Science.gov

Sample records for danish building regulations

  1. Genetic and Environmental Regulation on Longitudinal Change of Metabolic Phenotypes in Danish and Chinese Adult Twins

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shuxia; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Pang, Zengchang; Zhang, Dongfeng; Duan, Haiping; Tan, Qihua; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Kruse, Torben; Dalgård, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Objective The rate of change in metabolic phenotypes can be highly indicative of metabolic disorders and disorder-related modifications. We analyzed data from longitudinal twin studies on multiple metabolic phenotypes in Danish and Chinese twins representing two populations of distinct ethnic, cultural, social-economic backgrounds and geographical environments. Materials and Methods The study covered a relatively large sample of 502 pairs of Danish adult twins followed up for a long period of 12 years with a mean age at intake of 38 years (range: 18–65) and a total of 181 Chinese adult twin pairs traced for about 7 years with a mean baseline age of 39.5 years (range: 23–64). The classical twin models were fitted to the longitudinal change in each phenotype (Δphenotype) to estimate the genetic and environmental contributions to the variation in Δphenotype. Results Moderate to high contributions by the unique environment were estimated for all phenotypes in both Danish (from 0.51 for low density lipoprotein cholesterol up to 0.72 for triglycerides) and Chinese (from 0.41 for triglycerides up to 0.73 for diastolic blood pressure) twins; low to moderate genetic components were estimated for long-term change in most of the phenotypes in Danish twins except for triglycerides and hip circumference. Compared with Danish twins, the Chinese twins tended to have higher genetic control over the longitudinal changes in lipids (except high density lipoprotein cholesterol) and glucose, higher unique environmental contribution to blood pressure but no genetic contribution to longitudinal change in body mass traits. Conclusion Our results emphasize the major contribution of unique environment to the observed intra-individual variation in all metabolic phenotypes in both samples, and meanwhile reveal differential patterns of genetic and common environmental regulation on changes over time in metabolic phenotypes across the two samples. PMID:26862898

  2. Time trend in hospitalised chronic lower respiratory diseases among Danish building and construction workers, 1981–2009: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tüchsen, Finn; Hannerz, Harald; Mølgaard, Ellen Fisher; Brauer, Charlotte; Kirkeskov, Lilli

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To show trends in age-standardised hospital admission ratios (SHR) for chronic lower respiratory diseases, estimated for Danish construction workers over three time periods (1981–1990, 1991–2000, 2001–2009). Design Within consecutive cohorts of all male building and construction workers in Denmark, selected occupations: bricklayers, carpenters, electricians, painters, plumbers and ‘other construction workers’ were followed up for hospitalisation due to chronic lower respiratory diseases. SHR was calculated for each occupation and time period. Time trend was calculated for construction workers at large using Poisson regression. Setting Denmark. Participants All gainfully employed male building and construction workers aged 20 or more. Primary and secondary outcome measures Age-standardised and gender-standardised hospitalisation ratios (SHR). Results The number of hospitalised construction workers at large was reduced from 1134 in the first 10-year period to 699 in the last 9-year period. Among all Danish males, it was, however, even more reduced as reflected in the expected number that was down from 1172 to 617. Hence, SHR increased from 97 during 1981–1990, 100 during 1991–2000 to 113 during 2001–2009. It means that SHR increased with an average rate of 0.76% per year (95% CI 0.28 to 1.24) during the study period. A low SHR=72 (95% CI 60 to 87) was found among carpenters in 1981–1990. From 2001 to 2009, high SHRs were found among painters (SHR=147; 95% CI 111 to 192) and plumbers (SHR=132; 95% CI 101 to 171). In general, the selected groups of construction workers had, however, a low or average SHR due to chronic lower respiratory diseases. Conclusions The number of hospitalised workers, suffering from chronic lower respiratory diseases, was reduced over time for construction workers, but for all economically active men, it was reduced even more. Therefore, SHR due to chronic lower respiratory diseases increased over time in the

  3. 49 CFR 41.119 - DOT regulated buildings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false DOT regulated buildings. 41.119 Section 41.119 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SEISMIC SAFETY § 41.119 DOT regulated buildings. (a) Each DOT Operating Administration with responsibility for regulating the structural safety of...

  4. 49 CFR 41.119 - DOT regulated buildings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false DOT regulated buildings. 41.119 Section 41.119 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SEISMIC SAFETY § 41.119 DOT regulated buildings. (a) Each DOT Operating Administration with responsibility for regulating the structural safety of...

  5. 49 CFR 41.119 - DOT regulated buildings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false DOT regulated buildings. 41.119 Section 41.119 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SEISMIC SAFETY § 41.119 DOT regulated buildings. (a) Each DOT Operating Administration with responsibility for regulating the structural safety of...

  6. 49 CFR 41.119 - DOT regulated buildings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOT regulated buildings. 41.119 Section 41.119 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SEISMIC SAFETY § 41.119 DOT regulated buildings. (a) Each DOT Operating Administration with responsibility for regulating the structural safety of...

  7. 49 CFR 41.119 - DOT regulated buildings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false DOT regulated buildings. 41.119 Section 41.119 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SEISMIC SAFETY § 41.119 DOT regulated buildings. (a) Each DOT Operating Administration with responsibility for regulating the structural safety of...

  8. Sick building syndrome in the office environment: the Danish town hall study

    SciTech Connect

    Skov, P.; Valbjoern, O.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the indoor climate were performed in 14 town halls in Greater Copenhagen, Denmark, together with a questionnaire study and a clinical study of 4369 employees in the town halls and 14 affiliated buildings. The return rate for the questionnaire study was 80% and the participation rate for the clinical study 77%. The many indoor climate factors determined resulted in values mainly at the levels normally considered acceptable or in values in accordance with levels previously reported. The prevalence of work-related mucosal irritation and of work-related general symptoms in the employees differed highly between the individual town halls. The lowest prevalances of symptoms were found for the oldest town halls, whereas there were no statistically significant difference between naturally and mechanically ventilated buildings. The preliminary analyses showed that sex, job category, photoprinting, working with video display terminals, and handling carbonless paper correlated significantly with the presence of work-related mucosal irritation and general symptoms. 21 references, 2 figures, 9 tables.

  9. Building-to-Grid Integration through Commercial Building Portfolios Participating in Energy and Frequency Regulation Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlak, Gregory S.

    Building energy use is a significant contributing factor to growing worldwide energy demands. In pursuit of a sustainable energy future, commercial building operations must be intelligently integrated with the electric system to increase efficiency and enable renewable generation. Toward this end, a model-based methodology was developed to estimate the capability of commercial buildings to participate in frequency regulation ancillary service markets. This methodology was integrated into a supervisory model predictive controller to optimize building operation in consideration of energy prices, demand charges, and ancillary service revenue. The supervisory control problem was extended to building portfolios to evaluate opportunities for synergistic effect among multiple, centrally-optimized buildings. Simulation studies performed showed that the multi-market optimization was able to determine appropriate opportunities for buildings to provide frequency regulation. Total savings were increased by up to thirteen percentage points, depending on the simulation case. Furthermore, optimizing buildings as a portfolio achieved up to seven additional percentage points of savings, depending on the case. Enhanced energy and cost savings opportunities were observed by taking the novel perspective of optimizing building portfolios in multiple grid markets, motivating future pursuits of advanced control paradigms that enable a more intelligent electric grid.

  10. 77 FR 35393 - Federal Management Regulation; FMR Bulletin PBS-2012-03; Redesignations of Federal Buildings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... ADMINISTRATION Federal Management Regulation; FMR Bulletin PBS-2012-03; Redesignations of Federal Buildings AGENCY: Public Buildings Service (PBS), General Services Administration (GSA). ACTION: Notice of a... buildings. Expiration Date: This bulletin announcement expires October 31, 2012. The building...

  11. Responding to Changes in Building Legislation. Updating Training for the Building Regulations 1985 and Supporting Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Robert; Phillips, Alan

    A project sought to develop a means of updating and retraining those required to comply with Britain's 1985 Building Regulations, which are substantially different from the previous ones in regard to procedures and technical content. The training needs analysis conducted indicated that the new training should be flexible and use practical and…

  12. 78 FR 27968 - Federal Management Regulation; Redesignations of Federal Buildings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... redesignated buildings are as follows: Former Name New Name Ariel Rios Federal Building William Jefferson... Midland, TX 79701 Federal Office Building 8 Thomas P. O'Neill, Jr., Federal Building 200 C Street, SW....

  13. 76 FR 54772 - Federal Management Regulation; FMR Bulletin PBS-2011-B2; Redesignations of Federal Buildings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... ADMINISTRATION Federal Management Regulation; FMR Bulletin PBS-2011-B2; Redesignations of Federal Buildings AGENCY: Public Buildings Service (P), General Services Administration. ACTION: Notice of a bulletin... CONTACT: U.S. General Services Administration, Public Buildings Service (P), Attn: David E. Foley, 1800...

  14. Draft Regulations for the Comprehensive Public School Building Safety Program. Amendment to Regulations of the Commissioner of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of Facilities Planning.

    The New York State Department of Education provides the amendments to regulations of the Commissioner of Education concerning the Comprehensive Public School Building Safety Program effective May 7, 1999. Amended items include those involving the school district 5-year capital assets preservation facilities plan, building inspections, construction…

  15. Manual of Regulations and Recommendations for School Building Planning and Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelking, D. F.

    Recommendations and suggestions, as well as statutory provisions and state board regulations, are presented regarding school building construction in Idaho. The material is organized into the following sections--(1) school building planning, (2) the school site, (3) construction planning and requirements, (4) secondary school planning, (5)…

  16. 78 FR 38055 - Building Research Capacity in Global Tobacco Product Regulation Program (U18)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of grant funds for the support of the Center for Tobacco Product's (CTP's) Building Research Capacity in Global Tobacco Product Regulation Program. FDA intends to accept and consider a single source application for award to the World Health Organization (WHO) to identify, support, develop, conduct, and coordinate research......

  17. Evaluation of phase change materials for thermal regulation enhancement of building integrated photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan, A.; Norton, B.; McCormack, S.J.; Huang, M.J.

    2010-09-15

    Regulating the temperature of building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) using phase change materials (PCMs) reduces the loss of temperature dependent photovoltaic (PV) efficiency. Five PCMs were selected for evaluation all with melting temperatures {proportional_to}25 {+-} 4 C and heat of fusion between 140 and 213 kJ/kg. Experiments were conducted at three insolation intensities to evaluate the performance of each PCM in four different PV/PCM systems. The effect on thermal regulation of PV was determined by changing the (i) mass of PCM and (ii) thermal conductivities of the PCM and PV/PCM system. A maximum temperature reduction of 18 C was achieved for 30 min while 10 C temperature reduction was maintained for 5 h at -1000 W/m{sup 2} insolation. (author)

  18. Building Emotion and Affect Regulation (BEAR): Preliminary Evidence from an Open Trial in Children's Residential Group Homes in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pat-Horenczyk, R.; Shi, C. Sim Wei; Schramm-Yavin, S.; Bar-Halpern, M.; Tan, L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Building Emotion and Affect Regulation (BEAR) program is a theory-based group intervention for enhancing resilience in children, with a focus on strengthening emotion regulation. The BEAR is a 6-session protocol for children aged 7-12 who have been subject to traumatic life events. Objective: This paper presents the guiding…

  19. The effect of environmental regulation on firms' competitive performance: the case of the building & construction sector in some EU regions.

    PubMed

    Testa, Francesco; Iraldo, Fabio; Frey, Marco

    2011-09-01

    There is a considerable debate on the effects of environmental regulation on competitive performance. Based on survey data, this paper analyzes the two main research questions, derived from literature, on the links between environmental regulation and competitiveness, by focusing on firms operating in the building and construction sector, i.e.: 1) whether environmental policy stringency affects the competitive performance of firms in the building and construction sector 2) and how a specific form of environmental regulation (direct regulation, economic instruments and soft instruments) affects this performance? By applying a regression analysis, we find that a more stringent environmental regulation, measured by inspection frequency, provides a positive impulse for increasing investments in advanced technological equipment and innovative products and on business performance. Moreover, a well-designed "direct regulation" appears to be the most effective policy instrument for prompting the positive impact of environmental policies on innovation and intangible performance while economic instruments do negatively affect business performance. PMID:21524840

  20. Trend Analyses of Nitrate in Danish Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, B.; Thorling, L.; Dalgaard, T.; Erlandsen, M.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) age determination allows linking of the first two dataset. The development in the nitrate concentration of oxic groundwater clearly mirrors the development in the national agricultural N surplus, and a corresponding trend reversal is found in groundwater. Regulation and technical improvements in the intensive farming in Denmark have succeeded in decreasing the N surplus by 40% since the mid 1980s while at the same time maintaining crop yields and increasing the animal production of especially pigs. Trend analyses prove that the youngest (0-15 years old) oxic groundwater shows more pronounced significant downward nitrate trends (44%) than the oldest (25-50 years old) oxic groundwater (9%). This amounts to clear evidence of the effect of reduced nitrate leaching on groundwater nitrate concentrations in Denmark. Are the Danish groundwater monitoring strategy obtimal for detection of nitrate trends? Will the nitrate concentrations in Danish groundwater continue to decrease or are the Danish nitrate concentration levels now appropriate according to the Water Framework Directive?

  1. The air quality in Danish urban areas.

    PubMed

    Jensen, F P; Fenger, J

    1994-10-01

    The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. Thus, in Copenhagen, the yearly averages have fallen to about 25%. For nitrogen oxides emitted from the power plants, similar regulations are in force. With this legislation, the most important and crucial source of air pollution in Danish urban areas is road traffic. The contribution of nitrogen oxides from national traffic accounts for nearly half the total Danish emission and is increasing steadily; this is consistent with an observed increase of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. The permissible levels of lead in petrol has been reduced drastically. After an introduction of reduced tax on lead-free petrol, it now accounts for more than two-thirds of the total consumption. As a result, the concentration of lead in urban ambient air has been reduced to less than one-sixth. The introduction of 3-way catalytic converters from October 1990 will result in reductions in the emission of a series of pollutants, e.g., lead, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. In 1980, a Danish air quality monitoring program was established as a cooperative effort between the authorities, the Government, the countries, the municipalities, and the Greater Copenhagen Council.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7821296

  2. Manipulation of partially oriented hydroxyapatite building blocks to form flowerlike bundles without acid-base regulation.

    PubMed

    Wen, Zhenliang; Wang, Zihao; Chen, Jingdi; Zhong, Shengnan; Hu, Yimin; Wang, Jianhua; Zhang, Qiqing

    2016-06-01

    The application of hydroxyapatite (HAP) in different fields depends greatly on its morphology, composition and structure. Besides, the main inorganic building blocks of human bones and teeth are also HAP. Therefore, accurate shape and aggregation control and of hydroxyapatite particles will be of great interest. Herein, oriented bundles of flowerlike HAP nanorods were successfully prepared through hydrothermal treatment without acid-base regulation, with the mono-alkyl phosphate (MAP) and sodium citrate as surfactant and chelating agent, respectively. The prepared samples were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and zeta potential, the pH value and conductivity value of suspension were characterized by pH meter and conductivity measurement. The results showed that the MAP and citrate play an important role in assembly of HAP nanorods without acid-base regulation. Citrate calcium complex could decompose slowly and release citrate ions at hydrothermal conditions. Besides, the further decomposition of citrate ions could release aconitic acid as the reaction time prolongs. Moreover, the possible scheme for the formation process was discussed in detail. PMID:26930036

  3. 75 FR 44264 - Federal Management Regulation; FMR Bulletin PBS-2010-B4; Redesignation of Federal Building

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ...: Public Buildings Service (P), General Services Administration. ACTION: Notice of a bulletin. SUMMARY: The... Administration, Public Buildings Service (P), Attn: David E. Foley, 1800 F Street, NW., Washington, DC 20405, e... this Federal building? U.S. General Services Administration, Public Buildings Service (P), Attn:...

  4. 76 FR 6792 - Federal Management Regulation; FMR Bulletin PBS-2011-B1; Redesignations of Federal Buildings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... AGENCY: Public Buildings Service (P), General Services Administration. ACTION: Notice of a bulletin... Services Administration, Public Buildings Service (P), Attn: David E. Foley, 1800 F Street, NW., Washington... Federal buildings? U.S. General Services Administration, Public Buildings Service (P), Attn: David...

  5. Validation of the danish national diabetes register.

    PubMed

    Green, Anders; Sortsø, Camilla; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup; Emneus, Martha

    2015-01-01

    The Danish National Diabetes Register (NDR) was established in 2006 and builds on data from Danish health registers. We validated the content of NDR, using full information from the Danish National Patient Register and data from the literature. Our study indicates that the completeness in NDR is ≥95% concerning ascertainment from data sources specific for diabetes, ie, prescriptions with antidiabetic drugs and diagnoses of diabetes in the National Patient Register. Since the NDR algorithm ignores diabetes-related hospital contacts terminated before 1990, the establishment of the date of inclusion is systematically delayed for ≥10% of the registrants in general and for ≥30% of the inclusions before 1997 in particular. This bias is enhanced for ascertainment by chiropody services and by frequent measurements of blood glucose because the date of reimbursement of services, rather than the date of encounter, has been taken as the date of inclusion in NDR. We also find that some 20% of the registrations in NDR may represent false positive inclusions of persons with frequent measurements of blood glucose without having diabetes. We conclude that NDR is a novel initiative to support research in the epidemiological and public health aspects of diabetes in Denmark, but we also present a list of recommended changes for improving validity, by reducing the impact of current sources of bias and misclassifications. PMID:25565889

  6. Danish auroral science history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, P.

    2011-01-01

    Danish auroral science history begins with the early auroral observations made by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe during the years from 1582 to 1601 preceding the Maunder minimum in solar activity. Included are also the brilliant observations made by another astronomer, Ole Rømer, from Copenhagen in 1707, as well as the early auroral observations made from Greenland by missionaries during the 18th and 19th centuries. The relations between auroras and geomagnetic variations were analysed by H. C. Ørsted, who also played a vital role in the development of Danish meteorology that came to include comprehensive auroral observations from Denmark, Iceland and Greenland as well as auroral and geomagnetic research. The very important auroral investigations made by Sophus Tromholt are outlined. His analysis from 1880 of auroral observations from Greenland prepared for the significant contributions from the Danish Meteorological Institute, DMI, (founded in 1872) to the first International Polar Year 1882/83, where an expedition headed by Adam Paulsen was sent to Greenland to conduct auroral and geomagnetic observations. Paulsen's analyses of the collected data gave many important results but also raised many new questions that gave rise to auroral expeditions to Iceland in 1899 to 1900 and to Finland in 1900 to 1901. Among the results from these expeditions were 26 unique paintings of the auroras made by the artist painter, Harald Moltke. The expedition to Finland was headed by Dan la Cour, who later as director of the DMI came to be in charge of the comprehensive international geomagnetic and auroral observations made during the Second International Polar Year in 1932/33. Finally, the article describes the important investigations made by Knud Lassen during, among others, the International Geophysical Year 1957/58 and during the International Quiet Sun Year (IQSY) in 1964/65. With his leadership the auroral and geomagnetic research at DMI reached a high international

  7. 75 FR 69080 - Federal Management Regulation; FMR Bulletin PBS-2010-B5; Redesignations of Federal Buildings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... AGENCY: Public Buildings Service (P), General Services Administration. ACTION: Notice of a bulletin... CONTACT: U.S. General Services Administration, Public Buildings Service (P), Attn: David E. Foley, 1800 F... and redesignation of these Federal buildings? U.S. General Services Administration, Public...

  8. Interpreting Microarray Data to Build Models of Microbial Genetic Regulation Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Sokhansanj, B; Garnham, J B; Fitch, J P

    2002-01-23

    Microarrays and DNA chips are an efficient, high-throughput technology for measuring temporal changes in the expression of message RNA (mRNA) from thousands of genes (often the entire genome of an organism) in a single experiment. A crucial drawback of microarray experiments is that results are inherently qualitative: data are generally neither quantitatively repeatable, nor may microarray spot intensities be calibrated to in vivo mRNA concentrations. Nevertheless, microarrays represent by the far the cheapest and fastest way to obtain information about a cells global genetic regulatory networks. Besides poor signal characteristics, the massive number of data produced by microarray experiments poses challenges for visualization, interpretation and model building. Towards initial model development, we have developed a Java tool for visualizing the spatial organization of gene expression in bacteria. We are also developing an approach to inferring and testing qualitative fuzzy logic models of gene regulation using microarray data. Because we are developing and testing qualitative hypotheses that do not require quantitative precision, our statistical evaluation of experimental data is limited to checking for validity and consistency. Our goals are to maximize the impact of inexpensive microarray technology, bearing in mind that biological models and hypotheses are typically qualitative.

  9. Manual of Regulations and Recommendations for School Building Planning and Construction. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise.

    The revision of this manual has as its purpose the necessary changes brought about by new building methods, changes in concepts of heating and lighting, new methods of instruction, and general modernization of all phases of education. The manual is intended to be useful to all those involved in the construction of school buildings from those who…

  10. The Danish vaccination register.

    PubMed

    Grove Krause, T; Jakobsen, S; Haarh, M; Mølbak, K

    2012-01-01

    Immunisation information systems (IIS) are valuable tools for monitoring vaccination coverage and for estimating vaccine effectiveness and safety. Since 2009, an advanced IIS has been developed in Denmark and will be implemented during 2012–14. This IIS is based on a database existing since 2000. The reporting of all administered vaccinations including vaccinations outside the national programme will become mandatory. Citizens will get access to data about their own vaccinations and healthcare personnel will get access to information on the vaccinations of their patients. A national concept of identification, a national solution combining a personal code and a card with codes, ensures easy and secure access to the register. From the outset, the IIS will include data on childhood vaccinations administered from 1996 and onwards. All Danish citizens have a unique identifier, a so called civil registration number, which allows the linking of information on vaccinations coming from different electronic data sources. The main challenge will be to integrate the IIS with the different electronic patient record systems currently existing at general practitioner, vaccination clinic and hospital level thereby avoiding double-entry. A need has been identified for an updated international classification of vaccine products on the market. Such a classification would also be useful for the future exchange of data on immunisations from IIS between countries. PMID:22551494

  11. Post-transcriptional regulation in corticogenesis: how RNA-binding proteins help build the brain

    PubMed Central

    Pilaz, Louis-Jan; Silver, Debra L.

    2015-01-01

    The cerebral cortex, the brain structure responsible for our higher cognitive functions, is built during embryonic development in a process called corticogenesis. During corticogenesis, neural stem cells generate distinct populations of progenitors and excitatory neurons. These new neurons migrate radially in the cortex, eventually forming neuronal layers and establishing synaptic connections with other neurons both within and outside the cortex. Perturbations to corticogenesis can result in severe neurodevelopmental disorders, thus emphasizing the need to better understand molecular regulation of brain development. Recent studies in both model organisms and humans have collectively highlighted roles for post-transcriptional regulation in virtually all steps of corticogenesis. Genomic approaches have revealed global RNA changes associated with spatial and temporal regulation of cortical development. Additionally, genetic studies have uncovered RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) critical for cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration within the developing neocortex. Many of these same RBPs play causal roles in neurodevelopmental pathologies. In the developing neocortex, RBPs influence diverse steps of mRNA metabolism, including splicing, stability, translation, and localization. With the advent of new technologies, researchers have begun to uncover key transcripts regulated by these RBPs. Given the complexity of the developing mammalian cortex, a major challenge for the future will be to understand how dynamic RNA regulation occurs within heterogeneous cell populations, across space and time. In sum, post-transcriptional regulation has emerged as a critical mechanism for driving corticogenesis and exciting direction of future research. PMID:26088328

  12. 20 CFR 672.500 - What administrative regulations apply to the YouthBuild program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... requirements found in 20 CFR part 667, except those that apply only to the WIA Title I-B program and those that... grants requirements: Circular A-110 (codified at 2 CFR part 215), and Circular A-102 at 29 CFR parts 95 and 97, as applicable; (2) The Department's regulations at 29 CFR part 37, which implement...

  13. 20 CFR 672.500 - What administrative regulations apply to the YouthBuild program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... requirements found in 20 CFR part 667, except those that apply only to the WIA Title I-B program and those that... grants requirements: Circular A-110 (codified at 2 CFR part 215), and Circular A-102 at 29 CFR parts 95 and 97, as applicable; (2) The Department's regulations at 29 CFR part 37, which implement...

  14. 20 CFR 672.500 - What administrative regulations apply to the YouthBuild program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... requirements found in 20 CFR part 667, except those that apply only to the WIA Title I-B program and those that... grants requirements: Circular A-110 (codified at 2 CFR part 215), and Circular A-102 at 29 CFR parts 95 and 97, as applicable; (2) The Department's regulations at 29 CFR part 37, which implement...

  15. Subjectless Sentences in Child Danish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Cornelia; Plunkett, Kim

    1998-01-01

    Examined data for two Danish children to determine subject omission, verb usage, and sentence subjects. Found that children exhibit asymmetry in subject omission according to verb type as subjects are omitted from main verb utterances more frequently than from copula utterances. Concluded that treatment of child subject omission should involve…

  16. Nature and Nationhood: Danish Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnack, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I shall discuss Danish perspectives on nature, showing the interdependence of conceptions of "nature" and "nationhood" in the formations of a particular cultural community. Nature, thus construed, is never innocent of culture and cannot therefore simply be "restored" to some pristine, pre-lapsarian state. On the other hand,…

  17. The CpAL Quorum Sensing System Regulates Production of Hemolysins CPA and PFO To Build Clostridium perfringens Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Shak, Joshua R.; Canizalez-Roman, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens strains produce severe diseases, including myonecrosis and enteritis necroticans, in humans and animals. Diseases are mediated by the production of potent toxins that often damage the site of infection, e.g., skin epithelium during myonecrosis. In planktonic cultures, the regulation of important toxins, such as CPA, CPB, and PFO, is controlled by the C. perfringens Agr-like (CpAL) quorum sensing (QS) system. Strains also encode a functional LuxS/AI-2 system. Although C. perfringens strains form biofilm-like structures, the regulation of biofilm formation is poorly understood. Therefore, our studies investigated the role of CpAL and LuxS/AI-2 QS systems and of QS-regulated factors in controlling the formation of biofilms. We first demonstrate that biofilm production by reference strains differs depending on the culture medium. Increased biomass correlated with the presence of extracellular DNA in the supernatant, which was released by lysis of a fraction of the biofilm population and planktonic cells. Whereas ΔagrB mutant strains were not able to produce biofilms, a ΔluxS mutant produced wild-type levels. The transcript levels of CpAL-regulated cpa and pfoA genes, but not cpb, were upregulated in biofilms compared to planktonic cultures. Accordingly, Δcpa and ΔpfoA mutants, in type A (S13) or type C (CN3685) backgrounds, were unable to produce biofilms, whereas CN3685Δcpb made wild-type levels. Biofilm formation was restored in complemented Δcpa/cpa and ΔpfoA/pfoA strains. Confocal microscopy studies further detected CPA partially colocalizing with eDNA on the biofilm structure. Thus, CpAL regulates biofilm formation in C. perfringens by increasing levels of certain toxins required to build biofilms. PMID:25824838

  18. Re-use of SNOMED CT subset in development of the Danish national standard for home care nursing problems.

    PubMed

    Højen, Anne Randorff; Gøeg, Kirstine Rosenbeck; Elberg, Pia Britt

    2015-01-01

    SNOMED CT was chosen as reference terminology for standardisation of homecare nursing documentation to make reporting comparable across the 98 Danish municipalities. The method outlined in this paper for developing a Danish national homecare nursing SNOMED CT subsets is a pragmatic approach to build new SNOMED CT subsets drawing on existing and available SNOMED CT subsets. Combining this approach with awareness of hierarchical coherency in SNOMED CT subsets makes effective retrieval of data possible. PMID:25991118

  19. Engineering FKBP-Based Destabilizing Domains to Build Sophisticated Protein Regulation Systems

    PubMed Central

    An, Wenlin; Jackson, Rachel E.; Hunter, Paul; Gögel, Stefanie; van Diepen, Michiel; Liu, Karen; Meyer, Martin P.; Eickholt, Britta J.

    2015-01-01

    Targeting protein stability with small molecules has emerged as an effective tool to control protein abundance in a fast, scalable and reversible manner. The technique involves tagging a protein of interest (POI) with a destabilizing domain (DD) specifically controlled by a small molecule. The successful construction of such fusion proteins may, however, be limited by functional interference of the DD epitope with electrostatic interactions required for full biological function of proteins. Another drawback of this approach is the remaining endogenous protein. Here, we combined the Cre-LoxP system with an advanced DD and generated a protein regulation system in which the loss of an endogenous protein, in our case the tumor suppressor PTEN, can be coupled directly with a conditionally fine-tunable DD-PTEN. This new system will consolidate and extend the use of DD-technology to control protein function precisely in living cells and animal models. PMID:26717575

  20. Zonation of metropolitan France for the application of earthquake-resistant building regulations to critical facilities Part 2: Seismic zonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bour, M.; Dominique, P.; Bles, J.L.; Godefroy, P.; Martin, C.; Terrier, M.

    The seismotectonic zonation of Metropolitan France(part 1) and the derived seismic zonation (part 2)were carried out in order to facilitate andstandardise the application of earthquake-resistantbuilding regulations to critical facilities forreasons of environmental protection (Decree No.91-461, Ministerial Order dated 10 May 1993).According to current French legislation, adeterministic approach was adopted for the executionof these two successive zonations.The seismic zonation is based on a 2.5 km square gridcovering the whole of Metropolitan France, in whicheach cell is defined by the maximal macroseismicintensities that could be induced by a `MaximumHistorically Credible Earthquake' (MHCE) and aSeismic Safety Evaluation Earthquake (SSEE) innearby seismotectonic units. The values of theseintensities were calculated by displacing thereference earthquakes of the seismotectonic zonationto the most penalising position relative to the celland using attenuation laws deduced from the isoseismalcurves specific to each earthquake taken as reference.The zonations obtained for the MHCE and SSEEintensities should thus be considered as the physicalzonations of France for the application ofearthquake-resistant building regulations to criticalfacilities. They are applicable to all criticalfacilities and provide a consistent approach forassessing the levels of seismic aggression to be used(in MSK intensity) at any site in Metropolitan France,as well as the elementary parameters for calculatingthe response spectra usable in the design orverification of structures.

  1. 26 CFR 521.115 - Credit against United States tax liability for Danish tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... foreign taxes). See §§ 29.131-1 to 29.131-10 of Regulations 111 (26 CFR 1949 ed. Supps. 29.131-1 to 29.131... (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS DENMARK General Income Tax Taxation of Nonresident Aliens Who... liability for Danish tax. For the purpose of avoidance of double taxation, Article XV provides that, on...

  2. Regulation of Apoptotic Mediators Reveals Dynamic Responses to Thermal Stress in the Reef Building Coral Acropora millepora

    PubMed Central

    Pernice, Mathieu; Dunn, Simon R.; Miard, Thomas; Dufour, Sylvie; Dove, Sophie; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2011-01-01

    Background Mass coral bleaching is increasing in scale and frequency across the world's coral reefs and is being driven primarily by increased levels of thermal stress arising from global warming. In order to understand the impacts of projected climate change upon corals reefs, it is important to elucidate the underlying cellular mechanisms that operate during coral bleaching and subsequent mortality. In this respect, increased apoptotic cell death activity is an important cellular process that is associated with the breakdown of the mutualistic symbiosis between the cnidarian host and their dinoflagellate symbionts. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study reports the impacts of different stressors (colchicine and heat stress) on three phases of apoptosis: (i) the potential initiation by differential expression of Bcl-2 members, (ii) the execution of apoptotic events by activation of caspase 3-like proteases and (iii) and finally, the cell disposal indicated by DNA fragmentation in the reef building coral Acropora millepora. In corals incubated with colchicine, an increase in caspase 3-like activity and DNA fragmentation was associated with a relative down-regulation of Bcl-2, suggesting that the initiation of apoptosis may be mediated by the suppression of an anti-apoptotic mechanism. In contrast, in the early steps of heat stress, the induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis was related to a relative up-regulation of Bcl-2 consecutively followed by a delayed decrease in apoptosis activity. Conclusions/Significance In the light of these results, we propose a model of heat stress in coral hosts whereby increasing temperatures engage activation of caspase 3-dependent apoptosis in cells designated for termination, but also the onset of a delayed protective response involving overexpression of Bcl-2 in surviving cells. This mitigating response to thermal stress could conceivably be an important regulatory mechanism for cell survival in corals exposed to

  3. Successful School Principalship in Danish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Lejf; Krejsler, John; Kofod, Klaus Kasper; Jensen, Bent Brandt

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims at conceptualizing and investigating the meaning of good school principalship within the space for manoeuvring that is available within the context of Danish comprehensive schools. The paper aims to present findings from case studies of two Danish schools within the frame of reference. Design/methodology/approach: Outlines the…

  4. Creating functional sophistication from simple protein building blocks, exemplified by factor H and the regulators of complement activation.

    PubMed

    Makou, Elisavet; Herbert, Andrew P; Barlow, Paul N

    2015-10-01

    Complement control protein modules (CCPs) occur in numerous functionally diverse extracellular proteins. Also known as short consensus repeats (SCRs) or sushi domains each CCP contains approximately 60 amino acid residues, including four consensus cysteines participating in two disulfide bonds. Varying in length and sequence, CCPs adopt a β-sandwich type fold and have an overall prolate spheroidal shape with N- and C-termini lying close to opposite poles of the long axis. CCP-containing proteins are important as cytokine receptors and in neurotransmission, cell adhesion, blood clotting, extracellular matrix formation, haemoglobin metabolism and development, but CCPs are particularly well represented in the vertebrate complement system. For example, factor H (FH), a key soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation, is made up entirely from a chain of 20 CCPs joined by short linkers. Collectively, therefore, the 20 CCPs of FH must mediate all its functional capabilities. This is achieved via collaboration and division of labour among these modules. Structural studies have illuminated the dynamic architectures that allow FH and other CCP-rich proteins to perform their biological functions. These are largely the products of a highly varied set of intramolecular interactions between CCPs. The CCP can act as building block, spacer, highly versatile recognition site or dimerization mediator. Tandem CCPs may form composite binding sites or contribute to flexible, rigid or conformationally 'switchable' segments of the parent proteins. PMID:26517887

  5. House dust in seven Danish offices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mølhave, L.; Schneider, T.; Kjærgaard, S. K.; Larsen, L.; Norn, S.; Jørgensen, O.

    Floor dust from Danish offices was collected and analyzed. The dust was to be used in an exposure experiment. The dust was analyzed to show the composition of the dust which can be a source of airborne dust indoors. About 11 kg of dust from vacuum cleaner bags from seven Danish office buildings with about 1047 occupants (12 751 m 2) was processed according to a standardized procedure yielding 5.5 kg of processed bulk dust. The bulk dust contained 130.000-160.000 CFU g -1 microorganisms and 71.000-90.000 CFU g -1 microfungi. The content of culturable microfungi was 65-123 CFU 30 g -1 dust. The content of endotoxins ranged from 5.06-7.24 EU g -1 (1.45 ng g -1 to 1.01 ng g -1). Allergens (ng g -1) were from 147-159 (Mite), 395-746 (dog) and 103-330 (cat). The macro molecular organic compounds (the MOD-content) varied from 7.8-9.8 mg g -1. The threshold of release of histamine from basophil leukocytes provoked by the bulk dust was between 0.3 and 1.0 mg ml -1. The water content was 2% (WGT) and the organic fraction 33%. 6.5-5.9% (dry) was water soluble. The fiber content was less than 0.2-1.5% (WGT) and the desorbable VOCs was 176-319 μg g -1. Most of the VOC were aldehydes. However, softeners for plastic (DBP and DEHP) were present. The chemical composition includes human and animal skin fragments, paper fibers, glass wool, wood and textilefibers and inorganic and metal particles. The sizes ranged from 0.001-1 mm and the average specific density was 1.0 g m -3. The bulk dust was resuspended and injected into an exposure chamber. The airborne dust was sampled and analyzed to illustrate the exposures that can result from sedimented dirt and dust. The airborne dust resulting from the bulk dust reached concentrations ranging from 0.26-0.75 mg m -3 in average contained 300-170 CFU m -3. The organic fraction was from 55-70% and the water content about 2.5% (WGT). The content of the dust was compared to the similar results reported in the literature and its toxic potency is

  6. Occurrence of Ionophores in the Danish Environment

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Søren Alex; Björklund, Erland

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics in the environment are a potential threat to environmental ecosystems as well as human health and safety. Antibiotics are designed to have a biological effect at low doses, and the low levels detected in the environment have turned focus on the need for more research on environmental occurrence and fate, to assess the risk and requirement for future regulation. This article describes the first occurrence study of the antibiotic polyether ionophores (lasalocid, monensin, narasin, and salinomycin) in the Danish environment. Various environmental matrices (river water, sediment, and soil) have been evaluated during two different sampling campaigns carried out in July 2011 and October 2012 in an agricultural area of Zealand, Denmark. Lasalocid was not detected in any of the samples. Monensin was measured at a concentration up to 20 ng·L−1 in river water and 13 µg·kg−1 dry weight in the sediment as well as being the most frequently detected ionophore in the soil samples with concentrations up to 8 µg·kg−1 dry weight. Narasin was measured in sediment samples at 2 µg·kg−1 dry weight and in soil between 1 and 18 µg·kg−1 dry weight. Salinomycin was detected in a single soil sample at a concentration of 30 µg·kg−1 dry weight.

  7. Longitudinal Investigation into Genetics in the Conservation of Metabolic Phenotypes in Danish and Chinese Twins.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuxia; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Duan, Haiping; Zhang, Dongfeng; Pang, Zengchang; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Tan, Qihua; Kruse, Torben; Dalgård, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal twin studies on long term conservation of individual metabolic phenotypes can help to explore the genetic and environmental basis in maintaining metabolic homeostasis and metabolic health. We performed a longitudinal twin study on 12 metabolic phenotypes from Danish twins followed up for 12 years and Chinese twins traced for 7 years. The study covered a relatively large sample of 502 pairs of Danish adult twins with a mean age at intake of 38 years and a total of 181 Chinese adult twin pairs with a mean baseline age of 39.5 years. Bivariate twin models were fitted to the longitudinal measurements taken at two time points (at baseline and follow-up) to estimate the genetic and environmental contributions to phenotype variation and correlation at and between the two time points. High genetic components in the regulation of intra-individual phenotype correlation or stability over time were estimated in both Danish (h2>0.75 except fasting blood glucose) and Chinese (h2>0.72 except blood pressure) twins; moderate to high genetic contribution to phenotype variation at the two time points were also estimated except for the low genetic regulation on glucose in Danish and on blood pressure in Chinese twins. Meanwhile the bivariate twin models estimated shared environmental contributions to the variance and covariance in fasting blood glucose in Danish twins, and in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol in Chinese twins. Overall, our longitudinal twin study on long-term stability of metabolic phenotypes in Danish and Chinese twins identified a common pattern of high genetic control over phenotype conservation, and at the same time revealed population-specific patterns of genetic and common environmental regulation on the variance as well as covariance of glucose and blood pressure. PMID:27618179

  8. 26 CFR 521.106 - Control of a domestic enterprise by a Danish enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Regulations 111 (26 CFR 1949 ed. Supps. 29.45-1) shall, insofar as applicable, be followed in the... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2013-04-01 2010-04-01 true Control of a domestic enterprise by a Danish enterprise. 521.106 Section 521.106 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  9. 26 CFR 521.106 - Control of a domestic enterprise by a Danish enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Regulations 111 (26 CFR 1949 ed. Supps. 29.45-1) shall, insofar as applicable, be followed in the... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2014-04-01 2010-04-01 true Control of a domestic enterprise by a Danish enterprise. 521.106 Section 521.106 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  10. 26 CFR 521.106 - Control of a domestic enterprise by a Danish enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Regulations 111 (26 CFR 1949 ed. Supps. 29.45-1) shall, insofar as applicable, be followed in the... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Control of a domestic enterprise by a Danish enterprise. 521.106 Section 521.106 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  11. 26 CFR 521.106 - Control of a domestic enterprise by a Danish enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Regulations 111 (26 CFR 1949 ed. Supps. 29.45-1) shall, insofar as applicable, be followed in the... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of a domestic enterprise by a Danish enterprise. 521.106 Section 521.106 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  12. 26 CFR 521.106 - Control of a domestic enterprise by a Danish enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Regulations 111 (26 CFR 1949 ed. Supps. 29.45-1) shall, insofar as applicable, be followed in the... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Control of a domestic enterprise by a Danish enterprise. 521.106 Section 521.106 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  13. [Modern problems of the application of sanitary regulations concerning sanitary protection zones and sanitary classification of enterprises, buildings and other facilities].

    PubMed

    Lomtev, A Iu; Eremin, G B; Mozzhukhina, N A; Kombarova, M Iu; Mel'tser, A V; Giul'mamedov, É Iu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper there was performed an analysis of the application of sanitary norms and rules concerning sanitary protective zones and sanitary classification of enterprises, buildings and other facilities, including requirements for the sufficiency and accuracy of information in the performance of projects in sanitary protection zone (SPZ). There is presented an analysis of regulations that set requirements for implementation of mapping works in drafting the SPZ. The design of the SPZ was shown to be, on the one hand, the element of territorial planning subjects of the Russian Federation, on the other hand, the object of capital construction. The substantiations of requirements for graphic and text content, structure, and composition of data, sources of their obtaining, methods of data convergence are reported. There are revealed inconsistencies in Sanitary Regulations and Norms (SanPins) and in their relationship with the Town Planning and Land Code and other laws, and regulations adopted in their development. PMID:24624833

  14. Agenda-building influences on the news media's coverage of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's push to regulate tobacco, 1993-2009.

    PubMed

    Foster, Caroline; Thrasher, Jim; Kim, Sei-Hill; Rose, India; Besley, John; Navarro, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Citing agenda-building theory, this article examines the influence of three key factors on the news media's coverage of the process of placing tobacco and tobacco products under regulation of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration between 1993 and 2009. We analyzed data from a content analysis of 570 news articles from The New York Times and Washington Post and found that the media published significantly more FDA regulation articles during the Clinton administration than during the Bush administration. Our analysis links that imbalance of media coverage to the influence of the president of the United States (Clinton and Bush, during the duration of this study), journalistic routines and real world events. We compared the Clinton and Bush era news coverage on article prominence, article topics, and reasons to support/oppose FDA regulation and found significant differences, which we suggest led to the imbalance of news articles in the two administrations. PMID:23293806

  15. Mogens Jansen: An Interview with a Danish Reading Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engberg, Eva

    1985-01-01

    The president of the Danish Association of Reading Teachers discusses the positive effects of international cooperation on reading education, the influence of society's demands on curriculum, and the instinctive features and benefits of Danish Reading instruction. (FL)

  16. The Danish Collaborative Bacteraemia Network (DACOBAN) database

    PubMed Central

    Gradel, Kim Oren; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Arpi, Magnus; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Østergaard, Christian; Søgaard, Mette

    2014-01-01

    The Danish Collaborative Bacteraemia Network (DACOBAN) research database includes microbiological data obtained from positive blood cultures from a geographically and demographically well-defined population serviced by three clinical microbiology departments (1.7 million residents, 32% of the Danish population). The database also includes data on comorbidity from the Danish National Patient Registry, vital status from the Danish Civil Registration System, and clinical data on 31% of nonselected records in the database. Use of the unique civil registration number given to all Danish residents enables linkage to additional registries for specific research projects. The DACOBAN database is continuously updated, and it currently comprises 39,292 patients with 49,951 bacteremic episodes from 2000 through 2011. The database is part of an international network of population-based bacteremia registries from five developed countries on three continents. The main purpose of the DACOBAN database is to study surveillance, risk, and prognosis. Sex- and age-specific data on background populations enables the computation of incidence rates. In addition, the high number of patients facilitates studies of rare microorganisms. Thus far, studies on Staphylococcus aureus, enterococci, computer algorithms for the classification of bacteremic episodes, and prognosis and risk in relation to socioeconomic factors have been published. PMID:25258557

  17. Genetic determinants of hair and eye colours in the Scottish and Danish populations

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Eye and hair colour is highly variable in the European population, and is largely genetically determined. Both linkage and association studies have previously been used to identify candidate genes underlying this variation. Many of the genes found were previously known as underlying mutant mouse phenotypes or human genetic disease, but others, previously unsuspected as pigmentation genes, have also been discovered. Results We assayed the hair of a population of individuals of Scottish origin using tristimulus colorimetry, in order to produce a quantitative measure of hair colour. Cluster analysis of this data defined two groups, with overlapping borders, which corresponded to visually assessed dark versus red/light hair colour. The Danish population was assigned into categorical hair colour groups. Both cohorts were also assessed for eye colour. DNA from the Scottish group was genotyped at SNPs in 33 candidate genes, using 384 SNPs identified by HapMap as representatives of each gene. Associations found between SNPs and colorimetric hair data and eye colour categories were replicated in a cohort of the Danish population. The Danish population was also genotyped with SNPs in 4 previously described pigmentation genes. We found replicable associations of hair colour with the KITLG and OCA2 genes. MC1R variation correlated, as expected, with the red dimension of colorimetric hair colour in Scots. The Danish analysis excluded those with red hair, and no associations were found with MC1R in this group, emphasising that MC1R regulates the colour rather than the intensity of pigmentation. A previously unreported association with the HPS3 gene was seen in the Scottish population. However, although this replicated in the smaller cohort of the Danish population, no association was seen when the whole study population was analysed. Conclusions We have found novel associations with SNPs in known pigmentation genes and colorimetrically assessed hair colour in a

  18. The Danish Communicative Developmental Inventories: Validity and Main Developmental Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleses, Dorthe; Vach, Werner; Slott, Malene; Wehberg, Sonja; Thomsen, Pia; Madsen, Thomas O.; Basboll, Hans

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a large-scale cross-sectional study of Danish children's early language acquisition based on the Danish adaptation of the "MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories" (CDI). Measures of validity and reliability imply that the Danish adaptation of the American CDI has been adjusted linguistically and culturally in…

  19. The PIP training programme: building of ACP experts capacities in crop protection and food safety to support local companies to comply with EU regulations on pesticides residues.

    PubMed

    Schiffers, B C; Schubert, A; Schiffers, C; Fontaine, S; Gumusboga, N; Werner, B; Webb, M; Lugros, H; Stinglhamber, G

    2006-01-01

    Regulatory requirements, and in particular phytosanitary quality standards change rapidly. As ACP producers/exporters race to become more competitive, to keep their market share and to satisfay their customers' commercial demands (e.g. EUREP-GAP certification), the need for competent staff who are aware of the company's quality objectives and trained to follow instructions is crucial. Mastering sanitary quality is only possible if matched with a programme to build the skills of companies' human resources. The Pesticide Initiative Programme (PIP), mindful of the importance of making operators autonomous and of training them to monitor EU food safety regulations and technology on their own, has successfully developed a training programme while building a quality network of local/ACP service providers. By building the capacities of ACP experts and then securing their services as trainers, PIP also guarantees companies' access to expertise and the sustainability of their efforts to comply with new EU regulations. The training strategy developed by PIP rests on two pilars: instructor training and collective training. Instructor training consists in reinforcing the technical knowledge of local experts (agronomists, hygienists, etc.) by providing them with active teaching methods. Once the ACP experts have gained enough technical knowledge of the key areas of crop protection--mainly pesticides management--and food safety, and have demonstrated their capacity to train the technical staff of local companies, the PIP has carried out a collective training programme in 2004, 2005 and 2006. To date, more than 130 consultants covering about 15 ACP countries have received instructor training, and more than 700 people have participated in collective and in-company training sessions. PMID:17390771

  20. The building materials decree: an example of a Dutch regulation based on the potential impact of materials on the environment.

    PubMed

    Eikelboom, R T; Ruwiel, E; Goumans, J J

    2001-01-01

    Some 20 years ago Dutch society became very aware of the problem of the increasing production of waste materials and of the need to find solutions. Technical solutions had to be developed and introduced into society. Due to the discovery of many soil pollution problems and other environmental calamities, people asked for clear criteria on which proper and safe solutions could be based. Therefore a large number of environmental aspects had to be taken into account in the developing field of environmental policy. The Dutch building materials decree is one of the steps on the road towards a sustainable society. The decree is based on the soil protection act and the surface water protection act. The decree gives quality criteria for the application and re-use of stony materials and earth used as building materials. No difference is made between primary materials, secondary materials and waste materials. The decree is applicable in case these materials are used in constructions where they are in contact with rain, surface water and ground water (e.g. in embankments, road building, outside walls of buildings, foundations and roofs). For implementation of the decree in the construction industry it was necessary to develop standards, methods for testing and certification schemes. In order to guarantee independent testing and judgement, laboratories had to meet quality standards put forward in an accreditation scheme. Although this legislation does not cover all environmental aspects, it has proved to be an important element in judging the environmental quality of construction materials in a direct or indirect way, and a contribution to the management of waste materials. The question of clear and fair criteria was easily put forward. Answering this question, however, turned out to be a complex task in which a great number of aspects had to be considered and a great many tools had to be developed, checked and thoroughly discussed. In some cases practical choices had to be

  1. The Danish Free School Tradition under Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    2015-01-01

    The Danish free school tradition has entailed a large degree of associational freedom for non-governmental schools, religious as well as non-religious. Until the late 1990s, the non-governmental schools were under no strict ideological or pedagogical limitations; they could recruit teachers and students according to their own value base, and were…

  2. Escherichia vulneris in a Danish soccer wound.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, C F; Klebe, T M; Prag, J

    1997-01-01

    Escherichia vulneris was isolated from an infected soccer wound, a finding which has not apparently been described in Europe before, but by questioning Danish clinical microbiological laboratories a further 12 cases were discovered. Treatment with simple debridement and cefuroxime quickly eradicated the bacteria in our case. PMID:9255899

  3. Evaluating University Continuing Education: A Danish Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thune, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The Danish Evaluation Institute is conducting systematic assessments of three master's programs in public administration, public policy, and public management. They have found that explicit criteria have advantages and disadvantages. Development of criteria attempts to meet the following demands: uniformity, relevance of level, scope, precision,…

  4. Care and Education in the Danish Creche

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brostrom, Stig; Hansen, Ole Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to identify the relation between policy and lived life, for the small child in the Danish creche. To accomplish this, the article integrates demography, traditions, national curriculum and psychological, educational, and recent developments in research. It is an attempt to reveal knowledge and consequences, by conducting the…

  5. Zonation of Metropolitan France for the application of earthquake-resistant building regulations to critical facilities Part 1: Seismotectonic zonation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terrier, M.; Bles, J.L.; Godefroy, P.; Dominique, P.; Bour, M.; Martin, C.

    The seismotectonic zonation of Metropolitan France(part 1) and the derived seismic zonation (part 2)were carried out in order to facilitate andstandardize the application of earthquake-resistantbuilding regulations to critical facilities forreasons of environmental protection (Decree No.91-461, Ministerial Order dated 10 May 1993).According to current French legislation, adeterministic approach was adopted for the executionof these two successive zonations.The seismotectonic zonation is based on aseismotectonic analysis that included the followingstages: (1) collection and selection of base data(inherited tectonic structures, recent to contemporarydeformation and stress fields, seismicity); (2)comparison of the base data, interpretation andconstruction of a seismotectonic schema; (3) synthesisand compilation of the seismotectonic zonation.The zonation incorporates three types ofseismotectonic unit: faults or seismogenic structures,seismogenic structure systems and seismotectonicdomains. Reference earthquakes, corresponding to thestrongest known events, are associated with eachseismotectonic unit.The derived seismic zonation (see part 2) for theapplication of the legislation to critical facilitiesconstitutes an addendum, from a regulatory standpoint,to the `Nouveau zonage sismique de la France',developed in 1986 by Despeyroux and Godefroy for theapplication of earthquake-resistant buildingregulations to constructions at `normal risk'.

  6. [Nazi Terror against the Danish Medical Profession. The February 20, 1945 Murders in Odense].

    PubMed

    Jeune, Bernard; Hess, Søren; Skytthe, Axel; Stræde, Therkel

    2015-01-01

    On February 20, 1945, during the German occupation of Denmark, members of a notorious Nazi terror organization named the Petergroup murdered four young medical doctors at the city and regional hospital of Odense. On the 70th anniversary of the crime, a symposium was organized at the Odense University Hospital, and a monument revealed close to the site of the murders in commemoration of the four victims of the crime. The young physicians were not known to be connected with the Danish resistance, and they were shot without their murderers even knowing their identities in an attempt to revenge the growing resistance in Denmark's central, third largest city, and as a reprisal for several cases where the hospital had treated wounded resistance fighters, and prevented their being handed over to the German police. The article describes the terror action of February 20, 1945 and its perpetrators, as well as other Nazi attacks on members of the Danish medical profession. It lines out the strong protest voiced by the Danish central administration against the Odense hospital killings which were on the very same day seconded by further killings and a German campaign of blowing up important Odense buildings including two newspaper printing houses. Conclusively, the authors - by way of obituaries and material from relatives of the murdered - portray the four victims of the atrocity Christian Fabricius Møller, Jørgen Hvalkof, Henning Magnus Adelsteen Dalsgaard, and Henning Ørsberg. PMID:27086451

  7. Building core capacities at the designated points of entry according to the International Health Regulations 2005: a review of the progress and prospects in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Hsiao-Hsuan; Hsieh, Jui-Wei; Wu, Yi-Chun; Chou, Jih-Haw; Chang, Feng-Yee

    2014-01-01

    Background As designated points of entry (PoEs) play a critical role in preventing the transmission of international public health risks, huge efforts have been invested in Taiwan to improve the core capacities specified in the International Health Regulations 2005 (IHR 2005). This article reviews how Taiwan strengthened the core capacities at the Taoyuan International Airport (TIA) and the Port of Kaohsiung (PoK) by applying a new, practicable model. Design An IHR PoE program was initiated for implementing the IHR core capacities at designated PoEs. The main methods of this program were 1) identifying the designated PoEs according to the pre-determined criteria, 2) identifying the competent authority for each health measure, 3) building a close collaborative relationship between stakeholders from the central and PoE level, 4) designing three stages of systematic assessment using the assessment tool published by the World Health Organization (WHO), and 5) undertaking action plans targeting the gaps identified by the assessments. Results Results of the self-assessment, preliminary external assessment, and follow-up external assessment revealed a continuous progressive trend at the TIA (86, 91, and 100%, respectively), and at the PoK (77, 97, and 99.9%, respectively). The results of the follow-up external assessment indicated that both these designated PoEs already conformed to the IHR requirements. These achievements were highly associated with strong collaboration, continuous empowerment, efficient resource integration, and sustained commitments. Conclusions Considering that many countries had requested for an extension on the deadline to fulfill the IHR 2005 core capacity requirements, Taiwan's experiences can be a source of learning for countries striving to fully implement these requirements. Further, in order to broaden the scope of public health protection into promoting global security, Taiwan will keep its commitments on multisectoral cooperation, human

  8. Annoying Danish Relatives: Comprehension and Production of Relative Clauses by Danish Children with and without SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen De Lopez, Kristine; Olsen, Lone Sundahl; Chondrogianni, Vasiliki

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with SLI and to compare errors with those produced by TD…

  9. Parenting among Wealthy Danish Families: A Concerted Civilising Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Dil

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the parenting practices of wealthy Danish families and offers insight into the workings of dominant parenting norms within contemporary Danish society. Based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted among 15 families living north of Copenhagen, Denmark, this article identifies the parenting strategies of people with ample…

  10. Educational Ambassadors in the Danish Trade Union Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keil, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The concept of Educational Ambassadors is embedded within the so-called "Danish model" of industrial relations. The Danish industrial relations system is characterised by strong collective organisations with national coverage, which conclude the collective agreements for various industries or sectors and which are mostly grouped under central…

  11. Statistical Learning in Emerging Lexicons: The Case of Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Stephanie F.; Bleses, Dorthe; Basboll, Hans; Lambertsen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This research explored the impact of neighborhood density (ND), word frequency (WF), and word length (WL) on the vocabulary size of Danish-speaking children. Given the particular phonological properties of Danish, the impact was expected to differ from that reported in studies on English and French. Method: The monosyllabic words in the…

  12. Screening for celiac disease in Danish adults

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Anna; Skaaby, Tea; Kårhus, Line Lund; Schwarz, Peter; Jørgensen, Torben; Rumessen, Jüri J.; Linneberg, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The prevalence of celiac disease (CD) as recorded in the Danish National Patient Registry is ∼50/100,000 persons. This is much lower than the reported prevalence of CD in other Nordic countries and underdiagnosis is suspected. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of CD in a population-based study of Danish adults. Methods. A total of 2297 adults aged 24–76 years living in the southwestern part of Copenhagen were screened for CD by immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG antibodies to transglutaminases and deamidated gliadin. IgA/IgG-positive participants were invited to a clinical evaluation, including biopsies, by a gastroenterologist. Results. Of the invited 56 participants, 40 underwent a full clinical evaluation and 8 persons were diagnosed with CD; 2 of the 16 persons, who did not complete the clinical evaluation, were considered by experts to have probable CD. None of the above 56 participants had a known history of CD or a recorded diagnosis of CD in National Patient Registry. By combining cases of biopsy-proven CD (n = 8), probable CD (n = 2), and registry-recorded CD (n = 1), the prevalence of CD was estimated to be 479/100,000 (11/2297) persons (95% CI: 197–761). Conclusion. In this general adult population, the prevalence of CD as estimated by screening and clinical evaluation was 10 times higher than the registry-based prevalence of CD. Of 11 participants diagnosed with CD in our screening study, 10 were unaware of the diagnosis prior to the study. Thus, our study suggests that CD is markedly underdiagnosed in Danish adults. PMID:25687734

  13. International Health Regulations (2005) and the U.S. Department of Defense: building core capacities on a foundation of partnership and trust

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A cornerstone of effective global health surveillance programs is the ability to build systems that identify, track and respond to public health threats in a timely manner. These functions are often difficult and require international cooperation given the rapidity with which diseases cross national borders and spread throughout the global community as a result of travel and migration by both humans and animals. As part of the U.S. Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center (AFHSC), the Department of Defense’s (DoD) Globa Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) has developed a global network of surveillance sites over the past decade that engages in a wide spectrum of support activities in collaboration with host country partners. Many of these activities are in direct support of International Health Regulations (IHR[2005]). The network also supports host country military forces around the world, which are equally affected by these threats and are often in a unique position to respond in areas of conflict or during complex emergencies. With IHR(2005) as the guiding framework for action, the AFHSC-GEIS network of international partners and overseas research laboratories continues to develop into a far-reaching system for identifying, analyzing and responding to emerging disease threats. PMID:21143826

  14. Interpersonal violence: patterns in a Danish community.

    PubMed Central

    Hedeboe, J; Charles, A V; Nielsen, J; Grymer, F; Møller, B N; Møller-Madson, B; Jensen, S E

    1985-01-01

    We studied all cases of assault with violence (1,639) in a Danish population of 275,000 over a one-year period. Most victims were young men. The incidence rose during evenings, nights and weekends, and assaults were often seen in or around bars and restaurants. Women accounted for 64 per cent of all victims of assault in the home. Influence of alcohol was identified in 43 per cent of all cases. The fist was the most frequent agent of assault; use of firearms was a very rare act of violence but was associated with death in three out of five cases. There were 10 deaths in all. PMID:4003631

  15. Developing and Evaluating a Multimodal Course Format: Danish for Knowledge Workers--Labour Market-Related Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederiksen, Karen-Margrete; Laursen, Katja Årosin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents our reflections on developing the Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) course "Danish for knowledge workers--labour market-related Danish." As defined by Laursen and Frederiksen (2015), knowledge workers are "highly educated people who typically work at universities, at other institutions of higher…

  16. Child Care Services and the NYS Uniform Fire Prevention and Building Code: A Building Code Examination of Child Day Care Services Which Are Regulated by the NYS Department of Social Services with Particular Attention to Day Care Centers and the Role of the Local Authority Having Jurisdiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Div. of Code Enforcement and Administration, Albany.

    This course manual details the Uniform Fire Prevention and Building Code of New York State and how it affects child care services, particularly day care centers. The sections of the manual, each detailing a part of the code, are: (1) Introduction, Scope, Registration, and Definitions and Facilities Regulated by the New York Department of Social…

  17. Thyroid function in Danish greenhouse workers

    PubMed Central

    Toft, Gunnar; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2006-01-01

    Background From animal studies it is known that currently used pesticides can disturb thyroid function. Methods In the present study we investigated the thyroid function in 122 Danish greenhouse workers, to evaluate if greenhouse workers classified as highly exposed to pesticides experiences altered thyroid levels compared to greenhouse workers with lower exposure. Serum samples from the greenhouse workers were sampled both in the spring and the fall to evaluate if differences in pesticide use between seasons resulted in altered thyroid hormone levels. Results We found a moderate reduction of free thyroxine (FT4) (10–16%) among the persons working in greenhouses with a high spraying load both in samples collected in the spring and the fall, but none of the other measured thyroid hormones differed significantly between exposure groups in the cross-sectional comparisons. However, in longitudinal analysis of the individual thyroid hormone level between the spring and the fall, more pronounced differences where found with on average 32% higher thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level in the spring compared to the fall and at the same time a 5–9% lower total triiodthyroxin (TT3), free triiodthyroxine (FT3) and FT4. The difference between seasons was not consistently more pronounced in the group classified as high exposure compared to the low exposure groups. Conclusion The present study indicates that pesticide exposure among Danish greenhouse workers results in only minor disturbances of thyroid hormone levels. PMID:17147831

  18. Danish Ophthalmology - from start to 1865.

    PubMed

    Norn, Mogens

    2016-03-01

    This short paper mentioned the medical treatment using the 'holy' springs, the first 'eye doctor' in Denmark, the first picture of spectacles which was found in Viborg Cathedral of the high priest before he performs circumcisio praeputii on Jesus Christ, further cataract reclination in Denmark from around year zero and cataract extraction in 1667 in Denmark on a goose by Francisco Borri and on humans by the Danish Georg Heuermann in 1755. Epidemic military eye diseases in 1807, 1856 and 1865 are also described in this study. From 1856, a new ophthalmological period started in Denmark with the first eye hospital (lazaret only for eye diseases), and in 1864, patients with eye diseases were transported from the few beds in the surgical departments in the municipal hospital to the first civil eye department in Denmark, the eye hospital Sct. Annae in Copenhagen. The new scientific period started with Jacob Christian Bentz (ophthalmia granulosa, joint editor of the Danish Medical Journal) and Heinrich Lehmann. PMID:26899921

  19. Danish experiences on EIA of livestock projects

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, Per . E-mail: pc@plan.aau.dk

    2006-07-15

    Since its introduction into Danish planning in 1989, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been widely discussed. At the centre of the debate has been the question of whether EIA actually offered anything new and there has been a great deal of scepticism about the efficacy of the instrument, especially when it comes to livestock projects. In an evaluation of the Danish EIA experience, we have looked more closely at how the EIA instruments function regarding livestock projects. This article addresses both the EIA process as well as the EIA screening. It is demonstrated that the EIA screening in its own right is a kind of regulatory instrument. Examining the assessments made during screening more closely, we conclude that there is still some way to go in order to make the assessment broader and more holistic in accordance with the ambitions set out in the EIA directive to contribute to a more sustainable development. Although the provisions laid down are the same the praxis related to the field has developed at a considerable speed. In order to understand this development we have closely examined how the decisions made by the Nature Protection Board of Appeal (NPBA) have been changed and conclude that these changes definitely address some of the shortcomings found in the evaluation.

  20. The physician's civil liability under Danish law.

    PubMed

    Fenger, N; Broberg, M

    1991-01-01

    The physician's liability in Danish law is based on negligence, which is assessed by the courts largely on the basis of expert opinions. Such opinions are provided primarily by the Medico-Legal Council rather than by experts selected by the parties. The evaluation of negligence is based on a "reasonable man" standard and the performance expected of a competent colleague; a hospital will be responsible for the negligence of its employees. The burden of proof generally lies with the plaintiff; negligence will not be presumed and the assessment of the evidence of negligence will be adapted to the individual situation, e.g. factors such as the degree of specialization involved, the time which the physician had at his disposal to make his decision and the resources available to him will be taken into consideration. The courts have shown themselves willing to allow for the fact that doctors differ, i.e. recognizing that there must be scope for reasonable discretion. Because the culpa principle is central, the standard applied to medical knowledge will be that which pertained at the time of the treatment. Where a non-specialist is confronted with a problem which may go beyond the knowledge of his limits and experience, he is under an obligation to refer the patient. The principle of informed consent to treatment is accepted in Danish law, but such consent will readily be considered to have been given tacitly. PMID:23511859

  1. How does the Danish Groundwater Monitoring Programme support statistical consistent nitrate trend analyses in groundwater?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Birgitte; Thorling, Lærke; Sørensen, Brian; Dalgaard, Tommy; Erlandsen, Mogens

    2013-04-01

    The overall aim of performing nitrate trend analyses in oxic groundwater is to document the effect of regulation of Danish agriculture on N pollution. The design of the Danish Groundwater Monitoring Programme is presented and discussed in relation to performance of statistical consistence nitrate trend analyses. Three types of data are crucial. Firstly, long and continuous time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 from Denmark Statistics is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge age determination are performed in order to allow linking of the first two dataset. Recent results published in Hansen et al. (2011 & 2012) will be presented. Since the 1980s, regulations implemented by Danish farmers have succeeded in optimizing the N (nitrogen) management at farm level. As a result, the upward agricultural N surplus trend has been reversed, and the N surplus has reduced by 30-55% from 1980 to 2007 depending on region. The reduction in the N surplus served to reduce the losses of N from agriculture, with documented positive effects on nature and the environment in Denmark. In groundwater, the upward trend in nitrate concentrations was reversed around 1980, and a larger number of downward nitrate trends were seen in the youngest groundwater compared with the oldest groundwater. However, on average, approximately 48% of the oxic monitored groundwater has nitrate concentrations above the groundwater and drinking water standards of 50 mg/l. Furthermore, trend analyses show that 33% of all the monitored groundwater has upward nitrate trends, while only 18% of the youngest groundwater has upward nitrate trends according to data sampled from 1988-2009. A regional analysis shows a correlation between a high level of N

  2. Annoying Danish relatives: comprehension and production of relative clauses by Danish children with and without SLI.

    PubMed

    Jensen De López, Kristine; Sundahl Olsen, Lone; Chondrogianni, Vasiliki

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with SLI and to compare errors with those produced by TD children. Eighteen children with SLI, eighteen TD age-matched (AM) and nine TD language-matched (LM) Danish-speaking children participated in a comprehension and in a production task. All children performed better on the comprehension compared with the production task, as well as on SRCs compared to ORCs and produced various avoidance strategies. In the ORC context, children with SLI produced more reversal errors than the AM children, who opted for passive ORCs. These results are discussed within current theories of SLI and indicate a deficiency with the assignment of thematic roles rather than with the structural make-up of RCs. PMID:23200200

  3. Building Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meilach, Dona Z.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the importance of developing students' building awareness by exploring logos, or buildings that symbolize a country, to learn about architecture and the cultures in different countries. Explores categories of buildings. Includes examples of logos from around the world. (CMK)

  4. [Epidemiology of "sick buildings"].

    PubMed

    Sterling, T D; Collett, C; Rumel, D

    1991-02-01

    The indoor environment of modern buildings, especially those designed for commercial and administrative purposes, constitutes a unique ecological niche with its own biochemical environment, fauna and flora. Sophisticated construction methods and the new materials and machinery required to maintain the indoor environment of these enclosed structures produce a large number of chemical by-products and permit the growth of many different microorganisms. Because modern office buildings are sealed, the regulation of humidification and temperature of ducted air presents a dilemma, since difference species of microorganisms flourish at different combinations of humidity and temperature. If the indoor environment of modern office buildings is not properly maintained, the environment may become harmful to its occupants' health. Such buildings are classified as "Sick Buildings". A review of the epidemiology of building illness is presented. The etiology of occupant illnesses, sources of toxic substances, and possible methods of maintaining a safe indoor environment are described. PMID:1784964

  5. Explicit Sex--Liberation or Exploitation: Danish "Permissiveness" Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachy, Victor

    1976-01-01

    Reviews various Danish legislative actions leading up to the lifting of the ban on pornography, and discusses possible consequences of such liberalization by analyzing police statistics from a five year period. (MH)

  6. Is the Danish wind energy model replicable for other countries?

    SciTech Connect

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Lindboe, Hans H.; Odgaard, Ole

    2008-03-15

    Though aspects of the Danish wind energy model are unique, policymakers might do well to imitate such aspects as a strong political commitment, consistent policy mechanisms, and an incremental, ''hands-on'' approach to R and D. (author)

  7. Land of the free, home of the (un)regulated: A look at market-building and liberalization in the EU and the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Leif Soren Birger Per Ove Holm

    In my dissertation I argue that because the European Union and the United States of America have been largely treated as unique or at least special cases, both the literature on American-state building and that on European market integration have missed how close comparison alters both our descriptive views and social-scientific explanations of the shape of each polity. In particular, scholars have not sufficiently recognized that the European Union has gone further than the United States in many elements of the creation of a centralized, liberalized single market, nor have they produced explanations that account well for this development. This study challenges the dominant assumption that the United States is generally more hierarchical and centralized than the European Union and more of a single free market in the sense of fewer allowable trade barriers. By analyzing the rules of market integration in services (over 70% of GDP), public procurement (15 -- 20% GDP) and the regulated goods markets (goods like elevators with their own regulatory regimes), I demonstrate that in all these major cases the European Union has adopted rules that open exchange to competition more than the United States. While the actual integration of flows on the ground is still generally less across European states than American ones, the political rules are more - and more liberally - integrated in Europe. I offer an institutional and ideational argument to explain these differences, with two main parts. First, there is no American parallel to the institution of the European Commission, which is mandated to continually push liberalization forward. My research shows that Commission leadership has been critical to each of the examined cases. Second, broader norms of legitimate governance favor centralized authority - including liberalizing central authority - more in the European Union than in the United States. Despite all the criticism we hear of the European Union, the basic notion of

  8. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry--8. Lundbeck].

    PubMed

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kirkegaard, Hanne; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2016-01-01

    medicinal products could exclusively determine own proprietary names of the articles and could themselves make their own homogeneous and easily recognisable design, a.o. by frequent use of prefixes as Afa, Asa, Gea, Ido, Leo, and Meco which associated to for instance the company name. However, it goes without saying that Lundbeck had to market the articles in commission according to the different contracts with their partners. Consequently their range of products appeared heterogeneously. The international financial crisis and the consequent unemployment in the 1920s and 1930s had in Denmark a.o. resulted in national regulation in order to complicate import of ready-made goods and thus support the domestic manufacture of such articles. This was one of the reasons why Lundbeck decided to initiate its own manufacture of medicinal products in Denmark instead of continuing only with the import business which had been obstructed by the authorities. This article does not mention all Lundbeck's medicinal products which were marketed in Denmark until 1955 where a new Pharmacy Act came into force though undoubtedly a lot of interest can be written about all of them. The products mentioned in this article have been carefully selected, not only because they are representative for Lundbeck's development during the first decades, but also because the Danish Collection of the History of Pharmacy has acquired consumer packages of many of the articles. Several of these packages include patient information leaflets with an instruction for use and/or other information, and especially these leaflets represent a source material which has not previously been given much attention. It does not appear from the available source material whether these earliest medicinal products from Lundbeck were assembled in Danish packages on the production sites, or whether they were repacked in Copenhagen. It is not unlikely that the assembling originally was finalized abroad, and that instructions for the

  9. [The historical aspect: the first 10 years of the Danish Medicines Agency--and the 50 years that came before].

    PubMed

    Overø, Jens

    2008-01-01

    In 1997, the office for administration regarding medicines and pharmacies was separated from the Danish Board of Health and organised as the Danish Medicines Agency (Laegemiddelstyrelsen). This Agency celebrated its 10 years anniversary by publishing a book, "Staten og laegemidlerne" (The state and the medicines), describing various aspects of the official control of medicines. The book chapters focus mainly on the latest 25-50 years, because the earlier periods from the 16th century and onwards have been thoroughly described previously, whereas more recent developments are more sparsely discussed in the literature. The present article emphasises the importance of keeping knowledge of the historical development alive. Many aspects of present day regulation only make sense with knowledge of what came before. PMID:18548943

  10. Air pollution from ships in three Danish ports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxe, H.; Larsen, T.

    The operational meteorological air quality model (OML) was used to calculate the urban dispersion of air pollutants originating from ships in three Danish ports: Copenhagen, Elsinore and Køge. Oxides of nitrogen (NO x=NO+NO 2) emitted by ships in the port of Copenhagen contributed substantially to the overall NO x pollution in central Copenhagen. This would have an impact on human health if most of the NO were occasionally transformed into NO 2, for which the European Community's legal limit is defined by the 19th-highest annual hourly value being 200 μg m -3 NO 2. Emissions by the ships caused a maximum 19th hourly NO x concentration of 615 μg m -3. In a small area of housing estates and office blocks near the harbour, it exceeded 200 μg m -3 NO x, and over several square kilometres of central Copenhagen, the emission by ships in harbour similarly caused values of 50-200 μg m -3 NO x. In the port of Elsinore, ferries contributed significantly to the NO x pollution in the neighbourhood around the harbour. Emissions of particulate matter (PM) by ships in Copenhagen harbour caused neighbourhood concentrations equivalent to only 0.2-0.4% of the European Community's legal annual mass-based limit value for the protection of human health. However, ship emissions are dominated by ultrafine particles, as are diesel vehicle emissions, which adversely affect human health. Particulate emissions from ships contribute 8-15% of that of all urban road traffic to the background PM 10 levels in the harbour neighbourhoods. In Elsinore, the PM problem was less significant than in Copenhagen. Ships in both harbours will contribute insignificantly to urban pollution with sulphur dioxide (SO 2), once the anticipated regulations on sulphur content in marine fuels are implemented. In Køge, the low activity in the harbour meant that ships did not significantly affect urban air quality.

  11. The Danish National Lymphoma Registry: Coverage and Data Quality

    PubMed Central

    Arboe, Bente; El-Galaly, Tarec Christoffer; Clausen, Michael Roost; Munksgaard, Peter Svenssen; Stoltenberg, Danny; Nygaard, Mette Kathrine; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfeldt; Christensen, Jacob Haaber; Gørløv, Jette Sønderskov; Brown, Peter de Nully

    2016-01-01

    Background The Danish National Lymphoma Register (LYFO) prospectively includes information on all lymphoma patients newly diagnosed at hematology departments in Denmark. The validity of the clinical information in the LYFO has never been systematically assessed. Aim To test the coverage and data quality of the LYFO. Methods The coverage was tested by merging data of the LYFO with the Danish Cancer Register and the Danish National Patient Register, respectively. The validity of the LYFO was assessed by crosschecking with information from medical records in subgroups of patients. A random sample of 3% (N = 364) was made from all patients in the LYFO. In addition, four subtypes of lymphomas were validated: CNS lymphomas, diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, peripheral T-cell lymphomas, and Hodgkin lymphomas. A total of 1,706 patients from the period 2000–2012 were included. The positive predictive values (PPVs) and completeness of selected variables were calculated for each subgroup and for the entire cohort of patients. Results The comparison of data from the LYFO with the Danish Cancer Register and the Danish National Patient Register revealed a high coverage. In addition, the data quality was good with high PPVs (87% to 100%), and high completeness (92% to 100%). Conclusion The LYFO is a unique, nationwide clinical database characterized by high validity, good coverage and prospective data entry. It represents a valuable resource for future lymphoma research. PMID:27336800

  12. Novel variation and de novo mutation rates in population-wide de novo assembled Danish trios

    PubMed Central

    Besenbacher, Søren; Liu, Siyang; Izarzugaza, José M. G.; Grove, Jakob; Belling, Kirstine; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Huang, Shujia; Als, Thomas D.; Li, Shengting; Yadav, Rachita; Rubio-García, Arcadio; Lescai, Francesco; Demontis, Ditte; Rao, Junhua; Ye, Weijian; Mailund, Thomas; Friborg, Rune M.; Pedersen, Christian N. S.; Xu, Ruiqi; Sun, Jihua; Liu, Hao; Wang, Ou; Cheng, Xiaofang; Flores, David; Rydza, Emil; Rapacki, Kristoffer; Damm Sørensen, John; Chmura, Piotr; Westergaard, David; Dworzynski, Piotr; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Lund, Ole; Hansen, Torben; Xu, Xun; Li, Ning; Bolund, Lars; Pedersen, Oluf; Eiberg, Hans; Krogh, Anders; Børglum, Anders D.; Brunak, Søren; Kristiansen, Karsten; Schierup, Mikkel H.; Wang, Jun; Gupta, Ramneek; Villesen, Palle; Rasmussen, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Building a population-specific catalogue of single nucleotide variants (SNVs), indels and structural variants (SVs) with frequencies, termed a national pan-genome, is critical for further advancing clinical and public health genetics in large cohorts. Here we report a Danish pan-genome obtained from sequencing 10 trios to high depth (50 × ). We report 536k novel SNVs and 283k novel short indels from mapping approaches and develop a population-wide de novo assembly approach to identify 132k novel indels larger than 10 nucleotides with low false discovery rates. We identify a higher proportion of indels and SVs than previous efforts showing the merits of high coverage and de novo assembly approaches. In addition, we use trio information to identify de novo mutations and use a probabilistic method to provide direct estimates of 1.27e−8 and 1.5e−9 per nucleotide per generation for SNVs and indels, respectively. PMID:25597990

  13. Building America

    SciTech Connect

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  14. Intelligent buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Atkin, B.

    1989-01-01

    The term intelligent buildings refers to today's sophisticated living environments that must support communication, energy, fire and security protection systems. This book examines a variety of topics including building automation, information technology, and systems and facilities management.

  15. Visual impairment in Danish children 1985.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, T

    1987-02-01

    In 1985 150 children aged 0-18 were reported to the Danish National Register for Visually Impaired Children. Cross tabulation of the ophthalmological diagnoses by site and type of affection was performed with respect to year of birth, aetiology, visual acuity and birth weight. Finally the relations between aetiology and the presence of additional handicaps are demonstrated. The 'incidence of notification' (IN) was calculated for each birth year as the number of notified children per 100,000 within each birth year group showing variations between 46 in the 1984 birth year group and 3 in the 1970 birth year group with a mean value of 14. The figures stress the impact of congenital and neonatal visual impairment. The significance of IN is discussed with respect to other concepts of incidence. It is concluded that the presented epidemiological method is useful as a tool of analysis in the planning of preventional strategies. From the tables the following main features may be highlighted: Nearly 90% of the blinding causes anatomically are located in the posterior segment of the eye, the optic pathways or in the brain. Isolated visual handicap was notified in 34% of the children, while another 48% presented central nervous system involvement. From an aetiological point of view it is noteworthy that no specific aetiology could be encircled in 38% of the material. In conclusion, it is proposed that future lines of ophthalmological work in the prevention of visual handicap in childhood should concentrate on a higher degree of specificity in diagnostic procedures and an intensified search for specific aetiologies in every single child with visual impairment. PMID:3577699

  16. The Nature of "Udeskole": Outdoor Learning Theory and Practice in Danish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentsen, Peter; Jensen, Frank Sondergaard

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of Danish teachers have started introducing school-based outdoor learning as a weekly or biweekly "outdoor school" day for school children--often called "udeskole" in Danish. Although at least 14% of Danish schools practise this form of outdoor teaching with some classes, it is not mentioned in the national curriculum and…

  17. Early Vocabulary Development in Danish and other Languages: A CDI-Based Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleses, Dorthe; Vach, Werner; Slott, Malene; Wehberg, Sonja; Thomsen, Pia; Madsen, Thomas O.; Basboll, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to describe the trajectory of Danish children's early lexical development relative to other languages, by comparing a Danish study based on the Danish adaptation of "The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories" (CDI) to 17 comparable CDI-studies. The second objective is to address the feasibility…

  18. Semantic Categorization of Placement Verbs in L1 and L2 Danish and Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadierno, Teresa; Ibarretxe-Antuñano, Iraide; Hijazo-Gascón, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates semantic categorization of the meaning of placement verbs by Danish and Spanish native speakers and two groups of intermediate second language (L2) learners (Danish learners of L2 Spanish and Spanish learners of L2 Danish). Participants described 31 video clips picturing different types of placement events. Cluster analyses…

  19. Healthy Buildings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grubb, Deborah

    Health problems related to school buildings can be categorized in five major areas: sick-building syndrome; health-threatening building materials; environmental hazards such as radon gas and asbestos; lead poisoning; and poor indoor air quality due to smoke, chemicals, and other pollutants. This paper provides an overview of these areas,…

  20. Discarding of plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) in the Danish North Sea trawl fishery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Niels; Feekings, Jordan; Lewy, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) plays an important role in the North Sea benthic ecosystem and is by weight the most important commercial flatfish species in the North Sea demersal fishery. There is a high discarding of plaice in the active demersal fisheries in the North Sea. The change in fisheries management towards a more ecosystem based approach, together with a greater focus on sustainability, has caused a severe need for action. Subsequently, the European Commission is preparing regulations to reduce or even ban discards. The trawl fisheries are commercially the most important Danish fishery targeting plaice. Here we analyse discard data collected onboard Danish vessels in the period from 1998 to 2008. We describe the general patterns in these data by dividing them into three mesh size categories: 80-99 mm, 100-119 mm and ≥ 120 mm to reflect implemented technical measures of relevance. We analyse the landed and discarded portions in these mesh size categories and link the discarding to the minimum landing size. We employed a GAM model to assess how discarding of plaice below the minimum landing size is connected to relevant factors that could be of relevance from a management perspective. We identified a statistical significant effect of mesh size category and area. We discuss the results in relation to potential mitigation measures to be implemented in future fisheries management strategies.

  1. Variable prospective financing in the Danish hospital sector and the development of a Danish case-mix system.

    PubMed

    Ankjaer-Jensen, Anni; Rosling, Pernille; Bilde, Lone

    2006-08-01

    This article aims to describe and assess the Danish case-mix system, the cost accounting applied in setting national tariffs and the introduction of variable, prospective payment in the Danish hospital sector. The tariffs are calculated as a national average from hospital data gathered in a national cost database. However, uncertainty, mainly resulting from the definition of cost centres at the individual hospital, implies that the cost weights may not fully reflect the hospital treatment cost. As variable prospective payment of hospitals currently only applies to 20% of a hospital's budget, the incentives and the effects on productivity, quality and equality are still limited. PMID:17016932

  2. Building-integrated photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect

    1993-01-01

    This is a study of the issues and opportunities for building-integrated PV products, seen primarily from the perspective of the design community. Although some quantitative analysis is included, and limited interviews are used, the essence of the study is qualitative and subjective. It is intended as an aid to policy makers and members of the technical community in planning and setting priorities for further study and product development. It is important to remember that the success of a product in the building market is not only dependent upon its economic value; the diverse group of building owners, managers, regulators, designers, tenants and users must also find it practical, aesthetically appealing and safe. The report is divided into 11 sections. A discussion of technical and planning considerations is followed by illustrative diagrams of different wall and roof assemblies representing a range of possible PV-integration schemes. Following the diagrams, several of these assemblies are then applied to a conceptual test building which is analyzed for PV performance. Finally, a discussion of mechanical/electrical building products incorporating PVs is followed by a brief surveys of cost issues, market potential and code implications. The scope of this report is such that most of the discussion does not go beyond stating the questions. A more detailed analysis will be necessary to establish the true costs and benefits PVs may provide to buildings, taking into account PV power revenue, construction costs, and hidden costs and benefits to building utility and marketability.

  3. Morphological Effects in Auditory Word Recognition: Evidence from Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balling, Laura Winther; Baayen, R. Harald

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the processing of morphologically complex words in Danish using auditory lexical decision. We document a second critical point in auditory comprehension in addition to the Uniqueness Point (UP), namely the point at which competing morphological continuation forms of the base cease to be compatible with the input,…

  4. Outside the Box: The Danish Folkehojskole as Educational Innovator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, John

    2013-01-01

    Travelling between various Scandinavian adult educational institutions in 1978, the author, John Collins, picked up a couple of hitchhikers--Danish students returning to their school after a short vacation period. As they neared the Funen Island harbour village, which was their destination, the students invited Collins to visit their school. What…

  5. The Irreversible Process of University "Democratization": The Danish Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Mogens N.

    1988-01-01

    The Danish experience with university democratization suggests that the process is irreversible and that its progress is determined by how the initial change was begun two decades ago. It is also proposed that government attempts to intervene and revoke traditional institutional autonomy threaten to invalidate the progress made. (Author/MSE)

  6. Society and Education on St. Croix: The Danish Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bramson, Leon

    Review of the history of education on the West Indian island of St. Croix from the 18th century to 1917 can contribute insights into the impact of schooling on social change. During this 200 year period, St. Croix changed from a Danish colony dependent upon plantation slavery to a poverty stricken American protectorate peopled by emancipated…

  7. The Emergence of the "s"-Genitive in Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perridon, Harry

    2013-01-01

    The -"s" genitives of English and Swedish play an important role in grammaticalization theory, as they are often used as counterexamples to the main tenet of that theory, viz. that grammatical change is unidirectional. In this paper I look at the emergence of the -"s" genitive in Danish, hoping that it may shed some new light on the evolution of…

  8. Independent School Success Challenging the Danish Public School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ringsmose, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    Denmark has had a long history of placing a high priority on education and public schooling. It is a declared goal of the Danish welfare system to provide comprehensive schooling, where children from different socioeconomic backgrounds can go to school together and have the same opportunities through education. It is also a declared goal for…

  9. Evaluation of the Danish Leave Schemes. Summary of a Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Dines; Appeldorn, Alice; Weise, Hanne

    An evaluation examined how the Danish leave schemes, an offer to employed and unemployed persons who qualify for unemployment benefits, were functioning and to what extent the objectives have been achieved. It was found that 60 percent of those taking leave had previously been unemployed; women accounted for two-thirds of those joining the scheme;…

  10. 3D PLUS HI-REL DDR2 Termination Regulator Module- A Building Block Function for High Reliability SDRAM DDR2 System Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrot, Nicolas; Dubus, Patrick; Garcia-Sanchez, Esther

    2015-09-01

    Memory system architectures using DDR2 technology need to be compliant with JEDEC JESD8-15A standard [1]. Therefore a bus termination regulator able to sink and source current while regulating VTT voltage is used for this purpose. Such module has been developed by 3D PLUS and is the first space qualified DDR Termination Regulator (DDR2-TR) available on the market. It is based on an innovative Bang-Bang regulation principle, chosen for its speed performance and to guarantee an output voltage that remains within the predefined limits regardless of any output current transients. The output filter type is selected to make the module rugged to any overload condition without complex protection circuits. The module has been specifically designed for low input voltage, low noise and high reliability systems where space is a key consideration. The module uses the 3D PLUS SIP (System-In-Package) technology embedding 3 stacked PCBs. No external filters or decoupling capacitors are needed.

  11. Laboratory Building.

    SciTech Connect

    Herrera, Joshua M.

    2015-03-01

    This report is an analysis of the means of egress and life safety requirements for the laboratory building. The building is located at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, NM. The report includes a prescriptive-based analysis as well as a performance-based analysis. Following the analysis are appendices which contain maps of the laboratory building used throughout the analysis. The top of all the maps is assumed to be north.

  12. The Cognitive Building Blocks of Emotion Regulation: Ability to Update Working Memory Moderates the Efficacy of Rumination and Reappraisal on Emotion

    PubMed Central

    Pe, Madeline Lee; Raes, Filip; Kuppens, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The ability to regulate emotions is a critical component of healthy emotional functioning. Therefore, it is important to determine factors that contribute to the efficacy of emotion regulation. The present article examined whether the ability to update emotional information in working memory is a predictor of the efficacy of rumination and reappraisal on affective experience both at the trait level (Study 1) and in daily life (Study 2). In both studies, results revealed that the relationship between use of reappraisal and high arousal negative emotions was moderated by updating ability. Specifically, use of reappraisal was associated with decreased high arousal negative emotions for participants with high updating ability, while no significant relationship was found for those with low updating ability. In addition, both studies also revealed that the relationship between rumination and high arousal negative emotions was moderated by updating ability. In general, use of rumination was associated with elevated high arousal negative emotions. However, this relationship was blunted for participants with high updating ability. That is, use of rumination was associated with less elevated high arousal negative emotions for participants with high updating ability. These results identify the ability to update emotional information in working memory as a crucial process modulating the efficacy of emotion regulation efforts. PMID:23874872

  13. Shared experience in 13 local Danish EPR projects: the Danish EPR Observatory.

    PubMed

    Nøhr, C; Kristensen, M; Andersen, S K; Vingtoft, S; Lippert, S; Berstein, K; Bruun-Rasmussen, M

    2001-01-01

    In 1996 a national strategy for the development of electronic patient records (EPR) for the Danish hospitals and primary care was launched. An element in the strategy was to support a number of regional EPR development projects. The EPR-Observatory has in the two recent years collected data from the regional projects, dealing with the expectations in four areas: 1) Impact on organisational issues, 2) Benefits of EPR, 3) Integration of EPR with other information systems and 4) security aspects of EPR. Among the observations an increasing teamwork and im-proved knowledge about the patient was found. What was expected, but not found, was resistance to EPR, as a result of changes in skills and power. The most obvious benefits are increased data accessibility and improved decision ma-king. The most considerable disadvantage is an enormous growth in discontent with the systems performance and the fact, that all the projects are delayed. Many different types of integration solutions are chosen, because of a lack of a common model for integration. Generally the projects find, that EPJ yields increased security, but logistical problems arise in having the systems running 24 hours 7 days a week. Economical benefits cannot be documented. This relates to the fact, that the regional projects are stand-alone projects. The ongoing growth in discontent with the EPR-systems and the fact, that all the projects are delayed must be subject to further exploration. PMID:11604822

  14. Building Change into New Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William S.

    1997-01-01

    Whether renovating or constructing a school building, planners must give serious thought to how a building might accommodate different instructional approaches and avoid traffic or supervision nightmares. Planners must also consider aesthetics, community-school partnerships, and educational technology's role. A sidebar by James Fox and Kay Psencik…

  15. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry-6 Pharmacia].

    PubMed

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2014-01-01

    The article series provides a written and pictorial account of the Danish pharmaceutical industry's products from their introduction until about 1950. Part 6 deals with products from A/S Pharmacia. A/S Pharmacia was established in Copenhagen in 1922 as a Danish limited company by the enterprising pharmacist Edward Jacobsen. Pharmacia was not Jacobsen's first pharmaceutical company as previously he had established a pharmaceutical agency already in 1913 which in 1919 was reorganized to a limited company by the name of A/S Edward Jacobsen. This agency was later extended to include a production of generics. Jacobsen remained the co-owner and manager of Pharmacia until 1934 where he resigned and established another company, A/S Ejco, for the manufacture of generics. It is worth mentioning that already in 1911 a Swedish pharmaceutical company was established named AB Pharmacia. Today we do not know whether Edward Jacobsen knew about this Swedish company. Later on in 1936 AB Pharmacia and A/S Pharmacia made a contract concerning mutual market sharing, and a research cooperation was brought about between the two companies which resulted in an increase of turnover for A/S Pharmacia. In 1955 the cooperation between the two companies was increased as the Swedish company joined as principal shareholder with the purpose of continuing and developing the Danish company as an independent pharmaceutical company with its own research and development as well as manufacture, control and marketing. Therefore Pharmacia in Denmark was able to establish a synthesis factory in Koge and move the domicile to new premises in Hillered. In 1993 Pharmacia was presented in a printed matter as "The largest Nordic pharmaceutical company" as a result of the merger between the Swedish Kabi Pharmacia, formerly established by a merger between Kabi Vitrum and AB Pharmacia, and the Italian Farmitalia Carlo Erba. Only two years later in 1995 Pharmacia merged with the American pharmaceutical company The

  16. 29 CFR 1918.82 - Building drafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Building drafts. 1918.82 Section 1918.82 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.82 Building drafts. (a) Drafts...

  17. 29 CFR 1918.82 - Building drafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Building drafts. 1918.82 Section 1918.82 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.82 Building drafts. (a) Drafts shall be built or means shall be taken to prevent cargo from falling from them. (b) Buckets and tubs...

  18. 29 CFR 1918.82 - Building drafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Building drafts. 1918.82 Section 1918.82 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.82 Building drafts. (a) Drafts shall be built or means shall be taken to prevent cargo from falling from them. (b) Buckets and tubs...

  19. 29 CFR 1918.82 - Building drafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Building drafts. 1918.82 Section 1918.82 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.82 Building drafts. (a) Drafts shall be built or means shall be taken to prevent cargo from falling from them. (b) Buckets and tubs...

  20. 29 CFR 1918.82 - Building drafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Building drafts. 1918.82 Section 1918.82 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.82 Building drafts. (a) Drafts shall be built or means shall be taken to prevent cargo from falling from them. (b) Buckets and tubs...

  1. Building new WDM regulations for the Namibian tourism sector on factors influencing current water-management practices at the enterprise level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schachtschneider, Klaudia

    Namibia’s aridity is forcing its water sector to resort to new water resource management approaches, including water demand management (WDM). Such a change in management approach is facilitated through the country’s opportunity at independence to rewrite and adapt its old policies, including those for water and tourism. Legal support for WDM through the Water Act and other sector-specific Acts is crucial to plan the practical implementation of WDM throughout the different water use sectors of Namibia. In order to be able to put the policy into practice, it is imperative to understand which factors motivate people to adopt WDM initiatives. Within the Namibian tourism industry three main factors have been identified which influence the water-management approaches at tourist facilities. This paper discusses how the water and tourism decision makers can consider these factors when developing new regulations to introduce WDM in the tourism sector.

  2. Building Portfolio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Management, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The combination of a prefabricated building system and a clustered terrace design has resulted in economical and aesthetically pleasing housing for students at Vassar College in Poughkeepsie, New York. (Author)

  3. Recent changes in Danish law on drugs and drug offences.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, J; Laursen, L

    1998-09-01

    The article recounts changes in Danish Drug Law and Enforcement since the beginning of the 1990s and relates them to general trends in Danish criminal policy during the period. In addition to the implementation of EU directives, e.g. on money laundering and growth hormones, legislation has been passed to curb conspicuous dealing of drugs in the streets of Copenhagen. This part of the legislation is seen as a reaction to public fears and reactions to visible aliens dealing in drugs in a conspicuous way, albeit in minor quantities. The legal changes imply a considerable rise in penalties for repeated dealings in minor quantities and easier access to deportation of aliens. The latter has been criticized as potential violation of the human rights of aliens. This and other recent changes in criminal law and related legislation is seen as an indication of politicians' concerns with voters' anxieties, possibly at the edge of moral panics. PMID:9742273

  4. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry--3. Alfred Benzon].

    PubMed

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kirkegaard, Hanne; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2011-01-01

    The article series provides a written and pictorial account of the Danish pharmaceutical industry's products from their introduction until about 1950. Part 3 deals with products from the company founded by Alfred Benzon in 1849. Alfred Nicolai Benzon owned the Swan Pharmacy in Copenhagen. In 1863 he started an independent company manufacturing branded pharmaceuticals, thus combining the pharmacy's activities with the wholesale business. The family owned the company until 1952, when it was converted into a foundation. After several restructuring rounds, the medicine production business continued as Benzon Pharma A/S until 1990, when Nycomed Pharma A/S bought up all the branded pharmaceuticals. As the first pharmaceutical company in Denmark, Alfred Benzon was an industrial frontrunner in the country at the time, supplying not only the domestic market but foreign markets as well. Alfred Benzon was the first Danish company to produce ether for anesthesia, and malt extract, a dietetic preparation. The high quality of both products made them valuable export articles. In the early 1890s, Alfred Benzon became the first Danish company to start the research-based production of extract of thyroid glands from slaughtered cattle. This was the beginning of a long-standing specialization in producing organotherapeutic substances from animal organs originating from Danish animal husbandry. In 1932 the company had 26 preparations of this type in its range, many of them on the market for several years. These medicine substances included iron preparations and effervescent salts followed by sulfonamides, synthetic hormones and a substance to counteract motion sickness. PMID:21879529

  5. Conceptual framework for a Danish human biomonitoring program

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Marianne; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Vorkamp, Katrin; Frederiksen, Marie; Bach, Hanne; Bonefeld-Jorgensen, Eva Cecilie; Rastogi, Suresch; Fauser, Patrik; Krongaard, Teddy; Sorensen, Peter Borgen

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the conceptual framework for a Danish human biomonitoring (HBM) program. The EU and national science-policy interface, that is fundamental for a realization of the national and European environment and human health strategies, is discussed, including the need for a structured and integrated environmental and human health surveillance program at national level. In Denmark, the initiative to implement such activities has been taken. The proposed framework of the Danish monitoring program constitutes four scientific expert groups, i.e. i. Prioritization of the strategy for the monitoring program, ii. Collection of human samples, iii. Analysis and data management and iv. Dissemination of results produced within the program. This paper presents the overall framework for data requirements and information flow in the integrated environment and health surveillance program. The added value of an HBM program, and in this respect the objectives of national and European HBM programs supporting environmental health integrated policy-decisions and human health targeted policies, are discussed. In Denmark environmental monitoring has been prioritized by extensive surveillance systems of pollution in oceans, lakes and soil as well as ground and drinking water. Human biomonitoring has only taken place in research programs and few incidences of e.g. lead contamination. However an arctic program for HBM has been in force for decades and from the preparations of the EU-pilot project on HBM increasing political interest in a Danish program has developed. PMID:18541069

  6. To build capacity, build confidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitson, Bruce

    2015-07-01

    The history of attempts to spread scientific know-how beyond western centres of excellence is littered with failures. Capacity building needs long-term commitment, a critical mass of trainees, and a supportive home environment.

  7. How to Comply With the Emergency Building Temperature Restrictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    The Emergency Building Temperature Restrictions Regulations, effective July 16, 1979, place temporary restrictions on temperatures for heating, cooling, and domestic hot water in commercial, industrial, government, and other nonresidential buildings. This manual contains instructions for determining if the regulations apply to a building,…

  8. Team building

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, C.

    1993-04-01

    Power plants are particularly complicated projects with abundant opportunities for disputes. Efforts are beginning in the power industry to change the way the industry does business. Key elements of a comprehensive team-building approach include partnering, constructability, use of incentives, and the disputes review board.

  9. Building Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Edward

    The purpose of this eight-unit course is to explore the values and issues of modern urban neighborhoods. It focuses on how community leaders can apply the broad principle of justice to problems of security, reciprocity, and fellowship that face most neighborhoods today. The course is intended for use by community leaders in building community…

  10. Building Trust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambler, Marjane

    1994-01-01

    Describes how an initial $1,500 grant helped build a desperately needed health clinic on the Pine Ridge Reservation. Provides the history of the clinic, from its beginning as a small grant to its ultimate development into a $400,000 solar-heated health clinic with a staff of 9 people, including a full-time physician. (MAB)

  11. Building Sinusoids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landers, Mara G.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the development and implementation of a measurement-based group activity designed to support students in understanding the connection between angle magnitude and the shape of the sine function. She explains that the benefit of this activity is that it allows students to build their trigonometric knowledge…

  12. Laboratory Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Jonathan

    The need for flexibility in science research facilities is discussed, with emphasis on the effect of that need on the design of laboratories. The relationship of office space, bench space, and special equipment areas, and the location and distribution of piping and air conditioning, are considered particularly important. This building type study…

  13. Building Trades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudzak, Raymond

    This curriculum guide provides materials for a competency-based course in building trades at the secondary level. The curriculum design uses the curriculum infused model for the teaching of basic skills as part of vocational education and demonstrates the relationship of vocationally related skills to communication, mathematics, and science…

  14. Codeswitching for Humour and Ethnic Identity: Written Danish-American Occasional Songs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolen, Marianne

    1992-01-01

    Individual bilingual language performance in occasional songs is examined with focus on the use of Danish and English by a female member of a Danish-American organization in both song-writing and organizational written recordkeeping. The findings confirm the hypothesis of a conditioning effect of features of genre and social role on the…

  15. The History We Need: Strategies of Citizen Formation in the Danish History Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jørgensen, Simon Laumann

    2015-01-01

    Teaching history in schools can be a significant policy instrument for shaping the identities of future citizens. The Danish curriculum for teaching history of 2009 aims at strengthening a sense of "Danishness" which calls for theoretical analysis. Focusing on this particular case, the paper develops a political theoretical frame for…

  16. Towards an Understanding of "Udeskole:" Education outside the Classroom in a Danish Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentsen, Peter; Mygind, Erik; Randrup, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, an increasing number of Danish public, private and independent schools have introduced regular compulsory education outside the classroom for children aged 7-16 as a weekly or biweekly "outdoor school" day--known in Danish as "udeskole." An analysis of this form of outdoor education, its impacts and provision has been…

  17. The Use and Productivity of Past Tense Morphology in Specific Language Impairment: An Examination of Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Rikke Vang; Hansson, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors' primary goal was to investigate the potential of past tense inflection as a clinical marker of Danish specific language impairment (SLI). They also wished to test the predictions of the extended optional infinitive (EOI) account and processing based accounts of SLI on Danish. Method: Using sentence completion and sentence…

  18. The International Space of the Danish Testing Community in the Interwar Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ydesen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this article is to draw attention to the presence and importance of travelling ideas, knowledge, and practices in Danish history of educational testing. The article introduces and employs a spatial methodological approach in relation to the connections between the international testing community and the emerging Danish practice of…

  19. Critical Perspectives on Danish Early Childhood Education and Care: Between the Technical and the Political

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Anders Skriver; Brostrom, Stig; Hansen, Ole Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses trends in contemporary Danish early childhood education and care (ECEC). Data are sourced from various policy documents, along with material from ongoing research projects in which the authors are involved. It is claimed that contemporary policy on Danish day care services has a tendency to emphasize narrow curriculum…

  20. Is Danish Difficult to Acquire? Evidence from Nordic Past-Tense Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleses, Dorthe; Basboll, Hans; Vach, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Cross-linguistic findings have shown that Danish children's early receptive vocabulary development is slower relative to children learning other languages. In this study, we examined whether Danish children's acquisition of inflectional past-tense morphology is delayed relative to Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish children. Our comparison of data…

  1. Turkish and Kurdish Speaking Teachers in the Danish Folkeskole: The Ambiguous Concept of Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moldenhawer, Bolette

    1999-01-01

    Studied the functions of Turkish- and Kurdish-speaking teachers in the Danish "folkeskole" and their positions relative to other teachers in the system. Despite their Danish teaching qualifications, most still attend to the integration of Turkish- and Kurdish-speaking minority students and occupy a subordinate position to majority teachers. (SLD)

  2. Bibliotek.dk: Immediate Access to Danish Libraries--A Path To Follow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Lone

    Bibliotek.dk is a development project, resulting in a World Wide Web site, that gives the Danish citizen access via the Internet to search and order material in the collections of Danish public and research libraries. The citizen decides himself or herself which library he or she wants to collect the material from. Bibliotek.dk is developed in…

  3. Survival in familial colorectal cancer: a Danish cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lautrup, Charlotte Kvist; Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Lash, Timothy L; Katballe, Niels; Sunde, Lone

    2015-12-01

    The monogenic Lynch syndrome (LS) is associated with better survival in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Whether family history of CRC affects CRC prognosis in general remains unclear. We evaluated overall mortality in a Danish cohort of CRC patients comparing patients with a family history (FHpos) to those without (FHneg) with focus on patients from non-syndromic families, thus FHpos patients were further divided into a non-syndromic group (FHNS) and a HNPCC/LS group (FHHNPCC). We included CRC patients diagnosed 1995-1998. First degree relatives were identified using Danish population registries and family history was obtained by linkage to Danish medical registries. 1- and 5-year mortality were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression, with adjustment for age, sex, cancer site, cancer stage, and comorbidity. 1196 CRC patients were included in the study, 219 FHpos patients of whom 197 were FHNS patients. 1- and 5-year adjusted Mortality Rate Ratios comparing FHpos patients to FHneg patients were 0.99 (95% CI 0.69, 1.42) and 1.07 (95% CI 0.87, 1.32), respectively. For FHNS patients, the corresponding MRRs were 1.01 (95% CI 0.69, 1.47) and 1.15 (95% CI 0.93, 1.43). For the FHHNPCC patients MRRs were 0.84 (95% CI 0.29, 2.44) and 0.66 (95% CI 0.33, 1.31), respectively. In contrast to the lower mortality in LS patients, other types of familial CRC do not seem to affect the survival after CRC diagnosis. PMID:25963853

  4. Multiple myeloma among Danish women: employment history and workplace exposures.

    PubMed

    Pottern, L M; Heineman, E F; Olsen, J H; Raffn, E; Blair, A

    1992-09-01

    To investigate the role of employment history and workplace exposures as risk factors for multiple myeloma among women, a population-based case-control study using the Danish Cancer Registry data linkage system was conducted. All cases of myeloma diagnosed in Danish women between 1970 and 1984 (1,010 cases) and 4,040 age-matched women alive at the time of case-diagnosis were identified. Industrial histories from 1964 forward were obtained from the nationwide Pension Fund for 363 cases and 1,517 controls, and the most recent occupation on the tax record was available for 607 cases and 2,596 controls. Using industry/occupational-code combinations for the cases and controls who had industry employment, Danish industrial hygienists assessed the likelihood of exposure to 47 workplace substances. An increased myeloma risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.2, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-1.5) was seen for women not in the Pension Fund, but who had an occupational title coded as 'Mrs/homemaker.' Nonsignificantly elevated risks of 1.3 or greater were observed for employment in: production of agricultural products; orchards/nurseries; spinning/weaving; other textile and plastics manufacturing; hotel, entertainment, and social services industries. Elevated, but nonsignificant risks were observed for possible and probable exposure to exhaust fumes, formaldehyde, wood dust, animals or animal products, and pesticides. The strongest association with myeloma was employment in the agricultural industry (OR = 1.5, CI = 0.8-2.8), however, the number of women who worked on family farms was unknown and could not be included in this risk estimate. PMID:1525323

  5. Occupation and risk for the occurrence of low-back pain (LBP) in Danish employees.

    PubMed

    Xu, Y; Bach, E; Orhede, E

    1996-04-01

    Using data from a nation-wide cross-sectional survey in 1990 a study examining the risk for occurrence of LBP in various specific occupations was made among 5,185 Danish employees aged 19-59 years old. After adjusting for the confounding effects of age and gender we found significantly increased risks of LBP in three out of nine major occupational categories. They were 'health care and social work' (OR = 1.52, 95% Cl = 1.28-1.80), 'mining, quarrying and construction work' (OR = 1.97, 95% Cl = 1.41-2.74) and 'manufacturing and machine operation work' (OR = 1.21, 95% Cl = 1.05-1.40). Among 39 second-level occupational categories the highest risks were observed among persons employed in 'building construction work' (OR = 1.97, 95% Cl = 1.41-2.74), 'social work, child day care work and psychological work' (OR = 1.64, 95% Cl = 1.32-2.05). Skilled and unskilled manual workers had an increased risk of LBP. PMID:8776249

  6. Building Specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The building in the top photo is the new home of the National Permanent Savings Bank in Washington, D.C., designed by Hartman-Cox Architects. Its construction was based on a money-saving method of preparing building specifications which derived from NASA technology developed to obtain quality construction while holding down cost of launch facilities, test centers and other structures. Written technical specifications spell out materials and components to be used on construction projects and identify the quality tests each item must pass. Specifications can have major impact on construction costs. Poorly formulated specifications can lead to unacceptable construction which must be replaced, unnecessarily high materials costs, safety hazards, disputes and often additional costs due to delays and litigation. NASA's Langley Research Center developed a novel approach to providing accurate, uniform, cost-effective specifications which can be readily updated to incorporate new building technologies. Called SPECSINTACT, it is a computerized - system accessible to all NASA centers involved in construction programs. The system contains a comprehensive catalog of master specifications applicable to many types of construction. It enables designers of any structure to call out relevant sections from computer storage and modify them to fit the needs of the project at hand. Architects and engineers can save time by concentrating their efforts on needed modifications rather than developing all specifications from scratch. Successful use of SPECSINTACT has led to a number of spinoff systems. One of the first was MASTERSPEC, developed from NASA's experience by Production Systems for Architects and Engineers, Inc., an organization established by the American Institute of Architects. MASTERSPEC, used in construction of the bank building pictured, follows the same basic format as SPECSINTACT and can be used in either automated or manual modes. The striking appearance of the bank

  7. Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Program

    PubMed Central

    Heuer, Ole E.; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Bagger-Skjøt, Line; Jensen, Vibeke F.; Rogues, Anne-Marie; Skov, Robert L.; Agersø, Yvonne; Brandt, Christian T.; Seyfarth, Anne Mette; Muller, Arno; Hovgaard, Karin; Ajufo, Justin; Bager, Flemming; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Wegener, Henrik C.; Monnet, Dominique L.

    2007-01-01

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents is an emerging problem worldwide. Awareness of the undesirable consequences of its widespread occurrence has led to the initiation of antimicrobial agent resistance monitoring programs in several countries. In 1995, Denmark was the first country to establish a systematic and continuous monitoring program of antimicrobial drug consumption and antimicrobial agent resistance in animals, food, and humans, the Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Program (DANMAP). Monitoring of antimicrobial drug resistance and a range of research activities related to DANMAP have contributed to restrictions or bans of use of several antimicrobial agents in food animals in Denmark and other European Union countries. PMID:18217544

  8. The Value of Open Geographical Data - The Danish Case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colding, T. S.; Folner, M.; Krarup, S.; Kongsbak, J.

    2013-12-01

    Good basic data for everyone is part of the common public-sector digitization strategy for 2011 to 2015. The vision is that basic data is to be the high-quality common foundation for public sector administration; efficiently updated at one place, and used by everyone - including the private sector. Open basic data will benefit public-sector efficiency as well as innovation and value creation by Danish society in general. With basic data as a new digital raw material, commercial products can be developed and public information and services can be improved, providing for greater insight and stronger democracy. On the first of January 2013 Denmark released this digital raw material. As a general rule, all basic data is to be made freely available to all public authorities, private businesses and individuals. This makes basic data a common digital resource, which can be exploited freely for commercial as well as non-commercial purposes. A positive business case contributed in convincing Danish politicians to approve the basic data program. Once the initiatives have been fully implemented, the revenues for society are expected to be approx. DKK 800 million annually. Private-sector revenues will be up to DKK half a billion annually, and it is expected that e.g. the real estate, insurance, financial, and telecom sectors, as well as GPS (sat-nav) manufacturers, public companies and entrepreneurs will be among those to benefit hugely from the initiatives. The financial gain for the private sector of open geographical data alone is expected to be approx. 100 million DKK annually. As part of the Basic data program The Danish Geodata Agency (Ministry of the Environment) gave free access to all topographic data, cadastral maps and Digital Elevation Model on Jan. 1st, 2013. The Danish Geodata Agency has decided to measure the effect of the open geographic data in the public sector (efficiency) and in the private sector (growth). The effect will be measured by using reference

  9. Building Buildings with Triangular Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagni, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Triangular numbers are used to unravel a new sequence of natural numbers here-to-fore not appearing on the Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences website. Insight is provided on the construction of the sequence using "buildings" as a viewable model of the sequence entries. A step-by-step analysis of the sequence pattern reveals a method for generating…

  10. Principles, application areas and an example of risk assessment conducted at the Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Matthias; Paisley, Larry; Hostrup-Pedersen, Julie; Lo Fo Wong, Danilo M A; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Stockmarr, Anders; Korsgård, Helle; Sommer, Helle M; Hald, Tine

    2004-01-01

    The Department for Epidemiology and Risk Analysis at the Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research (DFVF) is concerned with risk analyses in the areas of food safety, zoonoses, antimicrobial resistance and OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) list A and B diseases. The DFVF is responsible for the risk assessment component of the risk analysis process and provides advice and support for the risk management and risk communication component, which is generally under the auspices of the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration (DVFA). The paper presents guidelines for the conduct of risk assessments at the DFVF. Important elements of these guidelines are the independence between risk assessment and risk management, the commitment to science-based, transparent and fully documented procedures and adherence to a protocol that regulates the cooperation between DFVF and DVFA. Typical steps of a quantitative risk assessment are the description of the risk scenario, information retrieval, mathematical modelling with stochastic simulation, final risk estimation with a sensitivity analysis and reporting. The procedure is exemplified using a Monte Carlo simulation model for the assessment of the risk of BSE transmission to calves by tallow-based calf milk replacer. PMID:15188675

  11. Municipalities Collaborating in Public Health: The Danish Smoking Prevention and Cessation Partnership

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard; El Ansari, Walid; Rasmussen, Hanna Barbara; Stock, Christiane

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the Smoking Prevention and Cessation Partnership (SPCP) which builds upon a collaboration between two Danish municipalities targeted at the prevention of tobacco smoking. The aim of the study was to describe the processes of SPCP, to examine the difficulties this collaboration faced, and to assess how these experiences could be used to improve future partnership collaboration. We employed qualitative methodology comprising 12 semi-structured one-to-one interviews with SPCP’s stakeholders and an analysis of the partnership documents and reports. The findings suggested that the main potentials of the partnership were the personal relations between the members and stakeholders with the possibilities of the creation of new connections with other actors. Barriers to successful partnership building were the implementation of the new Local Government Reform as a competing task, and that the two municipalities were heterogenic in respect to organizational issues and working methods. Other impediments included the lack of continuity in leadership, the lack of clarity regarding the form of collaboration and roles, as well as different expectations of the stakeholders. We conclude that four factors remain critical for partnerships. The first is the clarity of the collaborative effort. Second, partnerships need to take into account the structural circumstances and culture/value systems of all stakeholders. Third is the impact of contextual factors on the development of the partnership; and the fourth factor is the bearing of personal/individual factors on the partnership e.g., personal engagement in the project. Early attention to these four factors could contribute to more effective partnership working. PMID:21139870

  12. Building an Afterschool Workforce: Regulations and beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    In the space of an afternoon, an afterschool worker may perform many roles--homework tutor, mentor, athletic director, games master, role model, reading coach, top chef, bridge to parents, and, above all, an adult who develops positive relationships that can change children's lives. Program staff is a critical ingredient of the quality of…

  13. Fatal occupational accidents in Danish fishing vessels 1989-2005.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Lise H; Hansen, Henrik L; Jensen, Olaf C

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to study the circumstances and incidence rates of fatal accidents in inspection obligated and non-inspection obligated Danish fishing vessels to identify areas for prevention. Information about the fatalities came from maritime authority reports, including vessel disaster reports, post mortem reports, maritime inquiries and police reports. The person- and vessel years at risk came from the Danish Directorate of Fisheries. During the period 1989-2005, 114 fatalities occurred. Sixty-one of the fatalities occurred in 36 vessel disasters mainly caused by foundering/capsizing due to stability changes in rough weather and collisions; 39 fatal occupational accidents mainly occurred on the larger inspection obligated trawlers during fishing. In the remaining 14 other fatal accidents, the main causal factors were difficult embarking/disembarking conditions by darkness in foreign ports and alcohol intoxication. In the period 1995-2005, the overall incidence rate was 10 per 10,000 fishermen per year with no down-going trend during that period. The fatal accident rates are still too high, despite the efforts to reduce the risk. Increased focus on regular and repeated safety training for all fishermen and improved safety measures are needed, especially in the underscored areas of sea disasters concerning small vessels and occupational accidents on big vessels. Better registration of time at risk for fishermen is needed to validate the effect of the safety measures. PMID:18642168

  14. Integrated exploration study of Norwegian-Danish basin, northwestern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Joergensen, N.B.; Haselton, T.M.

    1987-05-01

    The Norwegian-Danish basin (NDB) extends from offshore Norway southeast through Denmark. This study, initiated by the Danish Energy Agency to evaluate hydrocarbon potential, consists of geophysical structural and stratigraphic mapping combined with geologic source rock and reservoir analysis. Approximately 25 wells and 15,000 km of seismic data were included. Formation of the NDB resulted from uplift of the Variscan foldbelt followed by subsidence of the foreland, i.e., the NDB and the North German basin. The Ringkoebing-Fyn High, a positive feature probably established in the late Precambrian and persisting to present, separates the basins, thus constituting the southern boundary of the NDB. Northeast the basin is bounded by the Fennoscandian shield and to the west by the North Sea graben system. Following deposition of Rotliegendes eolian and fluviatile sandstones, a major Late Permian marine transgression deposited up to 2000 m of evaporites and carbonates. Early Triassic regression resulted in thick red-bed deposits. Halokinesis commencing in the Upper Triassic dominated subsequent structural development. Continued subsidence led to deposition of Early Jurassic shelf mudstones overlain by deltaic sandstones. Rising seas during Late Cretaceous allowed widespread deposition of oceanic pelagic chalk. Early Paleocene wrench movements produced inversion. Basinal downwarping during the Tertiary was accompanied by progradation from the northeast. The complex tectonic history provides numerous different structural styles and a variety of depositional environments. To date only obvious structural features have been tested. This integrated basin study demonstrates that a number of other hydrocarbon plays remain to be explored.

  15. Determinants of sunbed use in a population of Danish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bentzen, Joan; Krarup, Anne F; Castberg, Ida-Marie; Jensen, Poul D; Philip, Anja

    2013-03-01

    In Denmark, melanoma is the most common type of cancer in individuals aged 15-34 years. Ultraviolet radiation from sunbeds is a risk factor for melanoma. Knowledge of the characteristics of sunbed users is important in the development and implementation of prevention strategies of sunbed use. The objective of this study was to examine sunbed use and its association with smoking, parental socioeconomic status (SES), friends' attitudes towards artificial tanning, and school environment among adolescents aged 14-18 years at continuation schools in Denmark. We conducted a survey among adolescents in Danish continuation schools in 2011. We examined sunbed use and its association with age, smoking, friends' attitudes towards artificial tanning, parental SES, and shared environment of the continuation school, using logistic regression. Within the past 12 months, 38% of the pupils had used a sunbed (70% girls and 28% boys). There was no difference in sunbed use according to age. Smoking and friends' positive attitudes towards, and higher use of sunbeds were associated with increased use of sunbeds. High SES of mothers' was associated with lower odds for sunbed use among girls. The association of school environment with sunbed use was modest compared with the other variables. Adolescents in continuation schools report a higher use of sunbeds than Danish adolescents as such. Educational interventions should be targeted at preteens, as sunbed use is common in 14-year-olds. Special educational tools are tested in the continuation school environment and may prove effective in this population. PMID:22895295

  16. Prevalence of clinical signs of disease in Danish finisher pigs.

    PubMed

    Petersen, H H; Nielsen, E O; Hassing, A-G; Ersbøll, A K; Nielsen, J P

    2008-03-22

    Between December 1999 and February 2001, two visits, eight weeks apart, were made to 90 herds of Danish finisher pigs. The prevalence of clinical signs was recorded by three veterinary technicians from the Danish Bacon and Meat Council according to a standardised procedure; they had been trained and their observations were monitored and validated before and during the study. A total of 154,347 finisher pigs were examined and 22,136 clinical signs were recorded. Vices accounted for 43 per cent of the signs. The highest mean prevalence was observed for ear necrosis (4.44 per cent), followed by respiratory signs (2.17 per cent), lameness (1.92 per cent), other skin diseases (1.73 per cent), tail bites (1.26 per cent), umbilical hernia (0.78 per cent), flank bites (0.52 per cent), diarrhoea (0.27 per cent), respiratory distress (0.12 per cent), atrophic rhinitis (0.10 per cent), recumbency (0.09 per cent) and central nervous disease (0.05 per cent). The prevalence of atrophic rhinitis was higher in conventional herds than in specific pathogen-free herds. The prevalence of clinical signs of atrophic rhinitis was higher among finishers weighing 51 to 75 kg than among finishers weighing up to 50 kg, and the prevalence of respiratory signs was higher among finishers weighing 51 to 75 kg then among finishers weighing 76 to 100 kg. PMID:18359931

  17. Practicing physiotherapy in Danish private practice: an ethical perspective.

    PubMed

    Praestegaard, Jeanette; Gard, Gunvor; Glasdam, Stinne

    2013-08-01

    Despite an increasingly growth of professional guidelines, textbooks and research about ethics in health care, awareness about ethics in Danish physiotherapy private practice seen vague. This article explores how physiotherapists in Danish private practice, from an ethical perspective, perceive to practice physiotherapy. The empirical data consists of interviews with twenty-one physiotherapists. The interviews are analysed from a hermeneutic approach, inspired by Ricoeur's textual interpretation of distanciation. The analysis follows three phases: naïve reading, structural analysis and comprehensive analysis. Four main themes are constructed: Beneficence as the driving force; Disciplining the patient through the course of physiotherapy; Balancing between being a trustworthy professional and a businessperson; The dream of a code of practice. Private practice physiotherapy is embedded in a structural frame directed by both political and economical conditions that shape the conditions for practicing physiotherapy. It means that beneficence in practice is a balance between the patient, the physiotherapists themselves and the business. Beneficence towards the patient is expressed as an implicit demand. Physiotherapeutic practice is expressed as being an integration of professionalism and personality which implies that the physiotherapists also have to benefit themselves. Private practice seems to be driven by a paternalistic approach towards the patient, where disciplining the patient is a crucial element of practice, in order to optimise profit. Physiotherapists wish for a more beneficent practice in the future by aiming at bridging 'to be' and 'ought to be'. PMID:23160855

  18. Outcome of sterilization by steam autoclaves in Danish dental offices.

    PubMed

    Scheutz, F; Reinholdt, J

    1988-04-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the performance of autoclaves and the use of biologic indicators for sterilization control, and to look for predictor variables for improperly functioning autoclaves in Danish dental offices. The study population comprised 314 Danish dental offices (participation rate 94%); 177 from the public Child Dental Service (CDS) and 137 from private practice. A minor questionnaire and five biologic indicators (Attest Biological Indicator for Steam Sterilization, 3M) were sent to the participants. CDS offices were found more inclined to use biologic indicators than PP offices (P less than 0.00001). Among CDS autoclaves 2.3% (95% confidence limit: 0.9-5.7%) failed to sterilize compared to 7.3% (95% confidence limit: 4.0-12.9) of the PP autoclaves. This difference is not statistically significant, but the confidence intervals indicate a possible true difference in favor of a better outcome in the CDS offices. Looking at the whole sample no other predictor variable for inadequate sterilization could be determined as differences were statistically insignificant with regard to years of professional experience, age and brand of autoclave, and use of biological control. Recommendations from an official body stating the approved types of sterilization control in dental offices would be of value. PMID:3162602

  19. Sharing reference data and including cows in the reference population improve genomic predictions in Danish Jersey.

    PubMed

    Su, G; Ma, P; Nielsen, U S; Aamand, G P; Wiggans, G; Guldbrandtsen, B; Lund, M S

    2016-06-01

    Small reference populations limit the accuracy of genomic prediction in numerically small breeds, such like Danish Jersey. The objective of this study was to investigate two approaches to improve genomic prediction by increasing size of reference population in Danish Jersey. The first approach was to include North American Jersey bulls in Danish Jersey reference population. The second was to genotype cows and use them as reference animals. The validation of genomic prediction was carried out on bulls and cows, respectively. In validation on bulls, about 300 Danish bulls (depending on traits) born in 2005 and later were used as validation data, and the reference populations were: (1) about 1050 Danish bulls, (2) about 1050 Danish bulls and about 1150 US bulls. In validation on cows, about 3000 Danish cows from 87 young half-sib families were used as validation data, and the reference populations were: (1) about 1250 Danish bulls, (2) about 1250 Danish bulls and about 1150 US bulls, (3) about 1250 Danish bulls and about 4800 cows, (4) about 1250 Danish bulls, 1150 US bulls and 4800 Danish cows. Genomic best linear unbiased prediction model was used to predict breeding values. De-regressed proofs were used as response variables. In the validation on bulls for eight traits, the joint DK-US bull reference population led to higher reliability of genomic prediction than the DK bull reference population for six traits, but not for fertility and longevity. Averaged over the eight traits, the gain was 3 percentage points. In the validation on cows for six traits (fertility and longevity were not available), the gain from inclusion of US bull in reference population was 6.6 percentage points in average over the six traits, and the gain from inclusion of cows was 8.2 percentage points. However, the gains from cows and US bulls were not accumulative. The total gain of including both US bulls and Danish cows was 10.5 percentage points. The results indicate that sharing reference

  20. Fine-Scale Road Stretch Forecasting along Main Danish Roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahura, A.; Petersen, C.; Sattler, K.; Sass, B.

    2009-09-01

    The DMI has in collaboration with the Danish Road Directorate (DRD) for almost two decades used a Road Condition Model (RCM) system (based on a dense road observations network and the numerical weather prediction model - HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model, HIRLAM) to provide operational forecasts of main road conditions at selected road stations of the Danish road network. As of Jan 2009, there are 357 road stations (equipped in total with 456 sensors), where measurements and forecasts of road surface temperature, air and dew point temperatures are conducted. Forecasts of other important meteorological parameters such as cloud cover and precipitations as well as radar and satellite images are also distributed to the users through the web-based interface vejvejr.dk and through DMI and DRD web-pages. For icing conditions, new technology has made it easy to vary the dose of spreaded salt, making it possible to use salt only on the parts of the road network where it is really needed. In our study measurements of road surface temperature from road stations and salt spreaders have additionally been used to examine both road stations and road stretches forecasts along the main roads of the Danish Road Network (accounting almost 23 thousand points located at distances of 250 m). These results showed critical importance of availability of detailed characteristics of the roads surroundings. To make local forecasts in a specific point all possible local detailed information is needed. Since high resolution models running at faster supercomputers as well as detailed physiographic datasets now are available, it is possible to improve the modelling and parameterization of significant physical processes influencing the formation of the slippery road conditions. First of all, it is based on a new dataset available from Kort og Matrikel styrelsen, the so-called Danish Height Model (Danmarks Højdemodel) which is a very detailed set of data with horizontal resolution of a few meters

  1. The ensembl regulatory build.

    PubMed

    Zerbino, Daniel R; Wilder, Steven P; Johnson, Nathan; Juettemann, Thomas; Flicek, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Most genomic variants associated with phenotypic traits or disease do not fall within gene coding regions, but in regulatory regions, rendering their interpretation difficult. We collected public data on epigenetic marks and transcription factor binding in human cell types and used it to construct an intuitive summary of regulatory regions in the human genome. We verified it against independent assays for sensitivity. The Ensembl Regulatory Build will be progressively enriched when more data is made available. It is freely available on the Ensembl browser, from the Ensembl Regulation MySQL database server and in a dedicated track hub. PMID:25887522

  2. Emotional Skills-Building Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickover, Sheri

    2010-01-01

    Current anger management programs use a cognitive behavior perspective; however, research also links anger control to developmental deficits such as attachment insecurity and emotional regulation. This article previews the Emotional Skills-Building Curriculum (ESBC), a 13-week treatment program designed to treat individuals who are referred for…

  3. Early vocabulary development in Danish and other languages: a CDI-based comparison.

    PubMed

    Bleses, Dorthe; Vach, Werner; Slott, Malene; Wehberg, Sonja; Thomsen, Pia; Madsen, Thomas O; Basbøll, Hans

    2008-08-01

    The main objective of this paper is to describe the trajectory of Danish children's early lexical development relative to other languages, by comparing a Danish study based on the Danish adaptation of The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI) to 17 comparable CDI-studies. The second objective is to address the feasibility of cross-linguistic CDI-comparisons. The main finding is that the developmental trend of Danish children's early lexical development is similar to trends observed in other languages, yet the vocabulary comprehension score in the Danish children is the lowest across studies from age 1 ; 0 onwards. We hypothesize that the delay is related to the nature of Danish sound structure, which presents Danish children with a harder task of segmentation. We conclude that CDI-studies are an important resource for cross-language studies, but reporting of studies needs to be standardized and the availability of published data improved in order to make comparisons more straightforward. PMID:18588717

  4. Build "Smart".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Barbara; Beaumont, Constance

    2003-01-01

    Smart growth schools are small in size, encourage broad community involvement, and make good use of existing resources. Promoting small, community-based schools requires innovation, new partnerships, and a commitment to working to overcome the barriers presented by traditional rules and regulations. (Author/MLF)

  5. If They Build It, Will You Come?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheekey, Arthur D.

    1995-01-01

    School leaders cannot afford to be bystanders in the campaign to rewrite telecommunications laws and regulations for building the National Information Superhighway. Proposes a coalition representing all public schools to demand recognition in the development of telecommunications policy. (MLF)

  6. 2. View northwest of main hospital building complex, hospital building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View northwest of main hospital building complex, hospital building (Building 90), administration and clinical hospital building (Building 88), and hospital building (Building 91) - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers Western Branch, 4101 South Fourth Street, Leavenworth, Leavenworth County, KS

  7. Maternal employment during pregnancy and birth outcomes: evidence from Danish siblings.

    PubMed

    Wüst, Miriam

    2015-06-01

    I use Danish survey and administrative data to examine the impact of maternal employment during pregnancy on birth outcomes. As healthier mothers are more likely to work and health shocks to mothers may impact employment and birth outcomes, I combine two strategies: First, I control extensively for time-varying factors that may correlate with employment and birth outcomes, such as pre-pregnancy family income and maternal occupation, pregnancy-related health shocks, maternal sick listing, and health behaviors (smoking and alcohol consumption). Second, to account for remaining time-invariant heterogeneity between mothers, I compare outcomes of mothers' consecutive children. Mothers who work during the first pregnancy trimester have a lower risk of preterm birth. I find no effect on the probability of having a baby of small size for gestational age. To rule out that health selection of mothers between pregnancies drives the results, I focus on mothers whose change in employment status is likely not to be driven by underlying health (mothers who are students in one of their pregnancies and mothers with closely spaced births). Given generous welfare benefits and strict workplace regulations in Denmark, my findings support a residual explanation, namely, that exclusion from employment may stress mothers in countries with high-female employment rates. PMID:24777685

  8. Long-term lessons on pesticide leaching obtained via the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbom, A. E.; Olsen, P.; Plauborg, F.; Grant, R.; Juhler, R. K.; Brüsch, W.; Kjær, J.

    2014-12-01

    To avoid any unacceptable influence on the environment posed by pesticides and their degradation products, all pesticides used in the European Union needs authorization. The authorization procedure includes assessing the leaching risk of both pesticides and their degradation products to the groundwater. There are shortcomings to the procedure, however, as revealed by the results of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme from the period 1990/2000 to 2012 (app. twelve years). This monitoring program has for this period assessed leaching into groundwater via the variably-saturated zone of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on sandy and loamy agricultural fields, and 47 of their degradation products. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the authorization procedure: i) long-term leaching of degradation products of pesticides applied on potato crops cultivated in sandy soils, ii) leaching of strongly sorbing pesticides after autumn application on loamy soils, and iii) leaching of various pesticides and their degradation products following early summer application on loamy soils. The monitoring data revealed that the authorization procedure was unable to predict leaching scenarios for a number of pesticides in hydrogeological settings dominated by rapid preferential transport via e.g. biopores that bypasses the retardation (sorption and degradation) of the plow layer. Such settings are primarily present in the autumn, but can also occur during the early summer in connection with the formation of a structural seal on the soil surface.

  9. Pesticide leaching through sandy and loamy fields - long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme.

    PubMed

    Rosenbom, Annette E; Olsen, Preben; Plauborg, Finn; Grant, Ruth; Juhler, René K; Brüsch, Walter; Kjær, Jeanne

    2015-06-01

    The European Union authorization procedure for pesticides includes an assessment of the leaching risk posed by pesticides and their degradation products (DP) with the aim of avoiding any unacceptable influence on groundwater. Twelve-year's results of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme reveal shortcomings to the procedure by having assessed leaching into groundwater of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on agricultural fields, and 47 of their DP. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the procedure: long-term leaching of DP of pesticides applied on potato crops cultivated in sand, leaching of strongly sorbing pesticides after autumn application on loam, and leaching of various pesticides and their DP following early summer application on loam. Rapid preferential transport that bypasses the retardation of the plow layer primarily in autumn, but also during early summer, seems to dominate leaching in a number of those scenarios. PMID:25771345

  10. Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey - Office Buildings

    EIA Publications

    2010-01-01

    Provides an in-depth look at this building type as reported in the 2003 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey. Office buildings are the most common type of commercial building and they consumed more than 17% of all energy in the commercial buildings sector in 2003. This special report provides characteristics and energy consumption data by type of office building (e.g. administrative office, government office, medical office) and information on some of the types of equipment found in office buildings: heating and cooling equipment, computers, servers, printers, and photocopiers.

  11. Epidemiologic and economic evaluation of risk-based meat inspection for bovine cysticercosis in Danish cattle.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Artavia, F F; Nielsen, L R; Alban, L

    2013-03-01

    Under the current EU meat inspection regulation, every single carcase from all bovines above 6 weeks of age has to be examined for bovine cysticercosis (BC). This is time-consuming, costly, and is of limited value in countries with low prevalence. The aim of this study was to develop a stochastic simulation model for analysis of tentative risk-based meat inspection systems for BC in Danish cattle with regard to system sensitivity (SSSe), specificity and potential monetary benefits compared to the current system, which has an estimated SSSe of 15%. The relevant risk factors used to construct three alternative scenario trees were identified from previous Danish risk factor studies (1) gender, (2) grazing and (3) access to risky water sources. Thus, females, animals that had been grazing or animals with access to risky water sources were considered high-risk and would be subjected to invasive inspection at meat inspection. All animals in the low-risk groups (i.e. males, non-grazing or no access to risky water sources, respectively) would be subjected to visual inspection only. It was assumed that half of the cattle were slaughtered in abattoirs that would be able to reorganise the work at the slaughterline, allowing them to do with one meat inspector less. All abattoirs would gain on the price of sold uncut beef from the masseter muscles from visually inspected cattle. Under these assumptions, using gender and grazing were preferable due to them having SSSe only slightly lower than the current system, and highest effectiveness ratios, but they had a lower net economic effect (NEE) than the scenario using risky water sources. Using gender to differentiate high and low-risk groups was judged preferable over grazing due to feasibility, because the information is readily available at the slaughter line. The exact total NEE for the cattle sector depends on how many and which of the abattoirs that would be able to reorganise the work at the slaughter line to save money on

  12. New developments in the Danish Wind Energy Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Lemming, J.

    1996-12-31

    Wind energy resources in Denmark are among the best in Europe. In recent years there has been a rapid growth in number of wind turbines connected to the grid in Denmark. By the end of 1995 more than 3800 wind turbines were installed on-shore with a capacity of over 600 MW. The total production of electricity from these turbines in 1995 was more than 1200 GWh, corresponding to approximately 3.6 % of the Danish electricity consumption. For several years Denmark has pursued an energy policy with an increasing weight on environmental aspects and new and renewable energy sources like wind energy. Therefore wind energy already plays an important part as supplement to the traditional sources of fuel in the electricity production, and the share of wind energy and other renewables is expected to increase significantly in the years to come. 1 ref., 9 figs.

  13. [What do people talk about in Danish hospital elevators?].

    PubMed

    Hasman, A; Hansen, N R; Lassen, A; Rabøl, R; Holm, S

    1997-11-10

    Hospital elevators make up a part of the public space of hospitals which is used by both employees, patients, and patients' relatives. We performed an observational study to ascertain the frequency of ethically problematic conversations between employees in the elevators of three Danish hospitals. We defined a conversation as problematic if it breached confidentiality or if it could raise doubts about the professional or ethical standard of the hospital or its employees. Based on this definition we found that problematic conversations occurred in 18 out of 201 elevator-trips where more than one member of the hospital staff was present in the elevator (9%, 95% confidence limits 5-14%). The most common types of problems were breaches of confidentiality (6 cases), complaints about stressful work (4 cases), and complaints about the organisation (3 cases). PMID:9411994

  14. Prevalence of substance abuse in pregnancy among Danish women.

    PubMed

    Rausgaard, Nete L K; Ibsen, Inge O; Jørgensen, Jan S; Lamont, Ronald F; Ravn, Pernille

    2015-02-01

    There are few recent data on the prevalence of substance abuse among Danish pregnant women. During 2013, in the Region of Southern Denmark, a cross-sectional, anonymous, screening-based study was conducted among pregnant women attending for routine ultrasound scan at 12 weeks gestation. The women submitted a urine sample and completed a short questionnaire. Urine samples were tested for opiates, cannabis, benzodiazepines, cocaine, methadone, amphetamine and methamphetamine. Positive samples underwent repeat analysis for confirmation. Of 690 pregnant women, 88.1% participated. Overall, 3.6% of women had a positive urine sample confirmed by repeated analysis. The age distribution in women with positive samples did not differ from the entire cohort. Our findings indicate a larger prevalence than anticipated, and that a substantial number of pregnant women with substance abuse are not appropriately referred to the focused specialist center for such women at risk. PMID:25366294

  15. Infection with Bartonella henselae in a Danish Family

    PubMed Central

    Maggi, Ricardo G.; Balakrishnan, Nandhakumar; Bradley, Julie M.

    2015-01-01

    Bartonella species constitute emerging, vector-borne, intravascular pathogens that produce long-lasting bacteremia in reservoir-adapted (natural host or passive carrier of a microorganism) and opportunistic hosts. With the advent of more sensitive and specific diagnostic tests, there is evolving microbiological evidence supporting concurrent infection with one or more Bartonella spp. in more than one family member; however, the mode(s) of transmission to or among family members remains unclear. In this study, we provide molecular microbiological evidence of Bartonella henselae genotype San Antonio 2 (SA2) infection in four of six Danish family members, including a child who died of unknown causes at 14 months of age. PMID:25740763

  16. The Danish health care system from a British perspective.

    PubMed

    Hurst, Jeremy

    2002-02-01

    The organisation and financing of the Danish health care system was evaluated within a framework of a SWOT analysis (analysis of strengths, weakness, opportunities and threats) by a panel of five members with a background in health economics. The evaluation was based on reading an extensive amount of selected documents and literature on the Danish health care system, and a one-week visit to health care authorities, providers and key persons. The present paper includes the main findings by one of the panel members. The dominance of tax financing helps to achieve control over the level of health care expenditure, as well as securing equity in financing the services. The reliance on local government for financing and running health care has both advantages and disadvantages, and the split between county and municipal responsibility leads to problems of co-ordination. The remuneration of general practitioners by a mix of capitation payment and fee for services has the advantage of capping expenditure whilst leaving the GPs with an incentive to compete for patients by providing them with good services. The GP service is remarkably economical. The hospital sector displays much strength, but there seem to be problems with respect to: (i) perceived lack of resources and waiting lists; (ii) impersonal care, lack of continuity of care and failures in communication between patients and staff; (iii) management problems and sometimes demotivated staff. The relationship between patients and providers is facilitated by free access to GPs and absence of any charges for hospital treatment. The biggest threat is continuation of avoidable illness caused by poor health habits in the population. The biggest opportunity is to strengthen public health measures to tackle these poor health habits. PMID:11755995

  17. Better Buildings Neighborhood Program: BetterBuildings Lowell Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Heslin, Thomas

    2014-01-31

    The City of Lowell set four goals at the beginning of the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program: 1. Improve the Downtown Historic Park District’s Carbon Footprint 2. Develop a sustainable and replicable model for energy efficiency in historic buildings 3. Create and retain jobs 4. Promote multi-stakeholder partnerships The City of Lowell, MA was awarded $5 million in May 2010 to conduct energy efficiency retrofits within the downtown National Historical Park (NHP). The City’s target was to complete retrofits in 200,000 square feet of commercial space and create 280 jobs, while adhering to the strict historical preservation regulations that govern the NHP. The development of a model for energy efficiency in historic buildings was successfully accomplished. BetterBuildings Lowell’s success in energy efficiency in historic buildings was due to the simplicity of the program. We relied strongly on the replacement of antiquated HVAC systems and air sealing and a handful of talented energy auditors and contractors. BetterBuildings Lowell was unique for the Better Buildings Neighborhood Program because it was the only program that focused solely on commercial properties. BetterBuildings Lowell did target multi-family properties, which were reported as commercial, but the majority of the building types and uses were commercial. Property types targeted were restaurants, office buildings, museums, sections of larger buildings, mixed use buildings, and multifamily buildings. This unique fabric of building type and use allows for a deeper understanding to how different properties use energy. Because of the National Historical Park designation of downtown Lowell, being able to implement energy efficiency projects within a highly regulated historical district also provided valuable research and precedent proving energy efficiency projects can be successfully completed in historical districts and historical buildings. Our program was very successful in working with the local

  18. Building energy analysis tool

    DOEpatents

    Brackney, Larry; Parker, Andrew; Long, Nicholas; Metzger, Ian; Dean, Jesse; Lisell, Lars

    2016-04-12

    A building energy analysis system includes a building component library configured to store a plurality of building components, a modeling tool configured to access the building component library and create a building model of a building under analysis using building spatial data and using selected building components of the plurality of building components stored in the building component library, a building analysis engine configured to operate the building model and generate a baseline energy model of the building under analysis and further configured to apply one or more energy conservation measures to the baseline energy model in order to generate one or more corresponding optimized energy models, and a recommendation tool configured to assess the one or more optimized energy models against the baseline energy model and generate recommendations for substitute building components or modifications.

  19. Synthesis of the Danish Experience with Combating Nutrient Pollution of Surface Waters: The Old Regulatory Approach and a New Targeted Approach Utilising the Natural Attenuation Capacity in Landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronvang, Brian; Windolf, Jørgen; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Tornbjerg, Henrik; Højberg, Anker; Rieman, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Excess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) emissions to surface waters are a high priority environmental problem worldwide for protection of water resources in times of population growth and climate change. As clean water is a scarce resource the struggle for reducing nutrient emissions are an ongoing issue for many countries and regions. Since the mid1980s a wide range of national regulatory general measures have been implemented to reduce land based nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loadings of the Danish aquatic environment. These measures have addressed both point source emissions and emissions from diffuse sources especially from agricultural production. Following nearly 4 decades of combating nutrient pollution our surface waters such as lakes and estuaries are only slowly responding on the 50% reduction in N and 56% reduction in P. Therefore, the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive in Danish surface waters still call for further reductions of N and P loadings. Introduction of a new paradigm of targeted implemented measures was the proposed outcome of a Commission on Nature and Agriculture established by the Danish Government in 2013. Their White Book points to the need of increased growth and better environment through more targeted and efficient regulation using advanced technological mitigation methods that are implemented intelligently according to the local natural attenuation capacity for nutrients in the landscape. As a follow up a national consensus model for N was established chaining existing leaching, 3D groundwater and surface water models. The new model concept enables a calculation of the N dynamics and attenuation capacity within a scale of 15 km2. Moreover, several research projects have been conducted to investigate the effect of a suite of targeted mitigation measures such as restored natural wetlands, constructed wetlands, controlled drainage and intelligent buffer zones. The outcome of six Danish management plans for nutrient load

  20. Suicide after deployment in UN peacekeeping missions--a Danish pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hansen-Schwartz, J; Jessen, G; Andersen, K; Jørgensen, H O

    2002-01-01

    This pilot study looks at the frequency of suicide among Danish soldiers who took part in the UN mandated forces (UNMF) during the 1990's. In a contingent of nearly 4000 Danish UN soldiers four suicides were documented, two of whom committed suicide less than one month before deployment and two who committed suicide within a year after discharge from mission. Contributing factors, prevention strategies, and implications for future research are discussed. PMID:12500889

  1. Building America

    SciTech Connect

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    Builders generally use a 'spec and purchase' business management system (BMS) when implementing energy efficiency. A BMS is the overall operational and organizational systems and strategies that a builder uses to set up and run its company. This type of BMS treats building performance as a simple technology swap (e.g. a tank water heater to a tankless water heater) and typically compartmentalizes energy efficiency within one or two groups in the organization (e.g. purchasing and construction). While certain tools, such as details, checklists, and scopes of work, can assist builders in managing the quality of the construction of higher performance homes, they do nothing to address the underlying operational strategies and issues related to change management that builders face when they make high performance homes a core part of their mission. To achieve the systems integration necessary for attaining 40% + levels of energy efficiency, while capturing the cost tradeoffs, builders must use a 'systems approach' BMS, rather than a 'spec and purchase' BMS. The following attributes are inherent in a systems approach BMS; they are also generally seen in quality management systems (QMS), such as the National Housing Quality Certification program: Cultural and corporate alignment, Clear intent for quality and performance, Increased collaboration across internal and external teams, Better communication practices and systems, Disciplined approach to quality control, Measurement and verification of performance, Continuous feedback and improvement, and Whole house integrated design and specification.

  2. East side. Building 517 is to the right. Building 511 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    East side. Building 517 is to the right. Building 511 is to the left. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Central Service Building, North of Building No. 511, East of corridor connecting Building 511 to Building 515, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  3. SAFETY IN THE DESIGN OF SCIENCE LABORATORIES AND BUILDING CODES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HOROWITZ, HAROLD

    THE DESIGN OF COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY BUILDINGS USED FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND EDUCATION IS DISCUSSED IN TERMS OF LABORATORY SAFETY AND BUILDING CODES AND REGULATIONS. MAJOR TOPIC AREAS ARE--(1) SAFETY RELATED DESIGN FEATURES OF SCIENCE LABORATORIES, (2) LABORATORY SAFETY AND BUILDING CODES, AND (3) EVIDENCE OF UNSAFE DESIGN. EXAMPLES EMPHASIZE…

  4. 24 CFR 115.302 - Capacity building funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Capacity building funds. 115.302 Section 115.302 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE... Assistance Program § 115.302 Capacity building funds. (a) Capacity building (CB) funds are funds that HUD...

  5. 24 CFR 115.302 - Capacity building funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Capacity building funds. 115.302 Section 115.302 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE... Assistance Program § 115.302 Capacity building funds. (a) Capacity building (CB) funds are funds that HUD...

  6. 24 CFR 115.302 - Capacity building funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Capacity building funds. 115.302 Section 115.302 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE... Assistance Program § 115.302 Capacity building funds. (a) Capacity building (CB) funds are funds that HUD...

  7. 24 CFR 200.50 - Building loan agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Building loan agreement. 200.50 Section 200.50 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Building loan agreement. The mortgagor and mortgagee must execute a building loan agreement approved by...

  8. 24 CFR 200.50 - Building loan agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Building loan agreement. 200.50 Section 200.50 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Building loan agreement. The mortgagor and mortgagee must execute a building loan agreement approved by...

  9. 24 CFR 203.39 - Standards for buildings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standards for buildings. 203.39 Section 203.39 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... § 203.39 Standards for buildings. The buildings on the mortgaged property must conform with...

  10. 24 CFR 115.302 - Capacity building funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Capacity building funds. 115.302 Section 115.302 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE... Assistance Program § 115.302 Capacity building funds. (a) Capacity building (CB) funds are funds that HUD...

  11. 24 CFR 200.50 - Building loan agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Building loan agreement. 200.50 Section 200.50 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Building loan agreement. The mortgagor and mortgagee must execute a building loan agreement approved by...

  12. 24 CFR 203.39 - Standards for buildings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Standards for buildings. 203.39 Section 203.39 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... § 203.39 Standards for buildings. The buildings on the mortgaged property must conform with...

  13. 24 CFR 115.302 - Capacity building funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Capacity building funds. 115.302 Section 115.302 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE... Assistance Program § 115.302 Capacity building funds. (a) Capacity building (CB) funds are funds that HUD...

  14. 24 CFR 200.50 - Building loan agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Building loan agreement. 200.50 Section 200.50 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Building loan agreement. The mortgagor and mortgagee must execute a building loan agreement approved by...

  15. 24 CFR 203.39 - Standards for buildings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Standards for buildings. 203.39 Section 203.39 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... § 203.39 Standards for buildings. The buildings on the mortgaged property must conform with...

  16. 24 CFR 203.39 - Standards for buildings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Standards for buildings. 203.39 Section 203.39 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... § 203.39 Standards for buildings. The buildings on the mortgaged property must conform with...

  17. 24 CFR 203.39 - Standards for buildings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Standards for buildings. 203.39 Section 203.39 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... § 203.39 Standards for buildings. The buildings on the mortgaged property must conform with...

  18. 24 CFR 200.50 - Building loan agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Building loan agreement. 200.50 Section 200.50 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Building loan agreement. The mortgagor and mortgagee must execute a building loan agreement approved by...

  19. Danish heathland manipulation experiment data in Model-Data-Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thum, Tea; Peylin, Philippe; Ibrom, Andreas; Van Der Linden, Leon; Beier, Claus; Bacour, Cédric; Santaren, Diego; Ciais, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    In ecosystem manipulation experiments (EMEs) the ecosystem is artificially exposed to different environmental conditions that aim to simulate circumstances in future climate. At Danish EME site Brandbjerg the responses of a heathland to drought, warming and increased atmospheric CO2 concentration are studied. The warming manipulation is realized by passive nighttime warming. The measurements include control plots as well as replicates for each three treatment separately and in combination. The Brandbjerg heathland ecosystem is dominated by heather and wavy hairgrass. These experiments provide excellent data for validation and development of ecosystem models. In this work we used a generic vegetation model ORCHIDEE with Model-Data-Fusion (MDF) approach. ORCHIDEE model is a process-based model that describes the exchanges of carbon, water and energy between the atmosphere and the vegetation. It can be run at different spatial scales from global to site level. Different vegetation types are described in ORCHIDEE as plant functional types. In MDF we are using observations from the site to optimize the model parameters. This enables us to assess the modelling errors and the performance of the model for different manipulation treatments. This insight will inform us whether the different processes are adequately modelled or if the model is missing some important processes. We used a genetic algorithm in the MDF. The data available from the site included measurements of aboveground biomass, heterotrophic soil respiration and total ecosystem respiration from years 2006-2008. The biomass was measured six times doing this period. The respiration measurements were done with manual chamber measurements. For the soil respiration we used results from an empirical model that has been developed for the site. This enabled us to have more data for the MDF. Before the MDF we performed a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters to different data streams. Fifteen most influential

  20. BUILDING 341 Seismic Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Halle, J.

    2015-06-15

    The Seismic Evaluation of Building 341 located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California has been completed. The subject building consists of a main building, Increment 1, and two smaller additions; Increments 2 and 3.

  1. Building 1100--NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Building 1100 is the NASA administrative building. Services located in this building include two banks, a post office, barber shop, cafeteria, snack bar, travel agency, dry cleaners, the NASA Exchange retail store and medical facilities for employees.

  2. 29 CFR 779.335 - Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction. 779.335 Section 779.335 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND... for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Sales Not Made for Resale § 779.335 Sales of...

  3. 29 CFR 779.335 - Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction. 779.335 Section 779.335 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND... for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Sales Not Made for Resale § 779.335 Sales of...

  4. 29 CFR 779.335 - Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction. 779.335 Section 779.335 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND... for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Sales Not Made for Resale § 779.335 Sales of...

  5. 29 CFR 779.335 - Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction. 779.335 Section 779.335 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND... for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Sales Not Made for Resale § 779.335 Sales of...

  6. 29 CFR 779.335 - Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction. 779.335 Section 779.335 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND... for Certain Retail or Service Establishments Sales Not Made for Resale § 779.335 Sales of...

  7. Bovine renal lipofuscinosis: Prevalence, genetics and impact on milk production and weight at slaughter in Danish cattle

    PubMed Central

    Agerholm, Jørgen S; Christensen, Knud; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Flagstad, Pia

    2009-01-01

    Background Bovine renal lipofuscinosis (BRL) is an incidental finding in cattle at slaughter. Condemnation of the kidneys as unfit for human consumption was until recently considered the only implication of BRL. Recent studies have indicated a negative influence on the health of affected animals. The present study investigated the prevalence, genetics and effect of BRL on milk yield and weight at slaughter. Methods BRL status of slaughter cattle was recorded at four abattoirs during a 2-year-period. Data regarding breed, age, genetic descent, milk yield and weight at slaughter were extracted from the Danish Cattle Database. The prevalence of BRL was estimated stratified by breed and age-group. Furthermore, total milk yield, milk yield in last full lactation and weight at slaughter were compared for BRL-affected and non-affected Danish Holsteins and Danish Red cattle. Results 433,759 bovines were slaughtered and 787 of these had BRL. BRL was mainly diagnosed in Danish Red, Danish Holstein and crossbreds. The age of BRL affected animals varied from 11 months to 13 years, but BRL was rarely diagnosed in cattle less than 2 years of age. The total lifelong energy corrected milk (ECM) yields were 3,136 and 4,083 kg higher for BRL affected Danish Red and Danish Holsteins, respectively. However, the median life span of affected animals was 4.9 months longer, and age-corrected total milk yield was 1,284 kg lower for BRL affected Danish Red cows. These cows produced 318 kg ECM less in their last full lactation. Weight at slaughter was not affected by BRL status. The cases occurred in patterns consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance and several family clusters of BRL were found. Analysis of segregation ratios demonstrated the expected ratio for Danish Red cattle, but not for Danish Holsteins. Conclusion The study confirmed that BRL is a common finding in Danish Holsteins and Danish Red cattle at slaughter. The disorder is associated with increased total milk yield due

  8. Facility Focus: Science Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Provides examples of four university science buildings whose design fosters interdisciplinary interaction among students coupled with lab flexibility. Design concepts, innovations, and building layouts are examined. (GR)

  9. Solar buildings. Overview: The Solar Buildings Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1998-04-01

    Buildings account for more than one third of the energy used in the United States each year, consuming vast amounts of electricity, natural gas, and fuel oil. Given this level of consumption, the buildings sector is rife with opportunity for alternative energy technologies. The US Department of Energy`s Solar Buildings Program was established to take advantage of this opportunity. The Solar Buildings Program is engaged in research, development, and deployment on solar thermal technologies, which use solar energy to produce heat. The Program focuses on technologies that have the potential to produce economically competitive energy for the buildings sector.

  10. Solar buildings. Overview: The Solar Buildings Program

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    Buildings account for more than one third of the energy used in the United States each year, consuming vast amounts of electricity, natural gas, and fuel oil. Given this level of consumption, the buildings sector is rife with opportunity for alternative energy technologies. The US Department of Energy's Solar Buildings Program was established to take advantage of this opportunity. The Solar Buildings Program is engaged in research, development, and deployment on solar thermal technologies, which use solar energy to produce heat. The Program focuses on technologies that have the potential to produce economically competitive energy for the buildings sector.

  11. Molecular diversity of avian schistosomes in Danish freshwater snails.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Anne Ø; Olsen, Annette; Buchmann, Kurt; Kania, Per W; Nejsum, Peter; Vennervald, Birgitte J

    2016-03-01

    Avian schistosomes are widespread parasites of snails and waterfowl and may cause cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch) in humans, a disease that is frequently reported in European countries. These parasites are known to occur in Denmark, but here, we applied a new approach using molecular tools to identify the parasites at species level. In order to do that, 499 pulmonate freshwater snails (Radix sp., Lymnaea stagnalis, Stagnicola sp. and Planorbarius corneus) were sampled from 12 lakes, ponds, and marshes in the greater Copenhagen area. Avian schistosome cercariae were identified by microscopy and subjected to molecular investigation by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the 5.8S and ITS2 ribosomal DNA for species identification. Additionally, snail hosts belonging to the genus Radix were identified by sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of partial ITS2 ribosomal DNA. Three out of 499 snails shed different species of Trichobilharzia cercariae: Trichobilharzia szidati was isolated from L. stagnalis, Trichobilharzia franki from Radix auricularia and Trichobilharzia regenti from Radix peregra. In the light of the public health risk represented by bird schistosomes, these findings are of concern and, particularly, the presence of the potentially neuro-pathogenic species, T. regenti, in Danish freshwaters calls for attention. PMID:26573519

  12. Food waste from Danish households: Generation and composition.

    PubMed

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-06-01

    Sustainable solutions for reducing food waste require a good understanding of food waste generation and composition, including avoidable and unavoidable food waste. We analysed 12tonnes of residual household waste collected from 1474 households, without source segregation of organic waste. Food waste was divided into six fractions according to avoidability, suitability for home-composting and whether or not it was cooked, prepared or had been served within the household. The results showed that the residual household waste generation rate was 434±18kg per household per year, of which 183±10kg per year was food waste. Unavoidable food waste amounted to 80±6kg per household per year, and avoidable food waste was 103±9kg per household per year. Food waste mass was influenced significantly by the number of occupants per household (household size) and the housing type. The results also indicated that avoidable food waste occurred in 97% of the households, suggesting that most Danish households could avoid or at least reduce how much they generate. Moreover, avoidable and unavoidable food waste was more likely to be found in houses containing more than one person than in households with only one occupant. PMID:27026492

  13. Ten years of structural reforms in Danish healthcare.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Terkel

    2012-07-01

    A major structural reform of the Danish public sector took place in 2007 when the number of administrative units at the regional and municipal levels was reduced. The larger administrative units allowed for a new hospital structure with a reduced number of acute hospitals covering a population of between 200,000 and 400,000 inhabitants. The restructuring involves creation of acute hospitals with a 24-h acute service by a range of specialists. The idea was to weight quality higher than geographical closeness to the nearest hospital. Concurrently, the pre-hospital service will be expanded. The National Board of Health was given authority to approve regional plans for specialties rather than provide guidelines. The use of private hospitals was increased as a means to fulfil a waiting time guarantee of between 2 and 1 month. Increased use of private insurance also increased use of private hospitals. A new way of financing health care was intended to give municipalities incentives to invest in health prevention and health promotion. Concurrent reforms included economic incentives to increase hospital production as measured by DRGs; quality programmes to secure high quality and patient safety; and electronic patient records and increased use of IT systems. PMID:22521580

  14. Private Mitochondrial DNA Variants in Danish Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Christian M.; Aidt, Frederik H.; Havndrup, Ole; Hedley, Paula L.; Jensen, Morten K.; Kanters, Jørgen K.; Pham, Tam T.; Bundgaard, Henning; Christiansen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a genetic cardiac disease primarily caused by mutations in genes coding for sarcomeric proteins. A molecular-genetic etiology can be established in ~60% of cases. Evolutionarily conserved mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups are susceptibility factors for HCM. Several polymorphic mtDNA variants are associated with a variety of late-onset degenerative diseases and affect mitochondrial function. We examined the role of private, non-haplogroup associated, mitochondrial variants in the etiology of HCM. In 87 Danish HCM patients, full mtDNA sequencing revealed 446 variants. After elimination of 312 (69.9%) non-coding and synonymous variants, a further 109 (24.4%) with a global prevalence > 0.1%, three (0.7%) haplogroup associated and 19 (2.0%) variants with a low predicted in silico likelihood of pathogenicity, three variants: MT-TC: m.5772G>A, MT-TF: m.644A>G, and MT-CYB: m.15024G>A, p.C93Y remained. A detailed analysis of these variants indicated that none of them are likely to cause HCM. In conclusion, private mtDNA mutations are frequent, but they are rarely, if ever, associated with HCM. PMID:25923817

  15. Decentralization of management responsibility: the case of Danish hospitals.

    PubMed

    Pallesen, T; Pedersen, L D

    1993-01-01

    This article examines a specific management reform at three hospitals in a Danish county. Management reform at the hospital level implies a decentralization of responsibility and power to the departmental level. Along with increased responsibility and power, departments get the message: keep your budgets and keep your output level. This preliminary analysis indicates that departmental budgets can be a way of containing costs in clinical departments. Non-staff expenditures especially are subjected to reductions. The system still seems to 'favour' doctors and nurses, but less than in a system with traditional budgetary institutions. The behaviour of the top-management teams shows that the output constraint is not seriously meant. Departments are allowed to reduce capacity, with declining output, with the knowledge of the top-management team. The declining output makes it easier to departments ceteris paribus to keep within their budgets. And that makes it easier for the top-management team to keep the overall hospital budget. The obligation to keep the overall hospital budget is thus an important criterion of success in the eyes of the political masters of hospitals. PMID:10134931

  16. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry-7].

    PubMed

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kirkegaard, Hanne; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2014-01-01

    A/S GEA Farmaceutisk Fabrik was established as a family business in 1927 by the pharmacist Knud L. Gad Andresen who until then had been employed in the pharmaceutical industry. Gad Andresen wanted to run a company focusing on the development of generics, and he wanted this development to take place in a close cooperation with Danish physicians. This has indeed been achieved with success. In 1995 GEA was purchase'd by the American pharmaceutical company Bristol-Myers Squibb who in a press release characterized GEA as Denmark's second largest manufacturer of generics. Immediately after this takeover GEA's R&D department ceased the research in innovative products and from now on exclusively focused on the development of generics. Three years later GEA was sold to the German generic company Hexal who later on resold GEA to the Swiss generic company Sandoz. GEA changed ownership another couple of times until the last owner went bankrupt in 2011. GEA is yet again a model example of an early Danish pharmaceutical company which was established as an individual company, and which had a long commercial success with the production and marketing of generics. GEA's earliest products, the organotherapeutics, were not innovations. The innovative products were developed already in the 1890s in Denmark by Alfred Benzon, and later on copies followed a.o. from Medicinalco and from foreign companies before GEA marketed their generics. Therefore GEA had to promote their preparations as especially qualified medicinal products and to intimate that the products of the competitors were less "active'". At the end of the 1920s the Ministry of Health became aware of the fact that there might be health problems related to the none-existing control of both the or- ganotherapeutic preparations and actually also the other medicinal products of the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore the Ministry had requested the National Board of Health for a statement regarding this problem. The National Board

  17. Correlates of menstrual cycle characteristics among nulliparous Danish women

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Kristen A; Wise, Lauren A; Riis, Anders H; Mikkelsen, Ellen M; Rothman, Kenneth J; Banholzer, Kristen; Hatch, Elizabeth E

    2013-01-01

    Objective We examined the association between lifestyle factors and menstrual cycle characteristics among nulliparous Danish women aged 18–40 years who were participating in an Internet-based prospective cohort study of pregnancy planners. Methods We used cross-sectional data collected at baseline to assess the association of age, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, alcohol and caffeine consumption, and smoking with the prevalence of irregular cycles, short (≤25 days) and long (≥33 days) cycles, and duration and amount of menstrual flow. We used log-binomial and multinomial logistic regression to estimate prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results Low physical activity and heavy alcohol consumption were associated with an increased prevalence of irregular periods. High BMI, smoking, and caffeine and alcohol consumption were related to an increased prevalence of short menstrual cycles and heavy menstrual bleeding. Women in their mid-to-late thirties had shorter and lighter menstrual flow, but a lower prevalence of irregular cycles, compared with women 18–25 years of age. Discussion In this study, increased age, high BMI, and sedentary behavior were associated with menstrual-pattern irregularities. These factors may influence the balance and level of endogenous hormones conducive to optimal menstrual function. PMID:23983490

  18. Health promotion in Danish schools: local priorities, policies and practices.

    PubMed

    Simovska, Venka; Nordin, Lone Lindegaard; Madsen, Katrine Dahl

    2016-06-01

    This article discusses the findings from a study mapping out the priorities, policies and practices of local authorities concerning health promotion (HP) and health education (HE) in primary and lower secondary schools in Denmark. The aim of the study was to identify the gaps, tensions and possibilities associated with the demand to increase the quality and effectiveness of HP in schools. The recent national school reform, which emphasizes the importance of health and well-being while simultaneously increasing the focus on performance and accountability in terms of subject proficiency and narrowly defined academic attainment, provides the broader political context for the study. Data were generated through a structured online survey administered to all 98 Danish municipalities. Respondents were educational consultants or others representing the administrative units responsible for the municipality's schools. The findings were discussed within the conceptual framework of Health Promoting Schools. The study points to a potential tension between the health and education sectors, despite evidence of intersectoral collaboration. While there is a strong policy focus on health and well-being in schools, it is disconnected from the utilization of the HE curriculum by the municipal consultants. The study also points to a lack of professional development opportunities for teachers in the field of HP in schools. On the basis of these findings and theoretical perspectives used, we argue that HP in schools needs to (re)connect with the core task of the school, education, and to integrate both health and education goals in local priorities, policies and practices. PMID:25753051

  19. Active and Passive Smoking and Fecundability in Danish Pregnancy Planners

    PubMed Central

    Radin, Rose G.; Hatch, Elizabeth E.; Rothman, Kenneth J.; Mikkelsen, Ellen M.; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Riis, Anders H.; Wise, Lauren A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the extent to which fecundability is associated with active smoking, time since smoking cessation, and passive smoking. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Denmark, 2007–2011. Patients 3,773 female pregnancy planners aged 18–40 years. Intervention None. Main Outcome Measures Self-reported pregnancy. Fecundability ratios (FR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using a proportional probabilities model that adjusted for menstrual cycle at risk and potential confounders. Results Among current smokers, smoking duration ≥10 years was associated with reduced fecundability compared with never smokers (FR=0.85, 95% CI: 0.72–1.00). Former smokers who had smoked ≥10 pack-years had reduced fecundability regardless of when they quit smoking (1–1.9 years FR=0.83, 95% CI: 0.54–1.27; ≥2 years FR=0.73, 95% CI: 0.53–1.02). Among never smokers, the FRs were 1.04 (95% CI: 0.89–1.21) for passive smoking in early life and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.82–1.03) for passive smoking in adulthood. Conclusions Among Danish pregnancy planners, cumulative exposure to active cigarette smoking was associated with delayed conception among current and former smokers. Time since smoking cessation and passive smoking were not appreciably associated with fecundability. PMID:24746741

  20. Quality improvement and accountability in the Danish health care system.

    PubMed

    Mainz, Jan; Kristensen, Solvejg; Bartels, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Denmark has unique opportunities for quality measurement and benchmarking since Denmark has well-developed health registries and unique patient identifier that allow all registries to include patient-level data and combine data into sophisticated quality performance monitoring. Over decades, Denmark has developed and implemented national quality and patient safety initiatives in the healthcare system in terms of national clinical guidelines, performance and outcome measurement integrated in clinical databases for important diseases and clinical conditions, measurement of patient experiences, reporting of adverse events, national handling of patient complaints, national accreditation and public disclosure of all data on the quality of care. Over the years, Denmark has worked up a progressive and transparent just culture in quality management; the different actors at the different levels of the healthcare system are mutually attentive and responsive in a coordinated effort for quality of the healthcare services. At national, regional, local and hospital level, it is mandatory to participate in the quality initiatives and to use data and results for quality management, quality improvement, transparency in health care and accountability. To further develop the Danish governance model, it is important to expand the model to the primary care sector. Furthermore, a national quality health programme 2015-18 recently launched by the government supports a new development in health care focusing upon delivering high-quality health care-high quality is defined by results of value to the patients. PMID:26443814

  1. Mannose-Binding Lectin Gene, MBL2, Polymorphisms Do Not Increase Susceptibility to Invasive Meningococcal Disease in a Population of Danish Children

    PubMed Central

    Lundbo, Lene F.; Sørensen, Henrik T.; Clausen, Louise N.; Hollegaard, Mads V.; Hougaard, David M.; Konradsen, Helle B.; Harboe, Zitta Barrella; Nørgaard, Mette; Benfield, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background. Neisseria meningitidis is the cause of meningococcal bacteremia and meningitis, and nasopharyngeal colonization with this pathogen is common. The incidence of invasive disease is highest in infants, whereas adolescents more often are carriers. Altered regulation or dysfunction of the innate immune system may predispose to invasive meningococcal disease (IMD). In this study, we investigated the effect of genetic variation in the mannose-binding lectin gene, MBL2, and its promoter on susceptibility to IMD and IMD-associated mortality among children. Methods. Children (<5 years) diagnosed during 1982–2007 with IMD and controls were identified through Danish national registries. DNA was obtained from the Danish Neonatal Screening Biobank. The associations between MBL2 diplotypes and IMD susceptibility and 30- and 90-day mortality were investigated using logistic regression analysis. Results. We included 1351 children: 406 with meningitis, 272 with bacteremia, and 673 age- and sex-matched controls. Of the children studied, 1292 (96%) were successfully genotyped and assigned MBL2 diplotypes. The median age in IMD cases was 19.1 months (interquartile range [IQR], 8.8–32.2 months). Children with defective MBL2 diplotypes were not at higher risk for meningococcal meningitis than children with intermediate and normal diplotypes (odds ratio [OR] = 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], .47–1.02). Similar results were found for children with bacteremia and defective diplotypes (OR = 0.84; 95% CI, .53–1.32) as well as for all cases (OR = 0.75; 95% CI, .56–1.01). There was no association between MBL2 diplotypes and mortality. Conclusions. Defective MBL2 diplotypes did not predict either an increased IMD susceptibility or mortality in a Danish population of children. PMID:26464842

  2. Combining Natural Attenuation Capacity and use of Targeted Technological Mitigation Measures for Reducing Diffuse Nutrient Emissions to Surface Waters: The Danish Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronvang, B.; Højberg, A. L.; Hoffmann, C. C.; Windolf, J.; Blicher-Mathiesen, G.

    2015-12-01

    Excess nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) emissions to surface waters are a high priority environmental problem worldwide for protection of water resources in times of population growth and climate change. As clean water is a scarce resource the struggle for reducing nutrient emissions are an ongoing issue for many countries and regions. Since the mid1980s a wide range of national regulatory general measures have been implemented to reduce land based nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loadings of the Danish aquatic environment. These measures have addressed both point source emissions and emissions from diffuse sources especially from agricultural production. Following nearly 4 decades of combating nutrient pollution our surface waters such as lakes and estuaries are only slowly responding on the 50% reduction in N and 56% reduction in P. Therefore, the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive in Danish surface waters still call for further reductions of N and P loadings. Therefore, a new era of targeted implemented measures was the outcome of a Commission on Nature and Agriculture established by the Danish Government in 2013. Their White Book points to the need of increased growth and better environment through more targeted and efficient regulation using advanced technological mitigation methods that are implemented intelligently according to the local natural attenuation capacity for nutrients in the landscape. As a follow up a national consensus model for N was established chaining existing leaching, 3D groundwater and surface water models that enable a calculation of the N dynamics and attenuation capacity within a scale of 15 km2. Moreover, several research projects have been conducted to investigate the effect of a suite of targeted mitigation measures such as restored natural wetlands, constructed wetlands, controlled drainage, buffer strips and constructed buffer strips. The results of these studies will be shared in this presentation.

  3. Evaluation and validity of the Danish version of the Adult Strabismus Questionnaire AS-20

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Nafisa; Sørensen, Mette S; Sørensen, Torben L; Mortzos, Panteleimon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Assessing health-related quality of life in patients with strabismus is important in evaluating the clinical benefits of strabismus treatment. The purpose of this study was to translate the Adult Strabismus Quality of Life Questionnaire (AS-20) into Danish and evaluate its reliability and validity in adult patients with strabismus in Denmark. Methods The AS-20 was translated into Danish in accordance with standard international adopted methods. We presented the questionnaire to 64 adults with strabismus and to 13 non-strabismic adult controls. We tested the reliability of the Danish version by reassuring test–retest reliability, estimated the internal consistency, and analyzed the validity (discriminatory power) of the questionnaire by comparing patient scores with scores from control individuals. Results The Danish AS-20 produced high level of internal consistency (Cronbach’s α values) for both subscales (psychosocial: 0.95 and functional: 0.85). We found good discriminatory power of the AS-20. The patients scored significantly lower not only on AS-20 composite score (median =63, interquartile range [IQR] =44–79) compared to healthy individuals (median =98, IQR =93–100) (P<0.0001) but also on all individual questions in both subscales (psychosocial: 1–10 and functional: 11–20). Conclusion The Danish version of AS-20 shows high reliability and validity, and in our opinion, AS-20 is therefore a suitable instrument for evaluating self-perceived psychosocial and functional influence of strabismus. PMID:26770057

  4. Predictors of iron levels in 14,737 Danish blood donors: results from the Danish Blood Donor Study

    PubMed Central

    Rigas, Andreas Stribolt; Sørensen, Cecilie Juul; Pedersen, Ole Birger; Petersen, Mikkel Steen; Thørner, Lise Wegner; Kotzé, Sebastian; Sørensen, Erik; Magnussen, Karin; Rostgaard, Klaus; Erikstrup, Christian; Ullum, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary studies show a relationship between the intake of iron enhancers and inhibitors and iron stores in the general population. However, the impact of dietary factors on the iron stores of blood donors, whose iron status is affected by blood donations, is incompletely understood. Study Design and Methods In the Danish Blood Donor Study, we assessed the effect of blood donation frequency, physiologic factors, lifestyle and supplemental factors, and dietary factors on ferritin levels. We used multiple linear and logistic regression analyses stratified by sex and menopausal status. Results Among high-frequency donors (more than nine donations in the past 3 years), we found iron deficiency (ferritin below 15 ng/mL) in 9, 39, and 22% of men, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women, respectively. The strongest predictors of iron deficiency were sex, menopausal status, the number of blood donations in a 3-year period, and the time since last donation. Other significant factors included weight, age, intensity of menstruation, iron tablets, vitamin pills, and consumption of meat and wine. Conclusion The study confirms iron deficiency as an important problem, especially among menstruating women donating frequently. The risk of iron depletion was largely explained by sex, menopausal status, and donation frequency. Other factors, including dietary and supplemental iron intake, had a much weaker effect on the risk of iron depletion. PMID:24372094

  5. Modular Buildings Buying Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Suggests that child care program directors who are expanding their programs or opening new child care centers investigate the possibility of renting, leasing, or purchasing a modular building. Discusses the advantages of modular buildings over conventional building construction or rented space in an occupied building. Provides information about…

  6. Residential Radon and Brain Tumour Incidence in a Danish Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bräuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Zorana J.; Andersen, Claus E.; Pedersen, Camilla; Gravesen, Peter; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Loft, Steffen; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    Background Increased brain tumour incidence over recent decades may reflect improved diagnostic methods and clinical practice, but remain unexplained. Although estimated doses are low a relationship between radon and brain tumours may exist. Objective To investigate the long-term effect of exposure to residential radon on the risk of primary brain tumour in a prospective Danish cohort. Methods During 1993–1997 we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence from enrolment until 31 December 2009, identifying 121 primary brain tumour cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 31 December 2009 and calculated radon concentrations at each address using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate-ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the risk of primary brain tumours associated with residential radon exposure with adjustment for age, sex, occupation, fruit and vegetable consumption and traffic-related air pollution. Effect modification by air pollution was assessed. Results Median estimated radon was 40.5 Bq/m3. The adjusted IRR for primary brain tumour associated with each 100 Bq/m3 increment in average residential radon levels was 1.96 (95% CI: 1.07; 3.58) and this was exposure-dependently higher over the four radon exposure quartiles. This association was not modified by air pollution. Conclusions We found significant associations and exposure-response patterns between long-term residential radon exposure radon in a general population and risk of primary brain tumours, adding new knowledge to this field. This finding could be chance and needs to be challenged in future studies. PMID:24066143

  7. Emissions of biogenic sulfur gases from a danish estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barker Jørgensen, Bo; Okholm-Hansen, Bolette

    The diurnal variations in sulfur emission were studied at seven sites in a Danish estuary, Norsminde Fjord. The sites comprised grass vegetation, intertidal mud flats, accretions of green algae, an exposed shore and a river outlet. Direct measurements of emission rates from soil and water were done by a dynamic flux chamber technique in connection with gas Chromatographie detection and separation of the cryogenically trapped sulfur gases. Sulfur gas concentrations in air and sea water were measured together with emission rates at 0.5-1 h intervals over 25-40 h periods. DMS was the most important sulfur gas released from grass and algae, while mostly H 2S was released from intertidal mud flats. OCS, CH 3SH and CS 2 were released from most sites at lower rates. Emission of DMS followed the daylight variations, often with a delay towards maximum emission rates in the evening. H 2S was mostly emitted at night or in short outbursts during low tides. Total sulfur emission rates were 1-10μmol Sm -2 d -1. Extreme rates of 335μmol DMSm -2 d -1 were measured over decomposing green algae ( Ulva lactuca). H 2S emission fractions were < 10 -6 to 2.10 -4. H 2S was detected, along with DMS, CH 3SH, OCS and CS 2, in the oxic seawater of the estuary at diurnal mean concentrations of 0.1-6.5nmol S/ol -1. This may indicate a more widespread occurrence of H 2S in shallow, near-shore waters at nanomolar levels.

  8. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    SciTech Connect

    Braeuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Claus E.; Sorensen, Mette; Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana; Gravesen, Peter; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Pedersen, Camilla; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2012-10-15

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993-1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol. Potential effect modification by sex, traffic-related air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke was assessed. Median estimated radon was 35.8 Bq/m{sup 3}. The adjusted IRR for lung cancer was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.69-1.56) in association with a 100 Bq/m{sup 3} higher radon concentration and 1.67 (95% CI: 0.69-4.04) among non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification. We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information at the low-level radon dose range.

  9. Infertility, infertility treatment, and congenital malformations: Danish national birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Basso, Olga; Obel, Carsten; Bille, Camilla; Olsen, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether infertile couples (with a time to pregnancy of > 12 months), who conceive naturally or after treatment, give birth to children with an increased prevalence of congenital malformations. Design Longitudinal study. Setting Danish national birth cohort. Participants Three groups of liveborn children and their mothers: 50 897 singletons and 1366 twins born of fertile couples (time to pregnancy ≤ 12 months), 5764 singletons and 100 twins born of infertile couples who conceived naturally (time to pregnancy > 12 months), and 4588 singletons and 1690 twins born after infertility treatment. Main outcome measures Prevalence of congenital malformations determined from hospital discharge diagnoses. Results Compared with singletons born of fertile couples, singletons born of infertile couples who conceived naturally or after treatment had a higher prevalence of congenital malformations—hazard ratios 1.20 (95% confidence interval 1.07 to 1.35) and 1.39 (1.23 to 1.57). The overall prevalence of congenital malformations increased with increasing time to pregnancy. When the analysis was restricted to singletons born of infertile couples, babies born after treatment had an increased prevalence of genital organ malformations (hazard ratio 2.32, 1.24 to 4.35) compared with babies conceived naturally. No significant differences existed in the overall prevalence of congenital malformations among twins. Conclusions Hormonal treatment for infertility may be related to the occurrence of malformations of genital organs, but our results suggest that the reported increased prevalence of congenital malformations seen in singletons born after assisted reproductive technology is partly due to the underlying infertility or its determinants. The association between untreated infertility and congenital malformations warrants further examination. PMID:16893903

  10. Molecular heterogeneity of nonphenylketonuria hyperphenylalaninemia in 25 Danish patients

    SciTech Connect

    Guldberg, P.; Henriksen, K.F.; Guettler, F. ); Thoeny, B.; Blau, N. )

    1994-05-15

    Phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH; EC 1.4.16.1) is a liver-specific enzyme that catalyzes the initial and rate-limiting step in the catabolism of phenylalanine. The reaction is dependent on the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH[sub 4]) and results in the formation of tyrosine. Deficiency of PAH activity can result in a wide spectrum of metabolic and clinical phenotypes, depending on the degree of PAH depression. Thirty Danish children with non-PKU HPA were detected through the national neonatal screening program in the period 1967-1992. For this study, DNA samples from 25 of these patients were available. Criteria for diagnosis of non-PKU HPA include persistently elevated phenylalanine of 150-600 [mu]M and the ability to eliminate an oral phenylalanine load test dose of 0.1 g phenylalanine/kg body wt within 24 h. All 13 exons and adjoining splice signals of the PAH gene from the non-PKU HPA probands were amplified by PCR and scanned for the presence of mutations by DGGE according to previously described procedures. All samples displaying an latered electrophoretic band pattern were subjected to direct sequencing. A point mutation with potential influence on enzyme structure and/or function was identified on 47 of 50 chromosomes, and both mutant alleles were characterized in 23 of 25 probands. For most of the identified mutations, the influence on enzyme activity has not yet been formally verified by in vitro expression. However, the fact that only two mutations were found in each patient by scanning the entire coding sequence and splice sites of the PAH gene provides substantial evidence that these mutations are indeed causative.

  11. Linkage between the Danish National Health Service Prescription Database, the Danish Fetal Medicine Database, and other Danish registries as a tool for the study of drug safety in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Lars H; Petersen, Olav B; Nørgaard, Mette; Ekelund, Charlotte; Pedersen, Lars; Tabor, Ann; Sørensen, Henrik T

    2016-01-01

    A linked population-based database is being created in Denmark for research on drug safety during pregnancy. It combines information from the Danish National Health Service Prescription Database (with information on all prescriptions reimbursed in Denmark since 2004), the Danish Fetal Medicine Database, the Danish National Registry of Patients, and the Medical Birth Registry. The new linked database will provide validated information on malformations diagnosed both prenatally and postnatally. The cohort from 2008 to 2014 will comprise 589,000 pregnancies with information on 424,000 pregnancies resulting in live-born children, ∼420,000 pregnancies undergoing prenatal ultrasound scans, 65,000 miscarriages, and 92,000 terminations. It will be updated yearly with information on ∼80,000 pregnancies. The cohort will enable identification of drug exposures associated with severe malformations, not only based on malformations diagnosed after birth but also including those having led to termination of pregnancy or miscarriage. Such combined data will provide a unique source of information for research on the safety of medications used during pregnancy. PMID:27274312

  12. A method for estimating age of Danish medieval sub-adults based on long bone length.

    PubMed

    Primeau, Charlotte; Friis, Laila; Sejrsen, Birgitte; Lynnerup, Niels

    2012-07-01

    The preferred method for aging archaeological sub-adult skeletons is by dental examination. In cases where no dental records are available, age estimation may be performed according to epiphyseal union, skeletal elements or diaphyseal lengths. Currently no data have been produced specifically for aging archaeological Danish sub-adults from the medieval period based on diaphyseal lengths. The problem with using data on Danish samples, which have been derived from a different population, is the possibility of skewing age estimates. In this study 58 Danish archaeological sub-adults were examined, aged from approximately six years to twenty-one years. The samples were aged according to two dental methods: Haavikko and Ubelaker. Regression formulae were constructed for aging according to their diaphyseal lengths both for individual long bones and combinations of upper and lower long bones. This study indicated that with the regression formulae developed, estimation of age can be done with reasonable results on Danish sub-adults. The Danish data were then compared to data from a different archaeological sample and a modern sample. It showed that the modern data indicated a consistently lower age compared to this sample which increased until reaching a maximum of nearly five years and six months. When comparing the archaeological data to this study, the growth profile crossed over at 12.5 years with a maximum age difference before the cross point of two years and three months lower for the archaeological data. After the cross point there was a maximum difference of three years and four months higher for the archaeological data. This study has shown the importance of using data for age estimation for archaeological material which has been developed specifically for that population. In addition it has presented a possible solution for Danish sub-adult material when dental material is not available. PMID:22928354

  13. Emergency building temperature restrictions. Final evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-01

    On July 5, 1979, DOE promulgated final regulations of the Emergency Building Temperature Restrictions program, placing emergency restrictions on thermostat settings for space heating, space cooling, and hot water in commercial, industrial, and nonresidential public buildings. The final regulations restricted space heating to a maximum of 65/sup 0/F, hot water temperature to a maximum of 105/sup 0/F, and cooling temperature to a minimum of 78/sup 0/F. A comprehensive evaluation of the entire EBTF program for a nine-month period from July 16, 1979 is presented. In Chapter 1, an estimate of the population of buildings covered by EBTR is presented. In Chapter 2, EBTR compliance by building type and region is reported. Exemptions are also discussed. In Chapter 3, the simulations of building energy use are explained and the relative impact of various building characteristics and effectiveness of different control strategies are estimated. Finally, in Chapter 4, the methodology for scaling the individual building energy savings to the national level is described, and estimated national energy savings are presented.

  14. 41 CFR 105-53.147 - Public Buildings Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... (c) Regulations. Regulations pertaining to PBS programs are published in 41 CFR chapter 1, 41 CFR chapter 101, subchapters D and H; and in 48 CFR chapter 1. Information on availability of the regulations... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public Buildings...

  15. 41 CFR 105-53.147 - Public Buildings Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... (c) Regulations. Regulations pertaining to PBS programs are published in 41 CFR chapter 1, 41 CFR chapter 101, subchapters D and H; and in 48 CFR chapter 1. Information on availability of the regulations... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Public Buildings...

  16. 41 CFR 105-53.147 - Public Buildings Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... (c) Regulations. Regulations pertaining to PBS programs are published in 41 CFR chapter 1, 41 CFR chapter 101, subchapters D and H; and in 48 CFR chapter 1. Information on availability of the regulations... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public Buildings...

  17. 41 CFR 105-53.147 - Public Buildings Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (c) Regulations. Regulations pertaining to PBS programs are published in 41 CFR chapter 1, 41 CFR chapter 101, subchapters D and H; and in 48 CFR chapter 1. Information on availability of the regulations... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public Buildings...

  18. 41 CFR 105-53.147 - Public Buildings Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (c) Regulations. Regulations pertaining to PBS programs are published in 41 CFR chapter 1, 41 CFR chapter 101, subchapters D and H; and in 48 CFR chapter 1. Information on availability of the regulations... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Public Buildings...

  19. Seismic geomorphology of the Danish Chalks, offshore, North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, Florian; van Buchem, Frans; Schmidt, Ingelise

    2014-05-01

    The Upper Cretaceous and Lowermost Paleocene chalk deposits of the North Sea Basin constitute a unique phase in the evolution of carbonate facies, through the rock-forming dominance of fine grained calcareous plankton, particularly coccolithophorids. These planktonic organisms were deposited over extensive areas and very often laid down as laterally extensive, regular dm-scale bedded packages, that locally may reach a thickness of up to 1250 m. In the Danish Graben, the depositional conditions for the chalk sedimentation changed dramatically during the middle of the Upper Cretaceous. At this time the basin topography was inverted, radically changing the position of the depocenters and the ocean floor morphology. In uplifted areas local erosion and long phases of non-deposition occurred, whereas in areas of subsidence thick packages of chalk accumulated. Along the newly created highs, mass waste deposition took place at the deca-kilometre scale. In this presentation we will document evidence for the tectonic inversion, and pay particular attention to the rich pallet of geomorphological features that characterise this tectonically active period. This study benefitted from a recently re-processed 3D seismic dataset (6000 km²), and a regional well-log and biostratigraphic dataset. In addition, the seismic interpretation applied advanced seismic interpretation software (PaleoScan™), which uses a patented model grid that links up seismic points and honours interpreted horizon constraints resulting in a seismic Relative Geological Time model. Standard seismic attributes, displayed upon horizons from a 3D RGT model of the chalk package, have shown to be very effective in the illustration and interpretation of complex chalk depositional features. Special attention has been focussed on mass waste deposits around inverted structures and salt diapirs. Several different mass waste complexes have been documented in 3D, illustrating a number of typical features such as

  20. Stratigraphy and paleoenvironment of the Danish Eocene Azolla event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heilmann-Clausen, Claus; Beyer, Claus; Snowball, Ian

    2010-05-01

    Spores (massulae and megaspores) of the freshwater fern Azolla are recorded in several Danish Eocene outcrops and boreholes. The Azolla-bearing interval is 0.5 - ca. 3 m thick and occurs within the L2 Bed, a unit in the lower part of the hemipelagic, bathyal Lillebælt Clay Formation deposited in the central and eastern parts of the North Sea Basin. Intervals of organic-rich clay, usually including two distinctive, black sapropels, are present in the lower part of Bed L2, indicating a generally reduced oxygen content in the bottom waters during this time, with at least two episodes of severe, basinwide stagnation. The oxygen-deficit points to reduced circulation and/or enhanced marine productivity in the North Sea Basin. Azolla occurs in the upper part of this mainly organic-rich interval. The frequency of Azolla spores relative to marine dinoflagellate cysts fluctuates within the interval. The Azolla interval has previously been correlated to levels near the Ypresian/Lutetian transition in Belgium, based on dinoflagellate stratigraphy. Calibration of a new magnetostratigraphic study of the lower Lillebælt Clay with the dinoflagellate biostratigraphy suggests that Bed L2 spans the upper part of Chron 22r, C22n and lower part of C21r. The Azolla pulse spans the upper part of C22n and lowermost part of C21r. The combined bio-magnetostratigraphy from Denmark allows a detailed comparison with published data from the northern part of the Norwegian-Greenland Sea (ODP Hole 913B). The correlation confirms earlier assumptions, which were based on biostratigraphy alone, that the marine Azolla pulse in the two areas, and therefore probably over the whole Norwegian-Greenland Sea - North Sea region, is of the same age. An ongoing palynological study of the L2 Bed has so far revealed no indication for freshwater episodes or brackish waters in the basin during the Azolla pulse, except perhaps for Azolla itself. It is, therefore, suggested that the Azolla spores were transported

  1. Reproductive performance of "nurse sows" in Danish piggeries.

    PubMed

    Bruun, T S; Amdi, C; Vinther, J; Schop, M; Strathe, A B; Hansen, C F

    2016-09-01

    The use of nurse sows in Danish piggeries is common practice because of large litter sizes; however, the effect of being selected as a nurse sow on subsequent reproductive performance is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify a nurse sow's reproductive performance in the subsequent litter. Nurse sows were defined as sows weaning their own litter at least 18 days postpartum and thereafter nursing another litter (nurse litter) before service. Data (2012-2013) from 20 piggeries with more than 14.5 live born piglets per litter and a stable distribution of sows among parities over time were selected. Records from 79,864 litters were obtained and analyzed using mixed linear and logistic regression models. The average lactation lengths were 40.3 days for nurse sows and 27.8 days for non-nurse (normal) sows. Nurse sows weaned on average 12.4 piglets and subsequently 11.5 nurse piglets, whereas non-nurse weaned 11.7 piglets in their single weaning. There was no difference in re-service rate between nurse and non-nurse sows in the subsequent reproductive cycle. Subsequent litter size in the next reproductive cycle was higher for nurse sows than that for non-nurse sows (18.69 vs. 18.11 total born piglets; P < 0.001). Nurse sows were of a slightly lower parity than non-nurse sows (3.12 vs. 3.27, P < 0.001), and nurse sows had an increased weaning to estrus interval compared to non-nurse sows (4.23 vs. 4.19 days, P < 0.001). The results indicate that nurse sows were selected among sows nursing large litters and could therefore suggest that these sows represent the best percentile of sows in a given piggery. In conclusion, this survey indicated no negative effects of being selected as a nurse sow on the subsequent reproductive performance. On the contrary, nurse sows gave birth to more piglets compared to non-nurse sows in their subsequent litter. PMID:27129397

  2. Alcohol consumption and fecundability: prospective Danish cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Riis, Anders H; Wise, Lauren A; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Rothman, Kenneth J; Cueto, Heidi T; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate to what extent alcohol consumption affects female fecundability. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Denmark, 1 June 2007 to 5 January 2016. Participants 6120 female Danish residents, aged 21-45 years, in a stable relationship with a male partner, who were trying to conceive and not receiving fertility treatment. Main outcome measures Alcohol consumption was self reported as beer (330 mL bottles), red or white wine (120 mL glasses), dessert wine (50 mL glasses), and spirits (20 mL) and categorized in standard servings per week (none, 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and ≥14). Participants contributed menstrual cycles at risk until the report of pregnancy, start of fertility treatment, loss to follow-up, or end of observation (maximum 12 menstrual cycles). A proportional probability regression model was used to estimate fecundability ratios (cycle specific probability of conception among exposed women divided by that among unexposed women). Results 4210 (69%) participants achieved a pregnancy during follow-up. Median alcohol intake was 2.0 (interquartile range 0-3.5) servings per week. Compared with no alcohol consumption, the adjusted fecundability ratios for alcohol consumption of 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and 14 or more servings per week were 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.03), 1.01 (0.93 to 1.10), 1.01 (0.87 to 1.16) and 0.82 (0.60 to 1.12), respectively. Compared with no alcohol intake, the adjusted fecundability ratios for women who consumed only wine (≥3 servings), beer (≥3 servings), or spirits (≥2 servings) were 1.05 (0.91 to1.21), 0.92 (0.65 to 1.29), and 0.85 (0.61 to 1.17), respectively. The data did not distinguish between regular and binge drinking, which may be important if large amounts of alcohol are consumed during the fertile window. Conclusion Consumption of less than 14 servings of alcohol per week seemed to have no discernible effect on fertility. No appreciable difference in fecundability was observed by level of

  3. Sociodemographic Study of Danish Individuals Diagnosed with Transsexualism

    PubMed Central

    Simonsen, Rikke; Hald, Gert Martin; Giraldi, Annamaria; Kristensen, Ellids

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Male-to-female (MtF) and female-to-male (FtM) individuals with transsexualism (International Classification of Diseases-10) may differ in core clinical and sociodemographic variables such as age, sexual orientation, marriage and parenthood, school, educational level, and employment. Assessing and understanding the implication of such differences may be a key to developing appropriate and effective treatment and intervention strategies for this group. However, research in the area remains sparse and is often on small populations, making the generalization of results from current studies on individuals diagnosed with transsexualism difficult. Aims (i) To describe and assess key sociodemographic and treatment-related differences between MtF and FtM individuals in a Danish population of individuals diagnosed with transsexualism; (ii) to assess possible implications of such difference, if any, for clinical treatment initiatives for individuals diagnosed with transsexualism. Methods Follow-up of 108 individuals who had permission to undergo sex reassignment surgery (SRS, meaning castration and genital plastic surgery) over a 30-year period from 1978 to 2008 through the Gender Identity Unit in Copenhagen, Denmark. The individuals were identified through Social Security numbers. Clinical and sociodemographic data from medical records were collected. Results The sex ratio was 1.16:1 (MtF : FtM). Mean age at first referral was 26.9 (standard deviation [SD] 8.8) years for FtM and 30.2 (SD 9.7) for MtF individuals. Compared with MtF, FtM had a significantly lower onset age (before 12 years of age) and lower age when permission for SRS was granted. Further, FtM individuals were significantly more often gynephilic (sexually attracted to females) during research period and less likely to start self-initiated hormonal sex reassignment (SR) (treatment with cross-sex hormones). The MtF and FtM groups did not differ in years of school, educational level, employment

  4. Building Design & Construction - Sustainability

    SciTech Connect

    2003-11-01

    Offers a brief history of green building; presents the results of a specially commissioned survey; and analyzes the chief trends, issues, and published research, based on interviews with dozens of experts and participants in green building.

  5. Building Materials Property Table

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-16

    This information sheet describes a table of some of the key technical properties of many of the most common building materials taken from ASHRAE Fundamentals - 2001, Moisture Control in Buildings, CMHC, NRC/IRC, IEA Annex 24, and manufacturer data.

  6. Buildings interoperability landscape - Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Hardin, Dave B.; Stephan, Eric G.; Wang, Weimin; Corbin, Charles D.; Widergren, Steven E.

    2015-02-01

    Buildings are an integral part of our nation’s energy economy. The advancement in information and communications technology (ICT) has revolutionized energy management in industrial facilities and large commercial buildings. As ICT costs decrease and capabilities increase, buildings automation and energy management features are transforming the small-medium commercial and residential buildings sectors. A vision of a connected world in which equipment and systems within buildings coordinate with each other to efficiently meet their owners’ and occupants’ needs, and where buildings regularly transact business with other buildings and service providers (such as gas and electric service providers) is emerging. However, while the technology to support this collaboration has been demonstrated at various degrees of maturity, the integration frameworks and ecosystems of products that support the ability to easily install, maintain, and evolve building systems and their equipment components are struggling to nurture the fledging business propositions of their proponents.

  7. Building Blueprints: Making Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Depicts how Cornell University renovated its civil engineering and architecture building to include space for musical performances, teaching, and rehearsals. The article highlights the facility's contemporary design, which also compliments the form and massing of the original building. (GR)

  8. Better Buildings Challenge Overview

    SciTech Connect

    2011-06-01

    The Better Buildings Challenge is a national leadership initiative calling on corporate chief executive officers, university presidents, and state and local leaders to make a significant commitment to building energy efficiency.

  9. 16. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING FRONT LOBBY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - FRONT LOBBY VIEW. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  10. 17. SITE BUILDING 002 SCANNER BUILDING COMMANDER'S OFFICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. SITE BUILDING 002 - SCANNER BUILDING - COMMANDER'S OFFICE VIEW. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA