%) and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (up to 3.6°C) of groundwater discharge to the adjacent river during the summer months due to projected increases in air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation. The thermal response of groundwater to climate <span class="hlt">change</span> is shown to be strongly dependent on the aquifer dimensions. Thus, the simulations demonstrate that the thermal sensitivity of aquifers and baseflow-dominated streams to decadal climate <span class="hlt">change</span> may be more complex than previously thought. Furthermore, the results indicate that the probability of exceeding critical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thresholds within groundwater-sourced thermal refugia may significantly increase under the most extreme climate scenarios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JBO....20g8001M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JBO....20g8001M"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of the <span class="hlt">change</span> in peak corneal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during excimer laser ablation in porcine eyes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mosquera, Samuel Arba; Verma, Shwetabh</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>The objective is to characterize the impact of different ablation parameters on the thermal load during corneal refractive surgery by means of excimer laser ablation on porcine eyes. One hundred eleven ablations were performed in 105 porcine eyes. Each ablation was recorded using infrared thermography and analyzed mainly based on the two tested local frequencies (40 Hz, clinical local frequency; 1000 Hz, no local frequency). The <span class="hlt">change</span> in peak corneal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was analyzed with respect to varying ablation parameters [local frequency, system repetition rate, pulse energy, optical zone (OZ) size, and refractive correction]. Transepithelial ablations were also compared to intrastromal ablations. The average of the baseline <span class="hlt">temperature</span> across all eyes was 20.5°C±1.1 (17.7°C to 22.2°C). Average of the <span class="hlt">change</span> in peak corneal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for all clinical local frequency ablations was 5.8°C±0.8 (p=3.3E-53 to baseline), whereas the average was 9.0°C±1.5 for all no local frequency ablations (p=1.8E-35 to baseline, 1.6E-16 to clinical local frequency ablations). A logarithmic relationship was observed between the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in peak corneal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> with increasing local frequency. For clinical local frequency, <span class="hlt">change</span> in peak corneal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was comparatively flat (r2=0.68 with a range of 1.5°C) with increasing system repetition rate and increased linearly with increasing OZ size (r2=0.95 with a range of 2.4°C). Local frequency controls help maintain safe corneal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase during excimer laser ablations. Transepithelial ablations induce higher thermal load compared to intrastromal ablations, indicating a need for stronger thermal controls in transepithelial refractive procedures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70159714','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70159714"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> impacts on the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and magnitude of groundwater discharge from shallow, unconfined aquifers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Kurylyk, Barret L.; MacQuarrie, Kerry T.B; Voss, Clifford I.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Cold groundwater discharge to streams and rivers can provide critical thermal refuge for threatened salmonids and other aquatic species during warm summer periods. Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> may influence groundwater <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and flow rates, which may in turn impact riverine ecosystems. This study evaluates the potential impact of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on the timing, magnitude, and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of groundwater discharge from small, unconfined aquifers that undergo seasonal freezing and thawing. Seven downscaled climate scenarios for 2046–2065 were utilized to drive surficial water and energy balance models (HELP3 and ForHyM2) to obtain future projections for daily ground surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and groundwater recharge. These future surface conditions were then applied as boundary conditions to drive subsurface simulations of variably saturated groundwater flow and energy transport. The subsurface simulations were performed with the U.S. Geological Survey finite element model SUTRA that was recently modified to include the dynamic freeze-thaw process. The SUTRA simulations indicate a potential rise in the magnitude (up to 34%) and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (up to 3.6°C) of groundwater discharge to the adjacent river during the summer months due to projected increases in air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation. The thermal response of groundwater to climate <span class="hlt">change</span> is shown to be strongly dependent on the aquifer dimensions. Thus, the simulations demonstrate that the thermal sensitivity of aquifers and baseflow-dominated streams to decadal climate <span class="hlt">change</span> may be more complex than previously thought. Furthermore, the results indicate that the probability of exceeding critical <span class="hlt">temperature</span> thresholds within groundwater-sourced thermal refugia may significantly increase under the most extreme climate scenarios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H32A..04M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H32A..04M"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Electricity Sector Vulnerabilities and Costs Associated with Water <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> Under Scenarios of Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Macknick, J.; Miara, A.; Brinkman, G.; Ibanez, E.; Newmark, R. L.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The reliability of the power sector is highly vulnerable to variability in the availability and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of water resources, including those that might result from potential climatic <span class="hlt">changes</span> or from competition from other users. In the past decade, power plants throughout the United States have had to shut down or curtail generation due to a lack of available water or from elevated water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. These disruptions in power plant performance can have negative impacts on energy security and can be costly to address. Analysis of water-related vulnerabilities requires modeling capabilities with high spatial and temporal resolution. This research provides an innovative approach to energy-water modeling by evaluating the costs and reliability of a power sector region under policy and climate <span class="hlt">change</span> scenarios that affect water resource availability and <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. This work utilizes results from a spatially distributed river water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> model coupled with a thermoelectric power plant model to provide inputs into an electricity production cost model that operates on a high spatial and temporal resolution. The regional transmission organization ISO-New England, which includes six New England states and over 32 Gigawatts of power capacity, is utilized as a case study. Hydrological data and power plant operations are analyzed over an eleven year period from 2000-2010 under four scenarios that include climate impacts on water resources and air <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> as well as strict interpretations of regulations that can affect power plant operations due to elevated water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Results of these model linkages show how the power sector's reliability and economic performance can be affected by <span class="hlt">changes</span> in water <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and water availability. The effective reliability and capacity value of thermal electric generators are quantified and discussed in the context of current as well as potential future water resource characteristics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22156246','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22156246"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying the health impacts of future <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in California</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ostro, Bart; Rauch, Stephen; Green, Shelley</p> <p>2011-11-15</p> <p>Background: Several epidemiological studies demonstrate associations between high summer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and increased mortality. However, the quantitative implications of projected future increases in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> have not been well characterized. Objective: This study quantifies the effects of projected future <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on both mortality and morbidity in California, including the potential effects of mitigation. Data and methods: We first estimated the association between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and mortality for populations close to weather stations throughout the state. These dose-response estimates for mortality were then combined with local measures of current and projected <span class="hlt">changes</span> in population, and projected <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, using a baseline of average <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> from 1961 to 1990, for the years 2025 and 2050. The latter were based on two greenhouse gas emissions scenarios (A2 and B1) developed for the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span>. In addition, we assessed the impacts of future adaptation through use of air conditioners. Several sensitivity analyses were conducted to determine the likely range of estimates. Results: These analyses indicate that for the high emissions scenario, the central estimate of annual premature mortality ranges from 2100 to 4300 for the year 2025 and from 6700 to 11,300 for 2050. The highest estimates are from the models that use age-specific dose-response functions, while the low estimates are from the models that adjust for ozone. Estimates using the low emissions scenario are roughly half of these estimates. Mitigation based on our estimates of the effects of 10% and 20% increase in air conditioner use would generate reductions of 16% and 33% in the years 2025 and 2050, respectively. Conclusion: Our estimates suggest significant public health impacts associated with future projected increases in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAESc.123...22C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JAESc.123...22C"><span id="translatedtitle">Bedrock <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as a potential method for monitoring <span class="hlt">change</span> in crustal stress: Theory, in situ measurement, and a case history</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Shunyun; Liu, Peixun; Liu, Liqiang; Ma, Jin</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Experimental studies have confirmed that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is notably affected by rock deformation; therefore, <span class="hlt">change</span> in crustal stress should be indicated by measurable <span class="hlt">changes</span> in bedrock <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. In this work, we investigated the possibility that the bedrock <span class="hlt">temperature</span> might be used to explore the state of crustal stress. In situ measurement of bedrock <span class="hlt">temperature</span> at three stations from 2011 to 2013 was used as the basis for the theoretical analysis of this approach. We began with theoretical analyses of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response to <span class="hlt">change</span> in crustal stress, and of the effect of heat conduction. This allowed distinction between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> produced by crustal stress (stress <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) from <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> caused by conduction from the land surface (conduction <span class="hlt">temperature</span>). Stress <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has two properties (synchronous response and a high-frequency feature) that allow it to be distinguished from conduction <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The in situ measurements confirmed that apparently synchronous <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the stress <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of the bedrock occur and that there exist obvious short-term components of the in situ bedrock <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, which agrees with theory. On 20 April 2013, an earthquake occurred 95 km away from the stations, fortuitously providing a case study by which to verify our method for obtaining the state of crustal stress using <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The results indicated that the level of local or regional seismic activity, representing the level of stress adjustment, largely accords with the stress <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. This means that the bedrock <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a tool that might be applied to understand the state of stress during seismogenic tectonics. Therefore, it is possible to record <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the state of crustal stress in a typical tectonic position by long-term observation of bedrock <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Hereby, the measurement of bedrock <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has become a new tool for gaining insight into <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the status of shallow crustal stress.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26108856','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26108856"><span id="translatedtitle">Contribution of <span class="hlt">changes</span> in atmospheric circulation patterns to extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Horton, Daniel E; Johnson, Nathaniel C; Singh, Deepti; Swain, Daniel L; Rajaratnam, Bala; Diffenbaugh, Noah S</p> <p>2015-06-25</p> <p>Surface weather conditions are closely governed by the large-scale circulation of the Earth's atmosphere. Recent increases in the occurrence of some extreme weather phenomena have led to multiple mechanistic hypotheses linking <span class="hlt">changes</span> in atmospheric circulation to increasing probability of extreme events. However, observed evidence of long-term <span class="hlt">change</span> in atmospheric circulation remains inconclusive. Here we identify statistically significant trends in the occurrence of atmospheric circulation patterns, which partially explain observed trends in surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes over seven mid-latitude regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Using self-organizing map cluster analysis, we detect robust circulation pattern trends in a subset of these regions during both the satellite observation era (1979-2013) and the recent period of rapid Arctic sea-ice decline (1990-2013). Particularly substantial influences include the contribution of increasing trends in anticyclonic circulations to summer and autumn hot extremes over portions of Eurasia and North America, and the contribution of increasing trends in northerly flow to winter cold extremes over central Asia. Our results indicate that although a substantial portion of the observed <span class="hlt">change</span> in extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> occurrence has resulted from regional- and global-scale thermodynamic <span class="hlt">changes</span>, the risk of extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> over some regions has also been altered by recent <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the frequency, persistence and maximum duration of regional circulation patterns. PMID:26108856</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20136017','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20136017"><span id="translatedtitle">[Relationships between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and microbial amount in inactive ice wedges in Yitulihe, Northeast China].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Si-Zhong; Jin, Hui-Jun; Wen, Xi; Luo, Dong-Liang; Yu, Shao-Peng</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>Ice-wedge is an indicator of paleoclimate <span class="hlt">change</span>. The delta18 O concentration in different layers could reflect the <span class="hlt">change</span> of paleotemperature during ice-wedge growth. In the late 1980s, inactive ice wedges were found in Yitulihe, Northeast China, which were the south-most ones so far and were important in climatic and environmental research. In this paper, the delta18 O concentration and microbial number in the inactive ice-wedges were analyzed by using stable isotope, fluorescence microscopy counting, and flow cytometer (FCM). During the ice-wedge growth in Yitulihe area, there were three short-term paleotemperature fluctuation, and three times of fluctuation in microbial amount in different ice-wedge layer. Correlation analysis indicated that there was a converging relationship between the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> and microbial amount in the ice-wedges. The lower the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> when ice-wedge layer formed, the less the microbes survived in the layer. PMID:20136017</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007GeoRL..3419709M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007GeoRL..3419709M"><span id="translatedtitle">Contributions of natural and anthropogenic forcing to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes over the United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meehl, Gerald A.; Arblaster, Julie M.; Tebaldi, Claudia</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>Observations averaged over the U.S. for the second half of the 20th century have shown a decrease of frost days, an increase in growing season length, an increase in the number of warm nights, and an increase in heat wave intensity. For the first three, a nine member multi-model ensemble shows similar <span class="hlt">changes</span> over the U.S. in 20th century experiments that combine anthropogenic and natural forcings, though the relative contributions of each are unclear. Here we show results from two global coupled climate models run with anthropogenic and natural forcings separately. Averaged over the continental U.S., they show that the observed <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the four <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes are accounted for with anthropogenic forcings, but not with natural forcings (even though there are some differences in the details of the forcings). This indicates that most of the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> extremes over the U.S. are likely due to human activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26773656','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26773656"><span id="translatedtitle">Adjustments of serine proteases of Daphnia pulex in response to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dölling, Ramona; Becker, Dörthe; Hawat, Susan; Koch, Marita; Schwarzenberger, Anke; Zeis, Bettina</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> considerably challenge aquatic invertebrates, and enhanced energy metabolism and protein turnover require adjustments of digestion. In Daphnia, the serine proteases chymotrypsin and trypsin represent the major proteolytic enzymes. Daphnia pulex acclimated to different <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions or subjected to acute heat stress showed increased expression level of serine proteases with rising <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. Transcripts of trypsin isoforms were always present in higher amounts than observed for chymotrypsin. Additionally, trypsin isoform transcripts were induced by elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> to a larger extent. Correspondingly, trypsin activity dominated in cold-acclimated animals. However, the enzymatic activity of chymotrypsin increased at elevated <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, whereas trypsin activity slightly decreased, resulting in a shift to dominating chymotrypsin activity in warm-acclimated animals. Zymograms revealed eight bands with proteolytic activity in the range of 20 to 86kDa. The single bands were assigned to trypsin or chymotrypsin activity applying specific inhibitors or from casein cleavage products identified by mass spectrometric analysis. The total amount of proteolytic activity was elevated with acclimation <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase and showed a transient decrease under acute heat stress. The contribution of the different isoforms to protein digestion indicated induction of chymotrypsin with increasing acclimation <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. For trypsin, the share of one isoform decreased with elevated <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, while another isoform was enhanced. Thus differential expression of serine proteases was observed in response to chronic and acute <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>. The observed phenotypic plasticity adjusts the set of active proteases to the altered needs of protein metabolism optimizing protein digestion for the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> conditions experienced in the habitat. PMID:26773656</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16959865','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16959865"><span id="translatedtitle">Body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> induced by huddling in breeding male emperor penguins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gilbert, Caroline; Maho, Yvon Le; Perret, Martine; Ancel, André</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Huddling is the key energy-saving mechanism for emperor penguins to endure their 4-mo incubation fast during the Antarctic winter, but the underlying physiological mechanisms of this energy saving have remained elusive. The question is whether their deep body (core) <span class="hlt">temperature</span> may drop in association with energy sparing, taking into account that successful egg incubation requires a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of about 36 degrees C and that ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> of up to 37.5 degrees C may be reached within tight huddles. Using data loggers implanted into five unrestrained breeding males, we present here the first data on body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> throughout the breeding cycle of emperor penguins, with particular emphasis on huddling bouts. During the pairing period, core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decreased progressively from 37.5 +/- 0.4 degrees C to 36.5 +/- 0.3 degrees C, associated with a significant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> drop of 0.5 +/- 0.3 degrees C during huddling. In case of egg loss, body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> continued to decrease to 35.5 +/- 0.4 degrees C, with a further 0.9 degrees C decrease during huddling. By contrast, a constant core <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of 36.9 +/- 0.2 degrees C was maintained during successful incubation, even during huddling, suggesting a trade-off between the demands for successful egg incubation and energy saving. However, such a limited drop in body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> cannot explain the observed energy savings of breeding emperor penguins. Furthermore, we never observed any signs of hyperthermia in huddling birds that were exposed to ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> as high as above 35 degrees C. We suggest that the energy savings of huddling birds is due to a metabolic depression, the extent of which depends on a reduction of body surface areas exposed to cold. PMID:16959865</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25712048','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25712048"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional-scale directional <span class="hlt">changes</span> in abundance of tree species along a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient in Japan.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Suzuki, Satoshi N; Ishihara, Masae I; Hidaka, Amane</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Climate <span class="hlt">changes</span> are assumed to shift the ranges of tree species and forest biomes. Such range shifts result from <span class="hlt">changes</span> in abundances of tree species or functional types. Owing to global warming, the abundance of a tree species or functional type is expected to increase near the colder edge of its range and decrease near the warmer edge. This study examined directional <span class="hlt">changes</span> in abundance and demographic parameters of forest trees along a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient, as well as a successional gradient, in Japan. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in the relative abundance of each of four functional types (evergreen broad-leaved, deciduous broad-leaved, evergreen temperate conifer, and evergreen boreal conifer) and the demography of each species (recruitment rate, mortality, and population growth rate) were analyzed in 39 permanent forest plots across the Japanese archipelago. Directional <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the relative abundance of functional types were detected along the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient. Relative abundance of evergreen broad-leaved trees increased near their colder range boundaries, especially in secondary forests, coinciding with the decrease in deciduous broad-leaved trees. Similarly, relative abundance of deciduous broad-leaved trees increased near their colder range boundaries, coinciding with the decrease in boreal conifers. These functional-type-level <span class="hlt">changes</span> were mainly due to higher recruitment rates and partly to the lower mortality of individual species at colder sites. This is the first report to show that tree species abundances in temperate forests are <span class="hlt">changing</span> directionally along a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient, which might be due to current or past climate <span class="hlt">changes</span> as well as recovery from past disturbances. PMID:25712048</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.C21B0568J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.C21B0568J"><span id="translatedtitle">Radiometric Approach for Estimating Relative <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Intra-Glacier Average <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jezek, K. C.; Johnson, J.; Aksoy, M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>NASA's IceBridge Project uses a suite of airborne instruments to characterize most of the important variables necessary to understand current ice sheet behavior and to predict future <span class="hlt">changes</span> in ice sheet volume. Derived geophysical quantities include: ice sheet surface elevation; ice sheet thickness; surface accumulation rate; internal layer stratigraphy; ocean bathymetry; basal geology. At present, internal ice sheet <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is absent from the parameters list, yet <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is a primary factor in determining the ease at which ice deforms internally and also the rate at which the ice flows across the base. In this paper, we present calculations to show that radiometry may provide clues to relative and perhaps absolute variations in ice sheet internal <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. We assume the Debye dielectric dispersion model driven by <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> estimated using the Robin model to compute radio frequency loss through the ice. We discretely layer the ice sheet to compute local emission, estimate interference effects and also take into account reflectivity at the surface and the base of the ice sheet. At this stage, we ignore scattering in the firn and we also ignore higher frequency dielectric dispersions along with direct current resistivities. We find some sensitivity between the depth-integrated brightness <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and average internal <span class="hlt">temperature</span> depending on the ice thickness and surface accumulation rate. Further, we observe that <span class="hlt">changing</span> from a frozen to a water based ice sheet alters the measured brightness <span class="hlt">temperature</span> again to a degree depending on the modeled ice sheet configuration. We go on to present SMOS satellite data acquired over Lake Vostok, Antarctica. The SMOS data suggest a relationship between relatively cool brightness <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and the location of the lake. We conclude with comments concerning the practicality and advantage of adding radiometry to the IceBridge instrument suite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT........88S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT........88S"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">changing</span> <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on coral reef health: Implications for management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Selig, Elizabeth Rose</p> <p></p> <p>Human-induced climate <span class="hlt">change</span> has already led to substantial <span class="hlt">changes</span> in a variety of ecosystems. Coral reefs are particularly vulnerable to rises in ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as a result of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> because they already live near their thermal limits. However, we know little about the spatial patterns of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies, areas of greater than usual <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, which cause coral mortality and increased rates of coral disease. These gaps in knowledge make it difficult to design effective management strategies for mitigating the effects of ocean warming. My dissertation research uses a combination of a new satellite ocean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> dataset, field surveys on coral health, and data on marine protected area (MPA) boundaries to analyze how ocean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are affecting coral reef health at regional and global scales. I discovered that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies are spatially and temporally variable from 1985-2005 even during El Nino events. They are also typically less than 50 km2, smaller than the resolution of many climate models. In addition, I found a strong relationship on the Great Barrier Reef between the number of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies and the number of cases of white syndrome, a prevalent coral disease. Results from this study suggest that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> anomalies are playing a major role in the observed decline of coral reefs over the last 30-40 years. This decline highlights the importance of determining whether MPAs, one of the most common management tools are effective in restoring coral cover. My analyses demonstrated that MPAs can confer some ecosystem resilience through fisheries management and land management practices at regional scales. Coral cover on reefs inside of MPAs did not <span class="hlt">change</span> over time, while unprotected reefs experienced declines in coral cover. However, MPAs do not moderate the effect of thermal stress on corals or reduce coral decline at rates that can offset losses from thermal stress and other major natural and human-caused disturbances</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720028423&hterms=Body+temperature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2528Body%2Btemperature%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19720028423&hterms=Body+temperature&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2528Body%2Btemperature%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">Deep-body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in rats exposed to chronic centrifugation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Oyama, J.; Platt, W. T.; Holland, V. B.</p> <p>1971-01-01</p> <p>Deep-body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was monitored continuously by implant biotelemetry in unrestrained rats before, during, and after exposure to prolonged and almost continuous centrifugation. Rats subjected to centrifugation for the first time at various G loads ranging up to 2.5 G show a rapid and significant fall in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> which is sustained below normal levels for periods as long as 3 days. The magnitude of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> fall and the recovery time were generally proportional to the G load imposed. The initial fall and recovery of body <span class="hlt">temperature</span> closely parallels the decrease in food consumption and to a lesser degree the decrease in body mass experienced by centrifuged rats. After exposure to 2 weeks of centrifugation, rats show either no <span class="hlt">change</span> or only a small transient increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> when decelerated to a lower G level or when returned to normal gravity. Rats repeatedly exposed to centrifugation consistently showed a smaller <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response compared to the initial exposure. Implant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> biotelemetry has been found to be a sensitive, reliable, and extremely useful technique for assessing the initial stress of centrifugation and in monitoring the time course of recovery and acclimation of rats to increase as well as*decrease G.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12223675','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12223675"><span id="translatedtitle">On the Mechanism of Reinitiation of Endogenous Crassulacean Acid Metabolism Rhythm by <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Changes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grams, TEE.; Borland, A. M.; Roberts, A.; Griffiths, H.; Beck, F.; Luttge, U.</p> <p>1997-04-01</p> <p>Under continuous light the endogenous Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) rhythm of Kalanchoe daigremontiana Hamet et Perrier de la Bathie disappears at high (>29.0[deg]C) or low (<8.0[deg]C) <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. We investigated the reinitiation of rhythmicity when <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was reduced from above the upper and increased from below the lower threshold level via measurements of (a) short-term <span class="hlt">changes</span> in carbon-isotope discrimination to illustrate shifts between C3 and C4 carboxylation in vivo, and (b) the malate sensitivity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in vitro. When the net CO2-exchange rhythm disappears at both <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, the instantaneous discrimination indicates low PEPC activity. Leaf malate concentration and osmolarity attain high and low values at low and high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, respectively. After small <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases or reductions from the low and high <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, respectively, the rhythm is reinitiated, with phases shifted by 180[deg] relative to each other. This can be related to the contrasting low and high leaf malate concentrations due to direct inhibition of PEPC and possibly also of the phosphorylation of PEPC by malate. The experimental results were satisfactorily simulated by a mathematical CAM-cycle model, with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> acting only on the passive efflux of malate from the vacuole. We stress the important role of the tonoplast in malate compartmentation and of malate itself for the reinitiation and generation of endogenous CAM rhythmicity. PMID:12223675</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25825546','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25825546"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing biochemical <span class="hlt">changes</span> during standardization of fermentation time and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for manufacturing quality black tea.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Samanta, Tanmoy; Cheeni, Vijayakumar; Das, Shrilekha; Roy, Amrita Basu; Ghosh, Bijoy Chandra; Mitra, Adinpunya</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In black tea manufacturing, one of the most important steps is fermentation which influences the quality of tea. The macerated tea leaves were fermented at various <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (20, 25, 30, 35 °C) for different duration. <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities, depletion patterns of individual catechins, differences in individual theaflavin levels and formation of thearubigins were measured in leaves during fermentation. Higher stability of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase enzymes was observed at lower <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (20 °C), and increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, led to enzyme instability. The rate of degradation of all the catechins was found to be fastest at 35 °C and slowest at 20 °C. The formation and depletion of individual theaflavins varied with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and fermentation duration. The time required for the formation of maximum total theaflavins (TF) was highest at lower <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and this time duration also varied for different theaflavins formation. Maximum amount of thearubigins (TR) content and liquor colour development was observed at 35 °C, and decrease in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> reduced thearubigins accumulation. However, maximum brightness as well as TF/TR ratio was obtained at 20 °C, which suggests that fermentation at lower <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is suitable for manufacturing quality black tea. PMID:25825546</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H13C1224G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H13C1224G"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing the Impact of Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> on Stream <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> in the Methow River Basin, Washington</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gangopadhyay, S.; Caldwell, R. J.; Lai, Y.; Bountry, J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The Methow River in Washington offers prime spawning habitat for salmon and other cold-water fishes. During the summer months, low streamflows on the Methow result in cutoff side channels that limit the habitat available to these fishes. Future climate scenarios of increasing air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and decreasing precipitation suggest the potential for increasing loss of habitat and fish mortality as stream <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> rise in response to lower flows and additional heating. To assess the impacts of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the Methow River, the US Bureau of Reclamation is developing an hourly time-step, two-dimensional hydraulic model of the confluence of the Methow and Chewuch Rivers above Winthrop. The model will be coupled with a physical stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> model to generate spatial representations of stream conditions conducive for fish habitat. In this study, we develop a statistical framework for generating stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> time series from global climate model (GCM) and hydrologic model outputs. Regional observations of stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and hydrometeorological conditions are used to develop statistical models of daily mean stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the Methow River at Winthrop, WA. <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and precipitation projections from 10 global climate models (GCMs) are coupled with the streamflow generated using the University of Washington Variable Infiltration Capacity model. The projections serve as input to the statistical models to generate daily time series of mean daily stream <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Since the output from the GCM, VIC, and statistical models offer only daily data, a k-nearest neighbor (k-nn) resampling technique is employed to select appropriate proportion vectors for disaggregating the Winthrop daily flow and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to an upstream location on each of the rivers above the confluence. Hourly proportion vectors are then used to disaggregate the daily flow and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to hourly values to be used in the hydraulic model. Historical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E.117B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E.117B"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of sea level and sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the Black Sea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Betul Avsar, Nevin; Jin, Shuanggen; Kutoglu, Hakan; Erol, Bihter</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The Black Sea is a nearly closed sea with limited interaction with the Mediterranean Sea through the Turkish Straits. Measurement of sea level <span class="hlt">change</span> will provide constraints on the water mass balance and thermal expansion of seawaters in response to climate <span class="hlt">change</span>. In this paper, sea level <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the Black Sea are investigated between January 1993 and December 2014 using multi-mission satellite altimetry data and sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SST) data. Here, the daily Maps of Sea Level Anomaly (MSLA) gridded with a 1/8°x1/8° spatial resolution from AVISO and the NOAA 1/4° daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> (OISST) Anomaly data set are used. The annual cycles of sea level and sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> reach the maximum values in November and January, respectively. The trend is 3.16±0.77 mm/yr for sea level <span class="hlt">change</span> and -0.06±0.01°C/yr for sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> during the same 22-year period. The observed sea level rise is highly correlated with sea surface warming for the same time periods. In addition, the geographical distribution of the rates of the Black Sea level and SST <span class="hlt">changes</span> between January 1993 and December 2014 are further analyzed, showing a good agreement in the eastern Black Sea. The rates of sea level rise and sea surface warming are larger in the eastern part than in the western part except in the northwestern Black Sea. Finally, the temporal correlation between sea level and SST time series are presented based on the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16..101K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16..101K"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitivity of polar stratospheric cloud formation to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in water vapour and <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khosrawi, F.; Urban, J.; Lossow, S.; Stiller, G.; Weigel, K.; Braesicke, P.; Pitts, M. C.; Rozanov, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Murtagh, D.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>More than a decade ago it was suggested that a cooling of stratospheric <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> by 1 K or an increase of 1 ppmv of stratospheric water vapour could promote denitrification, the permanent removal of nitrogen species from the stratosphere by solid polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particles. In fact, during the two Arctic winters 2009/10 and 2010/11 the strongest denitrification in the recent decade was observed. Sensitivity studies along air parcel trajectories are performed to test how a future stratospheric water vapour (H2O) increase of 1 ppmv or a <span class="hlt">temperature</span> decrease of 1 K would affect PSC formation. We perform our study based on measurements made during the Arctic winter 2010/11. Air parcel trajectories were calculated 6 days backward in time based on PSCs detected by CALIPSO (Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder satellite observations). The sensitivity study was performed on single trajectories as well as on a trajectory ensemble. The sensitivity study shows a clear prolongation of the potential for PSC formation and PSC existence when the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the stratosphere is decreased by 1 K and water vapour is increased by 1 ppmv. Based on 15 years of satellite measurements (2000-2014) from UARS/HALOE, Envisat/MIPAS, Odin/SMR, Aura/MLS, Envisat/SCIAMACHY and SCISAT/ACE-FTS it is further investigated if there is a decrease in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and/or increase of water vapour (H2O) observed in the polar regions similar to that observed at midlatitudes and in the tropics. Performing linear regression analyses we derive from the Envisat/MIPAS (2002-2012) and Aura/MLS (2004-2014) observations predominantly positive <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the potential <span class="hlt">temperature</span> range 350 to 1000 K. The linear <span class="hlt">changes</span> in water vapour derived from Envisat/MIPAS observations are largely insignificant, while those from Aura/MLS are mostly significant. For the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> neither of the two instruments indicate any significant <span class="hlt">changes</span>. Given the strong inter-annual variation observed in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011epsc.conf.1860R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011epsc.conf.1860R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Changes</span> in size of nano phase iron inclusions with <span class="hlt">temperature</span>: Experimental simulation of space weathering effects at high <span class="hlt">temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rout, S. S.; Moroz, L. V.; Stockhoff, T.; Baither, D.; Bischoff, A.; Hiesinger, H.</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>The mean size of nano phase iron inclusions (npFe0), produced during the space weathering of iron-rich regolith of airless solar system bodies, significantly affects visible and near-infrared (VNIR) spectra. To experimentally simulate the <span class="hlt">change</span> in the size of npFe0 inclusions with increasing <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, we produced sputter film deposits on a silicon dioxide substrate by sputtering a pressed pellet prepared from fine olivine powder using 600V Ar+ ions. This silicon dioxide substrate covered with the deposit was later heated to 450°C for 24 hours in an oven under argon atmosphere. Initial TEM analysis of the unheated silicon dioxide substrate showed the presence of a ~ 50 nm-thick layer of an amorphous deposit with nano clusters that has not yet been identified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPRS..111...22B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPRS..111...22B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Changes</span> in thermal infrared spectra of plants caused by <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and water stress</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Buitrago, Maria F.; Groen, Thomas A.; Hecker, Christoph A.; Skidmore, Andrew K.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Environmental stress causes <span class="hlt">changes</span> in leaves and the structure of plants. Although physiological adaptations to stress by plants have been explored, the effect of stress on the spectral properties in the thermal part of the electromagnetic spectrum (3-16 μm) has not yet been investigated. In this research two plant species (European beech, Fagus sylvatica and rhododendron, Rhododendron cf. catawbiense) that both grow naturally under <span class="hlt">temperature</span> limited conditions were selected, representing deciduous and evergreen plants respectively. Besides TIR spectra, Leaf Water Content (LWC) and cuticle thickness were measured as possible variables that can explain the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in TIR spectra. The results demonstrated that both species, when exposed to either water or <span class="hlt">temperature</span> stress, showed significant <span class="hlt">changes</span> in their TIR spectra. The <span class="hlt">changes</span> in TIR in response to stress were similar within a species, regardless of the stress imposed on them. However, <span class="hlt">changes</span> in TIR spectra differed between species. For rhododendron emissivity in TIR increased under stress while for beech it decreased. Both species showed depletion of Leaf Water Content (LWC) under stress, ruling LWC out as a main cause for the <span class="hlt">change</span> in the TIR spectra. Cuticle thickness remained constant for beech, but increased for rhododendron. This suggests that <span class="hlt">changes</span> in emissivity may be linked to <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the cuticle thickness and possibly the structure of cuticle. It is known that spectral <span class="hlt">changes</span> in this region have a close connection with microstructure and biochemistry of leaves. We propose detailed measurements of these <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the cuticle to analyze the effect of microstructure on TIR spectra.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/318267','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/318267"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> acclimation in the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus): biochemical and organ weight <span class="hlt">changes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Steffen, J M; Roberts, J C</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>1. Adult Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were acclimated to 5 +/- 1, 24 +/- 1 and 34 +/- 1 degrees C for 6-8 weeks. 2. Body weights of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> acclimated gerbils did not differ significantly from controls. Organ wt/body wt ratios of liver, kidney and heart increased in cold-acclimated and decreased in heat-acclimated gerbils. Adrenal wt/body wt ratio increased in the cold and was unchanged in the heat. Relative weights of brain, spleen, lungs, brown fat and ovaries + uterus did not <span class="hlt">change</span> with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> acclimation. 3. Cold acclimation produced significant increases in specific and total activity of brown fat alpha GPO and liver SO and AAO and in total activity of kidney SO; a significant decrease in liver mitochondrial ADP/O ratio with succinate as substrate; and no <span class="hlt">change</span> in brown fat SO or liver alpha KGO. 4. Heat acclimation produced significant decreases in specific and total activity of liver and kidney SO, and in total activity of brown fat SO and alpha GPO, and liver AAO and alpha KGO. 5. The combined biochemical and organ wt <span class="hlt">changes</span> seen in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-acclimated gerbils suggest that this species is capable of altering its metabolic thermogenic potential in response to a wide range of ambient <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. PMID:318267</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007RSTEd..25..115B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007RSTEd..25..115B"><span id="translatedtitle">Effectiveness of conceptual <span class="hlt">change</span> instruction on understanding of heat and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> concepts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baser, Mustafa; Geban, Ömer</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>This study investigated the differential effects of two modes of instructional program (conceptual <span class="hlt">change</span> oriented and traditionally designed) and gender difference on students' understanding of heat and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> concepts, and their attitudes toward science as a school subject. The subjects of this study consisted of 72 seventh grade students from two General Science Classes taking the course from the same teacher. Each teaching method was randomly assigned to one class. The experimental group received reinforcement via the conceptual <span class="hlt">change</span> texts while the control group utilized traditionally designed science texts over a period of four weeks. Analysis of covariance was used. Logical thinking ability was taken as a covariate. The results showed that the conceptual <span class="hlt">change</span> oriented instruction produced significantly greater achievement in understanding of heat and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> concepts. The result for science attitudes as a school subject showed no significant difference between the experimental and control groups. Also, no significant difference was found between the performance of females and that of males in terms of learning heat and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> concepts and attitudes toward science, but the interaction of treatment regarding to gender was significant for learning the concepts. In addition, it was found that students' logical thinking ability accounted for a significant portion of variation in heat and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> concepts achievement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27316627','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27316627"><span id="translatedtitle">Projection of future <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-related mortality due to climate and demographic <span class="hlt">changes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Jae Young; Kim, Ho</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Understanding the effects of global climate <span class="hlt">change</span> from both environmental and human health perspectives has gained great importance. Particularly, studies on the direct effect of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase on future mortality have been conducted. However, few of those studies considered population <span class="hlt">changes</span>, and although the world population is rapidly aging, no previous study considered the effect of society aging. Here we present a projection of future <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-related mortality due to both climate and demographic <span class="hlt">changes</span> in seven major cities of South Korea, a fast aging country, until 2100; we used the HadGEM3-RA model under four Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios (RCP 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5) and the United Nations world population prospects under three fertility scenarios (high, medium, and low). The results showed markedly increased mortality in the elderly group, significantly increasing the overall future mortality. In 2090s, South Korea could experience a four- to six-time increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-related mortality compared to that during 1992-2010 under four different RCP scenarios and three different fertility variants, while the mortality is estimated to increase only by 0.5 to 1.5 times assuming no population aging. Therefore, not considering population aging may significantly underestimate <span class="hlt">temperature</span> risks. PMID:27316627</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080030109&hterms=Deciduous+forest&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3D%2528Deciduous%2Bforest%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20080030109&hterms=Deciduous+forest&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3D%2528Deciduous%2Bforest%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">Alpine forest-tundra ecotone response to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span>,Sayan Mountains, Siberia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ranson, K Jon; Kharuk, Vyetcheslav I.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Models of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> predict shifts of vegetation zones. Tree response to climate trends is most likely observable in the forest-tundra ecotone, where <span class="hlt">temperature</span> mainly limits tree growth. There is evidence of vegetation <span class="hlt">change</span> on the northern treeline However, observations on alpine tree line response are controversial. In this NEESPI related study we show that during the past three decades in the forest-tundra ecotone of the Sayan Mountains, Siberia, there was an increase in forest stand crown closure, regeneration propagation into the alpine tundra, and transformation of prostrate Siberian pine and fir into arboreal forms. We found that these <span class="hlt">changes</span> occurred since the mid 1980s, and strongly correlates with positive <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (and to a lesser extent, precipitation) trends. Improving climate for forest growth( i.e., warmer <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> and increased precipitation) provides competitive advantages to Siberian pine in the alpine forest-tundra ecotone, as well as in areas typically dominated by larch, where it has been found to be forming a secondary canopy layer. Substitution of deciduous conifer, larch, for evergreen conifers, decreases albedo and provides positive feedback for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4903..135B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002SPIE.4903..135B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in different groups of teeth during cavity preparaton with Er:YAG laser</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brugnera J"nior, Aldo, Jr.; Marchesan, Melissa A.; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Guerisoli, Danilo Z.; Pécora, Jesus D.</p> <p>2002-10-01</p> <p>Objective: Various studies have recommended parameters for the use of Er:YAG laser for the treatment of enamel and dentis caries; however, none have studied the increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> caused by laser in individual groups of teeth. Summary Background Data: The effect of preparation with Er:YAG laser on the pulp <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> is one of the major problems in using the laser for preparation of dental hard tissue. Methods: The authors studied the intrapulpar <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in 10 incisors, 10 canines, 10 premolars and 10 molars during Class V cavity preparation with focused short pulse (250 μs/pulse) and very short pulse (80-120 μs/pulse) Er:YAG laser, using the following parameters: 10 Hz frequency, 500 mJ per pulse, 6 s, 10 mm distance, 25 ml/min water flow, at 23°C and 65% humidity. Results: The greatest increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was foundin the incisors and the least increase in the molars at both pulse modes. Conclusions:The very short pulse mode caused less of an increase in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the pulp chamber in all teeth than the short pulse mode.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25343296','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25343296"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of environmental <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> on mercury absorption in aquatic organisms with respect to climate warming.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pack, Eun Chul; Lee, Seung Ha; Kim, Chun Huem; Lim, Chae Hee; Sung, Dea Gwan; Kim, Mee Hye; Park, Ki Hwan; Lim, Kyung Min; Choi, Dal Woong; Kim, Suhng Wook</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Because of global warming, the quantity of naturally generated mercury (Hg) will increase, subsequently methylation of Hg existing in seawater may be enhanced, and the content of metal in marine products rise which consequently results in harm to human health. Studies of the effects of <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on Hg absorption have not been adequate. In this study, in order to observe the effects of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> on Hg absorption, inorganic Hg or methylmercury (MeHg) was added to water tanks containing loaches. Loach survival rates decreased with rising <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, duration, and exposure concentrations in individuals exposed to inorganic Hg and MeHg. The MeHg-treated group died sooner than the inorganic Hg-exposed group. The total Hg and MeHg content significantly increased with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and time in both metal-exposed groups. The MeHg-treated group had higher metal absorption rates than inorganic Hg-treated loaches. The correlation coefficients for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> elevation and absorption were significant in both groups. The results of this study may be used as basic data for assessing in vivo hazards from environmental <span class="hlt">changes</span> such as climate warming. PMID:25343296</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JOUC....6..275Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007JOUC....6..275Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Stress responses to rapid <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> of the juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yunwei, Dong; Tingting, Ji; Shuanglin, Dong</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>Activities of hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and Hsp70 level were measured to evaluate the response of the commercially important sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) to rapid <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in laboratory. Animals were subjected to a higher <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (from 10 to 20°C) (Tinc treatment) or to a lower <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (from 20 to 10°C) (Tdec treatment) for 72h. At 1, 3, 12, 24, 72h of exposure, animals were removed and prepared for further analysis. Results showed that the effect of acute <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> on enzyme activities was significant. In Tinc treatment, activities of SOD and CAT increased immediately. The significant enhancement of SOD and CAT activities suggested that oxidative stress increases significantly when ambient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increasing from 10 to 20°C. The up-regulation of Hsp70 in Tinc and Tdec treatments indicated that Hsp70 was a bioindicator of thermal stress in the sea cucumber, and the expression pattern depended on the thermal treatment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26814612','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26814612"><span id="translatedtitle">Isoflavone Profiles and Kinetic <span class="hlt">Changes</span> during Ultra-High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Processing of Soymilk.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yan; Chang, Sam K C</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Isoflavone profile is greatly affected by heating process. However, kinetic analyses of isoflavone conversion and degradation using a continuous industry processing method have never been characterized. In this study, Proto soybean was soaked and blanched at 80 °C for 2 min and then processed into soymilk, which underwent UHT (ultra-high <span class="hlt">temperature</span>) at 135 to 150 °C for 10 to 50 s with a pilot plant-scale Microthermics processor. The isoflavone profile was determined at different time/<span class="hlt">temperature</span> combinations. The results showed that all isoflavone forms exhibited distinct <span class="hlt">changing</span> patterns over time. In the soymilk under UHT conditions, the degradation (disappearance) of malonyldaizin and malonylgenistin exhibited first-order kinetics with activation energies of 59 and 84 kj/mole, respectively. At all UHT <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, malonylgenistin showed higher rate constants than malonyldaidzin. However, malonylglycitin <span class="hlt">changed</span> irregularly under these UHT <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>. The increase of genistin, daidzin, glycitein and acetlydaidzin during heating demonstrated zero-order kinetics and the rate constants increased with <span class="hlt">temperature</span> except for the conditions of 145 to 150 °C for 50 s. Overall, genistein series exhibited higher stability than daidzein series. Under all UHT conditions, total isoflavone decreased from 12% to 24%. PMID:26814612</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EaFut...4..270W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EaFut...4..270W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Future Arctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> resulting from a range of aerosol emissions scenarios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wobus, Cameron; Flanner, Mark; Sarofim, Marcus C.; Moura, Maria Cecilia P.; Smith, Steven J.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The Arctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response to emissions of aerosols -- specifically black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), and sulfate -- depends on both the sector and the region where these emissions originate. Thus, the net Arctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response to global aerosol emissions reductions will depend strongly on the blend of emissions sources being targeted. We use recently published equilibrium Arctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response factors for BC, OC, and sulfate to estimate the range of present-day and future Arctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> from seven different aerosol emissions scenarios. Globally, Arctic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> calculated from all of these emissions scenarios indicate that present-day emissions from the domestic and transportation sectors generate the majority of present-day Arctic warming from BC. However, in all of these scenarios, this warming is more than offset by cooling resulting from SO2 emissions from the energy sector. Thus, long-term climate mitigation strategies that are focused on reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from the energy sector could generate short-term, aerosol-induced Arctic warming. A properly phased approach that targets BC-rich emissions from the transportation sector as well as the domestic sectors in key regions -- while simultaneously working toward longer-term goals of CO2 mitigation -- could potentially avoid some amount of short-term Arctic warming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160000983&hterms=health&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dhealth','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20160000983&hterms=health&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dhealth"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> and Fetal Health: The Impacts of Exposure to Extreme <span class="hlt">Temperatures</span> in New York City</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ngo, Nicole S.; Horton, Radley M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background: Climate <span class="hlt">change</span> is projected to increase the frequency, intensity, and duration of heat waves while reducing cold extremes, yet few studies have examined the relationship between <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and fetal health. Objectives: We estimate the impacts of extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> on birth weight and gestational age in Manhattan, a borough in New York City, and explore differences by socioeconomic status (SES). Methods: We combine average daily <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from 1985 to 2010 with birth certificate data in Manhattan for the same time period. We then generate 33 downscaled climate model time series to project impacts on fetal health. Results: We find exposure to an extra day where average <span class="hlt">temperature</span> 25 F and 85 F during pregnancy is associated with a 1.8 and 1.7 g (respectively) reduction in birth weight, but the impact varies by SES, particularly for extreme heat, where teen mothers seem most vulnerable. We find no meaningful, significant effect on gestational age. Using projections of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> from these climate models, we project average net reductions in birth weight in the 2070- 2099 period of 4.6 g in the business-as-usual scenario. Conclusions: Results suggest that increasing heat events from climate <span class="hlt">change</span> could adversely impact birth weight and vary by SES.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890005136','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890005136"><span id="translatedtitle">Observations of stratospheric <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> coincident with the recent Antarctic ozone depletions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Randel, William J.; Newman, Paul A.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A high degree of correlation between the recent decline in Antarctic total ozone and cooling of the stratosphere during Austral spring has been noted in several recent studies (e.g., Sekiguchi, 1986; Angel, 1986). This study analyzes the observed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> trends in detail, focusing on the spatial and temporal aspects of the observed cooling. Ozone losses and stratospheric cooling can be correlated for several reasons: (1) ozone losses (from an unspecified cause) will directly reduce <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> due to decreased solar ultraviolet absorption (Shine, 1986), and/or (2) <span class="hlt">changes</span> in both ozone and <span class="hlt">temperature</span> structure due to modification of stratospheric circulation patterns (Mahlman and Fels, 1986). In order to scrutinize various ozone depletion scenarios, detailed information on the observed <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> is necessary; the goal is to provide such data. The data used are National Meteorological Center (NMC) Climate Analysis Center (CAC) derived <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, covering 1000 to 1 mb (0 to 48 km), for the period 1979 to 1987. Discussions on data origin and quality (assessed by extensive comparisons with radiosonde observations), along with other details of these observations, can be found in Newman and Randel (1988).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13A3135G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A13A3135G"><span id="translatedtitle">The Role of Anthropogenic-Induced Surface <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Change</span> on Regional Enhanced Warming over East Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guan, X.; Huang, J.; Guo, R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>In this study, the long-term trend and decadal variability of surface air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SAT) are studied by using observation data from 1901-2009. We found that the warming trends of the semi-arid regions are higher than other lands, which have increased 2.42°C as compared to the global annual mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase of 1.13°C over land. To investigate the causes of Enhanced Semi-Arid Warming (ESAW), we used an advanced dynamic-adjusted method proposed by Wallace et al. (2012) to analyse the contribution of dynamically-induced and anthropogenic-induced SAT <span class="hlt">changes</span> to ESAW. In the process of dynamic adjustment, the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> has been divided into two parts, one for the dynamic forcing induced <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, and the other for the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> associated with the build-up of greenhouse gases and the other various radiative forcing. The results show that the anthropogenic-warming peak over semi-arid region plays the main role in the ESAW. Such anthropogenic warming peak may be related to reduction of snow cover due to black carbon (BC) emission by fuels for winter residential heating. Besides the impact of BC in snow, the agricultural mulch creation, wind farms and other types of human activities may also make attribution to local SAT <span class="hlt">changes</span> that need to be further studied.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140011129','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140011129"><span id="translatedtitle">Global and Regional <span class="hlt">Temperature-change</span> Potentials for Near-term Climate Forcers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Collins, W.J.; Fry, M.M.; Yu, H.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.; Shindell, D. T.; West, J. J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We examine the climate effects of the emissions of near-term climate forcers (NTCFs) from 4 continental regions (East Asia, Europe, North America and South Asia) using results from the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution Source-Receptor global chemical transport model simulations. We address 3 aerosol species (sulphate, particulate organic matter and black carbon) and 4 ozone precursors (methane, reactive nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds and carbon monoxide). We calculate the global climate metrics: global warming potentials (GWPs) and global <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> potentials (GTPs). For the aerosols these metrics are simply time-dependent scalings of the equilibrium radiative forcings. The GTPs decrease more rapidly with time than the GWPs. The aerosol forcings and hence climate metrics have only a modest dependence on emission region. The metrics for ozone precursors include the effects on the methane lifetime. The impacts via methane are particularly important for the 20 yr GTPs. Emissions of NOx and VOCs from South Asia have GWPs and GTPs of higher magnitude than from the other Northern Hemisphere regions. The analysis is further extended by examining the <span class="hlt">temperature-change</span> impacts in 4 latitude bands, and calculating absolute regional <span class="hlt">temperature-change</span> potentials (ARTPs). The latitudinal pattern of the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response does not directly follow the pattern of the diagnosed radiative forcing. We find that <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in the Arctic latitudes appear to be particularly sensitive to BC emissions from South Asia. The northern mid-latitude <span class="hlt">temperature</span> response to northern mid-latitude emissions is approximately twice as large as the global average response for aerosol emission, and about 20-30% larger than the global average for methane, VOC and CO emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..3819706L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..3819706L"><span id="translatedtitle">Land use <span class="hlt">change</span> exacerbates tropical South American drought by sea surface <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Jung-Eun; Lintner, Benjamin R.; Boyce, C. Kevin; Lawrence, Peter J.</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Observations of tropical South American precipitation over the last three decades indicate an increasing rainfall trend to the north and a decreasing trend to the south. Given that tropical South America has experienced significant land use <span class="hlt">change</span> over the same period, it is of interest to assess the extent to which <span class="hlt">changing</span> land use may have contributed to the precipitation trends. Simulations of the National Center for Atmospheric Research Community Atmosphere Model (NCAR CAM3) analyzed here suggest a non-negligible impact of land use on this precipitation behavior. While forcing the model by imposed historical sea surface <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> (SSTs) alone produces a plausible north-south precipitation dipole over South America, NCAR CAM substantially underestimates the magnitude of the observed southern decrease in rainfall unless forcing associated with human-induced land use <span class="hlt">change</span> is included. The impact of land use <span class="hlt">change</span> on simulated precipitation occurs primarily during the local dry season and in regions of relatively low annual-mean rainfall, as the incidence of very low monthly-mean accumulations (<10 mm/month) increases significantly when land use <span class="hlt">change</span> is imposed. Land use <span class="hlt">change</span> also contributes to the simulated <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase by shifting the surface turbulent flux partitioning to favor sensible over latent heating. Moving forward, continuing pressure from deforestation in tropical South America will likely increase the occurrence of significant drought beyond what would be expected by anthropogenic warming alone and in turn compound biodiversity decline from habitat loss and fragmentation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18754206','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18754206"><span id="translatedtitle">Referrals for expert psychiatric opinion on <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> offenders: a survey of instructions regarding defendants liable on conviction to a statutory assessment of <span class="hlt">dangerousness</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bickle, Andy; Stankard, Paul</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>The Criminal Justice Act 2003 ('the Act') introduced significant <span class="hlt">changes</span> to the sentencing of violent and sexual offenders. The Act brought in a statutory assessment of <span class="hlt">dangerousness</span> which includes a statutory assumption of <span class="hlt">dangerousness</span> ('SAD') for certain repeat offenders. Previously, expert psychiatric witnesses have commented on whether a defendant demonstrated sufficient mental instability to warrant a discretionary life sentence. Under this regime, psychiatric evidence is adduced to the assessment of <span class="hlt">dangerousness</span>, especially for the purpose of supporting or undermining a rebuttal of the statutory assumption. This study investigated how legal referrers are instructing psychiatrists in cases where on conviction there will be an automatic assumption that the offender is <span class="hlt">dangerous</span>. The aim was to determine whether the requirements of the new law are being outlined to expert witnesses and how much notice is being given for the production of evidence. All referrals to a medium secure unit were surveyed over two years. Fifty-one referrals concerned defendants liable to the SAD on conviction. The majority of the SAD referrals (40 referrals = 78.4%) included no request to comment on risk or <span class="hlt">dangerousness</span>. This figure did not fall over time as the Act became established. Only a small minority (5.9%) of instructions directed the psychiatrist to the relevant statutory provisions. On average, adequate notice appeared to be given for the production of evidence (45.6 days). In the authors' view, legal referrers should make more explicit the requirements of psychiatric evidence in such cases. New legislation currently before Parliament would amend further the sentencing of such offenders, but there would remain a statutory assessment of <span class="hlt">dangerousness</span> as the basis of sentencing violent and sexual offenders. Psychiatrists wishing to act as expert witnesses should be aware of the contents of the statutory assessment and be prepared to liaise with legal counsel to clarify</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1320425','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1320425"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Deep Muscles of Humans During Upper and Lower Extremity Exercise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wirth, Valerie J.; Van Lunen, Bonnie L.; Mistry, Dilaawar; Saliba, Ethan; McCue, Frank C.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Objective: To examine the effect of 15 minutes of upper and lower extremity exercise on raising intramuscular <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in the triceps surae to 39 ° C to 45 ° C (the therapeutic range). Design and Setting: Intramuscular <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was measured 5 cm deep in the triceps surae using a 23-gauge thermistor needle microprobe connected to a monitor. Each subject was tested under 3 conditions: 15 minutes of rest, 15 minutes of jogging on a treadmill, and 15 minutes of handpedaling an upper-body ergometer. Exercise bouts were performed at 70% of each subject's maximum heart rate. Subjects: Six males, either sedentary or recreational athletes (age = 21.3 ± 2.9 years; ht = 176.8 ± 6.0 cm; wt = 72.7 ± 11.6 kg; resting heart rate = 57.8 ± 6.74 bpm; target heart rate = 156.5 ± 3.0 bpm), volunteered to participate in this experiment. Measurements: Intramuscular <span class="hlt">temperature</span> was measured at a depth of 5 cm before and after each test condition. Results: Data analyses consisted of analyses of variance with repeated measures and a Tukey post hoc test (P < .05). The results showed a significant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increase over baseline after exercise on the treadmill (2.2 ° C ± 0.63 ° C); however, it did not yield <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases ≥ 39 ° C. No significant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> occurred after exercise on the upper-body ergometer (-0.45 ° C ± 0.80 ° C). Conclusions: Active exercise increased intramuscular <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in working muscles but did not affect intramuscular <span class="hlt">temperature</span> in nonworking muscles. In addition, 15 minutes of jogging on a treadmill at 70% of maximum heart rate was not sufficient to raise intramuscular <span class="hlt">temperature</span> to 39 ° C to 45 ° C. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:16558512</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP41A1352K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP41A1352K"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Paleo-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> Gradients using Hydrogen Isotopic Compositions of Leaf-wax Biomarkers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Krishnan, S.; Huber, M.; Pagani, M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>A long-standing problem in the paleoclimate modeling community has been the inability of the models to reproduce the shallow meridional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient (∆T) observed in proxy <span class="hlt">temperature</span> records for the warm, greenhouse time intervals in Earth's history, such as the early Eocene. It is often stated that this mismatch indicates a missing high-latitude feedback mechanism in the climate models that would cause substantial polar amplification of warming. However, this issue is complicated by the potential biasing of proxy records due to issues related to <span class="hlt">temperature</span> calibrations and/or diagenesis. In this study, we propose an alternative approach to estimate ∆T for these time intervals using hydrogen isotopic composition of leaf-wax biomarkers (dDleaf-wax) preserved in the sedimentary record. Today, dDleaf-wax is closely related to the hydrological cycle and source vegetation. In the mid- and high-latitudes, dDleaf-wax <span class="hlt">changes</span> pertaining to the hydrological cycle can be interpreted using a Rayleigh distillation process, where evaporated moisture from the sub-tropics undergoes isotopic fractionation and becomes increasingly D-depleted during poleward transport. We develop a box model based on the Rayleigh distillation process that uses the global mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the time-period and geological archives of dDleaf-wax to estimate the meridional <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient. We use this box model for the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ~56Ma), a rapid-warming event in the early Eocene where global warming is accompanied by evidence for increased input of greenhouse gases. We compile existing leaf-wax dDleaf-wax records from the extra-tropics to estimate ∆T before and during the PETM. Preliminary results suggest that the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> gradient increased during the body of the PETM, contradicting our expectations based on <span class="hlt">temperature</span> proxies. We also use this approach to estimate ∆T during other intervals in earth's history, such as the early Eocene. Further</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93i4422M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvB..93i4422M"><span id="translatedtitle">Large adiabatic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and magnetic entropy <span class="hlt">changes</span> in EuTi O3</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Midya, A.; Mandal, P.; Rubi, Km.; Chen, Ruofan; Wang, Jiang-Sheng; Mahendiran, R.; Lorusso, G.; Evangelisti, M.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>We have investigated the magnetocaloric effect in single and polycrystalline samples of quantum paraelectric EuTi O3 by magnetization and heat capacity measurements. Single crystalline EuTi O3 shows antiferromagnetic ordering due to E u2 + magnetic moments below TN=5.6 K . This compound shows a giant magnetocaloric effect around its Néel <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. The isothermal magnetic entropy <span class="hlt">change</span> is 49 J kg-1K-1 , the adiabatic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">change</span> is 21 K, and the refrigeration capacity is 500 J kg-1 for a field <span class="hlt">change</span> of 7 T at TN. The single crystal and polycrystalline samples show similar values of the magnetic entropy and adiabatic <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span>. The large magnetocaloric effect is due to suppression of the spin entropy associated with the localized 4 f moment of E u2 + ions. The giant magnetocaloric effect, together with negligible hysteresis, suggest that EuTi O3 could be a potential material for magnetic refrigeration below 40 K.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001TJPh...25..467C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001TJPh...25..467C"><span id="translatedtitle">Lattice <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Shape Memory CuZnAl Alloys on Aging at Room <span class="hlt">Temperature</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Çakmak, Seyfettýn; Artunç, Ekrem; Kayali, Nejdet; Adigüzel, Osman</p> <p>2001-09-01</p> <p>The aging behavior of CuZnAl martensites (Cu-21.62 wt.% Zn-5.68 wt.% Al and Cu-24.98 wt.% Zn-4.43 wt.% Al) at about 297 K was studied by analyzing diffraction line profiles obtained by X-ray diffractometry. For the alloys, the <span class="hlt">change</span> of the lattice parameters and the tetragonality associated with the aging time at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were investigated. The habit planes versus the aging time at room <span class="hlt">temperature</span> were calculated using the De Vos-Aernoundt-Delaey model, based on the crystallographic theory of Wechsler-Lieberman-Read(WLR), and from the DO3→ 18R martensite transformation theory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1177072','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1177072"><span id="translatedtitle">The acquisition of <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> biological materials :</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Aceto, Donato Gonzalo; Astuto-Gribble, Lisa M.; Gaudioso, Jennifer M.</p> <p>2007-11-01</p> <p>Numerous terrorist organizations have openly expressed interest in producing and deploying biological weapons. However, a limiting factor for many terrorists has been the acquisition of <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> biological agents, as evidenced by the very few successful instances of biological weapons use compared to the number of documented hoaxes. Biological agents vary greatly in their ability to cause loss of life and economic damage. Some agents, if released properly, can kill many people and cause an extensive number of secondary infections; other agents will sicken only a small number of people for a short period of time. Consequently, several biological agents can potentially be used to perpetrate a bioterrorism attack but few are likely capable of causing a high consequence event. It is crucial, from a US national security perspective, to more deeply understand the likelihood that terrorist organizations can acquire the range of these agents. Few studies have attempted to comprehensively compile the technical information directly relevant to the acquisition of <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> bacteria, viruses and toxins. In this report, technical fact sheets were assembled for 46 potentially <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> biological agents. Much of the information was taken from various research sources which could ultimately and significantly expedite and improve bioterrorism threat assessments. By systematically examining a number of specific agent characteristics included in these fact sheets, it may be possible to detect, target, and implement measures to thwart future terrorist acquisition attempts. In addition, the information in these fact sheets may be used as a tool to help laboratories gain a rudimentary understanding of how attractive a method laboratory theft is relative to other potential acquisition modes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4972363','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4972363"><span id="translatedtitle">Global DNA Methylation <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Nile Tilapia Gonads during High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-Induced Masculinization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Hui; Li, Ning</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In some fish species, high or low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can switch the sex determination mechanisms and induce fish sex reversal when the gonads are undifferentiated. During this high or low <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-induced sex reversal, the expressions of many genes are altered. However, genome-wide DNA methylation <span class="hlt">changes</span> in fish gonads after high or low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatment are unclear. Herein, we compared the global DNA methylation <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the gonads from control females (CF), control males (CM), high <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-treated females (TF), and high <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-induced males (IM) from the F8 family of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing. The DNA methylation level in CF was higher than that in CM for various chromosomes. Both females and males showed an increase in methylation levels on various chromosomes after high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> induction. We identified 64,438 (CF/CM), 63,437 (TF/IM), 98,675 (TF/CF), 235,270 (IM/CM) and 119,958 (IM/CF) differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in Nile tilapia gonads, representing approximately 0.70% (CF/CM), 0.69% (TF/IM), 1.07% (TF/CF), 2.56% (IM/CM), and 1.30% (IM/CF)of the length of the genome. A total of 89 and 65 genes that exhibited DMRs in their gene bodies and promoters were mapped to the Nile tilapia genome. Furthermore, more than half of the genes with DMRs in the gene body in CF/CM were also included in the IM/CM, TF/CF, TF/IM, and IM/CF groups. Additionally, many important pathways, including neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids were identified. This study provided an important foundation to investigate the molecular mechanism of high <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-induced sex reversal in fish species. PMID:27486872</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMGC23A0753B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMGC23A0753B"><span id="translatedtitle">On-Orbit Absolute <span class="hlt">Temperature</span> Calibration for CLARREO Using Multiple Phase <span class="hlt">Change</span> Materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Best, F. A.; Adler, D. P.; Ellington, S. D.; Thielman, D. J.; Revercomb, H. E.; Perepezko, J. H.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>NASA's anticipated plan for a mission dedicated to Climate (CLARREO) will hinge upon the ability to fly SI traceable standards that provide irrefutable absolute measurement accuracy. As an example, instrumentation designed to measure spectrally resolved infrared radiances will require high-emissivity calibration blackbodies that have absolute <span class="hlt">temperature</span> uncertainties of better than 0.045K (3 sigma). A novel scheme to provide absolute calibration of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensors, suitable for CLARREO on-orbit operation, has been demonstrated in the laboratory at the University of Wisconsin, and is now undergoing refinement under NASA Instrument Incubator Program funding. In this scheme, small quantities of reference materials (mercury, water, and gallium - to date) are imbedded into the blackbody cavity wall, in a manner similar to the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> sensors to be calibrated. As the blackbody cavity is slowly heated through a reference material melt <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, the transient <span class="hlt">temperature</span> signature of the imbedded thermistor sensors provides a very accurate indication of the melt <span class="hlt">temperature</span>. Using small quantities of phase <span class="hlt">change</span> material (less than half of a percent of the mass of the cavity), melt <span class="hlt">temperature</span> accuracies of better than 10 mK have been demonstrated for mercury, water, and gallium (providing calibration from 233K to 303K). The flight implementation of this new scheme will involve special considerations for packaging the phase <span class="hlt">change</span> materials to ensure long-term compatibility with the containment system, and design features that help ensure that the on-orbit melt behavior in a microgravity environment is unchanged from pre-flight full gravitational conditions under which the system is characterized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GPC....98...31D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GPC....98...31D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Temperature</span> and precipitation <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the north-east India and their future projections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dash, S. K.; Sharma, Neha; Pattnayak, K. C.; Gao, X. J.; Shi, Y.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>North East India (NEI), which comprise eight states, is very vulnerable to global <span class="hlt">changes</span> and yet it was least studied so far. In this study, the present-day climatic conditions prevailing in NEI are examined based on actual observations at the meteorological stations of India Meteorological Department (IMD) in the region and on the gridded data. Further, Regional Climate Model version 3 (RegCM3) is also used to examine the projected <span class="hlt">changes</span> in climatic parameters of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and precipitation in NEI under the IPCC A1B scenario. First of all, the model simulations in the present era spanning 1971-2005 are compared with the IMD gridded datasets to validate the model performance. It is found that RegCM3 is able to simulate the trends in annual mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the period 1971-2005 correctly. However, there is overestimation of rainfall simulated by the model. Major parts of NEI show a wet bias in the model precipitation. The simulated annual mean <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> for the region show a good correlation with the gridded <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values. Based on the IMD gridded datasets, the extreme <span class="hlt">temperature</span> events of daily maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> are also examined in this study. Results indicate that during the years 1971-2005, the occurrence of warm nights in summer months was more frequent than the warm days. The simulations to the future years indicate rise in the annual mean <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as well as mean rainfall. Projections based on RegCM3 simulations further indicate more frequent warm events than the cold events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ThApC.116..211G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ThApC.116..211G"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis and modeling of extreme <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> in several cities in northwestern Mexico under climate <span class="hlt">change</span> conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>García-Cueto, O. Rafael; Cavazos, M. Tereza; de Grau, Pamela; Santillán-Soto, Néstor</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>The generalized extreme value distribution is applied in this article to model the statistical behavior of the maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> distribution tails in four cities of Baja California in northwestern Mexico, using data from 1950-2010. The approach used of the maximum of annual time blocks. Temporal trends were included as covariates in the location parameter (μ), which resulted in significant improvements to the proposed models, particularly for the extreme maximum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values in the cities of Mexicali, Tijuana, and Tecate, and the extreme minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> values in Mexicali and Ensenada. These models were used to estimate future probabilities over the next 100 years (2015-2110) for different time periods, and they were compared with <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the extreme (P90th and P10th) percentiles of maximum and minimum <span class="hlt">temperature</span> scenarios for a set of six general circulation models under low (RCP4.5) and high (RCP8.5) radiative forcings. By the end of the twenty-first century, the scenarios of the <span class="hlt">changes</span> in extreme maximum summer <span class="hlt">temperature</span> are of the same order in both the statistical model and the high radiative scenario (increases of 4-5 °C). The low radiative scenario is more conservative (increases of 2-3 °C). The winter scenario shows that minimum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span> could be less severe; the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> increases suggested by the probabilistic model are greater than those projected for the end of the century by the set of global models under RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. The likely impacts on the region are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27486872','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27486872"><span id="translatedtitle">Global DNA Methylation <span class="hlt">Changes</span> in Nile Tilapia Gonads during High <span class="hlt">Temperature</span>-Induced Masculinization.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Li-Xue; Wang, Yi-Ya; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Hui; Li, Ning; Ji, Xiang Shan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>In some fish species, high or low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> can switch the sex determination mechanisms and induce fish sex reversal when the gonads are undifferentiated. During this high or low <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-induced sex reversal, the expressions of many genes are altered. However, genome-wide DNA methylation <span class="hlt">changes</span> in fish gonads after high or low <span class="hlt">temperature</span> treatment are unclear. Herein, we compared the global DNA methylation <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the gonads from control females (CF), control males (CM), high <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-treated females (TF), and high <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-induced males (IM) from the F8 family of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing. The DNA methylation level in CF was higher than that in CM for various chromosomes. Both females and males showed an increase in methylation levels on various chromosomes after high-<span class="hlt">temperature</span> induction. We identified 64,438 (CF/CM), 63,437 (TF/IM), 98,675 (TF/CF), 235,270 (IM/CM) and 119,958 (IM/CF) differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in Nile tilapia gonads, representing approximately 0.70% (CF/CM), 0.69% (TF/IM), 1.07% (TF/CF), 2.56% (IM/CM), and 1.30% (IM/CF)of the length of the genome. A total of 89 and 65 genes that exhibited DMRs in their gene bodies and promoters were mapped to the Nile tilapia genome. Furthermore, more than half of the genes with DMRs in the gene body in CF/CM were also included in the IM/CM, TF/CF, TF/IM, and IM/CF groups. Additionally, many important pathways, including neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, extracellular matrix-receptor interaction, and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids were identified. This study provided an important foundation to investigate the molecular mechanism of high <span class="hlt">temperature</span>-induced sex reversal in fish species. PMID:27486872</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24623389','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24623389"><span id="translatedtitle">Complex interactions between climate <span class="hlt">change</span> and toxicants: evidence that <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability increases sensitivity to cadmium.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kimberly, David A; Salice, Christopher J</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate <span class="hlt">Change</span> projects that global climate <span class="hlt">change</span> will have significant impacts on environmental conditions including potential effects on sensitivity of organisms to environmental contaminants. The objective of this study was to test the climate-induced toxicant sensitivity (CITS) hypothesis in which acclimation to altered climate parameters increases toxicant sensitivity. Adult Physa pomilia snails were acclimated to a near optimal 22 °C or a high-normal 28 °C for 28 days. After 28 days, snails from each <span class="hlt">temperature</span> group were challenged with either low (150 μg/L) or high (300 μg/L) cadmium at each <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (28 or 22 °C). In contrast to the CITS hypothesis, we found that acclimation <span class="hlt">temperature</span> did not have a strong influence on cadmium sensitivity except at the high cadmium test concentration where snails acclimated to 28 °C were more cadmium tolerant. However, snails that experienced a switch in <span class="hlt">temperature</span> for the cadmium challenge, regardless of the switch direction, were the most sensitive to cadmium. Within the snails that were switched between <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, snails acclimated at 28 °C and then exposed to high cadmium at 22 °C exhibited significantly greater mortality than those snails acclimated to 22 °C and then exposed to cadmium at 28 °C. Our results point to the importance of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variability in increasing toxicant sensitivity but also suggest a potentially complex cost of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> acclimation. Broadly, the type of temporal stressor exposures we simulated may reduce overall plasticity in responses to stress ultimately rendering populations more vulnerable to adverse effects. PMID:24623389</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032365','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032365"><span id="translatedtitle">Detection and attribution of <span class="hlt">temperature</span> <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the mountainous Western United States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bonfils, Celine; Santer, B.D.; Pierce, D.W.; Hidalgo, H.G.; Bala, G.; Das, T.; Barnett, T.P.; Cayan, D.R.; Doutriaux, C.; Wood, A.W.; Mirin, A.; Nozawa, T.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Large <span class="hlt">changes</span> in the hydrology of the western United States have been observed since the mid-twentieth century. These include a reduction in the amount of precipitation arriving as snow, a decline in snowpack at low and midelevations, and a shift toward earlier arrival of both snowmelt and the centroid (center of mass) of streamflows. To project future water supply reliability, it is crucial to obtain a better understanding of the underlying cause or causes for these <span class="hlt">changes</span>. A regional warming is often posited as the cause of these <span class="hlt">changes</span> without formal testing of different competitive explanations for the warming. In this study, a rigorous detection and attribution analysis is performed to determine the causes of the late winter/early spring <span class="hlt">changes</span> in hydrologically relevant <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variables over mountain ranges of the western United States. Natural internal climate variability, as estimated from two long control climate model simulations, is insufficient to explain the rapid increase in daily minimum and maximum <span class="hlt">temperatures</span>, the sharp decline in frost days, and the rise in degree-days above 0??C (a simple proxy for <span class="hlt">temperature</span> driven snowmelt). These observed <span class="hlt">changes</span> are also inconsistent with the model-predicted responses to variability in solar irradiance and volcanic activity. The observations are consistent with climite simulations that include the combined effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosols. It is found that, for each <span class="hlt">temperature</span> variable considered, an anthropogenic signal is identifiable in observational fields. The results are robust to uncertainties in model-estimated fingerprints and natural variability noise, to the choice of statistical down-scaling method, and to various processing options in the detection and attribution method. ?? 2008 American Meteorological Society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.8406P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.8406P"><span id="translatedtitle">On the impact of climate <span class="hlt">change</span> on surface water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of Lake Garda</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Piccolroaz, Sebastiano; Toffolon, Marco; Sighel, Maria-Caterina; Bresciani, Mariano</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Lakes have been widely recognized as important sentinels for climate <span class="hlt">change</span>. Indeed, physical, chemical, and biological properties of limnic systems have been observed to respond rapidly to climate-related modifications. Inspired by studies on climate <span class="hlt">change</span>, during the last decades a lot of research has been conducted to investigate past and predict future responses of lakes to <span class="hlt">changing</span> climate and environmental conditions. In particular, a major concern is to assess and quantify the effect of climate on water <span class="hlt">temperature</span>, which represents one of the key parameters determining ecological conditions within a lake, as it influences both chemical and biological processes. In turn, lake's thermal budget is strongly controlled by the <span class="hlt">temperature</span> of surface water (i.e. epilimnion), which is regulated by climate conditions. In this work, a simple physically-based, semi-empirical lumped model is used to estimate surface water <span class="hlt">temperature</span> (SWT). It requires only air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> as input information and accounts for the overall heat exchanges with the atmosphere and the deeper layer of the lake (i.e. hypolimnion) by means of simplified relationships, which contain a few parameters to be calibrated. The model has been shown to be capable of reproducing both seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations with high performances (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency index ? 0.9), over long-term simulation periods (i.e. decades). These results and the physical interpretation of the model parameters suggest this semi-empirical model as a valuable tool for climate <span class="hlt">change</span> applications as well. The model has been applied to Lake Garda, the largest lake in Italy (surface area: 370 km2, volume: 50 km3 and maximum depth: 346 m). A Monte Carlo approach has been used for calibration, in which 108 different sets of parameters have been randomly chosen and tested. The calibration period ranges from 2004 to 2010, during which air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> and SWT data are available. Air <span class="hlt">temperature</span> is provided by a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24043236','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24043236"><span id="translatedtitle">Flaming alcoholic drinks: flirting with <span class="hlt">danger</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tan, Alethea; Frew, Quentin; Yousif, Ali; Ueckermann, Nicola; Dziewulksi, Peter</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Alcohol-related burn injuries carry significant mortality and morbidity rates. Flaming alcoholic beverages served in trendy bars and clubs are becoming increasingly popular. The <span class="hlt">dangers</span> associated with an ignited alcoholic drink are often underestimated by party goers whose risk assessment ability is already impaired by heavy alcohol consumption. The authors present two cases demonstrating the varied severity of burn injuries associated with flaming alcoholic drinks, and their clinical management. Consumption of flaming alcoholic drinks poses potential risks for burn injuries. Further support is required to enable national and local agencies to implement effective interventions in drinking environments. PMID:24043236</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4317636','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4317636"><span id="translatedtitle">Russian vaccines against especially <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> bacterial pathogens</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Feodorova, Valentina A; Sayapina, Lidiya V; Corbel, Michael J; Motin, Vladimir L</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In response to the epidemiological situation, live attenuated or killed vaccines against anthrax, brucellosis, cholera, glanders, plague and tularemia were developed and used for immunization of at-risk populations in the Former Soviet Union. Certain of these vaccines have been updated and currently they are used on a selective basis, mainly for high risk occupations, in the Russian Federation. Except for anthrax and cholera these vaccines currently are the only licensed products available for protection against the most <span class="hlt">dangerous</span> bacterial pathogens. Development of improved formulations and new products is ongoing. PMID:26038506</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26915246','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26915246"><span id="translatedtitle">[<span class="hlt">Dangerous</span> drugs: products containing synthetic chemicals].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kamijo, Yoshito</p> <p>