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Sample records for danish pig slaughter

  1. Serum-haptoglobin concentration in Danish slaughter pigs of different health status.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Henrik Hagbard; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer; Jensen, Charlotte Sonne; Nielsen, Jens Peter

    2002-08-30

    A cross-sectional study was conducted with 617 finishing pigs aged 10-25 weeks in 11 commercial herds of different health statuses as defined by the Danish monitoring program for specific-pathogen-free (SPF) herds. A standard clinical examination was performed and a blood sample was obtained from each pig for determination of haptoglobin concentration in serum. Pigs aged 10-14, 15-19 and 20-25 weeks in conventional herds had higher haptoglobin concentrations than high-health SPF (SPF-x) pigs of the same age. There was no significant difference between SPF-x pigs of different ages. Conventional pigs aged 15-19 and 20-25 weeks had higher haptoglobin concentrations than conventional pigs aged 10-14 weeks. Herd influenced the haptoglobin concentration. Lame pigs and pigs with tail or ear bite had elevated haptoglobin concentrations. No significant effect of respiratory symptoms or umbilical hernia was found. PMID:12163249

  2. Endocarditis-associated brain lesions in slaughter pigs.

    PubMed

    Karstrup, C C; Jensen, H E; Aalbæk, B; Leifsson, P S; Boye, M; Agerholm, J S

    2011-05-01

    Left-sided valvular endocarditis (LSVE) is a common finding in slaughter pigs. The lesion is often associated with renal thromboembolism, but information on embolization to other organs is sparse. This study focuses on the presence and type of endocarditis-associated brain lesions (EABLs). The brains of 20 slaughter pigs with spontaneously arising LSVE and 11 controls were examined by sectioning half of a formalin-fixed brain into 4mm slices for histological examination. The aetiology of the endocarditis was determined by bacteriological and, in some cases, by fluorescence in-situ hybridization examinations. These examinations identified 11 cases of Streptococcus suis, six cases of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, one Streptococcus spp. and two cases that remained aetiologically undetermined. One of the S. suis cases had a dual infection with S. suis in the aortic valve lesions and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis in the atrioventricular valve lesions. Renal infarcts were present in eight cases. Focal encephalitis was found in 12 cases, with the number of lesions ranging from one to 11. Most pigs had less than four microscopical lesions. Acute lesions were characterized by focal microabscesses without observable bacteria. Chronic lesions were characterized by astrocytosis and focal accumulation of mononuclear leucocytes. An infarct was observed in one animal. Perivascular inflammation was seen in 14 cases, mostly as two or three lesions, while focal leptomeningitis was found in eight cases. EABLs are therefore common in slaughter pigs with LSVE. The number of lesions per animal is small, which may explain the limited attention paid to this sequela of LSVE. EABLs have rarely been reported in domestic animals and mostly in patients with neurological signs. The frequent occurrence of EABLs in slaughter pigs suggests that this pathology should be investigated in other animal species with LSVE. PMID:21168147

  3. Characterization of hemorrhages in the tenderloins of slaughter pigs.

    PubMed

    Dich-Jørgensen, Kristine; McEvoy, Fintan J; Larsen, Helle Daugaard; Leifsson, Páll S; Jensen, Henrik Elvang

    2016-11-01

    Muscle hemorrhages are regularly observed in especially the tip of the tenderloin muscles of slaughter pigs. In order to characterize the hemorrhages, a macro- and microscopic examination of tenderloins with (n=5) and without (n=4) hemorrhages and the associated vertebral column was carried out. Furthermore, all columns were radiographed and two were CT scanned. Histologically, the muscle hemorrhages contained cells from bone marrow and growth line cartilage. Ventral epiphysiolysis in either the cranial or caudal epiphysis of the first lumbar vertebrae (L1) in 8 out of the 9 vertebral columns was present. In the 5 cases with tenderloin hemorrhage, similar hemorrhage with growth line cartilage was found within the fracture of the epiphysis. The hemorrhages develop secondarily to epiphysiolysis in the lumbar vertebrae, where the tenderloin attaches to the spine. The lesions probably develop around the time of stunning. PMID:27372280

  4. Welfare of entire male pigs is improved by socialising piglets and keeping intact groups until slaughter.

    PubMed

    Rydhmer, L; Hansson, M; Lundström, K; Brunius, C; Andersson, K

    2013-09-01

    In today's production systems, pigs raised for slaughter are mixed many times, resulting in stress and fighting. The negative consequences of mixing are probably more severe with entire males than with castrates, as they fight more. In this project, we studied a system without castration where entire male pigs met unfamiliar pigs only once. Piglets from two litters were allowed to visit each other from circa 2 weeks of age through an opening between the farrowing pens. Entire males from these litters were kept in intact groups from weaning and onwards, and they were slaughtered pen-wise in intact groups. Control pigs were raised and weaned in their litters and mixed with unknown pigs when moved to the growing-finishing unit. They were slaughtered by split marketing based on individual weight. In total, 96 entire males from 24 litters were studied. Activity and social interactions of pigs were studied by direct observations on three observation occasions per pen for pigs kept in intact groups and four occasions for control pigs. All pigs were inspected for skin lesions during raising and at slaughter. Results showed that fewer pigs in intact groups were resting (17.1% v. 28.5%; P = 0.044) and they showed less aggressive behaviour (16.1 v. 27.7 number of interactions per hour; P = 0.001) than control pigs when moved to the growing-finishing unit. They also got fewer skin lesions compared with control pigs (15 v. 35; P < 0.001). Consequently, control pigs tended to grow slower during the 1st week after mixing; however, growth rate during the whole growing-finishing phase did not differ between treatments (P = 0.205). Control pigs directed more aggressive behaviour towards non-litter mates than towards litter mates during the whole growing-finishing phase, whereas pigs from the other treatment made no difference between litter mates and other familiar pigs. At 67 kg, there was more sexual behaviour (mounting) among control pigs (7.6 v. 3.4; P = 0.033), but after

  5. Relationship between tail lesions and lung health in slaughter pigs.

    PubMed

    van Staaveren, Nienke; Vale, Ana P; Manzanilla, Edgar G; Teixeira, Dayane L; Leonard, Finola C; Hanlon, Alison; Boyle, Laura A

    2016-05-01

    Tail lesions are associated with poor health either because they serve as a point of entry for pathogens or because of shared risk factors. This study investigated the relationship between carcass tail lesion and lung lesion severity scores in slaughter pigs. Carcasses were scored after scalding/dehairing for tail lesion severity (0-4). Lungs were scored according to an adapted version of the BPEX pig health scheme. Severity of enzootic pneumonia (EP-like lesions) was recorded on a scale of 0-50. Severity of pleurisy was scored on a 0-2 scale with score 2 equating to severe pleurisy or those lungs that remained attached to the chest wall ('lungs in chest'). The database for assessing pleurisy lesions contained all pleurisy scores (n=5628). Lungs with a score of 2 for pleurisy were excluded from the analysis of all other lung lesions as such lungs could not be assessed for other lesions (n=4491). Associations between tail lesions and different lung lesion outcomes were analysed using generalized linear mixed models (PROC GLIMMIX) with random effect for batch. Males were more affected by moderate (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.51-2.34) and severe (OR=5.8, 95% CI 3.45-9.70) tail lesions than females. EP-like lesions and pleurisy were most commonly observed. Pigs with severe tail lesions tended to have more 'lungs in chest' than pigs with moderate tail lesions (P=0.1). No other associations between tail lesions and lung lesions were found. Males had higher odds of having EP-like lesions (OR=1.2, 95% CI 1.05-1.36) than females. Tail lesions on the carcass may not be an accurate predictor of lung health. However, tail lesions are important welfare indicators and respiratory disease is a significant infectious condition affecting pigs. Thus, recording of tail and lung lesions at meat inspection provides valuable information regarding on-farm health and welfare of pigs. PMID:27094136

  6. Bovine renal lipofuscinosis: Prevalence, genetics and impact on milk production and weight at slaughter in Danish cattle

    PubMed Central

    Agerholm, Jørgen S; Christensen, Knud; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Flagstad, Pia

    2009-01-01

    Background Bovine renal lipofuscinosis (BRL) is an incidental finding in cattle at slaughter. Condemnation of the kidneys as unfit for human consumption was until recently considered the only implication of BRL. Recent studies have indicated a negative influence on the health of affected animals. The present study investigated the prevalence, genetics and effect of BRL on milk yield and weight at slaughter. Methods BRL status of slaughter cattle was recorded at four abattoirs during a 2-year-period. Data regarding breed, age, genetic descent, milk yield and weight at slaughter were extracted from the Danish Cattle Database. The prevalence of BRL was estimated stratified by breed and age-group. Furthermore, total milk yield, milk yield in last full lactation and weight at slaughter were compared for BRL-affected and non-affected Danish Holsteins and Danish Red cattle. Results 433,759 bovines were slaughtered and 787 of these had BRL. BRL was mainly diagnosed in Danish Red, Danish Holstein and crossbreds. The age of BRL affected animals varied from 11 months to 13 years, but BRL was rarely diagnosed in cattle less than 2 years of age. The total lifelong energy corrected milk (ECM) yields were 3,136 and 4,083 kg higher for BRL affected Danish Red and Danish Holsteins, respectively. However, the median life span of affected animals was 4.9 months longer, and age-corrected total milk yield was 1,284 kg lower for BRL affected Danish Red cows. These cows produced 318 kg ECM less in their last full lactation. Weight at slaughter was not affected by BRL status. The cases occurred in patterns consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance and several family clusters of BRL were found. Analysis of segregation ratios demonstrated the expected ratio for Danish Red cattle, but not for Danish Holsteins. Conclusion The study confirmed that BRL is a common finding in Danish Holsteins and Danish Red cattle at slaughter. The disorder is associated with increased total milk yield due

  7. Investigation Into the Humaneness of Slaughter Methods for Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcelus) in the Andean Region.

    PubMed

    Limon, Georgina; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy A; Gibson, Troy J

    2016-01-01

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcelus) are an important source of nonhuman animal protein in the Andean region of South America. Specific guidelines regarding the welfare of guinea pigs before and during slaughter have yet to be developed. This study critically assessed the humaneness of 4 different stunning/slaughter methods for guinea pigs: cervical neck dislocation (n = 60), electrical head-only stunning (n = 83), carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning (n = 21), and penetrating captive bolt (n = 10). Following cervical neck dislocation, 97% of guinea pigs had at least 1 behavioral or cranial/spinal response. Six percent of guinea pigs were classified as mis-stunned after electrical stunning, and 1% were classified as mis-stunned after captive bolt. Increased respiratory effort was observed during CO2 stunning. Apart from this finding, there were no other obvious behavioral responses that could be associated with suffering. Of the methods assessed, captive bolt was deemed the most humane, effective, and practical method of stunning guinea pigs. Cervical neck dislocation should not be recommended as a slaughter method for guinea pigs. PMID:26963642

  8. Investigation Into the Humaneness of Slaughter Methods for Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcelus) in the Andean Region

    PubMed Central

    Limon, Georgina; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy A.; Gibson, Troy J.

    2016-01-01

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcelus) are an important source of nonhuman animal protein in the Andean region of South America. Specific guidelines regarding the welfare of guinea pigs before and during slaughter have yet to be developed. This study critically assessed the humaneness of 4 different stunning/slaughter methods for guinea pigs: cervical neck dislocation (n = 60), electrical head-only stunning (n = 83), carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning (n = 21), and penetrating captive bolt (n = 10). Following cervical neck dislocation, 97% of guinea pigs had at least 1 behavioral or cranial/spinal response. Six percent of guinea pigs were classified as mis-stunned after electrical stunning, and 1% were classified as mis-stunned after captive bolt. Increased respiratory effort was observed during CO2 stunning. Apart from this finding, there were no other obvious behavioral responses that could be associated with suffering. Of the methods assessed, captive bolt was deemed the most humane, effective, and practical method of stunning guinea pigs. Cervical neck dislocation should not be recommended as a slaughter method for guinea pigs. PMID:26963642

  9. [Prevalence of gastric lesions in the pars proventricularis in finishing pigs at slaughter in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    van den Berg, A; Brülisauer, F; Regula, G

    2005-07-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted at two large abattoirs in the winter 2003/04 to determine the prevalence of gastric lesions in Swiss finishing pigs. The stomachs of 1897 pigs from 107 slaughter groups were examined for macroscopic epithelial lesion of the pars proventricularis. Severe hyperceratosis, erosion, ulceration and constriction at the transition between oesophagus and stomach were described as gastric lesions. Lesions were observed in 36% of all animals, with slaughter group prevalence ranging from 0% to 94%. Ulceration or constriction was present in four percent of the examined pigs. Associations between gastric lesions, farm management data, and data obtained at ante and post mortem examinations conducted at the slaughterhouse were analysed. A significantly higher prevalence of gastric lesions was found in pigs originating from conventional housing systems compared to pigs raised on farms with 'animal-friendly' housing systems providing straw bedding and outdoor exercise to pigs. In addition, significantly higher prevalence was observed in pigs originating from herds with clinical signs of tail biting and peritarsitis. PMID:16041976

  10. Choosing appropriate space allowances for slaughter pigs transported by road: a review.

    PubMed

    Warriss, P D

    1998-04-25

    In the United Kingdom pigs can spend up to 11 hours in transit to slaughter but on average travel for two to three hours. In the past, international journeys have lasted up to 40 hours and have been over 900 miles long. There is evidence that pigs, like calves and sheep, but unlike adult cattle, prefer to lie down if provided with suitable conditions, particularly bedding, on the vehicle. They will, however, sometimes stand during short journeys, possibly when excessive vibration or uncomfortable flooring, particularly a lack of sufficient bedding, cause discomfort. Current UK legislation and EU Directive 95/29/EC specify that, in general, pigs must have sufficient space to lie down during transit. Measurements of the space needed for sternal recumbency, and direct observations of pigs at different stocking densities, suggest that the minimum space required is equivalent to about 250 kg/m2 for normal slaughter pigs of 90 to 100 kg liveweight. This figure may not be appropriate for very small or very large pigs. In the UK at present, more than half of all slaughter pigs are transported at densities greater than that prescribed (235 kg/m2) in the EU Directive. At stocking densities above about 250 kg/m2 there may not be enough room available for all the pigs to lie down, leading to continual disturbance of recumbent animals by those seeking a place to rest. A stocking density of 322 kg/m2 leads to clear evidence of physical stress. During long journeys (> or = 25 hours) meat quality is reduced by high stocking densities, implying muscle glycogen depletion and possibly fatigue. Higher stocking densities are also associated with higher mortality. There is evidence of wide variations in air temperature inside transporters, particularly for international journeys. Although there are small variations within vehicles, the temperature of the air inside is closely related to the outside temperature. It has been recommended that the temperature within the vehicle should not

  11. Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughter pigs in Serbia: seroprevalence and demonstration of parasites in blood.

    PubMed

    Klun, Ivana; Vujanić, Marija; Yera, Hélène; Nikolić, Aleksandra; Ivović, Vladimir; Bobić, Branko; Bradonjić, Siniša; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2011-01-01

    A seroepizootiological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection involving a total of 488 slaughter pigs (468 market-weight pigs and 20 sows) in the Belgrade area, also included examination of the presence of T. gondii in the blood. Blood sampled at the slaughter line was examined for specific antibodies by modified direct agglutination, and blood clots of those seropositive at titres of 1:50-1:12800 were bioassayed in mice. The overall seroprevalence was 9.2%, significantly higher (p = 0.0063) in sows (30.0%) than in market-weight pigs (8.3%). Amongst the 22 bioassays performed, a total of 16 (72.7%) were positive, by observation of T. gondii cysts (12), seropositivity (7, including 3 in which cysts were not detected), and/or detection of T. gondii DNA by real-time PCR (12, including one otherwise negative). The positive bioassays originated from the blood of 12 market-weight pigs and 4 sows. Despite a general increase in the rate of demonstration of T. gondii with the increase in the specific antibody level, the association was not significant (p = 0.101). The risk of infection was 41-fold increased in sows vs market-weight pigs, and 15-fold in pigs from smallholders' finishing type farms vs those from large farrow-to-finish farms. The presence of viable T. gondii in a proportion of the samples indicates that some of the pigs had an active parasitaemia at the time of slaughter, which, along with the seroprevalence established, points to a potential source of human infection in Serbia. This is the first report on parasitaemia in naturally infected swine. PMID:21314900

  12. Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughter pigs in Serbia: seroprevalence and demonstration of parasites in blood

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A seroepizootiological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection involving a total of 488 slaughter pigs (468 market-weight pigs and 20 sows) in the Belgrade area, also included examination of the presence of T. gondii in the blood. Blood sampled at the slaughter line was examined for specific antibodies by modified direct agglutination, and blood clots of those seropositive at titres of 1:50-1:12800 were bioassayed in mice. The overall seroprevalence was 9.2%, significantly higher (p = 0.0063) in sows (30.0%) than in market-weight pigs (8.3%). Amongst the 22 bioassays performed, a total of 16 (72.7%) were positive, by observation of T. gondii cysts (12), seropositivity (7, including 3 in which cysts were not detected), and/or detection of T. gondii DNA by real-time PCR (12, including one otherwise negative). The positive bioassays originated from the blood of 12 market-weight pigs and 4 sows. Despite a general increase in the rate of demonstration of T. gondii with the increase in the specific antibody level, the association was not significant (p = 0.101). The risk of infection was 41-fold increased in sows vs market-weight pigs, and 15-fold in pigs from smallholders' finishing type farms vs those from large farrow-to-finish farms. The presence of viable T. gondii in a proportion of the samples indicates that some of the pigs had an active parasitaemia at the time of slaughter, which, along with the seroprevalence established, points to a potential source of human infection in Serbia. This is the first report on parasitaemia in naturally infected swine. PMID:21314900

  13. Prevalence of Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in Finnish Slaughter Pigs.

    PubMed

    Rahikainen Ibañez, T; Laukkanen-Ninios, R; Hakkinen, M; Johansson, T; Vilar, M; Korkeala, H

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica was determined in tonsil and intestinal content samples from 388 healthy fattening pigs at the four biggest Finnish slaughterhouses. These slaughterhouses process 73% of pigs in Finland. Tonsil samples were tested by PCR targeted for yadA, and intestinal samples were cultured. All pathogenic Y. enterocolitica isolates represented bioserotype 4/O:3. The prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in tonsil samples was 60% (95% confidence limit, 55.4 to 65.1%), and its prevalence in intestinal samples was 26% (95% confidence limit, 22.1 to 31.2%). The prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in tonsil and intestinal samples varied between the four slaughterhouses. The tonsil prevalence of Y. enterocolitica was higher in slaughterhouse B, and the prevalence in intestinal content was higher in slaughterhouse C. There were more positive results in both tonsil and intestinal samples in pigs coming from fattening farms than in pigs coming from farrowing-andfattening farms. A seasonal variation was observed in the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in intestinal samples, with the highest prevalence during July and August, but no seasonal variation was detected in tonsil samples. PMID:27052875

  14. Staphylococcus aureus ST398 from slaughter pigs in northeast China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaomei; Yu, Xiaojie; Tao, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Binghua; Dong, Rui; Xue, Chengyu; Grundmann, Hajo; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2014-05-01

    To describe the prevalence and population structure of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria that colonize pigs at slaughterhouses in northeastern China, nose swabs were collected from pigs in two slaughterhouses in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China in 2009. S. aureus isolates were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, SCCmec typing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and pvl gene detection. A total of 200 S. aureus isolates were collected from 590 pigs (33.9%, 200/590), of which 162 (81%, 162/200) were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and 38 (19%, 38/200) were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Ninety-nine of the MSSA isolates (99/162, 61.1%) were ST398, which represented the dominant sequence type overall. Eighty-seven isolates were ST9 (87/200, 43.5%), and all MRSA belonged to that sequence type which consisted of the spa types t899 and t2922. Among the MSSA strains, t034, t899 and t4358 were the most dominant spa types (139/162, 85.8%). All MRSA isolates harbored SCCmec type IVb. The pvl gene was only detected in 3 ST7/t2119 MSSA isolates. All MRSA but more importantly also 82.7% (134/162) of the MSSA isolates were resistant to six or more antibiotics. Moreover, a novel resistance determinant-lsa(E) was identified among 22% (44/200) of all isolates. In conclusion, pigs in northeast China are frequently colonized with ST398 MSSA. MRSA with this sequence type, typically associated with pigs in Europe, was not found. High levels of multiple antibiotic resistance among MRSA isolates as well as MSSA isolates are a public health concern. PMID:24418357

  15. [CO2-stunning of slaughter pigs: effects on EEG, catecholamines and clinical reflexes].

    PubMed

    Hartung, J; Nowak, B; Waldmann, K H; Ellerbrock, S

    2002-03-01

    Investigations were carried out on the response of slaughter pigs to CO2 stunning with two different gas concentrations (80 vol%, 90 vol%, 73 s) under practical conditions in a one gondola-dip-lift system. EEG measurements were performed and blood constituents such as catecholamines (adrenaline, nor-adrenaline) and lactate as well as clinical reactions (nasal septum and corneal reflex, heart beats) investigated. Special EEG-electrodes were adapted for the measurement on pigs and a mobile data logger was prepared for the use in the lairage of the slaughter house and in the stunning unit. The CO2 concentrations were measured continuously close to the head of the pigs when transported up and down in the stunning gondola. The results show that the technique is suited to monitor the effects of different CO2 gas concentrations on the EEG of the pigs under practical conditions. There is strong evidence that CO2 concentrations of 80 vol% applied over 70 s as required by law are not sufficient to stun pigs properly. A large part of the animals still showed typical reflexes when leaving the stunning pit. When an atmosphere of 90 vol% CO2 is applied, most animals are already dead before bleeding commences. This may create problems in respect to meat hygiene. The blood analysis revealed very high concentrations of catecholamines after stunning. The values for adrenaline and nor-adrenaline in the sticking blood rose by a factor of about 1000 as compared to the concentrations in blood samples taken in the lairage before stunning. It seems necessary to revise the current legislation on gas stunning and to look in greater detail in the effects of CO2 stunning on the welfare of slaughter pigs. PMID:11963365

  16. Seroprevalence of zoonotic parasites in pigs slaughtered in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Pruvot, Mathieu; Joshi, Durga Datt; De Craeye, Stéphane; Jennes, Malgorzata; Ale, Anita; Welinski, Alma; Lama, Sanjyoti; Aryal, Arjun; Victor, Bjorn; Duchateau, Luc; Speybroeck, Niko; Vercruysse, Jozef; Dorny, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    For several years, the demand for pork has been on the rise in Nepal. To assess the importance of pork as a carrier of zoonotic agents, we performed a cross-sectional study in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal, in which we serologically determined the infection status of slaughtered pigs with regard to three of the most important parasites transmitted through pork consumption: Trichinella spp., Taenia solium cysticerci, and Toxoplasma gondii. From 2007 to 2010, 742 pigs were sampled at slaughter, of which 0.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.0-0.7%) were found positive for Trichinella infection, 13.8% (95% credibility interval [CrI] 0.8-28.5%) for T. solium cysticercosis, and 11.7% (95% CI 5.2-17.5%) for Toxoplasma infection. Further monitoring of the related animal and human disease burden and strengthening of food safety protocols throughout the pork production chain are strongly recommended. PMID:24107212

  17. Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis in slaughtered pigs, goats, and sheep in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Kabululu, Mwemezi; Nørmark, Michelle Elisabeth; Nejsum, Peter; Ngowi, Helena Aminel; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have been carried out in Africa to estimate the prevalence of Taenia hydatigena. With the aim to determine the prevalence of T. hydatigena in slaughtered pigs and small ruminants (goats and sheep) in Mbeya, Tanzania, two cross-sectional surveys were carried out investigating pigs in April to May 2014 and small ruminants in September 2012. In total, 243 pigs were examined post-mortem for T. hydatigena cysts which were found in 16 (6.6 %) pigs. The majority (80 %) of cysts were found on the omentum and the rest on the liver (20 %), all on the visceral surface. Two pigs were also found infected with Taenia solium but showed no signs of other infections. A total of 392 goats and 27 sheep were examined post-mortem, and the prevalence of T. hydatigena was similar in goats and sheep with 45.7 and 51.9 %, respectively. DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) from a subsample of metacestodes from goats and sheep confirmed the T. hydatigena infection. The prevalence found in small ruminants was comparable to other studies conducted in Africa, but for pigs, it is one of the highest recorded to date. The present study also confirms the occurrence of T. hydatigena and T. solium in pigs from Mbeya. Further studies are needed to determine the impact of T. hydatigena on production under sub-Saharan conditions and the financial consequences for smallholder farmers. PMID:26210397

  18. Prevalence of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in landrace and mixed breed pigs slaughtered in Baja California Sur state, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose We performed a cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 308 domestic pigs slaughtered in La Paz, Baja California Sur State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25). Results Forty (13%) of the 308 pigs were seropositive ...

  19. The Metabolically Active Bacterial Microbiome of Tonsils and Mandibular Lymph Nodes of Slaughter Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Evelyne; Pinior, Beate; Wetzels, Stefanie U.; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The exploration of microbiomes in lymphatic organs is relevant for basic and applied research into explaining microbial translocation processes and understanding cross-contamination during slaughter. This study aimed to investigate whether metabolically active bacteria (MAB) could be detected within tonsils and mandibular lymph nodes (MLNs) of pigs. The hypervariable V1-V2 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes was amplified from cDNA from tonsils and MLNs of eight clinically healthy slaughter pigs. Pyrosequencing yielded 82,857 quality-controlled sequences, clustering into 576 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), which were assigned to 230 genera and 16 phyla. The actual number of detected OTUs per sample varied highly (23–171 OTUs). Prevotella zoogleoformans and Serratia proteamaculans (best type strain hits) were most abundant (10.6 and 41.8%, respectively) in tonsils and MLNs, respectively. To explore bacterial correlation patterns between samples of each tissue, pairwise Spearman correlations (rs) were calculated. In total, 194 strong positive and negative correlations |rs| ≥ 0.6 were found. We conclude that (i) lymphatic organs harbor a high diversity of MAB, (ii) the occurrence of viable bacteria in lymph nodes is not restricted to pathological processes and (iii) lymphatic tissues may serve as a contamination source in pig slaughterhouses. This study confirms the necessity of the EFSA regulation with regard to a meat inspection based on visual examinations to foster a minimization of microbial contamination. PMID:26696976

  20. Supra-nutritional vitamin E supplementation for 28 days before slaughter maximises muscle vitamin E concentration in finisher pigs.

    PubMed

    Kim, J C; Jose, C G; Trezona, M; Moore, K L; Pluske, J R; Mullan, B P

    2015-12-01

    A 4 × 3 factorial experiment (n=8 pigs per treatment combination) was conducted with 96 female Landrace × Large White pigs to examine the required level of dietary vitamin E and optimum feeding duration before slaughter to maximise muscle vitamin E content in the Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle. The respective factors were four dietary levels of vitamin E (supplemented as dl-α-tocopheryl acetate; 35, 300, 500, and 700 IU/kg) and three feeding durations (14, 28 and 42 days before slaughter). Vitamin E concentration in the LTL was maximised at 6 mg/kg, which was achieved by feeding a 700 IU vitamin E diet for 28 days before slaughter (P<0.001). There was no further increase in the vitamin E content of the LTL by feeding the high vitamin E diet more than 28 days before slaughter. PMID:26313847

  1. Prevalence and genetic diversity of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. in pigs at farms and slaughter in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Novoslavskij, Aleksandr; Šernienė, Loreta; Malakauskas, Alvydas; Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Korkeala, Hannu; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2013-04-01

    The prevalence of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. in pigs at farms and slaughter in relation to potential farming risk factors in Lithuania was examined. Pig faeces and carcase swab samples from 11 farms were studied at slaughterhouses. Nine of the 11 farms were visited again 3-5 months later, and pooled feacal samples and environmental samples were collected. Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica was found in 64% and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in 45% of the sampled pig farms. All obtained isolates belonged to bioserotypes 4/O:3 and 2/O:3, respectively. Low biosecurity level was associated with a high prevalence of Y. enterocolitica on farms. Characterization with PFGE of 64 Y. enterocolitica and 27 Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates revealed seven and two different genotypes, respectively. Dominant enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. genotypes were obtained in both pig feacal and carcase samples. The high contamination of pig carcases (25%) with enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. may be an important factor contributing to the high incidence of human yersiniosis in Lithuania. PMID:23102547

  2. Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Pigs at the Time of Slaughter, United Kingdom, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Grierson, Sylvia; Heaney, Judith; Cheney, Tanya; Morgan, Dilys; Wyllie, Stephen; Powell, Laura; Smith, Donald; Ijaz, Samreen; Steinbach, Falko; Choudhury, Bhudipa

    2015-01-01

    Since 2010, reports of infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) have increased in England and Wales. Despite mounting evidence regarding the zoonotic potential of porcine HEV, there are limited data on its prevalence in pigs in the United Kingdom. We investigated antibody prevalence, active infection, and virus variation in serum and cecal content samples from 629 pigs at slaughter. Prevalence of antibodies to HEV was 92.8% (584/629), and HEV RNA was detected in 15% of cecal contents (93/629), 3% of plasma samples (22/629), and 2% of both (14/629). However, although HEV is prevalent in pigs in the United Kingdom and viremic pigs are entering the food chain, most (22/23) viral sequences clustered separately from the dominant type seen in humans. Thus, pigs raised in the United Kingdom are unlikely to be the main source of human HEV infections in the United Kingdom. Further research is needed to identify the source of these infections. PMID:26196216

  3. Effects of pre-slaughter stressor and feeding preventative Chinese medicinal herbs on glycolysis and oxidative stability in pigs.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiumei; Yan, Xue; Xie, Linqi; Hu, Xiaodong; Lin, Xi; Wu, Changzheng; Zhou, Ningcong; Wang, Anru; See, Miles Todd

    2016-08-01

    A total of 64 5-month-old Pietrain pigs were randomly allocated to four treatments with four replicates per treatment according to body weight. The pigs were fed either a standard corn-soybean meal based control diet (treatments 1 and 2), the standard diet with 1% Lycium barbarum (LB) (treatment 3), or the standard diet with 1% Polygala tenuifolia Willd (PT) (treatment 4). Serum lactic acid and glucose concentrations were increased in stressed pigs (P < 0.05). Addition of the herbs in the diet had no effect on the serum lactic acid concentration, but 1% LB decreased (P < 0.05) serum glucose concentration in the stressed pigs. Pre-slaughter stress also decreased (P < 0.01) liver glycogen concentration and the decrease could be inhibited by addition of 1% LB in the diet (P > 0.05). Pre-slaughter stress increased the concentration of maleic dialdehyde (MDA) (P < 0.05) and decreased glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in serum, while dietary 1% LB increased (P < 0.05) the activity of GSH-Px and decreased the concentration of MDA in the serum. In conclusion, pre-slaughter stress induces oxidative stress in pigs and dietary supplementation with 1% LB improves antioxidant capacity in stressed pigs before slaughtering. PMID:26497952

  4. Factors Associated with Pleurisy in Pigs: A Case-Control Analysis of Slaughter Pig Data for England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Henrike C.; McKinley, Trevelyan J.; Wood, James L. N.; Pearce, Gareth P.; Williamson, Susanna; Strugnell, Benjamin; Done, Stanley; Habernoll, Henrike; Palzer, Andreas; Tucker, Alexander W.

    2012-01-01

    A case-control investigation was undertaken to determine management and health related factors associated with pleurisy in slaughter pigs in England and Wales. Methods The British Pig Executive Pig Health Scheme database of abattoir pathology was used to identify 121 case (>10% prevalence of pleurisy on 3 or more assessment dates in the preceding 24 months) and 121 control units (≤5% prevalence of pleurisy on 3 or more assessment dates in the preceding 24 months). Farm data were collected by postal questionnaire. Data from respondents (70 cases and 51 controls) were analysed using simple logistic regression models with Bonferroni corrections. Limited multivariate analyses were also performed to check the robustness of the overall conclusions. Results and Conclusions Management factors associated with increased odds of pleurisy included no all-in all-out pig flow (OR 9.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.3–29), rearing of pigs with an age difference of >1 month in the same airspace (OR 6.5 [2.8–17]) and repeated mixing (OR 2.2 [1.4–3.8]) or moving (OR 2.2 [1.5–3.4]) of pigs during the rearing phase. Those associated with decreased odds of pleurisy included filling wean-to-finish or grower-to-finish systems with piglets from ≤3 sources (OR 0.18 [0.07–0.41]) compared to farrow-to-finish systems, cleaning and disinfecting of grower (ORs 0.28 [0.13–0.61] and 0.29 [0.13–0.61]) and finisher (ORs 0.24 [0.11–0.51] and 0.2 [0.09–0.44]) accommodation between groups, and extended down time of grower and finisher accommodation (OR 0.84 [0.75–0.93] and 0.86 [0.77–0.94] respectively for each additional day of downtime). This study demonstrated the value of national-level abattoir pathology data collection systems for case control analyses and generated guidance for on-farm interventions to help reduce the prevalence of pleurisy in slaughter pigs. PMID:22363407

  5. Relationships between tail biting in pigs and disease lesions and condemnations at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Kritas, S K; Morrison, R B

    2007-02-01

    Two matched case-control studies were performed at an abattoir with a capacity of 780 pigs per hour, each study using the approximately 7000 pigs slaughtered on one day. In the first study, the severity of tail biting and pneumonia were recorded in pigs with bitten or intact tails. In the second study, the tail score, sex, and the presence of pleuritis, externally visible abscesses and trimming were recorded in pigs with bitten or intact tails. In study 1, there was no significant association between the tail score and the percentage of lung tissue affected by lesions typical of enzootic pneumonia, but there was a significant association between the severity of tail biting and the prevalence of lungs with abscesses and/or pleuritic lesions (P<0.0001). In study 2, there were significant associations between the severity of tail biting, and the prevalence of external carcase abscesses and carcase trimming; the carcases of castrated males had evidence of tail biting more frequently than the carcases of females (P<0.05). PMID:17277296

  6. Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in slaughtered pigs from Northeast, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; de Melo, Lídio Ricardo Bezerra; de Almeida Neto, João Leite; Souto, Diego Vagner de Oliveira; de Morais, Dayana Firmino; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Pena, Hilda Fátima de Jesus

    2014-05-28

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the presence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Neospora caninum antibodies, to identify associated risk factors and to isolate T. gondii from slaughtered pigs in Paraíba State, Brazil. A total of 190 pigs from public slaughterhouses were used in the study. An indirect immunofluorescence test was used to detect antibodies, and the isolation of T. gondii was performed with a bioassay in mice based on tissues from seropositive animals. A total of 50 g of brain, heart and tongue tissue from 37 positive pigs with titres ≥ 1:64 was ground, digested with acidic pepsin and inoculated into mice. The prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was 19.5% (95% CI: 14.1%; 25.8%) (37/190), with titres ranging from 1:64 to 1:2048. Viable T. gondii parasites were isolated from 13 of the 37 (35.1%; 95% CI: 20.2%; 52.5%) seropositive pigs. We found that the virulence of the isolates varied; three of these isolates were able to kill all of the inoculated mice. The risk factors for infection were extensive husbandry and feeding with leftovers. The prevalence of antibodies to N. caninum in pigs was 3.2% (95% CI: 1.2%; 6.7%) (6/190), with titres ranging from 1:100 to 1:3200. None of the variables studied were considered to be risk factors for N. caninum. These results show that the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies in swine is high in Paraíba State, that the percentage of viable T. gondii parasites recovered from these animals is also high and that infection by this parasite is closely related to the management of swine. Despite the low prevalence of N. caninum in pigs, further studies are necessary to determine the importance of this parasite for the species. PMID:24703253

  7. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in slaughtered pigs and abattoir workers in Italy.

    PubMed

    Normanno, Giovanni; Dambrosio, Angela; Lorusso, Vanessa; Samoilis, Georgios; Di Taranto, Pietro; Parisi, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen present in the hospital environment (HA-MRSA), in the community (CA-MRSA) and in livestock, including pigs (LA-MRSA). MRSA may enter the human food chain during slaughtering and may infect humans coming into direct contact with pigs or pork products. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of MRSA isolated from pigs and workers at industrial abattoirs in southern Italy. A total of 215 pig nasal swabs were screened for the presence of MRSA using PCR. An MRSA isolate was detected from each mecA/nuc PCR-positive sample and characterized by spa-typing, Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, SCC-mec and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL), and also tested for the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). Eighty-one MRSA isolates (37.6%) were obtained from the 215 pig nasal swabs; 37 of these isolates were further characterized, and showed 18 different spa-types and 8 different STs. The most frequently recovered STs were ST398 (CC398-t034, t011, t899, t1939 - 43.2%) followed by ST8 (CC8-t008, t064, t2953, t5270 - 24.3%) and ST1 (CC1-t127, t174, t2207 - 10.8%). Nine MRSA isolates were obtained from the 113 human swabs; the isolates showed 5 different spa-types and 5 different STs, including the novel ST2794 (t159). The most representative STs recovered were ST1 (CC1-t127) and ST398 (CC398-t034) (33.3%). None of the MRSA isolates showed the ability to produce SEs and PVL and all resulted resistant to two or more classes of antimicrobials. This study shows the great genetic diversity of MRSA strains in slaughtered pigs and in abattoir employees in Italy, and clearly demonstrates the need for improved hygiene standards to reduce the risk of occupational and food-borne infection linked to the handling/consumption of raw pork containing MRSA. PMID:26187827

  8. Noninfectious factors associated with pneumonia and pleuritis in slaughtered pigs from 143 farrow-to-finish pig farms.

    PubMed

    Fablet, C; Dorenlor, V; Eono, F; Eveno, E; Jolly, J P; Portier, F; Bidan, F; Madec, F; Rose, N

    2012-05-01

    A cross-sectional study involving 143 farrow-to-finish herds was carried out to identify herd-level noninfectious factors associated with pneumonia and pleuritis in slaughter pigs. Data related to herd characteristics, biosecurity, management and housing conditions were collected by questionnaire during a farm visit. Climatic conditions were measured over 20 h in the post-weaning and finishing rooms where the slaughter pigs were kept. After these on-farm investigations, the finishing pigs were examined at slaughter for lung lesions. A sample of 30 randomly selected pigs per herd was scored for pneumonia and pleuritis. Herds were grouped into three categories according to their pneumonia median score (class 1: ≤ 0.5; class 2: 0.53.75). For pleuritis, a herd was deemed affected if at least one pig had a high pleuritis score (≥ 3). A multinomial logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with pneumonia classes 2 and 3. A logistic regression for binary outcome was used to identify risk factors for severe pleuritis. An interval of less than four weeks between successive batches (OR=4.5, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.5-13.6, p<0.01), large finishing room size (OR=4.3, 95% CI: 1.6-11.6, p<0.01) and high mean CO(2) concentration in the finishing room (OR=4.2, 95%CI: 1.6-11.3, p<0.01), significantly increased the odds for a herd to be in class 2 for pneumonia. The same risk factors were found for class 3 and, in addition, a direct fresh air inlet from outside or from the corridor in the post-weaning room vs an appropriate ceiling above the pigs (OR=5.1, 95% CI: 1.4-18.8, p=0.01). The risk for a herd to have at least one pig with a high pleuritis score was increased when the farrowing facilities were not disinsected (OR=2.7, 95% CI: 1.2-5.8, p=0.01), when tail docking was performed later than 1.5 days after birth (OR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.2-5.7, p=0.01) and if the piglets were castrated when more than 14 days old (OR=2

  9. Prevalence of clinical signs of disease in Danish finisher pigs.

    PubMed

    Petersen, H H; Nielsen, E O; Hassing, A-G; Ersbøll, A K; Nielsen, J P

    2008-03-22

    Between December 1999 and February 2001, two visits, eight weeks apart, were made to 90 herds of Danish finisher pigs. The prevalence of clinical signs was recorded by three veterinary technicians from the Danish Bacon and Meat Council according to a standardised procedure; they had been trained and their observations were monitored and validated before and during the study. A total of 154,347 finisher pigs were examined and 22,136 clinical signs were recorded. Vices accounted for 43 per cent of the signs. The highest mean prevalence was observed for ear necrosis (4.44 per cent), followed by respiratory signs (2.17 per cent), lameness (1.92 per cent), other skin diseases (1.73 per cent), tail bites (1.26 per cent), umbilical hernia (0.78 per cent), flank bites (0.52 per cent), diarrhoea (0.27 per cent), respiratory distress (0.12 per cent), atrophic rhinitis (0.10 per cent), recumbency (0.09 per cent) and central nervous disease (0.05 per cent). The prevalence of atrophic rhinitis was higher in conventional herds than in specific pathogen-free herds. The prevalence of clinical signs of atrophic rhinitis was higher among finishers weighing 51 to 75 kg than among finishers weighing up to 50 kg, and the prevalence of respiratory signs was higher among finishers weighing 51 to 75 kg then among finishers weighing 76 to 100 kg. PMID:18359931

  10. Prevalence, distribution and pattern of gastric lesions in slaughtered pigs in south-western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omotosho, Oladipo O; Emikpe, Benjamin O; Lasisi, Olalekan T; Jarikre, Theophilus A

    2016-01-01

    Gastric lesions, especially ulceration, cause significant economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. The study was designed to assess its prevalence, distribution and pattern in pigs in south-western Nigeria. Slaughter house surveys were conducted on three government-established abattoirs in Lagos, Ogun and Oyo states. Stomachs from 480 pigs were assessed for gross lesions, which were graded using a modification of a standard technique. Tissues from different regions of the stomach were routinely stained to assess histopathologic changes. Data were presented as frequency counts and analysed using analysis of variance and chi-square technique. Significance was determined at p ≤ 0.05. Gastric lesions were encountered across the four regions of the stomach with a point prevalence of 57.29%. The prevalence of lesions in the non-glandular region was 32.9%, with severe hyperkeratosis (13.13%) being most frequently observed (p < 0.05). Erosions were significantly higher in the cardia (8.54%) (p < 0.05), followed by fundus (8.33%). Gastric ulcers were significantly higher in the fundus (19.58%) (p < 0.05). Scars of healed ulcers and lacerations were also observed in the fundus (5.42%) (p < 0.05). The gastric lesion distribution across the four regions of the stomach and the occurrence of ulceration in the fundus showed an unusual pattern, which is rarely reported in other parts of the world. The reason for these findings in pigs in Nigeria is not fully understood; therefore, further studies are required to identify and manage these factors for increased productivity, improved animal welfare and enhanced food security. PMID:27247073

  11. Evaluation of Lawsonia intracellularis infection in a group of pigs in a subclinically affected herd from weaning to slaughter.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Daniel; Kaim, Ute; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Wendt, Michael

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to follow the course of a subclinical Lawsonia (L.) intracellularis infection in a group of 60 pigs on a commercial farm from weaning to slaughter. From 6 to 16 and at 26 weeks of age, rectal faecal samples and blood samples were collected weekly from every pig for examination by PCR and blocking ELISA, respectively. At corresponding times starting at 8 weeks of age, pigs were randomly selected for necropsy (n=51). Intestinal tissues were examined histopathologically and by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for L. intracellularis antigen. Infection with L. intracellularis showed a mainly subclinical course. Shedding of L. intracellularis was detected by PCR in three pigs as early as 6 weeks of age and persisted up until 14 weeks of age. In most pigs shedding of L. intracellularis was seen only for 1-2 weeks followed by a rapid serum antibody response. More than 50% of pigs had seroconverted by week 10. At slaughter, 30.8% of investigated animals were still found to be seropositive by ELISA. Of the 60 study animals 39 were found positive by faeces PCR (65.0%), 49 animals were found positive by serology (81.7%), and 35 pigs (68.6%) had positive results by IHC at necropsy. All but one pig were found to be L. intracellularis infected by at least one of the three methods (98.3%). In conclusion, this is the first field study revealing the presence of prominent histological lesions characteristic for L. intracellularis infection and associated positive pathogen specific PCR and immunohistological results even in subclinically infected pigs. Although intestinal alterations disappeared after 3-4 weeks, L. intracellularis was detected by IHC for a longer time, especially in intestinal lymph nodes. PMID:20605375

  12. Use of an avirulent live Salmonella Choleraesuis vaccine to reduce the prevalence of Salmonella carrier pigs at slaughter

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, P.; Kich, J. D.; Kolb, J.; Cardoso, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of an avirulent live Salmonella Choleraesuis vaccine to reduce the seroprevalence and number of Salmonella carrier pigs at slaughter. Seven batches of 500 pigs were included in each of the two study groups: the vaccinated group (VG) that was orally vaccinated and the control group (CG) that received a placebo on the first day of life. The groups were managed in a three-site system and followed up from birth to slaughter. Blood samples (n=378) were collected from each VG and CG to monitor the on-farm seroprevalence in both groups. Mesenteric lymph nodes and blood from animals (n=390) belonging to each group were collected at slaughter. At the first day of life, the seroprevalence in control batches ranged from 77.9 to 96.3 per cent, while in vaccinated batches, it ranged from 66.6 to 92.6 per cent. At weaning (21 days of age), the number of seropositives decreased in both groups (mean of 12 and 3.7 per cent for CG and VG, respectively). At slaughter, batches of VG had a significantly (P<0.0001) lower seroprevalence (46.6±5 per cent) and isolation of Salmonella from lymph nodes (33.1±5 per cent) compared with CG batches (79.7±4 per cent and 59.5±5 per cent, respectively). The results indicate that administration of a Salmonella choleraesuis-attenuated vaccine on the first day of life decreases Salmonella isolation and seroprevalence in pigs at slaughter. PMID:21949083

  13. Effects of slaughter time post-second injection on carcass cutting yields and bacon characteristics of immunologically castrated male pigs.

    PubMed

    Boler, D D; Killefer, J; Meeuwse, D M; King, V L; McKeith, F K; Dilger, A C

    2012-01-01

    Body weights of finishing pigs can be variable within a finishing barn near the time of slaughter; therefore, it is common to market pigs over a period of time. This allows lighter pigs more time to gain BW and approach a desired end point. Use of immunological castration late in life to control boar taint, as an alternative to physical castration early in life, increases cutting yields of finishing male pigs compared with physical castrates. Because of common marketing strategies, it is important for advantages in cutting yields to span a broad spectrum of slaughter ages and BW. The primary objectives in this study were to evaluate carcass cutting yields, pork quality, belly quality, and bacon processing characteristics of immunologically castrated (IC) male pigs fed a moderate level of distillers dried grains with solubles and slaughtered at either 4 wk (early slaughter group) or 6 wk (late slaughter group) post-second injection. A total of 156 male pigs (physical castrates or IC males) were selected from a population of 1,200 finishing pigs. Data were analyzed with the MIXED procedure of SAS as a split-split plot design. Body weights of IC males were 3.60 kg heavier (P = 0.03) than physical castrates when slaughtered at 4 wk post-second injection and 7.52 kg heavier (P < 0.0001) than physical castrates when slaughtered at 6 wk post-second injection. Because of a lack of interaction (P > 0.05) between sex and time of slaughter post-second injection, some response variables were pooled. Hot carcass weights were not different (P = 0.57) between physical castrates (91.98 kg) and IC males (92.52 kg). There was a 2.77 percentage unit decrease (P < 0.001) in dressing percentage of IC males (71.78%) compared with physical castrates (74.55%). Lean cutting yields of IC males were 2.62 percentage units greater (P < 0.0001) than physical castrates and carcass cutting yields were 2.27 percentage units greater (P < 0.0001) for IC males when compared with physical castrates

  14. Detection of Salmonella enterica in pigs at slaughter and comparison with human isolates in Italy.

    PubMed

    Bonardi, Silvia; Alpigiani, Irene; Bruini, Ilaria; Barilli, Elena; Brindani, Franco; Morganti, Marina; Cavallini, Pierugo; Bolzoni, Luca; Pongolini, Stefano

    2016-02-01

    In 2013-2014, 201 pigs belonging to 67 batches were tested for Salmonella in their mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) in one abattoir of Northern Italy. For each batch, faecal material was collected at lairage by swabbing the pen floor for approximately 1600 cm(2). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella in MLN of pigs at slaughter, to assess Salmonella contamination at lairage and to evaluate the effect of lairage duration on its prevalence. Serotyping, XbaI PFGE typing and antimicrobial testing of the isolates were performed. Pig and human Salmonella isolates of the same region of Italy were compared to evaluate possible correlations. Salmonella enterica was isolated from 19.9% of the MLN and 49.3% of the environmental faecal samples. Nine different serovars were identified among 75 S. enterica isolates. In MLN Salmonella Derby was the most common (52.5%), followed by S. enterica 4,[5],12:i:- (17.5%) and Salmonella Rissen (10.0%). In faecal samples S. Derby was prevalent (51.4%), followed by S. enterica 4,[5], 12:i:- (20.0%) and Salmonella Brandenburg (14.3%). Lairage holding varied between 1 and ≥ 12 h (median value: 2.5h). In pigs held for 1-3h, 14.1% were positive for Salmonella in MLN but the prevalence reached 31.8% when they were held for ≥ 12 h. The contamination of MLN was statistically different (p=0.0045) between the two groups, thus confirming the role of long-lasting lairage in Salmonella contamination of pigs. XbaI PFGE typing detected 36 PFGE types. Twenty-three PFGE types were identified among the 40 MLN isolates and 22 PFGE types among the 35 faecal isolates. A total of 11 PFGE types were shared between the MLN of pigs and the lairage environment. Among S. Derby, 6 shared PFGE types between MLN and faeces were found and among S. enterica 4,[5],12:i:- one PFGE type was common between MLN and the faecal samples. Shared profiles between human and swine isolates of S. Derby, S. enterica 4,[5],12:i:-, S. Rissen, Salmonella

  15. Microbiomes of Unreactive and Pathologically Altered Ileocecal Lymph Nodes of Slaughter Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Evelyne; Dzieciol, Monika; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Wagner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Microbe-laden dendritic cells are shifted to ileocecal lymph nodes (ICLNs), where microbes are concentrated and an adequate immune response is triggered. Hence, ICLNs are at a crucial position in immune anatomy and control processes of the local immune system. Pathological alterations in ICLNs, such as reactive hyperplasia, lymphadenitis purulenta, or granulomatosa, can harbor a multitude of pathogens and commensals, posing a potential zoonotic risk in animal production. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbial diversity of unreactive ICLNs of slaughter pigs and to investigate community shifts in reactive ICLNs altered by enlargement, purulence, or granulomatous formations. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from 32 ICLNs yielded 175,313 sequences, clustering into 650 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). OTUs were assigned to 239 genera and 11 phyla. Besides a highly diverse bacterial community in ICLNs, we observed significant shifts in pathologically altered ICLNs. The relative abundances of Cloacibacterium- and Novosphingobium-associated OTUs and the genus Faecalibacterium were significantly higher in unreactive ICLNs than in pathologically altered ICLNs. Enlarged ICLNs harbored significantly more Lactobacillus- and Clostridium-associated sequences. Relative abundances of Mycoplasma, Bacteroides, Veillonella, and Variovorax OTUs were significantly increased in granulomatous ICLNs, whereas abundances of Pseudomonas, Escherichia, and Acinetobacter OTUs were significantly increased in purulent ICLNs (P < 0.05). Correlation-based networks revealed interactions among OTUs in all ICLN groups, and discriminant analyses depicted discrimination in response to pathological alterations. This study is the first community-based survey in ICLNs of livestock animals and will provide a basis to broaden the knowledge of microbe-host interactions in pigs. PMID:24141125

  16. Psychrophile spoilers dominate the bacterial microbiome in musculature samples of slaughter pigs.

    PubMed

    Mann, Evelyne; Wetzels, Stefanie U; Pinior, Beate; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to disentangle the microbial diversity on porcine musculature. The hypervariable V1-V2 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified from DNA samples of clinically healthy slaughter pigs (n=8). Pyrosequencing yielded 37,000 quality-controlled reads and a diverse microbiome with 54-159 OTUs per sample was detected. Interestingly, 6 out of 8 samples were strongly dominated by 1-2 highly abundant OTUs (best hits of highly abundant OTUs: Serratia proteamaculans, Pseudomonas syringae, Aeromonas allosaccharophila, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Acidiphilium cryptum and Escherichia coli). In 1g musculature scraping, 3.20E+06 16S rRNA gene copies and 4.45E+01 Enterobacteriaceae rRNA gene copies were detected with qPCR. We conclude that i.) next-generation sequencing technologies help encompass the full content of complex, bacterial contamination, ii.) psychrophile spoilers dominated the microbiota and iii.) E. coli is an effective marker species for pork contamination, as it was one of very few abundant species being present in all samples. PMID:26943946

  17. Salmonella prevalence and characterization in a free-range pig processing plant: tracking in trucks, lairage, slaughter line and quartering.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Manuela; Gómez-Laguna, Jaime; Luque, Inmaculada; Herrera-León, Silvia; Maldonado, Alfonso; Reguillo, Lucía; Astorga, Rafael J

    2013-03-01

    New consumer tendencies are focused on products derived from systems which allow both a high animal welfare condition and a high food safety level. However, sometimes animal welfare regulations make the adoption of adequate bio-security measures difficult, representing a barrier for animal health and food safety. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Salmonella at different points of the pig slaughtering process (Trucks, Lairage, Slaughter line and Quartering, TLSQ) from pigs reared in free-range systems. From eight samplings a total of 126 Salmonella isolates out of 1160 different samples were recovered (10.86%). The highest percentage of isolates was detected at the points of pre-scalding (29/80, 36.25%), trucks (13/56, 23.21%), cecal contents (17/80, 21.25%), tonsils (14/80, 17.50%), ileocecal lymph nodes (13/80, 16.25%) and lairage (9/64, 14.06%). Furthermore, eighteen isolates were obtained from different environmental samples from slaughter line and quartering plant (knives and surface of tables) (5.63%) and three isolates at the quartering plant samples (ham, shoulder and loin) (3.75%). Fourteen different serotypes were isolated: Bredeney, Rissen, Derby, Typhimurium, Montevideo, Israel, Anatum, Emek, Monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium (mST), Choleraesuis, Durban, Kentucky, London and Sandiego. S. Typhimurium phage types U311, 193, 104b and UT were identified. Moreover, mST strain was phage typed as U311. From TLSQ1, TLSQ2 and TLSQ4, different strains of S. Derby, S. Rissen and S. Bredeney serotypes were isolated from pig and environmental samples, pointing to a potential cross contamination. Molecular typing (Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, PFGE) of these strains confirmed the cross contamination. In the remaining samplings, different serotypes were obtained in each sampled point of the chain, assuming that the isolated serotypes belonged to different epidemiological origins. Our results show the isolation of different serotypes of

  18. Longitudinal study comparing the dynamics of Clostridium difficile in conventional and antimicrobial free pigs at farm and slaughter.

    PubMed

    Susick, E K; Putnam, M; Bermudez, D M; Thakur, S

    2012-05-25

    Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea in humans and a major cause of enteritis in neonatal piglets, foals and calves. The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine and compare the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility, and toxinotype profiles of C. difficile isolated from pigs and their environment in the indoor conventional and outdoor antimicrobial free (ABF) production systems. Ten conventional and eight ABF cohorts of 35 pigs each and their environment were sampled at different stages of production at farm and slaughter. C. difficile prevalence in pigs was highest at the farrowing stage in both conventional (34%, 120/350) and ABF (23%, 56/244) systems, and decreased with age. This reduction in C. difficile prevalence in pigs at later stages of production mirrored the decreased prevalence in the farm environment. At slaughter, C. difficile was isolated at a low frequency from the carcasses and processing environment in both production systems. All but three isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (99%, 505/508), while 1.0% (5/508) and 6.0% (23/508) of isolates exhibited resistance to tetracycline and erythromycin, respectively. Toxinotype V (tcdA(+)tcdB(+)) was the predominant strain identified in both systems (conventional: 94%, 376/401; ABF: 82%, 88/107), while the rest were toxinotype XIII (tcdA(+)tcdB(+)). To conclude, we isolated antimicrobial resistant C. difficile regardless of antimicrobial use on the farm. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic similarity of C. difficile isolated in this study, we conclude that the unique production practices employed in conventional and ABF production systems have no impact on the pathogen population. PMID:22243897

  19. Assessment of Risk Factors for a High Within-Batch Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica in Pigs Based on Microbiological Analysis at Slaughter.

    PubMed

    Vanantwerpen, Gerty; Berkvens, Dirk; Van Damme, Inge; De Zutter, Lieven; Houf, Kurt

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the current study was to find farm-level factors influencing the bacteriological prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica in pigs at time of slaughter. On 100 farms, data concerning a broad range of farm aspects (e.g., management and housing system, biosecurity, and hygiene measurements) were collected using a face-to-face questionnaire. At the slaughterhouse, tonsils of on average 70 slaughter pigs per batch were sampled to determine the infection status of pigs. After univariable mixed-effect logistic regressions, variables that were related to the Yersinia prevalence (p<0.05) were included in a multivariable model. In this model, the factors remaining positively associated with a higher Y. enterocolitica carriage in the tonsils (p<0.1) were an increasing number of piglet suppliers, a high density of pig farms in the area, and the use of semislatted floors in the fattening pig unit. The proper use of a disinfection bath before entering the stables and a poor biosecurity level were protective factors, although a higher prevalence was associated with a significant positive interaction between the presence of pets in the stables and a poor biosecurity level. Reducing the number of piglet suppliers, using a disinfection bath properly, and prohibiting pets inside the stables could be easily implemented by pig farmers to lower the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in pigs at slaughter. PMID:25884541

  20. The Effect of Mixing Entire Male Pigs Prior to Transport to Slaughter on Behaviour, Welfare and Carcass Lesions

    PubMed Central

    van Staaveren, Nienke; Teixeira, Dayane Lemos; Hanlon, Alison; Boyle, Laura Ann

    2015-01-01

    Research is needed to validate lesions recorded at meat inspection as indicators of pig welfare on farm. The aims were to determine the influence of mixing pigs on carcass lesions and to establish whether such lesions correlate with pig behaviour and lesions scored on farm. Aggressive and mounting behaviour of pigs in three single sex pens was recorded on Day −5, −2, and −1 relative to slaughter (Day 0). On Day 0 pigs were randomly allocated to 3 treatments (n = 20/group) over 5 replicates: males mixed with females (MF), males mixed with males (MM), and males unmixed (MUM). Aggressive and mounting behaviours were recorded on Day 0 at holding on farm and lairage. Skin/tail lesions were scored according to severity at the farm (Day −1), lairage, and on the carcass (Day 0). Effect of treatment and time on behaviour and lesions were analysed by mixed models. Spearman rank correlations between behaviour and lesion scores and between scores recorded at different stages were determined. In general, MM performed more aggressive behaviour (50.4 ± 10.72) than MUM (20.3 ± 9.55, P < 0.05) and more mounting (30.9 ± 9.99) than MF (11.4 ± 3.76) and MUM (9.8 ± 3.74, P < 0.05). Skin lesion scores increased between farm (Day −1) and lairage (P < 0.001), but this tended to be significant only for MF and MM (P = 0.08). There was no effect of treatment on carcass lesions and no associations were found with fighting/mounting. Mixing entire males prior to slaughter stimulated mounting and aggressive behaviour but did not influence carcass lesion scores. Carcass skin/tail lesions scores were correlated with scores recorded on farm (rskin = 0.21 and rtail = 0.18, P < 0.01) suggesting that information recorded at meat inspection could be used as indicators of pig welfare on farm. PMID:25830336

  1. Effects of weaning age and formic acid-based feed additives on pigs from weaning to slaughter.

    PubMed

    Partanen, Kirsi; Siljander-Rasi, Hilkka; Pentikäinen, Jaana; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Fossi, Marja

    2007-10-01

    Two hundred and forty piglets were used in a 2 x 6 factorial experiment to study the effects of weaning age (26 or 36 d) and four formic acid-based feed additives on the performance of pigs from weaning to slaughter. Either formic acid (F) or a mixture of formic acid, propionic acid, and potassium sorbate (FPS) or a mixture of formic acid, propionic acid, and sodium benzoate (FPB) or formic acid in a diatomaceous earth carrier (FD) were added to the diets of weaned piglets (from weaning to 60 d of age) and growing (18-46 kg) and finishing pigs (46-107 kg) to provide 8, 6, and 6 g acid per kg feed, respectively. The negative control treatment's (C) diets contained no growth promoters, whereas the positive control treatment's weaner and grower diets were supplemented with 40 mg/kg of avilamycin (A). The piglets weaned at the age of 26 and 36 d weighed 7.6 and 10.7 kg at weaning (p < 0.001), and 18.5 and 17.9 kg at the age of 60 d (p > 0.05), respectively. There was a weaning age x feed additive interaction in the weight gain of piglets after weaning (p < 0.05). The weight gain of piglets weaned on day 26 was enhanced by A, FPS, and FD (p < 0.05), and that of piglets weaned on day 36 by A and FPB (p < 0.05). The feed conversion ratio was not affected by weaning ages but was decreased in groups A, F, FBS, and FPB (p < 0.05). The severity of post-weaning diarrhoea was less in groups A, F, FPS, and FD than in C (p < 0.05). In piglets weaned on day 26, faecal water content and the total Escherichia coli count were highest 9 d after weaning. The total E. coli count was reduced only by FD (p < 0.05). Increased faecal water content was characterized by increased faecal Na+ and decreased K+ concentrations. Weaning age did not influence performance or carcass quality in the growing-finishing pigs. Feed additives did not affect weight gain in the growing pigs, but FPS and FPB enhanced weight gain during finishing period and total fattening (p < 0.05). In summary, the pigs

  2. Comparison of risk-based versus random sampling in the monitoring of antimicrobial residues in Danish finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Alban, Lis; Rugbjerg, Helene; Petersen, Jesper Valentin; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2016-06-01

    In Denmark, a monitoring program for residues of antimicrobials in pork is in place involving annual testing of around 20,000 samples from finishing pigs corresponding to 0.1% of the animals slaughtered. Annually, zero to two samples are found above the maximum residue limit. Both authorities and industry have expressed interest in adjusting the monitoring to a risk-based system. The objective of this study was to assess the opportunities and consequences of the monitoring considering: 1) replacing the current bioassay with high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC LC-MS/MS), 2) replacing kidney with muscles as sample matrix, and 3) using indicators to identify high-risk (HR) herds and increase sampling intensity in these herds, lowering sampling in the low-risk (LR) herds, while aiming at continued detection of similar numbers of test-positives at the lowest possible costs. A state-of-the-art stochastic scenario tree modelling approach including economic evaluation of different model outcomes was used. A total of six scenarios were run for penicillin and tetracycline, respectively. Relevant information was obtained through the literature, statistical analysis of existing data as well as consultations with laboratory and slaughterhouse experts. Abattoir recordings of chronic pleuritis were used as an indicator for finishing pig herds (HR=within-herd prevalence>40%). Such risk-based monitoring would have to use muscles and not kidneys, because of logistic challenges in identifying and storing of plucks until testing. However, the bioassay cannot be used on muscle tissue due to low sensitivity for tetracyclines. Different plausible combinations of sample sizes were also modelled. The HPLC LC-MS/MS method detected the same number of cases compared to the bioassay when kidney was used as matrix. HPLC LC-MS/MS has a higher sensitivity when used on muscle but it is almost twice as costly as the bioassay. Risk-based sampling resulted in detection of

  3. Influence of production system in local and conventional pig breeds on stress indicators at slaughter, muscle and meat traits and pork eating quality.

    PubMed

    Lebret, B; Ecolan, P; Bonhomme, N; Méteau, K; Prunier, A

    2015-08-01

    Sensory quality of pork is a complex phenotype determined by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. This study aimed at describing the respective influences of breed and production system on the development of pork quality. Plasma stress indicators and Longissimus muscle (LM) composition, physicochemical and sensory quality traits were determined in two contrasted breeds - the conventional Large White (LW, n=40) and the French local Basque (B, n=60). Pigs were reared in either a conventional (C; n=20 per breed), alternative (A; sawdust bedding and outdoor area, n=20 per breed) or extensive system (E; free-range, n=20 B). All the pigs from A and C systems were slaughtered at the same slaughterhouse, whereas B pigs from the E system were slaughtered at a local commercial abattoir. Major breed differences were found for almost all traits under study. LM from B pigs exhibited higher lipid, lower water and collagen concentrations, as well as lower collagen thermal solubility (P0.05) influence plasma stress indicators, LM chemical composition and physicochemical or sensory traits of pork. In contrast, within the B pigs, the E system affected the meat quality more. Lower plasma cortisol levels (P<0.05), but higher plasma lactate, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, and more skin lesions (P<0.05), indicating higher muscular activity during pre-slaughter handling, were found in pigs produced in the E compared with the C system. E pigs exhibited higher meat pH1 and pHu values and shear force (P<0.01) and exhibited lower lightness, hue angle and drip and thawing losses (P<0.01) compared with the C pigs, whereas LM lipid, protein or collagen concentrations were not affected. Regarding sensory traits, the E system produced redder meat, but did not impact the eating quality of pork. Altogether, this study demonstrates that differences in meat quality between B and LW breeds can be modulated by extensive pig production system. PMID:25908582

  4. Genomic selection in a pig population including information from slaughtered full sibs of boars within a sib-testing program.

    PubMed

    Samorè, A B; Buttazzoni, L; Gallo, M; Russo, V; Fontanesi, L

    2015-05-01

    Genomic selection is becoming a common practise in dairy cattle, but only few works have studied its introduction in pig selection programs. Results described for this species are highly dependent on the considered traits and the specific population structure. This paper aims to simulate the impact of genomic selection in a pig population with a training cohort of performance-tested and slaughtered full sibs. This population is selected for performance, carcass and meat quality traits by full-sib testing of boars. Data were simulated using a forward-in-time simulation process that modeled around 60K single nucleotide polymorphisms and several quantitative trait loci distributed across the 18 porcine autosomes. Data were edited to obtain, for each cycle, 200 sires mated with 800 dams to produce 800 litters of 4 piglets each, two males and two females (needed for the sib test), for a total of 3200 newborns. At each cycle, a subset of 200 litters were sib tested, and 60 boars and 160 sows were selected to replace the same number of culled male and female parents. Simulated selection of boars based on performance test data of their full sibs (one castrated brother and two sisters per boar in 200 litters) lasted for 15 cycles. Genotyping and phenotyping of the three tested sibs (training population) and genotyping of the candidate boars (prediction population) were assumed. Breeding values were calculated for traits with two heritability levels (h 2=0.40, carcass traits, and h 2=0.10, meat quality parameters) on simulated pedigrees, phenotypes and genotypes. Genomic breeding values, estimated by various models (GBLUP from raw phenotype or using breeding values and single-step models), were compared with the classical BLUP Animal Model predictions in terms of predictive ability. Results obtained for traits with moderate heritability (h 2=0.40), similar to the heritability of traits commonly measured within a sib-testing program, did not show any benefit from the

  5. Microencapsulated sorbic acid and pure botanicals affect Salmonella Typhimurium shedding in pigs: a close-up look from weaning to slaughter in controlled and field conditions.

    PubMed

    Grilli, Ester; Foresti, Fabio; Tugnoli, Benedetta; Fustini, Mattia; Zanoni, Maria G; Pasquali, Paolo; Callaway, Todd R; Piva, Andrea; Alborali, Giovanni L

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a combination of sorbic acid, thymol, and carvacrol in reducing the prevalence and shedding level of Salmonella Typhimurium in pigs either in a controlled challenge environment or in a production setting. In the first study, 24 weaned piglets were separated in 4 isolation units (6 piglets/isolation unit). Each unit received either a basal diet (no treatment) or a microencapsulated mixture of sorbic acid, thymol, and carvacrol at 1, 2, or 5 g/kg of feed. After 21 d, pigs were orally challenged with 6 log10 colony-forming units of Salmonella Typhimurium. Blood samples and feces from rectal ampullae were collected every week. On d56 of the study, pigs were euthanized and necropsied to collect intestinal contents (jejunum through colon) and ileocecal lymph nodes. Samples were analyzed for Salmonella Typhimurium and serological analysis was also conducted. In the second study, an all-in-all-out multisite pig farm that was positive for monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium was followed throughout a production cycle from weaning to slaughter. Pigs received either a basal diet or the basal diet including 5 g/kg of the microencapsulated additive. Environmental, fecal, and blood samples were collected monthly, and cecal contents and ileocecal lymph nodes were collected at slaughter to isolate and enumerate Salmonella. The results indicate that the additive at 5 g/kg tended to reduce Salmonella fecal prevalence in both a controlled challenge (p=0.07) and in production conditions (p=0.03). Nevertheless, the additive did not reduce the number of pigs seropositive for Salmonella, nor it reduced the Salmonella prevalence at slaughter. The data indicate that these additives are not effective alone but must be used in conjunction with appropriate containment measures at lairage in order to prevent reinfection in pigs and to reduce the number of pigs carrying Salmonella entering the food chain. PMID:26203634

  6. Detection of Pathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus from Cattle and Pigs Slaughtered in Abattoirs in Vhembe District, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tanih, Nicoline F.; Sekwadi, Eunice; Ndip, Roland N.; Bessong, Pascal O.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic food-borne bacteria have been associated with severe morbidity and mortality in humans and animals. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli present in cattle and pigs slaughtered in selected abattoirs in Vhembe District and at determining the susceptibility of the isolates to antibiotics. A total of 176 swab samples (28 cattle and 16 pigs) of the rump, flank, brisket, and neck of the animals were analyzed using standard microbiological methods. E. coli isolates were genotyped to detect pathogenic strains. Of the 176 samples, 104 (67.5%) were positive for E. coli and 50 (32.5%) for S. aureus. There was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) in the isolation rate from the different animal parts or abattoirs. Overall, 14/104 (13.46%) of the E. coli isolates were pathogenic strains which included enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) (bfpA) 1.9%, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) (LT) 3.8%, and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) (aaiC) 7.6%. E. coli isolates were resistant (100%) to vancomycin and bacitracin. S. aureus (100%) were resistant to oxacillin and nalidixic acid. The presence of resistant strains of these bacteria in food of animal origin could serve as important vehicles transmitting these bacteria to humans. This finding is of epidemiological significance. PMID:25811040

  7. [Fattening and slaughter values of pigs in relation to their genotype and to the protein source in their feed rations].

    PubMed

    Jacyno, E; Czarnecki, R; Owsianny, J; Lachowicz, K; Gajowiecki, L

    1996-01-01

    The studies were carried out on F1 progeny of multiparous Polish Large White sows and boars of Belgian Landrace, Hampshire x Pietrain hybrid, and Pietrain breed. The control group consisted of purebred Polish Large White pigs. The experimental part of the studies was performed on 120 fatteners divided up to 4 race groups, with 30 heads in each (namely 15 barrows and 15 gilts). Moreover, each group was divided into two following subgroups: the SoS one, which was given feed mixture with extracted soybean meal and the RpS one, which was given feed mixture with extracted rapeseed meal. The fattening started with 23 kg of body weight and was realized up to 100 kg. Twenty fatteners from each group (including 5 barrows and 5 gilts from a subgroup) were subjected to the control slaughter. The fatteners average daily body weight gains, and energy and digestible crude protein conversion per 1 kg of gain were as follows: after Belgain Landrace boars 788 g, 32.3 MJ and 358 g; after Hampshire x Pietrain boars 766 g, 33.6 MJ and 373 g; after Pietrain boars 720 g, 34.4 MJ and 382 g; after control group boars 705 g, 36.3 MJ and 403 g, respectively. It was found that hybrids after boars of evaluated breeds have positively (P < or = 0,01) better carcass meatness, and in a better way use digestible protein and metabolizable energy for production of 1 kg of meat. On that reason the best are hybrids after Belgian Landrace boars, carcasses of which yielded 52.4% of meat and converted 27% less of digestible crude protein and metabolizable energy for 1 kg meat production, than the White Large Polish fatteners. For no examined feature interaction between genotype and protein source in feeding diet was found. The growth rate and utilization of fodder were better for pigs fed on mixture with extracted soybean meal than for the ones fed on mixture with extracted rapeseed meal (P < or = 0.05). The fodders with high protein content did not differentiate meatness traits, whereas digestible crude

  8. A prevalence study of Salmonella spp., Yersinia spp., Toxoplasma gondii and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in UK pigs at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Powell, L F; Cheney, T E A; Williamson, S; Guy, E; Smith, R P; Davies, R H

    2016-05-01

    An abattoir-based study was undertaken between January and May 2013 to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella spp. and Yersinia spp. carriage and seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) in UK pigs at slaughter. In total, 626 pigs were sampled at 14 abattoirs that together process 80% of the annual UK pig slaughter throughput. Sampling was weighted by abattoir throughput and sampling dates and pig carcasses were randomly selected. Rectal swabs, blood samples, carcass swabs and the whole caecum, tonsils, heart and tongue were collected. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 30·5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 26·5-34·6] of caecal content samples but only 9·6% (95% CI 7·3-11·9) of carcass swabs, which was significantly lower than in a UK survey in 2006-2007. S. Typhimurium and S. 4,[5],12:i:- were the most commonly isolated serovars, followed by S. Derby and S. Bovismorbificans. The prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica carriage in tonsils was 28·7% (95% CI 24·8-32·7) whereas carcass contamination was much lower at 1·8% (95% CI 0·7-2·8). The seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and PRRSv was 7·4% (95% CI 5·3-9·5) and 58·3% (95% CI 53·1-63·4), respectively. This study provides a comparison to previous abattoir-based prevalence surveys for Salmonella and Yersinia, and the first UK-wide seroprevalence estimates for antibodies to Toxoplasma and PRRSv in pigs at slaughter. PMID:26586451

  9. Study on the Association between Tail Lesion Score, Cold Carcass Weight, and Viscera Condemnations in Slaughter Pigs.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Dayane Lemos; Harley, Sarah; Hanlon, Alison; O'Connell, Niamh Elizabeth; More, Simon John; Manzanilla, Edgar Garcia; Boyle, Laura Ann

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between tail lesions, cold carcass weight, and viscera condemnations in an Irish abattoir. The following data were collected at the evisceration point from every third pig slaughtered over 7 days: farm identification, sex, tail lesion score, viscera inspection outcome, and cold carcass weight. Tail lesions were scored according to a 5-point scale. Disease lesions responsible for lung (pleurisy, pneumonia, and abscess), heart (pericarditis), and liver (ascariasis) condemnation were recorded based on the decision of the veterinary inspector (VI). Data on 3,143 pigs from 61 batches were available. The relationship between disease lesions, tail lesion score, and cold carcass weight was studied at individual carcass level, while the relationship between disease lesions and tail lesion score was studied at both carcass and batch level. Tail lesions (score ≥1) were found in 72% of the study population, with 2.3% affected by severe tail lesions (scores ≥3). Pleurisy (13.7%) followed by pneumonia (10.4%) showed the highest prevalence, whereas the prevalence of ascariasis showed the greatest variation between batches (0-75%). Tail lesion score, pleurisy, pleuropneumonia, and pericarditis were associated with reductions in carcass cold weight (P ≤ 0.05) ranging from 3 to 6.6 kg. Tail lesion score was associated with condemnations for pleurisy, pneumonia, and pleuropneumonia (P ≤ 0.05) at a batch level. VI shift was associated with condemnations for pneumonia, pleuropneumonia, and pericarditis (P ≤ 0.05) at a carcass level and with pneumonia at a batch level. Sex was not associated with viscera condemnations but males were more likely to be affected by tail lesions. The relationship between overall tail lesion score and the lung diseases at batch level supports the relationship between poor health and poor welfare of pigs on farms. The inclusion of tail lesion scores at post-mortem meat inspection

  10. Study on the Association between Tail Lesion Score, Cold Carcass Weight, and Viscera Condemnations in Slaughter Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Dayane Lemos; Harley, Sarah; Hanlon, Alison; O’Connell, Niamh Elizabeth; More, Simon John; Manzanilla, Edgar Garcia; Boyle, Laura Ann

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between tail lesions, cold carcass weight, and viscera condemnations in an Irish abattoir. The following data were collected at the evisceration point from every third pig slaughtered over 7 days: farm identification, sex, tail lesion score, viscera inspection outcome, and cold carcass weight. Tail lesions were scored according to a 5-point scale. Disease lesions responsible for lung (pleurisy, pneumonia, and abscess), heart (pericarditis), and liver (ascariasis) condemnation were recorded based on the decision of the veterinary inspector (VI). Data on 3,143 pigs from 61 batches were available. The relationship between disease lesions, tail lesion score, and cold carcass weight was studied at individual carcass level, while the relationship between disease lesions and tail lesion score was studied at both carcass and batch level. Tail lesions (score ≥1) were found in 72% of the study population, with 2.3% affected by severe tail lesions (scores ≥3). Pleurisy (13.7%) followed by pneumonia (10.4%) showed the highest prevalence, whereas the prevalence of ascariasis showed the greatest variation between batches (0–75%). Tail lesion score, pleurisy, pleuropneumonia, and pericarditis were associated with reductions in carcass cold weight (P ≤ 0.05) ranging from 3 to 6.6 kg. Tail lesion score was associated with condemnations for pleurisy, pneumonia, and pleuropneumonia (P ≤ 0.05) at a batch level. VI shift was associated with condemnations for pneumonia, pleuropneumonia, and pericarditis (P ≤ 0.05) at a carcass level and with pneumonia at a batch level. Sex was not associated with viscera condemnations but males were more likely to be affected by tail lesions. The relationship between overall tail lesion score and the lung diseases at batch level supports the relationship between poor health and poor welfare of pigs on farms. The inclusion of tail lesion scores at post-mortem meat inspection

  11. Experimental infection of slaughter pigs with classical swine fever virus: transmission of the virus, course of the disease and antibody response.

    PubMed

    Laevens, H; Koenen, F; Deluyker, H; de Kruif, A

    1999-08-28

    The spread of classical swine fever virus was investigated in an isolation unit containing four pens, each containing six slaughter pigs. One pig in the middle pen of three adjacent pens was inoculated intramuscularly and intranasally with the virus. The fourth pen was located in a separate compartment. The pens were visited in a strict order to study, first, the effect of indirect contact via contaminated clothing and footwear on the spread of the virus to adjacent pens and, secondly, the airborne transmission of the virus between compartments. The pigs were examined and blood samples were taken every other day for 62 days for virological and serological analyses. The virus was highly contagious for the five pigs that were in direct contact with the inoculated pig, but spread to the other pens only after all the pigs in the originally infected pen had become viraemic. The spread of the virus was promoted by contaminated clothing and footwear, but airborne transmission contributed considerably to the spread of the virus within the pighouse. The first clinical signs observed after the virus was introduced into a pen were decreased feed intake, increased mean rectal temperature and apathy. Neither the clinical course of the infection, nor the pattern of seroconversion observed over time, was affected by the differences in the intensity of contact with the virus between the pigs in the different pens. PMID:10504066

  12. Descriptive analysis of the prevalence and the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium avium complex-infected pigs that were slaughtered on the main island of Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Hibiya, K; Kazumi, Y; Nishiuchi, Y; Sugawara, I; Miyagi, K; Oda, Y; Oda, E; Fujita, J

    2010-09-01

    Recent genetic studies have revealed that several epidemiological factors affect Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in pig populations. However, mechanisms underlying the spread of MAC infection among hog farms have not been clarified. In consideration of this situation, we cross-sectionally investigated the mechanisms underlying the spread of MAC on the island of Okinawa. Pigs slaughtered (n=706,763) and 331 hog farms on Okinawa were surveyed during the years 2002-2004. Two outbreaks of MAC infection were occurred in several farms during survey period. Bacteria were isolated from randomly selected pigs and genotype of isolates was determined by using genetic finger printing methods with the insertion sequence (IS) 1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Most isolates had large numbers of IS1245 copies, while strains with low copy numbers of IS1245 and isolates without IS1245 were seen in few farms. MACs strains were repeatedly isolated from pigs of the affected farms during the survey period. Those farms with an identical pig rearing systems showed synchronic changes in the prevalence of MAC infection. An industrial farm without an outbreak had an independent pig flow, but maintained distinct MAC strains. Multivariate analysis did not reveal independent factors for the prevalence of the MAC infection. These findings suggest that there were three clusters distinguished genetically in the main island of Okinawa, which were potentially spread by common pig flow. However, the outbreaks occurred because of unspecified conditions on each farm environment. PMID:19443033

  13. Single versus double testing of meat-juice samples for Salmonella antibodies, in the Danish pig-herd surveillance programme.

    PubMed

    Ekeroth, Lars; Alban, Lis; Feld, Niels

    2003-08-01

    In Denmark, a national serological surveillance-and-control programme for Salmonella in pigs has been in operation since 1995. The programme is based on the Danish mix-ELISA and uses double testing (two ELISA-wells used per sample) of meat-juice samples taken in relation to slaughter. All herds are classified monthly into one of the three levels; the classification is based on the percentage of positive serological results in the previous 3 months. In connection with evaluation of the programme in 2001, we investigated whether single testing (testing in one well only) could be expected to be sufficiently precise compared to double testing. Data from the year 2000 were used, and mathematical modelling. Single testing was simulated by randomised selection of one of the two results in the double testing. A slight increase in the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples (1.02-1.09 times more through the four quarters of the year 2000) was found in the simulated single testing, as compared to the double testing. Around 0.5% of the herds would be allocated to another herd level in single testing-almost equal numbers one level up and one level down. No herd being seronegative in double testing would be allocated to levels 2 or 3 (herds with >40 or >70%, respectively, serological reactors) in single testing. The prevalence of "false-positive" diagnoses (positive in single testing and negative in double testing) and inversely defined "false-negative" diagnoses varied from 4.2 to 8.7% and from 3.2 to 4.5%, respectively, through the four quarters of the year 2000. The probability of allocating a herd to a wrong level due to sampling error was on the average 6.2 (varying from 1.66 to over 100) times higher than the probability of allocating a herd to a wrong level due to the test inaccuracy introduced by going from double to single testing. This is, however, an average; a herd with a true prevalence close to one of the level border cut-offs (40 and 70% weighted seroprevalence

  14. Rapid testing and quantification of Salmonella in ileocaecal lymph nodes of Austrian pigs slaughtered for consumption.

    PubMed

    Mann, Evelyne; Wagner, Martin; Schmoll, Friedrich; Slaghuis, Jörg; Schönenbrücher, Holger; Mester, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    Traditionally, quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is based on culture-dependent technologies. However, molecular quantification could forge additional, detailed information. A prerequisite of quantitative real-time PCR in animal science is a tissue preparation method where large volumes of tissue material can be reduced and particularly target cells can be concentrated. An easy-to-use sample preparation method for food (Matrix-Lysis) was recently adapted to tissues and now permits quantification of target cells from up to 5 g of organic matrix. The aim of this study was to examine the suitability of Matrix-Lysis for quantification of Salmonella in porcine ileocaecal lymph nodes (ICLNs). After demonstrating constant recovery rates, ICLNs from 540 pigs were examined for Salmonella spp. with Matrix-Lysis. Samples were also analysed using ISO 6579:2002, a combined enrichment/qPCR method and a lateral flow test. It could be shown that qPCR coupled with Matrix-Lysis can contribute to QMRA in food safety by enabling reproducible quantitative data, even at low contamination rates. PMID:25048837

  15. Proteomics for Drug Resistance on the Food Chain? Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli Proteomes from Slaughtered Pigs.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Sónia; Silva, Nuno; Hébraud, Michel; Santos, Hugo M; Nunes-Miranda, Júlio Dinis; Pinto, Luís; Pereira, José E; Capelo, José-Luis; Poeta, Patrícia; Igrejas, Gilberto

    2016-06-01

    Understanding global drug resistance demands an integrated vision, focusing on both human and veterinary medicine. Omics technologies offer new vistas to decipher mechanisms of drug resistance in the food chain. For example, Escherichia coli resistance to major antibiotics is increasing whereas multidrug resistance (MDR) strains are now commonly found in humans and animals. Little is known about the structural and metabolic changes in the cell that trigger resistance to antimicrobial agents. Proteomics is an emerging field that is used to advance our knowledge in global health and drug resistance in the food chain. In the present proteomic analysis, we offer an overview of the global protein expression of different MDR E. coli strains from fecal samples of pigs slaughtered for human consumption. A full proteomic survey of the drug-resistant strains SU60, SU62, SU76, and SU23, under normal growth conditions, was made by two-dimensional electrophoresis, identifying proteins by MALDI-TOF/MS. The proteomes of these four E. coli strains with different genetic profiles were compared in detail. Identical transport, stress response, or metabolic proteins were discovered in the four strains. Several of the identified proteins are essential in bacterial pathogenesis (GAPDH, LuxS, FKBPs), development of bacterial resistance (Omp's, TolC, GroEL, ClpB, or SOD), and potential antibacterial targets (FBPA, FabB, ACC's, or Fab1). Effective therapies against resistant bacteria are crucial and, to accomplish this, a comprehensive understanding of putative resistance mechanisms is essential. Moving forward, we suggest that multi-omics research will further improve our knowledge about bacterial growth and virulence on the food chain, especially under antibiotic stress. PMID:27310477

  16. Effects of Short-term Feeding Magnesium before Slaughter on Blood Metabolites and Postmortem Muscle Traits of Halothane-carrier Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Liu, XianJun; Bian, LianQuan

    2013-01-01

    Fifty-four, mixed-sex, halothane-carrier crossbred (Yorkshire×Landrace) pigs with an average initial BW of 108.2±0.8 kg were randomly allotted to one of three dietary treatments for 5 d before slaughter: i) a control corn-soybean meal finisher diet devoid of supplemental magnesium; ii) a diet supplemented with 1.5 g/kg of elemental Mg from magnesium acetate; and iii) a diet supplemented with 1.5 g/kg of elemental Mg from magnesium sulfate heptahydrate. Serum creatine kinase (CK), lactate and glucose were analyzed at slaughter. Muscles from longissimus (LM) were packaged and stored to simulate display storage for muscle lactate and glycogen determinations at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 d. Mg supplementation reduced (p<0.05) serum CK and lactate concentration, but had no effect (p>0.05) on serum glucose. Daily change of muscle lactate concentration linearly increased (p<0.01), while glucose concentration linearly decreased (p<0.05) as storage time increased in all treatments. However, dietary Mg acetate and Mg sulfate supplementation in pigs elevated (p<0.05) muscle glycogen and reduced (p<0.05) muscle lactate concentrations, especially during the first 2 d of display, compared with pigs fed the control diet. This study suggests that short-term feeding of magnesium acetate and magnesium sulfate to heterozygous carriers of the halothane gene has beneficial effects on stress response and pork quality by improving blood and muscle biochemical indexes. PMID:25049863

  17. Occurrence of porcine cysticercosis in free-ranging pigs delivered to slaughter points in Arapai, Soroti district, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Zirintunda, Gerald; Ekou, Justine

    2015-01-01

    Poverty, hunger and the need for production of pigs with meagre or zero inputs have made most farmers release their pigs to range freely, thus creating a pig-human cycle that maintains Taenia solium, the pig tapeworm and cause of porcine cysticercosis, in the ecosystem. A preliminary study was designed to establish the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis by postmortem examination of the tongue and carcass of free-range pigs from February to April 2014 in Arapai subcounty, Soroti district, eastern Uganda. The tongue of each pig was extended and examined before deep incisions were made and the cut surfaces were examined. The rest of the carcasses were examined for cysts. Out of 178 pigs examined, 32 were qualitatively positive for porcine cysticercosis, representing a prevalence of 18.0%. This high prevalence represents a marked risk to the communities in the study area of neurocysticercosis, a debilitating parasitic zoonosis. Proper human waste disposal by use of pit latrines, confinement of free-range pigs and treatment with albendazole and oxfendazole are recommended. PMID:26244682

  18. Bayesian analysis of response to selection: a case study using litter size in Danish Yorkshire pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, D; Vernersen, A; Andersen, S

    2000-01-01

    Implementation of a Bayesian analysis of a selection experiment is illustrated using litter size [total number of piglets born (TNB)] in Danish Yorkshire pigs. Other traits studied include average litter weight at birth (WTAB) and proportion of piglets born dead (PRBD). Response to selection for TNB was analyzed with a number of models, which differed in their level of hierarchy, in their prior distributions, and in the parametric form of the likelihoods. A model assessment study favored a particular form of an additive genetic model. With this model, the Monte Carlo estimate of the 95% probability interval of response to selection was (0.23; 0.60), with a posterior mean of 0.43 piglets. WTAB showed a correlated response of -7.2 g, with a 95% probability interval equal to (-33.1; 18.9). The posterior mean of the genetic correlation between TNB and WTAB was -0.23 with a 95% probability interval equal to (-0.46; -0.01). PRBD was studied informally; it increases with larger litters, when litter size is >7 piglets born. A number of methodological issues related to the Bayesian model assessment study are discussed, as well as the genetic consequences of inferring response to selection using additive genetic models. PMID:10978292

  19. MIRU-VNTR genotype diversity and indications of homoplasy in M. avium strains isolated from humans and slaughter pigs in Latvia.

    PubMed

    Kalvisa, Adrija; Tsirogiannis, Constantinos; Silamikelis, Ivars; Skenders, Girts; Broka, Lonija; Zirnitis, Agris; Jansone, Inta; Ranka, Renate

    2016-09-01

    Diseases which are caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are an increasing problem in the developed countries. In Latvia, one of the most clinically important members of NTM is Mycobacterium avium (M. avium), an opportunistic pathogen which has been isolated from several lung disease patients and tissue samples of slaughter pigs. This study was designed to characterize the genetic diversity of the M. avium isolates in Latvia and to compare the distribution of genotypic patterns among humans and pigs. Eleven (Hall and Salipante, 2010) clinical M. avium samples, isolated from patients of Center of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (years 2003-2010), and 32 isolates from pig necrotic mesenterial lymph nodes in different regions (years 2003-2007) were analyzed. The majority (42 of 43) of samples were identified as M. avium subsp. hominissuis; one porcine isolate belonged to M. avium subsp. avium. MIRU-VNTR genotyping revealed 13 distinct genotypes, among which nine genotype patterns, including M. avium subsp. avium isolate, were newly identified. IS1245 RFLP fingerprinting of 25 M. avium subsp. hominissuis samples yielded 17 different IS1245 RFLP patterns, allowing an efficient discrimination of isolates. Clusters of identical RFLP profiles were observed within host species, geographical locations and time frame of several years. Additional in silico analysis on simulated MIRU-VNTR genotype population datasets showed that the MIRU-VNTR pattern similarity could partly arise due to probabilistic increase of acquiring homoplasy among subpopulations, thus the similar MIRU-VNTR profiles of M. avium strains even in close geographical proximity should be interpreted with caution. PMID:27178993

  20. Evaluating the prevalence of tail biting and carcase condemnations in slaughter pigs in the Republic and Northern Ireland, and the potential of abattoir meat inspection as a welfare surveillance tool.

    PubMed

    Harley, S; More, S J; O'Connell, N E; Hanlon, A; Teixeira, D; Boyle, L

    2012-12-15

    Despite extensive utilisation in epidemiological investigations of animal health, to date there has been little consideration of the value of abattoir meat inspection as a pig welfare surveillance tool. This study measured the prevalence of tail-docking, tail biting, carcase condemnations and associated financial losses of the latter (Northern Ireland only) in 36,963 pigs slaughtered in six abattoirs from the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland in July and August 2010. Over 99 per cent of inspected pigs had been tail-docked, while 58.1 per cent and 1.03 per cent had detectable and severe tail lesions, respectively. Producer losses resulting from carcase condemnation were estimated to be €0.37 per pig slaughtered. Enhanced capture and utilisation of meat inspection data for use in animal welfare surveillance schemes has the potential to drive improvements in production efficiency and animal welfare. However, significant differences were detected in the prevalence of carcase condemnation conditions between abattoirs and judiciaries (Republic and Northern Ireland). This reflects variation in the criteria and methods of data capture used in meat inspection in different abattoirs. Thus, the meat inspection process needs to be standardised and reformed before it can be reliably utilised in large-scale pig welfare surveillance schemes. PMID:23248113

  1. The effects of lairage time and handling procedure prior to slaughter on stress and meat quality parameters in pigs.

    PubMed

    Dokmanović, M; Velarde, A; Tomović, V; Glamočlija, N; Marković, R; Janjić, J; Baltić, M Ž

    2014-10-01

    Lairage time (short - 8min to 2.7h, n=28 vs. long - 14 to 21.5h, n=72) and pig handling (gentle - no use of stick or electric prod, pig not slipping, falling, nor emitting high-pitched vocalizations vs. rough - where any of these occurred) effects on pig stress and meat quality were measured. Blood lactate and cortisol, plus post-mortem pH (pH60min; pH24h), temperature (T60min), drip loss, sensory and instrumental color and meat quality for the longissimus dorsi, pars lumbalis derived meat were determined. Carcass rigor mortis and skin damages were measured. Lairage time significantly affected blood lactate, carcass rigor mortis, skin damages, drip loss, color and meat quality. Handling procedure influenced blood lactate, pH60min and T60min. Long lairage was more stressful, and was detrimental to carcass quality, but caused better meat quality compared to short lairage. Rough handling was related to higher lactate and lower meat quality. PMID:24971810

  2. Digestibility and metabolic utilization of diets containing whole-ear corn silage and their effects on growth and slaughter traits of heavy pigs.

    PubMed

    Zanfi, C; Colombini, S; Mason, F; Galassi, G; Rapetti, L; Malagutti, L; Crovetto, G M; Spanghero, M

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate 2 levels of dietary inclusion of chopped whole-ear corn silage (WECS) on energy and nutrient utilization, growth, and slaughter performances of heavy pigs. Two in vivo experiments were conducted to determine digestibility and metabolic utilization of WECS using 18 barrows weighing 118 ± 8 kg BW on average, metabolic cages and respiration chambers (Exp. 1), and the effect of WECS on the growth performance and carcass traits on 42 barrows from 90 to 170 kg BW (Exp. 2). In both experiments, pigs were fed 3 experimental diets: a control diet (CON) containing cereal meals, extracted soybean meal, and wheat bran (80%, 9%, and 8% of DM, respectively) and 2 diets containing 15% (15WECS) or 30% WECS (30WECS) on a DM basis in place of wheat bran and corn meal. The diets were prepared daily by mixing the WECS to a suitable compound feed. Feed intake was always restricted to allow a daily DMI of 7.2% BW(0.75) in Exp. 1 and from 8.0% to 6.5% BW(0.75) in Exp. 2. Diets had similar NDF contents (15.2% to 15.8% of DM), and WECS inclusion resulted in a slight reduction in CP content (from 14.0% to 13.6% of DM) and a considerable decrease in P content (from 0.47% to 0.30% of DM). Digestibility of OM, CP, and fat was similar among diets, whereas P digestibility was lower (P < 0.05) for the 30WECS diet (33.5%) in comparison with the CON and 15WECS diets (45.5% and 44.1%, respectively). Nitrogen lost in feces and urine and N retained were not different among diets, whereas P retained decreased with the increase of WECS (5.4, 3.7, and 2.2 g/d for the CON, 15WECS, and 30WECS diets, respectively; P < 0.05). No difference among diets was observed for energy balance. The WECS contained 13.48 MJ ME and 9.39 MJ NE/kg DM. In Exp. 2, feed intake was not depressed by WECS inclusion, and the ADG for the whole experiment was not different among dietary treatments (from 737 to 774 g/d). Fecal pH was lower (P < 0.05) for the WECS diets than the control diet (7.10 and 7.00 vs

  3. Temporal relationship between decrease in antimicrobial prescription for Danish pigs and the "Yellow Card" legal intervention directed at reduction of antimicrobial use.

    PubMed

    Jensen, V F; de Knegt, L V; Andersen, V D; Wingstrand, A

    2014-12-01

    The potential effects of the "Yellow Card" intervention, enforced by Danish authorities in December 2010, on the antimicrobial prescription in the Danish pig production were investigated. Data on antimicrobial prescription for pigs during 2002-2012 was obtained from the national database on veterinary prescribed medicines, VetStat. Descriptive analysis of temporal trends in quantitative antimicrobial prescription for pigs on national level was performed for each administration route, age group and disease group. In addition, prescription patterns of the three most prescribed antimicrobial classes (tetracyclines, macrolides and pleuromutilins) for weaners and finishers were studied at herd level. A 25% decline in the total antimicrobial use per pig produced occurred between 2009 and 2011. A decline was observed both in sows and piglets (31%), weaners (34%) and finishers (19%). Reduced prescription of tetracycline, macrolides and pleuromutilins for oral use, mainly for gastrointestinal disease (GI) in weaners and finishers, explained 76% of the total reduction. In 2012, the overall antimicrobial use increased by 10%, as a partial reversal of the preceding changes in prescription pattern. On herd level, the decline and subsequent increase was mainly related to changes in number of herds receiving regular monthly prescriptions. This study demonstrated that the steep decrease in antimicrobial use in the Danish pig production was temporally related with the announcement and introduction of the Yellow Card intervention. PMID:25263135

  4. Does Pre-Slaughter Stress Affect Pork Safety?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although much of the Salmonella contamination of pork occurs along the slaughter and processing line, infected pigs delivered to the abattoirs are considered as the original source of pork contaminations. Studies of the effects of pre-slaughter stressors on food safety risk in market pigs are scarce...

  5. Biocide and antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella isolates obtained before and after cleaning at six Danish pig slaughterhouses.

    PubMed

    Gantzhorn, Mette Rørbæk; Pedersen, Karl; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Thomsen, Line Elnif

    2014-07-01

    Salmonella sp. continues to be one of the most important foodborne pathogens. Control measures in terms of cleaning and disinfection on food production plants are very important for limiting the risk of contaminated food products to reach the consumer. In the last decade concern has arisen that bacteria exposed to disinfectants can develop resistance toward disinfectants and can have a higher risk of developing antibiotic resistance. The objectives of this study were to examine the prevalence of biocide resistant Salmonella sp. in Danish pig slaughterhouses, to evaluate if there was a correlation between susceptibilities to biocides and antibiotics, and to examine if cleaning and disinfection select isolates with changed susceptibility toward biocides or antibiotics. Salmonella sp. was isolated from the environment in Danish pig slaughterhouses before and after cleaning and disinfection. The susceptibility toward three different biocides, triclosan and two commercial disinfection products: Desinfect Maxi, a quaternary ammonium compound, and Incimaxx DES, an acetic compound, was determined. We found no resistance toward the biocides tested, but we did find that isolates obtained after cleaning had higher minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values toward one of the disinfectants (Incimaxx DES) compared to isolates obtained before cleaning and disinfection. This could indicate selection of strains that are more tolerant, due to the cleaning and disinfection. Furthermore, we found that there was a weak statistical correlation between MICs toward the biocides and some antibiotics, but no difference in log(MIC)s toward antibiotics between isolates obtained before and after cleaning, nor did we find any difference in the number of resistances of isolates obtained before and after cleaning and disinfection. PMID:24819413

  6. Impact of the amount of straw provided to pigs kept in intensive production conditions on the occurrence and severity of gastric ulceration at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Herskin, Mette S; Jensen, Henrik E; Jespersen, Anna; Forkman, Björn; Jensen, Margit B; Canibe, Nuria; Pedersen, Lene J

    2016-02-01

    This study examined effects of the amount of straw offered on occurrence and severity of gastric lesions in pigs kept in pens (18 pigs, 0.7 m(2)/pig) with partly slatted flooring and 10, 500 or 1000 g straw/pig/day from 30 kg live weight. The pigs had ad libitum access to dry feed. Forty-five pigs were used, three from each of 15 pens. After euthanization, the dimension of the non-glandular region of the stomach was measured. Lesions were characterized and scored. Irrespective of straw provided, 67% of the pigs showed signs of gastric pathology. Pigs provided with 500 or 1000 g straw were pooled as 'permanent access'. The proportion of pigs with ulcerations was reduced by permanent access to straw (7 vs. 33%; P<0.05), suggesting that permanent access to straw may improve animal health, and be considered as one possible strategy to limit gastric ulceration in pigs. PMID:26850561

  7. Persistent Spatial Clusters of Prescribed Antimicrobials among Danish Pig Farms – A Register-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Fertner, Mette; Sanchez, Javier; Boklund, Anette; Stryhn, Henrik; Dupont, Nana; Toft, Nils

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of pathogens resistant to antimicrobials has prompted political initiatives targeting a reduction in the use of veterinary antimicrobials in Denmark, especially for pigs. This study elucidates the tendency of pig farms with a significantly higher antimicrobial use to remain in clusters in certain geographical regions of Denmark. Animal Daily Doses/100 pigs/day were calculated for all three age groups of pigs (weaners, finishers and sows) for each quarter during 2012–13 in 6,143 commercial indoor pig producing farms. The data were split into four time periods of six months. Repeated spatial cluster analyses were performed to identify persistent clusters, i.e. areas included in a significant cluster throughout all four time periods. Antimicrobials prescribed for weaners did not result in any persistent clusters. In contrast, antimicrobial use in finishers clustered persistently in two areas (157 farms), while those issued for sows clustered in one area (51 farms). A multivariate analysis including data on antimicrobial use for weaners, finishers and sows as three separate outcomes resulted in three persistent clusters (551 farms). Compared to farms outside the clusters during this period, weaners, finishers and sows on farms within these clusters had 19%, 104% and 4% higher use of antimicrobials, respectively. Production type, farm type and farm size seemed to have some bearing on the clustering effect. Adding these factors as categorical covariates one at a time in the multivariate analysis reduced the persistent clusters by 24.3%, 30.5% and 34.1%, respectively. PMID:26317206

  8. Time to Loss of Consciousness and Its Relation to Behavior in Slaughter Pigs during Stunning with 80 or 95% Carbon Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Verhoeven, Merel; Gerritzen, Marien; Velarde, Antonio; Hellebrekers, Ludo; Kemp, Bas

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to CO2 at high concentration is a much debated stunning method in pigs. Pigs respond aversively to high concentrations of CO2, and there is uncertainty about what behaviors occur before and after loss of consciousness. The aim was to assess timing of unconsciousness in pigs during exposure to high concentrations of CO2 based on changes in electroencephalogram (EEG) activity and the relation with the behaviors sniffing, retreat and escape attempts, lateral head movements, jumping, muscular contractions, loss of posture, and gasping. Pigs (108 ± 9 kg) were randomly assigned to 80% CO2 (80C, n = 24) or 95% CO2 (95C, n = 24). The time at which the gondola started descending into the well pre-filled with 80C or 95C was marked as T = 0. The CO2 exposure lasted 346 s after which the corneal reflex and breathing were assessed for 1 min. Visual assessment of changes in the amplitude and frequency of EEG traces after T = 0 was used to determine loss of consciousness. Time to loss of consciousness was longer in 80C pigs (47 ± 6 s) than in 95C pigs (33 ± 7 s). Time to an iso-electric EEG was similar in 80C pigs (75 ± 23 s) and 95C pigs (64 ± 32 s). When pigs descended into the well, the earlier entry of 95C pigs into high CO2 atmosphere rather than the concentration of CO2 by itself affected the latency of behavioral responses and decreasing brain activity. During exposure to the gas, 80C and 95C pigs exhibited sniffing, retreat attempts, lateral head movements, jumping, and gasping before loss of consciousness. 95C pigs exhibited all these behaviors on average earlier than 80C pigs after T = 0. But the interval between onset of these behaviors and loss of consciousness and the duration of these behaviors, except gasping, was similar for both treatments. Loss of posture was on average observed in both groups 10 s before EEG-based loss of consciousness. Furthermore, 88% of 80C pigs and 94% of 95C pigs

  9. Development of a Combined Selection and Enrichment PCR Procedure for Clostridium botulinum Types B, E, and F and Its Use To Determine Prevalence in Fecal Samples from Slaughtered Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Dahlenborg, Maria; Borch, Elisabeth; Rådström, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A specific and sensitive combined selection and enrichment PCR procedure was developed for the detection of Clostridium botulinum types B, E, and F in fecal samples from slaughtered pigs. Two enrichment PCR assays, using the DNA polymerase rTth, were constructed. One assay was specific for the type B neurotoxin gene, and the other assay was specific for the type E and F neurotoxin genes. Based on examination of 29 strains of C. botulinum, 16 strains of other Clostridium spp., and 48 non-Clostridium strains, it was concluded that the two PCR assays detect C. botulinum types B, E, and F specifically. Sample preparation prior to the PCR was based on heat treatment of feces homogenate at 70°C for 10 min, enrichment in tryptone-peptone-glucose-yeast extract broth at 30°C for 18 h, and DNA extraction. The detection limits after sample preparation were established as being 10 spores per g of fecal sample for nonproteolytic type B, and 3.0 × 103 spores per g of fecal sample for type E and nonproteolytic type F with a detection probability of 95%. Seventy-eight pig fecal samples collected from slaughter houses were analyzed according to the combined selection and enrichment PCR procedure, and 62% were found to be PCR positive with respect to the type B neurotoxin gene. No samples were positive regarding the type E and F neurotoxin genes, indicating a prevalence of less than 1.3%. Thirty-four (71%) of the positive fecal samples had a spore load of less than 4 spores per g. Statistical analysis showed that both rearing conditions (outdoors and indoors) and seasonal variation (summer and winter) had significant effects on the prevalence of C. botulinum type B, whereas the effects of geographical location (southern and central Sweden) were less significant. PMID:11571185

  10. Microencapsulated sorbic acid and pure botanicals affect Salmonella Typhimurium shedding in pigs: a close-up look from weaning to slaughter in controlled and field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a combination of sorbic acid, thymol, and carvacrol in reducing the prevalence and shedding of Salmonella Typhimurium in pigs either in a controlled challenge environment or in a production setting. In the first study, 24 weaned piglets were dist...

  11. Pre-slaughter handling and pork quality.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, L; Van de Perre, V; Permentier, L; De Bie, S; Verbeke, G; Geers, R

    2015-02-01

    Environmental variables, as sound levels, were collected during the pre-slaughter process in 18 different Belgian commercial slaughterhouses. Four pre-slaughter phases were determined: firstly after arrival of the truck at the slaughterhouse and just before unloading, secondly during unloading, thirdly at lairage and finally while moving to the stunner. A total of 8508 pigs was examined during the pre-slaughter process, of which the pH(LT) (M. longissimus thoracis), at 30 min post-mortem was measured. For each pre-slaughter phase, variables which might influence pork quality were determined. Moreover, this study made it possible to infer a checklist to represent and predict PSE traits of pork for all kind of pre-slaughter situations. The checklist shows also that the impact on pork quality is more decisive for the variables measured close to the stunning phase. Hence, this information is useful for the industry to optimize handling of pigs, reducing the risk for PSE traits. PMID:25460114

  12. Growth performance and pork fat quality as measured by three methods of pigs fed 20% DDGS and slaughtered using a standard industry split marketing strategy.

    PubMed

    Shircliff, K E; Callahan, Z D; Wilmoth, T A; Ohman, C E; Johnson, R C; Wiegand, B R

    2015-10-01

    A total of 40 pens containing 22 crossbred barrows (initial BW = 43.07 ± 1.61 kg; PIC 1050 × PIC 337 genetics) were housed in a commercial wean to finish facility. Pens were randomly allotted to dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 levels of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS; 0% or 20%) and chosen for 1 of 3 marketing cuts removing 4, 8, and 10 animals from each pen. Fat tissue samples were removed from the anterior tip of the jowl and posterior to the sternum on the belly edge 1d postmortem. Fatty acid composition was determined via the Folch method, and iodine values (IV) were calculated from chemical titrations, fatty acid profile (GC IV), and in-plant Bruker near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Pearson's correlation coefficients for IV determination methods were estimated. Inclusion of 20% DDGS did not change ( > 0.05) growth performance, whereas marketing cut affected performance, with the second cut producing the most efficient pigs ( < 0.01). Total SFA and MUFA concentrations were higher ( < 0.01) in belly and jowl fat from pigs fed 0% DDGS. Total PUFA and the PUFA:SFA in belly and jowl fat was higher ( < 0.01) when 20% DDGS was fed. Dried distillers grains with solubles inclusion increased IV in belly and jowl as determined by all 3 methods. Regardless of dietary treatment or fat depot, Pearson correlation coefficients between titration and GC IV, titration and NIR, and GC IV and NIR were 0.46 ( < 0.01), 0.68 ( < 0.01), and 0.43 ( < 0.01), respectively. These correlations suggest methods may rank samples equally but do not provide the same absolute IV. Belly fat had a lower IV ( < 0.01) than jowl fat using titration or GC IV methods, suggesting pigs have varied degrees of physiological maturity at specific fat depots when weight end points are used during the finishing phase. In conclusion, feeding 20% DDGS negatively affected fat quality but not growth performance, and marketing time changed growth performance. PMID:26523600

  13. The effect of discontinued use of antimicrobial growth promoters on the risk of therapeutic antibiotic treatment in Danish farrow-to-finish pig farms

    PubMed Central

    VIGRE, H.; LARSEN, P. B.; ANDREASEN, M.; CHRISTENSEN, J.; JORSAL, S. E.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY This study estimated the effect of discontinued use of antimicrobial growth promoters (duAGPs) on the risk of antibiotic treatment for diarrhoea, arthritis, pneumonia, unthriving and miscellaneous disorders in Danish pig farms. The estimation was done in a case-crossover study comparing: (1) the proportion of days per farm where treatment was performed (PDT) and (2) the proportion of pigs treated per day per farm at days where treatment was performed (PPT) before and after duAGPs at 68 farrow-to-finish farms. The farms were selected using a two-stage (veterinarian/farm) convenience sampling. On average, during the first year after duAGPs there was a significant increase in the risk of antibiotic treatment for diarrhoea (PDT: OR 2·5, 95% CI 1·7–3·8; PPT: OR 1·6, 95% CI 1·1–2·2). However, the effect varied among farms – some farms experienced substantial problems, while others experienced few problems after duAGPs. No effect was identified for the risk of treatment for other diseases. PMID:17335634

  14. Resistance phenotypes and genotypes among multiple-antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Choleraesuis strains isolated between 2008 and 2012 from slaughter pigs in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    MATAYOSHI, Masanao; KITANO, Takashi; SASAKI, Tetsu; NAKAMURA, Masaji

    2015-01-01

    A total of 349 Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) strains, which were isolated between 2008 and 2012 from 349 pigs at two slaughterhouses in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, were investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes. All isolates were resistant to at least four antimicrobial agents. The antimicrobial agents for which isolates showed a high incidence of resistance were as follows: ampicillin (100%) and streptomycin (100%), followed by gentamicin (99.7%), oxytetracycline (99.7%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (99.4%), nalidixic acid (40.1%) and oxolinic acid (40.1%). All isolates were sensitive to cefuroxime, ceftiofur, colistin, fosfomycin, enrofloxacin, orbifloxacin and danofloxacin. The predominant resistance phenotypes and genotypes were: resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, gentamicin, oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (58.5%, 204/349) and blaTEM-strA-strB-aadA1-aadA2-aacC2-tet (B)-sul1-sul2-dhfrXII-dhfrXIII (36.1%, 126/349). The quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE of the quinolone-resistant isolates (n=12) showed amino acid substitutions of Ser-83→Phe or Asp-87→Tyr in GyrA and Ser-107→Ala in ParC. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance among S. Choleraesuis strains in Japan. PMID:25715779

  15. Split marketing: A risk factor for Salmonella in market pigs?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine if split marketing affects Salmonella prevalence in market pigs, by comparing the Salmonella prevalence in the first group of pigs selected for slaughter (i.e., “First pull”) versus the last group of pigs selected for slaughter (i.e., “Close out”) from typical co...

  16. Animal welfare at markets and during transport and slaughter.

    PubMed

    Gregory, N G

    2008-09-01

    This review highlights some recent developments in our understanding of stress and physical injuries that occur before and during transport to slaughter, during handling at livestock markets, and at the time animals are put-up for slaughter within abattoirs. Stress in pigs during transfer to the stunning point within the abattoir has important effects on meat quality, and there is growing evidence that strenuous exercise or CO(2) stunning can contribute to oxidative rancidity in pigs, poultry and fish. In the EU, putting cattle through a crush in order to check that their eartag numbers correspond to their passport numbers is imposing additional stress, and there are reports that it is leading to greater hide contamination with Escherichia coli O157. Recent developments in stunning and slaughter include a better understanding of the causes of variation in captive bolt gun performance, the effectiveness of poll instead of frontal shooting in water buffalo, the prevalence of false aneurysms in carotid arteries during shechita and halal slaughter, and the stress effects of CO(2) stunning in fish. Stunning pigs with 90% CO(2) leads to less PSE meat than 80% CO(2). There have been concerns about the physical activity that cattle show following electrical stunning with an electrically induced cardiac arrest, and with electrical stunning using DC waveforms in broiler chickens. There is also growing concern about the hygiene problems that exist in wet markets, where animals are slaughtered alongside meat that is on display to customers. PMID:22063164

  17. Does pre-slaughter stress affect pork safety risk?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella is the top food safety priority for the pork industry. Although contamination of pork occurs along the slaughter and processing line, infected live pigs entering the abattoir constitute the original Salmonella contamination source. However, the extent of carcass contamination is not only ...

  18. Hazard identification in swine slaughter with respect to foodborne bacteria.

    PubMed

    Borch, E; Nesbakken, T; Christensen, H

    1996-06-01

    Swine slaughter is an open process with many opportunities for the contamination of the pork carcass with potentially pathogenic bacteria; however, it does not contain any point where hazards are completely eliminated. Data on the prevalence of various pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Campylobacter coli/jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica) in pigs, their growth and survival characteristics and ability to become established on the slaughter line are presented. The presentation covers the processing steps from lairage to chilling and is based on swine slaughter practices in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The major contamination points during swine slaughter are pig-related, such as faecal and pharyngeal, and environmental. HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) and GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) in swine slaughter must be focused on limiting this spread. The pathogenic bacteria show differences in their general mechanism of distribution. The major contamination source of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp. and Y. enterocolitica is the pig, and the contamination of carcasses with these bacteria may be limited, provided that only strict slaughtering procedures are used. Other organisms such as Aeromonas spp., L. moncytogenes/Listeria spp. and S. aureus can be endemic in the processing environment. Since endemic bacteria can be controlled by proper cleaning and disinfection, these organisms are useful as indicators for the success of GMP rules. The following affiliation to CPs or CCPs made for specific steps during slaughter and dressing may serve as a guidance: (i) lairage (CP), (ii) killing (CP), (iii) scalding (CP), (iv) dehairing (CP), (v) singeing/flaming (CP), (vi) polishing (CP), (vii) circumanal incision and removal of the intestines (CCP), (viii) excision of the tongue, pharynx, and in particular the tonsils (CCP), (ix) splitting (CP), (x) post mortem inspection procedures (CCP

  19. Salmonella control measures with special focus on vaccination and logistic slaughter procedures.

    PubMed

    Hotes, S; Traulsen, I; Krieter, J

    2011-10-01

    This study focussed on the effectiveness of Salmonella control measures to decrease Salmonella prevalence at slaughter. Considered measures were the control of hygiene and husbandry management as well as vaccination and logistic slaughter procedures. Results emphasized the capabilities of the farrowing stage to influence slaughter pig prevalence. Limited Salmonella entry by the implementation of hygiene control measures at farrowing farms obtained a significant decrease in prevalence after lairage at slaughterhouse. In contrast, hygiene control measures at finishing stage were less effective. Husbandry control measures, preventing physical contacts between pigs, were proved to decrease slaughter pig prevalence whether they were implemented at farrowing or finishing stage. Furthermore, the vaccination of sows and piglets was an appropriate control measure to decrease slaughter pig prevalence, if a large part of farms established this control measure. Simultaneous implementation of control measures showed that vaccination and especially hygiene measures are mutually supportive. Concerning logistic slaughter procedures it became obvious that with decreasing prevalence, infections at transport and lairage become more and more important. The herd status separation significantly decreased the percentage of infected pigs that became infected at lairage. PMID:21545691

  20. Pre-slaughter sound levels and pre-slaughter handling from loading at the farm till slaughter influence pork quality.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, L; Van de Perre, V; Permentier, L; De Bie, S; Verbeke, G; Geers, R

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the relationship between sound levels, pre-slaughter handling during loading and pork quality. Pre-slaughter variables were investigated from loading till slaughter. A total of 3213 pigs were measured 30 min post-mortem for pH(30LT) (M. Longissimus thoracis). First, a sound level model for the risk to develop PSE meat was established. The difference in maximum and mean sound level during loading, mean sound level during lairage and mean sound level prior to stunning remained significant within the model. This indicated that sound levels during loading had a significant added value to former sound models. Moreover, this study completed the global classification checklist (Vermeulen et al., 2015a) by developing a linear mixed model for pH(30LT) and PSE prevalence, with the difference in maximum and mean sound level measured during loading, the feed withdrawal period and the difference in temperature during loading and lairage. Hence, this study provided new insights over previous research where loading procedures were not included. PMID:26874086

  1. Salmonellas on pig farms and in abattoirs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J. A.; Ghosh, A. C.; Mann, P. G.; Tee, G. H.

    1972-01-01

    Salmonella infection on two pig farms and its relation to infection in pigs at slaughter was studied. On the first farm feed ingredients were mixed on the farm, and these included fish meal which was found to be contaminated with salmonellas. The feed was pumped to pigs in liquid form. There was a high salmonella isolation rate at slaughter when the contaminated fish meal was fed in liquid feed, but it was significantly lower when no fish meal was fed to the pigs examined at slaughter. In some instances the same serotypes were found in fish meal and pig excreta on the farm and in caecal contents of the pigs at slaughter. No serotype was repeatedly isolated from any source and it appeared that the serotypes were not able to establish themselves in the pigs. It is concluded that infection found at slaughter originated on the farm where fish meal introduced and maintained infection. There was an opportunity for salmonellas to have multiplied in the liquid feed for several hours each day. On a second farm environmental conditions were similar, but feed was given in the form of ready-made pellets and nuts. Salmonellas were not isolated from the feed. At slaughter there was a significantly lower isolation rate than on the first farm. PMID:4501835

  2. Pig Feeding under the Potato-green Forage Base System with or without Addition of Herbs versus a Concentrate Based System: Effect on Post-slaughter Performance and Pork Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Turyk, Zofia; Osek, Maria; Olkowski, Bogusław; Janocha, Alina

    2014-01-01

    This study examined carcass and meat quality parameters in growing/finishing pigs fed unconventionally versus the concentrate-based system. Ninety-six, 12 wk old pigs (34±SD 0.3 kg) were randomly divided into three groups, assigned to one of the three dietary treatments: standard complete concentrate mixture, conventional (C diet); unconventional, steamed potato-green forage-concentrate based diet (U diet), and unconventional basal diet+herbage mix (UH diet). Pigs fed U diet showed lower dressing percentage, meatiness, loin eye area, and weight of pork neck (p≤0.05), but their carcasses were significantly (p≤0.05) longer and had increased backfat depth (p≤0.05). There was no impact of the diet on the meat content of dry matter, crude ash, acidity, and colour parameters of m. longissimus. Unconventional feeding significantly (p≤0.05) elevated water the holding capacity of m. longissimus and slightly improved the sensory attributes analysis of meat. The addition of herbs resulted in increased loin eye area (p≤0.05), decreased fat content (p≤0.05) in m. longissimus, and tended to improve some sensory attributes of meat. There were significant gender differences in response to all diets. There were significant diet×sex interactions for some measured variables, but there were no clearly identifiable trends with regard to any specific carcass or meat parameters. Feeding unconventional diet to pigs may offer better culinary attributes of the meat, and improve some technologically important characteristics of pig carcass, but may negatively affect some carcass or meat parameters. PMID:25050003

  3. Salmonella prevalence in “first pull” versus “close out” market pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to compare the Salmonella prevalence in the first group of pigs selected for slaughter (i.e., “First pull”) versus the last group of pigs selected for slaughter (i.e., “Close out”) from typical commercial finishing barns containing 800 - 1,000 animals. Nine paired observation...

  4. Determining the optimal number of individual samples to pool for quantification of average herd levels of antimicrobial resistance genes in Danish pig herds using high-throughput qPCR.

    PubMed

    Clasen, Julie; Mellerup, Anders; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Angen, Øystein; Folkesson, Anders; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils; Birkegård, Anna Camilla

    2016-06-30

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the minimum number of individual fecal samples to pool together in order to obtain a representative sample for herd level quantification of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes in a Danish pig herd, using a novel high-throughput qPCR assay. The secondary objective was to assess the agreement between different methods of sample pooling. Quantification of AMR was achieved using a high-throughput qPCR method to quantify the levels of seven AMR genes (ermB, ermF, sulI, sulII, tet(M), tet(O) and tet(W)). A large variation in the levels of AMR genes was found between individual samples. As the number of samples in a pool increased, a decrease in sample variation was observed. It was concluded that the optimal pooling size is five samples, as an almost steady state in the variation was observed when pooling this number of samples. Good agreement between different pooling methods was found and the least time-consuming method of pooling, by transferring feces from each individual sample to a tube using a 10μl inoculation loop and adding 3.5ml of PBS, approximating a 10% solution, can therefore be used in future studies. PMID:27259826

  5. 9 CFR 149.6 - Slaughter facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Slaughter facilities. 149.6 Section 149.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT VOLUNTARY TRICHINAE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM § 149.6 Slaughter facilities. Only slaughter facilities that are under...

  6. [Handling of animals for slaughter according to animal welfare regulations].

    PubMed

    Stegen, D

    1993-02-01

    According to animal protection the transport and proceeding of slaughtering are a difficult topic to cope with. The section of people is often restricted to distrust and rejection. In order to achieve improvement we need laws which prescribe the transport standards in particular with regard to the duration of driving and resting periods and the feeding. Transports which exceed 12 h enlarge the risk of disregarding laws and prescriptions and should on principle be prohibited. At least the important coherence between protection of slaughter animals on the one hand and the meat quality on the other hand requires a careful treatment of the animals from the producer to the slaughtering. The only successful options are strict control and high penalties. To get the method of narcosis of pigs out of common criticism we should lead our minds into a new direction: In this case animal protection should be more reflected to than meat hygiene problems and therefore the possibility of a provoked heart failure before the bleeding out should be realized. PMID:8462422

  7. Direct feeding of microencapsulated bacteriophages to reduce Salmonella colonization in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella shedding often increases in pigs following pre-slaughter transportation and/or lairage. We previously showed that administering anti-Salmonella bacteriophages to pigs by gavage significantly reduced Salmonella colonization when the pigs were exposed to a Salmonella-contaminated pen. In ...

  8. Lactic acid as a decontaminant in slaughter and processing procedures.

    PubMed

    Snijders, J M; van Logtestijn, J G; Mossel, D A; Smulders, F J

    1985-10-01

    An attempt was made to interrelate the data obtained in experiments conducted by our Department along beef, veal and pig slaughter lines, using lactic acid (LA) for the decontamination of carcasses, cold and hot boned primal cuts, slaughter byproducts, and butcher's knives. First and foremost it was observed, that provided Good Manufacturing Practices are strictly followed, the microbial load of carcass surfaces will be substantially reduced. LA-decontamination may result in an additional reduction. Since in the early post-mortem period bacteria are not yet attached to the meat surface, LA-decontamination should preferably be applied to the hot carcass. It was demonstrated that, dependent on mode and duration of application, LA sprays not exceeding 1% v/v (beef), 1.25% v/v (veal) and 1.5% v/v (pork) resulted in acceptable carcass colour scores. Blood spots, which are particularly prone to discolouration by lactic acid application, should be removed at an early post-mortem stage e.g. by strong showering. The difference in surface pH between LA-treated and control carcasses disappeared within 72 hours post-mortem. Veal longissimus chops treated with LA solutions up to 2% v/v were not identified by a consumer taste panel as significantly different from controls. The 'immediate' bactericidal effect of LA-decontamination for beef, veal and pig carcasses, as well as for pig liver and veal brain, amounted to approximately 1.5 log cycles for the aerobic colony counts, strongly dependent on substrate and conditions of decontamination. In addition, a 'delayed' bacteriostatic effect was observed during storage, which is probably the result of a prolonged lag phase of acid-injured micro-organisms surviving lactic acid decontamination.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4071948

  9. [Recording the lesions in slaughter animals for quality assurance in meat production].

    PubMed

    Blaha, T

    1994-07-01

    Pathologic-anatomic lesions of lungs, pleura, pericard and liver in slaughter pigs, which can be assigned to the farm of origin, are well suited as indicator for the herd health. The paper demonstrates a code for quantifying the lesions in single animals as well as a code for quantifying the health status of the herds the pigs come from. When used in the framework of integrated quality assurance systems (IQS) for the pork production, slaughter checks and their feed back to the farmer will lead to a gradual improvement of the health status of fattening herds, since it is expected that farmers who are informed about major lacks in their herd health will ask for veterinary consultation. In general, the implementation of IQS from "conception to consumption" will enlarge the importance of the veterinary profession within the production chain for food of animal origin. PMID:7924960

  10. [Hygienic aspects of pig's head meat. 1. Obtaining and processing pigs' heads].

    PubMed

    Bijker, P G; Koolmees, P A

    1988-05-01

    Pigs's head meat is mainly obtained in specialised deboning plants and provides raw materials for the manufacture of meat products and snacks. Few data on hygiene in processing and production of pig's heads or on the bacteriological quality and tissue composition of pig's head meat have so far been published. The object of the present investigation was to supplement these data and to examine the extent to which this quality could be improved by Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP's). A total number of 11 slaughter-houses and 14 deboning plants were studied. Hygiene was assessed by two investigators on the basis of a check list. Temperatures of rooms, heads and head meat were measured. Twenty-one samples (7 x 3) were taken in each of nine deboning plants for bacteriological and histological examination. The investigations carried out in slaughter-houses showed that pig's heads were only washed in five out of eleven slaughter-houses. Cleansing and disinfection of the apparatus used in splitting the carcasses were omitted or merely carried out incidentally during slaughter. Assessment of hygiene in the deboning plants ranged from adequate to satisfactory in 13 out of 14 plants. The average aerobic colony count in Log N g-1 of pig's head meat was 6.7 +/- 0.7; this was 4.4 +/- 0.9 for counts of colony-forming units (CFU) of Enterobacteriaceae. Tonsils, mucous membranes, bone, hair and dirt were found to be present in 8, 13, 21, 39 and 9 per cent of the samples respectively. As a result of the manual cleavage of heads, relatively large bone particles (greater than 8 mm) were detected in the head meat. It is concluded that an improvement of the hygienic quality of pig's head meat can mainly be achieved by taking more care in obtaining pig's heads. PMID:3287680

  11. Longitudinal Study of the Persistence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Campylobacter Strains in Distinct Swine Production Systems on Farms, at Slaughter, and in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Quintana-Hayashi, Macarena P.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare and characterize the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant (AR) Campylobacter in conventional and antimicrobial-free (ABF) production systems on farms, at slaughter, and in the environment. Fecal and environmental samples were collected from ABF farms (pigs, 1,239; environment, 797) and conventional farms (pigs, 1,650; environment, 1,325). At slaughter, we collected samples from carcasses, including postevisceration swabs, postchill swabs, and mesenteric lymph nodes from ABF systems (postevisceration swabs, 182; postchill swabs, 199; mesenteric lymph nodes, 184) and conventional systems (postevisceration swabs, 272; postchill swabs, 271; mesenteric lymph nodes, 255) at separate processing facilities. We also sampled the processing plant environment, including truck and lairage floor swab samples (ABF, 115; conventional, 90). Overall, a total of 2,908 Campylobacter isolates, including Campylobacter coli (farm, 2,557, 99.8%; slaughter, 341, 98.3%) and Campylobacter jejuni (farm, 4, 0.2%; slaughter, 6, 1.7%), were isolated in the study. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of Campylobacter between ABF and conventionally raised pigs (farrowing, P = 0.20; nursery, P = 0.06; finishing, P = 0.24) and the environment (P = 0.37). At slaughter, Campylobacter was isolated from all of the stages, including postchill. The highest frequencies of resistance were exhibited against tetracycline (ABF, 48.2%; conventional, 88.3%). Ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli isolates were observed in conventionally raised (17.1%) and ABF (1.2%) pigs (P = 0.11). Antimicrobial use data from conventional farms indicated significant associations between oxytetracycline use and tetracycline resistance in the nursery pigs (P = 0.01), between tiamulin exposure and azithromycin and erythromycin resistance in nursery (P < 0.01) and finishing (P < 0.01) pigs, and between enrofloxacin exposure and ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid resistance in

  12. Report on religious slaughter practices in Italy.

    PubMed

    Novelli, Sara

    2016-01-01

    The term 'religious slaughter' commonly refers to the practice of killing animals without stunning, according to the precepts of Jewish and Muslim religions. The aim of this paper is to assess the situation concerning ritual slaughtering in not-stun bovines, small ruminants, and poultry in Italy in 2012. The study was divided into 2 phases. During the rst phase, preliminary data about all slaughterhouses authorized for ritual slaughter in Italy in 2012 are collected through the compilation of a questionnaire sent to each plants. The second step involved a sampling of not-stun animals religiously slaughtered in 5 selected plants. Authors collected and compiled all informations about management, restrain system and rite taking into account in particular animal welfare. PMID:27033526

  13. Meat Quality of Crossbred Porkers without the Gene RYR1 (T) Depending on Slaughter Weight.

    PubMed

    Czyżak-Runowska, Grażyna; Wojtczak, Janusz; Łyczyński, Andrzej; Wójtowski, Jacek; Markiewicz-Kęszycka, Maria; Stanisławski, Daniel; Babicz, Marek

    2015-03-01

    The first aim of the study was to compare selected meat quality parameters in porkers without the gene RYR1 (T) (ryanodine receptor gene). These were porkers slaughtered at 100 to 115 kg and 116 to 130 kg live weight. The second aim of the study was to determine the occurrence frequency of standard-quality meat (red, firm, nonexudative [RFN]) and the occurence frequency of defective meat (pale, soft, exudative [PSE] and acid, soft, exudative [ASE]). The analysis was conducted on the longissimus lumborum muscle in 114 crossbred porkers. The porkers were a cross of Camborough 22 sows and boars from lines 337PIC (Pig Improvement Company), Norsvin Landrace and Pietrain. All of the animals were provided with identical environmental and nutritional conditions. The average weight of the slaughtered animals in the light and heavy groups was 110 kg and 122 kg, respectively. Both groups had the same average post-slaughter meatiness (56.5%). A statistical analysis of selected meat-quality parameters did not show any significant differences between the weight groups. On the other hand, the classification based on carcass quality showed an occurence frequency of defective meat in heavier crossbred porkers (116 to 130 kg) that was three times higher than in those crossbred animals which weighed 100 to 115 kg when slaughtered. In porkers without the gene RYR1 (T) , the defective meat types PSE and ASE occurred with a frequency of 17.54%. PMID:25656204

  14. THE EFFECTS OF RACTOPAMINE ON BEHAVIOR AND PHYSIOLOGY OF FINISHING PIGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study aimed to examine the effects of ractopamine (RAC) on behavior and physiology of pigs during handling and transport. Twenty-four groups of 3 finishing pigs were randomly assigned to one of two treatments, four weeks prior to slaughter; 1) finishing feed plus RAC (9ppm), 2) finishing feed a...

  15. The influence of dietary carbohydrates on experimental infection with Trichuris suis in pigs.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, L E; Petkevicius, S; Bach Knudsen, K E; Roepstorff, A

    2005-12-01

    Two experiments (Exps 1 and 2) were carried out to study the effect of dietary carbohydrates on the establishment of Trichuris suis in pigs. Two experimental diets based on barley flour were used; Diet 1 was supplemented with non-fermentable carbohydrates from oat hull meal, while Diet 2 was supplemented with fermentable carbohydrates from sugar beet fibre and inulin. In Exp. 1, thirty-two pigs were allocated randomly into 4 groups. Two groups were fed Diet 1 and 2 groups were fed Diet 2. Pigs from one of each diet group were inoculated with 2000 infective T. suis eggs each and the other two groups were uninfected controls. All pigs were slaughtered 8 weeks post-inoculation (p.i.). In Exp. 2, twenty-four pigs were allocated randomly into 2 groups and fed Diet 1 or Diet 2, respectively. All the pigs were inoculated with 2000 infective T. suis eggs. Six pigs from each group were slaughtered 8 weeks p.i. and the remaining 6 pigs from each group were slaughtered 12 weeks p.i. Infections were followed by faecal egg counts and worm burdens were assessed at necropsy. Pigs fed Diet 2 had lower egg counts in both experiments; in Exp. 2 the difference was significant (P<0.05). No differences were found in worm burdens 8 weeks p.i. in both experiments, however, worms from pigs on Diet 2 were significantly shorter (P<0.0001). Pigs fed Diet 2 and slaughtered 12 weeks p.i. had significantly lower worm counts (P<0.01) compared to pigs fed Diet 1. The results indicate that fermentable carbohydrates do not affect the establishment of T. suis in naïve pigs, but result in earlier expulsion and reduced growth of the established worms. Thus, diets with highly fermentable carbohydrates may be used in the control of T. suis. PMID:16336739

  16. Isolation, antibiogram and pathogenicity of Salmonella spp. recovered from slaughtered food animals in Nagpur region of Central India

    PubMed Central

    Kalambhe, D. G.; Zade, N. N.; Chaudhari, S. P.; Shinde, S. V.; Khan, W.; Patil, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To determine the prevalence, antibiogram and pathogenicity of Salmonella spp. in the common food animals slaughtered for consumption purpose at government approved slaughter houses located in and around Nagpur region during a period of 2010-2012. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 samples comprising 50 each of blood and meat from each slaughtered male cattle, buffaloes, pigs and goats were collected. Isolation was done by pre-enrichment in buffered peptone water and enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth with subsequent selective plating onto xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. Presumptive Salmonella colonies were biochemically confirmed and analyzed for pathogenicity by hemolysin production and Congo red dye binding assay (CRDA). An antibiotic sensitivity test was performed to assess the antibiotic resistance pattern of the isolates. Results: A total of 10 isolates of Salmonella spp. from meat (3 from cattle, 1 from buffaloes and 6 from pigs) with an overall prevalence of 5% among food animals was recorded. No isolation was reported from any blood samples. Pathogenicity assays revealed 100% and 80% positivity for CRDA and hemolytic activity, respectively. Antimicrobial sensitivity test showed multi-drug resistance. The overall resistance of 50% was noted for trimethoprim followed by ampicillin (20%). A maximum sensitivity (80%) was reported to gentamycin followed by 40% each to ampicillin and trimethoprim, 30% to amikacin and 10% to kanamycin. Conclusion: The presence of multidrug resistant and potentially pathogenic Salmonella spp. in slaughtered food animals in Nagpur region can be a matter of concern for public health. PMID:27051204

  17. Chronic Sarcocystis infections in slaughtered cattle.

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Mizusawa, K; Itagaki, H

    1993-10-01

    Parasitological, histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations were carried out on three slaughtered cattle with many nodules in all the striated muscles. At necropsy, many yellowish green rice-grain sized nodules including cheesy contents were observed in all the striated muscles. Histopathologically the nodules were granuloma principally consisting of eosinophiles. No Sarcocystis cysts nor bradyzoites were found in the nodules, but intact sarcocysts were found in the normal tissues surrounding the nodules. The central necrotic focus of nodules showed intense positive responses against anti-Sarcocystis cruzi rabbit serum by immunohistochemical examination. From the above findings the slaughtered cattle were diagnosed as chronic sarcocystiasis. PMID:8286527

  18. Cardiac ganglioneuroma in a juvenile pig.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Ryoko; Joma, Ikumi; Otsubo, Koji; Matsutake, Hiroshi; Yanai, Tokuma; Sakai, Hiroki

    2016-02-01

    A cardiac mass (3 × 5 × 3 cm) was detected at the base between the right auricular wall and right vena cava of a slaughtered 6-month-old female mixed-breed pig during a meat inspection. The tumor comprised infiltrative prominent interweaving fascicles of Schwann cells with Verocay bodies. Moreover, the ganglion cells were scattered or aggregated throughout the neoplastic tissue. The ganglion and Schwann cells had neither cellular atypism nor mitosis. On the basis of the bearing site as well as the morphological and immunohistochemical features, this is the first case of a cardiac ganglioneuroma in a pig. PMID:26256406

  19. Cardiac ganglioneuroma in a juvenile pig

    PubMed Central

    INOUE, Ryoko; JOMA, Ikumi; OTSUBO, Koji; MATSUTAKE, Hiroshi; YANAI, Tokuma; SAKAI, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    A cardiac mass (3 × 5 × 3 cm) was detected at the base between the right auricular wall and right vena cava of a slaughtered 6-month-old female mixed-breed pig during a meat inspection. The tumor comprised infiltrative prominent interweaving fascicles of Schwann cells with Verocay bodies. Moreover, the ganglion cells were scattered or aggregated throughout the neoplastic tissue. The ganglion and Schwann cells had neither cellular atypism nor mitosis. On the basis of the bearing site as well as the morphological and immunohistochemical features, this is the first case of a cardiac ganglioneuroma in a pig. PMID:26256406

  20. Modeling of Salmonella Contamination in the Pig Slaughterhouse.

    PubMed

    Swart, A N; Evers, E G; Simons, R L L; Swanenburg, M

    2016-03-01

    In this article we present a model for Salmonella contamination of pig carcasses in the slaughterhouse. This model forms part of a larger QMRA (quantitative microbial risk assessment) on Salmonella in slaughter and breeder pigs, which uses a generic model framework that can be parameterized for European member states, to describe the entire chain from farm-to-consumption and the resultant human illness. We focus on model construction, giving mathematical formulae to describe Salmonella concentrations on individual pigs and slaughter equipment at different stages of the slaughter process. Variability among individual pigs and over slaughterhouses is incorporated using statistical distributions, and simulated by Monte Carlo iteration. We present the results over the various slaughter stages and show that such a framework is especially suitable to investigate the effect of various interventions. In this article we present the results of the slaughterhouse module for two case study member states. The model outcome represents an increase in average prevalence of Salmonella contamination and Salmonella numbers at dehairing and a decrease of Salmonella numbers at scalding. These results show good agreement when compared to several other QMRAs and microbiological studies. PMID:26857531

  1. A review of pig pathology in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Richard Trevor; Swai, Emmanuel

    2013-08-01

    The approximately 1.58 million pigs in Tanzania represent 3.7% of the national population of quadruped meat-producing animals. Pigs are kept mainly by small producers who own 99.5% of the national stock in units that average 3.04 animals (range 2-48). Government policy has had little practical application. African swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease and Cysticercosis are important diseases. The first two are notifiable diseases under Tanzania legislation; the last has widespread distribution and relevance as a major zoonosis. Ascariasis (Ascaris suum), hydatidosis (Echinococcus granulosus), leptospirosis (Leptospira interrogans) and thermophilic Campylobacter are other zoonoses associated with pigs. Gastrointestinal helminths and external parasites, especially Sarcoptes scabiei, are common. Risk factors associated with cysticercosis for humans working with pigs or eating their meat include the free-range or semi-confined management systems, the use of rivers or ponds as a source of water, lack of household sanitation, informal home slaughter, pork not being inspected at slaughter slabs and undercooked and barbecued meat. Pigs are a minor component of Tanzania's livestock sector but there is potential for increasing their contribution to human welfare. Prospects are enhanced by the shorter life cycle, greater number of young produced per year and the possibility of producing high-quality animal protein at a lower cost than meat produced by cattle and small ruminants. PMID:23733144

  2. A description of smallholder pig production systems in eastern Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Edwina E C; Geong, Maria; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2015-03-01

    Pig farming is a common practice among smallholder farmers in Nusa Tenggara Timur province (NTT), eastern Indonesia. To understand their production systems a survey of smallholder pig farmers was conducted. Eighteen villages were randomly selected across West Timor, Flores and Sumba islands, and 289 pig farmers were interviewed. Information on pig management, biosecurity practices, pig movements and knowledge of pig health and disease, specifically classical swine fever was collected. The mean number of pigs per herd was 5.0 (not including piglets), and total marketable herd size (pigs≥two months of age) did not differ significantly between islands (P=0.215). Chickens (71%) and dogs (62%) were the most commonly kept animal species in addition to pigs. Pigs were mainly kept as a secondary income source (69%) and 83% of farmers owned at least one sow. Seventy-four percent (74%) of pigs were housed in a kandang (small bamboo pen) and 25% were tethered. Pig feeds were primarily locally sourced agricultural products (93%). The majority of farmers had no knowledge of classical swine fever (91%) and biosecurity practices were minimal. Forty-five percent (45%) reported to consuming a pig when it died and 74% failed to report cases of sick or dead pigs to appropriate authorities. Sixty-five percent (65%) of farmers reported that a veterinarian or animal health worker had never visited their village. Backyard slaughter was common practice (55%), with meat mainly used for home consumption (89%). Most (73%) farmers purchased pigs in order to raise the animal on their farm with 36% purchasing at least one pig within the last year. Predominantly fattener pigs (34%) were given as gifts for celebratory events, most commonly for funerals (32%), traditional ceremonies (27%) and marriages (10%). For improved productivity of this traditional low-input system, research incorporating farming training and improved knowledge on pig disease and biosecurity needs to be integrated with

  3. 9 CFR 149.6 - Slaughter facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Slaughter facilities. 149.6 Section 149.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... period. 6 More information regarding sampling sizes may be obtained by writing to USDA, APHIS,...

  4. 9 CFR 149.6 - Slaughter facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Slaughter facilities. 149.6 Section 149.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... period. 6 More information regarding sampling sizes may be obtained by writing to USDA, APHIS,...

  5. 9 CFR 149.6 - Slaughter facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Certification Program Web site on the Internet at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/trichinae. If the slaughter... contacting the AMS Trichinae Analyst and Laboratory Certification Program Manager, USDA, AMS, Science and... Facility Sample Size Determination Table on the Internet at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/trichinae to...

  6. 9 CFR 149.6 - Slaughter facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Certification Program Web site on the Internet at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/trichinae. If the slaughter... contacting the AMS Trichinae Analyst and Laboratory Certification Program Manager, USDA, AMS, Science and... Facility Sample Size Determination Table on the Internet at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/trichinae to...

  7. 9 CFR 88.5 - Requirements at a slaughtering facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... COMMERCIAL TRANSPORTATION OF EQUINES FOR SLAUGHTER § 88.5 Requirements at a slaughtering facility. (a) Upon arrival at a slaughtering facility, the owner/shipper must: (1) Ensure that each equine has access to... representative; (3) Allow a USDA representative access to the equines for the purpose of examination; and...

  8. 9 CFR 88.5 - Requirements at a slaughtering facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMERCIAL TRANSPORTATION OF EQUINES FOR SLAUGHTER § 88.5 Requirements at a slaughtering facility. (a) Upon arrival at a slaughtering facility, the owner/shipper must: (1) Ensure that each equine has access to... representative; (3) Allow a USDA representative access to the equines for the purpose of examination; and...

  9. Trend Analyses of Nitrate in Danish Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, B.; Thorling, L.; Dalgaard, T.; Erlandsen, M.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) age determination allows linking of the first two dataset. The development in the nitrate concentration of oxic groundwater clearly mirrors the development in the national agricultural N surplus, and a corresponding trend reversal is found in groundwater. Regulation and technical improvements in the intensive farming in Denmark have succeeded in decreasing the N surplus by 40% since the mid 1980s while at the same time maintaining crop yields and increasing the animal production of especially pigs. Trend analyses prove that the youngest (0-15 years old) oxic groundwater shows more pronounced significant downward nitrate trends (44%) than the oldest (25-50 years old) oxic groundwater (9%). This amounts to clear evidence of the effect of reduced nitrate leaching on groundwater nitrate concentrations in Denmark. Are the Danish groundwater monitoring strategy obtimal for detection of nitrate trends? Will the nitrate concentrations in Danish groundwater continue to decrease or are the Danish nitrate concentration levels now appropriate according to the Water Framework Directive?

  10. Prevalence of gastro-oesophageal ulcers in grower-finisher pigs in the northern province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Makinde, M O; Gous, T A

    1998-06-01

    Ulceration of the gastric pars oesophagea is a common problem in intensive pig production that is often detected at slaughter. A survey was carried out at the Pietersburg abattoir in the Northern Province during a 6-month period. In total, 4320 pig stomachs were examined. Gastro-oesophageal ulcers were observed in 5.1% of the stomachs, gastric erosion in 15.2%, and hyperkeratosis in 18.9%. Time of slaughter was found to affect the prevalence of gastric lesions in the pig. PMID:9760399

  11. Occurrence and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in naturally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Turčeková, Ľudmila; Antolová, Daniela; Reiterová, Katarína; Spišák, František

    2013-09-01

    The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded vertebrates. The data about the occurrence of toxoplasmosis in slaughter pigs in the Slovak Republic are still missing. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pigs from Slovakia during the period of 2006-2010 by ELISA and PCR methods. In sera of 970 slaughter pigs, 2.16% seropositivity to T. gondii was detected. In tissue samples of seropositive pigs the presence of T. gondii DNA was confirmed. In six monitored Slovak regions the seropositivity varied between 1.11 and 3.48%. The statistically significant differences were recorded between the Košice and Prešov region. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in sows (4.26%) was two times higher than that in slaughter pigs (2.06%) (OR = 2.12; 95% CI = 0.48-9.36). Presence of Toxoplasma gondii in tissues of seropositive pig isolates was confirmed by TGR1E and B1 genes and analysis of DNA polymorphism at SAG2 and ROP1 genes revealed the presence of virulent strain of genotype I in 85.7% of infected pigs and an avirulent strain (genotype II) in 14.3% of pigs. PMID:23990434

  12. Effect of sex and time to slaughter (transportation and lairage duration) on the levels of cortisol, creatine kinase and subsequent relationship with pork quality.

    PubMed

    Jama, N; Maphosa, V; Hoffman, L C; Muchenje, V

    2016-06-01

    The study determined the effect of sex and time to slaughter on cortisol and creatine kinase levels, and pork quality in commercial crossbred pigs. Saliva samples were before collected transportation, on arrival at the abattoir, and after a 20 hour lairage period. Cortisol levels from saliva (SC), serum (SeC) and urine (UC) were determined. Creatine kinase (CK) levels were determined from serum samples. Fifteen boars vs. 15 gilts were immediately slaughtered on arrival (SOA), and the other 15 boars vs. 15 gilts were rested for 20 h before slaughter. Meat quality parameters were also determined. In both sexes, SC significantly increased in response to time to slaughter. There was a significant interaction of sex and time to slaughter on SeC. Gilts had higher CK levels and lower muscle L* values than boars. There were correlations among baseline SC, SeC, UC and most meat quality parameters. Time to slaughter influenced levels of SC, UC, CK and pork quality between boars and gilts. PMID:26855163

  13. First Report of Toxoplasma gondii Prevalence in Tibetan Pigs in Tibet, China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Song-Ming; Ciren, Danba; Huang, Si-Yang; Xu, Min-Jun; Ga, Gong; Yan, Chao; Mahmoud, Mona S.; Zou, Feng-Cai

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Toxoplasma gondii infection is widely prevalent in humans and animals, including pigs throughout the world. In this study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in Tibetan pigs in China was investigated for the first time. A total of 427 serum samples were collected from Tibetan pigs in Nyingchi prefecture, Tibet, between April and December 2010, and were assayed for antibodies to T. gondii using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Ninety-seven (22.72%) pigs were found to be positive with MAT titers of 1:25 or higher. Slaughter pigs had the highest seroprevalence, compared with seroprevalence in fattening pigs, growing pigs, or piglets, although the difference was not statistically significant (p≥0.05). The results of the present survey indicate that T. gondii is highly prevalent in Tibetan pigs in Tibet, which poses a significant public health concern in this unique region of the world. PMID:22651381

  14. Prevalence of African swine fever virus in apparently healthy domestic pigs in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background African swine fever (ASF) is a contagious viral disease which can cause up to 100% mortality among domestic pigs leading to serious socio-economic impact on people’s livelihoods. ASF is endemic in Uganda and there is paucity of information on the epidemiology of the disease. The major aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and prevalence of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in apparently healthy slaughter pigs at Wambizi slaughterhouse in Kampala city, Uganda. We also estimated the presence of ASFV antibodies and circulating viral antigens in pigs from selected districts of Uganda during targeted surveillance. We analysed 540 and 181 blood samples collected from slaughter pigs and pigs from targeted surveillance districts respectively. Results The prevalence of ASFV in slaughter pigs was 52.96% (95% CI, 48.75-57.14) and 11.5% (95% CI, 9.06-14.45) by ELISA and PCR respectively. In surveillance districts, the proportion of ASFV positive pigs was 53.59% (95% CI, 46.33-60.71) and 0.55% (95% CI, 0.1-3.06) by ELISA and PCR respectively. Conclusion The study has found out a high seroprevalence of ASFV antibodies in apparently healthy slaughter pigs and also a high proportion of ASFV antibody seropositive pigs in surveyed districts in Uganda indicating exposure to ASFV. However, there was a lower prevalence of ASFV infection implying that there could be low virulent strains of ASFV circulating in domestic pigs in Uganda which requires further investigation. PMID:24369729

  15. Sound levels above 85 dB pre-slaughter influence pork quality.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, L; Van de Perre, V; Permentier, L; De Bie, S; Verbeke, G; Geers, R

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates whether sound levels above 85 dB(A), determined in literature as a critical sound level to induce stress in pigs, has also an effect on the pH of pork. Sound levels were recorded during pre-slaughter phases. A measure was taken after the arrival of the truck at the slaughterhouse, during unloading, lairage and just before stunning. The pH of the Longissimus thoracis or lumborum, 30 min after sticking (pH(30LT)) was measured. 8508 pigs were examined and the pH was measured on the carcasses. The results show that the cut-off value of 85 dB(A) during the pre-slaughtering phase is not only a threshold to evaluate animal welfare but can also be associated with a slower drop of pH if sound levels are b85 dB(A). Finally a linear mixed model for pH(30LT) was built with the sound level during lairage and the sound level prior to stunning as independent variables, having statistically the highest impact on pH(30LT) of pork. PMID:25460136

  16. Sarcocystis sp. from cattle slaughtered in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Kubo, M; Itagaki, H

    2000-11-01

    Sarcocystis sp. was detected from cattle slaughtered in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. The cysts were 3,400-4,400 x 198-238 microm in size and had the thick cyst wall which was 7 to 10 microm thick and provided with finger-like villar protrusions. The protrusions were 8-9.5 x 2-2.5 microm in size and had microtubules in the core. PMID:11129868

  17. Physiological traits and meat quality of pigs as affected by genotype and housing system.

    PubMed

    Lebret, B; Prunier, A; Bonhomme, N; Foury, A; Mormède, P; Dourmad, J Y

    2011-05-01

    The influence of pig housing system: alternative (bedding with outdoor area, BO) vs. conventional (slatted floor, SF) on growth performance, reactivity to pre-slaughter handling and meat quality was evaluated in two genotypes differing in the sire line, Duroc (CD) or synthetic (CS) with 40 pigs/genotype. Animal response to housing did not differ between genotypes. BO pigs had higher growth rate and feed intake, but similar carcass composition to SF pigs. Levels of stress related hormones and plasma metabolites at slaughter were not different between BO and SF pigs, suggesting that housing did not influence pig reactivity to pre-slaughter handling. Similar (Longissimus lumborum and Biceps femoris) or slightly reduced (Semimembranosus) pH values, higher drip, lipid content and juiciness were observed in BO compared with SF pork. CD pigs had more tender meat than CS. In conclusion, the BO system resulted in higher feed intake, faster growth rate, increased intramuscular fat, and improved eating quality in both genotypes. PMID:21185130

  18. Effects of marketing group on the variability of fresh loin, belly, and fresh and processed ham quality from pigs sourced from a commercial processing facility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to quantify the effect of marketing group (MG) on the variability of primal quality. Pigs (N=7,684) were slaughtered in 3 MGs from 8 barns. Pigs were from genetic selection programs focused on lean growth (L; group 1 n=1,131; group 2 n=1,466; group 3 n=1,030) or superior meat qua...

  19. Tail-biting in outdoor pig production.

    PubMed

    Walker, P K; Bilkei, G

    2006-03-01

    A study was performed in five identical outdoor production units in the same geographic area using growing-finishing pigs of similar genetic makeup, age, diet and feed management. The severity of tail-biting (TS) was scored 1-4. The average group prevalence of bitten tails at slaughter on different farms was between 14.1+/-2.1% and 20.1+/-3.0% (P<0.05). The odds of a barrow being bitten were 2.9 times higher than those for a gilt. The most frequently recorded score of bitten tails was TS3, indicating moderate wounds with low grade infection. The prevalence of bitten barrows was positively correlated with the percentage of gilts in a group (r = 0.54, P<0.001). Pigs with zero TS score had no significantly higher weights at slaughter compared to pigs with a score of TS1. As the TS increased from 1 to 4, weights decreased (TS 1 to TS 2 to 4, P<0.05). TS 3 and 4 were positively (P<0.001) associated with subsequent carcass condemnation. We concluded that outdoor rearing does not prevent tail-biting. PMID:15951210

  20. Isolation and Seroprevalence of Aeromonas spp. Among Common Food Animals Slaughtered in Nagpur, Central India.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Tanuja K G M; Reddy, Vishwanatha R A P; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Zade, Nandkishor N; Chaudhari, Sandeep P; Khan, Waqar A; Shinde, Shilpa V; Patil, Archana R

    2015-07-01

    Aeromonads are ubiquitous foodborne pathogens with a global distribution. Animal-origin foods and contaminated animals are the main sources of Aeromonas infection to humans. So far little is known about the occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in food-producing animals in India. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and seroprevalence of Aeromonas species from 50 each of meat, blood, and sera samples collected from cattle, buffaloes, goats, and pigs slaughtered in and around Nagpur, Central India. Alkaline peptone water and ampicillin dextrin agar were used to isolate Aeromonas spp. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was standardized by use of whole-cell antigen (WC) and outer membrane protein (OMP) of Aeromonas hydrophila (MTCC 646). Aeromonads were isolated from 44 (22%) of the meat samples, and 1 (0.5%) from the blood samples. Seroprevalence by indirect ELISA-based WC antigen was estimated as 68% in cattle, 44% in buffaloes, 60% in goats, and 30% in pigs. OMP-based ELISA yielded a seroprevalence of 56%, 48%, 52%, and 22% in cattle, buffaloes, goats, and pigs, respectively. The results revealed that OMP-based ELISA and WC-based ELISA were in agreement with one another. Isolation along with high seropositivity demonstrates the presence of foodborne Aeromonas spp. in the Nagpur city of Central India. PMID:25946095

  1. 9 CFR 93.429 - Ruminants for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ruminants for immediate slaughter. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.429 Ruminants for immediate slaughter. Ruminants, other than sheep and goats, may be imported from Mexico, subject to...

  2. 9 CFR 93.429 - Ruminants for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ruminants for immediate slaughter. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.429 Ruminants for immediate slaughter. Ruminants, other than sheep and goats, may be imported from Mexico, subject to...

  3. 9 CFR 93.429 - Ruminants for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ruminants for immediate slaughter. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.429 Ruminants for immediate slaughter. Ruminants, other than sheep and goats, may be imported from Mexico, subject to...

  4. 9 CFR 93.429 - Ruminants for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ruminants for immediate slaughter. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.429 Ruminants for immediate slaughter. Ruminants, other than sheep and goats, may be imported from Mexico, subject to...

  5. 9 CFR 93.429 - Ruminants for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ruminants for immediate slaughter. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.429 Ruminants for immediate slaughter. Ruminants, other than sheep and goats, may be imported from Mexico, subject to...

  6. 9 CFR 93.326 - Horses for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses for immediate slaughter. 93.326... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for immediate slaughter. Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable provisions of §§ 93.321,...

  7. 9 CFR 93.326 - Horses for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses for immediate slaughter. 93.326... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for immediate slaughter. Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable provisions of §§ 93.321,...

  8. 9 CFR 93.326 - Horses for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses for immediate slaughter. 93.326... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for immediate slaughter. Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable provisions of §§ 93.321,...

  9. 9 CFR 93.326 - Horses for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses for immediate slaughter. 93.326... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for immediate slaughter. Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable provisions of §§ 93.321,...

  10. 9 CFR 93.326 - Horses for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses for immediate slaughter. 93.326... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for immediate slaughter. Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable provisions of §§ 93.321,...

  11. 5. View of interior, EPA Farm Lab Building 1506 slaughter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of interior, EPA Farm Lab Building 15-06 slaughter addition (featuring cold slaughter area), facing north-northeast - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Laboratory Building, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  12. THE EFFECTS OF RACTOPAMINE ON BEHAVIOR AND PHYSIOLOGY OF FINISHING PIGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of ractopamine (RAC) on behavior and physiology of pigs during handling and transport. Twenty-four groups of 3 gilts were randomly assigned to one of two treatments, four weeks prior to slaughter; 1) finishing feed plus RAC (10 ppm), 2) finish...

  13. A description of local pig feeding systems in village smallholder farms of Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mutua, Florence Kanini; Dewey, Catherine; Arimi, Samuel; Ogara, Wiliam; Levy, Mike; Schelling, Esther

    2012-08-01

    We used face-to-face interviews to gather data on pig feeding practices in rural Busia District, Kenya. We visited 164 pig farms three times in the course of the study period. The pigs were weighed in kilograms during the visits. Feeds offered to pigs were described during the interviews. The most frequently fed feedstuffs were; ground maize or "ugali" (88%), kitchen leftovers (83%) and dried fish locally called "omena" (78%). Farmers provided pigs with water separately from the feeds. Sweet potatoes, "ugali" and cassava were available and could serve as good sources of energy for pigs in the district. Fruits and vegetables were also available and could potentially act as good sources of vitamins. Sweet potato vines, "omena" fish and slaughter blood were available and could provide pigs with proteins. The average daily gain (ADG) for pigs ≤ 5 months of age, pigs of 5.1-9.9 months of age and pigs of ≥ 10 months old was 94.5 (± 43), 127 (± 49.8) and 99 (± 92) g, respectively (p = 0.000). This study has outlined the different local pig feeds available in Busia district. We recommend two things: first, additional research on nutrient composition for the identified local feeds, and second, developing and validating simple local feed combinations that would achieve balanced local pig rations. PMID:22219174

  14. Mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic pigs in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Suzanne S; Crawshaw, Timothy R; Smith, Noel H; Palgrave, Christopher J

    2013-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), infects a wide range of wild and domestic mammals. Despite a control programme spanning decades, M. bovis infection levels in cattle in Great Britain (GB) have continued to rise over recent years. As the incidence of infection in cattle and wildlife may be linked to that in swine, data relating to infection of pigs identified at slaughter were examined in this study. Between 2007 and 2011, almost all M. bovis-infected pigs originated from farms in the South-West and West-Midland regions of England. The data suggest that pigs raised outdoors or on holdings with poor biosecurity may be more vulnerable to infection with M. bovis. In the majority of cases, the same strains of M. bovis were found in pigs and cattle, despite that fact that direct contact between these species was rarely observed. Genotyping and geographical mapping data indicated that some strains found in pigs may correlate better with those present in badgers, rather than cattle. In consequence, it is proposed that pigs may represent a useful sentinel for M. bovis infection in wildlife in GB. Given the potential implications of this infection for the pig industry, and for the on-going effort to control bovine TB, the importance of understanding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of M. bovis infection, as well as monitoring its prevalence, in pigs should not be underestimated. PMID:24095608

  15. Halal and kosher slaughter methods and meat quality: a review.

    PubMed

    Farouk, M M; Al-Mazeedi, H M; Sabow, A B; Bekhit, A E D; Adeyemi, K D; Sazili, A Q; Ghani, A

    2014-11-01

    There are many slaughter procedures that religions and cultures use around the world. The two that are commercially relevant are the halal and kosher methods practiced by Muslims and Jews respectively. The global trade in red meat and poultry produced using these two methods is substantial, thus the importance of the quality of the meat produced using the methods. Halal and kosher slaughter per se should not affect meat quality more than their industrial equivalents, however, some of their associated pre- and post-slaughter processes do. For instance, the slow decline in blood pressure following a halal pre-slaughter head-only stun and neck cut causes blood splash (ecchymosis) in a range of muscles and organs of slaughtered livestock. Other quality concerns include bruising, hemorrhages, skin discoloration and broken bones particularly in poultry. In addition to these conventional quality issues, the "spiritual quality" of the meat can also be affected when the halal and kosher religious requirements are not fully met during the slaughter process. The nature, causes, importance and mitigations of these and other quality issues related to halal and kosher slaughtering and meat production using these methods are the subjects of this review. PMID:24973207

  16. Transportation of market-weight pigs: II. effect of season and location within truck on behavior with an eight-hour transport.

    PubMed

    Torrey, S; Bergeron, R; Faucitano, L; Widowski, T; Lewis, N; Crowe, T; Correa, J A; Brown, J; Hayne, S; Gonyou, H W

    2013-06-01

    Transportation of pigs to slaughter has the potential to negatively impact animal welfare, particularly in hot temperatures and over long transport durations. The objective of this experiment was to determine if season and location within vehicle influenced the behavior of market-weight pigs during loading, transit, unloading, and lairage after a long-distance trip to slaughter. On a pot-belly truck, 1,170 pigs were transported (n = 195 pigs/wk in 7 experimental compartments) for 8 h to a commercial abattoir in summer (6 wk) and winter (5 wk). Pig behavior was observed at loading, in transit, at unloading, and in lairage. Handler intervention at loading was observed, and the time to load and unload was recorded. Although season did not (P = 0.91) affect loading time, more prods (P = 0.014) were necessary to load pigs in summer than winter. Loading in winter also tended to be longer (P = 0.071) into compartments involving internal ramps. In transit, more pigs (P = 0.025) were standing in winter compared with summer. Unloading took longer (P < 0.006) in winter than in summer and from compartments where pigs had to negotiate ramps and 180° turns. Furthermore, pigs in summer experienced more slipping (P = 0.032), falling (P = 0.004), overlapping (P < 0.001), and walking backward (P < 0.001) than pigs in winter. Pigs unloading from compartments with internal ramps slipped more (P < 0.0001) than other pigs. Season influenced latency to rest in lairage, with those transported in summer resting sooner (P < 0.0001) than those in winter. In conclusion, season and location within trucks differentially affect pig behavior before, during, and after long-distance transportation. Differences in lighting and temperature between seasons and the inclusion of internal ramps within vehicles may play important roles in the welfare of pigs transported to slaughter. PMID:23478814

  17. Salmonella in pig carcasses for human consumption in Hong Kong: a study on the mode of contamination.

    PubMed Central

    Chau, P. Y.; Shortridge, K. F.; Huang, C. T.

    1977-01-01

    A very high proportion (75%) of the pigs slaughtered in Hong Kong were found to be infected with salmonellas. Seven serotypes including Salmonella choleraesuis were isolated but the majority (91%) were S. anatum and S. derby. These serotypes, especially S. anatum and S. derby, had been isolated frequently from clinical cases, symptomless carries and in this study from abattoir workers, suggesting that the pig was a significant source for human salmonella infection. The majority of pigs slaughtered are imported and the high level of apparent infection was thought to be due to cross-infection during transport of the pigs under stress. S. anatum and S. derby were also isolated from pigs at 60 degreesC for 5 min caused no great reduction in the degree of superficial contamination. The two predominant serotypes were isolated from the tank and from drain swabs, and also from the latter held under scalding tank conditions. Thus, in spite of the introduction of hygienic slaughter under modernized conditions employing an automatic conveyance system 55% of the carcases were superficially contaminated after dressing before despatch to customers. Control of infection before slaughtering would appear crucial and a more thorough rinsing or washing of the dressed carcasses desirable. PMID:265345

  18. Tylosin depletion from edible pig tissues.

    PubMed

    Prats, C; El Korchi, G; Francesch, R; Arboix, M; Pérez, B

    2002-12-01

    The depletion of tylosin from edible pig tissues was studied following 5 days of intramuscular (i.m.) administration of 10 mg/kg of tylosin to 16 crossbreed pigs. Animals were slaughtered at intervals after treatment and samples of muscle, kidney, liver, skin+fat, and injection site were collected and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Seven days after the completion of treatment, the concentration of tylosin in kidney, skin+fat, and at the injection site was higher than the European Union maximal residue limit (MRL) of 100 microg/kg. Tylosin residues in all tissues were below the quantification limit (50 microg/kg) at 10 and 14 days post-treatment. PMID:12443694

  19. Further studies on the effects of diets containing dried coffee pulp: growth performance, blood and carcass characteristics of pigs.

    PubMed

    Okai, D B; Dabo, P

    1991-01-01

    4 groups of 5 pigs each were fed rations containing 0, 10, 20, or 30% of dried coffee pulp over a period of 10 weeks. The inclusion of these rations had no significant influence on the feed intake, growth rate and feed conversion efficiency. There were no significant differences in the blood parameters either (glucose, protein, P, Ca, cholesterol) or in the slaughter weight. Pigs fed the coffee pulp had less backfat and higher liver weights. PMID:1793431

  20. Current food chain information provides insufficient information for modern meat inspection of pigs.

    PubMed

    Felin, Elina; Jukola, Elias; Raulo, Saara; Heinonen, Jaakko; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria

    2016-05-01

    Meat inspection now incorporates a more risk-based approach for protecting human health against meat-borne biological hazards. Official post-mortem meat inspection of pigs has shifted to visual meat inspection. The official veterinarian decides on additional post-mortem inspection procedures, such as incisions and palpations. The decision is based on declarations in the food chain information (FCI), ante-mortem inspection and post-mortem inspection. However, a smooth slaughter and inspection process is essential. Therefore, one should be able to assess prior to slaughter which pigs are suitable for visual meat inspection only, and which need more profound inspection procedures. This study evaluates the usability of the FCI provided by pig producers and considered the possibility for risk ranking of incoming slaughter batches according to the previous meat inspection data and the current FCI. Eighty-five slaughter batches comprising 8954 fattening pigs were randomly selected at a slaughterhouse that receives animals from across Finland. The mortality rate, the FCI and the meat inspection results for each batch were obtained. The current FCI alone provided insufficient and inaccurate information for risk ranking purposes for meat inspection. The partial condemnation rate for a batch was best predicted by the partial condemnation rate calculated for all the pigs sent for slaughter from the same holding in the previous year (p<0.001) and by prior information on cough declared in the current FCI (p=0.02) statement. Training and information to producers are needed to make the FCI reporting procedures more accurate. Historical meat inspection data on pigs slaughtered from the same holdings and well-chosen symptoms/signs for reporting, should be included in the FCI to facilitate the allocation of pigs for visual inspection. The introduced simple scoring system can be easily used for additional information for directing batches to appropriate meat inspection procedures. To

  1. First report of Metastrongylus pudendotectus by the genetic characterization of mitochondria genome of cox1 in pigs from Tibet, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Luo, Houqiang; Zhang, Hui; Lan, Yanfang; Han, Zhaoqing; Shahzad, Muhammad; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Qiu, Gang; Huang, Shucheng; Jiang, Wenteng; Li, Jiakui

    2016-06-15

    Lungworms, a world wild distributed parasites cause serious respiratory diseases to the pigs. A high infection rate of Metastrongylus lungworms has been found in Tibetan pigs being slaughtered in different slaughter houses of Tibet autonomous region. The main aim of our study was to detect and confirm the lungworm parasite by the genetic characterization of mitochondrial cox1genome isolated from the lungs of Tibetan pig. The adult lungworms were collected from the lungs of slaughtered pigs and identification was done through morphological examinations. Total genomic DNA of the extracted worms was performed and a fragment (∼450bp) of the cox1 of mitochondrial (mt) gene was amplified. Amplicons were cloned into PGEM(®)-T Easy vector and the positive clones were sequenced from a commercial company. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis were performed by software of DNAMAN and MEGA respectively. The results revealed that the lungworms infecting the Tibetan pigs were Metastrongylus pudendotectus (M. pudendotectus). To our knowledge, this is the first report for the isolation and identification for the genetic characterization of mitochondria (mt) genome of cox1 of M. pudendotectus derived from Tibetan pigs in Tibet, China. PMID:27198783

  2. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry--3. Alfred Benzon].

    PubMed

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kirkegaard, Hanne; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2011-01-01

    The article series provides a written and pictorial account of the Danish pharmaceutical industry's products from their introduction until about 1950. Part 3 deals with products from the company founded by Alfred Benzon in 1849. Alfred Nicolai Benzon owned the Swan Pharmacy in Copenhagen. In 1863 he started an independent company manufacturing branded pharmaceuticals, thus combining the pharmacy's activities with the wholesale business. The family owned the company until 1952, when it was converted into a foundation. After several restructuring rounds, the medicine production business continued as Benzon Pharma A/S until 1990, when Nycomed Pharma A/S bought up all the branded pharmaceuticals. As the first pharmaceutical company in Denmark, Alfred Benzon was an industrial frontrunner in the country at the time, supplying not only the domestic market but foreign markets as well. Alfred Benzon was the first Danish company to produce ether for anesthesia, and malt extract, a dietetic preparation. The high quality of both products made them valuable export articles. In the early 1890s, Alfred Benzon became the first Danish company to start the research-based production of extract of thyroid glands from slaughtered cattle. This was the beginning of a long-standing specialization in producing organotherapeutic substances from animal organs originating from Danish animal husbandry. In 1932 the company had 26 preparations of this type in its range, many of them on the market for several years. These medicine substances included iron preparations and effervescent salts followed by sulfonamides, synthetic hormones and a substance to counteract motion sickness. PMID:21879529

  3. Selenium elimination in pigs after an outbreak of selenium toxicosis.

    PubMed

    Davidson-York, D; Galey, F D; Blanchard, P; Gardner, I A

    1999-07-01

    In May 1996, 150 grower pigs in 5 California counties were exposed to selenium-contaminated feed distributed by a single feed company. Feed samples from 20 herds had a mean selenium concentration of 121.7 ppm dry weight (range, 22.1-531 ppm). In San Luis Obispo County, 52 pigs in 24 herds were exposed to the feed, and 8 pigs died with signs of paralysis. Bilateral symmetrical poliomyelomalacia involving the ventral horns of the cervical and lumbar intumescence was evident on histologic examination of spinal cord from affected pigs. Of 44 surviving exposed pigs, 33 (75%) exhibited signs of selenosis, including anorexia, alopecia, and hoof lesions. Thirty-nine of 44 pigs (88.6%) had elevated (>1 ppm) blood selenium concentrations. Surviving exposed pigs were changed to a standard commercial ration containing approximately 0.5 ppm (dry weight) selenium. Blood selenium concentrations were determined weekly for 46 days following removal of the contaminated feed and were compared with values of 20 control pigs fed a standard commercial ration. Mean (+/-SD) blood selenium concentrations of exposed pigs were 3.2 +/- 2.6 ppm at the initial sampling and 0.4 +/- 0.1 ppm after 46 days. Mean blood selenium concentrations of < or = 0.3 ppm for control pigs at all samplings were significantly lower (P < 0.001) than concentrations for exposed pigs. Muscle and liver samples of 22 of the 44 exposed pigs were collected at slaughter approximately 72 days after withdrawal of the selenium-contaminated feed. Muscle samples had a mean selenium concentration of 0.36 ppm (wet weight). Liver samples had a mean selenium concentration of 1.26 ppm (wet weight). One liver sample had a selenium value in the toxic range for pigs (3.3 ppm wet weight; reference range, 0.4-1.2 ppm). A 1-compartment pharmacokinetic model of selenium elimination in exposed pigs was generated, and the geometric mean blood selenium elimination half-life was estimated to be 12 days. The 60-day withdrawal time recommended

  4. Experimental transfer of adult Oesophagostomum dentatum from donor to helminth naive recipient pigs: a methodological study.

    PubMed

    Bjørn, H; Roepstorff, A; Grøndahl, C; Eriksen, L; Bjerregaard, J; Nansen, P

    1995-12-01

    This study was carried out to compare potential methods of transplanting adult Oesophagostomum dentatum from experimentally infected donor pigs to helminth naive recipient pigs. The following methods were each tested in five pigs: A. Transfer of worms by stomach tube to the gastric ventricle of pigs per os pretreated with 0.5 mg/kg cisapride to increase gastrointestinal peristalsis; B. Transfer by stomach tube to the gastric ventricle of pigs per os pre-treated with cisapride (0.5 mg/kg) and omeprazol 20 mg which blocks hydrochloric acid secretion; C. Surgical transfer of worms to caecum of pigs. Worms for transplantation to pigs were obtained after slaughter of experimentally infected donor pigs and following isolation from the contents of the large intestine, using an agar gel migration technique. A mean of 1054 nematodes were transferred into each recipient pig within 2 hours. Procedures A and B resulted in establishment rates corresponding to only 0.5% and 7.6% of the transferred worms. In contrast, surgical transfer allowed 74.2% of the transplanted worms to be established. In all groups the transplanted worms migrated to the normal predilection site, i.e. the middle part of the large intestine. More female than male worms established in all groups. It was concluded from this study that surgical transfer was the most reliable of the methods tested for experimental establishment of adult O. dentatum in helminth naive pigs. PMID:8583123

  5. Immunocastrated male pigs: effect of 4 v. 6 weeks time post second injection on performance, carcass quality and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Aluwé, M; Degezelle, I; Depuydt, L; Fremaut, D; Van den Broeke, A; Millet, S

    2016-09-01

    Immunocastration or vaccination against boar taint can be used as alternative for surgical castration of male piglets. The vaccine is administrated twice. After the second vaccination (V2), the pigs behave like barrows instead of boars and their feed intake increases which may result in a lower lean meat percentage. The timing of V2 is therefore crucial to find the right balance between the advantages of entire males and barrows. In this study, we evaluated the effect of time post second injection within the advised time frame (4 v. 6 weeks before slaughter) on behaviour, performance, carcass and meat quality of immunocastrated male pigs. In total, 180 animals (hybrid sow×Piétrain): 60 gilts, 60 male pigs vaccinated 6 weeks before slaughter (IM-6) and 60 male pigs vaccinated 4 weeks before slaughter (IM-4), all slaughtered at comparable slaughter weights. After 20 weeks of age, IM-6 showed more inactive behaviour at the expense of playing and aggressive behaviour. Daily feed intake (DFI), daily gain (DG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) did not differ significantly between IM-6 and IM-4. Gilts had a lower DFI and DG in the late finishing phase and a higher FCR overall compared with both IM groups. Gilts showed a higher lean meat content compared with both IM groups. Earlier vaccination increased dressing percentage, which could partly be explained by the lower weight of the gastrointestinal tract, but not by testes weight. Meat quality traits and palatability did not differ significantly between IM-6 and IM-4. Vaccination of immunocastrates at 6 compared with 4 weeks before slaughter improved the calmness in the stable and the dressing percentage, while maintaining performance and carcass characteristics. PMID:26957130

  6. Danish auroral science history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, P.

    2011-01-01

    Danish auroral science history begins with the early auroral observations made by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe during the years from 1582 to 1601 preceding the Maunder minimum in solar activity. Included are also the brilliant observations made by another astronomer, Ole Rømer, from Copenhagen in 1707, as well as the early auroral observations made from Greenland by missionaries during the 18th and 19th centuries. The relations between auroras and geomagnetic variations were analysed by H. C. Ørsted, who also played a vital role in the development of Danish meteorology that came to include comprehensive auroral observations from Denmark, Iceland and Greenland as well as auroral and geomagnetic research. The very important auroral investigations made by Sophus Tromholt are outlined. His analysis from 1880 of auroral observations from Greenland prepared for the significant contributions from the Danish Meteorological Institute, DMI, (founded in 1872) to the first International Polar Year 1882/83, where an expedition headed by Adam Paulsen was sent to Greenland to conduct auroral and geomagnetic observations. Paulsen's analyses of the collected data gave many important results but also raised many new questions that gave rise to auroral expeditions to Iceland in 1899 to 1900 and to Finland in 1900 to 1901. Among the results from these expeditions were 26 unique paintings of the auroras made by the artist painter, Harald Moltke. The expedition to Finland was headed by Dan la Cour, who later as director of the DMI came to be in charge of the comprehensive international geomagnetic and auroral observations made during the Second International Polar Year in 1932/33. Finally, the article describes the important investigations made by Knud Lassen during, among others, the International Geophysical Year 1957/58 and during the International Quiet Sun Year (IQSY) in 1964/65. With his leadership the auroral and geomagnetic research at DMI reached a high international

  7. [Correlations between certain parameters of weight increase, slaughter performance, meat condition and thyroid function in swine for slaughter comparing various boar offspring].

    PubMed

    Schöberlein, L; Seffner, W

    1981-01-01

    Comprehensive tests were applied to a larger number of pigs for slaughter, all kept under the same conditions and all of known genetic origin. Subjects of testing were pork quality parameters, pH45, colour brightness, and drip loss as well as morphological thyroid parameters, epithelial level, nuclear surface, and follicle diameter as well as butanol-extractable iodine in the serum. All parameters were compared with one another, and each of them was then related to net body growth and increase in high-quality pork components. Follicular epithelial level and butanol-extractable iodine were found to be in negative correlation with one another. Higher drip loss was in concomitance with relative morphological thyroid quiescence. Higher net growth was exhibited by animals with portions of high-quality pork components went along with significant deterioration of general pork quality. Six boar progenies were tested for the above parameters. Some of the boar progenies exhibited statistically secured differences with regard to the thyroid parameters, butanol-extractable iodine, and pork quality. PMID:7224791

  8. Evolution of testes characteristics in entire and immunocastrated male pigs from 30 to 120 kg live weight as assessed by computed tomography with perspective on boar taint.

    PubMed

    Font-i-Furnols, Maria; Carabús, Anna; Muñoz, Israel; Čandek-Potokar, Marjeta; Gispert, Marina

    2016-06-01

    The present study addressed (1) the levels of boar taint compounds in entire (EM) and immunocastrated (IM) male pigs during their growth, (2) the evolution of testes volume and density and (3) the relationship between physical characteristics of the testes and boar taint compounds. For that purpose 24 EM and 20 IM pigs were CT scanned at several body weights (TBW). After each scanning a subsample of pigs was slaughtered, and subcutaneous fat was collected to determine androstenone and skatole concentration. Additional subsample (n=4/sex) was CT scanned 13 days after the second vaccination (V2). Testes density changes with growth, is different in EM and IM, but is not a reliable marker of the level of boar taint compounds. On the other hand, testes to body volume ratio is a better predictor for androstenone and could provide a good tool at slaughter plants to detect immunocastrated pigs with high boar taint compounds. PMID:26835834

  9. 76 FR 48796 - Plan for Estimating Daily Livestock Slaughter Under Federal Inspection; Request for Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Plan for Estimating Daily Livestock Slaughter Under Federal Inspection; Request... information collection used to compile and generate the Federally Inspected Estimated Daily Slaughter Report....Porter@ams.usda.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Plan for Estimating Daily Livestock...

  10. 9 CFR 146.6 - Specific provisions for participating slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... upland game bird, commercial waterfowl, meat-type chicken, and meat-type turkey slaughter plants that are... upland game bird and commercial waterfowl slaughter plants must follow the relevant special provisions...

  11. Assessment of post-Hurricane Katrina recovery in poultry slaughter establishments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of bacterial contamination during poultry slaughter can be compromised by natural disaster. In October 2005, disaster recovery was evaluated in 11 broiler slaughter establishments, one month after operations were disrupted by Hurricane Katrina. A questionnaire was administered to characteriz...

  12. Pseudoendogenous origin of prednisolone in pigs from the food chain.

    PubMed

    Arioli, F; Pasquale, E; Panseri, S; Bonizzi, L; Labella, G F; Casati, A; Foschini, S; Chiesa, L

    2015-01-01

    The debate about the origin of prednisolone in animal organisms has lasted for 5 years. Bovine species have been the most studied, but studies on humans and horses are also present in the literature. Even if prednisolone in pigs does not yet represent a problem for control agencies, interest has recently increased with regard to this species. To date, there has been just a single study in the literature about this topic, performed on 10 sows treated with prednisolone or a synthetic analogue of adrenocorticotropic hormone. We therefore initiated a study on 80 pigs, a number considered representative in relation to the expected frequency (prevalence) of prednisolone detection in urine collected at slaughter. Prednisolone was detected in urine both at the farm and at the slaughterhouse, with a concentration and frequency higher at slaughter. The presence of prednisolone was also studied in the adrenal glands, where the corticosteroids are produced in response to stress, and it was detected in 89% of the samples. These results, together with the similar behaviours of prednisolone and cortisol, i.e. a mutual rise in the two corticosteroids in urine collected at the slaughterhouse and the correlation between the concentrations of the two corticosteroids in the adrenal glands, seem to indicate an endogenous origin of prednisolone in pigs. PMID:25768050

  13. 9 CFR 146.8 - Terminology and classification; slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Terminology and classification; slaughter plants. 146.8 Section 146.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR COMMERCIAL POULTRY General Provisions § 146.8...

  14. 9 CFR 146.8 - Terminology and classification; slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Terminology and classification; slaughter plants. 146.8 Section 146.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR COMMERCIAL POULTRY General Provisions § 146.8...

  15. Machine vision system for online inspection of freshly slaughtered chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A machine vision system was developed and evaluated for the automation of online inspection to differentiate freshly slaughtered wholesome chickens from systemically diseased chickens. The system consisted of an electron-multiplying charge-coupled-device camera used with an imaging spectrograph and ...

  16. 77 FR 4407 - Modernization of Poultry Slaughter Inspection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ...)). In the preamble to the HACCP final rule (61 FR 38806, July 25, 1996), FSIS stated that microbial...: Agency Policy and Use in Public Health Protection,'' 71 FR 9772-9777, February 27, 2006). The new... Salmonella and Campylobacter in Young Chicken and Turkey Slaughter Establishments,'' 75 FR 27288). On...

  17. 9 CFR 146.8 - Terminology and classification; slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; slaughter plants. 146.8 Section 146.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR COMMERCIAL POULTRY General Provisions § 146.8...

  18. 9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. Participating meat-type turkey slaughter plants which have...

  19. 9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. Participating meat-type turkey slaughter plants which have...

  20. 9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. Participating meat-type turkey slaughter plants which have...

  1. 9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. Participating meat-type turkey slaughter plants which have...

  2. 9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. Participating meat-type turkey slaughter plants which have...

  3. Airborne transmission of H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses during simulated home slaughter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most H5N1 human infections have occurred following exposure to H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus-infected poultry, especially when poultry are home slaughtered or slaughtered in live poultry markets. Previous studies have demonstrated that slaughter of clade 1 isolate A/Vietnam/1...

  4. Selective mobilization of fatty acids in adipose tissue of heavy pigs.

    PubMed

    Bochicchio, D; Comellini, M; Lambertini, P; Marchetto, G; Della Casa, G

    2015-01-01

    The mobilization of fatty acids during food deprivation is a selective process studied in different species (humans, rodents, birds, viverrids). The aim of this work was to study the effect of fasting on selective mobilization in commercial pigs. A total of 16 barrows (Large White×Landrace (167 kg±12.5 kg live weight) were subdivided into two homogeneous groups, one subjected to 12 h and the other to 60 h of fasting (fasting time) before slaughtering. For each pig inner and outer backfat layer were sampled at slaughter and at ham trimming 24 h later (sampling time). Increasing the fasting time and the sampling time after slaughter caused an increase in the amount of free fatty acids in both layers. Therefore it can be argued that during fasting lipolysis is stimulated and remains active also after slaughtering. The factors that stimulate lipolysis determine a greater mobilization of unsaturated fatty acids than saturated ones. Thus fasting time may influence the suitability of pork for processing and conservation, since free fatty acids are more suitable for oxidation than the esterified ones. PMID:25170962

  5. Physico-chemical characteristics of Longissimus lumborum muscle in goats subjected to halal slaughter and anesthesia (halothane) pre-slaughter.

    PubMed

    Sabow, Azad Behnan; Sazili, Awis Qurni; Zulkifli, Idrus; Goh, Yong Meng; Ab Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the effect of halal slaughter and anesthesia pre-slaughter followed by bleeding on meat quality characteristics of goats. Eleven male Boer cross goats were divided into two groups and subjected to either halal slaughter (HS) or anesthesia with halothane and propofol pre-slaughter (AS). At pre-rigor, HS had significantly lower (P < 0.05) muscle pH and glycogen than AS. However, no significant difference was observed in the pH and glycogen content between the treatments on 1, 3 and 7 days post mortem. The drip loss of HS was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that of AS at all aging periods. Treatment had no effect on sarcomere length, myofibrillar fragmentation index and shear force values, loss of thiol groups and degradation of major myofibrillar proteins. It can be concluded that HS did not have deleterious effect on meat quality traits of goat when compared to AS. PMID:26208249

  6. Occurrence and severity of lung lesions in slaughter pigs vaccinated against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae with different strategies.

    PubMed

    Hillen, Sonja; von Berg, Stephan; Köhler, Kernt; Reinacher, Manfred; Willems, Hermann; Reiner, Gerald

    2014-03-01

    Different vaccination strategies against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae have been adopted worldwide. Reports from the field indicate varying levels of protection among currently available vaccines. The goal of the present study was to compare the efficacies of three widespread commercial vaccination strategies against M. hyopneumoniae under field conditions. 20 farms were included. 14 farms used different single dose vaccines (vaccine 1 [V1], 8 herds; vaccine 2 [V2], 6 herds); another 6 farms (V3) used a two dose vaccination strategy. Gross lesions of 854 lungs and histopathology from 140 lungs were quantified, and a quantitative PCR was applied to detect M. hyopneumoniae and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) DNA in lung tissue (n=140). In addition, porcine reproductive and respiratory disease virus (PRRSV), swine influenza virus (SIV), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Pasteurella multocida were tested by qualitative PCR. 53% of lungs were positive for M. hyopneumoniae. 55.9% of lungs showed macroscopic enzootic pneumonia (EP)-like lesions. Lung lesion scores (P<0.001) and M. hyopneumoniae-loads (P<0.008) differed significantly among the vaccination groups, with the most severe cases and highest amounts occurring in V1. Histological alterations differed (P<0.001) between V1 and V3. Lung lesion scores and histopathological changes were significantly correlated, with prevalence and load of M. hyopneumoniae indicating that the applied diagnostic tools are valuable in confirming the prevalence and severity of M. hyopneumoniae infections. Comparing different vaccination strategies against M. hyopneumoniae indicates varying levels of protection. M. hyopneumoniae is still a major problem despite the widely applied vaccination. PMID:24485705

  7. Isolation and characterization of Leptospira interrogans from pigs slaughtered in São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Miraglia, Fabiana; Moreno, Andréa Mike; Gomes, Cleise Ribeiro; Paixão, Renata; Liuson, Esequiel; Morais, Zenaide Maria; Maiorka, Paulo; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling; Dellagostin, Odir Antonio; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda

    2008-01-01

    With the aim of isolating Leptospira spp., blood serum, kidney, liver and genital tract of 137 female swine (40 sows and 97 gilts) and also urine samples from 22 sows were collected in a slaughterhouse in the State of São Paulo, from April 2003 to August 2004. Four isolates were obtained from animals that presented microagglutination test (MAT) titers ≥ 100 for the serovar Pomona and one was obtained from an animal negative by MAT in which Leptospira was isolated from the liver and reproductive tract. The presence of leptospiral DNA was investigated by PCR, and positive results were found in kidneys of 11 females, liver of two, genital tract of two and urine of one of them. Nephrosis, interstitial multifocal nephritis, moderate to severe changing, hyalines cylinders and hemorrhagic focuses, hepatic and uterine horns congestion were histological lesions observed in higher frequency in animals positive for leptospira. The silver impregnation (Warthin Starry) confirmed the presence of spirochetes in renal tubules of four females with positive leptospira cultures from kidneys. The serogroup of the five isolates was identified as Pomona by cross agglutination with reference polyclonal antibodies. Molecular characterization of the isolates was carried out by variable-number tandem-repeats analysis. All the isolates revealed a pattern distinct from the L. interrogans Pomona type strain, but identical to a previously identified pattern from strains isolated in Argentina belonging to serovar Pomona. PMID:24031254

  8. Cocoa husks in diets of Italian heavy pigs.

    PubMed

    Magistrelli, D; Malagutti, L; Galassi, G; Rosi, F

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cocoa husks feeding on liver composition of the Italian heavy pig. Cocoa husks are by-products derived from chocolate production and have a high content of proteins, lipids, and NDF. Cocoa husks are also rich in antioxidants, polyphenols in particular. Eight finishing pigs were divided into 2 groups: control group fed a traditional diet, based on cereals, and treatment group fed a diet obtained by substitution of 10% of the control diet with coarsely ground cocoa husks. The trial was conducted during the hot season and lasted 6 wk, at the end of which all the pigs were slaughtered. Cocoa husks diet reduced dry matter intake (P < 0.01) and energy intake (P < 0.01) but neither body weight nor backfat thickness was affected by cocoa husks diet. Treatment did not influence carcass weight and hot dressing percentage but reduced liver weight (P < 0.05), liver dry matter percentage (P < 0.01), DNA (P = 0.01), and glycogen content (P = 0.01). By contrast, cocoa husks increased liver ether extract (P = 0.05) without affecting cholesterol content. Liver weight loss, reduction of protein synthesis, and a shift toward glycogen use instead of fat oxidation are considered metabolic strategies to reduce heat production under hot conditions. It is possible, therefore, that cocoa husks feeding promoted the process of acclimation because pigs needed less feeding to reach similar body and carcass weight as control pigs. PMID:23365339

  9. Patterns of gene expression in pig adipose tissue: insulin-like growth factor system proteins, neuropeptide Y (NPY), NPY receptors, neurotrophic factors and other secreted factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total RNA was collected at slaughter from outer subcutaneous adipose tissue (OSQ) and middle subcutaneous adipose tissue (MSQ) samples from gilts at 90, 150, and 210 d ( n =5 / age). Dye labeled cDNA probes were hybridized to custom microarrays (70 mer oligonucleotides) representing over 600 pig gen...

  10. Modelling Salmonella transmission among pigs from farm to slaughterhouse: Interplay between management variability and epidemiological uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Ferrer Savall, Jordi; Bidot, Caroline; Leblanc-Maridor, Mily; Belloc, Catherine; Touzeau, Suzanne

    2016-07-16

    Salmonella carriage and cutaneous contamination of pigs at slaughter are a major risk for carcass contamination. They depend on Salmonella prevalence at farm, but also on transmission and skin soiling among pigs during their journey from farm to slaughterhouse. To better understand and potentially control what influences Salmonella transmission within a pig batch during this transport and lairage step, we proposed a compartmental, discrete-time and stochastic model. We calibrated the model using pork chain data from Brittany. We carried out a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the impact of the variability in management protocols and of the uncertainty in epidemiological parameters on three model outcomes: prevalence of infection, average cutaneous contamination and number of new infections at slaughter. Each outcome is mainly influenced by a single management factor: prevalence at slaughter mainly depends on the prevalence at farm, cutaneous contamination on the contamination of lairage pens and new infections on the total duration of transport and lairage. However, these results are strongly affected by the uncertainty in epidemiological parameters. Re-excretion of carriers due to stress does not have a major impact on the number of new infections. PMID:27099983

  11. The influence of tail biting on performance of fattening pigs.

    PubMed

    Wallgren, P; Lindahl, E

    1996-01-01

    In comparison to 29 non bitten animals, severe tail biting was found to decrease the daily weight gain (DWG) by 25% in 8 fattening pigs during the period of biting. However, when comparing the weight gain of the lifetime between bitten and non bitten pigs, no influence of the tail biting was found. It is of interest that severely wounded pigs were parenterally treated with prokainpenicillin G for 3 consecutive days in connection with the tail biting, which could be suggested to promote the growth by reducing the influence of infections gained by the tail biting as well as of other infections present in herds rearing conventional pigs. Despite penicillin treatment, abscesses were more frequently recorded in tail bitten pigs than in non bitten animals. The tail biting was not equally distributed between the sexes, as barrows were more frequently bitten than gilts. Among the unbitten pigs, barrows were also found to grow faster than gilts. Indeed, when comparing tail bitten and non bitten barrows, a negative influence of tail biting on DWG was not only shown during the period of biting, but could also be monitored as a reduced DWG from that period until slaughter by 11% and during lifetime by 5% (the tail bitten gilts were too few to allow statistical calculations). These results clearly indicate that tail biting affects the growth rate of the lifetime despite penicillin treatment. However, it should be stressed that this decreased lifetime DWG may not be monitored when evaluating abattoir data because the sex distribution of the pigs may not be known in such materials. PMID:9050278

  12. Eosinophilic myositis in a slaughtered Korean native cattle

    PubMed Central

    Do, Sun Hee; Jeong, Da-Hee; Chung, Jae-Yong; Park, Jin-Kyu; Yang, Hai-Jie; Yuan, Dong-Wei

    2008-01-01

    Histopathological findings of eosinophilic myositis in the carcass of a slaughtered Korean native cow are presented. Lesions contained massive fibrous septae with vacuolar changes in some lesions, and the hypercontraction and rupturing of muscle bundles, with replacement by eosinophils. Necrosis and severe eosinophil infiltration were observed. Sarcoplasmic fragmentation and atrophy developed. Typical of granuloma, calcified myofibers were focally surrounded by macrophages and numerous inflammatory cells, and multinucleated giant cell formation was evident. PMID:19043319

  13. Longitudinal study of distributions of similar antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella serovars in pigs and their environment in two distinct swine production systems.

    PubMed

    Keelara, Shivaramu; Scott, H Morgan; Morrow, William M; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Correa, Maria; Nayak, Rajesh; Stefanova, Rossina; Thakur, Siddhartha

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine and compare the prevalences and genotypic profiles of antimicrobial-resistant (AR) Salmonella isolates from pigs reared in antimicrobial-free (ABF) and conventional production systems at farm, at slaughter, and in their environment. We collected 2,889 pig fecal and 2,122 environmental (feed, water, soil, lagoon, truck, and floor swabs) samples from 10 conventional and eight ABF longitudinal cohorts at different stages of production (farrowing, nursery, finishing) and slaughter (postevisceration, postchill, and mesenteric lymph nodes [MLN]). In addition, we collected 1,363 carcass swabs and 205 lairage and truck samples at slaughter. A total of 1,090 Salmonella isolates were recovered from the samples; these were isolated with a significantly higher prevalence in conventionally reared pigs (4.0%; n = 66) and their environment (11.7%; n = 156) than in ABF pigs (0.2%; n = 2) and their environment (0.6%; n = 5) (P < 0.001). Salmonella was isolated from all stages at slaughter, including the postchill step, in the two production systems. Salmonella prevalence was significantly higher in MLN extracted from conventional carcasses than those extracted from ABF carcasses (P < 0.001). We identified a total of 24 different serotypes, with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Salmonella enterica serovar Anatum, Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis, and Salmonella enterica serovar Derby being predominant. The highest frequencies of antimicrobial resistance (AR) were exhibited to tetracycline (71%), sulfisoxazole (42%), and streptomycin (17%). Multidrug resistance (resistance to ≥ 3 antimicrobials; MDR) was detected in 27% (n = 254) of the Salmonella isolates from the conventional system. Our study reports a low prevalence of Salmonella in both production systems in pigs on farms, while a higher prevalence was detected among the carcasses at slaughter. The dynamics of Salmonella prevalence in pigs and carcasses were

  14. Longitudinal Study of Distributions of Similar Antimicrobial-Resistant Salmonella Serovars in Pigs and Their Environment in Two Distinct Swine Production Systems

    PubMed Central

    Keelara, Shivaramu; Scott, H. Morgan; Morrow, William M.; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.; Correa, Maria; Nayak, Rajesh; Stefanova, Rossina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine and compare the prevalences and genotypic profiles of antimicrobial-resistant (AR) Salmonella isolates from pigs reared in antimicrobial-free (ABF) and conventional production systems at farm, at slaughter, and in their environment. We collected 2,889 pig fecal and 2,122 environmental (feed, water, soil, lagoon, truck, and floor swabs) samples from 10 conventional and eight ABF longitudinal cohorts at different stages of production (farrowing, nursery, finishing) and slaughter (postevisceration, postchill, and mesenteric lymph nodes [MLN]). In addition, we collected 1,363 carcass swabs and 205 lairage and truck samples at slaughter. A total of 1,090 Salmonella isolates were recovered from the samples; these were isolated with a significantly higher prevalence in conventionally reared pigs (4.0%; n = 66) and their environment (11.7%; n = 156) than in ABF pigs (0.2%; n = 2) and their environment (0.6%; n = 5) (P < 0.001). Salmonella was isolated from all stages at slaughter, including the postchill step, in the two production systems. Salmonella prevalence was significantly higher in MLN extracted from conventional carcasses than those extracted from ABF carcasses (P < 0.001). We identified a total of 24 different serotypes, with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Salmonella enterica serovar Anatum, Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis, and Salmonella enterica serovar Derby being predominant. The highest frequencies of antimicrobial resistance (AR) were exhibited to tetracycline (71%), sulfisoxazole (42%), and streptomycin (17%). Multidrug resistance (resistance to ≥3 antimicrobials; MDR) was detected in 27% (n = 254) of the Salmonella isolates from the conventional system. Our study reports a low prevalence of Salmonella in both production systems in pigs on farms, while a higher prevalence was detected among the carcasses at slaughter. The dynamics of Salmonella prevalence in pigs and carcasses were

  15. The Danish vaccination register.

    PubMed

    Grove Krause, T; Jakobsen, S; Haarh, M; Mølbak, K

    2012-01-01

    Immunisation information systems (IIS) are valuable tools for monitoring vaccination coverage and for estimating vaccine effectiveness and safety. Since 2009, an advanced IIS has been developed in Denmark and will be implemented during 2012–14. This IIS is based on a database existing since 2000. The reporting of all administered vaccinations including vaccinations outside the national programme will become mandatory. Citizens will get access to data about their own vaccinations and healthcare personnel will get access to information on the vaccinations of their patients. A national concept of identification, a national solution combining a personal code and a card with codes, ensures easy and secure access to the register. From the outset, the IIS will include data on childhood vaccinations administered from 1996 and onwards. All Danish citizens have a unique identifier, a so called civil registration number, which allows the linking of information on vaccinations coming from different electronic data sources. The main challenge will be to integrate the IIS with the different electronic patient record systems currently existing at general practitioner, vaccination clinic and hospital level thereby avoiding double-entry. A need has been identified for an updated international classification of vaccine products on the market. Such a classification would also be useful for the future exchange of data on immunisations from IIS between countries. PMID:22551494

  16. Preweaning housing effects on behavior and physiological measures in pigs during the suckling and fattening periods.

    PubMed

    Chaloupková, H; Illmann, G; Neuhauserová, K; Tománek, M; Valis, L

    2007-07-01

    The effect of the preweaning housing system on the stress response of pigs before weaning and during fattening was studied in 33 litters of domestic pigs. Three preweaning housing systems were compared: barren crate (standard farrowing crate without straw), enriched crate (20% larger crate, with straw), and as a control, a farrowing pen (pen, 60% larger than the barren crate, with straw). At 25 d of age, pigs were tested with an isolation test and 1 d later with a human approach test (HumanT). Pigs were weaned at 28 d of age. At 3 and 6 mo of age, pigs were tested with an isolation-human approach test. The latency and frequency of squeal calls and locomotor activity were analyzed for all 3 tests, whereas physical contact with the human was also analyzed for the HumanT and isolation-human approach test. At 6 mo of age, the pigs were transported to a slaughterhouse. One day before transport, immediately after transport, and 1 h after transport, saliva samples were taken for cortisol analysis. The pH of the LM was also measured 45 min after slaughter. Preweaning housing system affected (P < 0.05) the probability of squeal vocalizations, the latency of locomotion, and the duration of locomotion during the HumanT. Pigs from the enriched pens vocalized less, had a longer latency to move, and performed less overall locomotion than pigs from the barren crates. Preweaning housing system did not affect behavior of fattening pigs. Cortisol concentrations before and after transport were not affected by preweaning housing system. An interaction of cortisol concentrations and housing systems was observed between the control sample and the sample taken immediately after transport in pigs from the barren crates (P < 0.05) compared with pigs from the enriched housing systems. Meat from pigs reared in the barren crate tended to have lower pH (P < 0.10) and that of pigs reared in enriched crates had lower pH (P < 0.05) than meat of pigs reared in enriched pens. No differences were

  17. High prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domestic pigs in Oaxaca State, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Estrada-Malacón, M A; Reyes-Hernández, S O; Pérez-Ramírez, J A; Trujillo-López, J I; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

    2012-12-01

    Pigs are important in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in North America. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 525 domestic pigs (337 backyard raised, 188 farm raised) in Oaxaca State, Mexico was determined using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cutoff 1:25). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 58 (17.2%) of the 337 backyard pigs with MAT titers of 1:25 in 10, 1:50 in 12, 1:100 in 18, 1:200 in 6, 1:400 in 6, 1:800 in 3, and 1:1,600 in 3. Seropositive pigs were found in 39 (37.9%) of 103 homes in all 7 municipalities surveyed. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in backyard pigs varied with age, gender, geographic region, climate, and altitude. High seroprevalence was found in pigs ≥ 9-mo-old (40%), in females (40%), in pigs from the Istmo region (33.3%), and in those raised in a tropical climate (65%). Seroprevalence was higher (24.5%) in pigs raised at 100-660 m above sea level than in those at 20-60 m of altitude (14.2%). With respect to farm pigs, only 1 (0.5%, MAT titer 1:100) of 188 pigs from 5 farms was positive for anti- T. gondii antibodies. The results affirm that the management system (outdoor vs. indoor system with biosecurity) is a key factor in the epidemiology of porcine toxoplasmosis. Because there is no national system of determining the T. gondii infection status at the time of slaughter, precautions should be taken while handling pig carcasses, and all pork should be cooked thoroughly before human consumption. PMID:22559725

  18. A comparison of bleeding efficiency, microbiological quality and lipid oxidation in goats subjected to conscious halal slaughter and slaughter following minimal anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Sabow, A B; Sazili, A Q; Zulkifli, I; Goh, Y M; Ab Kadir, M Z A; Abdulla, N R; Nakyinsige, K; Kaka, U; Adeyemi, K D

    2015-06-01

    The study assessed the effect of conscious halal slaughter and slaughter following minimal anesthesia on bleeding efficiency of goats and keeping quality of goat meat. Ten Boer cross bucks were divided into two groups and subjected to either halal slaughter without stunning (HS) or minimal anesthesia prior to slaughter (AS). The blood lost during exsanguination was measured. Residual blood was further quantified by determination of hemoglobin and myoglobin content in longissimus lumborum muscle. Storage stability of the meat was evaluated by microbiological analysis and lipid oxidation. Blood loss at exsanguination, residual hemoglobin and lipid oxidation were not significantly different (p>0.05) between HS and AS. Lactic acid bacteria was the only microbe that was significantly elevated after 24h of storage at 4°C in the AS group. In conclusion, slaughtering goats under minimal anesthesia or fully conscious did not affect bleeding efficiency and keeping quality of goat meat. PMID:25732178

  19. Hand-held lactate analyzer as a tool for the real-time measurement of physical fatigue before slaughter and pork quality prediction.

    PubMed

    Rocha, L M; Dionne, A; Saucier, L; Nannoni, E; Faucitano, L

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship between blood lactate variation measured at the plant, and pork quality variation on a large sample size and under commercial preslaughter handling conditions. A total of 600 pigs were randomly chosen on arrival at a commercial slaughter plant and blood samples taken from the ear vein at unloading (UN), after lairage (LA), in the restrainer (RE; before stunning) and at exsanguination (EX) were analysed for lactate content using a Lactate Scout Analyzer (LSA). In order to have a large range of measures, pigs were distributed into two groups; one kept in lairage overnight (G1) and the other for 2 to 3 h (G2) before slaughter. Meat quality was assessed in the Longissimus thoracis (LT), Semimembranosus (SM) and Adductor (AD) muscles by measuring the pH 30 min postmortem (pH1) and at 24 h postmortem (pHu), the colour and the drip loss. Blood lactate levels did not differ between G1 and G2 (P>0.05). A reduced muscle lactate and glucose contents (P=0.02 and P=0.004, respectively) resulting in a lower (P<0.001) glycolytic potential (GP) was observed in the LT muscle of G1 pigs when compared with G2 loins. In the LT muscle of G1 pigs, the lower GP resulted in an increased pHu (r=-0.67; P<0.001), decreased drip loss (r=0.57; P<0.001) and darker colour (r=0.50; P<0.001) compared with G2. In both G1 and G2 pigs, the lower GP was correlated to higher pHu value in the SM and AD muscles (r=-0.73; P<0.001). The greatest correlation was observed in G2 between blood lactate levels at LA and pHu value of the SM and AD muscles (r=0.46 and r=0.44, respectively; P<0.001 for both muscles). The second greatest correlation was found between blood lactate levels at EX and pH1 value in the SM muscle in both groups (r=-0.37 and r=-0.41, respectively; P<0.001 for both groups). Based on the results of this study, it appears that blood lactate levels, as measured by the LSA, reliably reflect the physiological response of pigs to

  20. Blood parameters and electroencephalographic responses of goats to slaughter without stunning.

    PubMed

    Sabow, A B; Goh, Y M; Zulkifli, I; Sazili, A Q; Kaka, U; Kadi, M Z A Ab; Ebrahimi, M; Nakyinsige, K; Adeyemi, K D

    2016-11-01

    The study compared changes in blood biochemistry, hormonal and electroencephalographic indices associated with possible noxious stimuli following neck cut slaughter in conscious, non-anaesthetized versus minimally-anaesthetized goats. Ten male Boer crossbreed goats were assigned into two groups and subjected to either slaughter conscious without stunning (SWS) or slaughter following minimal anaesthesia (SMA). Hormonal responses and changes in electroencephalographic (EEG) parameters were not influenced by slaughter method. The SWS goats had higher glucose and lactate than did SMA goats. It can be concluded that the noxious stimulus from the neck cut is present in both conscious and minimally anaesthetized goats. The application of slaughter without stunning causes changes in the EEG activities that are consistent with the presence of post slaughter noxious sensory input associated with tissue damage and would be expected to be experienced as pain in goats. PMID:27317849

  1. First report of genotype #65 of Toxoplasma gondii in pigs.

    PubMed

    Samico-Fernandes, Erika Fernanda Torres; de Melo, Renata Pimentel Bandeira; de Cássia Peixoto Kim, Pomy; de Almeida, Jonatas Campos; de Barros, Luiz Daniel; Garcia, João Luis; da Silva, Jean Carlos Ramos; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to isolate and genotype Toxoplasma gondii from pigs slaughtered for human consumption in northeastern Brazil. Indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) was used to screen positive pigs. Tissues samples of animals with antibody titers ≥64 were submitted to bioassay in mice. One isolate of T. gondii was obtained, and the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique, using 11 markers (SAG1, SAG2, altSAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c228, c292, L358, PK1, and APICO), was applied to evaluate the genetic variability. DNA from reference strains was used as a positive control. By means of genetic analysis, genotype ToxoDB #65 was identified, which is considered an atypical strain. This is the first record of genotype #65 in pigs. Thus, further studies in this region are necessary to determine the genetic variability of T. gondii in pigs and possible impact on public health. PMID:26268568

  2. Fatty acid profile of pig meat after probiotic administration.

    PubMed

    Ross, Gloria Romina; Van Nieuwenhove, Carina Paola; González, Silvia Nelina

    2012-06-13

    The aim of this work was to study the fatty acid profile of pig meat after probiotic administration. Thirty postweaned pigs (25 day old) were distributed into 2 groups: control (n = 15) and probiotic (n = 15). Each experimental group was fed ad libitum on a commercial diet for 35 days. Lactobacillus amylovorus and Enterococcus faecium mixed culture (10(8) CFU/ml)was daily orally delivered to the probiotic group. At the end of the assay, six pigs randomly selected from each group were slaughtered and muscle samples (Longissimus dorsi) were taken for fatty acid analysis. Tissues from the probiotic group animals exhibited an increase in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids; furthermore, linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (18:3), and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared to the control group. These results suggest probiotic administration could be useful to modify and improve the fatty acid profile of pig meat. PMID:22506842

  3. Monitoring growth in finishers by weighing selected groups of pigs - A dynamic approach.

    PubMed

    Stygar, A H; Kristensen, A R

    2016-03-01

    Application of BW monitoring methods for the whole batch of pigs is not common in commercial herds. Instead, farm managers may regularly weigh a chosen subset of pigs (observed group) and use the obtained information for monitoring, forecasting, and decision support. The objective of this study was to construct a model for growth monitoring and forecasting in pig fattening herds and use the developed model framework to quantify the value of information on BW. The dynamic process of pig growing was described by means of a dynamic linear model (DLM) with Kalman filtering. For this study, data from 9 fattening cycles with the total registration for 9,800 pigs were used. The variance components were estimated by fitting a mixed-effects linear model on selected BW measurements. The obtained model was evaluated on its performance in forecasting the number of pigs ready to deliver from the whole batch and from a particular pen given the level of information on a reference data set consisting of 2 batches (Batch 3 [B1] and Batch 4 [B2]). Scenarios with a different frequency of observations (only 1 selected week, every second week, or weekly) on individual and aggregated levels for an observed group comprising 1 pen (36 pigs, which constitute 7.5% of pigs in a batch) or 2 pens (15.5% of pigs) were analyzed. Moreover, results with only initial herd information and insertion BW at the batch, pen, and pig level were presented. The model can be used for growth monitoring of the batch and for prediction of the number of pigs ready for slaughter in a given week (i.e., with a BW exceeding a threshold, which, in this study, is set to 105 kg). With an increased level of information, both accuracy (measured by the mean absolute deviation [MAD] of actual number of pigs above 105 kg from predicted number) and precision (measured by CV) of the model continue to improve. When monitoring all pigs at insertion and the observed groups every week (15.5% of pigs) compared with predictions

  4. Can the monitoring of animal welfare parameters predict pork meat quality variation through the supply chain (from farm to slaughter)?

    PubMed

    Rocha, L M; Velarde, A; Dalmau, A; Saucier, L; Faucitano, L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between the animal welfare conditions evaluated through the supply chain and pork quality variation. A total of 4,680 pigs from 12 farms-5 animal welfare improved raising system (AWIRS) and 7 conventional raising system (CON) farms-were assessed from farm to slaughter through a comprehensive audit protocol merging the European Welfare Quality, the Canadian Animal Care Assessment, and American Meat Institute audit guide criteria. At the abattoir, a subsample of 1,440 pigs (120 pigs/farm) was randomly chosen out of 24 loads (2 farms per wk) transported by 2 drivers (driver A and driver B) for the assessment of stunning effectiveness, carcass bruises, blood lactate levels, and meat quality traits. Meat quality was assessed in the longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle 24 h postmortem by measuring ultimate pH (pHu), color (L*, a*, and b*), and drip loss. Data were analyzed by the MIXED, GLIMMIX, and NAPAR1WAY procedures of SAS. Spearman correlations were calculated to determine the relationship between audit scores and meat quality traits. Better animal welfare conditions, as showed by greater final scores for good housing (GHo; = 0.001) and good health ( = 0.006) principles, were recorded at AWIRS farms. Pigs from AWIRS farms handled by driver B displayed a greater percentage of turning back ( = 0.01) and slips ( < 0.001) during unloading and a greater ( = 0.02) frequency of falls in the stunning chute. A greater ( = 0.02) reluctance to move at loading was found in CON pigs loaded by driver A compared with driver B, whereas a greater ( < 0.001) reluctance to move was found in these pigs at unloading when they were unloaded by driver B. Drip loss was higher ( = 0.003) and pale, soft, and exudative pork percentage was greater ( < 0.001) in the LL muscle of the heavier AWIRS pigs. The GHO principle was best correlated with pHu ( = -0.75, = 0.01) and Minolta L* value ( = 0.87, < 0.001) of the LL muscle. Overall, drip

  5. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Forkman, Björn; Johansen, Maria V

    2016-04-15

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community, it is in fact believed that pigs with NCC rarely show neurological signs. The aim of this study was to describe clinical manifestations associated with NCC in pigs and correlate the manifestations to the number and distribution of cysticerci in brains of naturally infected pigs in Tanzania. Sixteen infected and 15 non-infected control pigs were observed for 14 days during daylight hours, and subsequently videotaped for another 14 consecutive days using close circuit television cameras. All occurrences of abnormal behaviour (trembling, twitching, mouth and ear paralysis, ataxia, dribbling, salivating, eye blinking, walking in circles) were recorded. At the end of the recording period, pigs were slaughtered and their brains dissected, cysticerci counted and locations noted. During the recording period, two infected pigs were observed having seizures. Some of the observed autonomic signs during a seizure were chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle function leading to collapse of the animal. Stereotypic walking in circles was observed on several occasions. At dissection, both pigs had a high number of brain cysticerci (241 and 247 cysticerci). The two pigs with seizures were also older (36 months) compared to the others (18.3 months, ± 8.2 standard deviation). Results of this study have shown that pigs with NCC can develop clinical signs and suffer from seizures like humans with symptomatic NCC. Results of this study could potentially open up a new experimental pathway to explore the aetiology of neurological symptoms in humans with NCC associated epilepsy. PMID:26995723

  6. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Forkman, Björn; Johansen, Maria V

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community, it is in fact believed that pigs with NCC rarely show neurological signs. The aim of this study was to describe clinical manifestations associated with NCC in pigs and correlate the manifestations to the number and distribution of cysticerci in brains of naturally infected pigs in Tanzania. Sixteen infected and 15 non-infected control pigs were observed for 14 days during daylight hours, and subsequently videotaped for another 14 consecutive days using close circuit television cameras. All occurrences of abnormal behaviour (trembling, twitching, mouth and ear paralysis, ataxia, dribbling, salivating, eye blinking, walking in circles) were recorded. At the end of the recording period, pigs were slaughtered and their brains dissected, cysticerci counted and locations noted. During the recording period, two infected pigs were observed having seizures. Some of the observed autonomic signs during a seizure were chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle function leading to collapse of the animal. Stereotypic walking in circles was observed on several occasions. At dissection, both pigs had a high number of brain cysticerci (241 and 247 cysticerci). The two pigs with seizures were also older (36 months) compared to the others (18.3 months, ± 8.2 standard deviation). Results of this study have shown that pigs with NCC can develop clinical signs and suffer from seizures like humans with symptomatic NCC. Results of this study could potentially open up a new experimental pathway to explore the aetiology of neurological symptoms in humans with NCC associated epilepsy. PMID:26995723

  7. Prevalence of hydatid cysts in slaughtered animals in Sirte, Libya.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Hamed H; Abdel-Kader, Abdel-Kader M; Nass, Sedigh Ahmed

    2013-04-01

    The prevalence of cystic echinococcosis was studied among the livestock slaughtered in abattoir of Sirte, Libya during the period July 2004 to May 2005. The overall infection rate of 4.9% in sheep, 2.4% in goats, 2.7% in camels and 15% in cattle were observed. The increase in prevalence with age of the animals was statistically significant in the four species. In female goats, examined infection was higher in the male. Liver had higher hydatid cysts than lungs in sheep, goat while infected lungs had higher in camel. PMID:23697014

  8. Hormonal and metabolic responses to the stress of transport and slaughterhouse procedures in clenbuterol-fed pigs.

    PubMed

    Baldi, A; Bontempo, V; Cheli, F; Corino, C; Polidori, F

    1994-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if metabolic and endocrine adaptive responses to stressful stimuli are influenced by clenbuterol treatment in pigs. Two groups of nine Goland barrows of 167 kg liveweight, fed diets containing 0 (control) or 1 ppm of clenbuterol (clenbuterol-treated) for 40 days, were used. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture the day before (day 40) and at slaughter (day 41). On day 40 clenbuterol-treated pigs had lower levels of thyroxin, tri-iodothyronine, insulin, urea and higher levels of lactate and creatine phosphokinase activity. On day 41, thyroxin concentration was lower and creatine phosphokinase activity higher in clenbuterol-treated pigs than in controls. In response to transport and slaughterhouse procedures, most of the parameters considered both in clenbuterol-treated and in control pigs increased. PMID:7941835

  9. Determination and depletion of residues of carbadox, tylosin, and virginiamycin in kidney, liver, and muscle of pigs in feeding experiments.

    PubMed

    Lauridsen, M G; Lund, C; Jacobsen, M

    1988-01-01

    The results of residue determinations of the growth promotors carbadox, tylosin, and virginiamycin in kidney, liver, and muscle from pigs in feeding experiments are described as well as the analytical methods used. Residues of the carbadox metabolite quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid were found in liver from pigs fed 20 mg/kg in the diet with a withdrawal time of 30 days. No residues were detected in muscle with zero withdrawal time. The limit of determination was 0.01 mg/kg for both tissues. No residues of virginiamycin and tylosin were found in pigs fed 50 and 40 mg/kg, respectively, in the diet, even with zero withdrawal time. Residues of tylosin of 0.06 mg/kg and below were detected in liver and kidney from pigs fed 200 or 400 mg/kg and slaughtered within 3 h after the last feeding. PMID:3148611

  10. Cleaning pipelines: a pigging primer

    SciTech Connect

    Kipin, P.

    1985-02-04

    The ''pig'', a cleaning device currently used to clear out pipes, is discussed here. Types of pigs are described and include styrofoam, rubber, and soft foam. The limitations to the use of pigs are discussed. Unless all valves are fully open, a pig can get stuck. Ball-type tees may cause a short pig to drop and bypass. Generally, no pig is able to traverse a one-cut miter.

  11. Effects of scalding and dehairing of pig carcasses at abattoirs on the visibility of welfare-related lesions.

    PubMed

    Carroll, G A; Boyle, L A; Teixeira, D L; van Staaveren, N; Hanlon, A; O'Connell, N E

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing interest in developing abattoir-based measures to assist in determining the welfare status of pigs. The primary aim of this study was to determine the most appropriate place on the slaughter line to conduct assessments of welfare-related lesions, namely apparent aggression-related skin lesions (hereafter referred to as 'skin lesions'), loin bruising and apparent tail biting damage. The study also lent itself to an assessment of the prevalence of these lesions, and the extent to which they were linked with production variables. Finishing pigs processed at two abattoirs on the Island of Ireland (n=1950 in abattoir A, and n=1939 in abattoir B) were used. Data were collected over 6 days in each abattoir in July 2014. Lesion scoring took place at two points on the slaughter line: (1) at exsanguination (slaughter stage 1 (SS1)), and (2) following scalding and dehairing of carcasses (slaughter stage 2 (SS2)). At both points, each carcass was assigned a skin and tail lesion score ranging from 0 (lesion absent) to 3 or 4 (severe lesions), respectively. Loin bruising was recorded as present or absent. Differences in the percentage of pigs with observable lesions of each type were compared between SS1 and SS2 using McNemar/McNemar-Bowker tests. The associations between each lesion type, and both cold carcass weight and condemnations, were examined at batch level using Pearson's correlations. Batch was defined as the group of animals with a particular farm identification code on a given day. The overall percentage of pigs with a visible skin lesion (i.e. score>0) decreased between SS1 and SS2 (P<0.001). However, the percentage of pigs with a severe skin lesion increased numerically from SS1 to SS2. The percentage of pigs with a visible tail lesion and with loin bruising also increased between SS1 and SS2 (P<0.001). There was a positive correlation between the percentage of carcasses that were partially condemned, and the percentage of pigs with skin lesions

  12. Subjectless Sentences in Child Danish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Cornelia; Plunkett, Kim

    1998-01-01

    Examined data for two Danish children to determine subject omission, verb usage, and sentence subjects. Found that children exhibit asymmetry in subject omission according to verb type as subjects are omitted from main verb utterances more frequently than from copula utterances. Concluded that treatment of child subject omission should involve…

  13. Nature and Nationhood: Danish Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnack, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I shall discuss Danish perspectives on nature, showing the interdependence of conceptions of "nature" and "nationhood" in the formations of a particular cultural community. Nature, thus construed, is never innocent of culture and cannot therefore simply be "restored" to some pristine, pre-lapsarian state. On the other hand,…

  14. Simultaneous occurrence of Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica along the pork production chain from farm to meat processing in five conventional fattening pig herds in Lower Saxony.

    PubMed

    Niemann, Jana-Kristin; Alter, Thomas; Gölz, Greta; Tietze, Erhard; Fruth, Angelika; Rabsch, Wolfgang; von Münchhausen, Christiane; Merle, Roswitha; Kreienbrock, Lothar

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to gather data on the occurrence of Salmonella (S.) enterica, Campylobacter spp. and Yersinia (Y.) enterocolitica along the pork production chain and to further analyze detected Salmonella isolates by additionally applying MLVA (multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis). In total, 336 samples were collected at primary production, slaughter and meat processing from five conventional fattening pig farms and one common slaughterhouse. At farm level, S. enterica, Campylobacter spp. and Y. enterocolitica were detected in 19.4%, 38.9% and 11.1% of pooled fecal samples of fattening pigs. At slaughter, more than two-thirds of examined carcasses, 24% of carcass surfaces samples and about 60% of cecal content samples were positive for at least one of the examined pathogens. An amount of 4% of meat samples were positive for non-human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. Identical MLVA patterns of Salmonella isolates from farm- and associated slaughterhouse samples demonstrated transmission across both production stages. Other MLVA patterns found at slaughter indicated possible colonization of pigs during transport or lairage and/or cross-contamination during slaughter. Identical MLVA patterns from risk tissues and the nearby carcass surface evidenced a direct contamination of carcasses as well. Overall, our data showed wide distribution ranges for all three examined pathogens within the pig production chain and underline the need for appropriate intervention strategies at pre- and postharvest. PMID:27529991

  15. Detection and isolation of digital dermatitis treponemes from skin and tail lesions in pigs.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Simon R; Sullivan, Leigh E; Bell, Jennifer; Blowey, Roger W; Carter, Stuart D; Evans, Nicholas J

    2016-02-01

    Pig skin lesions are common significant welfare issues, and can cause large economic losses, due to culling of severely affected animals or carcass condemnation at slaughter. It was considered that the treponemal bacteria associated with digital dermatitis (DD) lesions in cattle, sheep and goats may have a role in these pig lesions. Specific diagnostic PCR assays for three cultivable DD Treponema phylogroups were used to survey relevant porcine lesion samples. Using these assays, DD treponemes were detected in 88% (22/25), 72% (8/11) and 82% (14/17) of tail, ear and flank lesions, respectively. Mouth swabs from animals kept in enclosures with high prevalence of skin lesions were positive for the DD treponemes, but not in enclosures with low lesion prevalence. Culture of treponemes from skin lesions resulted in pure isolates of all three DD-associated phylogroups. This study shows a strong association of DD treponemes with a range of pig skin lesions. PMID:26850539

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs in Jilin Province, Northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, P; Cai, Y N; Leng, X; Wang, J; Ma, W; Mu, G D; Jiang, J; Liu, X Y; Wang, Z D; Zhao, Q; Yang, G L

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, a total of 1,235 porcine serum samples were collected from 9 counties in Jilin Province (40°52'~46°18'N,121°38'~131°19'E), northeastern China from August to October 2013, and the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection was tested by indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA). The results showed that antibodies to T. gondii were found in 19.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.9% to 21.3%), with higher seroprevalence in the breeding boars (28.6%, 95% CI, 20.0% to 37.2%), and breeding sows (32.0%, 95% CI, 25.2% to 38.9%). No significant difference was found among the slaughter pigs, fattening pigs and the piglets. These results indicated that infection with T. gondii in pigs is widespread in Jilin province, and is of public health concern. PMID:25801260

  17. Topographic distribution of gastritis in heavy pigs investigated by a geographic information system approach.

    PubMed

    Pascotto, Ernesto; Capraro, Diego; Tomè, Paolo; Spanghero, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine the topographic distribution of gastritis lesions in pigs through an open source geographic information system (GIS) software analysis. The stomachs of 146 Italian heavy pigs were collected at slaughter and subjected to macroscopic pathological examination of the internal mucosa. A total of 623 lesions were either classified as hyperplastic or follicular (97%) with the remaining minority of lesions categorised as atrophic and simple. The hyperplastic gastritis lesions had an average surface of 77.8 cm2 and were mainly located in an oval shaped area of the fundus region of the stomach near the Curvatura ventriculi major. The follicular gastritis lesions had generally a smaller surface (40.3 cm2) and were concentrated in two distinct small areas of the pyloric region. The GIS analysis provided the opportunity to produce useful maps showing the distribution and characteristics of gastritis in pigs. PMID:27245806

  18. Comparison of different commercial serological tests for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in serum of naturally exposed pigs.

    PubMed

    Steinparzer, R; Reisp, K; Grünberger, B; Köfer, J; Schmoll, F; Sattler, T

    2015-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the aetiological agent of the zoonotic disease toxoplasmosis and transmitted among other ways by chemically and physically untreated, that is, raw pork to humans. The detection of Toxoplasma gondii is impossible by currently practiced meat inspection, but serological tests can be used to detect Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in pig herds and can consequently be helpful to identify potentially contaminated pork. Therefore, appropriate serological tests are required. In this study, serum samples of 1368 naturally exposed slaughter pigs from 73 Austrian farms were collected. Serum samples of at least 16 slaughter pigs per farm were tested. The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in serum was measured by a commercial available modified agglutination test (MAT) and compared to three different commercial available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The MAT detected 6.5%, ELISA I 6.7%, ELISA II 4.8% and ELISA III 4.3% of the pigs as Toxoplasma gondii antibody positive. The agreement, according to the kappa coefficient (κ), was substantial between the MAT and ELISA I (κ = 0.62), II (κ = 0.64) and III (κ = 0.67). A better agreement was determined between ELISA I and II (κ = 0.715), ELISA I and III (κ = 0.747) and ELISA II and III (κ = 0.865). At least one pig per farm was detected Toxoplasma gondii antibody positive in 17 (23.3%) farms by the MAT, 26 (35.6%) farms by ELISA I, 16 (21.9%) farms by ELISA II and 11 (15.1%) farms by ELISA III. Pig farms with a high number of Toxoplasma gondii antibody-positive pigs or high antibody titres were identified by all of the four used serological tests. Concerning the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in Austrian pig farms, a monitoring and surveillance programme would be reasonable to find high-risk farms. PMID:24730695

  19. Impact of dietary betaine and conjugated linoleic acid on insulin sensitivity, protein and fat metabolism of obese pigs.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fígares, I; Lachica, M; Martín, A; Nieto, R; González-Valero, L; Rodríguez-López, J M; Aguilera, J F

    2012-07-01

    To determine possible mechanisms of action that might explain the nutrient partitioning effect of betaine and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in Iberian pigs and to address potential adverse effects, twenty gilts were restrictively fed from 20 to 50 kg BW Control, 0.5% betaine, 1% CLA or 0.5% betaine + 1% CLA diets. Serum hormones and metabolites profile were determined at 30 kg BW and an oral glucose test was performed before slaughter. Pigs were slaughtered at 50 kg BW and livers were obtained for chemical and histological analysis. Decreased serum urea in pigs fed betaine and betaine + CLA diets (11%; P = 0.0001) indicated a more efficient N utilization. The increase in serum triacylglycerol (58% and 28%, respectively; P = 0.0098) indicated that CLA and betaine + CLA could have reduced adipose tissue triacylglycerol synthesis from preformed fatty acids. Serum glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids were unaffected. CLA and betaine + CLA altered serum lipids profile, although liver of pigs fed CLA diet presented no histopathological changes and triglyceride content was not different from Control pigs. Compared with controls, serum growth hormone decreased (20% to 23%; P = 0.0209) for all treatments. Although serum insulin increased in CLA, and especially in betaine + CLA pigs (28% and 83%; P = 0.0001), indices of insulin resistance were unaffected. In conclusion, CLA, and especially betaine + CLA, induced changes in biochemical parameters and hormones that may partially explain a nutrient partitioning effect in young pigs. Nevertheless, they exhibited weak, although detrimental, effects on blood lipids. Moreover, although livers were chemically and histologically normal, pigs fed CLA diet challenged with a glucose load had higher serum glucose than controls. PMID:23031465

  20. Developing control points for halal slaughtering of poultry.

    PubMed

    Shahdan, I A; Regenstein, J M; Shahabuddin, A S M; Rahman, M T

    2016-07-01

    Halal (permissible or lawful) poultry meat production must meet industry, economic, and production needs, and government health requirements without compromising the Islamic religious requirements derived from the Qur'an and the Hadiths (the actions and sayings of the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him). Halal certification authorities may vary in their interpretation of these teachings, which leads to differences in halal slaughter requirements. The current study proposes 6 control points (CP) for halal poultry meat production based on the most commonly used halal production systems. CP 1 describes what is allowed and prohibited, such as blood and animal manure, and feed ingredients for halal poultry meat production. CP 2 describes the requirements for humane handling during lairage. CP 3 describes different methods for immobilizing poultry, when immobilization is used, such as water bath stunning. CP 4 describes the importance of intention, details of the halal slaughter, and the equipment permitted. CP 5 and CP 6 describe the requirements after the neck cut has been made such as the time needed before the carcasses can enter the scalding tank, and the potential for meat adulteration with fecal residues and blood. It is important to note that the proposed halal CP program is presented as a starting point for any individual halal certifying body to improve its practices. PMID:26994198

  1. 9 CFR 311.27 - Injured animals slaughtered at unusual hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Injured animals slaughtered at unusual hours. 311.27 Section 311.27 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... slaughter an injured animal at night or on Sunday or a holiday when the inspector cannot be obtained,...

  2. 9 CFR 311.27 - Injured animals slaughtered at unusual hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Injured animals slaughtered at unusual hours. 311.27 Section 311.27 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... slaughter an injured animal at night or on Sunday or a holiday when the inspector cannot be obtained,...

  3. 9 CFR 311.27 - Injured animals slaughtered at unusual hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Injured animals slaughtered at unusual hours. 311.27 Section 311.27 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... slaughter an injured animal at night or on Sunday or a holiday when the inspector cannot be obtained,...

  4. 9 CFR 311.27 - Injured animals slaughtered at unusual hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Injured animals slaughtered at unusual hours. 311.27 Section 311.27 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... slaughter an injured animal at night or on Sunday or a holiday when the inspector cannot be obtained,...

  5. 9 CFR 93.518 - Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.518 Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter. Swine imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  6. 9 CFR 93.518 - Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.518 Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter. Swine imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  7. 9 CFR 93.518 - Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.518 Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter. Swine imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  8. 9 CFR 93.518 - Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.518 Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter. Swine imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  9. 9 CFR 93.518 - Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.518 Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter. Swine imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  10. 9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... PLAN FOR COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. Participating meat-type chicken...

  11. 9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... PLAN FOR COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. Participating meat-type chicken...

  12. 9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... PLAN FOR COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. Participating meat-type chicken...

  13. 9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... PLAN FOR COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. Participating meat-type chicken...

  14. 9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... PLAN FOR COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. Participating meat-type chicken...

  15. 9 CFR 313.30 - Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... with electric current. 313.30 Section 313.30 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current. The slaughtering of swine, sheep, calves, cattle, and goats with the use of electric current and the handling in connection therewith, in...

  16. 9 CFR 313.30 - Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... with electric current. 313.30 Section 313.30 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current. The slaughtering of swine, sheep, calves, cattle, and goats with the use of electric current and the handling in connection therewith, in...

  17. 9 CFR 313.30 - Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... with electric current. 313.30 Section 313.30 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current. The slaughtering of swine, sheep, calves, cattle, and goats with the use of electric current and the handling in connection therewith, in...

  18. 9 CFR 313.30 - Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... with electric current. 313.30 Section 313.30 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current. The slaughtering of swine, sheep, calves, cattle, and goats with the use of electric current and the handling in connection therewith, in...

  19. 9 CFR 313.30 - Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... with electric current. 313.30 Section 313.30 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current. The slaughtering of swine, sheep, calves, cattle, and goats with the use of electric current and the handling in connection therewith, in...

  20. Defeathering of broiler carcasses subjected to delayed scalding 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours after slaughter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With implementation of farm slaughter, scalding and defeathering could be delayed for a minimum of 2 to 4 h. This research evaluated the potential for delaying scalding and defeathering up to 8 h after slaughter. Following 12 h feed withdrawal broilers were cooped and transported to the pilot plan...

  1. 9 CFR 146.4 - General provisions for all participating flocks and slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions for all participating flocks and slaughter plants. 146.4 Section 146.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... classification may include in their advertising reference to associated or franchised slaughter or...

  2. 75 FR 29308 - Availability of Compliance Guide for Mobile Slaughter Units

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ...The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is announcing the availability of a compliance guide on mobile slaughter units. FSIS will post this compliance guide on its Significant Guidance Documents Web page http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Significant_Guidance/index.asp. FSIS encourages those who own or manage mobile slaughter units to avail themselves of this guidance document in meeting the......

  3. 9 CFR 93.316 - Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. Horses imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  4. 9 CFR 93.316 - Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. Horses imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  5. 9 CFR 93.316 - Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. Horses imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  6. 9 CFR 93.316 - Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. Horses imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  7. 9 CFR 93.316 - Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. Horses imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  8. 9 CFR 311.27 - Injured animals slaughtered at unusual hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Injured animals slaughtered at unusual hours. 311.27 Section 311.27 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... PARTS § 311.27 Injured animals slaughtered at unusual hours. When it is necessary for humane reasons...

  9. Divergent selection for residual feed intake affects the transcriptomic and proteomic profiles of pig skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Vincent, A; Louveau, I; Gondret, F; Tréfeu, C; Gilbert, H; Lefaucheur, L

    2015-06-01

    Improving feed efficiency is a relevant strategy to reduce feed cost and environmental waste in livestock production. Selection experiments on residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, previously indicated that low RFI was associated with lower feed intake, similar growth rate, and greater lean meat content compared with high RFI. To gain insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences, 24 Large White females from 2 lines divergently selected for RFI were examined. Pigs from a low-RFI ("efficient") and high-RFI ("inefficient") line were individually fed ad libitum from 67 d of age (27 kg BW) to slaughter at 115 kg BW (n = 8 per group). Additional pigs of the high-RFI line were feed restricted to the daily feed intake of the ad libitum low-RFI pigs (n = 8) to investigate the impact of selection independently of feed intake. Global gene and protein expression profiles were assessed in the LM collected at slaughter. The analyses involved a porcine commercial microarray and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. About 1,000 probes were differentially expressed (P < 0.01) between RFI lines. Only 10% of those probes were also affected by feed restriction. Gene functional classification indicated a greater expression of genes involved in protein synthesis and a lower expression of genes associated with mitochondrial energy metabolism in the low-RFI pigs compared with the high-RFI pigs. At the protein level, 11 unique identified proteins exhibited a differential abundance (P < 0.05) between RFI lines. Differentially expressed proteins were generally not significantly affected by feed restriction. Mitochondrial oxidative proteins such as aconitase hydratase, ATP synthase subunit α, and creatine kinase S-type had a lower abundance in the low-RFI pigs, whereas fructose-biphosphate aldolase A and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 2 proteins involved in glycolysis, had a greater abundance in those pigs compared with high-RFI pigs

  10. Pre-slaughter, slaughter and post-slaughter defects of skins and hides at the Sheba Tannery and Leather Industry, Tigray region, northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kahsay, Tesfay; Negash, Guesh; Hagos, Yohannes; Hadush, Birhanu

    2015-01-01

    Skins and hides are perishable resources that can be damaged by parasitic diseases and human error, which result in downgrading or rejection. This study was conducted to identify defect types and to determine their prevalence in pickled sheep and wet blue goat skins and wet blue hides. Each selected skin or hide was examined for defects in natural light and the defects were graded according to established quality criteria in Ethiopian standard manuals. Major defects were captured by digital photography. The major pre-slaughter defects included scratches (64.2%), cockle (ekek) (32.8%), wounds or scars (12.6%), lesions from pox or lumpy skin disease (6.1%), poor substance (5%), branding marks (2.3%) and tick bites (1.5%). The presence of grain scratches in wet blue hides (76.3%) was significantly higher than in pickled sheep (67.2%) and wet blue goat (59.1%) skins. The major slaughter defects included flay cuts or scores, holes, poor pattern and vein marks, with a higher occurrence in wet blue goat skins (28.7%; P < 0.001) than in wet blue hides (22.8%) and pickled sheep skins (11.1%). The most prevalent postslaughter defects were grain cracks (14.9%), hide beetle damage (8%), damage caused by heat or putrefaction (3.7%) and machine-induced defects (0.5%). Grain cracks (27.04%) and hide beetle damage (13.9%) in wet blue goat skins were significantly more common than in wet blue hides and pickled sheep skins. These defects cause depreciation in the value of the hides and skins. Statistically significant (P < 0.001) higher rejection rates were recorded for wet blue hides (82.9%) than for pickled sheep skins (18.3%) and wet blue goat skins (8.5%). Improved animal health service delivery, effective disease control strategies and strong collaboration between stakeholders are suggested to enhance the quality of skins and hides. PMID:26304167

  11. Pig in the Middle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Sophie

    2000-01-01

    Explores themes relating to human transition as they appear in "Charlotte's Web" and four other stories using pigs as a subject. Discusses the motifs common to all these texts that recur in the film "Babe." Considers how the cycle of life and death is ceaseless, and pigs symbolize the necessary transitions that people must all make. (NH)

  12. The marketing of cysticercotic pigs in the Sierra of Peru. The Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru.

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    In Peru pork supplied through regulated slaughterhouses is primarily restricted to the large cities on the coast. Approximately 65% of the pork consumed in the country is obtained through informal channels that are not inspected or supervised. The pathways via which pigs are commercialized were studied in Huancayo, a city in the Peruvian Sierra where cysticercosis is endemic. Official purchase, slaughter, and market records were reviewed. Also, direct surveys and participant observation were carried out at two local live pig markets and at two informal meat markets. Pigs were not processed in local slaughterhouses; instead, they were butchered informally. The proportion of cysticercotic pigs detected by tongue examination ranged from 14% to 25% of the total sold. Since cysticercotic pigs and pork are sold through informal markets, surveys of abattoirs and meat markets are not a reliable way to monitor the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Peru. We estimate that 48% of the pork traded informally and 23% of the total pork consumed in Huancayo is derived from pigs that are infected with cysticercosis. PMID:8490986

  13. Evaluation of feet and skeletons of limbs from pigs treated with a repartitioning agent, cimaterol.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, M A; Dalrymple, R H

    1987-01-01

    Recently, beta-adrenergic agents, which repartition muscle and fat, have been used to develop more muscular carcasses in broilers, steers, lambs, and pigs. Cimaterol, one such repartitioning agent, effectively improves carcass quality in pigs. Since the mode of action of repartitioning agents is uncertain, and because they may indirectly affect skeletal development or the integrity of feet, the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of cimaterol on selected growth cartilages and feet. Pigs were randomly placed in four groups and fed a ration that included Cimaterol at 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, or 1.00 mg/kg. At 100 kg live-weight, pigs were slaughtered and selected growth cartilages, bones, and feet were examined macroscopically, radiologically, and microscopically. Although the majority of pigs had lesions in feet, or had dyschondroplastic changes typical of osteochondrosis in many growth cartilages, particularly physes, there were no significant differences in frequency of pigs with lesions between groups. Cimaterol enhanced carcass quality with no detrimental effect on bones or feet. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4a. Fig. 4b. Fig. 4c. Fig. 4d. PMID:2886205

  14. Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli from Pigs in Organic and Conventional Farming in Four European Countries.

    PubMed

    Österberg, Julia; Wingstrand, Anne; Nygaard Jensen, Annette; Kerouanton, Annaelle; Cibin, Veronica; Barco, Lisa; Denis, Martine; Aabo, Sören; Bengtsson, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Organic pig production differs in many ways from conventional production of pigs, e.g., in antibiotic use, herd structure, feeding regimes, access to outdoor areas and space allowance per pig. This study investigated if these differences result in a lower occurrence of antibiotic resistance in organic slaughter pigs in Denmark, France, Italy and Sweden. Samples were taken from the colon content and/or faeces and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of ten antibiotics were determined in isolates of Escherichia coli. In addition, the proportion of tetracycline (TET) resistant E. coli in colon content and/or faeces from individual pigs was determined. In all four countries the percentage resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides or trimethoprim was significantly lower in E. coli from organic pigs. In France and Italy, the percentage of isolates resistant to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid or gentamicin was also significantly lower in the E. coli from organic pigs. Resistance to cefotaxime, was not found in any country. The percentage of E. coli isolates resistant to TET as well as the proportion of TET-resistant E. coli was significantly lower in organic than in conventional pigs, except in Sweden where TET-resistance was equally low in both production types. There were also differences between countries within production type in the percentage resistance to individual antibiotics as well as the proportion of TET-resistant E. coli with lower median proportions in Sweden and Denmark compared to France and Italy. The study shows that in each of the four countries resistance in intestinal E. coli was less common in organic than in conventional pigs, but that there were also large differences in resistance between countries within each production type, indicating that both country- and production-specific factors influence the occurrence of resistance. PMID:27362262

  15. Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli from Pigs in Organic and Conventional Farming in Four European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard Jensen, Annette; Kerouanton, Annaelle; Cibin, Veronica; Barco, Lisa; Denis, Martine; Aabo, Sören

    2016-01-01

    Organic pig production differs in many ways from conventional production of pigs, e.g., in antibiotic use, herd structure, feeding regimes, access to outdoor areas and space allowance per pig. This study investigated if these differences result in a lower occurrence of antibiotic resistance in organic slaughter pigs in Denmark, France, Italy and Sweden. Samples were taken from the colon content and/or faeces and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of ten antibiotics were determined in isolates of Escherichia coli. In addition, the proportion of tetracycline (TET) resistant E. coli in colon content and/or faeces from individual pigs was determined. In all four countries the percentage resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides or trimethoprim was significantly lower in E. coli from organic pigs. In France and Italy, the percentage of isolates resistant to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid or gentamicin was also significantly lower in the E. coli from organic pigs. Resistance to cefotaxime, was not found in any country. The percentage of E. coli isolates resistant to TET as well as the proportion of TET-resistant E. coli was significantly lower in organic than in conventional pigs, except in Sweden where TET-resistance was equally low in both production types. There were also differences between countries within production type in the percentage resistance to individual antibiotics as well as the proportion of TET-resistant E. coli with lower median proportions in Sweden and Denmark compared to France and Italy. The study shows that in each of the four countries resistance in intestinal E. coli was less common in organic than in conventional pigs, but that there were also large differences in resistance between countries within each production type, indicating that both country- and production-specific factors influence the occurrence of resistance. PMID:27362262

  16. Cysticercosis in the pig.

    PubMed

    de Aluja, A S

    2008-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is still an important parasitosis in rural pigs in many developing countries, México among them. The main causes for the persistence of this condition are lack of hygiene in the rural communities, lack of education of the animal owners, lack of control in the trade of pigs and their meat and lack of conscientious meat inspection. The pig production systems in the marginated areas of Mexico are briefly mentioned and it is stressed that among the important reasons for the persistence of the reproductive cycle of Taenia solium is the fact that appropriate toilet facilities in village dwellings are not mandatory. The diagnostic methods of cysticercosis in the living pigs and in their meat are discussed and the degenerative stages of the larvae as well as methods to test their viability are explained. The treatment of infected pigs and their meat is discussed. Recommendations for control programmes are given. PMID:18393899

  17. Tail biting in pigs.

    PubMed

    Schrøder-Petersen, D L; Simonsen, H B

    2001-11-01

    One of the costly and welfare-reducing problems in modern pig production is tail biting. Tail biting is an abnormal behaviour, characterized by one pig's dental manipulation of another pig's tail. Tail biting can be classified into two groups: the pre-injury stage, before any wound on the tail is present, and the injury stage, where the tail is wounded and bleeding. Tail biting in the injury stage will reduce welfare of the bitten pig and the possible spread of infection is a health as well as welfare problem. The pigs that become tail biters may also suffer, because they are frustrated due to living in a stressful environment. This frustration may result in an excessive motivation for biting the tails of pen mates. This review aims to summarize recent research and theories in relation to tail biting. PMID:11681870

  18. Why are most EU pigs tail docked? Economic and ethical analysis of four pig housing and management scenarios in the light of EU legislation and animal welfare outcomes.

    PubMed

    D'Eath, R B; Niemi, J K; Vosough Ahmadi, B; Rutherford, K M D; Ison, S H; Turner, S P; Anker, H T; Jensen, T; Busch, M E; Jensen, K K; Lawrence, A B; Sandøe, P

    2016-04-01

    To limit tail biting incidence, most pig producers in Europe tail dock their piglets. This is despite EU Council Directive 2008/120/EC banning routine tail docking and allowing it only as a last resort. The paper aims to understand what it takes to fulfil the intentions of the Directive by examining economic results of four management and housing scenarios, and by discussing their consequences for animal welfare in the light of legal and ethical considerations. The four scenarios compared are: 'Standard Docked', a conventional housing scenario with tail docking meeting the recommendations for Danish production (0.7 m2/pig); 'Standard Undocked', which is the same as 'Standard Docked' but with no tail docking, 'Efficient Undocked' and 'Enhanced Undocked', which have increased solid floor area (0.9 and 1.0 m2/pig, respectively) provision of loose manipulable materials (100 and 200 g/straw per pig per day) and no tail docking. A decision tree model based on data from Danish and Finnish pig production suggests that Standard Docked provides the highest economic gross margin with the least tail biting. Given our assumptions, Enhanced Undocked is the least economic, although Efficient Undocked is better economically and both result in a lower incidence of tail biting than Standard Undocked but higher than Standard Docked. For a pig, being bitten is worse for welfare (repeated pain, risk of infections) than being docked, but to compare welfare consequences at a farm level means considering the number of affected pigs. Because of the high levels of biting in Standard Undocked, it has on average inferior welfare to Standard Docked, whereas the comparison of Standard Docked and Enhanced (or Efficient) Undocked is more difficult. In Enhanced (or Efficient) Undocked, more pigs than in Standard Docked suffer from being tail bitten, whereas all the pigs avoid the acute pain of docking endured by the pigs in Standard Docked. We illustrate and discuss this ethical balance using

  19. Feather retention force in broiler carcasses slaughtered and held up to 8 hours postmortem prior to scalding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One factor that could impact the feasibility of commercial on-farm slaughter of broilers is the time delay from on-farm slaughter to scalding and defeathering in the commercial plant that could be 4 h or more. This experiment evaluated feather retention force (FRF) in broilers that were slaughtered ...

  20. The influence of endoparasites on selected production parameters in pigs in various housing systems.

    PubMed

    Jankowska-Mąkosa, A; Knecht, D

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the level of lean meat content and daily gains of 400 fatteners infected by endoparasites and kept in two systems (shallow and deep litter). Slaughter evaluation of the pigs was conducted according to the EUROP carcass classification. In order to evaluate the average daily gains (g) during finishing period, body weights were investigated twice: at the beginning and at the end of the finishing period. The housing system affected the presence of Ascaris suum and Oesophagostomum spp. Infestation was found to be higher on shallow than on deep litter, and it significantly affected selected fattening and slaughter parameters of the fatteners. Infected animals were characterized by gains approximately 60 g lower than those of uninfected ones, while meatiness was higher in fatteners which were not infected at the end of the fattening period compared to animals with parasites (55.2% vs. 52.0%). PMID:25956635

  1. Pathophysiology of free-bullet slaughter of horses and ponies.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Troy J; Bedford, Elisabeth M; Chancellor, Natalie M; Limon, Georgina

    2015-10-01

    Forty-six equines were observed during routine commercial slaughter in an abattoir. The animals were shot once with a .22 calibre long rifle with hollow point rounds. Indicators of sensibility/insensibility were evaluated immediately after the shot (prior to exsanguination) and the resulting pathophysiology of free-bullet injury was assessed. All animals were rendered immediately insensible, with only one pony showing signs of a shallow depth of concussion, with an intermittently positive palpebral reflex but no other signs of brainstem function. All animals (100%) had some degree of damage to the structures of the brainstem or lobes of the cerebrums, while 41 (89%) had damage to the thalamus/hypothalamus. The bullet in one pony missed the brain but still caused mild damage to the thalamus, midbrain, pons and cerebellum, this animal had no signs of sensibility. The findings confirm that free-bullet shooting is an effective dispatch method for horses and ponies. PMID:26093383

  2. Natural trematode infestation in feral Nebrodi Black pigs: pathological investigations.

    PubMed

    Capucchio, Maria Teresa; Catalano, Deborah; Di Marco, Vincenzo; Russo, Miriam; Aronica, Vincenzo; Tomaselli, Amedeo; Lazzara, Alessandro; Amedeo, Stefano; Scaglione, Frine Eleonora; Dore, Bruno; Guarda, Franco

    2009-01-22

    Few studies describe the parasites of pigs bred in the wild state, although pigs are a known reservoir of trematode infestation. This article reports the results of a retrospective study carried out from January 2003 to June 2007 on 3021 Nebrodi Black male and female pigs, regularly slaughtered, aged between 8 months and 4 years. Fasciola hepatica and Dicrocoelium dendriticum flukes were detected in 143 (4.37%) of 3021 livers. The predominant histological features were multifocal to diffuse chronic hepatitis, with fibrosis and severely thickened walls of the bile ducts and chronic parietal, sometimes nodular inflammation. F. hepatica infestation was frequently associated with marked hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the submucosal glands. The study results confirm the important role swine play in the transmission of trematode infestations, indicate the prevalence of these parasites in the Nebrodi Park area, and draw attention to the need for a prophylaxis plan to prevent the spread of infestation to ruminants and humans living in the area. PMID:19038498

  3. First report of Brucella suis biovar 2 in a semi free-range pig farm, Italy.

    PubMed

    Barlozzari, Giulia; Franco, Alessia; Macrì, Gladia; Lorenzetti, Serena; Maggiori, Fabiana; Dottarelli, Samuele; Maurelli, Marina; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Tittarelli, Manuela; Battisti, Antonio; Gamberale, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    This communication describes the isolation of Brucella suis (B. suis) biovar 2 in semi‑free‑range pigs located in the province of Rome, Italy. Sera of 28 pigs from a herd with reproductive problems were tested for brucellosis. Twenty-five sera (89%) were found positive to Rose Bengal Test (RBT), while 22 (79%) were positive to Complement Fixation Test (CFT). Two positive pigs were slaughtered, organs were collected and tested for the presence of bacteria. Brucella spp. was isolated from the spleens and the abdominal lymph nodes of the 2 subjects. The isolates were identified as B. suis biovar 2 by biochemical and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) tests. The frequent infringement in the fences of the premises and the birth of striped piglets provided evidence that sows mated with wild boar, the major reservoir of B. suis biovar 2. Conversely, the isolation of B. suis biovar 2 from spleens and lymphnodes of seropositive slaughtered animals only, as well as the constant negative results from all vaginal swabs and the abortion materials tested, raise doubts on the implication of B. suis biovar 2 in the infertility of the holding. PMID:26129667

  4. A Novel Immunochromatographic Test Applied to a Serological Survey of Japanese Encephalitis Virus on Pig Farms in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Go-Woon; Lee, Eun Ju; Lim, Eun-Joo; Sin, Kang Suk; Park, Woo Won; Jeon, Doo Young; Han, Myung Guk; Lee, Won-Ja; Choi, Woo-Young; Jeong, Young Eui

    2015-01-01

    Among vertebrate species, pigs are a major amplifying host of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and measuring their seroconversion is a reliable indicator of virus activity. Traditionally, the hemagglutination inhibition test has been used for serological testing in pigs; however, it has several limitations and, thus, a more efficient and reliable replacement test is required. In this study, we developed a new immunochromatographic test for detecting antibodies to JEV in pig serum within 15 min. Specifically, the domain III region of the JEV envelope protein was successfully expressed in soluble form and used for developing the immunochromatographic test. The test was then applied to the surveillance of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in Korea. We found that our immunochromatographic test had good sensitivity (84.8%) and specificity (97.7%) when compared with an immunofluorescence assay used as a reference test. During the surveillance of JE in Korea in 2012, the new immunochromatographic test was used to test the sera of 1,926 slaughtered pigs from eight provinces, and 228 pigs (11.8%) were found to be JEV-positive. Based on these results, we also produced an activity map of JEV, which marked the locations of pig farms in Korea that tested positive for the virus. Thus, the immunochromatographic test reported here provides a convenient and effective tool for real-time monitoring of JEV activity in pigs. PMID:25992769

  5. Varying dietary levels of wheat pollard and wheat bran in growing pigs: effect on growth and carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Mwesigwa, Robert; Mutetikka, David; Kabugo, Stephen; Kugonza, Donald Rugira

    2013-11-01

    To study the effect of increasing levels of wheat pollard as a replacement for wheat bran on growth and carcass characteristics of growing pigs, 64 crossbred (Landrace × Large white Yorkshire) pigs were fed with diets in which wheat pollard was added back to wheat bran in ratios of 15, 30, 45 and 60 %. The pigs were divided into groups of four, balanced for sex, ancestry and body weight. They were then allotted to the dietary treatments in a completely randomised design with four replications. The trial lasted 4 months and data were collected on feed intake and weight gain. A digestibility trial was carried out on eight male pigs per treatment during the growth period. At the end of the growth period, two pigs per replicate in each treatment (n = 32) were slaughtered for determination of carcass characteristics. There were significant differences in the rate of gain and efficiency of feed utilisation among treatments. Diet significantly affected weights of the liver, lungs and small intestine (P < 0.05). The availability of nutrients was not a limiting factor for the growing pigs and that substituting wheat bran by wheat pollard at 60 % improved the pig's average daily gain and feed efficiency. PMID:23846767

  6. Longitudinal study on transmission of MRSA CC398 within pig herds

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since the detection of MRSA CC398 in pigs in 2004, it has emerged in livestock worldwide. MRSA CC398 has been found in people in contact with livestock and thus has become a public health issue. Data from a large-scale longitudinal study in two Danish and four Dutch pig herds were used to quantify MRSA CC398 transmission rates within pig herds and to identify factors affecting transmission between pigs. Results Sows and their offspring were sampled at varying intervals during a production cycle. Overall MRSA prevalence of sows increased from 33% before farrowing to 77% before weaning. Overall MRSA prevalence of piglets was > 60% during the entire study period. The recurrent finding of MRSA in the majority of individuals indicates true colonization or might be the result of contamination. Transmission rates were estimated using a Susceptible-Infectious-Susceptible (SIS-)model, which resulted in values of the reproduction ratio (R0) varying from 0.24 to 8.08. Transmission rates were higher in pigs treated with tetracyclins and β-lactams compared to untreated pigs implying a selective advantage of MRSA CC398 when these antimicrobials are used. Furthermore, transmission rates were higher in pre-weaning pigs compared to post-weaning pigs which might be explained by an age-related susceptibility or the presence of the sow as a primary source of MRSA CC398. Finally, transmission rates increased with the relative increase of the infection pressure within the pen compared to the total infection pressure, implying that within-pen transmission is a more important route compared to between-pen transmission and transmission through environmental exposure. Conclusion Our results indicate that MRSA CC398 is able to spread and persist in pig herds, resulting in an endemic situation. Transmission rates are affected by the use of selective antimicrobials and by the age of pigs. PMID:22607475

  7. Production performance, carcass composition, and adipose tissue traits of heavy pigs: influence of breed and production system.

    PubMed

    Lebret, B; Dourmad, J Y; Mourot, J; Pollet, P Y; Gondret, F

    2014-08-01

    Both breed and production systems are responsible for production efficiency and quality traits of pork. Effects of breed and production system within breed on growth, body fatness, and adipose tissues traits were assessed in the pure Basque (B, nonselected, local French) and conventional Large White (LW) breeds, reared either in a conventional (C, slatted floor), alternative (A, indoor straw bedding and outdoor area), or extensive (E, free range) system. A total of 100 castrated males were produced in 2 replicates, each involving 50 pigs distributed in 5 treatments based on breed and production system (i.e., BC, BA, BE, LWC, and LWA [10 pigs/group and per replicate]). From 35 kg BW to slaughter at around 145 kg BW, the BC, BA, LWC, and LWA pigs received the same growing and finishing diets, whereas the BE pigs had free access to the natural resources of the E pen and received a standard growing-finishing diet at restricted allowance according to the farming practices of the B pork chain. The B pigs had lower (P < 0.001) ADG and G:F than the LW pigs and were much older (P < 0.001) at slaughter. The LWA pigs had similar ADG but lower (P = 0.03) G:F than the LWC. Within the B breed, the BA had higher (P = 0.04) and the BE lower (P < 0.001) ADG compared with BC pigs. The B pigs had a higher (P < 0.001) carcass dressing an exhibited around 2-fold higher (P < 0.001) back fat proportion, perirenal fat weight and LM lipid content than the LW pigs. Compared with C, the A system decreased (P = 0.04) carcass dressing within LW but did not influence carcass traits within B pigs. The E system decreased (P ≤ 0.05) carcass dressing, back fat proportion, and LM lipid content in BE compared with BC pigs. The B pigs exhibited larger (P < 0.001) adipocytes in both subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) and LM than the LW pigs. Malic enzyme activity was higher in SCAT of B than LW pigs despite their greater fatness, and was higher (P ≤ 0.01) in BA but lower (P < 0.001) in BE than in

  8. Population analysis of Streptococcus suis isolates from slaughtered swine by use of minimum core genome sequence typing.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Han; Ji, Shaobo; Lan, Ruiting; Liu, Zhijie; Bai, Xuemei; Zhang, Wen; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Xu, Jianguo

    2014-10-01

    Streptococcus suis, an important zoonotic pathogen, is a highly diverse species with only a subset of strains that cause disease in humans. Our previous study proposed a minimum core genome (MCG) sequence typing method and defined seven MCG groups, with MCG group 1 as the prevalent group causing human infections. In this study, we identified a set of 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed in six genes that were used to identify the seven MCG groups. The 10 SNPs were typed for 179 S. suis isolates collected from slaughtered pigs. The most prevalent groups among the tested isolates were MCG groups 6 and 7. Most of the isolates (147/179) were genotyped as mrp negative, epf negative, sly negative, and CDS2157 positive. The 179 isolates were also typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and divided into 115 sequence types (STs), 111 of which were new. The 6 serotypes (29, 11, 5, 12, 30, and 2) represented 72.3% of the serotyped isolates. Our data show that the typing assay facilitates the application of genome data to the surveillance of S. suis. PMID:25056323

  9. Bleeding Efficiency, Microbiological Quality and Oxidative Stability of Meat from Goats Subjected to Slaughter without Stunning in Comparison with Different Methods of Pre-Slaughter Electrical Stunning.

    PubMed

    Sabow, Azad Behnan; Zulkifli, Idrus; Goh, Yong Meng; Ab Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin; Kaka, Ubedullah; Imlan, Jurhamid Columbres; Abubakar, Ahmed Abubakar; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2016-01-01

    The influence of pre-slaughter electrical stunning techniques and slaughter without stunning on bleeding efficiency and shelf life of chevon during a 14 d postmortem aging were assessed. Thirty two Boer crossbred bucks were randomly assigned to four slaughtering techniques viz slaughter without stunning (SWS), low frequency head-only electrical stunning (LFHO; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 50 Hz), low frequency head-to-back electrical stunning (LFHB; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 50 Hz) and high frequency head-to-back electrical stunning (HFHB; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 850 Hz). The SWS, LFHO and HFHB goats had higher (p<0.05) blood loss and lower residual hemoglobin in muscle compared to LFHB. The LFHB meat had higher (p<0.05) TBARS value than other treatments on d 7 and 14 d postmortem. Slaughtering methods had no effect on protein oxidation. Higher bacterial counts were observed in LFHB meat compared to those from SWS, LFHO and HFHB after 3 d postmortem. Results indicate that the low bleed-out in LFHB lowered the lipid oxidative stability and microbiological quality of chevon during aging. PMID:27035716

  10. Bleeding Efficiency, Microbiological Quality and Oxidative Stability of Meat from Goats Subjected to Slaughter without Stunning in Comparison with Different Methods of Pre-Slaughter Electrical Stunning

    PubMed Central

    Sabow, Azad Behnan; Zulkifli, Idrus; Goh, Yong Meng; Ab Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin; Kaka, Ubedullah; Imlan, Jurhamid Columbres; Abubakar, Ahmed Abubakar; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2016-01-01

    The influence of pre-slaughter electrical stunning techniques and slaughter without stunning on bleeding efficiency and shelf life of chevon during a 14 d postmortem aging were assessed. Thirty two Boer crossbred bucks were randomly assigned to four slaughtering techniques viz slaughter without stunning (SWS), low frequency head-only electrical stunning (LFHO; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 50 Hz), low frequency head-to-back electrical stunning (LFHB; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 50 Hz) and high frequency head-to-back electrical stunning (HFHB; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 850 Hz). The SWS, LFHO and HFHB goats had higher (p<0.05) blood loss and lower residual hemoglobin in muscle compared to LFHB. The LFHB meat had higher (p<0.05) TBARS value than other treatments on d 7 and 14 d postmortem. Slaughtering methods had no effect on protein oxidation. Higher bacterial counts were observed in LFHB meat compared to those from SWS, LFHO and HFHB after 3 d postmortem. Results indicate that the low bleed-out in LFHB lowered the lipid oxidative stability and microbiological quality of chevon during aging. PMID:27035716