Science.gov

Sample records for danish pig slaughter

  1. Serum-haptoglobin concentration in Danish slaughter pigs of different health status.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Henrik Hagbard; Ersbøll, Annette Kjaer; Jensen, Charlotte Sonne; Nielsen, Jens Peter

    2002-08-30

    A cross-sectional study was conducted with 617 finishing pigs aged 10-25 weeks in 11 commercial herds of different health statuses as defined by the Danish monitoring program for specific-pathogen-free (SPF) herds. A standard clinical examination was performed and a blood sample was obtained from each pig for determination of haptoglobin concentration in serum. Pigs aged 10-14, 15-19 and 20-25 weeks in conventional herds had higher haptoglobin concentrations than high-health SPF (SPF-x) pigs of the same age. There was no significant difference between SPF-x pigs of different ages. Conventional pigs aged 15-19 and 20-25 weeks had higher haptoglobin concentrations than conventional pigs aged 10-14 weeks. Herd influenced the haptoglobin concentration. Lame pigs and pigs with tail or ear bite had elevated haptoglobin concentrations. No significant effect of respiratory symptoms or umbilical hernia was found. PMID:12163249

  2. Endocarditis-associated brain lesions in slaughter pigs.

    PubMed

    Karstrup, C C; Jensen, H E; Aalbæk, B; Leifsson, P S; Boye, M; Agerholm, J S

    2011-05-01

    Left-sided valvular endocarditis (LSVE) is a common finding in slaughter pigs. The lesion is often associated with renal thromboembolism, but information on embolization to other organs is sparse. This study focuses on the presence and type of endocarditis-associated brain lesions (EABLs). The brains of 20 slaughter pigs with spontaneously arising LSVE and 11 controls were examined by sectioning half of a formalin-fixed brain into 4mm slices for histological examination. The aetiology of the endocarditis was determined by bacteriological and, in some cases, by fluorescence in-situ hybridization examinations. These examinations identified 11 cases of Streptococcus suis, six cases of Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, one Streptococcus spp. and two cases that remained aetiologically undetermined. One of the S. suis cases had a dual infection with S. suis in the aortic valve lesions and Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis in the atrioventricular valve lesions. Renal infarcts were present in eight cases. Focal encephalitis was found in 12 cases, with the number of lesions ranging from one to 11. Most pigs had less than four microscopical lesions. Acute lesions were characterized by focal microabscesses without observable bacteria. Chronic lesions were characterized by astrocytosis and focal accumulation of mononuclear leucocytes. An infarct was observed in one animal. Perivascular inflammation was seen in 14 cases, mostly as two or three lesions, while focal leptomeningitis was found in eight cases. EABLs are therefore common in slaughter pigs with LSVE. The number of lesions per animal is small, which may explain the limited attention paid to this sequela of LSVE. EABLs have rarely been reported in domestic animals and mostly in patients with neurological signs. The frequent occurrence of EABLs in slaughter pigs suggests that this pathology should be investigated in other animal species with LSVE. PMID:21168147

  3. Characterization of hemorrhages in the tenderloins of slaughter pigs.

    PubMed

    Dich-Jørgensen, Kristine; McEvoy, Fintan J; Larsen, Helle Daugaard; Leifsson, Páll S; Jensen, Henrik Elvang

    2016-11-01

    Muscle hemorrhages are regularly observed in especially the tip of the tenderloin muscles of slaughter pigs. In order to characterize the hemorrhages, a macro- and microscopic examination of tenderloins with (n=5) and without (n=4) hemorrhages and the associated vertebral column was carried out. Furthermore, all columns were radiographed and two were CT scanned. Histologically, the muscle hemorrhages contained cells from bone marrow and growth line cartilage. Ventral epiphysiolysis in either the cranial or caudal epiphysis of the first lumbar vertebrae (L1) in 8 out of the 9 vertebral columns was present. In the 5 cases with tenderloin hemorrhage, similar hemorrhage with growth line cartilage was found within the fracture of the epiphysis. The hemorrhages develop secondarily to epiphysiolysis in the lumbar vertebrae, where the tenderloin attaches to the spine. The lesions probably develop around the time of stunning. PMID:27372280

  4. Welfare of entire male pigs is improved by socialising piglets and keeping intact groups until slaughter.

    PubMed

    Rydhmer, L; Hansson, M; Lundström, K; Brunius, C; Andersson, K

    2013-09-01

    In today's production systems, pigs raised for slaughter are mixed many times, resulting in stress and fighting. The negative consequences of mixing are probably more severe with entire males than with castrates, as they fight more. In this project, we studied a system without castration where entire male pigs met unfamiliar pigs only once. Piglets from two litters were allowed to visit each other from circa 2 weeks of age through an opening between the farrowing pens. Entire males from these litters were kept in intact groups from weaning and onwards, and they were slaughtered pen-wise in intact groups. Control pigs were raised and weaned in their litters and mixed with unknown pigs when moved to the growing-finishing unit. They were slaughtered by split marketing based on individual weight. In total, 96 entire males from 24 litters were studied. Activity and social interactions of pigs were studied by direct observations on three observation occasions per pen for pigs kept in intact groups and four occasions for control pigs. All pigs were inspected for skin lesions during raising and at slaughter. Results showed that fewer pigs in intact groups were resting (17.1% v. 28.5%; P = 0.044) and they showed less aggressive behaviour (16.1 v. 27.7 number of interactions per hour; P = 0.001) than control pigs when moved to the growing-finishing unit. They also got fewer skin lesions compared with control pigs (15 v. 35; P < 0.001). Consequently, control pigs tended to grow slower during the 1st week after mixing; however, growth rate during the whole growing-finishing phase did not differ between treatments (P = 0.205). Control pigs directed more aggressive behaviour towards non-litter mates than towards litter mates during the whole growing-finishing phase, whereas pigs from the other treatment made no difference between litter mates and other familiar pigs. At 67 kg, there was more sexual behaviour (mounting) among control pigs (7.6 v. 3.4; P = 0.033), but after

  5. Relationship between tail lesions and lung health in slaughter pigs.

    PubMed

    van Staaveren, Nienke; Vale, Ana P; Manzanilla, Edgar G; Teixeira, Dayane L; Leonard, Finola C; Hanlon, Alison; Boyle, Laura A

    2016-05-01

    Tail lesions are associated with poor health either because they serve as a point of entry for pathogens or because of shared risk factors. This study investigated the relationship between carcass tail lesion and lung lesion severity scores in slaughter pigs. Carcasses were scored after scalding/dehairing for tail lesion severity (0-4). Lungs were scored according to an adapted version of the BPEX pig health scheme. Severity of enzootic pneumonia (EP-like lesions) was recorded on a scale of 0-50. Severity of pleurisy was scored on a 0-2 scale with score 2 equating to severe pleurisy or those lungs that remained attached to the chest wall ('lungs in chest'). The database for assessing pleurisy lesions contained all pleurisy scores (n=5628). Lungs with a score of 2 for pleurisy were excluded from the analysis of all other lung lesions as such lungs could not be assessed for other lesions (n=4491). Associations between tail lesions and different lung lesion outcomes were analysed using generalized linear mixed models (PROC GLIMMIX) with random effect for batch. Males were more affected by moderate (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.51-2.34) and severe (OR=5.8, 95% CI 3.45-9.70) tail lesions than females. EP-like lesions and pleurisy were most commonly observed. Pigs with severe tail lesions tended to have more 'lungs in chest' than pigs with moderate tail lesions (P=0.1). No other associations between tail lesions and lung lesions were found. Males had higher odds of having EP-like lesions (OR=1.2, 95% CI 1.05-1.36) than females. Tail lesions on the carcass may not be an accurate predictor of lung health. However, tail lesions are important welfare indicators and respiratory disease is a significant infectious condition affecting pigs. Thus, recording of tail and lung lesions at meat inspection provides valuable information regarding on-farm health and welfare of pigs. PMID:27094136

  6. Bovine renal lipofuscinosis: Prevalence, genetics and impact on milk production and weight at slaughter in Danish cattle

    PubMed Central

    Agerholm, Jørgen S; Christensen, Knud; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Flagstad, Pia

    2009-01-01

    Background Bovine renal lipofuscinosis (BRL) is an incidental finding in cattle at slaughter. Condemnation of the kidneys as unfit for human consumption was until recently considered the only implication of BRL. Recent studies have indicated a negative influence on the health of affected animals. The present study investigated the prevalence, genetics and effect of BRL on milk yield and weight at slaughter. Methods BRL status of slaughter cattle was recorded at four abattoirs during a 2-year-period. Data regarding breed, age, genetic descent, milk yield and weight at slaughter were extracted from the Danish Cattle Database. The prevalence of BRL was estimated stratified by breed and age-group. Furthermore, total milk yield, milk yield in last full lactation and weight at slaughter were compared for BRL-affected and non-affected Danish Holsteins and Danish Red cattle. Results 433,759 bovines were slaughtered and 787 of these had BRL. BRL was mainly diagnosed in Danish Red, Danish Holstein and crossbreds. The age of BRL affected animals varied from 11 months to 13 years, but BRL was rarely diagnosed in cattle less than 2 years of age. The total lifelong energy corrected milk (ECM) yields were 3,136 and 4,083 kg higher for BRL affected Danish Red and Danish Holsteins, respectively. However, the median life span of affected animals was 4.9 months longer, and age-corrected total milk yield was 1,284 kg lower for BRL affected Danish Red cows. These cows produced 318 kg ECM less in their last full lactation. Weight at slaughter was not affected by BRL status. The cases occurred in patterns consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance and several family clusters of BRL were found. Analysis of segregation ratios demonstrated the expected ratio for Danish Red cattle, but not for Danish Holsteins. Conclusion The study confirmed that BRL is a common finding in Danish Holsteins and Danish Red cattle at slaughter. The disorder is associated with increased total milk yield due

  7. Investigation Into the Humaneness of Slaughter Methods for Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcelus) in the Andean Region.

    PubMed

    Limon, Georgina; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy A; Gibson, Troy J

    2016-01-01

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcelus) are an important source of nonhuman animal protein in the Andean region of South America. Specific guidelines regarding the welfare of guinea pigs before and during slaughter have yet to be developed. This study critically assessed the humaneness of 4 different stunning/slaughter methods for guinea pigs: cervical neck dislocation (n = 60), electrical head-only stunning (n = 83), carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning (n = 21), and penetrating captive bolt (n = 10). Following cervical neck dislocation, 97% of guinea pigs had at least 1 behavioral or cranial/spinal response. Six percent of guinea pigs were classified as mis-stunned after electrical stunning, and 1% were classified as mis-stunned after captive bolt. Increased respiratory effort was observed during CO2 stunning. Apart from this finding, there were no other obvious behavioral responses that could be associated with suffering. Of the methods assessed, captive bolt was deemed the most humane, effective, and practical method of stunning guinea pigs. Cervical neck dislocation should not be recommended as a slaughter method for guinea pigs. PMID:26963642

  8. Investigation Into the Humaneness of Slaughter Methods for Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcelus) in the Andean Region

    PubMed Central

    Limon, Georgina; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy A.; Gibson, Troy J.

    2016-01-01

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcelus) are an important source of nonhuman animal protein in the Andean region of South America. Specific guidelines regarding the welfare of guinea pigs before and during slaughter have yet to be developed. This study critically assessed the humaneness of 4 different stunning/slaughter methods for guinea pigs: cervical neck dislocation (n = 60), electrical head-only stunning (n = 83), carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning (n = 21), and penetrating captive bolt (n = 10). Following cervical neck dislocation, 97% of guinea pigs had at least 1 behavioral or cranial/spinal response. Six percent of guinea pigs were classified as mis-stunned after electrical stunning, and 1% were classified as mis-stunned after captive bolt. Increased respiratory effort was observed during CO2 stunning. Apart from this finding, there were no other obvious behavioral responses that could be associated with suffering. Of the methods assessed, captive bolt was deemed the most humane, effective, and practical method of stunning guinea pigs. Cervical neck dislocation should not be recommended as a slaughter method for guinea pigs. PMID:26963642

  9. [Prevalence of gastric lesions in the pars proventricularis in finishing pigs at slaughter in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    van den Berg, A; Brülisauer, F; Regula, G

    2005-07-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted at two large abattoirs in the winter 2003/04 to determine the prevalence of gastric lesions in Swiss finishing pigs. The stomachs of 1897 pigs from 107 slaughter groups were examined for macroscopic epithelial lesion of the pars proventricularis. Severe hyperceratosis, erosion, ulceration and constriction at the transition between oesophagus and stomach were described as gastric lesions. Lesions were observed in 36% of all animals, with slaughter group prevalence ranging from 0% to 94%. Ulceration or constriction was present in four percent of the examined pigs. Associations between gastric lesions, farm management data, and data obtained at ante and post mortem examinations conducted at the slaughterhouse were analysed. A significantly higher prevalence of gastric lesions was found in pigs originating from conventional housing systems compared to pigs raised on farms with 'animal-friendly' housing systems providing straw bedding and outdoor exercise to pigs. In addition, significantly higher prevalence was observed in pigs originating from herds with clinical signs of tail biting and peritarsitis. PMID:16041976

  10. Choosing appropriate space allowances for slaughter pigs transported by road: a review.

    PubMed

    Warriss, P D

    1998-04-25

    In the United Kingdom pigs can spend up to 11 hours in transit to slaughter but on average travel for two to three hours. In the past, international journeys have lasted up to 40 hours and have been over 900 miles long. There is evidence that pigs, like calves and sheep, but unlike adult cattle, prefer to lie down if provided with suitable conditions, particularly bedding, on the vehicle. They will, however, sometimes stand during short journeys, possibly when excessive vibration or uncomfortable flooring, particularly a lack of sufficient bedding, cause discomfort. Current UK legislation and EU Directive 95/29/EC specify that, in general, pigs must have sufficient space to lie down during transit. Measurements of the space needed for sternal recumbency, and direct observations of pigs at different stocking densities, suggest that the minimum space required is equivalent to about 250 kg/m2 for normal slaughter pigs of 90 to 100 kg liveweight. This figure may not be appropriate for very small or very large pigs. In the UK at present, more than half of all slaughter pigs are transported at densities greater than that prescribed (235 kg/m2) in the EU Directive. At stocking densities above about 250 kg/m2 there may not be enough room available for all the pigs to lie down, leading to continual disturbance of recumbent animals by those seeking a place to rest. A stocking density of 322 kg/m2 leads to clear evidence of physical stress. During long journeys (> or = 25 hours) meat quality is reduced by high stocking densities, implying muscle glycogen depletion and possibly fatigue. Higher stocking densities are also associated with higher mortality. There is evidence of wide variations in air temperature inside transporters, particularly for international journeys. Although there are small variations within vehicles, the temperature of the air inside is closely related to the outside temperature. It has been recommended that the temperature within the vehicle should not

  11. Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughter pigs in Serbia: seroprevalence and demonstration of parasites in blood.

    PubMed

    Klun, Ivana; Vujanić, Marija; Yera, Hélène; Nikolić, Aleksandra; Ivović, Vladimir; Bobić, Branko; Bradonjić, Siniša; Dupouy-Camet, Jean; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2011-01-01

    A seroepizootiological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection involving a total of 488 slaughter pigs (468 market-weight pigs and 20 sows) in the Belgrade area, also included examination of the presence of T. gondii in the blood. Blood sampled at the slaughter line was examined for specific antibodies by modified direct agglutination, and blood clots of those seropositive at titres of 1:50-1:12800 were bioassayed in mice. The overall seroprevalence was 9.2%, significantly higher (p = 0.0063) in sows (30.0%) than in market-weight pigs (8.3%). Amongst the 22 bioassays performed, a total of 16 (72.7%) were positive, by observation of T. gondii cysts (12), seropositivity (7, including 3 in which cysts were not detected), and/or detection of T. gondii DNA by real-time PCR (12, including one otherwise negative). The positive bioassays originated from the blood of 12 market-weight pigs and 4 sows. Despite a general increase in the rate of demonstration of T. gondii with the increase in the specific antibody level, the association was not significant (p = 0.101). The risk of infection was 41-fold increased in sows vs market-weight pigs, and 15-fold in pigs from smallholders' finishing type farms vs those from large farrow-to-finish farms. The presence of viable T. gondii in a proportion of the samples indicates that some of the pigs had an active parasitaemia at the time of slaughter, which, along with the seroprevalence established, points to a potential source of human infection in Serbia. This is the first report on parasitaemia in naturally infected swine. PMID:21314900

  12. Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughter pigs in Serbia: seroprevalence and demonstration of parasites in blood

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    A seroepizootiological study of Toxoplasma gondii infection involving a total of 488 slaughter pigs (468 market-weight pigs and 20 sows) in the Belgrade area, also included examination of the presence of T. gondii in the blood. Blood sampled at the slaughter line was examined for specific antibodies by modified direct agglutination, and blood clots of those seropositive at titres of 1:50-1:12800 were bioassayed in mice. The overall seroprevalence was 9.2%, significantly higher (p = 0.0063) in sows (30.0%) than in market-weight pigs (8.3%). Amongst the 22 bioassays performed, a total of 16 (72.7%) were positive, by observation of T. gondii cysts (12), seropositivity (7, including 3 in which cysts were not detected), and/or detection of T. gondii DNA by real-time PCR (12, including one otherwise negative). The positive bioassays originated from the blood of 12 market-weight pigs and 4 sows. Despite a general increase in the rate of demonstration of T. gondii with the increase in the specific antibody level, the association was not significant (p = 0.101). The risk of infection was 41-fold increased in sows vs market-weight pigs, and 15-fold in pigs from smallholders' finishing type farms vs those from large farrow-to-finish farms. The presence of viable T. gondii in a proportion of the samples indicates that some of the pigs had an active parasitaemia at the time of slaughter, which, along with the seroprevalence established, points to a potential source of human infection in Serbia. This is the first report on parasitaemia in naturally infected swine. PMID:21314900

  13. Prevalence of Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in Finnish Slaughter Pigs.

    PubMed

    Rahikainen Ibañez, T; Laukkanen-Ninios, R; Hakkinen, M; Johansson, T; Vilar, M; Korkeala, H

    2016-04-01

    The prevalence of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica was determined in tonsil and intestinal content samples from 388 healthy fattening pigs at the four biggest Finnish slaughterhouses. These slaughterhouses process 73% of pigs in Finland. Tonsil samples were tested by PCR targeted for yadA, and intestinal samples were cultured. All pathogenic Y. enterocolitica isolates represented bioserotype 4/O:3. The prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in tonsil samples was 60% (95% confidence limit, 55.4 to 65.1%), and its prevalence in intestinal samples was 26% (95% confidence limit, 22.1 to 31.2%). The prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in tonsil and intestinal samples varied between the four slaughterhouses. The tonsil prevalence of Y. enterocolitica was higher in slaughterhouse B, and the prevalence in intestinal content was higher in slaughterhouse C. There were more positive results in both tonsil and intestinal samples in pigs coming from fattening farms than in pigs coming from farrowing-andfattening farms. A seasonal variation was observed in the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in intestinal samples, with the highest prevalence during July and August, but no seasonal variation was detected in tonsil samples. PMID:27052875

  14. Staphylococcus aureus ST398 from slaughter pigs in northeast China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaomei; Yu, Xiaojie; Tao, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Jianfeng; Zhang, Binghua; Dong, Rui; Xue, Chengyu; Grundmann, Hajo; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2014-05-01

    To describe the prevalence and population structure of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria that colonize pigs at slaughterhouses in northeastern China, nose swabs were collected from pigs in two slaughterhouses in Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China in 2009. S. aureus isolates were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing, SCCmec typing, antimicrobial susceptibility testing and pvl gene detection. A total of 200 S. aureus isolates were collected from 590 pigs (33.9%, 200/590), of which 162 (81%, 162/200) were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and 38 (19%, 38/200) were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Ninety-nine of the MSSA isolates (99/162, 61.1%) were ST398, which represented the dominant sequence type overall. Eighty-seven isolates were ST9 (87/200, 43.5%), and all MRSA belonged to that sequence type which consisted of the spa types t899 and t2922. Among the MSSA strains, t034, t899 and t4358 were the most dominant spa types (139/162, 85.8%). All MRSA isolates harbored SCCmec type IVb. The pvl gene was only detected in 3 ST7/t2119 MSSA isolates. All MRSA but more importantly also 82.7% (134/162) of the MSSA isolates were resistant to six or more antibiotics. Moreover, a novel resistance determinant-lsa(E) was identified among 22% (44/200) of all isolates. In conclusion, pigs in northeast China are frequently colonized with ST398 MSSA. MRSA with this sequence type, typically associated with pigs in Europe, was not found. High levels of multiple antibiotic resistance among MRSA isolates as well as MSSA isolates are a public health concern. PMID:24418357

  15. [CO2-stunning of slaughter pigs: effects on EEG, catecholamines and clinical reflexes].

    PubMed

    Hartung, J; Nowak, B; Waldmann, K H; Ellerbrock, S

    2002-03-01

    Investigations were carried out on the response of slaughter pigs to CO2 stunning with two different gas concentrations (80 vol%, 90 vol%, 73 s) under practical conditions in a one gondola-dip-lift system. EEG measurements were performed and blood constituents such as catecholamines (adrenaline, nor-adrenaline) and lactate as well as clinical reactions (nasal septum and corneal reflex, heart beats) investigated. Special EEG-electrodes were adapted for the measurement on pigs and a mobile data logger was prepared for the use in the lairage of the slaughter house and in the stunning unit. The CO2 concentrations were measured continuously close to the head of the pigs when transported up and down in the stunning gondola. The results show that the technique is suited to monitor the effects of different CO2 gas concentrations on the EEG of the pigs under practical conditions. There is strong evidence that CO2 concentrations of 80 vol% applied over 70 s as required by law are not sufficient to stun pigs properly. A large part of the animals still showed typical reflexes when leaving the stunning pit. When an atmosphere of 90 vol% CO2 is applied, most animals are already dead before bleeding commences. This may create problems in respect to meat hygiene. The blood analysis revealed very high concentrations of catecholamines after stunning. The values for adrenaline and nor-adrenaline in the sticking blood rose by a factor of about 1000 as compared to the concentrations in blood samples taken in the lairage before stunning. It seems necessary to revise the current legislation on gas stunning and to look in greater detail in the effects of CO2 stunning on the welfare of slaughter pigs. PMID:11963365

  16. Seroprevalence of zoonotic parasites in pigs slaughtered in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Pruvot, Mathieu; Joshi, Durga Datt; De Craeye, Stéphane; Jennes, Malgorzata; Ale, Anita; Welinski, Alma; Lama, Sanjyoti; Aryal, Arjun; Victor, Bjorn; Duchateau, Luc; Speybroeck, Niko; Vercruysse, Jozef; Dorny, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    For several years, the demand for pork has been on the rise in Nepal. To assess the importance of pork as a carrier of zoonotic agents, we performed a cross-sectional study in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal, in which we serologically determined the infection status of slaughtered pigs with regard to three of the most important parasites transmitted through pork consumption: Trichinella spp., Taenia solium cysticerci, and Toxoplasma gondii. From 2007 to 2010, 742 pigs were sampled at slaughter, of which 0.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.0-0.7%) were found positive for Trichinella infection, 13.8% (95% credibility interval [CrI] 0.8-28.5%) for T. solium cysticercosis, and 11.7% (95% CI 5.2-17.5%) for Toxoplasma infection. Further monitoring of the related animal and human disease burden and strengthening of food safety protocols throughout the pork production chain are strongly recommended. PMID:24107212

  17. Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis in slaughtered pigs, goats, and sheep in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Kabululu, Mwemezi; Nørmark, Michelle Elisabeth; Nejsum, Peter; Ngowi, Helena Aminel; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have been carried out in Africa to estimate the prevalence of Taenia hydatigena. With the aim to determine the prevalence of T. hydatigena in slaughtered pigs and small ruminants (goats and sheep) in Mbeya, Tanzania, two cross-sectional surveys were carried out investigating pigs in April to May 2014 and small ruminants in September 2012. In total, 243 pigs were examined post-mortem for T. hydatigena cysts which were found in 16 (6.6 %) pigs. The majority (80 %) of cysts were found on the omentum and the rest on the liver (20 %), all on the visceral surface. Two pigs were also found infected with Taenia solium but showed no signs of other infections. A total of 392 goats and 27 sheep were examined post-mortem, and the prevalence of T. hydatigena was similar in goats and sheep with 45.7 and 51.9 %, respectively. DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) from a subsample of metacestodes from goats and sheep confirmed the T. hydatigena infection. The prevalence found in small ruminants was comparable to other studies conducted in Africa, but for pigs, it is one of the highest recorded to date. The present study also confirms the occurrence of T. hydatigena and T. solium in pigs from Mbeya. Further studies are needed to determine the impact of T. hydatigena on production under sub-Saharan conditions and the financial consequences for smallholder farmers. PMID:26210397

  18. Prevalence of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in landrace and mixed breed pigs slaughtered in Baja California Sur state, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose We performed a cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 308 domestic pigs slaughtered in La Paz, Baja California Sur State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25). Results Forty (13%) of the 308 pigs were seropositive ...

  19. The Metabolically Active Bacterial Microbiome of Tonsils and Mandibular Lymph Nodes of Slaughter Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Evelyne; Pinior, Beate; Wetzels, Stefanie U.; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The exploration of microbiomes in lymphatic organs is relevant for basic and applied research into explaining microbial translocation processes and understanding cross-contamination during slaughter. This study aimed to investigate whether metabolically active bacteria (MAB) could be detected within tonsils and mandibular lymph nodes (MLNs) of pigs. The hypervariable V1-V2 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA genes was amplified from cDNA from tonsils and MLNs of eight clinically healthy slaughter pigs. Pyrosequencing yielded 82,857 quality-controlled sequences, clustering into 576 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), which were assigned to 230 genera and 16 phyla. The actual number of detected OTUs per sample varied highly (23–171 OTUs). Prevotella zoogleoformans and Serratia proteamaculans (best type strain hits) were most abundant (10.6 and 41.8%, respectively) in tonsils and MLNs, respectively. To explore bacterial correlation patterns between samples of each tissue, pairwise Spearman correlations (rs) were calculated. In total, 194 strong positive and negative correlations |rs| ≥ 0.6 were found. We conclude that (i) lymphatic organs harbor a high diversity of MAB, (ii) the occurrence of viable bacteria in lymph nodes is not restricted to pathological processes and (iii) lymphatic tissues may serve as a contamination source in pig slaughterhouses. This study confirms the necessity of the EFSA regulation with regard to a meat inspection based on visual examinations to foster a minimization of microbial contamination. PMID:26696976

  20. Supra-nutritional vitamin E supplementation for 28 days before slaughter maximises muscle vitamin E concentration in finisher pigs.

    PubMed

    Kim, J C; Jose, C G; Trezona, M; Moore, K L; Pluske, J R; Mullan, B P

    2015-12-01

    A 4 × 3 factorial experiment (n=8 pigs per treatment combination) was conducted with 96 female Landrace × Large White pigs to examine the required level of dietary vitamin E and optimum feeding duration before slaughter to maximise muscle vitamin E content in the Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle. The respective factors were four dietary levels of vitamin E (supplemented as dl-α-tocopheryl acetate; 35, 300, 500, and 700 IU/kg) and three feeding durations (14, 28 and 42 days before slaughter). Vitamin E concentration in the LTL was maximised at 6 mg/kg, which was achieved by feeding a 700 IU vitamin E diet for 28 days before slaughter (P<0.001). There was no further increase in the vitamin E content of the LTL by feeding the high vitamin E diet more than 28 days before slaughter. PMID:26313847

  1. Prevalence and genetic diversity of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. in pigs at farms and slaughter in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Novoslavskij, Aleksandr; Šernienė, Loreta; Malakauskas, Alvydas; Laukkanen-Ninios, Riikka; Korkeala, Hannu; Malakauskas, Mindaugas

    2013-04-01

    The prevalence of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. in pigs at farms and slaughter in relation to potential farming risk factors in Lithuania was examined. Pig faeces and carcase swab samples from 11 farms were studied at slaughterhouses. Nine of the 11 farms were visited again 3-5 months later, and pooled feacal samples and environmental samples were collected. Pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica was found in 64% and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in 45% of the sampled pig farms. All obtained isolates belonged to bioserotypes 4/O:3 and 2/O:3, respectively. Low biosecurity level was associated with a high prevalence of Y. enterocolitica on farms. Characterization with PFGE of 64 Y. enterocolitica and 27 Y. pseudotuberculosis isolates revealed seven and two different genotypes, respectively. Dominant enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. genotypes were obtained in both pig feacal and carcase samples. The high contamination of pig carcases (25%) with enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. may be an important factor contributing to the high incidence of human yersiniosis in Lithuania. PMID:23102547

  2. Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus Infection in Pigs at the Time of Slaughter, United Kingdom, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Grierson, Sylvia; Heaney, Judith; Cheney, Tanya; Morgan, Dilys; Wyllie, Stephen; Powell, Laura; Smith, Donald; Ijaz, Samreen; Steinbach, Falko; Choudhury, Bhudipa

    2015-01-01

    Since 2010, reports of infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) have increased in England and Wales. Despite mounting evidence regarding the zoonotic potential of porcine HEV, there are limited data on its prevalence in pigs in the United Kingdom. We investigated antibody prevalence, active infection, and virus variation in serum and cecal content samples from 629 pigs at slaughter. Prevalence of antibodies to HEV was 92.8% (584/629), and HEV RNA was detected in 15% of cecal contents (93/629), 3% of plasma samples (22/629), and 2% of both (14/629). However, although HEV is prevalent in pigs in the United Kingdom and viremic pigs are entering the food chain, most (22/23) viral sequences clustered separately from the dominant type seen in humans. Thus, pigs raised in the United Kingdom are unlikely to be the main source of human HEV infections in the United Kingdom. Further research is needed to identify the source of these infections. PMID:26196216

  3. Effects of pre-slaughter stressor and feeding preventative Chinese medicinal herbs on glycolysis and oxidative stability in pigs.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiumei; Yan, Xue; Xie, Linqi; Hu, Xiaodong; Lin, Xi; Wu, Changzheng; Zhou, Ningcong; Wang, Anru; See, Miles Todd

    2016-08-01

    A total of 64 5-month-old Pietrain pigs were randomly allocated to four treatments with four replicates per treatment according to body weight. The pigs were fed either a standard corn-soybean meal based control diet (treatments 1 and 2), the standard diet with 1% Lycium barbarum (LB) (treatment 3), or the standard diet with 1% Polygala tenuifolia Willd (PT) (treatment 4). Serum lactic acid and glucose concentrations were increased in stressed pigs (P < 0.05). Addition of the herbs in the diet had no effect on the serum lactic acid concentration, but 1% LB decreased (P < 0.05) serum glucose concentration in the stressed pigs. Pre-slaughter stress also decreased (P < 0.01) liver glycogen concentration and the decrease could be inhibited by addition of 1% LB in the diet (P > 0.05). Pre-slaughter stress increased the concentration of maleic dialdehyde (MDA) (P < 0.05) and decreased glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in serum, while dietary 1% LB increased (P < 0.05) the activity of GSH-Px and decreased the concentration of MDA in the serum. In conclusion, pre-slaughter stress induces oxidative stress in pigs and dietary supplementation with 1% LB improves antioxidant capacity in stressed pigs before slaughtering. PMID:26497952

  4. Factors Associated with Pleurisy in Pigs: A Case-Control Analysis of Slaughter Pig Data for England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Henrike C.; McKinley, Trevelyan J.; Wood, James L. N.; Pearce, Gareth P.; Williamson, Susanna; Strugnell, Benjamin; Done, Stanley; Habernoll, Henrike; Palzer, Andreas; Tucker, Alexander W.

    2012-01-01

    A case-control investigation was undertaken to determine management and health related factors associated with pleurisy in slaughter pigs in England and Wales. Methods The British Pig Executive Pig Health Scheme database of abattoir pathology was used to identify 121 case (>10% prevalence of pleurisy on 3 or more assessment dates in the preceding 24 months) and 121 control units (≤5% prevalence of pleurisy on 3 or more assessment dates in the preceding 24 months). Farm data were collected by postal questionnaire. Data from respondents (70 cases and 51 controls) were analysed using simple logistic regression models with Bonferroni corrections. Limited multivariate analyses were also performed to check the robustness of the overall conclusions. Results and Conclusions Management factors associated with increased odds of pleurisy included no all-in all-out pig flow (OR 9.3, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.3–29), rearing of pigs with an age difference of >1 month in the same airspace (OR 6.5 [2.8–17]) and repeated mixing (OR 2.2 [1.4–3.8]) or moving (OR 2.2 [1.5–3.4]) of pigs during the rearing phase. Those associated with decreased odds of pleurisy included filling wean-to-finish or grower-to-finish systems with piglets from ≤3 sources (OR 0.18 [0.07–0.41]) compared to farrow-to-finish systems, cleaning and disinfecting of grower (ORs 0.28 [0.13–0.61] and 0.29 [0.13–0.61]) and finisher (ORs 0.24 [0.11–0.51] and 0.2 [0.09–0.44]) accommodation between groups, and extended down time of grower and finisher accommodation (OR 0.84 [0.75–0.93] and 0.86 [0.77–0.94] respectively for each additional day of downtime). This study demonstrated the value of national-level abattoir pathology data collection systems for case control analyses and generated guidance for on-farm interventions to help reduce the prevalence of pleurisy in slaughter pigs. PMID:22363407

  5. Relationships between tail biting in pigs and disease lesions and condemnations at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Kritas, S K; Morrison, R B

    2007-02-01

    Two matched case-control studies were performed at an abattoir with a capacity of 780 pigs per hour, each study using the approximately 7000 pigs slaughtered on one day. In the first study, the severity of tail biting and pneumonia were recorded in pigs with bitten or intact tails. In the second study, the tail score, sex, and the presence of pleuritis, externally visible abscesses and trimming were recorded in pigs with bitten or intact tails. In study 1, there was no significant association between the tail score and the percentage of lung tissue affected by lesions typical of enzootic pneumonia, but there was a significant association between the severity of tail biting and the prevalence of lungs with abscesses and/or pleuritic lesions (P<0.0001). In study 2, there were significant associations between the severity of tail biting, and the prevalence of external carcase abscesses and carcase trimming; the carcases of castrated males had evidence of tail biting more frequently than the carcases of females (P<0.05). PMID:17277296

  6. Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in slaughtered pigs from Northeast, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Feitosa, Thais Ferreira; Vilela, Vinícius Longo Ribeiro; de Melo, Lídio Ricardo Bezerra; de Almeida Neto, João Leite; Souto, Diego Vagner de Oliveira; de Morais, Dayana Firmino; Athayde, Ana Célia Rodrigues; Azevedo, Sérgio Santos; Pena, Hilda Fátima de Jesus

    2014-05-28

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the presence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and anti-Neospora caninum antibodies, to identify associated risk factors and to isolate T. gondii from slaughtered pigs in Paraíba State, Brazil. A total of 190 pigs from public slaughterhouses were used in the study. An indirect immunofluorescence test was used to detect antibodies, and the isolation of T. gondii was performed with a bioassay in mice based on tissues from seropositive animals. A total of 50 g of brain, heart and tongue tissue from 37 positive pigs with titres ≥ 1:64 was ground, digested with acidic pepsin and inoculated into mice. The prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was 19.5% (95% CI: 14.1%; 25.8%) (37/190), with titres ranging from 1:64 to 1:2048. Viable T. gondii parasites were isolated from 13 of the 37 (35.1%; 95% CI: 20.2%; 52.5%) seropositive pigs. We found that the virulence of the isolates varied; three of these isolates were able to kill all of the inoculated mice. The risk factors for infection were extensive husbandry and feeding with leftovers. The prevalence of antibodies to N. caninum in pigs was 3.2% (95% CI: 1.2%; 6.7%) (6/190), with titres ranging from 1:100 to 1:3200. None of the variables studied were considered to be risk factors for N. caninum. These results show that the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies in swine is high in Paraíba State, that the percentage of viable T. gondii parasites recovered from these animals is also high and that infection by this parasite is closely related to the management of swine. Despite the low prevalence of N. caninum in pigs, further studies are necessary to determine the importance of this parasite for the species. PMID:24703253

  7. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in slaughtered pigs and abattoir workers in Italy.

    PubMed

    Normanno, Giovanni; Dambrosio, Angela; Lorusso, Vanessa; Samoilis, Georgios; Di Taranto, Pietro; Parisi, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen present in the hospital environment (HA-MRSA), in the community (CA-MRSA) and in livestock, including pigs (LA-MRSA). MRSA may enter the human food chain during slaughtering and may infect humans coming into direct contact with pigs or pork products. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and characteristics of MRSA isolated from pigs and workers at industrial abattoirs in southern Italy. A total of 215 pig nasal swabs were screened for the presence of MRSA using PCR. An MRSA isolate was detected from each mecA/nuc PCR-positive sample and characterized by spa-typing, Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, SCC-mec and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL), and also tested for the production of staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs). Eighty-one MRSA isolates (37.6%) were obtained from the 215 pig nasal swabs; 37 of these isolates were further characterized, and showed 18 different spa-types and 8 different STs. The most frequently recovered STs were ST398 (CC398-t034, t011, t899, t1939 - 43.2%) followed by ST8 (CC8-t008, t064, t2953, t5270 - 24.3%) and ST1 (CC1-t127, t174, t2207 - 10.8%). Nine MRSA isolates were obtained from the 113 human swabs; the isolates showed 5 different spa-types and 5 different STs, including the novel ST2794 (t159). The most representative STs recovered were ST1 (CC1-t127) and ST398 (CC398-t034) (33.3%). None of the MRSA isolates showed the ability to produce SEs and PVL and all resulted resistant to two or more classes of antimicrobials. This study shows the great genetic diversity of MRSA strains in slaughtered pigs and in abattoir employees in Italy, and clearly demonstrates the need for improved hygiene standards to reduce the risk of occupational and food-borne infection linked to the handling/consumption of raw pork containing MRSA. PMID:26187827

  8. Noninfectious factors associated with pneumonia and pleuritis in slaughtered pigs from 143 farrow-to-finish pig farms.

    PubMed

    Fablet, C; Dorenlor, V; Eono, F; Eveno, E; Jolly, J P; Portier, F; Bidan, F; Madec, F; Rose, N

    2012-05-01

    A cross-sectional study involving 143 farrow-to-finish herds was carried out to identify herd-level noninfectious factors associated with pneumonia and pleuritis in slaughter pigs. Data related to herd characteristics, biosecurity, management and housing conditions were collected by questionnaire during a farm visit. Climatic conditions were measured over 20 h in the post-weaning and finishing rooms where the slaughter pigs were kept. After these on-farm investigations, the finishing pigs were examined at slaughter for lung lesions. A sample of 30 randomly selected pigs per herd was scored for pneumonia and pleuritis. Herds were grouped into three categories according to their pneumonia median score (class 1: ≤ 0.5; class 2: 0.53.75). For pleuritis, a herd was deemed affected if at least one pig had a high pleuritis score (≥ 3). A multinomial logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with pneumonia classes 2 and 3. A logistic regression for binary outcome was used to identify risk factors for severe pleuritis. An interval of less than four weeks between successive batches (OR=4.5, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.5-13.6, p<0.01), large finishing room size (OR=4.3, 95% CI: 1.6-11.6, p<0.01) and high mean CO(2) concentration in the finishing room (OR=4.2, 95%CI: 1.6-11.3, p<0.01), significantly increased the odds for a herd to be in class 2 for pneumonia. The same risk factors were found for class 3 and, in addition, a direct fresh air inlet from outside or from the corridor in the post-weaning room vs an appropriate ceiling above the pigs (OR=5.1, 95% CI: 1.4-18.8, p=0.01). The risk for a herd to have at least one pig with a high pleuritis score was increased when the farrowing facilities were not disinsected (OR=2.7, 95% CI: 1.2-5.8, p=0.01), when tail docking was performed later than 1.5 days after birth (OR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.2-5.7, p=0.01) and if the piglets were castrated when more than 14 days old (OR=2

  9. Prevalence of clinical signs of disease in Danish finisher pigs.

    PubMed

    Petersen, H H; Nielsen, E O; Hassing, A-G; Ersbøll, A K; Nielsen, J P

    2008-03-22

    Between December 1999 and February 2001, two visits, eight weeks apart, were made to 90 herds of Danish finisher pigs. The prevalence of clinical signs was recorded by three veterinary technicians from the Danish Bacon and Meat Council according to a standardised procedure; they had been trained and their observations were monitored and validated before and during the study. A total of 154,347 finisher pigs were examined and 22,136 clinical signs were recorded. Vices accounted for 43 per cent of the signs. The highest mean prevalence was observed for ear necrosis (4.44 per cent), followed by respiratory signs (2.17 per cent), lameness (1.92 per cent), other skin diseases (1.73 per cent), tail bites (1.26 per cent), umbilical hernia (0.78 per cent), flank bites (0.52 per cent), diarrhoea (0.27 per cent), respiratory distress (0.12 per cent), atrophic rhinitis (0.10 per cent), recumbency (0.09 per cent) and central nervous disease (0.05 per cent). The prevalence of atrophic rhinitis was higher in conventional herds than in specific pathogen-free herds. The prevalence of clinical signs of atrophic rhinitis was higher among finishers weighing 51 to 75 kg than among finishers weighing up to 50 kg, and the prevalence of respiratory signs was higher among finishers weighing 51 to 75 kg then among finishers weighing 76 to 100 kg. PMID:18359931

  10. Prevalence, distribution and pattern of gastric lesions in slaughtered pigs in south-western Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Omotosho, Oladipo O; Emikpe, Benjamin O; Lasisi, Olalekan T; Jarikre, Theophilus A

    2016-01-01

    Gastric lesions, especially ulceration, cause significant economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. The study was designed to assess its prevalence, distribution and pattern in pigs in south-western Nigeria. Slaughter house surveys were conducted on three government-established abattoirs in Lagos, Ogun and Oyo states. Stomachs from 480 pigs were assessed for gross lesions, which were graded using a modification of a standard technique. Tissues from different regions of the stomach were routinely stained to assess histopathologic changes. Data were presented as frequency counts and analysed using analysis of variance and chi-square technique. Significance was determined at p ≤ 0.05. Gastric lesions were encountered across the four regions of the stomach with a point prevalence of 57.29%. The prevalence of lesions in the non-glandular region was 32.9%, with severe hyperkeratosis (13.13%) being most frequently observed (p < 0.05). Erosions were significantly higher in the cardia (8.54%) (p < 0.05), followed by fundus (8.33%). Gastric ulcers were significantly higher in the fundus (19.58%) (p < 0.05). Scars of healed ulcers and lacerations were also observed in the fundus (5.42%) (p < 0.05). The gastric lesion distribution across the four regions of the stomach and the occurrence of ulceration in the fundus showed an unusual pattern, which is rarely reported in other parts of the world. The reason for these findings in pigs in Nigeria is not fully understood; therefore, further studies are required to identify and manage these factors for increased productivity, improved animal welfare and enhanced food security. PMID:27247073

  11. Evaluation of Lawsonia intracellularis infection in a group of pigs in a subclinically affected herd from weaning to slaughter.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Daniel; Kaim, Ute; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Wendt, Michael

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to follow the course of a subclinical Lawsonia (L.) intracellularis infection in a group of 60 pigs on a commercial farm from weaning to slaughter. From 6 to 16 and at 26 weeks of age, rectal faecal samples and blood samples were collected weekly from every pig for examination by PCR and blocking ELISA, respectively. At corresponding times starting at 8 weeks of age, pigs were randomly selected for necropsy (n=51). Intestinal tissues were examined histopathologically and by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for L. intracellularis antigen. Infection with L. intracellularis showed a mainly subclinical course. Shedding of L. intracellularis was detected by PCR in three pigs as early as 6 weeks of age and persisted up until 14 weeks of age. In most pigs shedding of L. intracellularis was seen only for 1-2 weeks followed by a rapid serum antibody response. More than 50% of pigs had seroconverted by week 10. At slaughter, 30.8% of investigated animals were still found to be seropositive by ELISA. Of the 60 study animals 39 were found positive by faeces PCR (65.0%), 49 animals were found positive by serology (81.7%), and 35 pigs (68.6%) had positive results by IHC at necropsy. All but one pig were found to be L. intracellularis infected by at least one of the three methods (98.3%). In conclusion, this is the first field study revealing the presence of prominent histological lesions characteristic for L. intracellularis infection and associated positive pathogen specific PCR and immunohistological results even in subclinically infected pigs. Although intestinal alterations disappeared after 3-4 weeks, L. intracellularis was detected by IHC for a longer time, especially in intestinal lymph nodes. PMID:20605375

  12. Use of an avirulent live Salmonella Choleraesuis vaccine to reduce the prevalence of Salmonella carrier pigs at slaughter

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, P.; Kich, J. D.; Kolb, J.; Cardoso, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of an avirulent live Salmonella Choleraesuis vaccine to reduce the seroprevalence and number of Salmonella carrier pigs at slaughter. Seven batches of 500 pigs were included in each of the two study groups: the vaccinated group (VG) that was orally vaccinated and the control group (CG) that received a placebo on the first day of life. The groups were managed in a three-site system and followed up from birth to slaughter. Blood samples (n=378) were collected from each VG and CG to monitor the on-farm seroprevalence in both groups. Mesenteric lymph nodes and blood from animals (n=390) belonging to each group were collected at slaughter. At the first day of life, the seroprevalence in control batches ranged from 77.9 to 96.3 per cent, while in vaccinated batches, it ranged from 66.6 to 92.6 per cent. At weaning (21 days of age), the number of seropositives decreased in both groups (mean of 12 and 3.7 per cent for CG and VG, respectively). At slaughter, batches of VG had a significantly (P<0.0001) lower seroprevalence (46.6±5 per cent) and isolation of Salmonella from lymph nodes (33.1±5 per cent) compared with CG batches (79.7±4 per cent and 59.5±5 per cent, respectively). The results indicate that administration of a Salmonella choleraesuis-attenuated vaccine on the first day of life decreases Salmonella isolation and seroprevalence in pigs at slaughter. PMID:21949083

  13. Effects of slaughter time post-second injection on carcass cutting yields and bacon characteristics of immunologically castrated male pigs.

    PubMed

    Boler, D D; Killefer, J; Meeuwse, D M; King, V L; McKeith, F K; Dilger, A C

    2012-01-01

    Body weights of finishing pigs can be variable within a finishing barn near the time of slaughter; therefore, it is common to market pigs over a period of time. This allows lighter pigs more time to gain BW and approach a desired end point. Use of immunological castration late in life to control boar taint, as an alternative to physical castration early in life, increases cutting yields of finishing male pigs compared with physical castrates. Because of common marketing strategies, it is important for advantages in cutting yields to span a broad spectrum of slaughter ages and BW. The primary objectives in this study were to evaluate carcass cutting yields, pork quality, belly quality, and bacon processing characteristics of immunologically castrated (IC) male pigs fed a moderate level of distillers dried grains with solubles and slaughtered at either 4 wk (early slaughter group) or 6 wk (late slaughter group) post-second injection. A total of 156 male pigs (physical castrates or IC males) were selected from a population of 1,200 finishing pigs. Data were analyzed with the MIXED procedure of SAS as a split-split plot design. Body weights of IC males were 3.60 kg heavier (P = 0.03) than physical castrates when slaughtered at 4 wk post-second injection and 7.52 kg heavier (P < 0.0001) than physical castrates when slaughtered at 6 wk post-second injection. Because of a lack of interaction (P > 0.05) between sex and time of slaughter post-second injection, some response variables were pooled. Hot carcass weights were not different (P = 0.57) between physical castrates (91.98 kg) and IC males (92.52 kg). There was a 2.77 percentage unit decrease (P < 0.001) in dressing percentage of IC males (71.78%) compared with physical castrates (74.55%). Lean cutting yields of IC males were 2.62 percentage units greater (P < 0.0001) than physical castrates and carcass cutting yields were 2.27 percentage units greater (P < 0.0001) for IC males when compared with physical castrates

  14. Detection of Salmonella enterica in pigs at slaughter and comparison with human isolates in Italy.

    PubMed

    Bonardi, Silvia; Alpigiani, Irene; Bruini, Ilaria; Barilli, Elena; Brindani, Franco; Morganti, Marina; Cavallini, Pierugo; Bolzoni, Luca; Pongolini, Stefano

    2016-02-01

    In 2013-2014, 201 pigs belonging to 67 batches were tested for Salmonella in their mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) in one abattoir of Northern Italy. For each batch, faecal material was collected at lairage by swabbing the pen floor for approximately 1600 cm(2). The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella in MLN of pigs at slaughter, to assess Salmonella contamination at lairage and to evaluate the effect of lairage duration on its prevalence. Serotyping, XbaI PFGE typing and antimicrobial testing of the isolates were performed. Pig and human Salmonella isolates of the same region of Italy were compared to evaluate possible correlations. Salmonella enterica was isolated from 19.9% of the MLN and 49.3% of the environmental faecal samples. Nine different serovars were identified among 75 S. enterica isolates. In MLN Salmonella Derby was the most common (52.5%), followed by S. enterica 4,[5],12:i:- (17.5%) and Salmonella Rissen (10.0%). In faecal samples S. Derby was prevalent (51.4%), followed by S. enterica 4,[5], 12:i:- (20.0%) and Salmonella Brandenburg (14.3%). Lairage holding varied between 1 and ≥ 12 h (median value: 2.5h). In pigs held for 1-3h, 14.1% were positive for Salmonella in MLN but the prevalence reached 31.8% when they were held for ≥ 12 h. The contamination of MLN was statistically different (p=0.0045) between the two groups, thus confirming the role of long-lasting lairage in Salmonella contamination of pigs. XbaI PFGE typing detected 36 PFGE types. Twenty-three PFGE types were identified among the 40 MLN isolates and 22 PFGE types among the 35 faecal isolates. A total of 11 PFGE types were shared between the MLN of pigs and the lairage environment. Among S. Derby, 6 shared PFGE types between MLN and faeces were found and among S. enterica 4,[5],12:i:- one PFGE type was common between MLN and the faecal samples. Shared profiles between human and swine isolates of S. Derby, S. enterica 4,[5],12:i:-, S. Rissen, Salmonella

  15. Microbiomes of Unreactive and Pathologically Altered Ileocecal Lymph Nodes of Slaughter Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Evelyne; Dzieciol, Monika; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Wagner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Microbe-laden dendritic cells are shifted to ileocecal lymph nodes (ICLNs), where microbes are concentrated and an adequate immune response is triggered. Hence, ICLNs are at a crucial position in immune anatomy and control processes of the local immune system. Pathological alterations in ICLNs, such as reactive hyperplasia, lymphadenitis purulenta, or granulomatosa, can harbor a multitude of pathogens and commensals, posing a potential zoonotic risk in animal production. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbial diversity of unreactive ICLNs of slaughter pigs and to investigate community shifts in reactive ICLNs altered by enlargement, purulence, or granulomatous formations. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons from 32 ICLNs yielded 175,313 sequences, clustering into 650 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). OTUs were assigned to 239 genera and 11 phyla. Besides a highly diverse bacterial community in ICLNs, we observed significant shifts in pathologically altered ICLNs. The relative abundances of Cloacibacterium- and Novosphingobium-associated OTUs and the genus Faecalibacterium were significantly higher in unreactive ICLNs than in pathologically altered ICLNs. Enlarged ICLNs harbored significantly more Lactobacillus- and Clostridium-associated sequences. Relative abundances of Mycoplasma, Bacteroides, Veillonella, and Variovorax OTUs were significantly increased in granulomatous ICLNs, whereas abundances of Pseudomonas, Escherichia, and Acinetobacter OTUs were significantly increased in purulent ICLNs (P < 0.05). Correlation-based networks revealed interactions among OTUs in all ICLN groups, and discriminant analyses depicted discrimination in response to pathological alterations. This study is the first community-based survey in ICLNs of livestock animals and will provide a basis to broaden the knowledge of microbe-host interactions in pigs. PMID:24141125

  16. Psychrophile spoilers dominate the bacterial microbiome in musculature samples of slaughter pigs.

    PubMed

    Mann, Evelyne; Wetzels, Stefanie U; Pinior, Beate; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to disentangle the microbial diversity on porcine musculature. The hypervariable V1-V2 region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified from DNA samples of clinically healthy slaughter pigs (n=8). Pyrosequencing yielded 37,000 quality-controlled reads and a diverse microbiome with 54-159 OTUs per sample was detected. Interestingly, 6 out of 8 samples were strongly dominated by 1-2 highly abundant OTUs (best hits of highly abundant OTUs: Serratia proteamaculans, Pseudomonas syringae, Aeromonas allosaccharophila, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Acidiphilium cryptum and Escherichia coli). In 1g musculature scraping, 3.20E+06 16S rRNA gene copies and 4.45E+01 Enterobacteriaceae rRNA gene copies were detected with qPCR. We conclude that i.) next-generation sequencing technologies help encompass the full content of complex, bacterial contamination, ii.) psychrophile spoilers dominated the microbiota and iii.) E. coli is an effective marker species for pork contamination, as it was one of very few abundant species being present in all samples. PMID:26943946

  17. Salmonella prevalence and characterization in a free-range pig processing plant: tracking in trucks, lairage, slaughter line and quartering.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Manuela; Gómez-Laguna, Jaime; Luque, Inmaculada; Herrera-León, Silvia; Maldonado, Alfonso; Reguillo, Lucía; Astorga, Rafael J

    2013-03-01

    New consumer tendencies are focused on products derived from systems which allow both a high animal welfare condition and a high food safety level. However, sometimes animal welfare regulations make the adoption of adequate bio-security measures difficult, representing a barrier for animal health and food safety. Thus the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Salmonella at different points of the pig slaughtering process (Trucks, Lairage, Slaughter line and Quartering, TLSQ) from pigs reared in free-range systems. From eight samplings a total of 126 Salmonella isolates out of 1160 different samples were recovered (10.86%). The highest percentage of isolates was detected at the points of pre-scalding (29/80, 36.25%), trucks (13/56, 23.21%), cecal contents (17/80, 21.25%), tonsils (14/80, 17.50%), ileocecal lymph nodes (13/80, 16.25%) and lairage (9/64, 14.06%). Furthermore, eighteen isolates were obtained from different environmental samples from slaughter line and quartering plant (knives and surface of tables) (5.63%) and three isolates at the quartering plant samples (ham, shoulder and loin) (3.75%). Fourteen different serotypes were isolated: Bredeney, Rissen, Derby, Typhimurium, Montevideo, Israel, Anatum, Emek, Monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium (mST), Choleraesuis, Durban, Kentucky, London and Sandiego. S. Typhimurium phage types U311, 193, 104b and UT were identified. Moreover, mST strain was phage typed as U311. From TLSQ1, TLSQ2 and TLSQ4, different strains of S. Derby, S. Rissen and S. Bredeney serotypes were isolated from pig and environmental samples, pointing to a potential cross contamination. Molecular typing (Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis, PFGE) of these strains confirmed the cross contamination. In the remaining samplings, different serotypes were obtained in each sampled point of the chain, assuming that the isolated serotypes belonged to different epidemiological origins. Our results show the isolation of different serotypes of

  18. Longitudinal study comparing the dynamics of Clostridium difficile in conventional and antimicrobial free pigs at farm and slaughter.

    PubMed

    Susick, E K; Putnam, M; Bermudez, D M; Thakur, S

    2012-05-25

    Clostridium difficile is the leading cause of nosocomial diarrhea in humans and a major cause of enteritis in neonatal piglets, foals and calves. The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine and compare the prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility, and toxinotype profiles of C. difficile isolated from pigs and their environment in the indoor conventional and outdoor antimicrobial free (ABF) production systems. Ten conventional and eight ABF cohorts of 35 pigs each and their environment were sampled at different stages of production at farm and slaughter. C. difficile prevalence in pigs was highest at the farrowing stage in both conventional (34%, 120/350) and ABF (23%, 56/244) systems, and decreased with age. This reduction in C. difficile prevalence in pigs at later stages of production mirrored the decreased prevalence in the farm environment. At slaughter, C. difficile was isolated at a low frequency from the carcasses and processing environment in both production systems. All but three isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (99%, 505/508), while 1.0% (5/508) and 6.0% (23/508) of isolates exhibited resistance to tetracycline and erythromycin, respectively. Toxinotype V (tcdA(+)tcdB(+)) was the predominant strain identified in both systems (conventional: 94%, 376/401; ABF: 82%, 88/107), while the rest were toxinotype XIII (tcdA(+)tcdB(+)). To conclude, we isolated antimicrobial resistant C. difficile regardless of antimicrobial use on the farm. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic similarity of C. difficile isolated in this study, we conclude that the unique production practices employed in conventional and ABF production systems have no impact on the pathogen population. PMID:22243897

  19. Assessment of Risk Factors for a High Within-Batch Prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica in Pigs Based on Microbiological Analysis at Slaughter.

    PubMed

    Vanantwerpen, Gerty; Berkvens, Dirk; Van Damme, Inge; De Zutter, Lieven; Houf, Kurt

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the current study was to find farm-level factors influencing the bacteriological prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica in pigs at time of slaughter. On 100 farms, data concerning a broad range of farm aspects (e.g., management and housing system, biosecurity, and hygiene measurements) were collected using a face-to-face questionnaire. At the slaughterhouse, tonsils of on average 70 slaughter pigs per batch were sampled to determine the infection status of pigs. After univariable mixed-effect logistic regressions, variables that were related to the Yersinia prevalence (p<0.05) were included in a multivariable model. In this model, the factors remaining positively associated with a higher Y. enterocolitica carriage in the tonsils (p<0.1) were an increasing number of piglet suppliers, a high density of pig farms in the area, and the use of semislatted floors in the fattening pig unit. The proper use of a disinfection bath before entering the stables and a poor biosecurity level were protective factors, although a higher prevalence was associated with a significant positive interaction between the presence of pets in the stables and a poor biosecurity level. Reducing the number of piglet suppliers, using a disinfection bath properly, and prohibiting pets inside the stables could be easily implemented by pig farmers to lower the prevalence of Y. enterocolitica in pigs at slaughter. PMID:25884541

  20. The Effect of Mixing Entire Male Pigs Prior to Transport to Slaughter on Behaviour, Welfare and Carcass Lesions

    PubMed Central

    van Staaveren, Nienke; Teixeira, Dayane Lemos; Hanlon, Alison; Boyle, Laura Ann

    2015-01-01

    Research is needed to validate lesions recorded at meat inspection as indicators of pig welfare on farm. The aims were to determine the influence of mixing pigs on carcass lesions and to establish whether such lesions correlate with pig behaviour and lesions scored on farm. Aggressive and mounting behaviour of pigs in three single sex pens was recorded on Day −5, −2, and −1 relative to slaughter (Day 0). On Day 0 pigs were randomly allocated to 3 treatments (n = 20/group) over 5 replicates: males mixed with females (MF), males mixed with males (MM), and males unmixed (MUM). Aggressive and mounting behaviours were recorded on Day 0 at holding on farm and lairage. Skin/tail lesions were scored according to severity at the farm (Day −1), lairage, and on the carcass (Day 0). Effect of treatment and time on behaviour and lesions were analysed by mixed models. Spearman rank correlations between behaviour and lesion scores and between scores recorded at different stages were determined. In general, MM performed more aggressive behaviour (50.4 ± 10.72) than MUM (20.3 ± 9.55, P < 0.05) and more mounting (30.9 ± 9.99) than MF (11.4 ± 3.76) and MUM (9.8 ± 3.74, P < 0.05). Skin lesion scores increased between farm (Day −1) and lairage (P < 0.001), but this tended to be significant only for MF and MM (P = 0.08). There was no effect of treatment on carcass lesions and no associations were found with fighting/mounting. Mixing entire males prior to slaughter stimulated mounting and aggressive behaviour but did not influence carcass lesion scores. Carcass skin/tail lesions scores were correlated with scores recorded on farm (rskin = 0.21 and rtail = 0.18, P < 0.01) suggesting that information recorded at meat inspection could be used as indicators of pig welfare on farm. PMID:25830336

  1. Effects of weaning age and formic acid-based feed additives on pigs from weaning to slaughter.

    PubMed

    Partanen, Kirsi; Siljander-Rasi, Hilkka; Pentikäinen, Jaana; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Fossi, Marja

    2007-10-01

    Two hundred and forty piglets were used in a 2 x 6 factorial experiment to study the effects of weaning age (26 or 36 d) and four formic acid-based feed additives on the performance of pigs from weaning to slaughter. Either formic acid (F) or a mixture of formic acid, propionic acid, and potassium sorbate (FPS) or a mixture of formic acid, propionic acid, and sodium benzoate (FPB) or formic acid in a diatomaceous earth carrier (FD) were added to the diets of weaned piglets (from weaning to 60 d of age) and growing (18-46 kg) and finishing pigs (46-107 kg) to provide 8, 6, and 6 g acid per kg feed, respectively. The negative control treatment's (C) diets contained no growth promoters, whereas the positive control treatment's weaner and grower diets were supplemented with 40 mg/kg of avilamycin (A). The piglets weaned at the age of 26 and 36 d weighed 7.6 and 10.7 kg at weaning (p < 0.001), and 18.5 and 17.9 kg at the age of 60 d (p > 0.05), respectively. There was a weaning age x feed additive interaction in the weight gain of piglets after weaning (p < 0.05). The weight gain of piglets weaned on day 26 was enhanced by A, FPS, and FD (p < 0.05), and that of piglets weaned on day 36 by A and FPB (p < 0.05). The feed conversion ratio was not affected by weaning ages but was decreased in groups A, F, FBS, and FPB (p < 0.05). The severity of post-weaning diarrhoea was less in groups A, F, FPS, and FD than in C (p < 0.05). In piglets weaned on day 26, faecal water content and the total Escherichia coli count were highest 9 d after weaning. The total E. coli count was reduced only by FD (p < 0.05). Increased faecal water content was characterized by increased faecal Na+ and decreased K+ concentrations. Weaning age did not influence performance or carcass quality in the growing-finishing pigs. Feed additives did not affect weight gain in the growing pigs, but FPS and FPB enhanced weight gain during finishing period and total fattening (p < 0.05). In summary, the pigs

  2. Comparison of risk-based versus random sampling in the monitoring of antimicrobial residues in Danish finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Alban, Lis; Rugbjerg, Helene; Petersen, Jesper Valentin; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2016-06-01

    In Denmark, a monitoring program for residues of antimicrobials in pork is in place involving annual testing of around 20,000 samples from finishing pigs corresponding to 0.1% of the animals slaughtered. Annually, zero to two samples are found above the maximum residue limit. Both authorities and industry have expressed interest in adjusting the monitoring to a risk-based system. The objective of this study was to assess the opportunities and consequences of the monitoring considering: 1) replacing the current bioassay with high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC LC-MS/MS), 2) replacing kidney with muscles as sample matrix, and 3) using indicators to identify high-risk (HR) herds and increase sampling intensity in these herds, lowering sampling in the low-risk (LR) herds, while aiming at continued detection of similar numbers of test-positives at the lowest possible costs. A state-of-the-art stochastic scenario tree modelling approach including economic evaluation of different model outcomes was used. A total of six scenarios were run for penicillin and tetracycline, respectively. Relevant information was obtained through the literature, statistical analysis of existing data as well as consultations with laboratory and slaughterhouse experts. Abattoir recordings of chronic pleuritis were used as an indicator for finishing pig herds (HR=within-herd prevalence>40%). Such risk-based monitoring would have to use muscles and not kidneys, because of logistic challenges in identifying and storing of plucks until testing. However, the bioassay cannot be used on muscle tissue due to low sensitivity for tetracyclines. Different plausible combinations of sample sizes were also modelled. The HPLC LC-MS/MS method detected the same number of cases compared to the bioassay when kidney was used as matrix. HPLC LC-MS/MS has a higher sensitivity when used on muscle but it is almost twice as costly as the bioassay. Risk-based sampling resulted in detection of

  3. Influence of production system in local and conventional pig breeds on stress indicators at slaughter, muscle and meat traits and pork eating quality.

    PubMed

    Lebret, B; Ecolan, P; Bonhomme, N; Méteau, K; Prunier, A

    2015-08-01

    Sensory quality of pork is a complex phenotype determined by interactions between genetic and environmental factors. This study aimed at describing the respective influences of breed and production system on the development of pork quality. Plasma stress indicators and Longissimus muscle (LM) composition, physicochemical and sensory quality traits were determined in two contrasted breeds - the conventional Large White (LW, n=40) and the French local Basque (B, n=60). Pigs were reared in either a conventional (C; n=20 per breed), alternative (A; sawdust bedding and outdoor area, n=20 per breed) or extensive system (E; free-range, n=20 B). All the pigs from A and C systems were slaughtered at the same slaughterhouse, whereas B pigs from the E system were slaughtered at a local commercial abattoir. Major breed differences were found for almost all traits under study. LM from B pigs exhibited higher lipid, lower water and collagen concentrations, as well as lower collagen thermal solubility (P0.05) influence plasma stress indicators, LM chemical composition and physicochemical or sensory traits of pork. In contrast, within the B pigs, the E system affected the meat quality more. Lower plasma cortisol levels (P<0.05), but higher plasma lactate, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, and more skin lesions (P<0.05), indicating higher muscular activity during pre-slaughter handling, were found in pigs produced in the E compared with the C system. E pigs exhibited higher meat pH1 and pHu values and shear force (P<0.01) and exhibited lower lightness, hue angle and drip and thawing losses (P<0.01) compared with the C pigs, whereas LM lipid, protein or collagen concentrations were not affected. Regarding sensory traits, the E system produced redder meat, but did not impact the eating quality of pork. Altogether, this study demonstrates that differences in meat quality between B and LW breeds can be modulated by extensive pig production system. PMID:25908582

  4. Genomic selection in a pig population including information from slaughtered full sibs of boars within a sib-testing program.

    PubMed

    Samorè, A B; Buttazzoni, L; Gallo, M; Russo, V; Fontanesi, L

    2015-05-01

    Genomic selection is becoming a common practise in dairy cattle, but only few works have studied its introduction in pig selection programs. Results described for this species are highly dependent on the considered traits and the specific population structure. This paper aims to simulate the impact of genomic selection in a pig population with a training cohort of performance-tested and slaughtered full sibs. This population is selected for performance, carcass and meat quality traits by full-sib testing of boars. Data were simulated using a forward-in-time simulation process that modeled around 60K single nucleotide polymorphisms and several quantitative trait loci distributed across the 18 porcine autosomes. Data were edited to obtain, for each cycle, 200 sires mated with 800 dams to produce 800 litters of 4 piglets each, two males and two females (needed for the sib test), for a total of 3200 newborns. At each cycle, a subset of 200 litters were sib tested, and 60 boars and 160 sows were selected to replace the same number of culled male and female parents. Simulated selection of boars based on performance test data of their full sibs (one castrated brother and two sisters per boar in 200 litters) lasted for 15 cycles. Genotyping and phenotyping of the three tested sibs (training population) and genotyping of the candidate boars (prediction population) were assumed. Breeding values were calculated for traits with two heritability levels (h 2=0.40, carcass traits, and h 2=0.10, meat quality parameters) on simulated pedigrees, phenotypes and genotypes. Genomic breeding values, estimated by various models (GBLUP from raw phenotype or using breeding values and single-step models), were compared with the classical BLUP Animal Model predictions in terms of predictive ability. Results obtained for traits with moderate heritability (h 2=0.40), similar to the heritability of traits commonly measured within a sib-testing program, did not show any benefit from the

  5. Microencapsulated sorbic acid and pure botanicals affect Salmonella Typhimurium shedding in pigs: a close-up look from weaning to slaughter in controlled and field conditions.

    PubMed

    Grilli, Ester; Foresti, Fabio; Tugnoli, Benedetta; Fustini, Mattia; Zanoni, Maria G; Pasquali, Paolo; Callaway, Todd R; Piva, Andrea; Alborali, Giovanni L

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a combination of sorbic acid, thymol, and carvacrol in reducing the prevalence and shedding level of Salmonella Typhimurium in pigs either in a controlled challenge environment or in a production setting. In the first study, 24 weaned piglets were separated in 4 isolation units (6 piglets/isolation unit). Each unit received either a basal diet (no treatment) or a microencapsulated mixture of sorbic acid, thymol, and carvacrol at 1, 2, or 5 g/kg of feed. After 21 d, pigs were orally challenged with 6 log10 colony-forming units of Salmonella Typhimurium. Blood samples and feces from rectal ampullae were collected every week. On d56 of the study, pigs were euthanized and necropsied to collect intestinal contents (jejunum through colon) and ileocecal lymph nodes. Samples were analyzed for Salmonella Typhimurium and serological analysis was also conducted. In the second study, an all-in-all-out multisite pig farm that was positive for monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium was followed throughout a production cycle from weaning to slaughter. Pigs received either a basal diet or the basal diet including 5 g/kg of the microencapsulated additive. Environmental, fecal, and blood samples were collected monthly, and cecal contents and ileocecal lymph nodes were collected at slaughter to isolate and enumerate Salmonella. The results indicate that the additive at 5 g/kg tended to reduce Salmonella fecal prevalence in both a controlled challenge (p=0.07) and in production conditions (p=0.03). Nevertheless, the additive did not reduce the number of pigs seropositive for Salmonella, nor it reduced the Salmonella prevalence at slaughter. The data indicate that these additives are not effective alone but must be used in conjunction with appropriate containment measures at lairage in order to prevent reinfection in pigs and to reduce the number of pigs carrying Salmonella entering the food chain. PMID:26203634

  6. Detection of Pathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus from Cattle and Pigs Slaughtered in Abattoirs in Vhembe District, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tanih, Nicoline F.; Sekwadi, Eunice; Ndip, Roland N.; Bessong, Pascal O.

    2015-01-01

    Pathogenic food-borne bacteria have been associated with severe morbidity and mortality in humans and animals. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., and Escherichia coli present in cattle and pigs slaughtered in selected abattoirs in Vhembe District and at determining the susceptibility of the isolates to antibiotics. A total of 176 swab samples (28 cattle and 16 pigs) of the rump, flank, brisket, and neck of the animals were analyzed using standard microbiological methods. E. coli isolates were genotyped to detect pathogenic strains. Of the 176 samples, 104 (67.5%) were positive for E. coli and 50 (32.5%) for S. aureus. There was no statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) in the isolation rate from the different animal parts or abattoirs. Overall, 14/104 (13.46%) of the E. coli isolates were pathogenic strains which included enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) (bfpA) 1.9%, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) (LT) 3.8%, and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) (aaiC) 7.6%. E. coli isolates were resistant (100%) to vancomycin and bacitracin. S. aureus (100%) were resistant to oxacillin and nalidixic acid. The presence of resistant strains of these bacteria in food of animal origin could serve as important vehicles transmitting these bacteria to humans. This finding is of epidemiological significance. PMID:25811040

  7. [Fattening and slaughter values of pigs in relation to their genotype and to the protein source in their feed rations].

    PubMed

    Jacyno, E; Czarnecki, R; Owsianny, J; Lachowicz, K; Gajowiecki, L

    1996-01-01

    The studies were carried out on F1 progeny of multiparous Polish Large White sows and boars of Belgian Landrace, Hampshire x Pietrain hybrid, and Pietrain breed. The control group consisted of purebred Polish Large White pigs. The experimental part of the studies was performed on 120 fatteners divided up to 4 race groups, with 30 heads in each (namely 15 barrows and 15 gilts). Moreover, each group was divided into two following subgroups: the SoS one, which was given feed mixture with extracted soybean meal and the RpS one, which was given feed mixture with extracted rapeseed meal. The fattening started with 23 kg of body weight and was realized up to 100 kg. Twenty fatteners from each group (including 5 barrows and 5 gilts from a subgroup) were subjected to the control slaughter. The fatteners average daily body weight gains, and energy and digestible crude protein conversion per 1 kg of gain were as follows: after Belgain Landrace boars 788 g, 32.3 MJ and 358 g; after Hampshire x Pietrain boars 766 g, 33.6 MJ and 373 g; after Pietrain boars 720 g, 34.4 MJ and 382 g; after control group boars 705 g, 36.3 MJ and 403 g, respectively. It was found that hybrids after boars of evaluated breeds have positively (P < or = 0,01) better carcass meatness, and in a better way use digestible protein and metabolizable energy for production of 1 kg of meat. On that reason the best are hybrids after Belgian Landrace boars, carcasses of which yielded 52.4% of meat and converted 27% less of digestible crude protein and metabolizable energy for 1 kg meat production, than the White Large Polish fatteners. For no examined feature interaction between genotype and protein source in feeding diet was found. The growth rate and utilization of fodder were better for pigs fed on mixture with extracted soybean meal than for the ones fed on mixture with extracted rapeseed meal (P < or = 0.05). The fodders with high protein content did not differentiate meatness traits, whereas digestible crude

  8. A prevalence study of Salmonella spp., Yersinia spp., Toxoplasma gondii and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in UK pigs at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Powell, L F; Cheney, T E A; Williamson, S; Guy, E; Smith, R P; Davies, R H

    2016-05-01

    An abattoir-based study was undertaken between January and May 2013 to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella spp. and Yersinia spp. carriage and seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSv) in UK pigs at slaughter. In total, 626 pigs were sampled at 14 abattoirs that together process 80% of the annual UK pig slaughter throughput. Sampling was weighted by abattoir throughput and sampling dates and pig carcasses were randomly selected. Rectal swabs, blood samples, carcass swabs and the whole caecum, tonsils, heart and tongue were collected. Salmonella spp. was isolated from 30·5% [95% confidence interval (CI) 26·5-34·6] of caecal content samples but only 9·6% (95% CI 7·3-11·9) of carcass swabs, which was significantly lower than in a UK survey in 2006-2007. S. Typhimurium and S. 4,[5],12:i:- were the most commonly isolated serovars, followed by S. Derby and S. Bovismorbificans. The prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica carriage in tonsils was 28·7% (95% CI 24·8-32·7) whereas carcass contamination was much lower at 1·8% (95% CI 0·7-2·8). The seroprevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and PRRSv was 7·4% (95% CI 5·3-9·5) and 58·3% (95% CI 53·1-63·4), respectively. This study provides a comparison to previous abattoir-based prevalence surveys for Salmonella and Yersinia, and the first UK-wide seroprevalence estimates for antibodies to Toxoplasma and PRRSv in pigs at slaughter. PMID:26586451

  9. Study on the Association between Tail Lesion Score, Cold Carcass Weight, and Viscera Condemnations in Slaughter Pigs.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Dayane Lemos; Harley, Sarah; Hanlon, Alison; O'Connell, Niamh Elizabeth; More, Simon John; Manzanilla, Edgar Garcia; Boyle, Laura Ann

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between tail lesions, cold carcass weight, and viscera condemnations in an Irish abattoir. The following data were collected at the evisceration point from every third pig slaughtered over 7 days: farm identification, sex, tail lesion score, viscera inspection outcome, and cold carcass weight. Tail lesions were scored according to a 5-point scale. Disease lesions responsible for lung (pleurisy, pneumonia, and abscess), heart (pericarditis), and liver (ascariasis) condemnation were recorded based on the decision of the veterinary inspector (VI). Data on 3,143 pigs from 61 batches were available. The relationship between disease lesions, tail lesion score, and cold carcass weight was studied at individual carcass level, while the relationship between disease lesions and tail lesion score was studied at both carcass and batch level. Tail lesions (score ≥1) were found in 72% of the study population, with 2.3% affected by severe tail lesions (scores ≥3). Pleurisy (13.7%) followed by pneumonia (10.4%) showed the highest prevalence, whereas the prevalence of ascariasis showed the greatest variation between batches (0-75%). Tail lesion score, pleurisy, pleuropneumonia, and pericarditis were associated with reductions in carcass cold weight (P ≤ 0.05) ranging from 3 to 6.6 kg. Tail lesion score was associated with condemnations for pleurisy, pneumonia, and pleuropneumonia (P ≤ 0.05) at a batch level. VI shift was associated with condemnations for pneumonia, pleuropneumonia, and pericarditis (P ≤ 0.05) at a carcass level and with pneumonia at a batch level. Sex was not associated with viscera condemnations but males were more likely to be affected by tail lesions. The relationship between overall tail lesion score and the lung diseases at batch level supports the relationship between poor health and poor welfare of pigs on farms. The inclusion of tail lesion scores at post-mortem meat inspection

  10. Study on the Association between Tail Lesion Score, Cold Carcass Weight, and Viscera Condemnations in Slaughter Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Dayane Lemos; Harley, Sarah; Hanlon, Alison; O’Connell, Niamh Elizabeth; More, Simon John; Manzanilla, Edgar Garcia; Boyle, Laura Ann

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between tail lesions, cold carcass weight, and viscera condemnations in an Irish abattoir. The following data were collected at the evisceration point from every third pig slaughtered over 7 days: farm identification, sex, tail lesion score, viscera inspection outcome, and cold carcass weight. Tail lesions were scored according to a 5-point scale. Disease lesions responsible for lung (pleurisy, pneumonia, and abscess), heart (pericarditis), and liver (ascariasis) condemnation were recorded based on the decision of the veterinary inspector (VI). Data on 3,143 pigs from 61 batches were available. The relationship between disease lesions, tail lesion score, and cold carcass weight was studied at individual carcass level, while the relationship between disease lesions and tail lesion score was studied at both carcass and batch level. Tail lesions (score ≥1) were found in 72% of the study population, with 2.3% affected by severe tail lesions (scores ≥3). Pleurisy (13.7%) followed by pneumonia (10.4%) showed the highest prevalence, whereas the prevalence of ascariasis showed the greatest variation between batches (0–75%). Tail lesion score, pleurisy, pleuropneumonia, and pericarditis were associated with reductions in carcass cold weight (P ≤ 0.05) ranging from 3 to 6.6 kg. Tail lesion score was associated with condemnations for pleurisy, pneumonia, and pleuropneumonia (P ≤ 0.05) at a batch level. VI shift was associated with condemnations for pneumonia, pleuropneumonia, and pericarditis (P ≤ 0.05) at a carcass level and with pneumonia at a batch level. Sex was not associated with viscera condemnations but males were more likely to be affected by tail lesions. The relationship between overall tail lesion score and the lung diseases at batch level supports the relationship between poor health and poor welfare of pigs on farms. The inclusion of tail lesion scores at post-mortem meat inspection

  11. Experimental infection of slaughter pigs with classical swine fever virus: transmission of the virus, course of the disease and antibody response.

    PubMed

    Laevens, H; Koenen, F; Deluyker, H; de Kruif, A

    1999-08-28

    The spread of classical swine fever virus was investigated in an isolation unit containing four pens, each containing six slaughter pigs. One pig in the middle pen of three adjacent pens was inoculated intramuscularly and intranasally with the virus. The fourth pen was located in a separate compartment. The pens were visited in a strict order to study, first, the effect of indirect contact via contaminated clothing and footwear on the spread of the virus to adjacent pens and, secondly, the airborne transmission of the virus between compartments. The pigs were examined and blood samples were taken every other day for 62 days for virological and serological analyses. The virus was highly contagious for the five pigs that were in direct contact with the inoculated pig, but spread to the other pens only after all the pigs in the originally infected pen had become viraemic. The spread of the virus was promoted by contaminated clothing and footwear, but airborne transmission contributed considerably to the spread of the virus within the pighouse. The first clinical signs observed after the virus was introduced into a pen were decreased feed intake, increased mean rectal temperature and apathy. Neither the clinical course of the infection, nor the pattern of seroconversion observed over time, was affected by the differences in the intensity of contact with the virus between the pigs in the different pens. PMID:10504066

  12. Descriptive analysis of the prevalence and the molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium avium complex-infected pigs that were slaughtered on the main island of Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Hibiya, K; Kazumi, Y; Nishiuchi, Y; Sugawara, I; Miyagi, K; Oda, Y; Oda, E; Fujita, J

    2010-09-01

    Recent genetic studies have revealed that several epidemiological factors affect Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infection in pig populations. However, mechanisms underlying the spread of MAC infection among hog farms have not been clarified. In consideration of this situation, we cross-sectionally investigated the mechanisms underlying the spread of MAC on the island of Okinawa. Pigs slaughtered (n=706,763) and 331 hog farms on Okinawa were surveyed during the years 2002-2004. Two outbreaks of MAC infection were occurred in several farms during survey period. Bacteria were isolated from randomly selected pigs and genotype of isolates was determined by using genetic finger printing methods with the insertion sequence (IS) 1245 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Most isolates had large numbers of IS1245 copies, while strains with low copy numbers of IS1245 and isolates without IS1245 were seen in few farms. MACs strains were repeatedly isolated from pigs of the affected farms during the survey period. Those farms with an identical pig rearing systems showed synchronic changes in the prevalence of MAC infection. An industrial farm without an outbreak had an independent pig flow, but maintained distinct MAC strains. Multivariate analysis did not reveal independent factors for the prevalence of the MAC infection. These findings suggest that there were three clusters distinguished genetically in the main island of Okinawa, which were potentially spread by common pig flow. However, the outbreaks occurred because of unspecified conditions on each farm environment. PMID:19443033

  13. Single versus double testing of meat-juice samples for Salmonella antibodies, in the Danish pig-herd surveillance programme.

    PubMed

    Ekeroth, Lars; Alban, Lis; Feld, Niels

    2003-08-01

    In Denmark, a national serological surveillance-and-control programme for Salmonella in pigs has been in operation since 1995. The programme is based on the Danish mix-ELISA and uses double testing (two ELISA-wells used per sample) of meat-juice samples taken in relation to slaughter. All herds are classified monthly into one of the three levels; the classification is based on the percentage of positive serological results in the previous 3 months. In connection with evaluation of the programme in 2001, we investigated whether single testing (testing in one well only) could be expected to be sufficiently precise compared to double testing. Data from the year 2000 were used, and mathematical modelling. Single testing was simulated by randomised selection of one of the two results in the double testing. A slight increase in the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples (1.02-1.09 times more through the four quarters of the year 2000) was found in the simulated single testing, as compared to the double testing. Around 0.5% of the herds would be allocated to another herd level in single testing-almost equal numbers one level up and one level down. No herd being seronegative in double testing would be allocated to levels 2 or 3 (herds with >40 or >70%, respectively, serological reactors) in single testing. The prevalence of "false-positive" diagnoses (positive in single testing and negative in double testing) and inversely defined "false-negative" diagnoses varied from 4.2 to 8.7% and from 3.2 to 4.5%, respectively, through the four quarters of the year 2000. The probability of allocating a herd to a wrong level due to sampling error was on the average 6.2 (varying from 1.66 to over 100) times higher than the probability of allocating a herd to a wrong level due to the test inaccuracy introduced by going from double to single testing. This is, however, an average; a herd with a true prevalence close to one of the level border cut-offs (40 and 70% weighted seroprevalence

  14. Rapid testing and quantification of Salmonella in ileocaecal lymph nodes of Austrian pigs slaughtered for consumption.

    PubMed

    Mann, Evelyne; Wagner, Martin; Schmoll, Friedrich; Slaghuis, Jörg; Schönenbrücher, Holger; Mester, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    Traditionally, quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is based on culture-dependent technologies. However, molecular quantification could forge additional, detailed information. A prerequisite of quantitative real-time PCR in animal science is a tissue preparation method where large volumes of tissue material can be reduced and particularly target cells can be concentrated. An easy-to-use sample preparation method for food (Matrix-Lysis) was recently adapted to tissues and now permits quantification of target cells from up to 5 g of organic matrix. The aim of this study was to examine the suitability of Matrix-Lysis for quantification of Salmonella in porcine ileocaecal lymph nodes (ICLNs). After demonstrating constant recovery rates, ICLNs from 540 pigs were examined for Salmonella spp. with Matrix-Lysis. Samples were also analysed using ISO 6579:2002, a combined enrichment/qPCR method and a lateral flow test. It could be shown that qPCR coupled with Matrix-Lysis can contribute to QMRA in food safety by enabling reproducible quantitative data, even at low contamination rates. PMID:25048837

  15. Proteomics for Drug Resistance on the Food Chain? Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia coli Proteomes from Slaughtered Pigs.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Sónia; Silva, Nuno; Hébraud, Michel; Santos, Hugo M; Nunes-Miranda, Júlio Dinis; Pinto, Luís; Pereira, José E; Capelo, José-Luis; Poeta, Patrícia; Igrejas, Gilberto

    2016-06-01

    Understanding global drug resistance demands an integrated vision, focusing on both human and veterinary medicine. Omics technologies offer new vistas to decipher mechanisms of drug resistance in the food chain. For example, Escherichia coli resistance to major antibiotics is increasing whereas multidrug resistance (MDR) strains are now commonly found in humans and animals. Little is known about the structural and metabolic changes in the cell that trigger resistance to antimicrobial agents. Proteomics is an emerging field that is used to advance our knowledge in global health and drug resistance in the food chain. In the present proteomic analysis, we offer an overview of the global protein expression of different MDR E. coli strains from fecal samples of pigs slaughtered for human consumption. A full proteomic survey of the drug-resistant strains SU60, SU62, SU76, and SU23, under normal growth conditions, was made by two-dimensional electrophoresis, identifying proteins by MALDI-TOF/MS. The proteomes of these four E. coli strains with different genetic profiles were compared in detail. Identical transport, stress response, or metabolic proteins were discovered in the four strains. Several of the identified proteins are essential in bacterial pathogenesis (GAPDH, LuxS, FKBPs), development of bacterial resistance (Omp's, TolC, GroEL, ClpB, or SOD), and potential antibacterial targets (FBPA, FabB, ACC's, or Fab1). Effective therapies against resistant bacteria are crucial and, to accomplish this, a comprehensive understanding of putative resistance mechanisms is essential. Moving forward, we suggest that multi-omics research will further improve our knowledge about bacterial growth and virulence on the food chain, especially under antibiotic stress. PMID:27310477

  16. Effects of Short-term Feeding Magnesium before Slaughter on Blood Metabolites and Postmortem Muscle Traits of Halothane-carrier Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Liu, XianJun; Bian, LianQuan

    2013-01-01

    Fifty-four, mixed-sex, halothane-carrier crossbred (Yorkshire×Landrace) pigs with an average initial BW of 108.2±0.8 kg were randomly allotted to one of three dietary treatments for 5 d before slaughter: i) a control corn-soybean meal finisher diet devoid of supplemental magnesium; ii) a diet supplemented with 1.5 g/kg of elemental Mg from magnesium acetate; and iii) a diet supplemented with 1.5 g/kg of elemental Mg from magnesium sulfate heptahydrate. Serum creatine kinase (CK), lactate and glucose were analyzed at slaughter. Muscles from longissimus (LM) were packaged and stored to simulate display storage for muscle lactate and glycogen determinations at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 d. Mg supplementation reduced (p<0.05) serum CK and lactate concentration, but had no effect (p>0.05) on serum glucose. Daily change of muscle lactate concentration linearly increased (p<0.01), while glucose concentration linearly decreased (p<0.05) as storage time increased in all treatments. However, dietary Mg acetate and Mg sulfate supplementation in pigs elevated (p<0.05) muscle glycogen and reduced (p<0.05) muscle lactate concentrations, especially during the first 2 d of display, compared with pigs fed the control diet. This study suggests that short-term feeding of magnesium acetate and magnesium sulfate to heterozygous carriers of the halothane gene has beneficial effects on stress response and pork quality by improving blood and muscle biochemical indexes. PMID:25049863

  17. Occurrence of porcine cysticercosis in free-ranging pigs delivered to slaughter points in Arapai, Soroti district, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Zirintunda, Gerald; Ekou, Justine

    2015-01-01

    Poverty, hunger and the need for production of pigs with meagre or zero inputs have made most farmers release their pigs to range freely, thus creating a pig-human cycle that maintains Taenia solium, the pig tapeworm and cause of porcine cysticercosis, in the ecosystem. A preliminary study was designed to establish the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis by postmortem examination of the tongue and carcass of free-range pigs from February to April 2014 in Arapai subcounty, Soroti district, eastern Uganda. The tongue of each pig was extended and examined before deep incisions were made and the cut surfaces were examined. The rest of the carcasses were examined for cysts. Out of 178 pigs examined, 32 were qualitatively positive for porcine cysticercosis, representing a prevalence of 18.0%. This high prevalence represents a marked risk to the communities in the study area of neurocysticercosis, a debilitating parasitic zoonosis. Proper human waste disposal by use of pit latrines, confinement of free-range pigs and treatment with albendazole and oxfendazole are recommended. PMID:26244682

  18. Bayesian analysis of response to selection: a case study using litter size in Danish Yorkshire pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, D; Vernersen, A; Andersen, S

    2000-01-01

    Implementation of a Bayesian analysis of a selection experiment is illustrated using litter size [total number of piglets born (TNB)] in Danish Yorkshire pigs. Other traits studied include average litter weight at birth (WTAB) and proportion of piglets born dead (PRBD). Response to selection for TNB was analyzed with a number of models, which differed in their level of hierarchy, in their prior distributions, and in the parametric form of the likelihoods. A model assessment study favored a particular form of an additive genetic model. With this model, the Monte Carlo estimate of the 95% probability interval of response to selection was (0.23; 0.60), with a posterior mean of 0.43 piglets. WTAB showed a correlated response of -7.2 g, with a 95% probability interval equal to (-33.1; 18.9). The posterior mean of the genetic correlation between TNB and WTAB was -0.23 with a 95% probability interval equal to (-0.46; -0.01). PRBD was studied informally; it increases with larger litters, when litter size is >7 piglets born. A number of methodological issues related to the Bayesian model assessment study are discussed, as well as the genetic consequences of inferring response to selection using additive genetic models. PMID:10978292

  19. MIRU-VNTR genotype diversity and indications of homoplasy in M. avium strains isolated from humans and slaughter pigs in Latvia.

    PubMed

    Kalvisa, Adrija; Tsirogiannis, Constantinos; Silamikelis, Ivars; Skenders, Girts; Broka, Lonija; Zirnitis, Agris; Jansone, Inta; Ranka, Renate

    2016-09-01

    Diseases which are caused by non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are an increasing problem in the developed countries. In Latvia, one of the most clinically important members of NTM is Mycobacterium avium (M. avium), an opportunistic pathogen which has been isolated from several lung disease patients and tissue samples of slaughter pigs. This study was designed to characterize the genetic diversity of the M. avium isolates in Latvia and to compare the distribution of genotypic patterns among humans and pigs. Eleven (Hall and Salipante, 2010) clinical M. avium samples, isolated from patients of Center of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases (years 2003-2010), and 32 isolates from pig necrotic mesenterial lymph nodes in different regions (years 2003-2007) were analyzed. The majority (42 of 43) of samples were identified as M. avium subsp. hominissuis; one porcine isolate belonged to M. avium subsp. avium. MIRU-VNTR genotyping revealed 13 distinct genotypes, among which nine genotype patterns, including M. avium subsp. avium isolate, were newly identified. IS1245 RFLP fingerprinting of 25 M. avium subsp. hominissuis samples yielded 17 different IS1245 RFLP patterns, allowing an efficient discrimination of isolates. Clusters of identical RFLP profiles were observed within host species, geographical locations and time frame of several years. Additional in silico analysis on simulated MIRU-VNTR genotype population datasets showed that the MIRU-VNTR pattern similarity could partly arise due to probabilistic increase of acquiring homoplasy among subpopulations, thus the similar MIRU-VNTR profiles of M. avium strains even in close geographical proximity should be interpreted with caution. PMID:27178993

  20. Evaluating the prevalence of tail biting and carcase condemnations in slaughter pigs in the Republic and Northern Ireland, and the potential of abattoir meat inspection as a welfare surveillance tool.

    PubMed

    Harley, S; More, S J; O'Connell, N E; Hanlon, A; Teixeira, D; Boyle, L

    2012-12-15

    Despite extensive utilisation in epidemiological investigations of animal health, to date there has been little consideration of the value of abattoir meat inspection as a pig welfare surveillance tool. This study measured the prevalence of tail-docking, tail biting, carcase condemnations and associated financial losses of the latter (Northern Ireland only) in 36,963 pigs slaughtered in six abattoirs from the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland in July and August 2010. Over 99 per cent of inspected pigs had been tail-docked, while 58.1 per cent and 1.03 per cent had detectable and severe tail lesions, respectively. Producer losses resulting from carcase condemnation were estimated to be €0.37 per pig slaughtered. Enhanced capture and utilisation of meat inspection data for use in animal welfare surveillance schemes has the potential to drive improvements in production efficiency and animal welfare. However, significant differences were detected in the prevalence of carcase condemnation conditions between abattoirs and judiciaries (Republic and Northern Ireland). This reflects variation in the criteria and methods of data capture used in meat inspection in different abattoirs. Thus, the meat inspection process needs to be standardised and reformed before it can be reliably utilised in large-scale pig welfare surveillance schemes. PMID:23248113

  1. The effects of lairage time and handling procedure prior to slaughter on stress and meat quality parameters in pigs.

    PubMed

    Dokmanović, M; Velarde, A; Tomović, V; Glamočlija, N; Marković, R; Janjić, J; Baltić, M Ž

    2014-10-01

    Lairage time (short - 8min to 2.7h, n=28 vs. long - 14 to 21.5h, n=72) and pig handling (gentle - no use of stick or electric prod, pig not slipping, falling, nor emitting high-pitched vocalizations vs. rough - where any of these occurred) effects on pig stress and meat quality were measured. Blood lactate and cortisol, plus post-mortem pH (pH60min; pH24h), temperature (T60min), drip loss, sensory and instrumental color and meat quality for the longissimus dorsi, pars lumbalis derived meat were determined. Carcass rigor mortis and skin damages were measured. Lairage time significantly affected blood lactate, carcass rigor mortis, skin damages, drip loss, color and meat quality. Handling procedure influenced blood lactate, pH60min and T60min. Long lairage was more stressful, and was detrimental to carcass quality, but caused better meat quality compared to short lairage. Rough handling was related to higher lactate and lower meat quality. PMID:24971810

  2. Digestibility and metabolic utilization of diets containing whole-ear corn silage and their effects on growth and slaughter traits of heavy pigs.

    PubMed

    Zanfi, C; Colombini, S; Mason, F; Galassi, G; Rapetti, L; Malagutti, L; Crovetto, G M; Spanghero, M

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate 2 levels of dietary inclusion of chopped whole-ear corn silage (WECS) on energy and nutrient utilization, growth, and slaughter performances of heavy pigs. Two in vivo experiments were conducted to determine digestibility and metabolic utilization of WECS using 18 barrows weighing 118 ± 8 kg BW on average, metabolic cages and respiration chambers (Exp. 1), and the effect of WECS on the growth performance and carcass traits on 42 barrows from 90 to 170 kg BW (Exp. 2). In both experiments, pigs were fed 3 experimental diets: a control diet (CON) containing cereal meals, extracted soybean meal, and wheat bran (80%, 9%, and 8% of DM, respectively) and 2 diets containing 15% (15WECS) or 30% WECS (30WECS) on a DM basis in place of wheat bran and corn meal. The diets were prepared daily by mixing the WECS to a suitable compound feed. Feed intake was always restricted to allow a daily DMI of 7.2% BW(0.75) in Exp. 1 and from 8.0% to 6.5% BW(0.75) in Exp. 2. Diets had similar NDF contents (15.2% to 15.8% of DM), and WECS inclusion resulted in a slight reduction in CP content (from 14.0% to 13.6% of DM) and a considerable decrease in P content (from 0.47% to 0.30% of DM). Digestibility of OM, CP, and fat was similar among diets, whereas P digestibility was lower (P < 0.05) for the 30WECS diet (33.5%) in comparison with the CON and 15WECS diets (45.5% and 44.1%, respectively). Nitrogen lost in feces and urine and N retained were not different among diets, whereas P retained decreased with the increase of WECS (5.4, 3.7, and 2.2 g/d for the CON, 15WECS, and 30WECS diets, respectively; P < 0.05). No difference among diets was observed for energy balance. The WECS contained 13.48 MJ ME and 9.39 MJ NE/kg DM. In Exp. 2, feed intake was not depressed by WECS inclusion, and the ADG for the whole experiment was not different among dietary treatments (from 737 to 774 g/d). Fecal pH was lower (P < 0.05) for the WECS diets than the control diet (7.10 and 7.00 vs

  3. Temporal relationship between decrease in antimicrobial prescription for Danish pigs and the "Yellow Card" legal intervention directed at reduction of antimicrobial use.

    PubMed

    Jensen, V F; de Knegt, L V; Andersen, V D; Wingstrand, A

    2014-12-01

    The potential effects of the "Yellow Card" intervention, enforced by Danish authorities in December 2010, on the antimicrobial prescription in the Danish pig production were investigated. Data on antimicrobial prescription for pigs during 2002-2012 was obtained from the national database on veterinary prescribed medicines, VetStat. Descriptive analysis of temporal trends in quantitative antimicrobial prescription for pigs on national level was performed for each administration route, age group and disease group. In addition, prescription patterns of the three most prescribed antimicrobial classes (tetracyclines, macrolides and pleuromutilins) for weaners and finishers were studied at herd level. A 25% decline in the total antimicrobial use per pig produced occurred between 2009 and 2011. A decline was observed both in sows and piglets (31%), weaners (34%) and finishers (19%). Reduced prescription of tetracycline, macrolides and pleuromutilins for oral use, mainly for gastrointestinal disease (GI) in weaners and finishers, explained 76% of the total reduction. In 2012, the overall antimicrobial use increased by 10%, as a partial reversal of the preceding changes in prescription pattern. On herd level, the decline and subsequent increase was mainly related to changes in number of herds receiving regular monthly prescriptions. This study demonstrated that the steep decrease in antimicrobial use in the Danish pig production was temporally related with the announcement and introduction of the Yellow Card intervention. PMID:25263135

  4. Does Pre-Slaughter Stress Affect Pork Safety?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although much of the Salmonella contamination of pork occurs along the slaughter and processing line, infected pigs delivered to the abattoirs are considered as the original source of pork contaminations. Studies of the effects of pre-slaughter stressors on food safety risk in market pigs are scarce...

  5. Biocide and antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella isolates obtained before and after cleaning at six Danish pig slaughterhouses.

    PubMed

    Gantzhorn, Mette Rørbæk; Pedersen, Karl; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Thomsen, Line Elnif

    2014-07-01

    Salmonella sp. continues to be one of the most important foodborne pathogens. Control measures in terms of cleaning and disinfection on food production plants are very important for limiting the risk of contaminated food products to reach the consumer. In the last decade concern has arisen that bacteria exposed to disinfectants can develop resistance toward disinfectants and can have a higher risk of developing antibiotic resistance. The objectives of this study were to examine the prevalence of biocide resistant Salmonella sp. in Danish pig slaughterhouses, to evaluate if there was a correlation between susceptibilities to biocides and antibiotics, and to examine if cleaning and disinfection select isolates with changed susceptibility toward biocides or antibiotics. Salmonella sp. was isolated from the environment in Danish pig slaughterhouses before and after cleaning and disinfection. The susceptibility toward three different biocides, triclosan and two commercial disinfection products: Desinfect Maxi, a quaternary ammonium compound, and Incimaxx DES, an acetic compound, was determined. We found no resistance toward the biocides tested, but we did find that isolates obtained after cleaning had higher minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values toward one of the disinfectants (Incimaxx DES) compared to isolates obtained before cleaning and disinfection. This could indicate selection of strains that are more tolerant, due to the cleaning and disinfection. Furthermore, we found that there was a weak statistical correlation between MICs toward the biocides and some antibiotics, but no difference in log(MIC)s toward antibiotics between isolates obtained before and after cleaning, nor did we find any difference in the number of resistances of isolates obtained before and after cleaning and disinfection. PMID:24819413

  6. Impact of the amount of straw provided to pigs kept in intensive production conditions on the occurrence and severity of gastric ulceration at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Herskin, Mette S; Jensen, Henrik E; Jespersen, Anna; Forkman, Björn; Jensen, Margit B; Canibe, Nuria; Pedersen, Lene J

    2016-02-01

    This study examined effects of the amount of straw offered on occurrence and severity of gastric lesions in pigs kept in pens (18 pigs, 0.7 m(2)/pig) with partly slatted flooring and 10, 500 or 1000 g straw/pig/day from 30 kg live weight. The pigs had ad libitum access to dry feed. Forty-five pigs were used, three from each of 15 pens. After euthanization, the dimension of the non-glandular region of the stomach was measured. Lesions were characterized and scored. Irrespective of straw provided, 67% of the pigs showed signs of gastric pathology. Pigs provided with 500 or 1000 g straw were pooled as 'permanent access'. The proportion of pigs with ulcerations was reduced by permanent access to straw (7 vs. 33%; P<0.05), suggesting that permanent access to straw may improve animal health, and be considered as one possible strategy to limit gastric ulceration in pigs. PMID:26850561

  7. Persistent Spatial Clusters of Prescribed Antimicrobials among Danish Pig Farms – A Register-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Fertner, Mette; Sanchez, Javier; Boklund, Anette; Stryhn, Henrik; Dupont, Nana; Toft, Nils

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of pathogens resistant to antimicrobials has prompted political initiatives targeting a reduction in the use of veterinary antimicrobials in Denmark, especially for pigs. This study elucidates the tendency of pig farms with a significantly higher antimicrobial use to remain in clusters in certain geographical regions of Denmark. Animal Daily Doses/100 pigs/day were calculated for all three age groups of pigs (weaners, finishers and sows) for each quarter during 2012–13 in 6,143 commercial indoor pig producing farms. The data were split into four time periods of six months. Repeated spatial cluster analyses were performed to identify persistent clusters, i.e. areas included in a significant cluster throughout all four time periods. Antimicrobials prescribed for weaners did not result in any persistent clusters. In contrast, antimicrobial use in finishers clustered persistently in two areas (157 farms), while those issued for sows clustered in one area (51 farms). A multivariate analysis including data on antimicrobial use for weaners, finishers and sows as three separate outcomes resulted in three persistent clusters (551 farms). Compared to farms outside the clusters during this period, weaners, finishers and sows on farms within these clusters had 19%, 104% and 4% higher use of antimicrobials, respectively. Production type, farm type and farm size seemed to have some bearing on the clustering effect. Adding these factors as categorical covariates one at a time in the multivariate analysis reduced the persistent clusters by 24.3%, 30.5% and 34.1%, respectively. PMID:26317206

  8. Time to Loss of Consciousness and Its Relation to Behavior in Slaughter Pigs during Stunning with 80 or 95% Carbon Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Verhoeven, Merel; Gerritzen, Marien; Velarde, Antonio; Hellebrekers, Ludo; Kemp, Bas

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to CO2 at high concentration is a much debated stunning method in pigs. Pigs respond aversively to high concentrations of CO2, and there is uncertainty about what behaviors occur before and after loss of consciousness. The aim was to assess timing of unconsciousness in pigs during exposure to high concentrations of CO2 based on changes in electroencephalogram (EEG) activity and the relation with the behaviors sniffing, retreat and escape attempts, lateral head movements, jumping, muscular contractions, loss of posture, and gasping. Pigs (108 ± 9 kg) were randomly assigned to 80% CO2 (80C, n = 24) or 95% CO2 (95C, n = 24). The time at which the gondola started descending into the well pre-filled with 80C or 95C was marked as T = 0. The CO2 exposure lasted 346 s after which the corneal reflex and breathing were assessed for 1 min. Visual assessment of changes in the amplitude and frequency of EEG traces after T = 0 was used to determine loss of consciousness. Time to loss of consciousness was longer in 80C pigs (47 ± 6 s) than in 95C pigs (33 ± 7 s). Time to an iso-electric EEG was similar in 80C pigs (75 ± 23 s) and 95C pigs (64 ± 32 s). When pigs descended into the well, the earlier entry of 95C pigs into high CO2 atmosphere rather than the concentration of CO2 by itself affected the latency of behavioral responses and decreasing brain activity. During exposure to the gas, 80C and 95C pigs exhibited sniffing, retreat attempts, lateral head movements, jumping, and gasping before loss of consciousness. 95C pigs exhibited all these behaviors on average earlier than 80C pigs after T = 0. But the interval between onset of these behaviors and loss of consciousness and the duration of these behaviors, except gasping, was similar for both treatments. Loss of posture was on average observed in both groups 10 s before EEG-based loss of consciousness. Furthermore, 88% of 80C pigs and 94% of 95C pigs

  9. Development of a Combined Selection and Enrichment PCR Procedure for Clostridium botulinum Types B, E, and F and Its Use To Determine Prevalence in Fecal Samples from Slaughtered Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Dahlenborg, Maria; Borch, Elisabeth; Rådström, Peter

    2001-01-01

    A specific and sensitive combined selection and enrichment PCR procedure was developed for the detection of Clostridium botulinum types B, E, and F in fecal samples from slaughtered pigs. Two enrichment PCR assays, using the DNA polymerase rTth, were constructed. One assay was specific for the type B neurotoxin gene, and the other assay was specific for the type E and F neurotoxin genes. Based on examination of 29 strains of C. botulinum, 16 strains of other Clostridium spp., and 48 non-Clostridium strains, it was concluded that the two PCR assays detect C. botulinum types B, E, and F specifically. Sample preparation prior to the PCR was based on heat treatment of feces homogenate at 70°C for 10 min, enrichment in tryptone-peptone-glucose-yeast extract broth at 30°C for 18 h, and DNA extraction. The detection limits after sample preparation were established as being 10 spores per g of fecal sample for nonproteolytic type B, and 3.0 × 103 spores per g of fecal sample for type E and nonproteolytic type F with a detection probability of 95%. Seventy-eight pig fecal samples collected from slaughter houses were analyzed according to the combined selection and enrichment PCR procedure, and 62% were found to be PCR positive with respect to the type B neurotoxin gene. No samples were positive regarding the type E and F neurotoxin genes, indicating a prevalence of less than 1.3%. Thirty-four (71%) of the positive fecal samples had a spore load of less than 4 spores per g. Statistical analysis showed that both rearing conditions (outdoors and indoors) and seasonal variation (summer and winter) had significant effects on the prevalence of C. botulinum type B, whereas the effects of geographical location (southern and central Sweden) were less significant. PMID:11571185

  10. Microencapsulated sorbic acid and pure botanicals affect Salmonella Typhimurium shedding in pigs: a close-up look from weaning to slaughter in controlled and field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a combination of sorbic acid, thymol, and carvacrol in reducing the prevalence and shedding of Salmonella Typhimurium in pigs either in a controlled challenge environment or in a production setting. In the first study, 24 weaned piglets were dist...

  11. Pre-slaughter handling and pork quality.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, L; Van de Perre, V; Permentier, L; De Bie, S; Verbeke, G; Geers, R

    2015-02-01

    Environmental variables, as sound levels, were collected during the pre-slaughter process in 18 different Belgian commercial slaughterhouses. Four pre-slaughter phases were determined: firstly after arrival of the truck at the slaughterhouse and just before unloading, secondly during unloading, thirdly at lairage and finally while moving to the stunner. A total of 8508 pigs was examined during the pre-slaughter process, of which the pH(LT) (M. longissimus thoracis), at 30 min post-mortem was measured. For each pre-slaughter phase, variables which might influence pork quality were determined. Moreover, this study made it possible to infer a checklist to represent and predict PSE traits of pork for all kind of pre-slaughter situations. The checklist shows also that the impact on pork quality is more decisive for the variables measured close to the stunning phase. Hence, this information is useful for the industry to optimize handling of pigs, reducing the risk for PSE traits. PMID:25460114

  12. Growth performance and pork fat quality as measured by three methods of pigs fed 20% DDGS and slaughtered using a standard industry split marketing strategy.

    PubMed

    Shircliff, K E; Callahan, Z D; Wilmoth, T A; Ohman, C E; Johnson, R C; Wiegand, B R

    2015-10-01

    A total of 40 pens containing 22 crossbred barrows (initial BW = 43.07 ± 1.61 kg; PIC 1050 × PIC 337 genetics) were housed in a commercial wean to finish facility. Pens were randomly allotted to dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with 2 levels of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS; 0% or 20%) and chosen for 1 of 3 marketing cuts removing 4, 8, and 10 animals from each pen. Fat tissue samples were removed from the anterior tip of the jowl and posterior to the sternum on the belly edge 1d postmortem. Fatty acid composition was determined via the Folch method, and iodine values (IV) were calculated from chemical titrations, fatty acid profile (GC IV), and in-plant Bruker near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Pearson's correlation coefficients for IV determination methods were estimated. Inclusion of 20% DDGS did not change ( > 0.05) growth performance, whereas marketing cut affected performance, with the second cut producing the most efficient pigs ( < 0.01). Total SFA and MUFA concentrations were higher ( < 0.01) in belly and jowl fat from pigs fed 0% DDGS. Total PUFA and the PUFA:SFA in belly and jowl fat was higher ( < 0.01) when 20% DDGS was fed. Dried distillers grains with solubles inclusion increased IV in belly and jowl as determined by all 3 methods. Regardless of dietary treatment or fat depot, Pearson correlation coefficients between titration and GC IV, titration and NIR, and GC IV and NIR were 0.46 ( < 0.01), 0.68 ( < 0.01), and 0.43 ( < 0.01), respectively. These correlations suggest methods may rank samples equally but do not provide the same absolute IV. Belly fat had a lower IV ( < 0.01) than jowl fat using titration or GC IV methods, suggesting pigs have varied degrees of physiological maturity at specific fat depots when weight end points are used during the finishing phase. In conclusion, feeding 20% DDGS negatively affected fat quality but not growth performance, and marketing time changed growth performance. PMID:26523600

  13. The effect of discontinued use of antimicrobial growth promoters on the risk of therapeutic antibiotic treatment in Danish farrow-to-finish pig farms

    PubMed Central

    VIGRE, H.; LARSEN, P. B.; ANDREASEN, M.; CHRISTENSEN, J.; JORSAL, S. E.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY This study estimated the effect of discontinued use of antimicrobial growth promoters (duAGPs) on the risk of antibiotic treatment for diarrhoea, arthritis, pneumonia, unthriving and miscellaneous disorders in Danish pig farms. The estimation was done in a case-crossover study comparing: (1) the proportion of days per farm where treatment was performed (PDT) and (2) the proportion of pigs treated per day per farm at days where treatment was performed (PPT) before and after duAGPs at 68 farrow-to-finish farms. The farms were selected using a two-stage (veterinarian/farm) convenience sampling. On average, during the first year after duAGPs there was a significant increase in the risk of antibiotic treatment for diarrhoea (PDT: OR 2·5, 95% CI 1·7–3·8; PPT: OR 1·6, 95% CI 1·1–2·2). However, the effect varied among farms – some farms experienced substantial problems, while others experienced few problems after duAGPs. No effect was identified for the risk of treatment for other diseases. PMID:17335634

  14. Resistance phenotypes and genotypes among multiple-antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Choleraesuis strains isolated between 2008 and 2012 from slaughter pigs in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    MATAYOSHI, Masanao; KITANO, Takashi; SASAKI, Tetsu; NAKAMURA, Masaji

    2015-01-01

    A total of 349 Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Choleraesuis (S. Choleraesuis) strains, which were isolated between 2008 and 2012 from 349 pigs at two slaughterhouses in Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, were investigated for antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes. All isolates were resistant to at least four antimicrobial agents. The antimicrobial agents for which isolates showed a high incidence of resistance were as follows: ampicillin (100%) and streptomycin (100%), followed by gentamicin (99.7%), oxytetracycline (99.7%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (99.4%), nalidixic acid (40.1%) and oxolinic acid (40.1%). All isolates were sensitive to cefuroxime, ceftiofur, colistin, fosfomycin, enrofloxacin, orbifloxacin and danofloxacin. The predominant resistance phenotypes and genotypes were: resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, gentamicin, oxytetracycline and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (58.5%, 204/349) and blaTEM-strA-strB-aadA1-aadA2-aacC2-tet (B)-sul1-sul2-dhfrXII-dhfrXIII (36.1%, 126/349). The quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE of the quinolone-resistant isolates (n=12) showed amino acid substitutions of Ser-83→Phe or Asp-87→Tyr in GyrA and Ser-107→Ala in ParC. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular characterization of antimicrobial resistance among S. Choleraesuis strains in Japan. PMID:25715779

  15. Split marketing: A risk factor for Salmonella in market pigs?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine if split marketing affects Salmonella prevalence in market pigs, by comparing the Salmonella prevalence in the first group of pigs selected for slaughter (i.e., “First pull”) versus the last group of pigs selected for slaughter (i.e., “Close out”) from typical co...

  16. Animal welfare at markets and during transport and slaughter.

    PubMed

    Gregory, N G

    2008-09-01

    This review highlights some recent developments in our understanding of stress and physical injuries that occur before and during transport to slaughter, during handling at livestock markets, and at the time animals are put-up for slaughter within abattoirs. Stress in pigs during transfer to the stunning point within the abattoir has important effects on meat quality, and there is growing evidence that strenuous exercise or CO(2) stunning can contribute to oxidative rancidity in pigs, poultry and fish. In the EU, putting cattle through a crush in order to check that their eartag numbers correspond to their passport numbers is imposing additional stress, and there are reports that it is leading to greater hide contamination with Escherichia coli O157. Recent developments in stunning and slaughter include a better understanding of the causes of variation in captive bolt gun performance, the effectiveness of poll instead of frontal shooting in water buffalo, the prevalence of false aneurysms in carotid arteries during shechita and halal slaughter, and the stress effects of CO(2) stunning in fish. Stunning pigs with 90% CO(2) leads to less PSE meat than 80% CO(2). There have been concerns about the physical activity that cattle show following electrical stunning with an electrically induced cardiac arrest, and with electrical stunning using DC waveforms in broiler chickens. There is also growing concern about the hygiene problems that exist in wet markets, where animals are slaughtered alongside meat that is on display to customers. PMID:22063164

  17. Does pre-slaughter stress affect pork safety risk?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella is the top food safety priority for the pork industry. Although contamination of pork occurs along the slaughter and processing line, infected live pigs entering the abattoir constitute the original Salmonella contamination source. However, the extent of carcass contamination is not only ...

  18. Hazard identification in swine slaughter with respect to foodborne bacteria.

    PubMed

    Borch, E; Nesbakken, T; Christensen, H

    1996-06-01

    Swine slaughter is an open process with many opportunities for the contamination of the pork carcass with potentially pathogenic bacteria; however, it does not contain any point where hazards are completely eliminated. Data on the prevalence of various pathogenic bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila, Campylobacter coli/jejuni, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica) in pigs, their growth and survival characteristics and ability to become established on the slaughter line are presented. The presentation covers the processing steps from lairage to chilling and is based on swine slaughter practices in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The major contamination points during swine slaughter are pig-related, such as faecal and pharyngeal, and environmental. HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) and GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) in swine slaughter must be focused on limiting this spread. The pathogenic bacteria show differences in their general mechanism of distribution. The major contamination source of Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp. and Y. enterocolitica is the pig, and the contamination of carcasses with these bacteria may be limited, provided that only strict slaughtering procedures are used. Other organisms such as Aeromonas spp., L. moncytogenes/Listeria spp. and S. aureus can be endemic in the processing environment. Since endemic bacteria can be controlled by proper cleaning and disinfection, these organisms are useful as indicators for the success of GMP rules. The following affiliation to CPs or CCPs made for specific steps during slaughter and dressing may serve as a guidance: (i) lairage (CP), (ii) killing (CP), (iii) scalding (CP), (iv) dehairing (CP), (v) singeing/flaming (CP), (vi) polishing (CP), (vii) circumanal incision and removal of the intestines (CCP), (viii) excision of the tongue, pharynx, and in particular the tonsils (CCP), (ix) splitting (CP), (x) post mortem inspection procedures (CCP

  19. Salmonella control measures with special focus on vaccination and logistic slaughter procedures.

    PubMed

    Hotes, S; Traulsen, I; Krieter, J

    2011-10-01

    This study focussed on the effectiveness of Salmonella control measures to decrease Salmonella prevalence at slaughter. Considered measures were the control of hygiene and husbandry management as well as vaccination and logistic slaughter procedures. Results emphasized the capabilities of the farrowing stage to influence slaughter pig prevalence. Limited Salmonella entry by the implementation of hygiene control measures at farrowing farms obtained a significant decrease in prevalence after lairage at slaughterhouse. In contrast, hygiene control measures at finishing stage were less effective. Husbandry control measures, preventing physical contacts between pigs, were proved to decrease slaughter pig prevalence whether they were implemented at farrowing or finishing stage. Furthermore, the vaccination of sows and piglets was an appropriate control measure to decrease slaughter pig prevalence, if a large part of farms established this control measure. Simultaneous implementation of control measures showed that vaccination and especially hygiene measures are mutually supportive. Concerning logistic slaughter procedures it became obvious that with decreasing prevalence, infections at transport and lairage become more and more important. The herd status separation significantly decreased the percentage of infected pigs that became infected at lairage. PMID:21545691

  20. Pre-slaughter sound levels and pre-slaughter handling from loading at the farm till slaughter influence pork quality.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, L; Van de Perre, V; Permentier, L; De Bie, S; Verbeke, G; Geers, R

    2016-06-01

    This study investigates the relationship between sound levels, pre-slaughter handling during loading and pork quality. Pre-slaughter variables were investigated from loading till slaughter. A total of 3213 pigs were measured 30 min post-mortem for pH(30LT) (M. Longissimus thoracis). First, a sound level model for the risk to develop PSE meat was established. The difference in maximum and mean sound level during loading, mean sound level during lairage and mean sound level prior to stunning remained significant within the model. This indicated that sound levels during loading had a significant added value to former sound models. Moreover, this study completed the global classification checklist (Vermeulen et al., 2015a) by developing a linear mixed model for pH(30LT) and PSE prevalence, with the difference in maximum and mean sound level measured during loading, the feed withdrawal period and the difference in temperature during loading and lairage. Hence, this study provided new insights over previous research where loading procedures were not included. PMID:26874086

  1. Salmonellas on pig farms and in abattoirs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J. A.; Ghosh, A. C.; Mann, P. G.; Tee, G. H.

    1972-01-01

    Salmonella infection on two pig farms and its relation to infection in pigs at slaughter was studied. On the first farm feed ingredients were mixed on the farm, and these included fish meal which was found to be contaminated with salmonellas. The feed was pumped to pigs in liquid form. There was a high salmonella isolation rate at slaughter when the contaminated fish meal was fed in liquid feed, but it was significantly lower when no fish meal was fed to the pigs examined at slaughter. In some instances the same serotypes were found in fish meal and pig excreta on the farm and in caecal contents of the pigs at slaughter. No serotype was repeatedly isolated from any source and it appeared that the serotypes were not able to establish themselves in the pigs. It is concluded that infection found at slaughter originated on the farm where fish meal introduced and maintained infection. There was an opportunity for salmonellas to have multiplied in the liquid feed for several hours each day. On a second farm environmental conditions were similar, but feed was given in the form of ready-made pellets and nuts. Salmonellas were not isolated from the feed. At slaughter there was a significantly lower isolation rate than on the first farm. PMID:4501835

  2. Pig Feeding under the Potato-green Forage Base System with or without Addition of Herbs versus a Concentrate Based System: Effect on Post-slaughter Performance and Pork Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Turyk, Zofia; Osek, Maria; Olkowski, Bogusław; Janocha, Alina

    2014-01-01

    This study examined carcass and meat quality parameters in growing/finishing pigs fed unconventionally versus the concentrate-based system. Ninety-six, 12 wk old pigs (34±SD 0.3 kg) were randomly divided into three groups, assigned to one of the three dietary treatments: standard complete concentrate mixture, conventional (C diet); unconventional, steamed potato-green forage-concentrate based diet (U diet), and unconventional basal diet+herbage mix (UH diet). Pigs fed U diet showed lower dressing percentage, meatiness, loin eye area, and weight of pork neck (p≤0.05), but their carcasses were significantly (p≤0.05) longer and had increased backfat depth (p≤0.05). There was no impact of the diet on the meat content of dry matter, crude ash, acidity, and colour parameters of m. longissimus. Unconventional feeding significantly (p≤0.05) elevated water the holding capacity of m. longissimus and slightly improved the sensory attributes analysis of meat. The addition of herbs resulted in increased loin eye area (p≤0.05), decreased fat content (p≤0.05) in m. longissimus, and tended to improve some sensory attributes of meat. There were significant gender differences in response to all diets. There were significant diet×sex interactions for some measured variables, but there were no clearly identifiable trends with regard to any specific carcass or meat parameters. Feeding unconventional diet to pigs may offer better culinary attributes of the meat, and improve some technologically important characteristics of pig carcass, but may negatively affect some carcass or meat parameters. PMID:25050003

  3. Salmonella prevalence in “first pull” versus “close out” market pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to compare the Salmonella prevalence in the first group of pigs selected for slaughter (i.e., “First pull”) versus the last group of pigs selected for slaughter (i.e., “Close out”) from typical commercial finishing barns containing 800 - 1,000 animals. Nine paired observation...

  4. Determining the optimal number of individual samples to pool for quantification of average herd levels of antimicrobial resistance genes in Danish pig herds using high-throughput qPCR.

    PubMed

    Clasen, Julie; Mellerup, Anders; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Angen, Øystein; Folkesson, Anders; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils; Birkegård, Anna Camilla

    2016-06-30

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the minimum number of individual fecal samples to pool together in order to obtain a representative sample for herd level quantification of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes in a Danish pig herd, using a novel high-throughput qPCR assay. The secondary objective was to assess the agreement between different methods of sample pooling. Quantification of AMR was achieved using a high-throughput qPCR method to quantify the levels of seven AMR genes (ermB, ermF, sulI, sulII, tet(M), tet(O) and tet(W)). A large variation in the levels of AMR genes was found between individual samples. As the number of samples in a pool increased, a decrease in sample variation was observed. It was concluded that the optimal pooling size is five samples, as an almost steady state in the variation was observed when pooling this number of samples. Good agreement between different pooling methods was found and the least time-consuming method of pooling, by transferring feces from each individual sample to a tube using a 10μl inoculation loop and adding 3.5ml of PBS, approximating a 10% solution, can therefore be used in future studies. PMID:27259826

  5. 9 CFR 149.6 - Slaughter facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Slaughter facilities. 149.6 Section 149.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT VOLUNTARY TRICHINAE CERTIFICATION PROGRAM § 149.6 Slaughter facilities. Only slaughter facilities that are under...

  6. [Handling of animals for slaughter according to animal welfare regulations].

    PubMed

    Stegen, D

    1993-02-01

    According to animal protection the transport and proceeding of slaughtering are a difficult topic to cope with. The section of people is often restricted to distrust and rejection. In order to achieve improvement we need laws which prescribe the transport standards in particular with regard to the duration of driving and resting periods and the feeding. Transports which exceed 12 h enlarge the risk of disregarding laws and prescriptions and should on principle be prohibited. At least the important coherence between protection of slaughter animals on the one hand and the meat quality on the other hand requires a careful treatment of the animals from the producer to the slaughtering. The only successful options are strict control and high penalties. To get the method of narcosis of pigs out of common criticism we should lead our minds into a new direction: In this case animal protection should be more reflected to than meat hygiene problems and therefore the possibility of a provoked heart failure before the bleeding out should be realized. PMID:8462422

  7. Direct feeding of microencapsulated bacteriophages to reduce Salmonella colonization in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella shedding often increases in pigs following pre-slaughter transportation and/or lairage. We previously showed that administering anti-Salmonella bacteriophages to pigs by gavage significantly reduced Salmonella colonization when the pigs were exposed to a Salmonella-contaminated pen. In ...

  8. Lactic acid as a decontaminant in slaughter and processing procedures.

    PubMed

    Snijders, J M; van Logtestijn, J G; Mossel, D A; Smulders, F J

    1985-10-01

    An attempt was made to interrelate the data obtained in experiments conducted by our Department along beef, veal and pig slaughter lines, using lactic acid (LA) for the decontamination of carcasses, cold and hot boned primal cuts, slaughter byproducts, and butcher's knives. First and foremost it was observed, that provided Good Manufacturing Practices are strictly followed, the microbial load of carcass surfaces will be substantially reduced. LA-decontamination may result in an additional reduction. Since in the early post-mortem period bacteria are not yet attached to the meat surface, LA-decontamination should preferably be applied to the hot carcass. It was demonstrated that, dependent on mode and duration of application, LA sprays not exceeding 1% v/v (beef), 1.25% v/v (veal) and 1.5% v/v (pork) resulted in acceptable carcass colour scores. Blood spots, which are particularly prone to discolouration by lactic acid application, should be removed at an early post-mortem stage e.g. by strong showering. The difference in surface pH between LA-treated and control carcasses disappeared within 72 hours post-mortem. Veal longissimus chops treated with LA solutions up to 2% v/v were not identified by a consumer taste panel as significantly different from controls. The 'immediate' bactericidal effect of LA-decontamination for beef, veal and pig carcasses, as well as for pig liver and veal brain, amounted to approximately 1.5 log cycles for the aerobic colony counts, strongly dependent on substrate and conditions of decontamination. In addition, a 'delayed' bacteriostatic effect was observed during storage, which is probably the result of a prolonged lag phase of acid-injured micro-organisms surviving lactic acid decontamination.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:4071948

  9. [Recording the lesions in slaughter animals for quality assurance in meat production].

    PubMed

    Blaha, T

    1994-07-01

    Pathologic-anatomic lesions of lungs, pleura, pericard and liver in slaughter pigs, which can be assigned to the farm of origin, are well suited as indicator for the herd health. The paper demonstrates a code for quantifying the lesions in single animals as well as a code for quantifying the health status of the herds the pigs come from. When used in the framework of integrated quality assurance systems (IQS) for the pork production, slaughter checks and their feed back to the farmer will lead to a gradual improvement of the health status of fattening herds, since it is expected that farmers who are informed about major lacks in their herd health will ask for veterinary consultation. In general, the implementation of IQS from "conception to consumption" will enlarge the importance of the veterinary profession within the production chain for food of animal origin. PMID:7924960

  10. [Hygienic aspects of pig's head meat. 1. Obtaining and processing pigs' heads].

    PubMed

    Bijker, P G; Koolmees, P A

    1988-05-01

    Pigs's head meat is mainly obtained in specialised deboning plants and provides raw materials for the manufacture of meat products and snacks. Few data on hygiene in processing and production of pig's heads or on the bacteriological quality and tissue composition of pig's head meat have so far been published. The object of the present investigation was to supplement these data and to examine the extent to which this quality could be improved by Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP's). A total number of 11 slaughter-houses and 14 deboning plants were studied. Hygiene was assessed by two investigators on the basis of a check list. Temperatures of rooms, heads and head meat were measured. Twenty-one samples (7 x 3) were taken in each of nine deboning plants for bacteriological and histological examination. The investigations carried out in slaughter-houses showed that pig's heads were only washed in five out of eleven slaughter-houses. Cleansing and disinfection of the apparatus used in splitting the carcasses were omitted or merely carried out incidentally during slaughter. Assessment of hygiene in the deboning plants ranged from adequate to satisfactory in 13 out of 14 plants. The average aerobic colony count in Log N g-1 of pig's head meat was 6.7 +/- 0.7; this was 4.4 +/- 0.9 for counts of colony-forming units (CFU) of Enterobacteriaceae. Tonsils, mucous membranes, bone, hair and dirt were found to be present in 8, 13, 21, 39 and 9 per cent of the samples respectively. As a result of the manual cleavage of heads, relatively large bone particles (greater than 8 mm) were detected in the head meat. It is concluded that an improvement of the hygienic quality of pig's head meat can mainly be achieved by taking more care in obtaining pig's heads. PMID:3287680

  11. Longitudinal Study of the Persistence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Campylobacter Strains in Distinct Swine Production Systems on Farms, at Slaughter, and in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Quintana-Hayashi, Macarena P.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare and characterize the prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant (AR) Campylobacter in conventional and antimicrobial-free (ABF) production systems on farms, at slaughter, and in the environment. Fecal and environmental samples were collected from ABF farms (pigs, 1,239; environment, 797) and conventional farms (pigs, 1,650; environment, 1,325). At slaughter, we collected samples from carcasses, including postevisceration swabs, postchill swabs, and mesenteric lymph nodes from ABF systems (postevisceration swabs, 182; postchill swabs, 199; mesenteric lymph nodes, 184) and conventional systems (postevisceration swabs, 272; postchill swabs, 271; mesenteric lymph nodes, 255) at separate processing facilities. We also sampled the processing plant environment, including truck and lairage floor swab samples (ABF, 115; conventional, 90). Overall, a total of 2,908 Campylobacter isolates, including Campylobacter coli (farm, 2,557, 99.8%; slaughter, 341, 98.3%) and Campylobacter jejuni (farm, 4, 0.2%; slaughter, 6, 1.7%), were isolated in the study. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of Campylobacter between ABF and conventionally raised pigs (farrowing, P = 0.20; nursery, P = 0.06; finishing, P = 0.24) and the environment (P = 0.37). At slaughter, Campylobacter was isolated from all of the stages, including postchill. The highest frequencies of resistance were exhibited against tetracycline (ABF, 48.2%; conventional, 88.3%). Ciprofloxacin-resistant C. coli isolates were observed in conventionally raised (17.1%) and ABF (1.2%) pigs (P = 0.11). Antimicrobial use data from conventional farms indicated significant associations between oxytetracycline use and tetracycline resistance in the nursery pigs (P = 0.01), between tiamulin exposure and azithromycin and erythromycin resistance in nursery (P < 0.01) and finishing (P < 0.01) pigs, and between enrofloxacin exposure and ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid resistance in

  12. Report on religious slaughter practices in Italy.

    PubMed

    Novelli, Sara

    2016-01-01

    The term 'religious slaughter' commonly refers to the practice of killing animals without stunning, according to the precepts of Jewish and Muslim religions. The aim of this paper is to assess the situation concerning ritual slaughtering in not-stun bovines, small ruminants, and poultry in Italy in 2012. The study was divided into 2 phases. During the rst phase, preliminary data about all slaughterhouses authorized for ritual slaughter in Italy in 2012 are collected through the compilation of a questionnaire sent to each plants. The second step involved a sampling of not-stun animals religiously slaughtered in 5 selected plants. Authors collected and compiled all informations about management, restrain system and rite taking into account in particular animal welfare. PMID:27033526

  13. Meat Quality of Crossbred Porkers without the Gene RYR1 (T) Depending on Slaughter Weight.

    PubMed

    Czyżak-Runowska, Grażyna; Wojtczak, Janusz; Łyczyński, Andrzej; Wójtowski, Jacek; Markiewicz-Kęszycka, Maria; Stanisławski, Daniel; Babicz, Marek

    2015-03-01

    The first aim of the study was to compare selected meat quality parameters in porkers without the gene RYR1 (T) (ryanodine receptor gene). These were porkers slaughtered at 100 to 115 kg and 116 to 130 kg live weight. The second aim of the study was to determine the occurrence frequency of standard-quality meat (red, firm, nonexudative [RFN]) and the occurence frequency of defective meat (pale, soft, exudative [PSE] and acid, soft, exudative [ASE]). The analysis was conducted on the longissimus lumborum muscle in 114 crossbred porkers. The porkers were a cross of Camborough 22 sows and boars from lines 337PIC (Pig Improvement Company), Norsvin Landrace and Pietrain. All of the animals were provided with identical environmental and nutritional conditions. The average weight of the slaughtered animals in the light and heavy groups was 110 kg and 122 kg, respectively. Both groups had the same average post-slaughter meatiness (56.5%). A statistical analysis of selected meat-quality parameters did not show any significant differences between the weight groups. On the other hand, the classification based on carcass quality showed an occurence frequency of defective meat in heavier crossbred porkers (116 to 130 kg) that was three times higher than in those crossbred animals which weighed 100 to 115 kg when slaughtered. In porkers without the gene RYR1 (T) , the defective meat types PSE and ASE occurred with a frequency of 17.54%. PMID:25656204

  14. THE EFFECTS OF RACTOPAMINE ON BEHAVIOR AND PHYSIOLOGY OF FINISHING PIGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study aimed to examine the effects of ractopamine (RAC) on behavior and physiology of pigs during handling and transport. Twenty-four groups of 3 finishing pigs were randomly assigned to one of two treatments, four weeks prior to slaughter; 1) finishing feed plus RAC (9ppm), 2) finishing feed a...

  15. The influence of dietary carbohydrates on experimental infection with Trichuris suis in pigs.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, L E; Petkevicius, S; Bach Knudsen, K E; Roepstorff, A

    2005-12-01

    Two experiments (Exps 1 and 2) were carried out to study the effect of dietary carbohydrates on the establishment of Trichuris suis in pigs. Two experimental diets based on barley flour were used; Diet 1 was supplemented with non-fermentable carbohydrates from oat hull meal, while Diet 2 was supplemented with fermentable carbohydrates from sugar beet fibre and inulin. In Exp. 1, thirty-two pigs were allocated randomly into 4 groups. Two groups were fed Diet 1 and 2 groups were fed Diet 2. Pigs from one of each diet group were inoculated with 2000 infective T. suis eggs each and the other two groups were uninfected controls. All pigs were slaughtered 8 weeks post-inoculation (p.i.). In Exp. 2, twenty-four pigs were allocated randomly into 2 groups and fed Diet 1 or Diet 2, respectively. All the pigs were inoculated with 2000 infective T. suis eggs. Six pigs from each group were slaughtered 8 weeks p.i. and the remaining 6 pigs from each group were slaughtered 12 weeks p.i. Infections were followed by faecal egg counts and worm burdens were assessed at necropsy. Pigs fed Diet 2 had lower egg counts in both experiments; in Exp. 2 the difference was significant (P<0.05). No differences were found in worm burdens 8 weeks p.i. in both experiments, however, worms from pigs on Diet 2 were significantly shorter (P<0.0001). Pigs fed Diet 2 and slaughtered 12 weeks p.i. had significantly lower worm counts (P<0.01) compared to pigs fed Diet 1. The results indicate that fermentable carbohydrates do not affect the establishment of T. suis in naïve pigs, but result in earlier expulsion and reduced growth of the established worms. Thus, diets with highly fermentable carbohydrates may be used in the control of T. suis. PMID:16336739

  16. Isolation, antibiogram and pathogenicity of Salmonella spp. recovered from slaughtered food animals in Nagpur region of Central India

    PubMed Central

    Kalambhe, D. G.; Zade, N. N.; Chaudhari, S. P.; Shinde, S. V.; Khan, W.; Patil, A. R.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To determine the prevalence, antibiogram and pathogenicity of Salmonella spp. in the common food animals slaughtered for consumption purpose at government approved slaughter houses located in and around Nagpur region during a period of 2010-2012. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 samples comprising 50 each of blood and meat from each slaughtered male cattle, buffaloes, pigs and goats were collected. Isolation was done by pre-enrichment in buffered peptone water and enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth with subsequent selective plating onto xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. Presumptive Salmonella colonies were biochemically confirmed and analyzed for pathogenicity by hemolysin production and Congo red dye binding assay (CRDA). An antibiotic sensitivity test was performed to assess the antibiotic resistance pattern of the isolates. Results: A total of 10 isolates of Salmonella spp. from meat (3 from cattle, 1 from buffaloes and 6 from pigs) with an overall prevalence of 5% among food animals was recorded. No isolation was reported from any blood samples. Pathogenicity assays revealed 100% and 80% positivity for CRDA and hemolytic activity, respectively. Antimicrobial sensitivity test showed multi-drug resistance. The overall resistance of 50% was noted for trimethoprim followed by ampicillin (20%). A maximum sensitivity (80%) was reported to gentamycin followed by 40% each to ampicillin and trimethoprim, 30% to amikacin and 10% to kanamycin. Conclusion: The presence of multidrug resistant and potentially pathogenic Salmonella spp. in slaughtered food animals in Nagpur region can be a matter of concern for public health. PMID:27051204

  17. Chronic Sarcocystis infections in slaughtered cattle.

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Mizusawa, K; Itagaki, H

    1993-10-01

    Parasitological, histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations were carried out on three slaughtered cattle with many nodules in all the striated muscles. At necropsy, many yellowish green rice-grain sized nodules including cheesy contents were observed in all the striated muscles. Histopathologically the nodules were granuloma principally consisting of eosinophiles. No Sarcocystis cysts nor bradyzoites were found in the nodules, but intact sarcocysts were found in the normal tissues surrounding the nodules. The central necrotic focus of nodules showed intense positive responses against anti-Sarcocystis cruzi rabbit serum by immunohistochemical examination. From the above findings the slaughtered cattle were diagnosed as chronic sarcocystiasis. PMID:8286527

  18. Cardiac ganglioneuroma in a juvenile pig.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Ryoko; Joma, Ikumi; Otsubo, Koji; Matsutake, Hiroshi; Yanai, Tokuma; Sakai, Hiroki

    2016-02-01

    A cardiac mass (3 × 5 × 3 cm) was detected at the base between the right auricular wall and right vena cava of a slaughtered 6-month-old female mixed-breed pig during a meat inspection. The tumor comprised infiltrative prominent interweaving fascicles of Schwann cells with Verocay bodies. Moreover, the ganglion cells were scattered or aggregated throughout the neoplastic tissue. The ganglion and Schwann cells had neither cellular atypism nor mitosis. On the basis of the bearing site as well as the morphological and immunohistochemical features, this is the first case of a cardiac ganglioneuroma in a pig. PMID:26256406

  19. Cardiac ganglioneuroma in a juvenile pig

    PubMed Central

    INOUE, Ryoko; JOMA, Ikumi; OTSUBO, Koji; MATSUTAKE, Hiroshi; YANAI, Tokuma; SAKAI, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    A cardiac mass (3 × 5 × 3 cm) was detected at the base between the right auricular wall and right vena cava of a slaughtered 6-month-old female mixed-breed pig during a meat inspection. The tumor comprised infiltrative prominent interweaving fascicles of Schwann cells with Verocay bodies. Moreover, the ganglion cells were scattered or aggregated throughout the neoplastic tissue. The ganglion and Schwann cells had neither cellular atypism nor mitosis. On the basis of the bearing site as well as the morphological and immunohistochemical features, this is the first case of a cardiac ganglioneuroma in a pig. PMID:26256406

  20. Modeling of Salmonella Contamination in the Pig Slaughterhouse.

    PubMed

    Swart, A N; Evers, E G; Simons, R L L; Swanenburg, M

    2016-03-01

    In this article we present a model for Salmonella contamination of pig carcasses in the slaughterhouse. This model forms part of a larger QMRA (quantitative microbial risk assessment) on Salmonella in slaughter and breeder pigs, which uses a generic model framework that can be parameterized for European member states, to describe the entire chain from farm-to-consumption and the resultant human illness. We focus on model construction, giving mathematical formulae to describe Salmonella concentrations on individual pigs and slaughter equipment at different stages of the slaughter process. Variability among individual pigs and over slaughterhouses is incorporated using statistical distributions, and simulated by Monte Carlo iteration. We present the results over the various slaughter stages and show that such a framework is especially suitable to investigate the effect of various interventions. In this article we present the results of the slaughterhouse module for two case study member states. The model outcome represents an increase in average prevalence of Salmonella contamination and Salmonella numbers at dehairing and a decrease of Salmonella numbers at scalding. These results show good agreement when compared to several other QMRAs and microbiological studies. PMID:26857531

  1. A review of pig pathology in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Richard Trevor; Swai, Emmanuel

    2013-08-01

    The approximately 1.58 million pigs in Tanzania represent 3.7% of the national population of quadruped meat-producing animals. Pigs are kept mainly by small producers who own 99.5% of the national stock in units that average 3.04 animals (range 2-48). Government policy has had little practical application. African swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease and Cysticercosis are important diseases. The first two are notifiable diseases under Tanzania legislation; the last has widespread distribution and relevance as a major zoonosis. Ascariasis (Ascaris suum), hydatidosis (Echinococcus granulosus), leptospirosis (Leptospira interrogans) and thermophilic Campylobacter are other zoonoses associated with pigs. Gastrointestinal helminths and external parasites, especially Sarcoptes scabiei, are common. Risk factors associated with cysticercosis for humans working with pigs or eating their meat include the free-range or semi-confined management systems, the use of rivers or ponds as a source of water, lack of household sanitation, informal home slaughter, pork not being inspected at slaughter slabs and undercooked and barbecued meat. Pigs are a minor component of Tanzania's livestock sector but there is potential for increasing their contribution to human welfare. Prospects are enhanced by the shorter life cycle, greater number of young produced per year and the possibility of producing high-quality animal protein at a lower cost than meat produced by cattle and small ruminants. PMID:23733144

  2. A description of smallholder pig production systems in eastern Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Edwina E C; Geong, Maria; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2015-03-01

    Pig farming is a common practice among smallholder farmers in Nusa Tenggara Timur province (NTT), eastern Indonesia. To understand their production systems a survey of smallholder pig farmers was conducted. Eighteen villages were randomly selected across West Timor, Flores and Sumba islands, and 289 pig farmers were interviewed. Information on pig management, biosecurity practices, pig movements and knowledge of pig health and disease, specifically classical swine fever was collected. The mean number of pigs per herd was 5.0 (not including piglets), and total marketable herd size (pigs≥two months of age) did not differ significantly between islands (P=0.215). Chickens (71%) and dogs (62%) were the most commonly kept animal species in addition to pigs. Pigs were mainly kept as a secondary income source (69%) and 83% of farmers owned at least one sow. Seventy-four percent (74%) of pigs were housed in a kandang (small bamboo pen) and 25% were tethered. Pig feeds were primarily locally sourced agricultural products (93%). The majority of farmers had no knowledge of classical swine fever (91%) and biosecurity practices were minimal. Forty-five percent (45%) reported to consuming a pig when it died and 74% failed to report cases of sick or dead pigs to appropriate authorities. Sixty-five percent (65%) of farmers reported that a veterinarian or animal health worker had never visited their village. Backyard slaughter was common practice (55%), with meat mainly used for home consumption (89%). Most (73%) farmers purchased pigs in order to raise the animal on their farm with 36% purchasing at least one pig within the last year. Predominantly fattener pigs (34%) were given as gifts for celebratory events, most commonly for funerals (32%), traditional ceremonies (27%) and marriages (10%). For improved productivity of this traditional low-input system, research incorporating farming training and improved knowledge on pig disease and biosecurity needs to be integrated with

  3. 9 CFR 149.6 - Slaughter facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Certification Program Web site on the Internet at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/trichinae. If the slaughter... contacting the AMS Trichinae Analyst and Laboratory Certification Program Manager, USDA, AMS, Science and... Facility Sample Size Determination Table on the Internet at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/trichinae to...

  4. 9 CFR 149.6 - Slaughter facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Certification Program Web site on the Internet at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/trichinae. If the slaughter... contacting the AMS Trichinae Analyst and Laboratory Certification Program Manager, USDA, AMS, Science and... Facility Sample Size Determination Table on the Internet at http://www.aphis.usda.gov/vs/trichinae to...

  5. 9 CFR 149.6 - Slaughter facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Slaughter facilities. 149.6 Section 149.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... period. 6 More information regarding sampling sizes may be obtained by writing to USDA, APHIS,...

  6. 9 CFR 149.6 - Slaughter facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Slaughter facilities. 149.6 Section 149.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... period. 6 More information regarding sampling sizes may be obtained by writing to USDA, APHIS,...

  7. 9 CFR 88.5 - Requirements at a slaughtering facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... COMMERCIAL TRANSPORTATION OF EQUINES FOR SLAUGHTER § 88.5 Requirements at a slaughtering facility. (a) Upon arrival at a slaughtering facility, the owner/shipper must: (1) Ensure that each equine has access to... representative; (3) Allow a USDA representative access to the equines for the purpose of examination; and...

  8. 9 CFR 88.5 - Requirements at a slaughtering facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMERCIAL TRANSPORTATION OF EQUINES FOR SLAUGHTER § 88.5 Requirements at a slaughtering facility. (a) Upon arrival at a slaughtering facility, the owner/shipper must: (1) Ensure that each equine has access to... representative; (3) Allow a USDA representative access to the equines for the purpose of examination; and...

  9. Trend Analyses of Nitrate in Danish Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, B.; Thorling, L.; Dalgaard, T.; Erlandsen, M.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) age determination allows linking of the first two dataset. The development in the nitrate concentration of oxic groundwater clearly mirrors the development in the national agricultural N surplus, and a corresponding trend reversal is found in groundwater. Regulation and technical improvements in the intensive farming in Denmark have succeeded in decreasing the N surplus by 40% since the mid 1980s while at the same time maintaining crop yields and increasing the animal production of especially pigs. Trend analyses prove that the youngest (0-15 years old) oxic groundwater shows more pronounced significant downward nitrate trends (44%) than the oldest (25-50 years old) oxic groundwater (9%). This amounts to clear evidence of the effect of reduced nitrate leaching on groundwater nitrate concentrations in Denmark. Are the Danish groundwater monitoring strategy obtimal for detection of nitrate trends? Will the nitrate concentrations in Danish groundwater continue to decrease or are the Danish nitrate concentration levels now appropriate according to the Water Framework Directive?

  10. Prevalence of gastro-oesophageal ulcers in grower-finisher pigs in the northern province of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Makinde, M O; Gous, T A

    1998-06-01

    Ulceration of the gastric pars oesophagea is a common problem in intensive pig production that is often detected at slaughter. A survey was carried out at the Pietersburg abattoir in the Northern Province during a 6-month period. In total, 4320 pig stomachs were examined. Gastro-oesophageal ulcers were observed in 5.1% of the stomachs, gastric erosion in 15.2%, and hyperkeratosis in 18.9%. Time of slaughter was found to affect the prevalence of gastric lesions in the pig. PMID:9760399

  11. Occurrence and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in naturally infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Turčeková, Ľudmila; Antolová, Daniela; Reiterová, Katarína; Spišák, František

    2013-09-01

    The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that infects a wide range of warm-blooded vertebrates. The data about the occurrence of toxoplasmosis in slaughter pigs in the Slovak Republic are still missing. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in pigs from Slovakia during the period of 2006-2010 by ELISA and PCR methods. In sera of 970 slaughter pigs, 2.16% seropositivity to T. gondii was detected. In tissue samples of seropositive pigs the presence of T. gondii DNA was confirmed. In six monitored Slovak regions the seropositivity varied between 1.11 and 3.48%. The statistically significant differences were recorded between the Košice and Prešov region. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in sows (4.26%) was two times higher than that in slaughter pigs (2.06%) (OR = 2.12; 95% CI = 0.48-9.36). Presence of Toxoplasma gondii in tissues of seropositive pig isolates was confirmed by TGR1E and B1 genes and analysis of DNA polymorphism at SAG2 and ROP1 genes revealed the presence of virulent strain of genotype I in 85.7% of infected pigs and an avirulent strain (genotype II) in 14.3% of pigs. PMID:23990434

  12. Effect of sex and time to slaughter (transportation and lairage duration) on the levels of cortisol, creatine kinase and subsequent relationship with pork quality.

    PubMed

    Jama, N; Maphosa, V; Hoffman, L C; Muchenje, V

    2016-06-01

    The study determined the effect of sex and time to slaughter on cortisol and creatine kinase levels, and pork quality in commercial crossbred pigs. Saliva samples were before collected transportation, on arrival at the abattoir, and after a 20 hour lairage period. Cortisol levels from saliva (SC), serum (SeC) and urine (UC) were determined. Creatine kinase (CK) levels were determined from serum samples. Fifteen boars vs. 15 gilts were immediately slaughtered on arrival (SOA), and the other 15 boars vs. 15 gilts were rested for 20 h before slaughter. Meat quality parameters were also determined. In both sexes, SC significantly increased in response to time to slaughter. There was a significant interaction of sex and time to slaughter on SeC. Gilts had higher CK levels and lower muscle L* values than boars. There were correlations among baseline SC, SeC, UC and most meat quality parameters. Time to slaughter influenced levels of SC, UC, CK and pork quality between boars and gilts. PMID:26855163

  13. First Report of Toxoplasma gondii Prevalence in Tibetan Pigs in Tibet, China

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Song-Ming; Ciren, Danba; Huang, Si-Yang; Xu, Min-Jun; Ga, Gong; Yan, Chao; Mahmoud, Mona S.; Zou, Feng-Cai

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Toxoplasma gondii infection is widely prevalent in humans and animals, including pigs throughout the world. In this study, the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in Tibetan pigs in China was investigated for the first time. A total of 427 serum samples were collected from Tibetan pigs in Nyingchi prefecture, Tibet, between April and December 2010, and were assayed for antibodies to T. gondii using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Ninety-seven (22.72%) pigs were found to be positive with MAT titers of 1:25 or higher. Slaughter pigs had the highest seroprevalence, compared with seroprevalence in fattening pigs, growing pigs, or piglets, although the difference was not statistically significant (p≥0.05). The results of the present survey indicate that T. gondii is highly prevalent in Tibetan pigs in Tibet, which poses a significant public health concern in this unique region of the world. PMID:22651381

  14. Sound levels above 85 dB pre-slaughter influence pork quality.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, L; Van de Perre, V; Permentier, L; De Bie, S; Verbeke, G; Geers, R

    2015-02-01

    This study investigates whether sound levels above 85 dB(A), determined in literature as a critical sound level to induce stress in pigs, has also an effect on the pH of pork. Sound levels were recorded during pre-slaughter phases. A measure was taken after the arrival of the truck at the slaughterhouse, during unloading, lairage and just before stunning. The pH of the Longissimus thoracis or lumborum, 30 min after sticking (pH(30LT)) was measured. 8508 pigs were examined and the pH was measured on the carcasses. The results show that the cut-off value of 85 dB(A) during the pre-slaughtering phase is not only a threshold to evaluate animal welfare but can also be associated with a slower drop of pH if sound levels are b85 dB(A). Finally a linear mixed model for pH(30LT) was built with the sound level during lairage and the sound level prior to stunning as independent variables, having statistically the highest impact on pH(30LT) of pork. PMID:25460136

  15. Prevalence of African swine fever virus in apparently healthy domestic pigs in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background African swine fever (ASF) is a contagious viral disease which can cause up to 100% mortality among domestic pigs leading to serious socio-economic impact on people’s livelihoods. ASF is endemic in Uganda and there is paucity of information on the epidemiology of the disease. The major aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and prevalence of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in apparently healthy slaughter pigs at Wambizi slaughterhouse in Kampala city, Uganda. We also estimated the presence of ASFV antibodies and circulating viral antigens in pigs from selected districts of Uganda during targeted surveillance. We analysed 540 and 181 blood samples collected from slaughter pigs and pigs from targeted surveillance districts respectively. Results The prevalence of ASFV in slaughter pigs was 52.96% (95% CI, 48.75-57.14) and 11.5% (95% CI, 9.06-14.45) by ELISA and PCR respectively. In surveillance districts, the proportion of ASFV positive pigs was 53.59% (95% CI, 46.33-60.71) and 0.55% (95% CI, 0.1-3.06) by ELISA and PCR respectively. Conclusion The study has found out a high seroprevalence of ASFV antibodies in apparently healthy slaughter pigs and also a high proportion of ASFV antibody seropositive pigs in surveyed districts in Uganda indicating exposure to ASFV. However, there was a lower prevalence of ASFV infection implying that there could be low virulent strains of ASFV circulating in domestic pigs in Uganda which requires further investigation. PMID:24369729

  16. Sarcocystis sp. from cattle slaughtered in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, M; Kubo, M; Itagaki, H

    2000-11-01

    Sarcocystis sp. was detected from cattle slaughtered in Saitama Prefecture, Japan. The cysts were 3,400-4,400 x 198-238 microm in size and had the thick cyst wall which was 7 to 10 microm thick and provided with finger-like villar protrusions. The protrusions were 8-9.5 x 2-2.5 microm in size and had microtubules in the core. PMID:11129868

  17. Physiological traits and meat quality of pigs as affected by genotype and housing system.

    PubMed

    Lebret, B; Prunier, A; Bonhomme, N; Foury, A; Mormède, P; Dourmad, J Y

    2011-05-01

    The influence of pig housing system: alternative (bedding with outdoor area, BO) vs. conventional (slatted floor, SF) on growth performance, reactivity to pre-slaughter handling and meat quality was evaluated in two genotypes differing in the sire line, Duroc (CD) or synthetic (CS) with 40 pigs/genotype. Animal response to housing did not differ between genotypes. BO pigs had higher growth rate and feed intake, but similar carcass composition to SF pigs. Levels of stress related hormones and plasma metabolites at slaughter were not different between BO and SF pigs, suggesting that housing did not influence pig reactivity to pre-slaughter handling. Similar (Longissimus lumborum and Biceps femoris) or slightly reduced (Semimembranosus) pH values, higher drip, lipid content and juiciness were observed in BO compared with SF pork. CD pigs had more tender meat than CS. In conclusion, the BO system resulted in higher feed intake, faster growth rate, increased intramuscular fat, and improved eating quality in both genotypes. PMID:21185130

  18. Effects of marketing group on the variability of fresh loin, belly, and fresh and processed ham quality from pigs sourced from a commercial processing facility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to quantify the effect of marketing group (MG) on the variability of primal quality. Pigs (N=7,684) were slaughtered in 3 MGs from 8 barns. Pigs were from genetic selection programs focused on lean growth (L; group 1 n=1,131; group 2 n=1,466; group 3 n=1,030) or superior meat qua...

  19. Tail-biting in outdoor pig production.

    PubMed

    Walker, P K; Bilkei, G

    2006-03-01

    A study was performed in five identical outdoor production units in the same geographic area using growing-finishing pigs of similar genetic makeup, age, diet and feed management. The severity of tail-biting (TS) was scored 1-4. The average group prevalence of bitten tails at slaughter on different farms was between 14.1+/-2.1% and 20.1+/-3.0% (P<0.05). The odds of a barrow being bitten were 2.9 times higher than those for a gilt. The most frequently recorded score of bitten tails was TS3, indicating moderate wounds with low grade infection. The prevalence of bitten barrows was positively correlated with the percentage of gilts in a group (r = 0.54, P<0.001). Pigs with zero TS score had no significantly higher weights at slaughter compared to pigs with a score of TS1. As the TS increased from 1 to 4, weights decreased (TS 1 to TS 2 to 4, P<0.05). TS 3 and 4 were positively (P<0.001) associated with subsequent carcass condemnation. We concluded that outdoor rearing does not prevent tail-biting. PMID:15951210

  20. Isolation and Seroprevalence of Aeromonas spp. Among Common Food Animals Slaughtered in Nagpur, Central India.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Tanuja K G M; Reddy, Vishwanatha R A P; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Zade, Nandkishor N; Chaudhari, Sandeep P; Khan, Waqar A; Shinde, Shilpa V; Patil, Archana R

    2015-07-01

    Aeromonads are ubiquitous foodborne pathogens with a global distribution. Animal-origin foods and contaminated animals are the main sources of Aeromonas infection to humans. So far little is known about the occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in food-producing animals in India. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence and seroprevalence of Aeromonas species from 50 each of meat, blood, and sera samples collected from cattle, buffaloes, goats, and pigs slaughtered in and around Nagpur, Central India. Alkaline peptone water and ampicillin dextrin agar were used to isolate Aeromonas spp. An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was standardized by use of whole-cell antigen (WC) and outer membrane protein (OMP) of Aeromonas hydrophila (MTCC 646). Aeromonads were isolated from 44 (22%) of the meat samples, and 1 (0.5%) from the blood samples. Seroprevalence by indirect ELISA-based WC antigen was estimated as 68% in cattle, 44% in buffaloes, 60% in goats, and 30% in pigs. OMP-based ELISA yielded a seroprevalence of 56%, 48%, 52%, and 22% in cattle, buffaloes, goats, and pigs, respectively. The results revealed that OMP-based ELISA and WC-based ELISA were in agreement with one another. Isolation along with high seropositivity demonstrates the presence of foodborne Aeromonas spp. in the Nagpur city of Central India. PMID:25946095

  1. 9 CFR 93.429 - Ruminants for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ruminants for immediate slaughter. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.429 Ruminants for immediate slaughter. Ruminants, other than sheep and goats, may be imported from Mexico, subject to...

  2. 9 CFR 93.429 - Ruminants for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ruminants for immediate slaughter. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.429 Ruminants for immediate slaughter. Ruminants, other than sheep and goats, may be imported from Mexico, subject to...

  3. 9 CFR 93.429 - Ruminants for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ruminants for immediate slaughter. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.429 Ruminants for immediate slaughter. Ruminants, other than sheep and goats, may be imported from Mexico, subject to...

  4. 9 CFR 93.429 - Ruminants for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ruminants for immediate slaughter. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.429 Ruminants for immediate slaughter. Ruminants, other than sheep and goats, may be imported from Mexico, subject to...

  5. 9 CFR 93.429 - Ruminants for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ruminants for immediate slaughter. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants Mexico 10 § 93.429 Ruminants for immediate slaughter. Ruminants, other than sheep and goats, may be imported from Mexico, subject to...

  6. 9 CFR 93.326 - Horses for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses for immediate slaughter. 93.326... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for immediate slaughter. Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable provisions of §§ 93.321,...

  7. 9 CFR 93.326 - Horses for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses for immediate slaughter. 93.326... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for immediate slaughter. Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable provisions of §§ 93.321,...

  8. 9 CFR 93.326 - Horses for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses for immediate slaughter. 93.326... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for immediate slaughter. Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable provisions of §§ 93.321,...

  9. 9 CFR 93.326 - Horses for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses for immediate slaughter. 93.326... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for immediate slaughter. Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable provisions of §§ 93.321,...

  10. 9 CFR 93.326 - Horses for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses for immediate slaughter. 93.326... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Mexico 18 § 93.326 Horses for immediate slaughter. Horses may be imported from Mexico, subject to the applicable provisions of §§ 93.321,...

  11. 5. View of interior, EPA Farm Lab Building 1506 slaughter ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of interior, EPA Farm Lab Building 15-06 slaughter addition (featuring cold slaughter area), facing north-northeast - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Laboratory Building, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  12. THE EFFECTS OF RACTOPAMINE ON BEHAVIOR AND PHYSIOLOGY OF FINISHING PIGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of ractopamine (RAC) on behavior and physiology of pigs during handling and transport. Twenty-four groups of 3 gilts were randomly assigned to one of two treatments, four weeks prior to slaughter; 1) finishing feed plus RAC (10 ppm), 2) finish...

  13. A description of local pig feeding systems in village smallholder farms of Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mutua, Florence Kanini; Dewey, Catherine; Arimi, Samuel; Ogara, Wiliam; Levy, Mike; Schelling, Esther

    2012-08-01

    We used face-to-face interviews to gather data on pig feeding practices in rural Busia District, Kenya. We visited 164 pig farms three times in the course of the study period. The pigs were weighed in kilograms during the visits. Feeds offered to pigs were described during the interviews. The most frequently fed feedstuffs were; ground maize or "ugali" (88%), kitchen leftovers (83%) and dried fish locally called "omena" (78%). Farmers provided pigs with water separately from the feeds. Sweet potatoes, "ugali" and cassava were available and could serve as good sources of energy for pigs in the district. Fruits and vegetables were also available and could potentially act as good sources of vitamins. Sweet potato vines, "omena" fish and slaughter blood were available and could provide pigs with proteins. The average daily gain (ADG) for pigs ≤ 5 months of age, pigs of 5.1-9.9 months of age and pigs of ≥ 10 months old was 94.5 (± 43), 127 (± 49.8) and 99 (± 92) g, respectively (p = 0.000). This study has outlined the different local pig feeds available in Busia district. We recommend two things: first, additional research on nutrient composition for the identified local feeds, and second, developing and validating simple local feed combinations that would achieve balanced local pig rations. PMID:22219174

  14. Mycobacterium bovis infection in domestic pigs in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Suzanne S; Crawshaw, Timothy R; Smith, Noel H; Palgrave, Christopher J

    2013-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB), infects a wide range of wild and domestic mammals. Despite a control programme spanning decades, M. bovis infection levels in cattle in Great Britain (GB) have continued to rise over recent years. As the incidence of infection in cattle and wildlife may be linked to that in swine, data relating to infection of pigs identified at slaughter were examined in this study. Between 2007 and 2011, almost all M. bovis-infected pigs originated from farms in the South-West and West-Midland regions of England. The data suggest that pigs raised outdoors or on holdings with poor biosecurity may be more vulnerable to infection with M. bovis. In the majority of cases, the same strains of M. bovis were found in pigs and cattle, despite that fact that direct contact between these species was rarely observed. Genotyping and geographical mapping data indicated that some strains found in pigs may correlate better with those present in badgers, rather than cattle. In consequence, it is proposed that pigs may represent a useful sentinel for M. bovis infection in wildlife in GB. Given the potential implications of this infection for the pig industry, and for the on-going effort to control bovine TB, the importance of understanding the epidemiology and pathogenesis of M. bovis infection, as well as monitoring its prevalence, in pigs should not be underestimated. PMID:24095608

  15. Halal and kosher slaughter methods and meat quality: a review.

    PubMed

    Farouk, M M; Al-Mazeedi, H M; Sabow, A B; Bekhit, A E D; Adeyemi, K D; Sazili, A Q; Ghani, A

    2014-11-01

    There are many slaughter procedures that religions and cultures use around the world. The two that are commercially relevant are the halal and kosher methods practiced by Muslims and Jews respectively. The global trade in red meat and poultry produced using these two methods is substantial, thus the importance of the quality of the meat produced using the methods. Halal and kosher slaughter per se should not affect meat quality more than their industrial equivalents, however, some of their associated pre- and post-slaughter processes do. For instance, the slow decline in blood pressure following a halal pre-slaughter head-only stun and neck cut causes blood splash (ecchymosis) in a range of muscles and organs of slaughtered livestock. Other quality concerns include bruising, hemorrhages, skin discoloration and broken bones particularly in poultry. In addition to these conventional quality issues, the "spiritual quality" of the meat can also be affected when the halal and kosher religious requirements are not fully met during the slaughter process. The nature, causes, importance and mitigations of these and other quality issues related to halal and kosher slaughtering and meat production using these methods are the subjects of this review. PMID:24973207

  16. Transportation of market-weight pigs: II. effect of season and location within truck on behavior with an eight-hour transport.

    PubMed

    Torrey, S; Bergeron, R; Faucitano, L; Widowski, T; Lewis, N; Crowe, T; Correa, J A; Brown, J; Hayne, S; Gonyou, H W

    2013-06-01

    Transportation of pigs to slaughter has the potential to negatively impact animal welfare, particularly in hot temperatures and over long transport durations. The objective of this experiment was to determine if season and location within vehicle influenced the behavior of market-weight pigs during loading, transit, unloading, and lairage after a long-distance trip to slaughter. On a pot-belly truck, 1,170 pigs were transported (n = 195 pigs/wk in 7 experimental compartments) for 8 h to a commercial abattoir in summer (6 wk) and winter (5 wk). Pig behavior was observed at loading, in transit, at unloading, and in lairage. Handler intervention at loading was observed, and the time to load and unload was recorded. Although season did not (P = 0.91) affect loading time, more prods (P = 0.014) were necessary to load pigs in summer than winter. Loading in winter also tended to be longer (P = 0.071) into compartments involving internal ramps. In transit, more pigs (P = 0.025) were standing in winter compared with summer. Unloading took longer (P < 0.006) in winter than in summer and from compartments where pigs had to negotiate ramps and 180° turns. Furthermore, pigs in summer experienced more slipping (P = 0.032), falling (P = 0.004), overlapping (P < 0.001), and walking backward (P < 0.001) than pigs in winter. Pigs unloading from compartments with internal ramps slipped more (P < 0.0001) than other pigs. Season influenced latency to rest in lairage, with those transported in summer resting sooner (P < 0.0001) than those in winter. In conclusion, season and location within trucks differentially affect pig behavior before, during, and after long-distance transportation. Differences in lighting and temperature between seasons and the inclusion of internal ramps within vehicles may play important roles in the welfare of pigs transported to slaughter. PMID:23478814

  17. Salmonella in pig carcasses for human consumption in Hong Kong: a study on the mode of contamination.

    PubMed Central

    Chau, P. Y.; Shortridge, K. F.; Huang, C. T.

    1977-01-01

    A very high proportion (75%) of the pigs slaughtered in Hong Kong were found to be infected with salmonellas. Seven serotypes including Salmonella choleraesuis were isolated but the majority (91%) were S. anatum and S. derby. These serotypes, especially S. anatum and S. derby, had been isolated frequently from clinical cases, symptomless carries and in this study from abattoir workers, suggesting that the pig was a significant source for human salmonella infection. The majority of pigs slaughtered are imported and the high level of apparent infection was thought to be due to cross-infection during transport of the pigs under stress. S. anatum and S. derby were also isolated from pigs at 60 degreesC for 5 min caused no great reduction in the degree of superficial contamination. The two predominant serotypes were isolated from the tank and from drain swabs, and also from the latter held under scalding tank conditions. Thus, in spite of the introduction of hygienic slaughter under modernized conditions employing an automatic conveyance system 55% of the carcases were superficially contaminated after dressing before despatch to customers. Control of infection before slaughtering would appear crucial and a more thorough rinsing or washing of the dressed carcasses desirable. PMID:265345

  18. Tylosin depletion from edible pig tissues.

    PubMed

    Prats, C; El Korchi, G; Francesch, R; Arboix, M; Pérez, B

    2002-12-01

    The depletion of tylosin from edible pig tissues was studied following 5 days of intramuscular (i.m.) administration of 10 mg/kg of tylosin to 16 crossbreed pigs. Animals were slaughtered at intervals after treatment and samples of muscle, kidney, liver, skin+fat, and injection site were collected and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Seven days after the completion of treatment, the concentration of tylosin in kidney, skin+fat, and at the injection site was higher than the European Union maximal residue limit (MRL) of 100 microg/kg. Tylosin residues in all tissues were below the quantification limit (50 microg/kg) at 10 and 14 days post-treatment. PMID:12443694

  19. Further studies on the effects of diets containing dried coffee pulp: growth performance, blood and carcass characteristics of pigs.

    PubMed

    Okai, D B; Dabo, P

    1991-01-01

    4 groups of 5 pigs each were fed rations containing 0, 10, 20, or 30% of dried coffee pulp over a period of 10 weeks. The inclusion of these rations had no significant influence on the feed intake, growth rate and feed conversion efficiency. There were no significant differences in the blood parameters either (glucose, protein, P, Ca, cholesterol) or in the slaughter weight. Pigs fed the coffee pulp had less backfat and higher liver weights. PMID:1793431

  20. Current food chain information provides insufficient information for modern meat inspection of pigs.

    PubMed

    Felin, Elina; Jukola, Elias; Raulo, Saara; Heinonen, Jaakko; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Maria

    2016-05-01

    Meat inspection now incorporates a more risk-based approach for protecting human health against meat-borne biological hazards. Official post-mortem meat inspection of pigs has shifted to visual meat inspection. The official veterinarian decides on additional post-mortem inspection procedures, such as incisions and palpations. The decision is based on declarations in the food chain information (FCI), ante-mortem inspection and post-mortem inspection. However, a smooth slaughter and inspection process is essential. Therefore, one should be able to assess prior to slaughter which pigs are suitable for visual meat inspection only, and which need more profound inspection procedures. This study evaluates the usability of the FCI provided by pig producers and considered the possibility for risk ranking of incoming slaughter batches according to the previous meat inspection data and the current FCI. Eighty-five slaughter batches comprising 8954 fattening pigs were randomly selected at a slaughterhouse that receives animals from across Finland. The mortality rate, the FCI and the meat inspection results for each batch were obtained. The current FCI alone provided insufficient and inaccurate information for risk ranking purposes for meat inspection. The partial condemnation rate for a batch was best predicted by the partial condemnation rate calculated for all the pigs sent for slaughter from the same holding in the previous year (p<0.001) and by prior information on cough declared in the current FCI (p=0.02) statement. Training and information to producers are needed to make the FCI reporting procedures more accurate. Historical meat inspection data on pigs slaughtered from the same holdings and well-chosen symptoms/signs for reporting, should be included in the FCI to facilitate the allocation of pigs for visual inspection. The introduced simple scoring system can be easily used for additional information for directing batches to appropriate meat inspection procedures. To

  1. First report of Metastrongylus pudendotectus by the genetic characterization of mitochondria genome of cox1 in pigs from Tibet, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Luo, Houqiang; Zhang, Hui; Lan, Yanfang; Han, Zhaoqing; Shahzad, Muhammad; Wang, Xiaoqiang; Qiu, Gang; Huang, Shucheng; Jiang, Wenteng; Li, Jiakui

    2016-06-15

    Lungworms, a world wild distributed parasites cause serious respiratory diseases to the pigs. A high infection rate of Metastrongylus lungworms has been found in Tibetan pigs being slaughtered in different slaughter houses of Tibet autonomous region. The main aim of our study was to detect and confirm the lungworm parasite by the genetic characterization of mitochondrial cox1genome isolated from the lungs of Tibetan pig. The adult lungworms were collected from the lungs of slaughtered pigs and identification was done through morphological examinations. Total genomic DNA of the extracted worms was performed and a fragment (∼450bp) of the cox1 of mitochondrial (mt) gene was amplified. Amplicons were cloned into PGEM(®)-T Easy vector and the positive clones were sequenced from a commercial company. Sequence and phylogenetic analysis were performed by software of DNAMAN and MEGA respectively. The results revealed that the lungworms infecting the Tibetan pigs were Metastrongylus pudendotectus (M. pudendotectus). To our knowledge, this is the first report for the isolation and identification for the genetic characterization of mitochondria (mt) genome of cox1 of M. pudendotectus derived from Tibetan pigs in Tibet, China. PMID:27198783

  2. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry--3. Alfred Benzon].

    PubMed

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kirkegaard, Hanne; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2011-01-01

    The article series provides a written and pictorial account of the Danish pharmaceutical industry's products from their introduction until about 1950. Part 3 deals with products from the company founded by Alfred Benzon in 1849. Alfred Nicolai Benzon owned the Swan Pharmacy in Copenhagen. In 1863 he started an independent company manufacturing branded pharmaceuticals, thus combining the pharmacy's activities with the wholesale business. The family owned the company until 1952, when it was converted into a foundation. After several restructuring rounds, the medicine production business continued as Benzon Pharma A/S until 1990, when Nycomed Pharma A/S bought up all the branded pharmaceuticals. As the first pharmaceutical company in Denmark, Alfred Benzon was an industrial frontrunner in the country at the time, supplying not only the domestic market but foreign markets as well. Alfred Benzon was the first Danish company to produce ether for anesthesia, and malt extract, a dietetic preparation. The high quality of both products made them valuable export articles. In the early 1890s, Alfred Benzon became the first Danish company to start the research-based production of extract of thyroid glands from slaughtered cattle. This was the beginning of a long-standing specialization in producing organotherapeutic substances from animal organs originating from Danish animal husbandry. In 1932 the company had 26 preparations of this type in its range, many of them on the market for several years. These medicine substances included iron preparations and effervescent salts followed by sulfonamides, synthetic hormones and a substance to counteract motion sickness. PMID:21879529

  3. Selenium elimination in pigs after an outbreak of selenium toxicosis.

    PubMed

    Davidson-York, D; Galey, F D; Blanchard, P; Gardner, I A

    1999-07-01

    In May 1996, 150 grower pigs in 5 California counties were exposed to selenium-contaminated feed distributed by a single feed company. Feed samples from 20 herds had a mean selenium concentration of 121.7 ppm dry weight (range, 22.1-531 ppm). In San Luis Obispo County, 52 pigs in 24 herds were exposed to the feed, and 8 pigs died with signs of paralysis. Bilateral symmetrical poliomyelomalacia involving the ventral horns of the cervical and lumbar intumescence was evident on histologic examination of spinal cord from affected pigs. Of 44 surviving exposed pigs, 33 (75%) exhibited signs of selenosis, including anorexia, alopecia, and hoof lesions. Thirty-nine of 44 pigs (88.6%) had elevated (>1 ppm) blood selenium concentrations. Surviving exposed pigs were changed to a standard commercial ration containing approximately 0.5 ppm (dry weight) selenium. Blood selenium concentrations were determined weekly for 46 days following removal of the contaminated feed and were compared with values of 20 control pigs fed a standard commercial ration. Mean (+/-SD) blood selenium concentrations of exposed pigs were 3.2 +/- 2.6 ppm at the initial sampling and 0.4 +/- 0.1 ppm after 46 days. Mean blood selenium concentrations of < or = 0.3 ppm for control pigs at all samplings were significantly lower (P < 0.001) than concentrations for exposed pigs. Muscle and liver samples of 22 of the 44 exposed pigs were collected at slaughter approximately 72 days after withdrawal of the selenium-contaminated feed. Muscle samples had a mean selenium concentration of 0.36 ppm (wet weight). Liver samples had a mean selenium concentration of 1.26 ppm (wet weight). One liver sample had a selenium value in the toxic range for pigs (3.3 ppm wet weight; reference range, 0.4-1.2 ppm). A 1-compartment pharmacokinetic model of selenium elimination in exposed pigs was generated, and the geometric mean blood selenium elimination half-life was estimated to be 12 days. The 60-day withdrawal time recommended

  4. Experimental transfer of adult Oesophagostomum dentatum from donor to helminth naive recipient pigs: a methodological study.

    PubMed

    Bjørn, H; Roepstorff, A; Grøndahl, C; Eriksen, L; Bjerregaard, J; Nansen, P

    1995-12-01

    This study was carried out to compare potential methods of transplanting adult Oesophagostomum dentatum from experimentally infected donor pigs to helminth naive recipient pigs. The following methods were each tested in five pigs: A. Transfer of worms by stomach tube to the gastric ventricle of pigs per os pretreated with 0.5 mg/kg cisapride to increase gastrointestinal peristalsis; B. Transfer by stomach tube to the gastric ventricle of pigs per os pre-treated with cisapride (0.5 mg/kg) and omeprazol 20 mg which blocks hydrochloric acid secretion; C. Surgical transfer of worms to caecum of pigs. Worms for transplantation to pigs were obtained after slaughter of experimentally infected donor pigs and following isolation from the contents of the large intestine, using an agar gel migration technique. A mean of 1054 nematodes were transferred into each recipient pig within 2 hours. Procedures A and B resulted in establishment rates corresponding to only 0.5% and 7.6% of the transferred worms. In contrast, surgical transfer allowed 74.2% of the transplanted worms to be established. In all groups the transplanted worms migrated to the normal predilection site, i.e. the middle part of the large intestine. More female than male worms established in all groups. It was concluded from this study that surgical transfer was the most reliable of the methods tested for experimental establishment of adult O. dentatum in helminth naive pigs. PMID:8583123

  5. Immunocastrated male pigs: effect of 4 v. 6 weeks time post second injection on performance, carcass quality and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Aluwé, M; Degezelle, I; Depuydt, L; Fremaut, D; Van den Broeke, A; Millet, S

    2016-09-01

    Immunocastration or vaccination against boar taint can be used as alternative for surgical castration of male piglets. The vaccine is administrated twice. After the second vaccination (V2), the pigs behave like barrows instead of boars and their feed intake increases which may result in a lower lean meat percentage. The timing of V2 is therefore crucial to find the right balance between the advantages of entire males and barrows. In this study, we evaluated the effect of time post second injection within the advised time frame (4 v. 6 weeks before slaughter) on behaviour, performance, carcass and meat quality of immunocastrated male pigs. In total, 180 animals (hybrid sow×Piétrain): 60 gilts, 60 male pigs vaccinated 6 weeks before slaughter (IM-6) and 60 male pigs vaccinated 4 weeks before slaughter (IM-4), all slaughtered at comparable slaughter weights. After 20 weeks of age, IM-6 showed more inactive behaviour at the expense of playing and aggressive behaviour. Daily feed intake (DFI), daily gain (DG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) did not differ significantly between IM-6 and IM-4. Gilts had a lower DFI and DG in the late finishing phase and a higher FCR overall compared with both IM groups. Gilts showed a higher lean meat content compared with both IM groups. Earlier vaccination increased dressing percentage, which could partly be explained by the lower weight of the gastrointestinal tract, but not by testes weight. Meat quality traits and palatability did not differ significantly between IM-6 and IM-4. Vaccination of immunocastrates at 6 compared with 4 weeks before slaughter improved the calmness in the stable and the dressing percentage, while maintaining performance and carcass characteristics. PMID:26957130

  6. Danish auroral science history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, P.

    2011-01-01

    Danish auroral science history begins with the early auroral observations made by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe during the years from 1582 to 1601 preceding the Maunder minimum in solar activity. Included are also the brilliant observations made by another astronomer, Ole Rømer, from Copenhagen in 1707, as well as the early auroral observations made from Greenland by missionaries during the 18th and 19th centuries. The relations between auroras and geomagnetic variations were analysed by H. C. Ørsted, who also played a vital role in the development of Danish meteorology that came to include comprehensive auroral observations from Denmark, Iceland and Greenland as well as auroral and geomagnetic research. The very important auroral investigations made by Sophus Tromholt are outlined. His analysis from 1880 of auroral observations from Greenland prepared for the significant contributions from the Danish Meteorological Institute, DMI, (founded in 1872) to the first International Polar Year 1882/83, where an expedition headed by Adam Paulsen was sent to Greenland to conduct auroral and geomagnetic observations. Paulsen's analyses of the collected data gave many important results but also raised many new questions that gave rise to auroral expeditions to Iceland in 1899 to 1900 and to Finland in 1900 to 1901. Among the results from these expeditions were 26 unique paintings of the auroras made by the artist painter, Harald Moltke. The expedition to Finland was headed by Dan la Cour, who later as director of the DMI came to be in charge of the comprehensive international geomagnetic and auroral observations made during the Second International Polar Year in 1932/33. Finally, the article describes the important investigations made by Knud Lassen during, among others, the International Geophysical Year 1957/58 and during the International Quiet Sun Year (IQSY) in 1964/65. With his leadership the auroral and geomagnetic research at DMI reached a high international

  7. [Correlations between certain parameters of weight increase, slaughter performance, meat condition and thyroid function in swine for slaughter comparing various boar offspring].

    PubMed

    Schöberlein, L; Seffner, W

    1981-01-01

    Comprehensive tests were applied to a larger number of pigs for slaughter, all kept under the same conditions and all of known genetic origin. Subjects of testing were pork quality parameters, pH45, colour brightness, and drip loss as well as morphological thyroid parameters, epithelial level, nuclear surface, and follicle diameter as well as butanol-extractable iodine in the serum. All parameters were compared with one another, and each of them was then related to net body growth and increase in high-quality pork components. Follicular epithelial level and butanol-extractable iodine were found to be in negative correlation with one another. Higher drip loss was in concomitance with relative morphological thyroid quiescence. Higher net growth was exhibited by animals with portions of high-quality pork components went along with significant deterioration of general pork quality. Six boar progenies were tested for the above parameters. Some of the boar progenies exhibited statistically secured differences with regard to the thyroid parameters, butanol-extractable iodine, and pork quality. PMID:7224791

  8. Evolution of testes characteristics in entire and immunocastrated male pigs from 30 to 120 kg live weight as assessed by computed tomography with perspective on boar taint.

    PubMed

    Font-i-Furnols, Maria; Carabús, Anna; Muñoz, Israel; Čandek-Potokar, Marjeta; Gispert, Marina

    2016-06-01

    The present study addressed (1) the levels of boar taint compounds in entire (EM) and immunocastrated (IM) male pigs during their growth, (2) the evolution of testes volume and density and (3) the relationship between physical characteristics of the testes and boar taint compounds. For that purpose 24 EM and 20 IM pigs were CT scanned at several body weights (TBW). After each scanning a subsample of pigs was slaughtered, and subcutaneous fat was collected to determine androstenone and skatole concentration. Additional subsample (n=4/sex) was CT scanned 13 days after the second vaccination (V2). Testes density changes with growth, is different in EM and IM, but is not a reliable marker of the level of boar taint compounds. On the other hand, testes to body volume ratio is a better predictor for androstenone and could provide a good tool at slaughter plants to detect immunocastrated pigs with high boar taint compounds. PMID:26835834

  9. 76 FR 48796 - Plan for Estimating Daily Livestock Slaughter Under Federal Inspection; Request for Extension of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Plan for Estimating Daily Livestock Slaughter Under Federal Inspection; Request... information collection used to compile and generate the Federally Inspected Estimated Daily Slaughter Report....Porter@ams.usda.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Plan for Estimating Daily Livestock...

  10. 9 CFR 146.6 - Specific provisions for participating slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... upland game bird, commercial waterfowl, meat-type chicken, and meat-type turkey slaughter plants that are... upland game bird and commercial waterfowl slaughter plants must follow the relevant special provisions...

  11. Assessment of post-Hurricane Katrina recovery in poultry slaughter establishments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of bacterial contamination during poultry slaughter can be compromised by natural disaster. In October 2005, disaster recovery was evaluated in 11 broiler slaughter establishments, one month after operations were disrupted by Hurricane Katrina. A questionnaire was administered to characteriz...

  12. Pseudoendogenous origin of prednisolone in pigs from the food chain.

    PubMed

    Arioli, F; Pasquale, E; Panseri, S; Bonizzi, L; Labella, G F; Casati, A; Foschini, S; Chiesa, L

    2015-01-01

    The debate about the origin of prednisolone in animal organisms has lasted for 5 years. Bovine species have been the most studied, but studies on humans and horses are also present in the literature. Even if prednisolone in pigs does not yet represent a problem for control agencies, interest has recently increased with regard to this species. To date, there has been just a single study in the literature about this topic, performed on 10 sows treated with prednisolone or a synthetic analogue of adrenocorticotropic hormone. We therefore initiated a study on 80 pigs, a number considered representative in relation to the expected frequency (prevalence) of prednisolone detection in urine collected at slaughter. Prednisolone was detected in urine both at the farm and at the slaughterhouse, with a concentration and frequency higher at slaughter. The presence of prednisolone was also studied in the adrenal glands, where the corticosteroids are produced in response to stress, and it was detected in 89% of the samples. These results, together with the similar behaviours of prednisolone and cortisol, i.e. a mutual rise in the two corticosteroids in urine collected at the slaughterhouse and the correlation between the concentrations of the two corticosteroids in the adrenal glands, seem to indicate an endogenous origin of prednisolone in pigs. PMID:25768050

  13. 9 CFR 146.8 - Terminology and classification; slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Terminology and classification; slaughter plants. 146.8 Section 146.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR COMMERCIAL POULTRY General Provisions § 146.8...

  14. 9 CFR 146.8 - Terminology and classification; slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Terminology and classification; slaughter plants. 146.8 Section 146.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR COMMERCIAL POULTRY General Provisions § 146.8...

  15. Machine vision system for online inspection of freshly slaughtered chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A machine vision system was developed and evaluated for the automation of online inspection to differentiate freshly slaughtered wholesome chickens from systemically diseased chickens. The system consisted of an electron-multiplying charge-coupled-device camera used with an imaging spectrograph and ...

  16. 77 FR 4407 - Modernization of Poultry Slaughter Inspection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ...)). In the preamble to the HACCP final rule (61 FR 38806, July 25, 1996), FSIS stated that microbial...: Agency Policy and Use in Public Health Protection,'' 71 FR 9772-9777, February 27, 2006). The new... Salmonella and Campylobacter in Young Chicken and Turkey Slaughter Establishments,'' 75 FR 27288). On...

  17. 9 CFR 146.8 - Terminology and classification; slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; slaughter plants. 146.8 Section 146.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LIVESTOCK IMPROVEMENT NATIONAL POULTRY IMPROVEMENT PLAN FOR COMMERCIAL POULTRY General Provisions § 146.8...

  18. 9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. Participating meat-type turkey slaughter plants which have...

  19. 9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. Participating meat-type turkey slaughter plants which have...

  20. 9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. Participating meat-type turkey slaughter plants which have...

  1. 9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. Participating meat-type turkey slaughter plants which have...

  2. 9 CFR 146.43 - Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Turkey Slaughter Plants § 146.43 Terminology and classification; meat-type turkey slaughter plants. Participating meat-type turkey slaughter plants which have...

  3. Airborne transmission of H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza viruses during simulated home slaughter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most H5N1 human infections have occurred following exposure to H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) virus-infected poultry, especially when poultry are home slaughtered or slaughtered in live poultry markets. Previous studies have demonstrated that slaughter of clade 1 isolate A/Vietnam/1...

  4. Selective mobilization of fatty acids in adipose tissue of heavy pigs.

    PubMed

    Bochicchio, D; Comellini, M; Lambertini, P; Marchetto, G; Della Casa, G

    2015-01-01

    The mobilization of fatty acids during food deprivation is a selective process studied in different species (humans, rodents, birds, viverrids). The aim of this work was to study the effect of fasting on selective mobilization in commercial pigs. A total of 16 barrows (Large White×Landrace (167 kg±12.5 kg live weight) were subdivided into two homogeneous groups, one subjected to 12 h and the other to 60 h of fasting (fasting time) before slaughtering. For each pig inner and outer backfat layer were sampled at slaughter and at ham trimming 24 h later (sampling time). Increasing the fasting time and the sampling time after slaughter caused an increase in the amount of free fatty acids in both layers. Therefore it can be argued that during fasting lipolysis is stimulated and remains active also after slaughtering. The factors that stimulate lipolysis determine a greater mobilization of unsaturated fatty acids than saturated ones. Thus fasting time may influence the suitability of pork for processing and conservation, since free fatty acids are more suitable for oxidation than the esterified ones. PMID:25170962

  5. Physico-chemical characteristics of Longissimus lumborum muscle in goats subjected to halal slaughter and anesthesia (halothane) pre-slaughter.

    PubMed

    Sabow, Azad Behnan; Sazili, Awis Qurni; Zulkifli, Idrus; Goh, Yong Meng; Ab Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the effect of halal slaughter and anesthesia pre-slaughter followed by bleeding on meat quality characteristics of goats. Eleven male Boer cross goats were divided into two groups and subjected to either halal slaughter (HS) or anesthesia with halothane and propofol pre-slaughter (AS). At pre-rigor, HS had significantly lower (P < 0.05) muscle pH and glycogen than AS. However, no significant difference was observed in the pH and glycogen content between the treatments on 1, 3 and 7 days post mortem. The drip loss of HS was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that of AS at all aging periods. Treatment had no effect on sarcomere length, myofibrillar fragmentation index and shear force values, loss of thiol groups and degradation of major myofibrillar proteins. It can be concluded that HS did not have deleterious effect on meat quality traits of goat when compared to AS. PMID:26208249

  6. Occurrence and severity of lung lesions in slaughter pigs vaccinated against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae with different strategies.

    PubMed

    Hillen, Sonja; von Berg, Stephan; Köhler, Kernt; Reinacher, Manfred; Willems, Hermann; Reiner, Gerald

    2014-03-01

    Different vaccination strategies against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae have been adopted worldwide. Reports from the field indicate varying levels of protection among currently available vaccines. The goal of the present study was to compare the efficacies of three widespread commercial vaccination strategies against M. hyopneumoniae under field conditions. 20 farms were included. 14 farms used different single dose vaccines (vaccine 1 [V1], 8 herds; vaccine 2 [V2], 6 herds); another 6 farms (V3) used a two dose vaccination strategy. Gross lesions of 854 lungs and histopathology from 140 lungs were quantified, and a quantitative PCR was applied to detect M. hyopneumoniae and porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) DNA in lung tissue (n=140). In addition, porcine reproductive and respiratory disease virus (PRRSV), swine influenza virus (SIV), Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis and Pasteurella multocida were tested by qualitative PCR. 53% of lungs were positive for M. hyopneumoniae. 55.9% of lungs showed macroscopic enzootic pneumonia (EP)-like lesions. Lung lesion scores (P<0.001) and M. hyopneumoniae-loads (P<0.008) differed significantly among the vaccination groups, with the most severe cases and highest amounts occurring in V1. Histological alterations differed (P<0.001) between V1 and V3. Lung lesion scores and histopathological changes were significantly correlated, with prevalence and load of M. hyopneumoniae indicating that the applied diagnostic tools are valuable in confirming the prevalence and severity of M. hyopneumoniae infections. Comparing different vaccination strategies against M. hyopneumoniae indicates varying levels of protection. M. hyopneumoniae is still a major problem despite the widely applied vaccination. PMID:24485705

  7. Isolation and characterization of Leptospira interrogans from pigs slaughtered in São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Miraglia, Fabiana; Moreno, Andréa Mike; Gomes, Cleise Ribeiro; Paixão, Renata; Liuson, Esequiel; Morais, Zenaide Maria; Maiorka, Paulo; Seixas, Fabiana Kömmling; Dellagostin, Odir Antonio; Vasconcellos, Silvio Arruda

    2008-01-01

    With the aim of isolating Leptospira spp., blood serum, kidney, liver and genital tract of 137 female swine (40 sows and 97 gilts) and also urine samples from 22 sows were collected in a slaughterhouse in the State of São Paulo, from April 2003 to August 2004. Four isolates were obtained from animals that presented microagglutination test (MAT) titers ≥ 100 for the serovar Pomona and one was obtained from an animal negative by MAT in which Leptospira was isolated from the liver and reproductive tract. The presence of leptospiral DNA was investigated by PCR, and positive results were found in kidneys of 11 females, liver of two, genital tract of two and urine of one of them. Nephrosis, interstitial multifocal nephritis, moderate to severe changing, hyalines cylinders and hemorrhagic focuses, hepatic and uterine horns congestion were histological lesions observed in higher frequency in animals positive for leptospira. The silver impregnation (Warthin Starry) confirmed the presence of spirochetes in renal tubules of four females with positive leptospira cultures from kidneys. The serogroup of the five isolates was identified as Pomona by cross agglutination with reference polyclonal antibodies. Molecular characterization of the isolates was carried out by variable-number tandem-repeats analysis. All the isolates revealed a pattern distinct from the L. interrogans Pomona type strain, but identical to a previously identified pattern from strains isolated in Argentina belonging to serovar Pomona. PMID:24031254

  8. Cocoa husks in diets of Italian heavy pigs.

    PubMed

    Magistrelli, D; Malagutti, L; Galassi, G; Rosi, F

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cocoa husks feeding on liver composition of the Italian heavy pig. Cocoa husks are by-products derived from chocolate production and have a high content of proteins, lipids, and NDF. Cocoa husks are also rich in antioxidants, polyphenols in particular. Eight finishing pigs were divided into 2 groups: control group fed a traditional diet, based on cereals, and treatment group fed a diet obtained by substitution of 10% of the control diet with coarsely ground cocoa husks. The trial was conducted during the hot season and lasted 6 wk, at the end of which all the pigs were slaughtered. Cocoa husks diet reduced dry matter intake (P < 0.01) and energy intake (P < 0.01) but neither body weight nor backfat thickness was affected by cocoa husks diet. Treatment did not influence carcass weight and hot dressing percentage but reduced liver weight (P < 0.05), liver dry matter percentage (P < 0.01), DNA (P = 0.01), and glycogen content (P = 0.01). By contrast, cocoa husks increased liver ether extract (P = 0.05) without affecting cholesterol content. Liver weight loss, reduction of protein synthesis, and a shift toward glycogen use instead of fat oxidation are considered metabolic strategies to reduce heat production under hot conditions. It is possible, therefore, that cocoa husks feeding promoted the process of acclimation because pigs needed less feeding to reach similar body and carcass weight as control pigs. PMID:23365339

  9. Patterns of gene expression in pig adipose tissue: insulin-like growth factor system proteins, neuropeptide Y (NPY), NPY receptors, neurotrophic factors and other secreted factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total RNA was collected at slaughter from outer subcutaneous adipose tissue (OSQ) and middle subcutaneous adipose tissue (MSQ) samples from gilts at 90, 150, and 210 d ( n =5 / age). Dye labeled cDNA probes were hybridized to custom microarrays (70 mer oligonucleotides) representing over 600 pig gen...

  10. Modelling Salmonella transmission among pigs from farm to slaughterhouse: Interplay between management variability and epidemiological uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Ferrer Savall, Jordi; Bidot, Caroline; Leblanc-Maridor, Mily; Belloc, Catherine; Touzeau, Suzanne

    2016-07-16

    Salmonella carriage and cutaneous contamination of pigs at slaughter are a major risk for carcass contamination. They depend on Salmonella prevalence at farm, but also on transmission and skin soiling among pigs during their journey from farm to slaughterhouse. To better understand and potentially control what influences Salmonella transmission within a pig batch during this transport and lairage step, we proposed a compartmental, discrete-time and stochastic model. We calibrated the model using pork chain data from Brittany. We carried out a sensitivity analysis to evaluate the impact of the variability in management protocols and of the uncertainty in epidemiological parameters on three model outcomes: prevalence of infection, average cutaneous contamination and number of new infections at slaughter. Each outcome is mainly influenced by a single management factor: prevalence at slaughter mainly depends on the prevalence at farm, cutaneous contamination on the contamination of lairage pens and new infections on the total duration of transport and lairage. However, these results are strongly affected by the uncertainty in epidemiological parameters. Re-excretion of carriers due to stress does not have a major impact on the number of new infections. PMID:27099983

  11. The influence of tail biting on performance of fattening pigs.

    PubMed

    Wallgren, P; Lindahl, E

    1996-01-01

    In comparison to 29 non bitten animals, severe tail biting was found to decrease the daily weight gain (DWG) by 25% in 8 fattening pigs during the period of biting. However, when comparing the weight gain of the lifetime between bitten and non bitten pigs, no influence of the tail biting was found. It is of interest that severely wounded pigs were parenterally treated with prokainpenicillin G for 3 consecutive days in connection with the tail biting, which could be suggested to promote the growth by reducing the influence of infections gained by the tail biting as well as of other infections present in herds rearing conventional pigs. Despite penicillin treatment, abscesses were more frequently recorded in tail bitten pigs than in non bitten animals. The tail biting was not equally distributed between the sexes, as barrows were more frequently bitten than gilts. Among the unbitten pigs, barrows were also found to grow faster than gilts. Indeed, when comparing tail bitten and non bitten barrows, a negative influence of tail biting on DWG was not only shown during the period of biting, but could also be monitored as a reduced DWG from that period until slaughter by 11% and during lifetime by 5% (the tail bitten gilts were too few to allow statistical calculations). These results clearly indicate that tail biting affects the growth rate of the lifetime despite penicillin treatment. However, it should be stressed that this decreased lifetime DWG may not be monitored when evaluating abattoir data because the sex distribution of the pigs may not be known in such materials. PMID:9050278

  12. Eosinophilic myositis in a slaughtered Korean native cattle

    PubMed Central

    Do, Sun Hee; Jeong, Da-Hee; Chung, Jae-Yong; Park, Jin-Kyu; Yang, Hai-Jie; Yuan, Dong-Wei

    2008-01-01

    Histopathological findings of eosinophilic myositis in the carcass of a slaughtered Korean native cow are presented. Lesions contained massive fibrous septae with vacuolar changes in some lesions, and the hypercontraction and rupturing of muscle bundles, with replacement by eosinophils. Necrosis and severe eosinophil infiltration were observed. Sarcoplasmic fragmentation and atrophy developed. Typical of granuloma, calcified myofibers were focally surrounded by macrophages and numerous inflammatory cells, and multinucleated giant cell formation was evident. PMID:19043319

  13. Longitudinal Study of Distributions of Similar Antimicrobial-Resistant Salmonella Serovars in Pigs and Their Environment in Two Distinct Swine Production Systems

    PubMed Central

    Keelara, Shivaramu; Scott, H. Morgan; Morrow, William M.; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A.; Correa, Maria; Nayak, Rajesh; Stefanova, Rossina

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine and compare the prevalences and genotypic profiles of antimicrobial-resistant (AR) Salmonella isolates from pigs reared in antimicrobial-free (ABF) and conventional production systems at farm, at slaughter, and in their environment. We collected 2,889 pig fecal and 2,122 environmental (feed, water, soil, lagoon, truck, and floor swabs) samples from 10 conventional and eight ABF longitudinal cohorts at different stages of production (farrowing, nursery, finishing) and slaughter (postevisceration, postchill, and mesenteric lymph nodes [MLN]). In addition, we collected 1,363 carcass swabs and 205 lairage and truck samples at slaughter. A total of 1,090 Salmonella isolates were recovered from the samples; these were isolated with a significantly higher prevalence in conventionally reared pigs (4.0%; n = 66) and their environment (11.7%; n = 156) than in ABF pigs (0.2%; n = 2) and their environment (0.6%; n = 5) (P < 0.001). Salmonella was isolated from all stages at slaughter, including the postchill step, in the two production systems. Salmonella prevalence was significantly higher in MLN extracted from conventional carcasses than those extracted from ABF carcasses (P < 0.001). We identified a total of 24 different serotypes, with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Salmonella enterica serovar Anatum, Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis, and Salmonella enterica serovar Derby being predominant. The highest frequencies of antimicrobial resistance (AR) were exhibited to tetracycline (71%), sulfisoxazole (42%), and streptomycin (17%). Multidrug resistance (resistance to ≥3 antimicrobials; MDR) was detected in 27% (n = 254) of the Salmonella isolates from the conventional system. Our study reports a low prevalence of Salmonella in both production systems in pigs on farms, while a higher prevalence was detected among the carcasses at slaughter. The dynamics of Salmonella prevalence in pigs and carcasses were

  14. Longitudinal study of distributions of similar antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella serovars in pigs and their environment in two distinct swine production systems.

    PubMed

    Keelara, Shivaramu; Scott, H Morgan; Morrow, William M; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Correa, Maria; Nayak, Rajesh; Stefanova, Rossina; Thakur, Siddhartha

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to determine and compare the prevalences and genotypic profiles of antimicrobial-resistant (AR) Salmonella isolates from pigs reared in antimicrobial-free (ABF) and conventional production systems at farm, at slaughter, and in their environment. We collected 2,889 pig fecal and 2,122 environmental (feed, water, soil, lagoon, truck, and floor swabs) samples from 10 conventional and eight ABF longitudinal cohorts at different stages of production (farrowing, nursery, finishing) and slaughter (postevisceration, postchill, and mesenteric lymph nodes [MLN]). In addition, we collected 1,363 carcass swabs and 205 lairage and truck samples at slaughter. A total of 1,090 Salmonella isolates were recovered from the samples; these were isolated with a significantly higher prevalence in conventionally reared pigs (4.0%; n = 66) and their environment (11.7%; n = 156) than in ABF pigs (0.2%; n = 2) and their environment (0.6%; n = 5) (P < 0.001). Salmonella was isolated from all stages at slaughter, including the postchill step, in the two production systems. Salmonella prevalence was significantly higher in MLN extracted from conventional carcasses than those extracted from ABF carcasses (P < 0.001). We identified a total of 24 different serotypes, with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Salmonella enterica serovar Anatum, Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis, and Salmonella enterica serovar Derby being predominant. The highest frequencies of antimicrobial resistance (AR) were exhibited to tetracycline (71%), sulfisoxazole (42%), and streptomycin (17%). Multidrug resistance (resistance to ≥ 3 antimicrobials; MDR) was detected in 27% (n = 254) of the Salmonella isolates from the conventional system. Our study reports a low prevalence of Salmonella in both production systems in pigs on farms, while a higher prevalence was detected among the carcasses at slaughter. The dynamics of Salmonella prevalence in pigs and carcasses were

  15. The Danish vaccination register.

    PubMed

    Grove Krause, T; Jakobsen, S; Haarh, M; Mølbak, K

    2012-01-01

    Immunisation information systems (IIS) are valuable tools for monitoring vaccination coverage and for estimating vaccine effectiveness and safety. Since 2009, an advanced IIS has been developed in Denmark and will be implemented during 2012–14. This IIS is based on a database existing since 2000. The reporting of all administered vaccinations including vaccinations outside the national programme will become mandatory. Citizens will get access to data about their own vaccinations and healthcare personnel will get access to information on the vaccinations of their patients. A national concept of identification, a national solution combining a personal code and a card with codes, ensures easy and secure access to the register. From the outset, the IIS will include data on childhood vaccinations administered from 1996 and onwards. All Danish citizens have a unique identifier, a so called civil registration number, which allows the linking of information on vaccinations coming from different electronic data sources. The main challenge will be to integrate the IIS with the different electronic patient record systems currently existing at general practitioner, vaccination clinic and hospital level thereby avoiding double-entry. A need has been identified for an updated international classification of vaccine products on the market. Such a classification would also be useful for the future exchange of data on immunisations from IIS between countries. PMID:22551494

  16. Preweaning housing effects on behavior and physiological measures in pigs during the suckling and fattening periods.

    PubMed

    Chaloupková, H; Illmann, G; Neuhauserová, K; Tománek, M; Valis, L

    2007-07-01

    The effect of the preweaning housing system on the stress response of pigs before weaning and during fattening was studied in 33 litters of domestic pigs. Three preweaning housing systems were compared: barren crate (standard farrowing crate without straw), enriched crate (20% larger crate, with straw), and as a control, a farrowing pen (pen, 60% larger than the barren crate, with straw). At 25 d of age, pigs were tested with an isolation test and 1 d later with a human approach test (HumanT). Pigs were weaned at 28 d of age. At 3 and 6 mo of age, pigs were tested with an isolation-human approach test. The latency and frequency of squeal calls and locomotor activity were analyzed for all 3 tests, whereas physical contact with the human was also analyzed for the HumanT and isolation-human approach test. At 6 mo of age, the pigs were transported to a slaughterhouse. One day before transport, immediately after transport, and 1 h after transport, saliva samples were taken for cortisol analysis. The pH of the LM was also measured 45 min after slaughter. Preweaning housing system affected (P < 0.05) the probability of squeal vocalizations, the latency of locomotion, and the duration of locomotion during the HumanT. Pigs from the enriched pens vocalized less, had a longer latency to move, and performed less overall locomotion than pigs from the barren crates. Preweaning housing system did not affect behavior of fattening pigs. Cortisol concentrations before and after transport were not affected by preweaning housing system. An interaction of cortisol concentrations and housing systems was observed between the control sample and the sample taken immediately after transport in pigs from the barren crates (P < 0.05) compared with pigs from the enriched housing systems. Meat from pigs reared in the barren crate tended to have lower pH (P < 0.10) and that of pigs reared in enriched crates had lower pH (P < 0.05) than meat of pigs reared in enriched pens. No differences were

  17. High prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domestic pigs in Oaxaca State, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Estrada-Malacón, M A; Reyes-Hernández, S O; Pérez-Ramírez, J A; Trujillo-López, J I; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

    2012-12-01

    Pigs are important in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in North America. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 525 domestic pigs (337 backyard raised, 188 farm raised) in Oaxaca State, Mexico was determined using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cutoff 1:25). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 58 (17.2%) of the 337 backyard pigs with MAT titers of 1:25 in 10, 1:50 in 12, 1:100 in 18, 1:200 in 6, 1:400 in 6, 1:800 in 3, and 1:1,600 in 3. Seropositive pigs were found in 39 (37.9%) of 103 homes in all 7 municipalities surveyed. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in backyard pigs varied with age, gender, geographic region, climate, and altitude. High seroprevalence was found in pigs ≥ 9-mo-old (40%), in females (40%), in pigs from the Istmo region (33.3%), and in those raised in a tropical climate (65%). Seroprevalence was higher (24.5%) in pigs raised at 100-660 m above sea level than in those at 20-60 m of altitude (14.2%). With respect to farm pigs, only 1 (0.5%, MAT titer 1:100) of 188 pigs from 5 farms was positive for anti- T. gondii antibodies. The results affirm that the management system (outdoor vs. indoor system with biosecurity) is a key factor in the epidemiology of porcine toxoplasmosis. Because there is no national system of determining the T. gondii infection status at the time of slaughter, precautions should be taken while handling pig carcasses, and all pork should be cooked thoroughly before human consumption. PMID:22559725

  18. A comparison of bleeding efficiency, microbiological quality and lipid oxidation in goats subjected to conscious halal slaughter and slaughter following minimal anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Sabow, A B; Sazili, A Q; Zulkifli, I; Goh, Y M; Ab Kadir, M Z A; Abdulla, N R; Nakyinsige, K; Kaka, U; Adeyemi, K D

    2015-06-01

    The study assessed the effect of conscious halal slaughter and slaughter following minimal anesthesia on bleeding efficiency of goats and keeping quality of goat meat. Ten Boer cross bucks were divided into two groups and subjected to either halal slaughter without stunning (HS) or minimal anesthesia prior to slaughter (AS). The blood lost during exsanguination was measured. Residual blood was further quantified by determination of hemoglobin and myoglobin content in longissimus lumborum muscle. Storage stability of the meat was evaluated by microbiological analysis and lipid oxidation. Blood loss at exsanguination, residual hemoglobin and lipid oxidation were not significantly different (p>0.05) between HS and AS. Lactic acid bacteria was the only microbe that was significantly elevated after 24h of storage at 4°C in the AS group. In conclusion, slaughtering goats under minimal anesthesia or fully conscious did not affect bleeding efficiency and keeping quality of goat meat. PMID:25732178

  19. Hand-held lactate analyzer as a tool for the real-time measurement of physical fatigue before slaughter and pork quality prediction.

    PubMed

    Rocha, L M; Dionne, A; Saucier, L; Nannoni, E; Faucitano, L

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the relationship between blood lactate variation measured at the plant, and pork quality variation on a large sample size and under commercial preslaughter handling conditions. A total of 600 pigs were randomly chosen on arrival at a commercial slaughter plant and blood samples taken from the ear vein at unloading (UN), after lairage (LA), in the restrainer (RE; before stunning) and at exsanguination (EX) were analysed for lactate content using a Lactate Scout Analyzer (LSA). In order to have a large range of measures, pigs were distributed into two groups; one kept in lairage overnight (G1) and the other for 2 to 3 h (G2) before slaughter. Meat quality was assessed in the Longissimus thoracis (LT), Semimembranosus (SM) and Adductor (AD) muscles by measuring the pH 30 min postmortem (pH1) and at 24 h postmortem (pHu), the colour and the drip loss. Blood lactate levels did not differ between G1 and G2 (P>0.05). A reduced muscle lactate and glucose contents (P=0.02 and P=0.004, respectively) resulting in a lower (P<0.001) glycolytic potential (GP) was observed in the LT muscle of G1 pigs when compared with G2 loins. In the LT muscle of G1 pigs, the lower GP resulted in an increased pHu (r=-0.67; P<0.001), decreased drip loss (r=0.57; P<0.001) and darker colour (r=0.50; P<0.001) compared with G2. In both G1 and G2 pigs, the lower GP was correlated to higher pHu value in the SM and AD muscles (r=-0.73; P<0.001). The greatest correlation was observed in G2 between blood lactate levels at LA and pHu value of the SM and AD muscles (r=0.46 and r=0.44, respectively; P<0.001 for both muscles). The second greatest correlation was found between blood lactate levels at EX and pH1 value in the SM muscle in both groups (r=-0.37 and r=-0.41, respectively; P<0.001 for both groups). Based on the results of this study, it appears that blood lactate levels, as measured by the LSA, reliably reflect the physiological response of pigs to

  20. Blood parameters and electroencephalographic responses of goats to slaughter without stunning.

    PubMed

    Sabow, A B; Goh, Y M; Zulkifli, I; Sazili, A Q; Kaka, U; Kadi, M Z A Ab; Ebrahimi, M; Nakyinsige, K; Adeyemi, K D

    2016-11-01

    The study compared changes in blood biochemistry, hormonal and electroencephalographic indices associated with possible noxious stimuli following neck cut slaughter in conscious, non-anaesthetized versus minimally-anaesthetized goats. Ten male Boer crossbreed goats were assigned into two groups and subjected to either slaughter conscious without stunning (SWS) or slaughter following minimal anaesthesia (SMA). Hormonal responses and changes in electroencephalographic (EEG) parameters were not influenced by slaughter method. The SWS goats had higher glucose and lactate than did SMA goats. It can be concluded that the noxious stimulus from the neck cut is present in both conscious and minimally anaesthetized goats. The application of slaughter without stunning causes changes in the EEG activities that are consistent with the presence of post slaughter noxious sensory input associated with tissue damage and would be expected to be experienced as pain in goats. PMID:27317849

  1. Fatty acid profile of pig meat after probiotic administration.

    PubMed

    Ross, Gloria Romina; Van Nieuwenhove, Carina Paola; González, Silvia Nelina

    2012-06-13

    The aim of this work was to study the fatty acid profile of pig meat after probiotic administration. Thirty postweaned pigs (25 day old) were distributed into 2 groups: control (n = 15) and probiotic (n = 15). Each experimental group was fed ad libitum on a commercial diet for 35 days. Lactobacillus amylovorus and Enterococcus faecium mixed culture (10(8) CFU/ml)was daily orally delivered to the probiotic group. At the end of the assay, six pigs randomly selected from each group were slaughtered and muscle samples (Longissimus dorsi) were taken for fatty acid analysis. Tissues from the probiotic group animals exhibited an increase in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids; furthermore, linoleic acid (C18:2), linolenic acid (18:3), and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared to the control group. These results suggest probiotic administration could be useful to modify and improve the fatty acid profile of pig meat. PMID:22506842

  2. First report of genotype #65 of Toxoplasma gondii in pigs.

    PubMed

    Samico-Fernandes, Erika Fernanda Torres; de Melo, Renata Pimentel Bandeira; de Cássia Peixoto Kim, Pomy; de Almeida, Jonatas Campos; de Barros, Luiz Daniel; Garcia, João Luis; da Silva, Jean Carlos Ramos; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to isolate and genotype Toxoplasma gondii from pigs slaughtered for human consumption in northeastern Brazil. Indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) was used to screen positive pigs. Tissues samples of animals with antibody titers ≥64 were submitted to bioassay in mice. One isolate of T. gondii was obtained, and the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique, using 11 markers (SAG1, SAG2, altSAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c228, c292, L358, PK1, and APICO), was applied to evaluate the genetic variability. DNA from reference strains was used as a positive control. By means of genetic analysis, genotype ToxoDB #65 was identified, which is considered an atypical strain. This is the first record of genotype #65 in pigs. Thus, further studies in this region are necessary to determine the genetic variability of T. gondii in pigs and possible impact on public health. PMID:26268568

  3. Monitoring growth in finishers by weighing selected groups of pigs - A dynamic approach.

    PubMed

    Stygar, A H; Kristensen, A R

    2016-03-01

    Application of BW monitoring methods for the whole batch of pigs is not common in commercial herds. Instead, farm managers may regularly weigh a chosen subset of pigs (observed group) and use the obtained information for monitoring, forecasting, and decision support. The objective of this study was to construct a model for growth monitoring and forecasting in pig fattening herds and use the developed model framework to quantify the value of information on BW. The dynamic process of pig growing was described by means of a dynamic linear model (DLM) with Kalman filtering. For this study, data from 9 fattening cycles with the total registration for 9,800 pigs were used. The variance components were estimated by fitting a mixed-effects linear model on selected BW measurements. The obtained model was evaluated on its performance in forecasting the number of pigs ready to deliver from the whole batch and from a particular pen given the level of information on a reference data set consisting of 2 batches (Batch 3 [B1] and Batch 4 [B2]). Scenarios with a different frequency of observations (only 1 selected week, every second week, or weekly) on individual and aggregated levels for an observed group comprising 1 pen (36 pigs, which constitute 7.5% of pigs in a batch) or 2 pens (15.5% of pigs) were analyzed. Moreover, results with only initial herd information and insertion BW at the batch, pen, and pig level were presented. The model can be used for growth monitoring of the batch and for prediction of the number of pigs ready for slaughter in a given week (i.e., with a BW exceeding a threshold, which, in this study, is set to 105 kg). With an increased level of information, both accuracy (measured by the mean absolute deviation [MAD] of actual number of pigs above 105 kg from predicted number) and precision (measured by CV) of the model continue to improve. When monitoring all pigs at insertion and the observed groups every week (15.5% of pigs) compared with predictions

  4. Can the monitoring of animal welfare parameters predict pork meat quality variation through the supply chain (from farm to slaughter)?

    PubMed

    Rocha, L M; Velarde, A; Dalmau, A; Saucier, L; Faucitano, L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between the animal welfare conditions evaluated through the supply chain and pork quality variation. A total of 4,680 pigs from 12 farms-5 animal welfare improved raising system (AWIRS) and 7 conventional raising system (CON) farms-were assessed from farm to slaughter through a comprehensive audit protocol merging the European Welfare Quality, the Canadian Animal Care Assessment, and American Meat Institute audit guide criteria. At the abattoir, a subsample of 1,440 pigs (120 pigs/farm) was randomly chosen out of 24 loads (2 farms per wk) transported by 2 drivers (driver A and driver B) for the assessment of stunning effectiveness, carcass bruises, blood lactate levels, and meat quality traits. Meat quality was assessed in the longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle 24 h postmortem by measuring ultimate pH (pHu), color (L*, a*, and b*), and drip loss. Data were analyzed by the MIXED, GLIMMIX, and NAPAR1WAY procedures of SAS. Spearman correlations were calculated to determine the relationship between audit scores and meat quality traits. Better animal welfare conditions, as showed by greater final scores for good housing (GHo; = 0.001) and good health ( = 0.006) principles, were recorded at AWIRS farms. Pigs from AWIRS farms handled by driver B displayed a greater percentage of turning back ( = 0.01) and slips ( < 0.001) during unloading and a greater ( = 0.02) frequency of falls in the stunning chute. A greater ( = 0.02) reluctance to move at loading was found in CON pigs loaded by driver A compared with driver B, whereas a greater ( < 0.001) reluctance to move was found in these pigs at unloading when they were unloaded by driver B. Drip loss was higher ( = 0.003) and pale, soft, and exudative pork percentage was greater ( < 0.001) in the LL muscle of the heavier AWIRS pigs. The GHO principle was best correlated with pHu ( = -0.75, = 0.01) and Minolta L* value ( = 0.87, < 0.001) of the LL muscle. Overall, drip

  5. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Forkman, Björn; Johansen, Maria V

    2016-04-15

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community, it is in fact believed that pigs with NCC rarely show neurological signs. The aim of this study was to describe clinical manifestations associated with NCC in pigs and correlate the manifestations to the number and distribution of cysticerci in brains of naturally infected pigs in Tanzania. Sixteen infected and 15 non-infected control pigs were observed for 14 days during daylight hours, and subsequently videotaped for another 14 consecutive days using close circuit television cameras. All occurrences of abnormal behaviour (trembling, twitching, mouth and ear paralysis, ataxia, dribbling, salivating, eye blinking, walking in circles) were recorded. At the end of the recording period, pigs were slaughtered and their brains dissected, cysticerci counted and locations noted. During the recording period, two infected pigs were observed having seizures. Some of the observed autonomic signs during a seizure were chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle function leading to collapse of the animal. Stereotypic walking in circles was observed on several occasions. At dissection, both pigs had a high number of brain cysticerci (241 and 247 cysticerci). The two pigs with seizures were also older (36 months) compared to the others (18.3 months, ± 8.2 standard deviation). Results of this study have shown that pigs with NCC can develop clinical signs and suffer from seizures like humans with symptomatic NCC. Results of this study could potentially open up a new experimental pathway to explore the aetiology of neurological symptoms in humans with NCC associated epilepsy. PMID:26995723

  6. Severe seizures in pigs naturally infected with Taenia solium in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Trevisan, Chiara; Mkupasi, Ernatus M; Ngowi, Helena A; Forkman, Björn; Johansen, Maria V

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) caused by Taenia solium is a serious neurological disease. In humans neurological symptoms have been thoroughly studied and documented, however, there is limited information on clinical signs in pigs infected with T. solium cysticerci. Among the scientific community, it is in fact believed that pigs with NCC rarely show neurological signs. The aim of this study was to describe clinical manifestations associated with NCC in pigs and correlate the manifestations to the number and distribution of cysticerci in brains of naturally infected pigs in Tanzania. Sixteen infected and 15 non-infected control pigs were observed for 14 days during daylight hours, and subsequently videotaped for another 14 consecutive days using close circuit television cameras. All occurrences of abnormal behaviour (trembling, twitching, mouth and ear paralysis, ataxia, dribbling, salivating, eye blinking, walking in circles) were recorded. At the end of the recording period, pigs were slaughtered and their brains dissected, cysticerci counted and locations noted. During the recording period, two infected pigs were observed having seizures. Some of the observed autonomic signs during a seizure were chewing motions with foamy salivation and ear stiffening. Motor signs included tonic muscle contractions followed by a sudden diminution in all muscle function leading to collapse of the animal. Stereotypic walking in circles was observed on several occasions. At dissection, both pigs had a high number of brain cysticerci (241 and 247 cysticerci). The two pigs with seizures were also older (36 months) compared to the others (18.3 months, ± 8.2 standard deviation). Results of this study have shown that pigs with NCC can develop clinical signs and suffer from seizures like humans with symptomatic NCC. Results of this study could potentially open up a new experimental pathway to explore the aetiology of neurological symptoms in humans with NCC associated epilepsy. PMID:26995723

  7. Prevalence of hydatid cysts in slaughtered animals in Sirte, Libya.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Hamed H; Abdel-Kader, Abdel-Kader M; Nass, Sedigh Ahmed

    2013-04-01

    The prevalence of cystic echinococcosis was studied among the livestock slaughtered in abattoir of Sirte, Libya during the period July 2004 to May 2005. The overall infection rate of 4.9% in sheep, 2.4% in goats, 2.7% in camels and 15% in cattle were observed. The increase in prevalence with age of the animals was statistically significant in the four species. In female goats, examined infection was higher in the male. Liver had higher hydatid cysts than lungs in sheep, goat while infected lungs had higher in camel. PMID:23697014

  8. Hormonal and metabolic responses to the stress of transport and slaughterhouse procedures in clenbuterol-fed pigs.

    PubMed

    Baldi, A; Bontempo, V; Cheli, F; Corino, C; Polidori, F

    1994-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if metabolic and endocrine adaptive responses to stressful stimuli are influenced by clenbuterol treatment in pigs. Two groups of nine Goland barrows of 167 kg liveweight, fed diets containing 0 (control) or 1 ppm of clenbuterol (clenbuterol-treated) for 40 days, were used. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture the day before (day 40) and at slaughter (day 41). On day 40 clenbuterol-treated pigs had lower levels of thyroxin, tri-iodothyronine, insulin, urea and higher levels of lactate and creatine phosphokinase activity. On day 41, thyroxin concentration was lower and creatine phosphokinase activity higher in clenbuterol-treated pigs than in controls. In response to transport and slaughterhouse procedures, most of the parameters considered both in clenbuterol-treated and in control pigs increased. PMID:7941835

  9. Determination and depletion of residues of carbadox, tylosin, and virginiamycin in kidney, liver, and muscle of pigs in feeding experiments.

    PubMed

    Lauridsen, M G; Lund, C; Jacobsen, M

    1988-01-01

    The results of residue determinations of the growth promotors carbadox, tylosin, and virginiamycin in kidney, liver, and muscle from pigs in feeding experiments are described as well as the analytical methods used. Residues of the carbadox metabolite quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid were found in liver from pigs fed 20 mg/kg in the diet with a withdrawal time of 30 days. No residues were detected in muscle with zero withdrawal time. The limit of determination was 0.01 mg/kg for both tissues. No residues of virginiamycin and tylosin were found in pigs fed 50 and 40 mg/kg, respectively, in the diet, even with zero withdrawal time. Residues of tylosin of 0.06 mg/kg and below were detected in liver and kidney from pigs fed 200 or 400 mg/kg and slaughtered within 3 h after the last feeding. PMID:3148611

  10. Effects of scalding and dehairing of pig carcasses at abattoirs on the visibility of welfare-related lesions.

    PubMed

    Carroll, G A; Boyle, L A; Teixeira, D L; van Staaveren, N; Hanlon, A; O'Connell, N E

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing interest in developing abattoir-based measures to assist in determining the welfare status of pigs. The primary aim of this study was to determine the most appropriate place on the slaughter line to conduct assessments of welfare-related lesions, namely apparent aggression-related skin lesions (hereafter referred to as 'skin lesions'), loin bruising and apparent tail biting damage. The study also lent itself to an assessment of the prevalence of these lesions, and the extent to which they were linked with production variables. Finishing pigs processed at two abattoirs on the Island of Ireland (n=1950 in abattoir A, and n=1939 in abattoir B) were used. Data were collected over 6 days in each abattoir in July 2014. Lesion scoring took place at two points on the slaughter line: (1) at exsanguination (slaughter stage 1 (SS1)), and (2) following scalding and dehairing of carcasses (slaughter stage 2 (SS2)). At both points, each carcass was assigned a skin and tail lesion score ranging from 0 (lesion absent) to 3 or 4 (severe lesions), respectively. Loin bruising was recorded as present or absent. Differences in the percentage of pigs with observable lesions of each type were compared between SS1 and SS2 using McNemar/McNemar-Bowker tests. The associations between each lesion type, and both cold carcass weight and condemnations, were examined at batch level using Pearson's correlations. Batch was defined as the group of animals with a particular farm identification code on a given day. The overall percentage of pigs with a visible skin lesion (i.e. score>0) decreased between SS1 and SS2 (P<0.001). However, the percentage of pigs with a severe skin lesion increased numerically from SS1 to SS2. The percentage of pigs with a visible tail lesion and with loin bruising also increased between SS1 and SS2 (P<0.001). There was a positive correlation between the percentage of carcasses that were partially condemned, and the percentage of pigs with skin lesions

  11. Cleaning pipelines: a pigging primer

    SciTech Connect

    Kipin, P.

    1985-02-04

    The ''pig'', a cleaning device currently used to clear out pipes, is discussed here. Types of pigs are described and include styrofoam, rubber, and soft foam. The limitations to the use of pigs are discussed. Unless all valves are fully open, a pig can get stuck. Ball-type tees may cause a short pig to drop and bypass. Generally, no pig is able to traverse a one-cut miter.

  12. Subjectless Sentences in Child Danish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Cornelia; Plunkett, Kim

    1998-01-01

    Examined data for two Danish children to determine subject omission, verb usage, and sentence subjects. Found that children exhibit asymmetry in subject omission according to verb type as subjects are omitted from main verb utterances more frequently than from copula utterances. Concluded that treatment of child subject omission should involve…

  13. Nature and Nationhood: Danish Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnack, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I shall discuss Danish perspectives on nature, showing the interdependence of conceptions of "nature" and "nationhood" in the formations of a particular cultural community. Nature, thus construed, is never innocent of culture and cannot therefore simply be "restored" to some pristine, pre-lapsarian state. On the other hand,…

  14. Simultaneous occurrence of Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp. and Yersinia enterocolitica along the pork production chain from farm to meat processing in five conventional fattening pig herds in Lower Saxony.

    PubMed

    Niemann, Jana-Kristin; Alter, Thomas; Gölz, Greta; Tietze, Erhard; Fruth, Angelika; Rabsch, Wolfgang; von Münchhausen, Christiane; Merle, Roswitha; Kreienbrock, Lothar

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to gather data on the occurrence of Salmonella (S.) enterica, Campylobacter spp. and Yersinia (Y.) enterocolitica along the pork production chain and to further analyze detected Salmonella isolates by additionally applying MLVA (multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis). In total, 336 samples were collected at primary production, slaughter and meat processing from five conventional fattening pig farms and one common slaughterhouse. At farm level, S. enterica, Campylobacter spp. and Y. enterocolitica were detected in 19.4%, 38.9% and 11.1% of pooled fecal samples of fattening pigs. At slaughter, more than two-thirds of examined carcasses, 24% of carcass surfaces samples and about 60% of cecal content samples were positive for at least one of the examined pathogens. An amount of 4% of meat samples were positive for non-human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica. Identical MLVA patterns of Salmonella isolates from farm- and associated slaughterhouse samples demonstrated transmission across both production stages. Other MLVA patterns found at slaughter indicated possible colonization of pigs during transport or lairage and/or cross-contamination during slaughter. Identical MLVA patterns from risk tissues and the nearby carcass surface evidenced a direct contamination of carcasses as well. Overall, our data showed wide distribution ranges for all three examined pathogens within the pig production chain and underline the need for appropriate intervention strategies at pre- and postharvest. PMID:27529991

  15. Detection and isolation of digital dermatitis treponemes from skin and tail lesions in pigs.

    PubMed

    Clegg, Simon R; Sullivan, Leigh E; Bell, Jennifer; Blowey, Roger W; Carter, Stuart D; Evans, Nicholas J

    2016-02-01

    Pig skin lesions are common significant welfare issues, and can cause large economic losses, due to culling of severely affected animals or carcass condemnation at slaughter. It was considered that the treponemal bacteria associated with digital dermatitis (DD) lesions in cattle, sheep and goats may have a role in these pig lesions. Specific diagnostic PCR assays for three cultivable DD Treponema phylogroups were used to survey relevant porcine lesion samples. Using these assays, DD treponemes were detected in 88% (22/25), 72% (8/11) and 82% (14/17) of tail, ear and flank lesions, respectively. Mouth swabs from animals kept in enclosures with high prevalence of skin lesions were positive for the DD treponemes, but not in enclosures with low lesion prevalence. Culture of treponemes from skin lesions resulted in pure isolates of all three DD-associated phylogroups. This study shows a strong association of DD treponemes with a range of pig skin lesions. PMID:26850539

  16. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs in Jilin Province, Northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Xu, P; Cai, Y N; Leng, X; Wang, J; Ma, W; Mu, G D; Jiang, J; Liu, X Y; Wang, Z D; Zhao, Q; Yang, G L

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, a total of 1,235 porcine serum samples were collected from 9 counties in Jilin Province (40°52'~46°18'N,121°38'~131°19'E), northeastern China from August to October 2013, and the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection was tested by indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA). The results showed that antibodies to T. gondii were found in 19.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.9% to 21.3%), with higher seroprevalence in the breeding boars (28.6%, 95% CI, 20.0% to 37.2%), and breeding sows (32.0%, 95% CI, 25.2% to 38.9%). No significant difference was found among the slaughter pigs, fattening pigs and the piglets. These results indicated that infection with T. gondii in pigs is widespread in Jilin province, and is of public health concern. PMID:25801260

  17. Topographic distribution of gastritis in heavy pigs investigated by a geographic information system approach.

    PubMed

    Pascotto, Ernesto; Capraro, Diego; Tomè, Paolo; Spanghero, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine the topographic distribution of gastritis lesions in pigs through an open source geographic information system (GIS) software analysis. The stomachs of 146 Italian heavy pigs were collected at slaughter and subjected to macroscopic pathological examination of the internal mucosa. A total of 623 lesions were either classified as hyperplastic or follicular (97%) with the remaining minority of lesions categorised as atrophic and simple. The hyperplastic gastritis lesions had an average surface of 77.8 cm2 and were mainly located in an oval shaped area of the fundus region of the stomach near the Curvatura ventriculi major. The follicular gastritis lesions had generally a smaller surface (40.3 cm2) and were concentrated in two distinct small areas of the pyloric region. The GIS analysis provided the opportunity to produce useful maps showing the distribution and characteristics of gastritis in pigs. PMID:27245806

  18. Impact of dietary betaine and conjugated linoleic acid on insulin sensitivity, protein and fat metabolism of obese pigs.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fígares, I; Lachica, M; Martín, A; Nieto, R; González-Valero, L; Rodríguez-López, J M; Aguilera, J F

    2012-07-01

    To determine possible mechanisms of action that might explain the nutrient partitioning effect of betaine and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in Iberian pigs and to address potential adverse effects, twenty gilts were restrictively fed from 20 to 50 kg BW Control, 0.5% betaine, 1% CLA or 0.5% betaine + 1% CLA diets. Serum hormones and metabolites profile were determined at 30 kg BW and an oral glucose test was performed before slaughter. Pigs were slaughtered at 50 kg BW and livers were obtained for chemical and histological analysis. Decreased serum urea in pigs fed betaine and betaine + CLA diets (11%; P = 0.0001) indicated a more efficient N utilization. The increase in serum triacylglycerol (58% and 28%, respectively; P = 0.0098) indicated that CLA and betaine + CLA could have reduced adipose tissue triacylglycerol synthesis from preformed fatty acids. Serum glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids were unaffected. CLA and betaine + CLA altered serum lipids profile, although liver of pigs fed CLA diet presented no histopathological changes and triglyceride content was not different from Control pigs. Compared with controls, serum growth hormone decreased (20% to 23%; P = 0.0209) for all treatments. Although serum insulin increased in CLA, and especially in betaine + CLA pigs (28% and 83%; P = 0.0001), indices of insulin resistance were unaffected. In conclusion, CLA, and especially betaine + CLA, induced changes in biochemical parameters and hormones that may partially explain a nutrient partitioning effect in young pigs. Nevertheless, they exhibited weak, although detrimental, effects on blood lipids. Moreover, although livers were chemically and histologically normal, pigs fed CLA diet challenged with a glucose load had higher serum glucose than controls. PMID:23031465

  19. Comparison of different commercial serological tests for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in serum of naturally exposed pigs.

    PubMed

    Steinparzer, R; Reisp, K; Grünberger, B; Köfer, J; Schmoll, F; Sattler, T

    2015-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the aetiological agent of the zoonotic disease toxoplasmosis and transmitted among other ways by chemically and physically untreated, that is, raw pork to humans. The detection of Toxoplasma gondii is impossible by currently practiced meat inspection, but serological tests can be used to detect Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in pig herds and can consequently be helpful to identify potentially contaminated pork. Therefore, appropriate serological tests are required. In this study, serum samples of 1368 naturally exposed slaughter pigs from 73 Austrian farms were collected. Serum samples of at least 16 slaughter pigs per farm were tested. The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in serum was measured by a commercial available modified agglutination test (MAT) and compared to three different commercial available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). The MAT detected 6.5%, ELISA I 6.7%, ELISA II 4.8% and ELISA III 4.3% of the pigs as Toxoplasma gondii antibody positive. The agreement, according to the kappa coefficient (κ), was substantial between the MAT and ELISA I (κ = 0.62), II (κ = 0.64) and III (κ = 0.67). A better agreement was determined between ELISA I and II (κ = 0.715), ELISA I and III (κ = 0.747) and ELISA II and III (κ = 0.865). At least one pig per farm was detected Toxoplasma gondii antibody positive in 17 (23.3%) farms by the MAT, 26 (35.6%) farms by ELISA I, 16 (21.9%) farms by ELISA II and 11 (15.1%) farms by ELISA III. Pig farms with a high number of Toxoplasma gondii antibody-positive pigs or high antibody titres were identified by all of the four used serological tests. Concerning the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in Austrian pig farms, a monitoring and surveillance programme would be reasonable to find high-risk farms. PMID:24730695

  20. Developing control points for halal slaughtering of poultry.

    PubMed

    Shahdan, I A; Regenstein, J M; Shahabuddin, A S M; Rahman, M T

    2016-07-01

    Halal (permissible or lawful) poultry meat production must meet industry, economic, and production needs, and government health requirements without compromising the Islamic religious requirements derived from the Qur'an and the Hadiths (the actions and sayings of the Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him). Halal certification authorities may vary in their interpretation of these teachings, which leads to differences in halal slaughter requirements. The current study proposes 6 control points (CP) for halal poultry meat production based on the most commonly used halal production systems. CP 1 describes what is allowed and prohibited, such as blood and animal manure, and feed ingredients for halal poultry meat production. CP 2 describes the requirements for humane handling during lairage. CP 3 describes different methods for immobilizing poultry, when immobilization is used, such as water bath stunning. CP 4 describes the importance of intention, details of the halal slaughter, and the equipment permitted. CP 5 and CP 6 describe the requirements after the neck cut has been made such as the time needed before the carcasses can enter the scalding tank, and the potential for meat adulteration with fecal residues and blood. It is important to note that the proposed halal CP program is presented as a starting point for any individual halal certifying body to improve its practices. PMID:26994198

  1. 9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... PLAN FOR COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. Participating meat-type chicken...

  2. 9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... PLAN FOR COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. Participating meat-type chicken...

  3. 9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... PLAN FOR COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. Participating meat-type chicken...

  4. 9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... PLAN FOR COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. Participating meat-type chicken...

  5. 9 CFR 146.33 - Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Terminology and classification; meat... PLAN FOR COMMERCIAL POULTRY Special Provisions for Meat-Type Chicken Slaughter Plants § 146.33 Terminology and classification; meat-type chicken slaughter plants. Participating meat-type chicken...

  6. 9 CFR 313.30 - Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... with electric current. 313.30 Section 313.30 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current. The slaughtering of swine, sheep, calves, cattle, and goats with the use of electric current and the handling in connection therewith, in...

  7. 9 CFR 313.30 - Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... with electric current. 313.30 Section 313.30 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current. The slaughtering of swine, sheep, calves, cattle, and goats with the use of electric current and the handling in connection therewith, in...

  8. 9 CFR 313.30 - Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... with electric current. 313.30 Section 313.30 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current. The slaughtering of swine, sheep, calves, cattle, and goats with the use of electric current and the handling in connection therewith, in...

  9. 9 CFR 313.30 - Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... with electric current. 313.30 Section 313.30 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current. The slaughtering of swine, sheep, calves, cattle, and goats with the use of electric current and the handling in connection therewith, in...

  10. 9 CFR 313.30 - Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... with electric current. 313.30 Section 313.30 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current. The slaughtering of swine, sheep, calves, cattle, and goats with the use of electric current and the handling in connection therewith, in...

  11. Defeathering of broiler carcasses subjected to delayed scalding 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours after slaughter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With implementation of farm slaughter, scalding and defeathering could be delayed for a minimum of 2 to 4 h. This research evaluated the potential for delaying scalding and defeathering up to 8 h after slaughter. Following 12 h feed withdrawal broilers were cooped and transported to the pilot plan...

  12. 9 CFR 311.27 - Injured animals slaughtered at unusual hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Injured animals slaughtered at unusual hours. 311.27 Section 311.27 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... slaughter an injured animal at night or on Sunday or a holiday when the inspector cannot be obtained,...

  13. 9 CFR 311.27 - Injured animals slaughtered at unusual hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Injured animals slaughtered at unusual hours. 311.27 Section 311.27 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... slaughter an injured animal at night or on Sunday or a holiday when the inspector cannot be obtained,...

  14. 9 CFR 311.27 - Injured animals slaughtered at unusual hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Injured animals slaughtered at unusual hours. 311.27 Section 311.27 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... slaughter an injured animal at night or on Sunday or a holiday when the inspector cannot be obtained,...

  15. 9 CFR 311.27 - Injured animals slaughtered at unusual hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Injured animals slaughtered at unusual hours. 311.27 Section 311.27 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... slaughter an injured animal at night or on Sunday or a holiday when the inspector cannot be obtained,...

  16. 9 CFR 93.518 - Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Swine from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.518 Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter. Swine imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  17. 9 CFR 93.518 - Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Swine from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.518 Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter. Swine imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  18. 9 CFR 93.518 - Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Swine from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.518 Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter. Swine imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  19. 9 CFR 93.518 - Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Swine from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.518 Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter. Swine imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  20. 9 CFR 93.518 - Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Swine from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine Canada 7 § 93.518 Swine from Canada for immediate slaughter. Swine imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  1. 9 CFR 311.27 - Injured animals slaughtered at unusual hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Injured animals slaughtered at unusual hours. 311.27 Section 311.27 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... PARTS § 311.27 Injured animals slaughtered at unusual hours. When it is necessary for humane reasons...

  2. 9 CFR 146.4 - General provisions for all participating flocks and slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General provisions for all participating flocks and slaughter plants. 146.4 Section 146.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... classification may include in their advertising reference to associated or franchised slaughter or...

  3. 75 FR 29308 - Availability of Compliance Guide for Mobile Slaughter Units

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ...The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is announcing the availability of a compliance guide on mobile slaughter units. FSIS will post this compliance guide on its Significant Guidance Documents Web page http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Significant_Guidance/index.asp. FSIS encourages those who own or manage mobile slaughter units to avail themselves of this guidance document in meeting the......

  4. 9 CFR 93.316 - Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. Horses imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  5. 9 CFR 93.316 - Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. Horses imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  6. 9 CFR 93.316 - Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. Horses imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  7. 9 CFR 93.316 - Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. Horses imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  8. 9 CFR 93.316 - Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Horses from Canada for immediate...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Canada 16 § 93.316 Horses from Canada for immediate slaughter. Horses imported from Canada for immediate slaughter shall be consigned from the port...

  9. Divergent selection for residual feed intake affects the transcriptomic and proteomic profiles of pig skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Vincent, A; Louveau, I; Gondret, F; Tréfeu, C; Gilbert, H; Lefaucheur, L

    2015-06-01

    Improving feed efficiency is a relevant strategy to reduce feed cost and environmental waste in livestock production. Selection experiments on residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, previously indicated that low RFI was associated with lower feed intake, similar growth rate, and greater lean meat content compared with high RFI. To gain insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences, 24 Large White females from 2 lines divergently selected for RFI were examined. Pigs from a low-RFI ("efficient") and high-RFI ("inefficient") line were individually fed ad libitum from 67 d of age (27 kg BW) to slaughter at 115 kg BW (n = 8 per group). Additional pigs of the high-RFI line were feed restricted to the daily feed intake of the ad libitum low-RFI pigs (n = 8) to investigate the impact of selection independently of feed intake. Global gene and protein expression profiles were assessed in the LM collected at slaughter. The analyses involved a porcine commercial microarray and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. About 1,000 probes were differentially expressed (P < 0.01) between RFI lines. Only 10% of those probes were also affected by feed restriction. Gene functional classification indicated a greater expression of genes involved in protein synthesis and a lower expression of genes associated with mitochondrial energy metabolism in the low-RFI pigs compared with the high-RFI pigs. At the protein level, 11 unique identified proteins exhibited a differential abundance (P < 0.05) between RFI lines. Differentially expressed proteins were generally not significantly affected by feed restriction. Mitochondrial oxidative proteins such as aconitase hydratase, ATP synthase subunit α, and creatine kinase S-type had a lower abundance in the low-RFI pigs, whereas fructose-biphosphate aldolase A and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 2 proteins involved in glycolysis, had a greater abundance in those pigs compared with high-RFI pigs

  10. Pre-slaughter, slaughter and post-slaughter defects of skins and hides at the Sheba Tannery and Leather Industry, Tigray region, northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kahsay, Tesfay; Negash, Guesh; Hagos, Yohannes; Hadush, Birhanu

    2015-01-01

    Skins and hides are perishable resources that can be damaged by parasitic diseases and human error, which result in downgrading or rejection. This study was conducted to identify defect types and to determine their prevalence in pickled sheep and wet blue goat skins and wet blue hides. Each selected skin or hide was examined for defects in natural light and the defects were graded according to established quality criteria in Ethiopian standard manuals. Major defects were captured by digital photography. The major pre-slaughter defects included scratches (64.2%), cockle (ekek) (32.8%), wounds or scars (12.6%), lesions from pox or lumpy skin disease (6.1%), poor substance (5%), branding marks (2.3%) and tick bites (1.5%). The presence of grain scratches in wet blue hides (76.3%) was significantly higher than in pickled sheep (67.2%) and wet blue goat (59.1%) skins. The major slaughter defects included flay cuts or scores, holes, poor pattern and vein marks, with a higher occurrence in wet blue goat skins (28.7%; P < 0.001) than in wet blue hides (22.8%) and pickled sheep skins (11.1%). The most prevalent postslaughter defects were grain cracks (14.9%), hide beetle damage (8%), damage caused by heat or putrefaction (3.7%) and machine-induced defects (0.5%). Grain cracks (27.04%) and hide beetle damage (13.9%) in wet blue goat skins were significantly more common than in wet blue hides and pickled sheep skins. These defects cause depreciation in the value of the hides and skins. Statistically significant (P < 0.001) higher rejection rates were recorded for wet blue hides (82.9%) than for pickled sheep skins (18.3%) and wet blue goat skins (8.5%). Improved animal health service delivery, effective disease control strategies and strong collaboration between stakeholders are suggested to enhance the quality of skins and hides. PMID:26304167

  11. Pig in the Middle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Sophie

    2000-01-01

    Explores themes relating to human transition as they appear in "Charlotte's Web" and four other stories using pigs as a subject. Discusses the motifs common to all these texts that recur in the film "Babe." Considers how the cycle of life and death is ceaseless, and pigs symbolize the necessary transitions that people must all make. (NH)

  12. The marketing of cysticercotic pigs in the Sierra of Peru. The Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru.

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    In Peru pork supplied through regulated slaughterhouses is primarily restricted to the large cities on the coast. Approximately 65% of the pork consumed in the country is obtained through informal channels that are not inspected or supervised. The pathways via which pigs are commercialized were studied in Huancayo, a city in the Peruvian Sierra where cysticercosis is endemic. Official purchase, slaughter, and market records were reviewed. Also, direct surveys and participant observation were carried out at two local live pig markets and at two informal meat markets. Pigs were not processed in local slaughterhouses; instead, they were butchered informally. The proportion of cysticercotic pigs detected by tongue examination ranged from 14% to 25% of the total sold. Since cysticercotic pigs and pork are sold through informal markets, surveys of abattoirs and meat markets are not a reliable way to monitor the prevalence of porcine cysticercosis in Peru. We estimate that 48% of the pork traded informally and 23% of the total pork consumed in Huancayo is derived from pigs that are infected with cysticercosis. PMID:8490986

  13. Evaluation of feet and skeletons of limbs from pigs treated with a repartitioning agent, cimaterol.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, M A; Dalrymple, R H

    1987-01-01

    Recently, beta-adrenergic agents, which repartition muscle and fat, have been used to develop more muscular carcasses in broilers, steers, lambs, and pigs. Cimaterol, one such repartitioning agent, effectively improves carcass quality in pigs. Since the mode of action of repartitioning agents is uncertain, and because they may indirectly affect skeletal development or the integrity of feet, the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of cimaterol on selected growth cartilages and feet. Pigs were randomly placed in four groups and fed a ration that included Cimaterol at 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, or 1.00 mg/kg. At 100 kg live-weight, pigs were slaughtered and selected growth cartilages, bones, and feet were examined macroscopically, radiologically, and microscopically. Although the majority of pigs had lesions in feet, or had dyschondroplastic changes typical of osteochondrosis in many growth cartilages, particularly physes, there were no significant differences in frequency of pigs with lesions between groups. Cimaterol enhanced carcass quality with no detrimental effect on bones or feet. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4a. Fig. 4b. Fig. 4c. Fig. 4d. PMID:2886205

  14. Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli from Pigs in Organic and Conventional Farming in Four European Countries.

    PubMed

    Österberg, Julia; Wingstrand, Anne; Nygaard Jensen, Annette; Kerouanton, Annaelle; Cibin, Veronica; Barco, Lisa; Denis, Martine; Aabo, Sören; Bengtsson, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Organic pig production differs in many ways from conventional production of pigs, e.g., in antibiotic use, herd structure, feeding regimes, access to outdoor areas and space allowance per pig. This study investigated if these differences result in a lower occurrence of antibiotic resistance in organic slaughter pigs in Denmark, France, Italy and Sweden. Samples were taken from the colon content and/or faeces and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of ten antibiotics were determined in isolates of Escherichia coli. In addition, the proportion of tetracycline (TET) resistant E. coli in colon content and/or faeces from individual pigs was determined. In all four countries the percentage resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides or trimethoprim was significantly lower in E. coli from organic pigs. In France and Italy, the percentage of isolates resistant to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid or gentamicin was also significantly lower in the E. coli from organic pigs. Resistance to cefotaxime, was not found in any country. The percentage of E. coli isolates resistant to TET as well as the proportion of TET-resistant E. coli was significantly lower in organic than in conventional pigs, except in Sweden where TET-resistance was equally low in both production types. There were also differences between countries within production type in the percentage resistance to individual antibiotics as well as the proportion of TET-resistant E. coli with lower median proportions in Sweden and Denmark compared to France and Italy. The study shows that in each of the four countries resistance in intestinal E. coli was less common in organic than in conventional pigs, but that there were also large differences in resistance between countries within each production type, indicating that both country- and production-specific factors influence the occurrence of resistance. PMID:27362262

  15. Antibiotic Resistance in Escherichia coli from Pigs in Organic and Conventional Farming in Four European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard Jensen, Annette; Kerouanton, Annaelle; Cibin, Veronica; Barco, Lisa; Denis, Martine; Aabo, Sören

    2016-01-01

    Organic pig production differs in many ways from conventional production of pigs, e.g., in antibiotic use, herd structure, feeding regimes, access to outdoor areas and space allowance per pig. This study investigated if these differences result in a lower occurrence of antibiotic resistance in organic slaughter pigs in Denmark, France, Italy and Sweden. Samples were taken from the colon content and/or faeces and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of ten antibiotics were determined in isolates of Escherichia coli. In addition, the proportion of tetracycline (TET) resistant E. coli in colon content and/or faeces from individual pigs was determined. In all four countries the percentage resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulphonamides or trimethoprim was significantly lower in E. coli from organic pigs. In France and Italy, the percentage of isolates resistant to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid or gentamicin was also significantly lower in the E. coli from organic pigs. Resistance to cefotaxime, was not found in any country. The percentage of E. coli isolates resistant to TET as well as the proportion of TET-resistant E. coli was significantly lower in organic than in conventional pigs, except in Sweden where TET-resistance was equally low in both production types. There were also differences between countries within production type in the percentage resistance to individual antibiotics as well as the proportion of TET-resistant E. coli with lower median proportions in Sweden and Denmark compared to France and Italy. The study shows that in each of the four countries resistance in intestinal E. coli was less common in organic than in conventional pigs, but that there were also large differences in resistance between countries within each production type, indicating that both country- and production-specific factors influence the occurrence of resistance. PMID:27362262

  16. Cysticercosis in the pig.

    PubMed

    de Aluja, A S

    2008-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is still an important parasitosis in rural pigs in many developing countries, México among them. The main causes for the persistence of this condition are lack of hygiene in the rural communities, lack of education of the animal owners, lack of control in the trade of pigs and their meat and lack of conscientious meat inspection. The pig production systems in the marginated areas of Mexico are briefly mentioned and it is stressed that among the important reasons for the persistence of the reproductive cycle of Taenia solium is the fact that appropriate toilet facilities in village dwellings are not mandatory. The diagnostic methods of cysticercosis in the living pigs and in their meat are discussed and the degenerative stages of the larvae as well as methods to test their viability are explained. The treatment of infected pigs and their meat is discussed. Recommendations for control programmes are given. PMID:18393899

  17. Tail biting in pigs.

    PubMed

    Schrøder-Petersen, D L; Simonsen, H B

    2001-11-01

    One of the costly and welfare-reducing problems in modern pig production is tail biting. Tail biting is an abnormal behaviour, characterized by one pig's dental manipulation of another pig's tail. Tail biting can be classified into two groups: the pre-injury stage, before any wound on the tail is present, and the injury stage, where the tail is wounded and bleeding. Tail biting in the injury stage will reduce welfare of the bitten pig and the possible spread of infection is a health as well as welfare problem. The pigs that become tail biters may also suffer, because they are frustrated due to living in a stressful environment. This frustration may result in an excessive motivation for biting the tails of pen mates. This review aims to summarize recent research and theories in relation to tail biting. PMID:11681870

  18. Why are most EU pigs tail docked? Economic and ethical analysis of four pig housing and management scenarios in the light of EU legislation and animal welfare outcomes.

    PubMed

    D'Eath, R B; Niemi, J K; Vosough Ahmadi, B; Rutherford, K M D; Ison, S H; Turner, S P; Anker, H T; Jensen, T; Busch, M E; Jensen, K K; Lawrence, A B; Sandøe, P

    2016-04-01

    To limit tail biting incidence, most pig producers in Europe tail dock their piglets. This is despite EU Council Directive 2008/120/EC banning routine tail docking and allowing it only as a last resort. The paper aims to understand what it takes to fulfil the intentions of the Directive by examining economic results of four management and housing scenarios, and by discussing their consequences for animal welfare in the light of legal and ethical considerations. The four scenarios compared are: 'Standard Docked', a conventional housing scenario with tail docking meeting the recommendations for Danish production (0.7 m2/pig); 'Standard Undocked', which is the same as 'Standard Docked' but with no tail docking, 'Efficient Undocked' and 'Enhanced Undocked', which have increased solid floor area (0.9 and 1.0 m2/pig, respectively) provision of loose manipulable materials (100 and 200 g/straw per pig per day) and no tail docking. A decision tree model based on data from Danish and Finnish pig production suggests that Standard Docked provides the highest economic gross margin with the least tail biting. Given our assumptions, Enhanced Undocked is the least economic, although Efficient Undocked is better economically and both result in a lower incidence of tail biting than Standard Undocked but higher than Standard Docked. For a pig, being bitten is worse for welfare (repeated pain, risk of infections) than being docked, but to compare welfare consequences at a farm level means considering the number of affected pigs. Because of the high levels of biting in Standard Undocked, it has on average inferior welfare to Standard Docked, whereas the comparison of Standard Docked and Enhanced (or Efficient) Undocked is more difficult. In Enhanced (or Efficient) Undocked, more pigs than in Standard Docked suffer from being tail bitten, whereas all the pigs avoid the acute pain of docking endured by the pigs in Standard Docked. We illustrate and discuss this ethical balance using

  19. Feather retention force in broiler carcasses slaughtered and held up to 8 hours postmortem prior to scalding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One factor that could impact the feasibility of commercial on-farm slaughter of broilers is the time delay from on-farm slaughter to scalding and defeathering in the commercial plant that could be 4 h or more. This experiment evaluated feather retention force (FRF) in broilers that were slaughtered ...

  20. The influence of endoparasites on selected production parameters in pigs in various housing systems.

    PubMed

    Jankowska-Mąkosa, A; Knecht, D

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the level of lean meat content and daily gains of 400 fatteners infected by endoparasites and kept in two systems (shallow and deep litter). Slaughter evaluation of the pigs was conducted according to the EUROP carcass classification. In order to evaluate the average daily gains (g) during finishing period, body weights were investigated twice: at the beginning and at the end of the finishing period. The housing system affected the presence of Ascaris suum and Oesophagostomum spp. Infestation was found to be higher on shallow than on deep litter, and it significantly affected selected fattening and slaughter parameters of the fatteners. Infected animals were characterized by gains approximately 60 g lower than those of uninfected ones, while meatiness was higher in fatteners which were not infected at the end of the fattening period compared to animals with parasites (55.2% vs. 52.0%). PMID:25956635

  1. Pathophysiology of free-bullet slaughter of horses and ponies.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Troy J; Bedford, Elisabeth M; Chancellor, Natalie M; Limon, Georgina

    2015-10-01

    Forty-six equines were observed during routine commercial slaughter in an abattoir. The animals were shot once with a .22 calibre long rifle with hollow point rounds. Indicators of sensibility/insensibility were evaluated immediately after the shot (prior to exsanguination) and the resulting pathophysiology of free-bullet injury was assessed. All animals were rendered immediately insensible, with only one pony showing signs of a shallow depth of concussion, with an intermittently positive palpebral reflex but no other signs of brainstem function. All animals (100%) had some degree of damage to the structures of the brainstem or lobes of the cerebrums, while 41 (89%) had damage to the thalamus/hypothalamus. The bullet in one pony missed the brain but still caused mild damage to the thalamus, midbrain, pons and cerebellum, this animal had no signs of sensibility. The findings confirm that free-bullet shooting is an effective dispatch method for horses and ponies. PMID:26093383

  2. Natural trematode infestation in feral Nebrodi Black pigs: pathological investigations.

    PubMed

    Capucchio, Maria Teresa; Catalano, Deborah; Di Marco, Vincenzo; Russo, Miriam; Aronica, Vincenzo; Tomaselli, Amedeo; Lazzara, Alessandro; Amedeo, Stefano; Scaglione, Frine Eleonora; Dore, Bruno; Guarda, Franco

    2009-01-22

    Few studies describe the parasites of pigs bred in the wild state, although pigs are a known reservoir of trematode infestation. This article reports the results of a retrospective study carried out from January 2003 to June 2007 on 3021 Nebrodi Black male and female pigs, regularly slaughtered, aged between 8 months and 4 years. Fasciola hepatica and Dicrocoelium dendriticum flukes were detected in 143 (4.37%) of 3021 livers. The predominant histological features were multifocal to diffuse chronic hepatitis, with fibrosis and severely thickened walls of the bile ducts and chronic parietal, sometimes nodular inflammation. F. hepatica infestation was frequently associated with marked hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the submucosal glands. The study results confirm the important role swine play in the transmission of trematode infestations, indicate the prevalence of these parasites in the Nebrodi Park area, and draw attention to the need for a prophylaxis plan to prevent the spread of infestation to ruminants and humans living in the area. PMID:19038498

  3. First report of Brucella suis biovar 2 in a semi free-range pig farm, Italy.

    PubMed

    Barlozzari, Giulia; Franco, Alessia; Macrì, Gladia; Lorenzetti, Serena; Maggiori, Fabiana; Dottarelli, Samuele; Maurelli, Marina; Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Tittarelli, Manuela; Battisti, Antonio; Gamberale, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    This communication describes the isolation of Brucella suis (B. suis) biovar 2 in semi‑free‑range pigs located in the province of Rome, Italy. Sera of 28 pigs from a herd with reproductive problems were tested for brucellosis. Twenty-five sera (89%) were found positive to Rose Bengal Test (RBT), while 22 (79%) were positive to Complement Fixation Test (CFT). Two positive pigs were slaughtered, organs were collected and tested for the presence of bacteria. Brucella spp. was isolated from the spleens and the abdominal lymph nodes of the 2 subjects. The isolates were identified as B. suis biovar 2 by biochemical and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) tests. The frequent infringement in the fences of the premises and the birth of striped piglets provided evidence that sows mated with wild boar, the major reservoir of B. suis biovar 2. Conversely, the isolation of B. suis biovar 2 from spleens and lymphnodes of seropositive slaughtered animals only, as well as the constant negative results from all vaginal swabs and the abortion materials tested, raise doubts on the implication of B. suis biovar 2 in the infertility of the holding. PMID:26129667

  4. A Novel Immunochromatographic Test Applied to a Serological Survey of Japanese Encephalitis Virus on Pig Farms in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Go-Woon; Lee, Eun Ju; Lim, Eun-Joo; Sin, Kang Suk; Park, Woo Won; Jeon, Doo Young; Han, Myung Guk; Lee, Won-Ja; Choi, Woo-Young; Jeong, Young Eui

    2015-01-01

    Among vertebrate species, pigs are a major amplifying host of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and measuring their seroconversion is a reliable indicator of virus activity. Traditionally, the hemagglutination inhibition test has been used for serological testing in pigs; however, it has several limitations and, thus, a more efficient and reliable replacement test is required. In this study, we developed a new immunochromatographic test for detecting antibodies to JEV in pig serum within 15 min. Specifically, the domain III region of the JEV envelope protein was successfully expressed in soluble form and used for developing the immunochromatographic test. The test was then applied to the surveillance of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in Korea. We found that our immunochromatographic test had good sensitivity (84.8%) and specificity (97.7%) when compared with an immunofluorescence assay used as a reference test. During the surveillance of JE in Korea in 2012, the new immunochromatographic test was used to test the sera of 1,926 slaughtered pigs from eight provinces, and 228 pigs (11.8%) were found to be JEV-positive. Based on these results, we also produced an activity map of JEV, which marked the locations of pig farms in Korea that tested positive for the virus. Thus, the immunochromatographic test reported here provides a convenient and effective tool for real-time monitoring of JEV activity in pigs. PMID:25992769

  5. Varying dietary levels of wheat pollard and wheat bran in growing pigs: effect on growth and carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Mwesigwa, Robert; Mutetikka, David; Kabugo, Stephen; Kugonza, Donald Rugira

    2013-11-01

    To study the effect of increasing levels of wheat pollard as a replacement for wheat bran on growth and carcass characteristics of growing pigs, 64 crossbred (Landrace × Large white Yorkshire) pigs were fed with diets in which wheat pollard was added back to wheat bran in ratios of 15, 30, 45 and 60 %. The pigs were divided into groups of four, balanced for sex, ancestry and body weight. They were then allotted to the dietary treatments in a completely randomised design with four replications. The trial lasted 4 months and data were collected on feed intake and weight gain. A digestibility trial was carried out on eight male pigs per treatment during the growth period. At the end of the growth period, two pigs per replicate in each treatment (n = 32) were slaughtered for determination of carcass characteristics. There were significant differences in the rate of gain and efficiency of feed utilisation among treatments. Diet significantly affected weights of the liver, lungs and small intestine (P < 0.05). The availability of nutrients was not a limiting factor for the growing pigs and that substituting wheat bran by wheat pollard at 60 % improved the pig's average daily gain and feed efficiency. PMID:23846767

  6. Longitudinal study on transmission of MRSA CC398 within pig herds

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since the detection of MRSA CC398 in pigs in 2004, it has emerged in livestock worldwide. MRSA CC398 has been found in people in contact with livestock and thus has become a public health issue. Data from a large-scale longitudinal study in two Danish and four Dutch pig herds were used to quantify MRSA CC398 transmission rates within pig herds and to identify factors affecting transmission between pigs. Results Sows and their offspring were sampled at varying intervals during a production cycle. Overall MRSA prevalence of sows increased from 33% before farrowing to 77% before weaning. Overall MRSA prevalence of piglets was > 60% during the entire study period. The recurrent finding of MRSA in the majority of individuals indicates true colonization or might be the result of contamination. Transmission rates were estimated using a Susceptible-Infectious-Susceptible (SIS-)model, which resulted in values of the reproduction ratio (R0) varying from 0.24 to 8.08. Transmission rates were higher in pigs treated with tetracyclins and β-lactams compared to untreated pigs implying a selective advantage of MRSA CC398 when these antimicrobials are used. Furthermore, transmission rates were higher in pre-weaning pigs compared to post-weaning pigs which might be explained by an age-related susceptibility or the presence of the sow as a primary source of MRSA CC398. Finally, transmission rates increased with the relative increase of the infection pressure within the pen compared to the total infection pressure, implying that within-pen transmission is a more important route compared to between-pen transmission and transmission through environmental exposure. Conclusion Our results indicate that MRSA CC398 is able to spread and persist in pig herds, resulting in an endemic situation. Transmission rates are affected by the use of selective antimicrobials and by the age of pigs. PMID:22607475

  7. Production performance, carcass composition, and adipose tissue traits of heavy pigs: influence of breed and production system.

    PubMed

    Lebret, B; Dourmad, J Y; Mourot, J; Pollet, P Y; Gondret, F

    2014-08-01

    Both breed and production systems are responsible for production efficiency and quality traits of pork. Effects of breed and production system within breed on growth, body fatness, and adipose tissues traits were assessed in the pure Basque (B, nonselected, local French) and conventional Large White (LW) breeds, reared either in a conventional (C, slatted floor), alternative (A, indoor straw bedding and outdoor area), or extensive (E, free range) system. A total of 100 castrated males were produced in 2 replicates, each involving 50 pigs distributed in 5 treatments based on breed and production system (i.e., BC, BA, BE, LWC, and LWA [10 pigs/group and per replicate]). From 35 kg BW to slaughter at around 145 kg BW, the BC, BA, LWC, and LWA pigs received the same growing and finishing diets, whereas the BE pigs had free access to the natural resources of the E pen and received a standard growing-finishing diet at restricted allowance according to the farming practices of the B pork chain. The B pigs had lower (P < 0.001) ADG and G:F than the LW pigs and were much older (P < 0.001) at slaughter. The LWA pigs had similar ADG but lower (P = 0.03) G:F than the LWC. Within the B breed, the BA had higher (P = 0.04) and the BE lower (P < 0.001) ADG compared with BC pigs. The B pigs had a higher (P < 0.001) carcass dressing an exhibited around 2-fold higher (P < 0.001) back fat proportion, perirenal fat weight and LM lipid content than the LW pigs. Compared with C, the A system decreased (P = 0.04) carcass dressing within LW but did not influence carcass traits within B pigs. The E system decreased (P ≤ 0.05) carcass dressing, back fat proportion, and LM lipid content in BE compared with BC pigs. The B pigs exhibited larger (P < 0.001) adipocytes in both subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) and LM than the LW pigs. Malic enzyme activity was higher in SCAT of B than LW pigs despite their greater fatness, and was higher (P ≤ 0.01) in BA but lower (P < 0.001) in BE than in

  8. Population analysis of Streptococcus suis isolates from slaughtered swine by use of minimum core genome sequence typing.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Han; Ji, Shaobo; Lan, Ruiting; Liu, Zhijie; Bai, Xuemei; Zhang, Wen; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Xu, Jianguo

    2014-10-01

    Streptococcus suis, an important zoonotic pathogen, is a highly diverse species with only a subset of strains that cause disease in humans. Our previous study proposed a minimum core genome (MCG) sequence typing method and defined seven MCG groups, with MCG group 1 as the prevalent group causing human infections. In this study, we identified a set of 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) distributed in six genes that were used to identify the seven MCG groups. The 10 SNPs were typed for 179 S. suis isolates collected from slaughtered pigs. The most prevalent groups among the tested isolates were MCG groups 6 and 7. Most of the isolates (147/179) were genotyped as mrp negative, epf negative, sly negative, and CDS2157 positive. The 179 isolates were also typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and divided into 115 sequence types (STs), 111 of which were new. The 6 serotypes (29, 11, 5, 12, 30, and 2) represented 72.3% of the serotyped isolates. Our data show that the typing assay facilitates the application of genome data to the surveillance of S. suis. PMID:25056323

  9. Bleeding Efficiency, Microbiological Quality and Oxidative Stability of Meat from Goats Subjected to Slaughter without Stunning in Comparison with Different Methods of Pre-Slaughter Electrical Stunning.

    PubMed

    Sabow, Azad Behnan; Zulkifli, Idrus; Goh, Yong Meng; Ab Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin; Kaka, Ubedullah; Imlan, Jurhamid Columbres; Abubakar, Ahmed Abubakar; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2016-01-01

    The influence of pre-slaughter electrical stunning techniques and slaughter without stunning on bleeding efficiency and shelf life of chevon during a 14 d postmortem aging were assessed. Thirty two Boer crossbred bucks were randomly assigned to four slaughtering techniques viz slaughter without stunning (SWS), low frequency head-only electrical stunning (LFHO; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 50 Hz), low frequency head-to-back electrical stunning (LFHB; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 50 Hz) and high frequency head-to-back electrical stunning (HFHB; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 850 Hz). The SWS, LFHO and HFHB goats had higher (p<0.05) blood loss and lower residual hemoglobin in muscle compared to LFHB. The LFHB meat had higher (p<0.05) TBARS value than other treatments on d 7 and 14 d postmortem. Slaughtering methods had no effect on protein oxidation. Higher bacterial counts were observed in LFHB meat compared to those from SWS, LFHO and HFHB after 3 d postmortem. Results indicate that the low bleed-out in LFHB lowered the lipid oxidative stability and microbiological quality of chevon during aging. PMID:27035716

  10. Bleeding Efficiency, Microbiological Quality and Oxidative Stability of Meat from Goats Subjected to Slaughter without Stunning in Comparison with Different Methods of Pre-Slaughter Electrical Stunning

    PubMed Central

    Sabow, Azad Behnan; Zulkifli, Idrus; Goh, Yong Meng; Ab Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin; Kaka, Ubedullah; Imlan, Jurhamid Columbres; Abubakar, Ahmed Abubakar; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2016-01-01

    The influence of pre-slaughter electrical stunning techniques and slaughter without stunning on bleeding efficiency and shelf life of chevon during a 14 d postmortem aging were assessed. Thirty two Boer crossbred bucks were randomly assigned to four slaughtering techniques viz slaughter without stunning (SWS), low frequency head-only electrical stunning (LFHO; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 50 Hz), low frequency head-to-back electrical stunning (LFHB; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 50 Hz) and high frequency head-to-back electrical stunning (HFHB; 1 A for 3 s at a frequency of 850 Hz). The SWS, LFHO and HFHB goats had higher (p<0.05) blood loss and lower residual hemoglobin in muscle compared to LFHB. The LFHB meat had higher (p<0.05) TBARS value than other treatments on d 7 and 14 d postmortem. Slaughtering methods had no effect on protein oxidation. Higher bacterial counts were observed in LFHB meat compared to those from SWS, LFHO and HFHB after 3 d postmortem. Results indicate that the low bleed-out in LFHB lowered the lipid oxidative stability and microbiological quality of chevon during aging. PMID:27035716

  11. Performance of growing pigs fed diets based on by-products of maize and wheat processing.

    PubMed

    Mwesigwa, Robert; Mutetikka, David; Kugonza, Donald Rugira

    2013-02-01

    Forty-eight crossbred Landrace × Large white pigs with an average body weight of 8.5 ± 0.4 kg and aged 2 months were used to evaluate performance and carcass characteristics of pigs fed two diets in which bran from maize or wheat was used as the energy source. A third diet based on whole maize grain was used as a control. Animals in groups of four, balanced for litter, sex and weight were allotted to dietary treatments in a completely randomised design with four replications. Data were collected on feed intake and weight gain for a period of 4 months. A digestibility trial was carried at the end of the feeding trial using two male pigs per treatment while six pigs per treatment were randomly selected for slaughter to determine carcass characteristics. Daily gain averaged 0.23, 0.31 and 0.13 kg/day, for pigs fed maize bran, wheat bran and whole maize diets, respectively. Average feed intake and final body weight were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by diets. Digestibility of dry matter, crude fibre and calcium were higher (P < 0.05) for pigs fed maize bran while crude protein digestibility was highest (P < 0.05) for the pigs fed wheat bran. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) between the diets in carcass yield, ham, head, trotters and heart weights and also for rib weight, rib eye muscle and other tissues. This study indicates that comparable performance of growing pigs fed cereal bran and full-grain diets are real. PMID:22836486

  12. Pig production in the Solomon Islands. I. Village pig production.

    PubMed

    de Fredrick, D F

    1977-05-01

    In 181 villages in the Solomon Islands the pig: human ratio was 1:5-8 and the annual per capita pork consumption was 4-2 kg. Some communities did not keep pigs or eat pig meat. Sows weaned an average of 5-5 piglets per year and mean liveweight at 12 months of age was 28-4 kg. Most pigs were kept on the ground but some were housed in pens over the sea and very few lived in their owner's houses. Pigs were important in the social life of the people but proportionally fewer pigs were raised than in neighbouring Pacific countries. PMID:906090

  13. Successful School Principalship in Danish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Lejf; Krejsler, John; Kofod, Klaus Kasper; Jensen, Bent Brandt

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims at conceptualizing and investigating the meaning of good school principalship within the space for manoeuvring that is available within the context of Danish comprehensive schools. The paper aims to present findings from case studies of two Danish schools within the frame of reference. Design/methodology/approach: Outlines the…

  14. Synergistic effects of betaine and conjugated linoleic acid on the growth and carcass composition of growing Iberian pigs.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fígares, I; Conde-Aguilera, J A; Nieto, R; Lachica, M; Aguilera, J F

    2008-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the efficacy of dietary betaine, CLA, or both as growth promotants and carcass modifiers in growing Iberian pigs. Twenty gilts (20 kg of BW) were individually penned and fed barley- and soybean meal-based diets (12% CP, 0.81% Lys, and 14.8 MJ of ME/kg of DM) containing either no added betaine or CLA (control), 0.5% betaine, 1% CLA, or 0.5% betaine + 1% CLA, at 95% of ad libitum energy intake. An additional group of 5 pigs was slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment to obtain the initial body composition. At 30 kg of BW, a balance experiment was conducted. At 50 kg of BW, pigs were slaughtered and viscera was removed and weighed. Betaine or CLA alone did not affect growth performance. However, betaine + CLA increased ADG (601 vs. 558 g, P = 0.03) and gain relative to ME intake (25.4 vs. 22.2 g/MJ, P = 0.03) compared with control pigs. Digestibility of nutrients and metabolizability of energy did not differ among diets (P = 0.46 to 0.75). Carcass protein, water, and lean deposition (g/d) increased (19.8, 24.2, and 23.4%, respectively, P < 0.01) in pigs fed betaine + CLA compared with control pigs. Similarly, protein deposition relative to ME intake increased by 28% in betaine + CLA-supplemented pigs (P < 0.05). Fat and mineral deposition did not differ among treatments. Carcass protein, water, and lean content (g/kg of carcass) of pigs fed betaine + CLA-supplemented diets tended to increase (P = 0.07 to 0.09) and carcass fat content tended to decrease (P = 0.09). Similarly, estimated composition of carcass gain was affected, such that water and lean content tended to increase (P = 0.06 to 0.08), whereas fat tended to decrease (P = 0.08) in pigs fed betaine + CLA-supplemented diets. Longissimus muscle area was not altered by treatments (P = 0.49). The liver of pigs fed betaine + CLA diets had increased weight (19%, P < 0.05) compared with control pigs. Overall, dietary supplementation of betaine + CLA increased ADG

  15. Epidemiologic and economic evaluation of risk-based meat inspection for bovine cysticercosis in Danish cattle.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Artavia, F F; Nielsen, L R; Alban, L

    2013-03-01

    Under the current EU meat inspection regulation, every single carcase from all bovines above 6 weeks of age has to be examined for bovine cysticercosis (BC). This is time-consuming, costly, and is of limited value in countries with low prevalence. The aim of this study was to develop a stochastic simulation model for analysis of tentative risk-based meat inspection systems for BC in Danish cattle with regard to system sensitivity (SSSe), specificity and potential monetary benefits compared to the current system, which has an estimated SSSe of 15%. The relevant risk factors used to construct three alternative scenario trees were identified from previous Danish risk factor studies (1) gender, (2) grazing and (3) access to risky water sources. Thus, females, animals that had been grazing or animals with access to risky water sources were considered high-risk and would be subjected to invasive inspection at meat inspection. All animals in the low-risk groups (i.e. males, non-grazing or no access to risky water sources, respectively) would be subjected to visual inspection only. It was assumed that half of the cattle were slaughtered in abattoirs that would be able to reorganise the work at the slaughterline, allowing them to do with one meat inspector less. All abattoirs would gain on the price of sold uncut beef from the masseter muscles from visually inspected cattle. Under these assumptions, using gender and grazing were preferable due to them having SSSe only slightly lower than the current system, and highest effectiveness ratios, but they had a lower net economic effect (NEE) than the scenario using risky water sources. Using gender to differentiate high and low-risk groups was judged preferable over grazing due to feasibility, because the information is readily available at the slaughter line. The exact total NEE for the cattle sector depends on how many and which of the abattoirs that would be able to reorganise the work at the slaughter line to save money on

  16. Study of the Assessment Method for N Excretion in Sustainable Heavy Pigs Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Kaijun; Liu, Fenghua; Xu, Xiaolong; Xu, Jianqin; Zoccarato, Ivo

    Italian heavy pigs, with an average slaughtering body weight of 150-170 kg, are world-wide famous for its Parma ham production. Because the requirement of market diversity, producers are interested in ham production following the procedure of Italian pork industry. However, with ever growing public concern about nitrogen (N) pollution in the environment, it is necessary to determine a suitable method to measure N excretion from heavy pig production. The N retention was calculated by factorial method and compared with estimations of other methods available in literature. The results showed that the N percentage of heavy pigs is 2.43% ± 0.07% on body weight basis and the percentage of N excretion was approximately 69.62% ± 0.20 of N intake. Regarding the N excretion of estimation methods, the proposal of Xiccato et al. was closer to reality of the heavy pig production than other methods and could be used as a standard way to calculate the N excretion. Besides the overall standard, it is opportune to make a N balance sheet for every individual farm under specific conditions. Only in this way, the farmers can realize their deficiencies and will voluntarily follow the Good Management Practice (GMP) indications so as to guarantee a sustainable development of pig production.

  17. 9 CFR 146.6 - Specific provisions for participating slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... upland game bird, commercial waterfowl, meat-type chicken, and meat-type turkey slaughter plants that are... participate in the Plan. (b) To participate in the Plan, meat-type chicken, meat-type turkey, and...

  18. 9 CFR 146.6 - Specific provisions for participating slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... upland game bird, commercial waterfowl, meat-type chicken, and meat-type turkey slaughter plants that are... participate in the Plan. (b) To participate in the Plan, meat-type chicken, meat-type turkey, and...

  19. 9 CFR 146.6 - Specific provisions for participating slaughter plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... upland game bird, commercial waterfowl, meat-type chicken, and meat-type turkey slaughter plants that are... participate in the Plan. (b) To participate in the Plan, meat-type chicken, meat-type turkey, and...

  20. Morphological and molecular characterization of Sarcocystis miescheriana from pigs in the central region of China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wenchao; Qian, Weifeng; Li, Xiaojun; Wang, Tianqi; Ding, Ke; Huang, Tengfei

    2013-03-01

    Sarcocystosis is an important food-borne parasitosis in humans and various animals. Sarcocystis miescheriana and Sarcocystis suihominis are pathogenic to pigs; S. suihominis is also distinctly pathogenic to humans. Intermediate and final hosts can harbor more than one Sarcocystis species, so the exact identification for Sarcocystis infection in various hosts is essential to control sarcocystosis in humans and important economic animals including pigs. In this study, four isolates of sarcocysts from slaughtered pigs (SmJY1-SmJY4) in the central region of China, in Henan province, were collected and examined by transmission electron microscopy and 18S rRNA sequence analysis to identify the Sarcocystis species in pigs in China. The results showed that cysts in the diaphragm muscles have a thick cyst wall with a number of palisade-like protrusions up to 4.38 μm in length. Inside these protrusions, there were 13-16 fibrils per protrusion. Bradyzoites in cysts showed typical characteristics of Apicomplexa including a conoid, many micronemes, dense bodies, one big nucleus, and a number of amylopectin granules. These ultrastructural results suggest that characteristics of tissue cysts of the isolates SmJY1-SmJY4 were similar to those of S. miescheriana. The sequence similarities of SmJY1-SmJY4 with S. miescheriana were 99-99.5 %, and the sequence similarities of SmJY1-SmJY4 with S. suihominis were much lower. Results of the ultrastructural observation in combination with molecular characterization based on the 18S rRNA sequence represent the first demonstration of S. miescheriana in pigs in China. In addition, results of the histological examination showed that the cysts of S. miescheriana had two types of cyst wall, a palisade-like thick wall and another smoothly thin wall, and could cause obvious atrophy, degeneration, and necrosis of muscle fibers in the diaphragm of naturally infected pigs. These findings will provide an important reference for the examination of

  1. Composition and quality characteristics of carcasses from pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake on high- or low-energy diets.

    PubMed

    Arkfeld, E K; Young, J M; Johnson, R C; Fedler, C A; Prusa, K; Patience, J F; Dekkers, J C M; Gabler, N K; Lonergan, S M; Huff-Lonergan, E

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to determine the extent to which feeding low-energy, high-fiber (LEHF) and high-energy, low-fiber (HELF) diets impacts meat quality and carcass composition of pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI). Two experiments were conducted in the divergently selected Iowa State University RFI lines: Exp. 1 evaluated carcasses of generation (G) 8 pigs fed on commercial feeders; Exp. 2 evaluated composition, pork quality, sensory, and postmortem proteolysis of pigs fed on electronic single-space feeders in G 8 and 9. Pigs (N = 177) in Exp. 1 were randomly assigned a pen (mixed sex and line; N = 8). Groups (n = 3) of pigs were slaughtered at a mean BW of 121.5 kg. Pigs in Exp. 2 (G8: n = 158; G9: n = 157) were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 pens of each diet per G. Pigs from G8 were slaughtered at a mean BW of 122.5 kg and G9 at a mean of 128.4 kg. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedure of SAS. Fixed effects were line, diet, sex, and all appropriate interactions. Random effects were group, pen, litter, and sire and covariate of off-test BW. For Exp. 2, G was added as a fixed effect and sensory day was added as a random effect when applicable. In Exp. 1, carcasses from low RFI (LRFI) pigs were leaner and had less fat depth (P < 0.01). Carcasses from pigs fed the LEHF diet had a lighter HCW and greater estimated percent lean than pigs fed HELF diet (P < 0.01). In Exp. 2, LRFI pigs on the HELF diet had the greatest loin depth (P < 0.01). Chops from HRFI pigs had greater drip loss, color scores, lean tissue a*, and percent lipid and lesser percent moisture than LRFI ( P< 0.05). Chops from pigs on the LEHF diet had lesser muscle L* values and greater percent moisture than chops from pigs fed the HELF diet (P < 0.05). Chops from LRFI pigs were juicer than those from HRFI pigs (P < 0.05). Protein extracted at d 2 postmortem from LRFI pigs on the LEHF diet had a greater 38 kDa desmin degradation product than protein from LRFI pigs fed the HELF

  2. Genetic traceability of black pig meats using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jae-Don; Song, Ki-Duk; Seo, Joo-Hee; Kim, Duk-Kyung; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Seo, Kang-Seok; Lim, Hyun-Tae; Lee, Jae-Bong; Park, Hwa-Chun; Ryu, Youn-Chul; Kang, Min-Soo; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Eui-Soo; Choe, Ho-Sung; Kong, Hong-Sik; Lee, Hak-Kyo

    2014-07-01

    Pork from Jeju black pig (population J) and Berkshire (population B) has a unique market share in Korea because of their high meat quality. Due to the high demand of this pork, traceability of the pork to its origin is becoming an important part of the consumer demand. To examine the feasibility of such a system, we aim to provide basic genetic information of the two black pig populations and assess the possibility of genetically distinguishing between the two breeds. Muscle samples were collected from slaughter houses in Jeju Island and Namwon, Chonbuk province, Korea, for populations J and B, respectively. In total 800 Jeju black pigs and 351 Berkshires were genotyped at thirteen microsatellite (MS) markers. Analyses on the genetic diversity of the two populations were carried out in the programs MS toolkit and FSTAT. The population structure of the two breeds was determined by a Bayesian clustering method implemented in structure and by a phylogenetic analysis in Phylip. Population J exhibited higher mean number of alleles, expected heterozygosity and observed heterozygosity value, and polymorphism information content, compared to population B. The FIS values of population J and population B were 0.03 and -0.005, respectively, indicating that little or no inbreeding has occurred. In addition, genetic structure analysis revealed the possibility of gene flow from population B to population J. The expected probability of identify value of the 13 MS markers was 9.87×10(-14) in population J, 3.17×10(-9) in population B, and 1.03×10(-12) in the two populations. The results of this study are useful in distinguishing between the two black pig breeds and can be used as a foundation for further development of DNA markers. PMID:25050032

  3. Prevalence of Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs entering the food chain in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lian Francesca; Harrison, Leslie Jayne Stevenson; Toye, Philip; de Glanville, William Anson; Cook, Elizabeth Anne Jesse; Wamae, Claire Njeri; Fèvre, Eric Maurice

    2016-01-01

    Three hundred forty-three pigs slaughtered and marketed in western Kenya were subjected to lingual examination and HP10 Ag-ELISA for the serological detection of Taenia solium antigen. When estimates were adjusted for the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic assays, prevalence of T. solium cysticercosis estimated by lingual exam and HP10 Ag-ELISA was between 34.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 19.4-49.4%) and 37.6% (95% CI 29.3-45.9%), respectively. All pigs, however, were reported to have passed routine meat inspection. Since T. solium poses a serious threat to public health, these results, if confirmed, indicate that the introduction of control strategies may be appropriate to ensure the safety of pork production in this region. PMID:26581436

  4. Direct contact and environmental contaminations are responsible for HEV transmission in pigs.

    PubMed

    Andraud, Mathieu; Dumarest, Marine; Cariolet, Roland; Aylaj, Bouchra; Barnaud, Elodie; Eono, Florent; Pavio, Nicole; Rose, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) can cause enterically-transmitted hepatitis in humans. The zoonotic nature of Hepatitis E infections has been established in industrialized areas and domestic pigs are considered as the main reservoir. The dynamics of transmission in pig herds therefore needs to be understood to reduce the prevalence of viremic pigs at slaughter and prevent contaminated pig products from entering the food chain. An experimental trial was carried out to study the main characteristics of HEV transmission between orally inoculated pigs and naïve animals. A mathematical model was used to investigate three transmission routes, namely direct contact between pigs and two environmental components to represent within-and between-group oro-fecal transmission. A large inter-individual variability was observed in response to infection with an average latent period lasting 6.9 days (5.8; 7.9) in inoculated animals and an average infectious period of 9.7 days (8.2; 11.2). Our results show that direct transmission alone, with a partial reproduction number of 1.41 (0.21; 3.02), can be considered as a factor of persistence of infection within a population. However, the quantity of virus present in the environment was found to play an essential role in the transmission process strongly influencing the probability of infection with a within pen transmission rate estimated to 2 · 10(-6)g ge(-1)d(-1)(1 · 10(-7); 7 · 10(-6)). Between-pen environmental transmission occurred to a lesser extent (transmission rate: 7 · 10(-8)g ge(-1) d(-1)(5 · 10(-9); 3 · 10(-7)) but could further generate a within-group process. The combination of these transmission routes could explain the persistence and high prevalence of HEV in pig populations. PMID:24165278

  5. Growth performance and enzyme development in weanling pigs injected with dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Gómez, S; Angeles, M L; Cuarón, J A

    1997-04-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dexamethasone (DEX) on growth performance and on selected digestive enzyme activities in weanling pigs. In Exp. 1, 96 pigs (6.7 kg BW and 27 d) were used in a 3 x 2 factorial combination of three DEX frequencies (no injection; 1 mg DEX/kg BW 3 d before weaning; and 1 mg DEX/kg BW 6 and 3 d before weaning) and two feeding regimens: a simple diet fed throughout the 28-d trial, or a semicomplex diet fed during the first 14 d postweaning, followed by the simple diet. Growth performance was not affected (P > .10) by hormonal treatment. Pigs fed the simple diet had a greater ADF1 after d 15 postweaning (P < .10) and higher ADG from 15 to 21 d postweaning (P < .01). In Exp. 2, 80 pigs (7.2 kg BW and 26 d) were assigned 3 d before weaning to four dosages of DEX (0, .33, .66, and .99 mg/kg BW). Growth performance was similar regardless of DEX dosing. In Exp. 3, 24 pigs (6.4 kg BW and 21 d) were injected with DEX (1 mg/kg BW) or saline solution on d 3 before weaning. Four pigs per treatment were slaughtered at weaning, or on d 3 and d 6 postweaning. Dexamethasone resulted in greater (P < .10) pancreas weight and increased (P < .01) total activity of amylase and sucrase, but lactase was lowered (P < .10). Dexamethasone injection enhanced digestive enzyme activity but failed to improve performance, presumably because of the reduced feed intake of pigs at weaning. PMID:9110212

  6. Effect of feeding sodium butyrate in the late finishing period on Salmonella carriage, seroprevalence, and growth of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Walia, Kavita; Argüello, Hector; Lynch, Helen; Leonard, Finola C; Grant, Jim; Yearsley, Dermot; Kelly, Sinead; Duffy, Geraldine; Gardiner, Gillian E; Lawlor, Peadar G

    2016-09-01

    Pork is an important source of human salmonellosis and low-cost on-farm control measures may provide a useful element in reducing the prevalence of this pathogen in food. This study investigated the effectiveness of dietary supplementation with sodium butyrate administered to finisher pigs for ∼4-weeks prior to slaughter to control Salmonella shedding on highly contaminated farms. Two trials (A and B) were conducted on two commercial pig farms, which had a history of high Salmonella seroprevalence. In both trials, pens (14 pens of 12 pigs/pen in Trial A and 12 pens of 12-17 pigs/pen in Trial B) were randomly assigned to a control (finisher feed without additive) or a treatment group (the same feed with 3kg sodium butyrate/t) for 24-28days, depending on the trial. Faeces were collected from each pig on days 0, 12 and 24/28, and blood, caecal digesta and ileocaecal/mesenteric lymph nodes were collected from the slaughterhouse. Pigs were weighed at the start and end of the trials, feed intake was recorded, and carcass quality parameters were recorded at slaughter. In Trial A, Salmonella shedding was reduced in the treatment compared to the control group at the end of the trial (30% versus 57% probability of detecting Salmonella in faeces, respectively; p<0.001). This reflected the serology results, with detection of a lower seroprevalence in the treatment compared to the control group using the 20% optical density cut-off (69.5% versus 89%; p=0.001). However, no effect on faecal shedding or seroprevalance was observed in Trial B, which may be explained by the detection of a concomitant infection with Lawsonia intracellularis. No significant differences in Salmonella recovery rates were observed in the caecal digesta or lymph nodes in either trial. Furthermore, feed intake, weight gain, and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) did not differ between groups (p>0.05) in either trial. Numerical improvements in weight gain and FCE were found with sodium butyrate treatment

  7. Assessing the Effectiveness of On-Farm and Abattoir Interventions in Reducing Pig Meat-Borne Salmonellosis within E.U. Member States.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andrew A; Simons, Robin L; Swart, Arno N; Kelly, Louise; Hald, Tine; Snary, Emma L

    2016-03-01

    As part of the evidence base for the development of national control plans for Salmonella spp. in pigs for E.U. Member States, a quantitative microbiological risk assessment was funded to support the scientific opinion required by the EC from the European Food Safety Authority. The main aim of the risk assessment was to assess the effectiveness of interventions implemented on-farm and at the abattoir in reducing human cases of pig meat-borne salmonellosis, and how the effects of these interventions may vary across E.U. Member States. Two case study Member States have been chosen to assess the effect of the interventions investigated. Reducing both breeding herd and slaughter pig prevalence were effective in achieving reductions in the number of expected human illnesses in both case study Member States. However, there is scarce evidence to suggest which specific on-farm interventions could achieve consistent reductions in either breeding herd or slaughter pig prevalence. Hypothetical reductions in feed contamination rates were important in reducing slaughter pig prevalence for the case study Member State where prevalence of infection was already low, but not for the high-prevalence case study. The most significant reductions were achieved by a 1- or 2-log decrease of Salmonella contamination of the carcass post-evisceration; a 1-log decrease in average contamination produced a 90% reduction in human illness. The intervention analyses suggest that abattoir intervention may be the most effective way to reduce human exposure to Salmonella spp. However, a combined farm/abattoir approach would likely have cumulative benefits. On-farm intervention is probably most effective at the breeding-herd level for high-prevalence Member States; once infection in the breeding herd has been reduced to a low enough level, then feed and biosecurity measures would become increasingly more effective. PMID:27002673

  8. Comparative carcass and tissue nutrient composition of transgenic Yorkshire pigs expressing phytase in the saliva and conventional Yorkshire pigs.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, C W; Meidinger, R G; Ajakaiye, A; Murray, D; Fan, M Z; Mandell, I B; Phillips, J P

    2014-10-01

    A transgenic line of Yorkshire (YK) pigs named the Cassie (CA) line was produced with a low copy number phytase transgene inserted in the genome. The transgenic line efficiently digests P, Ca, and other major minerals of plant dietary origin. The objectives of this study were to 1) compare carcass and tissue nutrient composition and meat quality traits for third generation hemizygous CA line market BW finisher pigs (n = 24) with age-matched conventional YK finisher pigs (n = 24) and 2) examine effects of outbreeding with high-index conventional YK boars on modifying carcass leanness from the third to sixth generations in CA line finisher boars (n = 73) and gilts (n = 103). Cassie boars (n = 12) and CA gilts (n = 12) were fed diets without supplemental P and comparable numbers of age-matched YK boars and gilts fed diets containing supplement P were raised throughout the finisher phase. The pigs were slaughtered and then fabricated into commercial pork primals before meat composition and quality evaluation. Proximate and major micronutrient composition was determined on tissues including fat, kidney, lean, liver, and skin. The main difference observed was greater (P = 0.033) crude fat content in CA boar carcasses and increased (P < 0.04) leaf lard in both CA boars and gilts but no differences were observed (P = 0.895 and P = 0.223, respectively) in carcass backfat thickness as compared with YK pigs. There were no substantive differences in tissue composition, except for CA boar kidneys. Numerous changes in the mineral, fatty acid, and indispensable AA composition for CA boar kidneys were not apparent in CA gilts. These changes may point to adaptive physiological changes in the boar kidney necessary for homeostatic regulation of mineral retention related to phytase action rather than to insertion of the transgene. However, from a meat composition perspective, transgenic expression of phytase in the CA line of YK pigs had little overall effect on meat composition

  9. Purification and crystallization of yeast glycosylphosphatidylinositol transamidase subunit PIG-S (PIG-S71–467)

    PubMed Central

    Kamariah, Neelagandan; Eisenhaber, Frank; Adhikari, Sharmila; Eisenhaber, Birgit; Grüber, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    The transfer of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors onto eukaryotic proteins is catalyzed by the transamidase complex, which is composed of at least five subunits (PIG-K, PIG-S, PIG-T, PIG-U and GPAA1). Here, the recombinant protein PIG-S71–467 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including residues 71–467 of the entire 534-residue protein, was cloned, expressed and purified to homogeneity. The monodisperse protein was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method. A diffraction data set was collected to 3.2 Å resolution with 91.6% completeness. The crystals belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 106.72, b = 59.33, c = 124.3 Å, β = 114.19°, and contained two molecules in the asymmetric unit. PMID:21821889

  10. Serological Prevalence of Enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. in Pigs and Wild Boars from Different Production Systems in the Moravian Region, Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Lorencova, Alena; Babak, Vladimir; Lamka, Jiri

    2016-05-01

    Human yersiniosis caused by pathogenic Yersinia spp. is one of the most common reported zoonoses in the European Union and pigs are considered as the major reservoir of these bacteria. Serological testing represents a suitable method to obtain information about the prevalence of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. in food animals. The prevalence of antibodies against enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. was studied in 319 slaughtered pigs and 135 wild boars from different production systems in the Moravian region (Czech Republic) using a commercially available ELISA test (an apparent prevalence). The seroprevalence was significantly associated with the type of breeding system, with the lowest seroprevalence being observed in household-raised pigs (13/29, 44.8%). No significant difference between the prevalence of anti-Yersinia antibodies in conventional (146/180, 81.1%) and organic pigs (92/110, 83.6%) was found. Antibodies were found in 65.9% (89/135) of wild boars without a significant difference between adult (23/41, 56.1%) and young (66/94, 70.2%) animals. Seropositivity was significantly higher in domestic (251/319, 78.7% in total) compared to feral pigs. A Bayesian approach taking into account the sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA test was used to estimate the true prevalence of anti-Yersinia antibodies in pigs and wild boars. According to our results, domestic pigs and wild boars proved to be an important reservoir of enteropathogenic Yersinia in the Czech Republic. Attention should be paid to good hygienic practice during slaughtering and handling of meat to prevent meat contamination and subsequently human infection. PMID:26982547

  11. Validation of indicators used to assess unconsciousness in veal calves at slaughter.

    PubMed

    Verhoeven, M T W; Gerritzen, M A; Hellebrekers, L J; Kemp, B

    2016-09-01

    European legislation states that after stunning regular checks should be performed to guarantee animals are unconscious between the end of the stunning process and death. When animals are killed without prior stunning these checks should be performed before the animal is released from restraint. The validity of certain indicators used to assess unconsciousness under different stunning and slaughter conditions is under debate. The aim of this study was to validate the absence of threat-, withdrawal-, corneal- and eyelid reflex as indicators to assess unconsciousness in calves subjected to different stunning and slaughter methods. Calves (201±22 kg) were randomly assigned to one of the following four treatments: (1) Captive bolt stunning followed by neck cut in an inverted position (n=25); (2) Non-stunned slaughter in an upright position (n=7); (3) Non-stunned slaughter in an inverted position (180° rotation) (n=25); (4) Non-stunned slaughter in an upright position followed by captive bolt stunning 40 s after the neck cut (n=25). Each calf was equipped with non-invasive electroencephalogram (EEG) electrodes before the slaughter procedure. All reflexes were verified once before the slaughter procedure. At the beginning of the procedure (T=0 s) calves were stunned (treatment 1) or neck cut in an upright position (treatment 2, 4) or inverted position (treatment 3). Calves of treatment 4 were captive bolt stunned 34±8 s after the neck cut. Reflexes were assessed every 20 s from T=15 s for all treatments until all reflex tests resulted in a negative response three times in a row and a flat line EEG was observed. In addition, reflexes were assessed 5 s after captive bolt stunning in calves of treatments 1 and 4. Visual assessment of changes in the amplitude and frequency of EEG traces was used to determine loss of consciousness. Timing of loss of consciousness was related to timing of loss of reflexes. After captive bolt stunning, absence of threat-, withdrawal

  12. Factors associated with age at slaughter and carcass weight, price, and value of dairy cull cows.

    PubMed

    Bazzoli, I; De Marchi, M; Cecchinato, A; Berry, D P; Bittante, G

    2014-02-01

    The sale of cull cows contributes to the overall profit of dairy herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the factors associated with slaughter age (mo), cow carcass weight (kg), price (€/kg of carcass weight), and value (€/head) of dairy cull cows. Data included 20,995 slaughter records in the period from 2003 to 2011 of 5 different breeds: 2 dairy [Holstein Friesian (HF) and Brown Swiss (BS)] and 3 dual-purpose [Simmental (Si), Alpine Grey (AG), and Rendena (Re)]. Associations of breed, age of cow (except when the dependent variable was slaughter age), and year and month of slaughter with slaughter age, carcass weight, price, and value were quantified using a mixed linear model; herd was included as a random effect. The seasonal trends in cow price and value traits were inversely related to the number of cows slaughtered, whereas annual variation in external factors affected market conditions. Relative to BS cows, HF cows were younger at slaughter (73.1 vs. 80.7 mo), yielded slightly lighter carcasses (242 vs. 246 kg), and received a slightly lower price (1.69 vs. 1.73 €/kg) and total value (394 vs. 417 €/head). Dual-purpose breeds were older and heavier and received a much greater price and total value at slaughter (521, 516, and 549 €/head, respectively for Si, Re, and AG) than either dairy breed. Of the dual-purpose cows, Si carcasses were heavier (271 kg), whereas the carcasses of local breeds received a higher price (2.05 and 2.18 €/kg for Re and AG, respectively) and Alpine Grey cows were the oldest at slaughter (93.3 mo). The price per kilogram of cull cow carcasses was greatest for very young cows (i.e., <3 yr of age) and the differential in price and value between younger and older cows was greater in dual-purpose than in dairy breeds. Large differences in cull cow whole carcass value (carcass weight × unit price) among dairy breeds suggest that such a trait could be considered in the breeding objectives of the breeds. PMID

  13. A Simple "Pig" Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    Our pig game involves a series of tosses of a die with the possibility of a player's score improving with each additional toss. With each additional toss, however, there is also the chance of losing the entire score accumulated so far. Two different strategies for deciding how many tosses a player should attempt are developed and then compared in…

  14. St. Paul's Pig Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Penny Folley

    1982-01-01

    Describes a guinea pig (cavy) breeding and management program developed as part of an elementary school science curriculum. Includes comments on show competitions (sponsored by the American Rabbit Breeders Association) to measure the success of the breeding program and to enable children to experience the business world. (Author/JN)

  15. A note comparing the welfare of Zebu cattle following three stunning-slaughter methods.

    PubMed

    Neves, J E G; Paranhos da Costa, M J R; Roça, R O; Faucitano, L; Gregory, N G

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess welfare of cattle during bleeding after slaughter with or without stunning. A total of 434 bulls were distributed across three slaughter treatments: penetrating captive bolt stunning followed by chest sticking (PCB, N=279), non-penetrating captive bolt stunning followed by halal slaughter (NPCB, N=67) and shechita without previous stunning (SHE, N=88). Four measures of possible consciousness and return to sensibility were recorded 20 and 60 s after bleeding as welfare indicators. They were the frequencies of responses to nostril stimulation and tongue pinch, spontaneous eye blinking, and rhythmic breathing. All responses were absent in stunned cattle at both 20 and 60 s, and in SHE cattle 7, 4, 10, and 100% of the animals presented these responses, respectively. Repeat shots were required for 46% NPCB and 2% PCB (P<0.05). The application of religious slaughter without previous stunning may result in greater risk of cattle suffering, pain and distress at slaughter. PMID:26946474

  16. Pipeline design essential in making pigging plans

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, H.

    1998-08-01

    Pigs have gotten an unfortunate reputation for getting stuck in pipelines. As a result, for many years few pigged their pipelines and consequently, many companies are paying the price to repair or replace their corroded pipelines. It is currently considered a necessary evil to run pigs to improve pipeline efficiency and prevent corrosion. Some pipelines were not designed to run pigs and occasionally the wrong type of pig is selected to run in a particular pipeline, increasing the chances of sticking a pig. A pipeline properly designed for pigging along with proper pig selection greatly reduces chances of sticking a pig.

  17. Growth performance and carcass traits in pigs selected for indirect genetic effects on growth rate in two environments.

    PubMed

    Camerlink, I; Bolhuis, J E; Duijvesteijn, N; van Arendonk, J A M; Bijma, P

    2014-06-01

    Production traits such as growth rate may depend on the social interactions between group members. These social interactions may be partly heritable and are referred to as indirect genetic effects (IGE) or social, associative, or competitive genetic effects. Indirect genetic effects may contribute to heritable variation in traits and can therefore be used to increase the response to selection. This, however, has hardly been tested by selection experiments. Our objective was to determine the effects of 1 generation of selection on IGE for growth (IGEg) in pigs on ADG, BW, ADFI, feed efficiency, and postmortem measurements. Sires (n = 24) and dams (n = 64) were selected to create a high vs. low contrast for IGEg in the offspring (n = 480). The IGE difference was 2.8 g ADG per pen mate, corresponding to 14 g higher ADG in high IGEg offspring compared to low IGEg offspring when housed in groups of 6 (i.e., (6 - 1) × 2.8 = 14). Male (barrows) and female (gilts) offspring were housed in groups of 6 of the same IGEg classification, in either barren concrete pens or pens enriched with straw and wood shavings (n = 80 pens). Pigs were followed from birth to slaughter. Data were analyzed in a mixed model with pen as random factor. There was no difference in ADG between high and low IGEg pigs during the finishing period (wk 10 to 23). Opposite to expectations, high IGEg tended to have a 17 g lower ADG from weaning to slaughter (P = 0.08), which was caused by a higher BW of low IGEg pigs in wk 5 (P = 0.008). This led to a 2.3 kg lower carcass weight (P = 0.02) and 2.2 mm less muscle depth for high IGEg pigs (P = 0.03). High IGEg pigs had a higher stomach wall damage score (P = 0.01). Pigs on straw had a 25 g lower ADG during finishing (P = 0.03) and less stomach wall damage (P < 0.001). Fewer interventions against harmful behavior were required in high IGEg pigs. The unexpected results regarding IGEg may be due to several reasons. Despite initial power calculations showing

  18. Effects of Dietary Energy Sources on Post Mortem Glycolysis, Meat Quality and Muscle Fibre Type Transformation of Finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanjiao; Li, Jiaolong; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Changning; Lin, Meng; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Yuanfang; Nuldnali, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Dietary energy source can influence muscle glycogen storage at slaughter. However, few studies have demonstrated whether the diet-induced change of muscle glycogen is achieved by the transformation of muscle fibre type. This study investigated the effects of dietary energy sources on meat quality, post mortem glycolysis and muscle fibre type transformation of finishing pigs. Seventy-two barrows with an average body weight of 65.0 ± 2.0 kg were selected and were allotted to three iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets A, B or C, and each treatment consisted of three replicates (pens) of eight pigs each. Diet A contained 44.1% starch, 5.9% crude fat and 12.6% neutral detergent fiber (NDF); diet B contained 37.6% starch, 9.5% crude fat and 15.4% NDF; and diet C contained 30.9% starch, 14.3% crude fat and 17.8% NDF. The duration of the experiment was 28 days. After feed withdrawal 12 h, 24 pigs (eight per treatment) were slaughtered, samples from M. longissimus lumborum (LL) were collected for subsequent analysis. The results showed that pigs fed diet C had lesser average daily gain, average daily feed intake and back fat depth than those fed diet A (P<0.05). Diet C increased pH45min (P<0.05) and decreased drip loss (P<0.05) in LL muscles compared with diet A. Meat from pigs fed diet A showed increased contents of lactate and greater glycolytic potential (GP) compared with those fed diet C (P<0.05). Greater mRNA expression of myosin heavy-chain (MyHC)-I and IIa and lesser expression of MyHC-IIx and IIb (P<0.05) in LL muscles were found in pigs fed diet C, than in pigs fed diet A. In addition, pigs fed diet C resulted in downregulation of miR23a and upregulation of miR409 and miR208b (P<0.05), associated with conserved changes of their corresponding targets. These findings indicated that diets containing low starch and high fibre were beneficial in reducing muscle glycolysis, improving meat quality of finishing pigs. This reduction of GP may be partially associated

  19. Prevention of edema disease in pigs by passive immunization.

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, M; Andresen, L O; Thomsen, L K; Busch, M E; Wachmann, H; Jorsal, S E; Gyles, C L

    2000-01-01

    The effect of treatment with verotoxin 2e (VT2e) specific antiserum was evaluated in 3 Danish pig herds with edema disease (ED). The antiserum was prepared by immunizing horses with a VT2e toxoid. The study was performed as a randomized blind field trial with parallel treatment and control groups. There were approximately 50 piglets in each group in each of the 3 herds and 741 piglets were included in the study (244 from herd A, 249 from herd B, and 247 from herd C). Treatment groups received 2, 4, or 6 mL anti-VT2e serum intramuscularly the day before weaning. Control groups were treated with 6 mL normal horse serum or 6 mL RPMI 1640 medium as placebo. All pigs that died in the trial period (1 d before weaning to 44 d after weaning) were examined pathologically and microbiologically. Mortality due to ED, mortality due to other causes, and adverse effects due to treatment were recorded. As there was no mortality due to ED, herd B was excluded from statistical calculations on mortality. The content of horse antibodies specific to VT2e in serum from pigs was analyzed in an indirect ELISA. A higher dose of anti-VT2e serum was reflected in higher optical density values in the indirect ELISA. Transient adverse reactions, seen as vomiting, ataxia, and cyanosis, occurred shortly after the injection of horse serum in 1.5% of the pigs, and one pig died. There were no statistically significant differences in mortality due to other causes among the 3 treatment groups in herds A and C. Only pigs from which F18+, VT2e+, ST-, LT- hemolytic E. coli (0139 or O-rough) was isolated were diagnosed as dead due to ED. Deaths due to ED in the control groups were 8.1% and 12.0% in herds A and C, respectively, compared with 0% and 0.7% in the corresponding serum groups. The difference between treatment and control groups was statistically significant (P<0.0001). It was not possible to establish an effect of dose (2, 4, or 6 mL) of anti-VT2e serum, because only one pig died of ED in the

  20. [Proximal composition, lipid and cholesterol content of meat from pigs fed peach-palm meal (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) and synthetic lysine].

    PubMed

    Jerez-Timaure, Nancy; Rivero, Janeth Colina; Araque, Humberto; Jiménez, Paola; Velazco, Mariela; Colmenares, Ciolys

    2011-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the proximal composition, lipids and cholesterol content of meat from pigs fed diets with peach-palm meal (PPM), with or without addition of synthetic lysine (LYS). In experiment 1, 24 pigs were randomly allotted into six treatments with three levels of PPM (0.16 and 32%) and two levels of LYS (0 and 0.27%). In experiment II, 16 finishing pigs were fed with two levels of PPM (0 and 17.50%) and two levels of LYS (0 and 0.27%). At the end of each experiment (42 and 35 d, respectively), pigs were slaughtered and loin samples were obtained to determine crude protein, dry matter, moisture, ash, total lipids, and cholesterol content. In experiment I, pork loin from 16% PPM had more dry matter (26.45 g/100 g) and less moisture (73.49 g/100g) than pork loin from 32% PPM (25.11 y 75.03 g/100g, respectively). Meat samples from pigs without LYS had higher (p < 0.05) content of lipids (2.11 g/100 g) than meat from pigs that consumed LYS (1.72 g/100 g). In experiment II, the proximal, lipids and cholesterol content were similar among treatments. The PPM addition to pig diets did not affect the proximal composition of pork, while LYS addition indicated a reduction of total lipids, which could result as an alternative to obtain leaner meat. PMID:22097296

  1. Effects of immunological castration and distiller's dried grains with solubles on carcass cutability and commercial bacon slicing yields of barrows slaughtered at two time points.

    PubMed

    Tavárez, M A; Bohrer, B M; Asmus, M D; Schroeder, A L; Matulis, R J; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C

    2014-07-01

    Male pigs were randomly assigned to a castration method at birth and allotted to 48 pens (28 pigs/pen). Physically castrated (PC) barrows were castrated at 2 d of age; immunologically castrated (IC) barrows were administered Improvest (GnRF analog diphtheria toxoid conjugate; Zoetis, Kalamazoo, MI) at 16 and 20 wk of age. Distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) feeding strategies included either 0% DDGS (control), 30% DDGS (30% DDGS) fed from 6 wk of age to slaughter, or 30% DDGS fed from 6 wk of age to second dose of Improvest and then fed 0% DDGS until slaughter (withdrawal). Four barrows closest to the median pen weight at 4.5 wk after second dose were selected for evaluation; two were randomly selected and slaughtered at 5 wk and the other two at 7 wk after second dose. Data from each slaughter time were analyzed independently as a 2 × 3 factorial design with pen as the experimental unit. At 5 wk after second dose, bone-in lean cutting yields were 2.63% units greater (P < 0.01) in IC when compared to PC. Bellies were thicker (P < 0.01) and tended to have greater belly flop distances (P = 0.07) in PC compared to IC, however iodine values (IV) were not altered (P = 0.84). Carcass traits (P ≥ 0.10), cutting yields (P ≥ 0.43), and fresh belly characteristics (P ≥ 0.08) were minimally affected by DDGS feeding strategy. Bacon slicing yields (percentage of green weight) were 6.10% units less (P < 0.01) in IC compared with PC. At 7 wk after second dose, bone-in lean cutting yields were 1.57% units greater (P = 0.03) in IC compared with PC. Distiller's grains feeding strategy had no effect (P ≥ 0.83) on boneless carcass cutting yields in IC; while in PC, these yields were 2.32% units less (P < 0.02) in control-fed barrows when compared to other feeding strategies (castration method × feeding strategy; P = 0.03). Bellies from PC tended to be thicker (P = 0.07) and have similar flop distances (P = 0.44) and IV (P = 0.54) when compared with IC. Iodine value

  2. Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of porcine cysticercosis in naturally infected pigs (Sus scrofa) in Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Chawhan, P; Singh, B; Sharma, R; Gill, P S

    2015-12-01

    Porcine cysticercosis is a serious zoonosis in resource-poor countries. Despite the evidence showing that the disease is endemic in the Punjab region of India, molecular characterisation of Taenia solium cysticercosis from naturally infected pigs has not been carried out. The authors examined a total of 519 pigs slaughtered in small slaughter shops (shops that sell meat from animals that are slaughtered on the premises as the customer waits) in the urban slums of Punjab state in northern India. The expected polymerase chain reaction products with molecular sizes of 286 bp, 420 bp, 1150 bp and 333 bp corresponding to the targeted large subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA), cytochrome oxidase 1, internal transcribed spacer 1, and diagnostic antigen Ts14 genes, respectively, were amplified from the cysts collected from all 22 infected carcasses. The detection limits for the respective primers (except those targeting the Ts14 gene) were estimated. The analytical sensitivities of both the TBR and JB primers (targeting the rRNA and cytochrome oxidase genes, respectively) were found to be higher (10 pg) than that of the internal transcribed spacer 1 gene (1 ng) primers. Ten representative samples from cytochrome oxidase 1 gene amplified products were sequenced in both directions for phylogenetic analysis. Sequencing demonstrated that all cysticerci were of the Asian genotype of T. solium and not of the African/Latin American genotype or T. asiatica. The results confirm the presence of T. solium porcine cysticercosis in Punjab state and there is therefore an urgent need for science-based policies for prevention and control of this serious zoonosis. PMID:27044164

  3. A Farm Transmission Model for Salmonella in Pigs, Applicable to E.U. Member States.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andrew A; Simons, Robin R L; Kelly, Louise; Snary, Emma L

    2016-03-01

    The burden of Salmonella entering pig slaughterhouses across the European Union is considered a primary food safety concern. To assist E.U. member states with the development of national control plans, we have developed a farm transmission model applicable to all member states. It is an individual-based stochastic susceptible-infected model that takes into account four different sources of infection of pigs (sows, feed, external contaminants such as rodents, and new stock) and various management practices linked to Salmonella transmission/protection (housing, flooring, feed, all-in-all-out production). A novel development within the model is the assessment of dynamic shedding rates. The results of the model, parameterized for two case study member states (one high and one low prevalence) suggest that breeding herd prevalence is a strong indicator of slaughter pig prevalence. Until a member state's' breeding herd prevalence is brought below 10%, the sow will be the dominant source of infection to pigs raised for meat production; below this level of breeding herd prevalence, feed becomes the dominant force of infection. PMID:25715888

  4. Carcass characteristics and fat depots in Iberian and F Large White × Landrace pigs intensively finished or raised outdoors in oak-tree forests.

    PubMed

    Bressan, M C; Almeida, J; Santos Silva, J; Bettencourt, C; Francisco, A; Gama, L T

    2016-06-01

    A factorial experiment was performed with 117 barrows belonging to the Iberian (IB) and crossbred F Large White × Landrace (F) genetic groups, either intensively finished (IN) or finished outdoors on pasture in an oak and cork tree forest (EX). Information was collected on carcass weight, yield, and dimensions; weight of organs, carcass cuts, and abdominal fat depots; backfat depth; measurements of the longissimus thoracis (LT); and yield of different leg tissues. For the 41 slaughter and carcass traits analyzed, the interaction between genetic group and finishing system was significant ( < 0.05) in 18 traits, and overall, there was a more pronounced influence of genetic group than of finishing system. In most variables, particularly those related with fat deposition, the interaction reflected mostly changes in mean differences among genetic groups rather than in their ranking, where IB pigs consistently produced fatter carcasses, regardless of the finishing system. Liver weight in IB-EX pigs was lower by nearly 8% when compared with F-EX or IB-IN pigs, but the opposite pattern was found in F pigs, where liver weight in F-EX pigs was higher by 16% relative to IB-EX pigs or to F-IN pigs. The deposition of adipose tissue was much larger ( < 0.05) in IB pigs compared with F pigs, with means for fat depots in IB pigs that were higher by about 25% in total abdominal fat, 94% in dorsal fat depth, 72% in intermuscular plus subcutaneous fat in the leg, and over 300% in intramuscular fat (IMF). The deposition of lean tissue was much lower in IB pigs ( < 0.05), with means for trimmed loin weight corresponding to about one-half of the means obtained in F pigs, whereas lean percentage in the leg of IB pigs was about two-thirds of the mean in F pigs and the mean area of the LT was nearly one-half of that observed in F pigs in the same finishing system ( < 0.05). A strong correlation was observed between the various fat depots when the full data set was considered (correlations

  5. Transportation of market-weight pigs: I. effect of season, truck type, and location within truck on behavior with a two-hour transport.

    PubMed

    Torrey, S; Bergeron, R; Widowski, T; Lewis, N; Crowe, T; Correa, J A; Brown, J; Gonyou, H W; Faucitano, L

    2013-06-01

    There is evidence that season and truck/trailer design play important roles in pig welfare during transportation although little is known about their interaction and effect on pig behavior. This experiment was designed to examine the influence of season and truck/trailer design on the behavior during loading, transit, unloading, and lairage of market-weight pigs transported to slaughter. A total of 3,756 pigs were transported on either a 3-deck pot-belly trailer (PB; n = 181 pigs/wk in 8 experimental compartments) or a double-decker hydraulic truck (DD; n = 85 pigs/wk in 4 compartments) for 2 h to a commercial abattoir in summer and winter (6 wk in each season). Density on both vehicles was 0.40 m(2)/pig. Accounting for the number of pigs, loading took longer (P = 0.033) onto the DD than the PB, but season did not (P = 0.571) influence loading time. Pigs loaded onto the PB moved backward more (P = 0.003) frequently than those loaded onto the DD. The frequency of tapping by handler was the lone handling intervention affected by truck type, with more (P = 0.014) tapping needed to move pigs on and off DD than PB. During loading, pigs made more (P < 0.001) slips and falls, overlaps, 180° turns, underlaps, and vocalizations in winter compared with summer. On truck, more (P < 0.001) pigs were standing on the DD at the farm and in transit than on the PB whereas more (P = 0.012) pigs were lying in transit in summer than in winter. Pigs took longer to unload (P < 0.001) from the PB than the DD, but no difference between vehicles (P = 0.473) in latency to rest in lairage was found. Pigs slipped and fell more (P < 0.001) during unloading, took longer (P < 0.001) to unload, and had a shorter (P = 0.006) latency to rest in lairage in winter than summer. Vehicle design, in particular the presence of ramps, influenced pig behavior before, during, and after transportation, regardless of the season. Season affected loading and unloading behavior, especially in terms of slips and

  6. Effect of drinking-water administration of experimental chlorate ion preparations on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium colonization in weaned and finished pigs.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R C; Hume, M E; Genovese, K J; Callaway, T R; Jung, Y S; Edrington, T S; Poole, T L; Harvey, R B; Bischoff, K M; Nisbet, D J

    2004-04-01

    Foodborne disease caused by Salmonella is of public health and economic significance. In order to assess the practical effectiveness of a new intervention strategy, experimental chlorate preparations (ECP) were administered via the drinking water to weaned and finished pigs that had been orally challenged the previous day with 10(9)-10(10) colony-forming units of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium. After 24 or 36 h ad libitum access to 0X, 1X or 2X ECP treatment (where X is the concentration estimated to deliver a minimal daily effective dose), the pigs were euthanized and gut contents and lymph tissue collected at necropsy were cultured for the challenge Salmonella. Drinking water administration of ECP effectively reduced (p < 0.05) caecal Salmonella concentrations and, with the weaned pigs, tended (p < or = 0.10) to reduce rectal Salmonella concentrations. No negative effects of ECP treatment on water intake and animal wellbeing were observed and only marginal effects on gut fermentation characteristics occurred. The bactericidal effect of administering ECP in drinking water was relatively rapid, with reductions in caecal Salmonella concentrations occurring within 24 h. These results suggest that ECP administered to pigs just days before slaughter may reduce gut concentrations of Salmonella; however, the impacts of such reductions on slaughter hygiene have yet to be determined. PMID:15074764

  7. Effect of slaughter weight and breed on instrumental and sensory meat quality of suckling kids.

    PubMed

    Ripoll, G; Alcalde, M J; Horcada, A; Campo, M M; Sañudo, C; Teixeira, A; Panea, B

    2012-09-01

    The effects of breed and slaughter weight on chemical composition, fatty acid groups, texture, and sensory characteristics of meat of 141 suckling male kids from 5 Spanish breeds were studied. There was a decrease in texture and lightness and hue angle with the increase of the slaughter weight. Fatty acid composition was correlated with the intramuscular fat content. All the breeds except MO had values of n-6/n-3 ratio below 4, which is the healthy limit recommended, and a low atherogenic index as well as a low intramuscular fat content. A multivariate analysis discriminated light kid, which had the most tender and juicy meat, from heavy kid which had more intense kid and milk odours. Blanca Andaluza and Pirenaica had most tender and juicy meat. The effect of slaughter weight on meat traits should be considered separately for each breed to find the most appropriate meat according to consumers preferences. PMID:22546814

  8. Feeding Jerusalem artichoke reduced skatole level and changed intestinal microbiota in the gut of entire male pigs.

    PubMed

    Vhile, S G; Kjos, N P; Sørum, H; Overland, M

    2012-05-01

    Different levels of dried Jerusalem artichoke were fed to entire male pigs 1 week before slaughter. The objective was to investigate the effect on skatole level in the hindgut and in adipose tissue, as well as the effect on microflora and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in the hindgut. Five experimental groups (n = 11) were given different dietary treatments 7 days before slaughtering: negative control (basal diet), positive control (basal diet + 9% chicory-inulin), basal diet + 4.1% Jerusalem artichoke, basal diet + 8.1% Jerusalem artichoke and basal diet + 12.2% Jerusalem artichoke. Samples from colon, rectum, faeces and adipose tissue were collected. Effect of dietary treatment on skatole, indole and androstenone levels in adipose tissue and on skatole, indole, pH, dry matter (DM), microbiota and SCFA in the hindgut was evaluated. Feeding increasing levels of Jerusalem artichoke to entire male pigs reduced skatole in digesta from colon and in faeces (linear, P < 0.01). There was also a tendency towards a decreased level of skatole in adipose tissue (linear, P = 0.06). Feeding Jerusalem artichoke decreased DM content in colon and faeces and pH in colon (linear, P < 0.01). Increasing levels of Jerusalem artichoke resulted in a reduced level of Clostridium perfringens in both colon and rectum (linear, P < 0.05) and a tendency towards decreased levels of enterobacteria in colon (linear, P = 0.05). Further, there was an increase in total amount of SCFA (linear, P < 0.05), acetic acid (linear, P < 0.05) and valerianic acid (linear, P < 0.01) in faeces. In conclusion, adding dried Jerusalem artichoke to diets for entire male pigs 1 week before slaughter resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in skatole levels in the hindgut and adipose tissue. The reduced skatole levels might be related to the decrease in C. perfringens and the increase in SCFA with subsequent reduction in pH. PMID:22558928

  9. Toxoplasma gondii in Ireland: seroprevalence and novel molecular detection method in sheep, pigs, deer and chickens.

    PubMed

    Halová, D; Mulcahy, G; Rafter, P; Turčeková, L; Grant, T; de Waal, T

    2013-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is among the most studied parasites worldwide but there is not much information about it published in Ireland. The objectives of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii in sheep, pigs, deer and chickens and the molecular detection of T. gondii DNA in muscle tissue. Serum samples were collected from these species at the time of slaughter at Irish abattoirs during 2007 and tested for anti-T. gondii antibodies using a commercial semi-quantitative latex agglutination test. Antibodies (titre ≥1 : 64) were found in 36% (105/292) sheep, 4.7% (15/317) pigs and 6.6% (23/348) deer. In chickens, 18% (65/364) had antibody titres, ranging between 1 : 5 and 1 : 1024. Significant (P ≤ 0.05) age-related differences in seroprevalence were found in adult sheep (58.1%) and pigs (23.1%). Significant gender differences in seroprevalence was also found in sheep with more females (43%) than males (22.4%) being positive. However, when adjusted for age through logistic regression gender was no longer significant. Seroprevalence was also evaluated on farm locations grouped to NUTS level 3, but the prevalence was too low to draw any statistical conclusions. Using a nested PCR, the presence of T. gondii DNA was detected in diaphragm samples from 3.6% (3/83) sheep, 13.0% (3/23) pig and 4.2% (3/71) deer. Meat digestion liquids from a Trichinella spp. survey in pigs were also used for the first time to detect T. gondii. Toxoplasma gondii DNA was detected in 50% (10/20) of pooled samples. This is the first in depth study of T. gondii seroprevalence in animals in Ireland and a novel method, using digestion liquid from pooled diaphragm samples, for PCR detection in pigs is described. PMID:22697578

  10. Effect of acidified feed on the prevalence of Salmonella in market-age pigs.

    PubMed

    Creus, E; Pérez, J F; Peralta, B; Baucells, F; Mateu, E

    2007-01-01

    Two trials were carried out to determine the effect of feed acidification upon Salmonella carriage in market-age pigs. In the first trial, the administration for the last 14 weeks of the fattening period of a commercial pelleted feed added with 0.6% lactic acid plus 0.6% formic acid (Lac-Formic-1.2) was compared to an unacidified standard diet (STD). A second experiment was carried out in two herds of growing pigs (Herd I, 3000 pigs; Herd II, 900 pigs) in which three different diets were assayed during the last 8-9 weeks of the fattening period: a diet containing 0.8% formic acid (Formic-0.8), a diet containing 0.4% lactic acid plus 0.4% formic acid (Lac-Formic-0.8) and a STD. In the first experiment, serological evolution of the infection was examined by ELISA and microbiological cultures (rectal samples and mesenteric lymph nodes) were also done. Feed intake by pen and the individual weight of the animals were also measured. In the second trial, blood, rectal samples and mesenteric lymph nodes were collected at slaughter in both herds (30 pigs per experimental group). In the first experiment, the acidified diet (Lac-Formic-1.2) reduced Salmonella carriers in mesenteric lymph nodes (Fisher's exact P < 0.01). In the second trial, Lac-Formic-0.8 diet significantly reduced Salmonella seroprevalence compared to the STD (P = 0.001) in both herds. Also Lac-Formic-0.8 and Formic-0.8 diets in Herd II showed a lower faecal excretion and Salmonella carriage in mesenteric lymph nodes than the STD (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the administration of a combination of lactic and formic acids at the levels used in this study could be used to reduce Salmonella prevalence in finishing pigs. PMID:17894642

  11. Factors in pig production that impact the quality of dry-cured ham: a review.

    PubMed

    Candek-Potokar, M; Skrlep, M

    2012-02-01

    This study reviews the factors of pig production that impact the quality of dry-cured ham. When processing is standardized, the quality of the final dry-cured product is primarily determined by the quality of the meat before curing (green ham). This has been defined as the aptitude for seasoning and is determined by the green ham weight, adipose tissue quantity and quality, meat physico-chemical properties and the absence of visual defects. Various ante-mortem factors including pig age and weight, genetic type, diet, feeding strategy and slaughter conditions determine green ham properties such as the dynamics of water loss, salt intake and, as a consequence, proteolysis and lipolysis. Muscle conditions (pH, salt concentration, water content and availability, temperature) influence enzymatic activity and development of characteristic texture and flavor. Generally, hams of older and heavier pigs present better seasoning aptitude because of higher adiposity. Adiposity is also positively correlated with fat saturation, which is desired to avoid rancidity and oiliness. The fatty acid profile of tissue lipids can be manipulated by diet composition. Feeding strategy affects tissue accretion and protein turnover, thus directly impacting proteolysis. With respect to the impact of pig genotype on dry-cured ham quality, local breeds are generally considered more suitable for producing quality dry hams; however, the majority of dry-cured hams on the market today are from modern pig breeds raised in conventional systems, providing lean hams. The importance of all these factors of pig production is discussed and synthesized, with an emphasis on the main difficulties encountered in dry-cured ham production. PMID:22436192

  12. A Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment for Salmonella in Pigs for the European Union.

    PubMed

    Snary, Emma L; Swart, Arno N; Simons, Robin R L; Domingues, Ana Rita Calado; Vigre, Hakan; Evers, Eric G; Hald, Tine; Hill, Andrew A

    2016-03-01

    A farm-to-consumption quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA) for Salmonella in pigs in the European Union has been developed for the European Food Safety Authority. The primary aim of the QMRA was to assess the impact of hypothetical reductions of slaughter-pig prevalence and the impact of control measures on the risk of human Salmonella infection. A key consideration during the QMRA development was the characterization of variability between E.U. Member States (MSs), and therefore a generic MS model was developed that accounts for differences in pig production, slaughterhouse practices, and consumption patterns. To demonstrate the parameterization of the model, four case study MSs were selected that illustrate the variability in production of pork meat and products across MSs. For the case study MSs the average probability of illness was estimated to be between 1 in 100,000 and 1 in 10 million servings given consumption of one of the three product types considered (pork cuts, minced meat, and fermented ready-to-eat sausages). Further analyses of the farm-to-consumption QMRA suggest that the vast majority of human risk derives from infected pigs with a high concentration of Salmonella in their feces (≥10(4) CFU/g). Therefore, it is concluded that interventions should be focused on either decreasing the level of Salmonella in the feces of infected pigs, the introduction of a control step at the abattoir to reduce the transfer of feces to the exterior of the pig, or a control step to reduce the level of Salmonella on the carcass post-evisceration. PMID:27002672

  13. Analysis of factors important for the occurrence of Campylobacter in Danish broiler flocks.

    PubMed

    Sommer, H M; Heuer, O E; Sørensen, A I V; Madsen, M

    2013-08-01

    For more than a decade human campylobacteriosis has been the leading zoonosis in many developed countries. Consumption of poultry or poultry products has been identified as the primary source of infection in humans. This study was conducted to identify risk factors for the occurrence of Campylobacter in Danish broiler flocks. The study was based on a large data set consisting of Campylobacter positive status for nearly 6000 broiler flocks and 43 explanatory variables. Data were obtained from the Danish Campylobacter surveillance programme in poultry and from the responses to a standardized questionnaire answered via interviews with broiler farm owners. Two hundred and forty broiler farms, comprising 539 broiler houses, were included in the study and their Campylobacter status was followed over a 2-year period (1999-2000). The large number of observations made it possible to carry out a multivariate analysis including all 43 variables. A multivariate analysis was conducted using a generalized linear model, and the correlations between the houses from the same farms were accounted for by adding a variance structure to the model. The procedures for analyses included backward elimination, forward selection and expanding of the number of observations used in the variance analysis along with the reduction of the number of parameters in the model. The unit of analysis was 'broiler house', meaning that all results from a broiler house were aggregated into one prevalence figure (number of positive flocks/total number of flocks delivered over the 2-year period). The following factors were found to be significantly associated with the occurrence of Campylobacter in the broiler flocks: old broiler houses, late introduction of whole wheat in the feed, relatively high broiler age at slaughter, improper rodent control, large number of chimneys on the broiler house, farm located in an area with a high density of cattle farms, having more than one broiler house on the farm, and

  14. Serological examination of fattening pigs reveals associations between Ascaris suum, lung pathogens and technical performance parameters.

    PubMed

    Vlaminck, Johnny; Düsseldorf, Simon; Heres, Lourens; Geldhof, Peter

    2015-06-15

    Diagnosing the presence of the highly prevalent and economically important pig parasite Ascaris suum on fattening farms has so far been challenging. Currently, only the number of livers affected at slaughter is routinely used to measure parasite exposure. However, recently, a new serological test was developed based on the detection of antibodies to the A. suum haemoglobin molecule. The test showed to be highly sensitive for the detection of exposure to A. suum in fattening pigs. In this study we first compared the performance of A. suum serology versus the percentage of affected livers at slaughter, subsequently we investigated potential associations between A. suum infection levels and exposure to important lung pathogens and finally we identified correlations between serological data and technical performance parameters (TPIs) from 20 Belgian and 20 German pig fattening farms. In both Belgian and German farms, a significant relationship was detected between elevated average Ascaris serology and percentages of affected livers (ρ=0.63 and ρ=0.75, respectively). On the Belgian farms, both Ascaris serology and the percentage of affected livers were negatively correlated with average daily gain (ADG) (ρ=-0.69 and ρ=-0.56, respectively). Using the German dataset, only a borderline negative association was detected between the percentage of affected livers and the ADG (ρ=-0.44, P=0.053). In contrast, only in the German farms, correlations between the percentage of affected lungs at slaughter and elevated presence of A. suum and several other airway pathogens were detected. To conclude, this study indicates that serological screening for A. suum on fattening farms is an attractive new diagnostic tool that can be used to indicate the presence of roundworm infection by measuring infection intensity. Furthermore the results of this study also add weight to the evidence that both roundworm infections as well as herd exposure to airway pathogens have a significant

  15. Mogens Jansen: An Interview with a Danish Reading Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engberg, Eva

    1985-01-01

    The president of the Danish Association of Reading Teachers discusses the positive effects of international cooperation on reading education, the influence of society's demands on curriculum, and the instinctive features and benefits of Danish Reading instruction. (FL)

  16. Effects of dietary lysine/protein ratio and fat levels on growth performance and meat quality of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Fumika; Toyoshi, Masanari; Irie, Masakazu

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary lysine/protein ratio and fat levels on the growth, carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing pigs fed feed made from food waste, including noodles and chocolate. Four dietary treatments, 2 levels of lysine/protein ratio (0.035 and 0.046) and 2 levels of fat (3.3% and 6.0%), were adapted to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Each diet for the finishing pigs contained the same levels of adequate crude protein (16%) and lysine (0.58-0.75%), and similar levels of high total digestible nutrients (90.2-92.6%). In total, 32 LWD pigs with an average body weight of 57.2 kg were assigned to 4 dietary groups. The pigs were slaughtered at about 115 kg. Growth performance was not influenced by the dietary treatments. Carcass characteristics were slightly influenced by the dietary fat level. As the dietary lysine/protein ratio decreased, the marbling score of Longissimus dorsi muscle increased and the intramuscular fat (IMF) increased from 6.82% to 9.46%. Marbling score was not significantly influenced by the dietary fat level. These results indicate that IMF increased without adverse effects on growth, carcass characteristics and meat quality, when pigs were fed a diet with low lysine/protein ratio. PMID:24261827

  17. Spatial distribution of Trichinella britovi, T. spiralis and T. pseudospiralis of domestic pigs and wild boars (Sus scrofa) in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Széll, Z; Marucci, G; Ludovisi, A; Gómez-Morales, M A; Sréter, T; Pozio, E

    2012-02-10

    Trichinellosis is a foodborne disease caused by the consumption of raw meat and raw meat-derived products from swine, horse and some game animals infected with nematode worms of the genus Trichinella. Between June 2006 and February 2011, 16 million domestic pigs and 0.22 million wild boars (Sus scrofa) were tested for Trichinella sp. in Hungary. Trichinella infection was not found in any pigs slaughtered for public consumption. Nevertheless, Trichinella spiralis was detected in four backyard pigs when trace back was done following a family outbreak. Trichinella infection was demonstrated in 17 wild boars (0.0077%). Larvae from wild boars were identified as Trichinella britovi (64.7%), T. spiralis (29.4%) and Trichinella pseudospiralis (5.9%). Although the prevalence of Trichinella sp. infection in wild boars and domestic pigs is very low, the spatial analysis reveals that the level of risk differs by region in Hungary. Most of the T. britovi infected wild boars (63.6%) were shot in the north-eastern mountain area of Hungary; whereas domestic pigs and wild boars infected with T. spiralis were detected only in the southern counties bordering Croatia and Romania. In the north-western and central counties, the prevalence of Trichinella infection seems to be negligible. PMID:21852037

  18. Mitochondrial respiratory activity in porcine longissimus muscle fibers of different pig genetics in relation to their meat quality.

    PubMed

    Werner, C; Natter, R; Schellander, K; Wicke, M

    2010-05-01

    The pig genetics of Duroc, Pietrain (MHS homozygote negative, PiNN), Pietrain (MHS homozygote positive, PiPP) and a F2-Duroc-Pietrain cross-breed were analyzed. The animals had comparable (P>0.05) carcass weights, but the PiPP pigs had higher carcass yield and lean meat values (P<0.05). Considering the meat quality characteristics, the PiPP showed a faster pH drop and higher electrical conductivity, drip loss, shear force as well as lightness and redness values (P<0.05). The PiPP animals had less slow-twitch-oxidative (STO) and more fast-twitch-glycolytic (FTG) muscle fibers, whereas the results of the Duroc animals were converse (P<0.05). The STO and FTG fibers of the PiPP animals were larger than those of the other genetics (P<0.05). The analysis of the mitochondrial respiratory activity (MRA) using permeabilized longissimus muscle fibers resulted in no differences between the pig genetics before and immediately after slaughter. During chilling the MRA decreased in all pigs but to a higher extent in the PiPP pigs (P<0.05). PMID:20374876

  19. Nutritive value of three tropical forage legumes and their influence on growth performance, carcass traits and organ weights of pigs.

    PubMed

    Kambashi, Bienvenu; Kalala, Gaetan; Dochain, Denis; Mafwila, Jacques; Rollin, Xavier; Boudry, Christelle; Picron, Pascale; Bindelle, Jérôme

    2016-08-01

    The effects of tropical forage legumes on feed intake, growth performance and carcass traits were investigated in 16 groups of two Large White × Duroc pigs. The diets consisted of a commercial corn-soybean meal diet as the basal diet and three forage-supplemented diets. Four groups of control pigs received daily 4 % of body weight of the basal diet, and 12 groups of experimental pigs were fed the basal diet at 3.2 % of body weight completed with fresh leaves of one of the three forage legumes (Psophocarpus scandens, Stylosanthes guianensis and Vigna unguiculata) ad libitum. The study lasted 90 days. The in vitro digestion and fermentation of the forage legumes were also determined. The in vitro digestible energy content of the legumes was between 0.72 and 0.77 that of the basal diet (14.4 MJ/kg dry matter (DM)). V . unguiculata was the most digestible forage legume expected for crude protein digestibility. Feeding forage legumes lowered the dry matter intake by 4.5 to 9.6 % (P < 0.05), final body weight (P = 0.013), slaughter weight, average daily gain and hot carcass weight (P < 0.05) without affecting the feed conversion ratio (FCR), dressing percentage and back fat thickness. In conclusion, using forage to feed pig could be interesting in pig smallholder production with limited access to concentrate, as FCR was not significantly affected. PMID:27154216

  20. The Danish Collaborative Bacteraemia Network (DACOBAN) database

    PubMed Central

    Gradel, Kim Oren; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Arpi, Magnus; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Østergaard, Christian; Søgaard, Mette

    2014-01-01

    The Danish Collaborative Bacteraemia Network (DACOBAN) research database includes microbiological data obtained from positive blood cultures from a geographically and demographically well-defined population serviced by three clinical microbiology departments (1.7 million residents, 32% of the Danish population). The database also includes data on comorbidity from the Danish National Patient Registry, vital status from the Danish Civil Registration System, and clinical data on 31% of nonselected records in the database. Use of the unique civil registration number given to all Danish residents enables linkage to additional registries for specific research projects. The DACOBAN database is continuously updated, and it currently comprises 39,292 patients with 49,951 bacteremic episodes from 2000 through 2011. The database is part of an international network of population-based bacteremia registries from five developed countries on three continents. The main purpose of the DACOBAN database is to study surveillance, risk, and prognosis. Sex- and age-specific data on background populations enables the computation of incidence rates. In addition, the high number of patients facilitates studies of rare microorganisms. Thus far, studies on Staphylococcus aureus, enterococci, computer algorithms for the classification of bacteremic episodes, and prognosis and risk in relation to socioeconomic factors have been published. PMID:25258557

  1. 9 CFR 381.67 - Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums under traditional inspection procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Young chicken and squab slaughter... INSPECTION REGULATIONS Operating Procedures § 381.67 Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate... inspector per minute under the traditional inspection procedure for the different young chicken and...

  2. 9 CFR 381.67 - Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums under traditional inspection procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Young chicken and squab slaughter... INSPECTION REGULATIONS Operating Procedures § 381.67 Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate... inspector per minute under the traditional inspection procedure for the different young chicken and...

  3. 9 CFR 381.67 - Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums under traditional inspection procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Young chicken and squab slaughter... INSPECTION REGULATIONS Operating Procedures § 381.67 Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate... inspector per minute under the traditional inspection procedure for the different young chicken and...

  4. 9 CFR 381.67 - Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums under traditional inspection procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Young chicken and squab slaughter... INSPECTION REGULATIONS Operating Procedures § 381.67 Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate... inspector per minute under the traditional inspection procedure for the different young chicken and...

  5. 9 CFR 381.67 - Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums under traditional inspection procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Young chicken and squab slaughter... INSPECTION REGULATIONS Operating Procedures § 381.67 Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate... inspector per minute under the traditional inspection procedure for the different young chicken and...

  6. 9 CFR 93.420 - Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Ruminants from Canada for immediate... Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.420 Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and... are contained in § 93.436. All other ruminants imported from Canada for immediate slaughter,...

  7. 9 CFR 93.420 - Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ruminants from Canada for immediate... Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.420 Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and... are contained in § 93.436. All other ruminants imported from Canada for immediate slaughter,...

  8. 9 CFR 93.420 - Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Ruminants from Canada for immediate... Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.420 Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and... are contained in § 93.436. All other ruminants imported from Canada for immediate slaughter,...

  9. 9 CFR 93.420 - Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Ruminants from Canada for immediate... Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.420 Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and... are contained in § 93.436. All other ruminants imported from Canada for immediate slaughter,...

  10. 9 CFR 93.420 - Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and goats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ruminants from Canada for immediate... Ruminants Canada 8 § 93.420 Ruminants from Canada for immediate slaughter other than bovines, sheep, and... are contained in § 93.436. All other ruminants imported from Canada for immediate slaughter,...

  11. 76 FR 26927 - National Organic Program; Notice on the Ruminant Slaughter Stock Provision of the Access to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... FR 7154). This rule established certain conditions that operations raising ruminant slaughter stock... to pasture (73 FR 63584) did not include an exception for ruminant slaughter stock from the new... Program (NOP) were published December 21, 2000 (65 FR 80548), and became effective on October 21, 2002....

  12. Lean meat prediction with HGP, CGM and CSB-Image-Meater, with prediction accuracy evaluated for different proportions of gilts, boars and castrated boars in the pig population.

    PubMed

    Engel, B; Lambooij, E; Buist, W G; Vereijken, P

    2012-02-01

    Prediction equations for the percentage lean meat in pig carcasses in The Netherlands were derived for the Hennessy Grading Probe 7, Capteur Gras/Maigre--Sydel and CSB-Image-Meater. Because castrated males are expected to vanish from the Dutch pig population in the near future, accuracy of prediction was evaluated for different scenarios representing a wide range of different proportions for entire males, castrated males and females in the Dutch pig population. The prediction equations for the instruments are in compliance with the EC regulations for prediction accuracy for the different scenarios. So, these equations will remain valid when castrated males are (gradually) removed from the Dutch slaughter population. Results of this study are of interest for researchers from countries or areas contemplating the use of one of the aforementioned instruments. The statistical approach for evaluation of prediction accuracy is of particular interest when changes in proportions of important subpopulations in the target population are foreseen. PMID:21871739

  13. The Danish Communicative Developmental Inventories: Validity and Main Developmental Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleses, Dorthe; Vach, Werner; Slott, Malene; Wehberg, Sonja; Thomsen, Pia; Madsen, Thomas O.; Basboll, Hans

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a large-scale cross-sectional study of Danish children's early language acquisition based on the Danish adaptation of the "MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories" (CDI). Measures of validity and reliability imply that the Danish adaptation of the American CDI has been adjusted linguistically and culturally in…

  14. Effect of feeding restriction on growth and dressing percentages in Mexican hairless pig.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-González, L A; Trejo-Lizama, W; Santos-Ricalde, R H

    2016-08-01

    Twenty-four male Mexican hairless pigs, weighing 16 ± 1.12 kg, were used to evaluate growth performance and carcass yield in pigs fed 2 (L), 3 (M) and 4 (H) times the Metabolizable Energy (ME) required for maintenance. The pigs were assigned randomly to two experimental rearing systems (indoors and outdoors). They were fed daily according to their respective feeding regimen (FR). The indoor pigs were fed ad libitum with chopped star grass forage (Cynodon nlemfuensis). The outdoor pigs had access during 16 h to a paddock of star grass. The pigs were slaughtered when they achieve 70 kg of live weight. No significant differences between indoors and outdoors were observed in any of the variables evaluated (P > 0.05). A significant reduction of daily live weight gain (P < 0.05) was observed conforming to FR reductions (0.501, 0.438 and 0.300 kg/day for H, M and L, respectively). Days to achieve 70 kg of live weight increase (P < 0.05) as FR reduces (110, 124 and 180 days for H, M and L, respectively) were recorded. Forage consumption in pigs reared indoors reduces (P < 0.05) conforming to FR increases (0.092, 0.121 and 0.307 kg DM/day for H, M and L respectively). Fat carcass yield reduces significantly (P < 0.05) according FR reductions (24.5, 22.8 y 18.9 kg, for H, M and L respectively). Also, carcass meat yield was higher (P < 0.05) in pigs from L regimen (25.0 kg) than in pigs from M and H regimen (22.0 and 22.8 kg, respectively). Results obtained indicate a reduction in daily live weight gain conforming to daily feed intake reductions; however, improvement in carcass meat yield, accompanied with a reduction in carcass fat yield, was observed. PMID:27154215

  15. The economic and environmental value of genetic improvements in fattening pigs: An integrated dynamic model approach.

    PubMed

    Niemi, J K; Sevón-Aimonen, M-L; Stygar, A H; Partanen, K

    2015-08-01

    The selection of animals for improved performance affects the profitability of pig fattening and has environmental consequences. The goal of this paper was to examine how changes in genetic and market parameters impact the biophysical (feeding patterns, timing of slaughter, nitrogen excretion) and economic (return per pig space unit) results describing pig fattening in a Finnish farm. The analysis can be viewed as focusing on terminal line breeding goals. An integrated model using recursive stochastic dynamic programming and a biological pig growth model was used to estimate biophysical results and economic values. Combining these models allowed us to provide more accurate estimates for the value of genetic improvement and, thus, provide better feedback to animal breeding programs than the traditional approach, which is based on fixed management patterns. Besides the benchmark scenario, the results were simulated for 5 other scenarios. In each scenario, genotype was improved regarding daily growth potential, carcass lean meat content, or the parameters of the Gompertz growth curve (maturing rate [], adult weight of protein [α], and adult weight of lipid mass []). The change in each parameter was equal to approximately 1 SD genetic improvement (ceteris paribus). Increasing , , daily growth potential, or carcass lean meat content increased the return on pig space unit by €12.60, €7.60, €4.10, or €2.90 per year, respectively, whereas an increase in decreased the return by €3.10. The genetic improvement in and resulted in the highest decrease in nitrogen excretion calculated in total or per kilogram of carcass gain but only under the optimal feeding pattern. Simulated changes in the Gompertz growth function parameters imply greater changes in ADG and lean meat content than changes in scenarios focusing on improving ADG and lean meat content directly. The economic value of genetic improvements as well as the quantity of nitrogen excreted during the fattening

  16. [Handling of the petition for ritual slaughter (the area of conflict of the official veterinarian between the special requirements and legal possibilities). Veterinary specialist view].

    PubMed

    Bierwirth-Wiest, H

    2004-03-01

    During the process for a permission of ritual slaughter, regulated by paragraph 4a (2) no.2 Animal Protection Law, the licensing authority has to weigh carefully, because there are different rights in the constitutional law. Ritual slaughter contradicts religious liberty and animal protection so it is necessary to find a balance. Demands on requests for ritual slaughter as well as rudiments for verification and notification are described and aspects of animal protection during ritual slaughter without stunning methods are demonstrated. PMID:15195956

  17. Effects of tail docking and docking length on neuroanatomical changes in healed tail tips of pigs.

    PubMed

    Herskin, M S; Thodberg, K; Jensen, H E

    2015-04-01

    In pig production, piglets are tail docked at birth in order to prevent tail biting later in life. In order to examine the effects of tail docking and docking length on the formation of neuromas, we used 65 pigs and the following four treatments: intact tails (n=18); leaving 75% (n=17); leaving 50% (n=19); or leaving 25% (n=11) of the tail length on the pigs. The piglets were docked between day 2 and 4 after birth using a gas-heated apparatus, and were kept under conventional conditions until slaughter at 22 weeks of age, where tails were removed and examined macroscopically and histologically. The tail lengths and diameters differed at slaughter (lengths: 30.6±0.6; 24.9±0.4; 19.8±0.6; 8.7±0.6 cm; P<0.001; tail diameter: 0.5±0.03; 0.8±0.02; 1.0±0.03; 1.4±0.04 cm; P<0.001, respectively). Docking resulted in a higher proportion of tails with neuromas (64 v. 0%; P<0.001), number of neuromas per tail (1.0±0.2 v. 0; P<0.001) and size of neuromas (1023±592 v. 0 μm; P<0.001). The results show that tail docking piglets using hot-iron cautery causes formation of neuromas in the outermost part of the tail tip. The presence of neuromas might lead to altered nociceptive thresholds, which need to be confirmed in future studies. PMID:25482535

  18. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schønning, Kristian; Fredholm, Merete; Guardabassi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is presently regarded as an emerging zoonotic agent due to the spread of specific methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clones in pig farms. Studying the microbiota can be useful for the identification of bacteria that antagonize such opportunistic veterinary and zoonotic pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium system. Carriers and non-carriers were selected on the basis of quantitative longitudinal data on S. aureus carriage in 600 pigs sampled at 20 Danish herds included in two previous studies in Denmark. Raw sequences were analysed with the BION meta package and the resulting abundance matrix was analysed using the DESeq2 package in R to identify operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with differential abundance between S. aureus carriers and non-carriers. Twenty OTUs were significantly associated to non-carriers, including species with known probiotic potential and antimicrobial effect such as lactic acid-producing isolates described among Leuconostoc spp. and some members of the Lachnospiraceae family, which is known for butyrate production. Further 5 OTUs were significantly associated to carriage, including known pathogenic bacteria such as Pasteurella multocida and Klebsiella spp. Our results show that the nasal microbiome of pigs that are not colonized with S. aureus harbours several species/taxa that are significantly less abundant in pig carriers, suggesting that the nasal microbiota may play a role in the individual predisposition to S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs. Further research is warranted to isolate these bacteria and assess their possible antagonistic effect on S. aureus for the pursuit of new strategies to control MRSA in pig farming. PMID:27509169

  19. Differential Analysis of the Nasal Microbiome of Pig Carriers or Non-Carriers of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Gongora, Carmen; Larsen, Niels; Schønning, Kristian; Fredholm, Merete; Guardabassi, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is presently regarded as an emerging zoonotic agent due to the spread of specific methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clones in pig farms. Studying the microbiota can be useful for the identification of bacteria that antagonize such opportunistic veterinary and zoonotic pathogen in animal carriers. The aim of this study was to determine whether the nasal microbiome of pig S. aureus carriers differs from that of non-carriers. The V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced from nasal swabs of 44 S. aureus carriers and 56 non-carriers using the 454 GS FLX titanium system. Carriers and non-carriers were selected on the basis of quantitative longitudinal data on S. aureus carriage in 600 pigs sampled at 20 Danish herds included in two previous studies in Denmark. Raw sequences were analysed with the BION meta package and the resulting abundance matrix was analysed using the DESeq2 package in R to identify operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with differential abundance between S. aureus carriers and non-carriers. Twenty OTUs were significantly associated to non-carriers, including species with known probiotic potential and antimicrobial effect such as lactic acid-producing isolates described among Leuconostoc spp. and some members of the Lachnospiraceae family, which is known for butyrate production. Further 5 OTUs were significantly associated to carriage, including known pathogenic bacteria such as Pasteurella multocida and Klebsiella spp. Our results show that the nasal microbiome of pigs that are not colonized with S. aureus harbours several species/taxa that are significantly less abundant in pig carriers, suggesting that the nasal microbiota may play a role in the individual predisposition to S. aureus nasal carriage in pigs. Further research is warranted to isolate these bacteria and assess their possible antagonistic effect on S. aureus for the pursuit of new strategies to control MRSA in pig farming. PMID:27509169

  20. Slaughtering for a living: A hermeneutic phenomenological perspective on the well-being of slaughterhouse employees.

    PubMed

    Victor, Karen; Barnard, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Slaughterhouses constitute a unique work setting exposing employees to particular physical and psychological health challenges. Research that focuses on the well-being of slaughterhouse employees is limited, and the aim of this study was to explore their well-being by conducting a hermeneutic phenomenological study of specifically the slaughterfloor employees' work-life experiences. The study was conducted in a South African commercial abattoir setting. Thirteen slaughterfloor employees and two managers of the slaughterfloor section participated in unstructured interviews. A hermeneutic phenomenological approach to data analysis was adopted following the stages of a naïve reading, a structural thematic analysis, and a comprehensive understanding. Data analysis resulted in four process-related themes representing the different stages of becoming a slaughterer, (mal)adjusting to slaughter work, coping with and maintaining the work, and living with the psycho-social consequences of slaughter work. Results facilitate an understanding of how employee well-being manifests in each of these stages of being a slaughterfloor employee. The risk potential of employees suffering from post-traumatic stress syndrome was evident throughout the stages of being a slaughterfloor employee and offers a useful diagnostic framework to facilitate employee well-being assistance. Slaughterhouse management should develop a holistic focus addressing employee well-being needs evident in each of the stages of being a slaughter worker and by extending well-being interventions to the broader communities that the slaughterhouse functions in. PMID:27104340

  1. 9 CFR 73.3 - Shipment for purposes other than slaughter; conditions under which permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.3 Shipment for purposes other than slaughter; conditions under which permitted. Cattle affected with scabies may be shipped interstate for any purpose if... State inspector, and so certified by such inspector, or such cattle may be so shipped if dipped once...

  2. 9 CFR 73.3 - Shipment for purposes other than slaughter; conditions under which permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.3 Shipment for purposes other than slaughter; conditions under which permitted. Cattle affected with scabies may be shipped interstate for any purpose if... State inspector, and so certified by such inspector, or such cattle may be so shipped if dipped once...

  3. 9 CFR 73.3 - Shipment for purposes other than slaughter; conditions under which permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.3 Shipment for purposes other than slaughter; conditions under which permitted. Cattle affected with scabies may be shipped interstate for any purpose if... State inspector, and so certified by such inspector, or such cattle may be so shipped if dipped once...

  4. 9 CFR 73.3 - Shipment for purposes other than slaughter; conditions under which permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.3 Shipment for purposes other than slaughter; conditions under which permitted. Cattle affected with scabies may be shipped interstate for any purpose if... State inspector, and so certified by such inspector, or such cattle may be so shipped if dipped once...

  5. 9 CFR 73.3 - Shipment for purposes other than slaughter; conditions under which permitted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.3 Shipment for purposes other than slaughter; conditions under which permitted. Cattle affected with scabies may be shipped interstate for any purpose if... State inspector, and so certified by such inspector, or such cattle may be so shipped if dipped once...

  6. 9 CFR 71.21 - Tissue and blood testing at slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tissue and blood testing at slaughter. 71.21 Section 71.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL...

  7. 9 CFR 71.21 - Tissue and blood testing at slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tissue and blood testing at slaughter. 71.21 Section 71.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL...

  8. 9 CFR 71.21 - Tissue and blood testing at slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tissue and blood testing at slaughter. 71.21 Section 71.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL...

  9. 9 CFR 71.21 - Tissue and blood testing at slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tissue and blood testing at slaughter. 71.21 Section 71.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 71.21 Tissue and blood testing...

  10. Slaughtering for a living: A hermeneutic phenomenological perspective on the well-being of slaughterhouse employees

    PubMed Central

    Victor, Karen; Barnard, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Slaughterhouses constitute a unique work setting exposing employees to particular physical and psychological health challenges. Research that focuses on the well-being of slaughterhouse employees is limited, and the aim of this study was to explore their well-being by conducting a hermeneutic phenomenological study of specifically the slaughterfloor employees’ work-life experiences. The study was conducted in a South African commercial abattoir setting. Thirteen slaughterfloor employees and two managers of the slaughterfloor section participated in unstructured interviews. A hermeneutic phenomenological approach to data analysis was adopted following the stages of a naïve reading, a structural thematic analysis, and a comprehensive understanding. Data analysis resulted in four process-related themes representing the different stages of becoming a slaughterer, (mal)adjusting to slaughter work, coping with and maintaining the work, and living with the psycho-social consequences of slaughter work. Results facilitate an understanding of how employee well-being manifests in each of these stages of being a slaughterfloor employee. The risk potential of employees suffering from post-traumatic stress syndrome was evident throughout the stages of being a slaughterfloor employee and offers a useful diagnostic framework to facilitate employee well-being assistance. Slaughterhouse management should develop a holistic focus addressing employee well-being needs evident in each of the stages of being a slaughter worker and by extending well-being interventions to the broader communities that the slaughterhouse functions in. PMID:27104340

  11. Antimicrobial Resistant E. coli from Retail Chicken Breast and Slaughter Rinsates: NARMS 2002-2005

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System tracks resistance trends among non-type-specific E. coli from chicken carcasses at slaughter and chicken breast meat at retail. Methods: From 2002-2005, a monthly sampling of chicken breasts from stores in GA, MD, OR and TN yielded ...

  12. Mineral retention of serially slaughtered Holstein steers supplemented with zilpaterol hydrochloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Holstein steers (n = 115; 449 ± 20 kg) were utilized in a serial harvest trial measuring Ca, P, Mg, K, and S retention. A baseline group of 5 steers was harvested after 226 days on feed, which was designated d 0. Remaining cattle were assigned to 11 harvest groups, with slaughter every 28 d. Prio...

  13. Prevalence of liver fluke infections in slaughtered animals in Lorestan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Ezatpour, Behrouz; Hasanvand, Ali; Azami, Mehdi; Anbari, Khatereh; Ahmadpour, Fatemeh

    2015-12-01

    Fasciola spp. and Dicrocoelium dendriticum as liver flukes, contaminate ruminants and other mammalian extensively and cause major diseases of livestock that create considerable economic losses. This retrospective study has been done to evaluate contamination rate of slaughtered animals with fasciolosis and dicrocoeliosis at Lorestan abattoirs. In this survey, prevalence rate of fasciolosis and dicrocoeliosis in slaughtered animals in a 3-year period (2010-2013) has been analyzed. A total of 356,605 livestock including 265,692 sheep and 90,913 goats were slaughtered in the 3-year period and overall 39,613 (11.1 %) livers were condemned. Fascioliasis and dicrocoeliosis were responsible for 6.3 and 4.8 % of total liver condemnations in this period, respectively. Fasciola spp. and D. dendriticum infection in sheep (7.1 and 5.6 %, respectively) were considerably higher than goats (3.9 and 2.6 %, respectively). The annual prevalence rates showed a significant decline in the fasciolosis and dicrocoeliosis infection in goats (p < 0.001). Data showed significant seasonal pattern for distomatosis in sheep and goats (p < 0.001). Liver condemnations due to fasciolosis were prevalent in sheep and goats slaughtered during spring and autumn, respectively, whereas dicrocoeliosis were common in spring season for both sheep and goats. This survey provides baseline data for the future monitoring of these potentially important parasitic infections in the region. PMID:26688642

  14. 9 CFR 71.21 - Tissue and blood testing at slaughter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tissue and blood testing at slaughter. 71.21 Section 71.21 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL...

  15. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  16. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  17. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  18. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  19. 9 CFR 381.190 - Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transactions in slaughtered poultry and other poultry products restricted; vehicle sanitation requirements. 381.190 Section 381.190... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  20. Assessment of cattle welfare at a commercial slaughter plant in the northwest of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C; Leyva, Iván G; Barreras-Serrano, Alberto; Pérez-Linares, Cristina; Sánchez-López, Eduardo; María, Gustavo A; Figueroa-Saavedra, Fernando

    2012-03-01

    Slaughter plants have been undergoing radical transformations in recent years due to the need to increase efficiency and incorporate new technologies for the improvement of the infrastructure, animal welfare, and product quality. The aim of this study was to assess the cattle welfare status during the unloading, lairage, stunning, bleeding and quantify bruising incidence at a commercial slaughter plant in the northwest of Mexico. We monitored 8,118 cattle during the unloading, lairage, stunning, bleeding, and carcass bruise incidence. Our results showed that in the unloading stage, 2% of the cattle vocalized, 5% were prodded with an electric goad, and 4% either slipped or fell. In the lairage stage, 12% of the animals vocalized, 80% prodded with an electric goad, and 8% of the animals slipped or fell. In the stunning stage, 10% of the animals vocalized, 67% prodded with an electric goad, and 15% of the animals slipped or fell. Ninety-five percent of the animals were stunned with a single shot, and 51% of the animals were effectively desensitized. Ninety-two percent of the carcasses had some type of bruise. Although the slaughter plant had adequate infrastructure and stringent operational standards, in all of the stages except unloading handling had an impact on the welfare of the animals being slaughtered. PMID:21789548

  1. Halal stunning and slaughter: Criteria for the assessment of dead animals.

    PubMed

    Fuseini, Awal; Knowles, Toby G; Hadley, Phil J; Wotton, Steve B

    2016-09-01

    The debate surrounding the acceptability of stunning for Halal slaughter is one that is likely to linger. Compared to a couple of decades or so ago, one may argue that pre-slaughter stunning is becoming a popular practice during Halal slaughter due to the increasing number of Muslim-majority countries who continue to issue religious rulings (Fatwa) to approve the practice. Concerns have often, however been raised about the likelihood of some animals dying as a result of stunning and whether there are mechanisms in place to identify and remove dead animals stunned with irreversible techniques before their necks are cut. This paper reviews literature about what makes meat Halal, considers the arguments put forward by proponents and opponents of pre-slaughter stunning for Halal production and examines the criteria used by Halal Certification Bodies to identify and reject animals that may die as a result of irreversible stunning and considers the specific risks of waterbath stunning (for poultry) from a Halal viewpoint. PMID:27179149

  2. Analysis of the relationship between economic measures and Salmonella testing results in young chicken slaughter establishments.

    PubMed

    Muth, Mary K; Creel, Darryl V; Karns, Shawn A; Wilkus, James

    2012-03-01

    Food processing establishments incur costs to install, maintain, and operate equipment and implement specific food safety practices. During times of economic recession, establishments might reduce their food safety efforts to conserve resources and reduce costs of operation. This study was conducted to determine whether financial performance measures are systematically associated with Salmonella test results. The association between Salmonella test results from 182 federally inspected young chicken slaughter establishments from 2007 to 2009 and financial performance was examined while controlling for other establishment characteristics. Results indicated that the smallest establishments, which slaughtered fewer than 0.2 million chickens per year, had three times as many positive test results as did the largest establishments, which slaughtered more than 86.0 million chickens per year (P < 0.01). Establishments that slaughtered more than 0.2 million but fewer than 18.5 million chickens had 1.5 times as many positive test results (P = 0.02). Two statistically significant financial performance measures were identified, but the effects were limited. Establishments in bankruptcy had 1.4 times as many positive test results as did those not in bankruptcy (P = 0.02); however, only five establishments were in bankruptcy. Establishments with better payment performance generally had better Salmonella test results, but the effect was significant only in the winter season. PMID:22410217

  3. CHARACTERIZATION AND IN-PLANT REDUCTION OF WASTEWATER FROM HOG SLAUGHTERING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastes generated were characterized and quantified in typical hog slaughtering operations both before and after modifications were made to reduce wastewater volume and strength and to increase by-product recovery. The research was carried out in the Oscar Mayer plants at Madison,...

  4. Effect of slaughter age on foal carcass traits and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, R; Crecente, S; Borrajo, P; Agregán, R; Lorenzo, J M

    2015-10-01

    Meat has played a crucial role in human evolution and is an important component of a healthy and well-balanced diet due to its nutritional richness. Recent studies have shown that horsemeat may be considered as an alternative to other meat (such as beef or pork), and it may have a positive effect on human health from a nutritional point of view. This research was conducted to characterize the carcass measurement, meat quality (chemical composition, colour characteristics and textural traits) and nutritional value (fatty acid and amino acid composition) of foals slaughtered at 8 and 11 months of age (8 and 11 m groups). For this study, a total of 21 foals (10 and 11 animals from the 8 and 11-m groups, respectively) were used. The results obtained showed a positive influence on carcass characteristics with an increase in slaughter age, because 11 m animals had slightly higher values of live (275 v. 247 kg) and carcass weights (148 v. 133 kg), length of leg (72.86 v. 69.85 cm) and carcass (100.41 v. 96.30 cm) and perimeter of leg (97.68 v. 89.22 cm) compared with animals from the 8-m group. Regarding meat quality, only Fe-haeme and cholesterol content in chemical composition and luminosity (L*) in colour parameters showed significant differences. Foals from the 8-m group had the highest content of cholesterol (0.47 v. 0.28 mg/100 g of meat) and luminosity values (39.66 v. 37.88) and the lowest content of ash (1.20% v. 1.40%). In fatty acids content, only five out of 23 fatty acids showed differences between the two groups. However, an interesting change in the fatty acid profile occurred with an increase in the slaughter age. Foals from the 8-m group had the highest values of α-linolenic acid and n-3 fatty acids and the lowest values of linoleic and n-6 fatty acids, which is an interesting fact from a health point of view. Finally, slaughter age had no statistical influence on textural properties or amino acid content. As a main conclusion, animals slaughtered at 8

  5. Exercise enclosures for guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Brown, Cyndi

    2009-11-01

    Exercise and exploration are important to the health and happiness of guinea pigs. Laboratory housing does not always provide the space necessary for such opportunities. This article presents an inexpensive, versatile option for an enclosed exercise area for the laboratory guinea pig. PMID:19847177

  6. Effect of O. porcinus Tick Salivary Gland Extract on the African Swine Fever Virus Infection in Domestic Pig

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Jennifer; Hutet, Evelyne; Paboeuf, Frédéric; Randriamparany, Tantely; Holzmuller, Philippe; Lancelot, Renaud; Rodrigues, Valérie; Vial, Laurence; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    African swine fever is a haemorrhagic disease in pig production that can have disastrous financial consequences for farming. No vaccines are currently available and animal slaughtering or area zoning to restrict risk-related movements are the only effective measures to prevent the spread of the disease. Ornithodoros soft ticks are known to transmit the African swine fever virus (ASFV) to pigs in farms, following the natural epidemiologic cycle of the virus. Tick saliva has been shown to modulate the host physiological and immunological responses during feeding on skin, thus affecting viral infection. To better understand the interaction between soft tick, ASFV and pig at the bite location and the possible influence of tick saliva on pig infection by ASFV, salivary gland extract (SGE) of Ornithodoros porcinus, co-inoculated or not with ASFV, was used for intradermal auricular inoculation. Our results showed that, after the virus triggered the disease, pigs inoculated with virus and SGE presented greater hyperthermia than pigs inoculated with virus alone. The density of Langerhans cells was modulated at the tick bite or inoculation site, either through recruitment by ASFV or inhibition by SGE. Additionally, SGE and virus induced macrophage recruitment each. This effect was enhanced when they were co-inoculated. Finally, the co-inoculation of SGE and virus delayed the early local spread of virus to the first lymph node on the inoculation side. This study has shown that the effect of SGE was powerful enough to be quantified in pig both on the systemic and local immune response. We believe this model should be developed with infected tick and could improve knowledge of both tick vector competence and tick saliva immunomodulation. PMID:26828597

  7. Effect of O. porcinus Tick Salivary Gland Extract on the African Swine Fever Virus Infection in Domestic Pig.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Jennifer; Hutet, Evelyne; Paboeuf, Frédéric; Randriamparany, Tantely; Holzmuller, Philippe; Lancelot, Renaud; Rodrigues, Valérie; Vial, Laurence; Le Potier, Marie-Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    African swine fever is a haemorrhagic disease in pig production that can have disastrous financial consequences for farming. No vaccines are currently available and animal slaughtering or area zoning to restrict risk-related movements are the only effective measures to prevent the spread of the disease. Ornithodoros soft ticks are known to transmit the African swine fever virus (ASFV) to pigs in farms, following the natural epidemiologic cycle of the virus. Tick saliva has been shown to modulate the host physiological and immunological responses during feeding on skin, thus affecting viral infection. To better understand the interaction between soft tick, ASFV and pig at the bite location and the possible influence of tick saliva on pig infection by ASFV, salivary gland extract (SGE) of Ornithodoros porcinus, co-inoculated or not with ASFV, was used for intradermal auricular inoculation. Our results showed that, after the virus triggered the disease, pigs inoculated with virus and SGE presented greater hyperthermia than pigs inoculated with virus alone. The density of Langerhans cells was modulated at the tick bite or inoculation site, either through recruitment by ASFV or inhibition by SGE. Additionally, SGE and virus induced macrophage recruitment each. This effect was enhanced when they were co-inoculated. Finally, the co-inoculation of SGE and virus delayed the early local spread of virus to the first lymph node on the inoculation side. This study has shown that the effect of SGE was powerful enough to be quantified in pig both on the systemic and local immune response. We believe this model should be developed with infected tick and could improve knowledge of both tick vector competence and tick saliva immunomodulation. PMID:26828597

  8. Multivariate analysis of traditional pig management practices and their potential impact on the spread of infectious diseases in Corsica.

    PubMed

    Relun, A; Charrier, F; Trabucco, B; Maestrini, O; Molia, S; Chavernac, D; Grosbois, V; Casabianca, F; Etter, E; Jori, F

    2015-10-01

    Corsica is a French Mediterranean island with traditional extensive pig farming oriented towards the production of high quality cured meat products. The increasing success of these cured products in continental Europe has triggered the development and organisation of an extensive pig farming industry. However, these pig farming practices have seldom been described and analysed to understand the potential risk of introduction and spread of infectious diseases. We conducted a cross-sectional study in Corsica in 2013 to characterise the main pig management practices and to identify groups of farms with similar practices and therefore homogeneous risk of introduction and spread of infectious diseases. We interviewed 68 pig farmers and investigated different farm management practices which could lead to contact between herds, such as trading animals, sharing pastures, feed and reproduction management (direct contacts), slaughtering and carcass waste management, and contacts with people and vehicles (indirect contacts). The practices were described and the farms grouped by multiple factor and hierarchical clustering analyses. Results revealed interesting patterns in the introduction and spread of infectious disease, such as the seasonality of pig production, the potential local spread of diseases in pastures due to the presence of free-ranging boars, carcasses, and animal waste. Multivariate analyses identified four groups of farms with different levels of risk of the spread of infectious disease, illustrating changes in farmers' customs from free-range uncontrolled farming systems to more controlled systems aimed at the production of high quality pork products. These results will be useful to more realistically simulate the spread of infectious diseases among Corsican pig farms and highlight the need for awareness raising campaigns among the stakeholders to reduce risky practices. PMID:26216476

  9. Technology And Pregnant Pigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    One of the interesting things about aerospace spinoff is the way it keeps cropping up in uncommon applications unimaginably remote from the original technology. For example, the pig pregnancy detector. The pig pregnancy detector? City folk may be surprised to learn that there is such a thing-and wonder why. The why is because it is a sow's job to produce piglets and farmers can't afford to keep those who don't; it costs about a half-dollar a day in feed, labor and facilities, and even in small herds that's intolerable. So the barren sow must go. Until recently, the best method of determining pig pregnancy was "eyeballing," daily visual examination over a period of time. The problem with eyeballing is that pregnancy is not evident until well advanced; when there is no pregnancy, the farmer learns too late that he has been feeding a sow that won't give him a litter. Advancing technology provided an answer: the quick, easy-to-use, accurate automatic detector for early evaluation of pregnancy status. Among the most popular of these devices are Scanopreg and Scanoprobe, to whose development NASA technology contributed. Scanopreg is an ultrasonic system which detects pregnancy about 30 days after breeding, long before eyeballing can provide an answer. The companion Scanoprobe is a dual-function unit which not only determines pregnancy but also gives farmers an analysis of a hog's meat-fat ratio, an important factor in breeding. Only a short time on the market, Scanopreg and Scanoprobe have already found wide acceptance among meat producers because they rapidly repay their cost.

  10. Impact of potential changes to the current bovine spongiform encephalopathy surveillance programs for slaughter cattle and fallen stock in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Katsuaki; Murray, Noel; Shinoda, Naoki; Onodera, Takashi

    2009-07-01

    Cattle slaughtered in Japan for human consumption, regardless of their age, have been tested for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) since October 2001. Beginning in April 2004, all fallen stock from 24 months of age also have been tested. We evaluated the impact of potential changes to the current BSE surveillance programs for both slaughter cattle and fallen stock using a simple stochastic model. We calculated the probability that a BSE-infected dairy cow, Wagyu beef animal, Wagyu-Holstein cross steer or heifer, or Holstein steer slaughtered for human consumption or arising as fallen stock would be tested and detected. Four surveillance strategies were explored for cattle slaughtered for human consumption, with the minimum age at testing set at 0, 21, 31, or 41 months. Three surveillance strategies were explored for fallen stock, with the minimum age at testing set at 24, 31, or 41 months. Increasing the minimum age of testing from 0 to 21 months for both dairy cattle and Wagyu beef cattle had very little impact on the probability that a BSE-infected animal slaughtered for human consumption would be detected. Although increasing the minimum age at testing from 21 to 31 or 41 months would lead to fewer slaughtered animals being tested, the impact on the probability of detecting infected animals would be insignificant. The probability of infected Wagyu-Holstein crosses and Holstein steers being detected at slaughter or as fallen stock would be very low under all surveillance strategies. PMID:19681270

  11. Effects of slaughter weight and carcass electrical stimulation on the quality and palatability of beef from young purebred bulls.

    PubMed

    Solomon, M B; West, R L; Hentges, J F

    1986-12-01

    Seventy-eight purebred Angus and Brahman bulls (10 to 18 mo at slaughter) were used to determine the effects of slaughter weight (60, 80, 90 or 100% of the average mature-cow weight for the respective breed) and carcass electrical stimulation (500 V, 20 2-s impulses on the right side) on carcass and meat characteristics. Angus bulls grazed summer forage (millet) after weaning, while Brahman bulls were fed to stimulate gains achieved on forage by Angus bulls. Bulls were then placed in the feedlot for finishing to their designated slaughter weight (293, 381, 412 and 463 kg for Angus and 316, 420, 463 and 516 kg for Brahman). Coarse dark band formation and lean color problems normally associated with bullock carcasses were either eliminated or reduced by stimulation. Increasing slaughter weight from 60 to 90% was associated with an increase in panel tenderness scores for loin steaks. However, increasing slaughter weight from 90 to 100% little change was detected. On the other hand, shear values for loin steaks decreased with increasing slaughter weight. Stimulation increased the tenderness of loin steaks as determined by both panel scores and shear values, and of bottom round steaks (shear-force values). The data from this study suggest that meat from the bulls slaughtered at lighter weights was generally tough, but was improved when bulls were fed to heavier, yet acceptable weights. This research encourages implementation of electrical stimulation on carcasses from young bulls to improve quality-indicating factors. PMID:3818464

  12. Escherichia vulneris in a Danish soccer wound.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, C F; Klebe, T M; Prag, J

    1997-01-01

    Escherichia vulneris was isolated from an infected soccer wound, a finding which has not apparently been described in Europe before, but by questioning Danish clinical microbiological laboratories a further 12 cases were discovered. Treatment with simple debridement and cefuroxime quickly eradicated the bacteria in our case. PMID:9255899

  13. Evaluating University Continuing Education: A Danish Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thune, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The Danish Evaluation Institute is conducting systematic assessments of three master's programs in public administration, public policy, and public management. They have found that explicit criteria have advantages and disadvantages. Development of criteria attempts to meet the following demands: uniformity, relevance of level, scope, precision,…

  14. Care and Education in the Danish Creche

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brostrom, Stig; Hansen, Ole Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to identify the relation between policy and lived life, for the small child in the Danish creche. To accomplish this, the article integrates demography, traditions, national curriculum and psychological, educational, and recent developments in research. It is an attempt to reveal knowledge and consequences, by conducting the…

  15. The Danish Free School Tradition under Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    2015-01-01

    The Danish free school tradition has entailed a large degree of associational freedom for non-governmental schools, religious as well as non-religious. Until the late 1990s, the non-governmental schools were under no strict ideological or pedagogical limitations; they could recruit teachers and students according to their own value base, and were…

  16. The Pig--Pet, Pork or Sacrifice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Arthur

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the various roles of the pig in children's books, including E. B. White's CHARLOTTE'S WEB and Nina Bawden's PEPPERMINT PIG. Notes that, although pigs are often used as metaphors for greed, gluttony, and squalor, the portrayal of pigs in children's literature is typically positive. (MM)

  17. Histidine maintenance requirement and efficiency of its utilization in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Heger, Jaroslav; Patrás, Peter; Nitrayová, Sona; Dolesová, Patricia; Sommer, Alexander

    2007-06-01

    An experiment was conducted in young pigs (initial BW 10.1 kg) to estimate the maintenance requirement for histidine and its efficiency of utilization for protein accretion using a comparative slaughter technique. Three groups of six pigs each were fed a purified diet supplying 0, 14 or 56 mg histidine per kg BW0.75. Following 21 d of feeding, pigs were killed for whole body compositional analysis. A representative group of six pigs was killed at the beginning of the experiment. Retention of histidine and total N were the main criteria of response. Histidine retention (R2 = 0.73) and N retention (R2 = 0.78) were linear functions of histidine intake (p < 0.001). Histidine requirement for zero histidine retention was 15.5 mg/kg BW0.7, whereas histidine required for zero N retention was 4.1 mg/kg BW0.75. At zero histidine retention, the pigs retained daily 82 mg N/kg BW0.75, presumably due to the degradation of histidine-rich compounds such as haemoglobin and/or carnosine. The slope of the regression line relating histidine retention to N retention indicated that 105 mg of histidine was deposited per gram of total N which was considerably less than the estimated histidine concentration in body protein (179 mg/g N). Based on the slopes of regression equations for histidine and N retention, marginal efficiency of histidine utilization was calculated to be 0.94 and 1.34, respectively. PMID:17578260

  18. The air quality in Danish urban areas.

    PubMed

    Jensen, F P; Fenger, J

    1994-10-01

    The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. Thus, in Copenhagen, the yearly averages have fallen to about 25%. For nitrogen oxides emitted from the power plants, similar regulations are in force. With this legislation, the most important and crucial source of air pollution in Danish urban areas is road traffic. The contribution of nitrogen oxides from national traffic accounts for nearly half the total Danish emission and is increasing steadily; this is consistent with an observed increase of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. The permissible levels of lead in petrol has been reduced drastically. After an introduction of reduced tax on lead-free petrol, it now accounts for more than two-thirds of the total consumption. As a result, the concentration of lead in urban ambient air has been reduced to less than one-sixth. The introduction of 3-way catalytic converters from October 1990 will result in reductions in the emission of a series of pollutants, e.g., lead, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. In 1980, a Danish air quality monitoring program was established as a cooperative effort between the authorities, the Government, the countries, the municipalities, and the Greater Copenhagen Council.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7821296

  19. The Effects of Pre-slaughter Stress and Season on the Activity of Plasma Creatine Kinase and Mutton Quality from Different Sheep Breeds Slaughtered at a Smallholder Abattoir

    PubMed Central

    Chulayo, A. Y.; Muchenje, V.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of pre-slaughter stress, season and breed on the activity of plasma creatine kinase (CK) and the quality of mutton. One hundred and seventy-three (173) castrated sheep from Dormer (DM), South African Mutton Merino (SAMM), Dorper (DP) and Blackhead Persian (BP) sheep breeds were used in the study. The animals were grouped according to age-groups as follows: Group 1 (6 to 8 months), Group 2 (9 to 12 months) and Group 3 (13 to 16 months). Blood samples were collected during exsanguinations using disposable vacutainer tubes for CK analysis. Representative samples of the Muscularis longissimuss thoracis et. lumborum (LTL) were collected from 84 castrated sheep, of different breeds (28 per breed) 24 h after slaughter. The following physico-chemical characteristics of mutton were determined; meat pH (pH24), color (L*, a* and b*), thawing and cooking losses and Warner Braztler Shear Force (WBSF). The activity of plasma CK was significantly higher (p<0.001) in summer (1,026.3±105.06) and lower in winter (723.3±77.75). There were higher values for L* (33.7±0.94), b* (11.5±0.48) and WBSF (29.5±1.46) in summer season than in winter season; L* (29.4±0.64), b* (10.2±0.33) and WBSF (21.2±0.99). The activity of plasma CK was influenced by the type of breed with Dormer having the highest (p>0.001) levels (1,358.6±191.08) of CK. South African Mutton Merino had higher values for pH24 (5.9±0.06), L* (34.2±0.97), b* (12.2±0.50) and WBSF (26.8±1.51) and Blackhead Persian had higher values (35.5±2.17) for cooking loss (CL%) than the other breeds. Computed Principal Component Analyses (PCA) on the activity of plasma CK and physico-chemical characteristics of mutton revealed no correlations between these variables. However, positive correlations were observed between pH24, L*, a*, b*, CL% and WBSF. Relationships between pre-slaughter stress, CK activity and physico-chemical characteristics of mutton were also

  20. [The pig sty].

    PubMed

    Pires, J C

    1993-11-01

    A first-page picture of the journal O Estado de S. Paulo on October, 1993, depicts 3 children playing in the ruins of a school building in Bahia. They are dressed in rags, just like the immense majority of children begotten in recent years. They are disgracefully filthy, with dishevelled hair, in the company of a pig content to share its habitat with such animalistic beings. In the inside pages of the same edition are profuse photos of other pigs dressed in suits and ties. This ostentation mocks the people and mainly the 3 children who do not attend school because the money for it has been embezzled from their pockets. Decent journalists, conscious of these piggish humans, endeavor every day to make this country a decent place to live. In the fight for a dignified and decent country, the journal Planejamento Agora, edited by ABEPF, makes an important statement with its slogan that the fight is true when the spirit is unabated. Planejamento Agora stoically battles to make every animal child alive today a human child who is wanted. The work and team of Planejamento Agora are saluted, and they are urged to continue the struggle on behalf of such children. PMID:12346085

  1. Antimicrobial resistance among Pseudomonas spp. and the Bacillus cereus group isolated from Danish agricultural soil.

    PubMed

    Jensen, L B; Baloda, S; Boye, M; Aarestrup, F M

    2001-06-01

    From four Danish pig farms, bacteria of Pseudomonas spp. and the Bacillus cereus group were isolated from soil and susceptibility towards selected antimicrobials was tested. From each farm, soil samples representing soil just before and after spread of animal waste and undisturbed agricultural soil, when possible, were collected. Soil from a well-characterized Danish farm soil (Højbakkegaard) was collected for comparison. The Pseudomonas spp. and B. cereus were chosen as representative for Gram-negative and Gram-positive indigenous soil bacteria to test the effect of spread of animal waste on selection of resistance among soil bacteria. No variations in resistance levels were observed between farms; but when the four differently treated soils were compared, resistance was seen for carbadox, chloramphenicol, nalidixan (nalidixic acid), nitrofurantoin, streptomycin and tetracycline for Pseudomonas spp., and for bacitracin, erythromycin, penicillin and streptomycin for the B. cereus group. Variations in resistance levels were observed when soil before and after spread of animal waste was compared, indicating an effect from spread of animal waste. PMID:11485227

  2. Simulating backspatter of blood from cranial gunshot wounds using pig models.

    PubMed

    Radford, G E; Taylor, M C; Kieser, J A; Waddell, J N; Walsh, K A J; Schofield, J C; Das, R; Chakravorty, E

    2016-07-01

    Few studies have examined the biomechanical basis for backspatter from cranial gunshot wounds. Backspatter is material which travels against the direction of fire following ejection from a gunshot entrance wound. Our paper focuses on the use of animals for reconstructing this phenomenon. Five live pigs and several slaughtered pigs were shot using either 9 × 19 mm, 115 grain, full metal jacketed ammunition or .22 long rifle, 40 grain, lead, round-nose ammunition. A high-speed camera was used to record the entrance wound formation and backspatter. A small amount of backspattered material was produced with all targets, and blood backspatter was seen in a few cases. However, we conclude that our model provides an understanding of the phenomenon of backspatter and the physical mechanisms associated with it. The various components of the mechanism of backspatter formation are complex and overlap. The principle mechanism observed in pig cranial gunshots was the high-speed impact response of the skin overlying the skull bone. This study has also produced evidence supporting the view that backspatter can result from the splashing of superficial blood if it is already present on the skin. Subcutaneous gas effects have been demonstrated for backspatter from contact shots. There has been no clear evidence of the role of the collapse of a temporary cavity within the brain. PMID:26156450

  3. Variation in haem pigment concentration and colour in meat from British pigs.

    PubMed

    Warriss, P D; Brown, S N; Adams, S J; Lowe, D B

    1990-01-01

    Variation in chemically determined total haem pigment concentration and instrumentally determined colour was examined in 223 samples of M. longissimus dorsi (LD) representative of the majority of slaughter pigs currently produced in the UK. Whether pigs were sired by White (Large White or Landrace) or Meat-line boars did not affect any measured characteristic but source breeding company influenced total haem pigment concentration (P < 0·01). Haem pigment concentration was higher in muscles from gilts, compared with castrates, boars being intermediate. Gilts also had darker muscles, based on EEL Reflectance values (P < 0·05), and lower hue values (P < 0·05). When compared with animals fed ad-libitum, restricted-fed pigs had higher concentrations of muscle haem pigment (P < 0·001) and this resulted in meat that was slightly darker (P < 0·05), despite having lower ultimate pH (pHu) (P < 0·05), and had a lower hue value (P < 0·001). Measurements of reflectance, total soluble protein and pHu indicated that differences in the incidence of potentially pale, soft, exudative or dark, firm, dry muscle were unlikely to be important contributors to variation in the colour of the meat in this study. PMID:22055663

  4. Magnetic system tracts steel bodied pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Kershaw, C.F.

    1982-06-01

    A new magnetic detection method can track and locate all types of pipeline-pigging devices - the standard swabbing, batching, and cleaning pig; online corrosion survey pigs; both dummy and live tools; and internal geometry pigs. The battery-operated detection instrument has six levels of sensitivity for varying pipeline depths, diameters, and wall thicknesses. Its operating principle involves sensing and recording the pig's characteristic magnetic signature.

  5. A register-based study of the antimicrobial usage in Danish veal calves and young bulls.

    PubMed

    Fertner, Mette; Toft, Nils; Martin, Henrik Læssøe; Boklund, Anette

    2016-09-01

    High antimicrobial usage and multidrug resistance have been reported in veal calves in Europe. This may be attributed to a high risk of disease as veal calves are often purchased from numerous dairy herds, exposed to stress related to the transport and commingling of new animals, and fed a new ration. In this study, we used national register data to characterize the use of antimicrobials registered for large Danish veal calf and young bull producing herds in 2014. A total of 325 herds with veal calf and potentially young bull production were identified from the Danish Cattle database. According to the national Danish database on drugs for veterinary use (VetStat), a total of 537,399 Animal Daily Doses (ADD200) were registered for these 325 herds during 2014. The amount of antimicrobials registered in 2014 varied throughout the year, with the highest amounts registered in autumn and winter. Antimicrobials were registered for respiratory disorders (79%), joints/limbs/CNS disorders (17%), gastrointestinal disorders (3.7%) and other disorders (0.3%). Of the registered antimicrobials, 15% were for oral and 85% for parenteral administration. Long-acting formulations with a therapeutic effect of more than 48h covered 58% of the drugs for parenteral use. Standardized at the herd-level, as ADD200/100 calves/day, antimicrobial use distributed as median [CI95%] for starter herds (n=22): 2.14 [0.19;7.58], finisher herds (n=24): 0.48 [0.00;1.48], full-line herds (n=183): 0.78 [0.05;2.20] and herds with an inconsistent pattern of movements (n=96): 0.62 [0.00;2.24]. Full-line herds are herds, which purchase calves directly from a dairy herd and raise them to slaughter. Furthermore, we performed a risk factor analysis on the 183 herds with a full-line production. Here, we investigated, whether the number of suppliers, the number of calves purchased, the frequency of purchase, the average age at introduction, the average time in the herd and vaccination influenced the amount of

  6. Field experiences with intelligent pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.N.; Duvivier, J.P.; Lefevre, D.E.; Robb, G.A.

    1996-08-01

    Oil and gas production operations use intelligent pigs for corrosion inspection of gathering systems and pipelines worldwide. The authors have been involved with intelligent pig inspections which have been conducted on over 155 different pipelines owned by one international corporation. A variety of intelligent pig vendors have been used with tools ranging from standard first generation magnetic flux leakage (MFL) to high-resolution MFL to standard and custom made ultrasonic (UT) tools. Experiences encountered during these inspections are discussed and resolutions to many of the problems are described.

  7. The effect of dietary carbohydrates and Trichuris suis infection on pig large intestine tissue structure, epithelial cell proliferation and mucin characteristics.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, L E; Knudsen, K E Bach; Hedemann, M S; Roepstorff, A

    2006-11-30

    Two experiments (Exps. 1 and 2) were performed to study the influence of Trichuris suis infection and type of dietary carbohydrates on large intestine morphology, epithelial cell proliferation and mucin characteristics. Two experimental diets based on barley flour were used; Diet 1 was supplemented with resistant carbohydrates from oat hull meal, while Diet 2 was supplemented with fermentable carbohydrates from sugar beet fibre and inulin. In Experiment 1, 32 pigs were allocated randomly into four groups. Two groups were fed Diet 1 and two groups Diet 2. Pigs from one of each diet group were inoculated with a single dose of 2000 infective T. suis eggs and the other two groups remained uninfected controls. In Experiment 2, 12 pigs were allocated randomly into two groups and fed Diet 1 or Diet 2, respectively, and inoculated with a single dose of 2000 infective T. suis eggs. All the pigs were slaughtered 8 weeks post inoculation (p.i.). The worm counts were lower in pigs fed Diet 2 in both experiments, but not significantly so. Both diet and infection status significantly influenced the tissue weight of the large intestine. In both experiments, pigs fed Diet 2 had heavier large intestines than pigs fed Diet 1 and in Experiment1 the infected pigs of both diets had heavier large intestines than their respective control groups. Diet and infection also significantly affected the morphological architecture and mucin production in both experiments. Pigs fed Diet 1 had larger crypts both in terms of area and height than pigs fed Diet 2 and T. suis infected pigs on both diets in Experiment 1 had larger crypts than their respective control groups. The area of the mucin granules in the crypts constituted 22-53% of the total crypt area and was greatest in the T. suis infected pigs fed Diet 1. Epithelial cell proliferation was affected neither by diet nor infection in any of the experiments. The study showed that both T. suis infection and dietary carbohydrates significantly

  8. Development and duration of BCG-induced allergy in the guinea-pig*

    PubMed Central

    Tolderlund, Knud; Bunch-Christensen, Kirsten; Waaler, Hans

    1960-01-01

    In assessing the biological activity of BCG vaccine by tuberculin testing of vaccinated guinea-pigs, it is necessary to take into account the rates of development and waning of allergy, and also the boosting effect on waning allergy caused by the tuberculin test itself. Using Danish liquid vaccine (in approximately standard dose), the authors have carried out two series of tests, involving more than six hundred guinea-pigs, to evaluate the significance of these factors. Post-vaccination tuberculin sensitivity was found to reach a maximum within 1-2 months. Three months after vaccination the BCG-induced allergy began to wane, and after 12 months it had dropped almost to the level observed in non-vaccinated guinea-pigs. The tuberculin test had a strong boosting effect, however, and even 12 months after vaccination the waning sensitivity could be considerably increased by a single injection of 10 TU of tuberculin. An analysis of the results showed that the waning of the level of allergy takes place gradually over several months. This is not an effect of aging, however, as the response to vaccination was found to be independent of the age of the animals. The indications of this study are that tuberculin testing of guinea-pigs used for the laboratory control of BCG vaccine is best performed about 6 weeks after vaccination. PMID:20604065

  9. Risk factors for farm-level African swine fever infection in major pig-producing areas in Nigeria, 1997-2011.

    PubMed

    Fasina, F O; Agbaje, M; Ajani, F L; Talabi, O A; Lazarus, D D; Gallardo, C; Thompson, P N; Bastos, A D S

    2012-11-01

    African swine fever (ASF) is an economically devastating disease for the pig industry, especially in Africa. Identifying what supports infection on pig farms in this region remains the key component in developing a risk-based approach to understanding the epidemiology of ASF and controlling the disease. Nigeria was used for this matched case-control study, because there is perpetual infection in some areas, while contiguous areas are intermittently infected. Risk factors and biosecurity practices in pig farms were evaluated in association with ASF infection. Subsets of farms located in high-density pig population areas and high-risk areas for ASF infection were randomly selected for analysis. Most plausible risk factor variables from the univariable analysis included in the multivariable analysis include: owner of farm had regular contact with infected farms and other farmers, untested pigs were routinely purchased into the farm in the course of outbreaks, there was an infected neighbourhood, other livestock were kept alongside pigs, there was a presence of an abattoir/slaughter slab in pig communities, wild birds had free access to pig pens, tools and implements were routinely shared by pig farmers, there was free access to feed stores by rats, and feed was purchased from a commercial source. Only the presence of an abattoir in a pig farming community (OR=8.20; CI(95%)=2.73, 24.63; P<0.001) and the presence of an infected pig farm in the neighbourhood (OR=3.26; CI(95%)=1.20, 8.83; P=0.02) were significant. There was a marginally significant negative association (protective) between risk of ASF infection and sharing farm tools and equipment (OR=0.35; CI(95%)=0.12, 1.01; P=0.05). Of the 28 biosecurity measures evaluated, food and water control (OR=0.14; CI(95%)=0.04, 0.46; P<0.001), separation/isolation of sick pigs (OR=0.14; CI(95%)=0.04, 0.53; P=0.004) and washing and disinfection of farm equipment and tools (OR=0.27; CI(95%)=0.10, 0.78; P=0.02) were negatively

  10. Effects of crossbreeding and gender on the carcass traits and meat quality of korean native black pig and duroc crossbred.

    PubMed

    Muhlisin; Panjono; Lee, Sung-Jin; Lee, Jeong Koo; Lee, Sung Ki

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted to observe the effects of crossbreeding and gender on the carcass traits and meat quality of Korean Native Black Pig (KNP) and KNP×Duroc crossbred (KNP×D). A total of 50 pigs comprising seven KNP barrows, eight KNP gilts, twenty KNP×D barrows and fifteen KNP×D gilts were used in this study. Animals were reared in the same housing condition with same feed diet for six months prior to slaughter. After an overnight chilling, the carcasses were graded, and samples of Musculus longissimus dorsi were obtained for meat quality analysis. The slaughter and carcass weights and dressing percentage of KNP×D were higher (p<0.001) than those of KNP. The slaughter and carcass weights and backfat thickness of barrows were higher (p<0.01) than those of gilts. There were no significant difference in carcass conformation and quality grade between KNP and KNP×D as well as barrow and gilt. Fat content of KNP×D was higher (p<0.001) than that of KNP. Fat content of barrow was higher (p<0.001) than that of gilt. There was interaction between crossbreeding and gender on the fat content. KNP gilt showed higher fat content than KNP barrow whereas KNP×D barrow showed higher fat content than KNP×D gilt. Lightness, redness, yellowness, chroma and hue angle values and color preference of meat of KNP×D were lower (p<0.001) than those of KNP. Redness, yellowness and chroma values of meat of barrow were lower (p<0.05) than those of gilt. It is concluded that crossbreeding KNP with Duroc increases carcass productivity and meat fat but decreases meat color values and preference. Crossbreeding of KNP with Duroc produces a better fat deposition in meat of barrows than in gilts. PMID:25050045

  11. The impact of different housing systems on health and welfare of grower and finisher pigs in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Cagienard, A; Regula, G; Danuser, J

    2005-04-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of housing systems on the health and welfare of grower and finisher pigs. Forty-seven "animal friendly" farms meeting Swiss criteria and participating in a Swiss subsidy program and 37 farms using traditional housing with slatted floors were evaluated in an epidemiological field study. Group-health evaluations and individual clinical examinations were performed during four visits to each farm. Evaluation of pig behaviours associated with health and welfare were assessed through indicators including presence of lesions on the snout, ears, shoulders, legs and tail. General group-health evaluations included lameness, respiratory disease, diarrhoea, ear biting, skin abnormalities, injuries, abscesses, sunburn, recumbency, ill-thrift and behavioural abnormalities such as dog sitting and tail biting. Data on management practices, medical treatment, mortality and results of slaughter inspections were also collected, and the type of housing described. Pooled faecal samples were collected and examined for intestinal parasites. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics of indicators of health and welfare and logistic-regression analysis accounting for group effect using generalised estimation equation (GEE). Findings indicated a high health status of pigs in Swiss finishing farms. Data from the individual clinical examination were more sensitive compared to the group-health evaluations. Both the individual clinical examination and group-health evaluation indicated that "animal friendly" housing had positive effects on health and welfare of fattening pigs. PMID:15795015

  12. Comparison of different agar diffusion methods for the detection of residues in the kidneys of pigs treated with antimicrobial drugs.

    PubMed

    Korkeala, H; Sorvettula, O; Mäki-Petäys, O; Hirn, J

    1983-01-01

    Residue analyses of the kidneys of twenty-six pigs treated with various antimicrobial drugs 20 h before slaughter and of eleven untreated pigs were performed. The effects of storage temperature of the kidneys, and of sampling location, on the residue analysis were also studied. No method alone was sufficient for the detection of residues. Oxytetracycline residues could be detected at pH 6, dihydrostreptomycin residues at pH 8, and sulphonamide residues if trimethoprim was present in the medium. Chloramphenicol, penicillin G procaine, tylosin and lincomycin residues were not detectable with the methods used. The concentration of ampicillin decreased during the storage of samples at +4°C. Most methods also yielded zones of inhibition for the frozen kidneys from untreated pigs. It seems necessary to use agar media of two different pH values: the addition of trimethoprim to the medium is also needed. The use of fresh pig kidneys, and samples containing both kidney medulla and kidney cortex, is recommended in residue analysis. PMID:22055926

  13. A preliminary screening study on human cystic echinococcosis in Cairo slaughter house personnel.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, N I; el Damaty, S I

    2000-04-01

    A descriptive serological screening study was done on human cystic echinococcosis (CE) in high risk groups selected from Cairo slaughter house employees and the household nearby using indirect haemagglutination (IHA) and enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) tests. Characterized camel hydatid cyst fluid (HCF) antigen by 12.5% sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used. Three asymptomatic clinical cases (1.3%) were seropositive using EITB assay (reacting with six HCF protein bands of molecular weights approximately 7, 21, 28, 35, 127 and 210 kilodaltons 'kDa') but one case was seronegative by the IHA test. All three cases had typical lesions of CE in liver and lung revealed by abdominal ultrasonography (US), computerized tomography (CT) scan and chest X-ray. The prevalence of CE in Cairo slaughter house workers was 1.6% versus 1.1% in the household nearby. PMID:10786044

  14. Patterns and durations of journeys by horses transported from the USA to Canada for slaughter.

    PubMed

    Roy, R Cyril; Cockram, Michael S

    2015-06-01

    Concern has been expressed over the welfare of horses transported from the USA for slaughter in Canada. United States Department of Agriculture owner/shipper certificates for the year 2009 were analyzed to provide quantitative information on the patterns and durations of these journeys. In 2009, horses from 16 states in the northern USA were transported to 6 equine slaughter plants in Canada. Thirty-two percent of loads were from auction centers, 33% from feedlots, and 35% from horse collection centers. The median duration of the journey was 19 h. Thirty-six percent of horses were transported for < 6 h, 11% for 6 to 18 h, 13% for 18 to 24 h, 25% for 24 to 36 h, 9% for 36 to 48 h, and apparently 6% > 48 h. Some journeys exceeded those specified in regulations and, based on other research, would put these horses at risk of negative welfare outcomes, such as dehydration, injury, and fatigue. PMID:26028678

  15. Patterns and durations of journeys by horses transported from the USA to Canada for slaughter

    PubMed Central

    Roy, R. Cyril; Cockram, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Concern has been expressed over the welfare of horses transported from the USA for slaughter in Canada. United States Department of Agriculture owner/shipper certificates for the year 2009 were analyzed to provide quantitative information on the patterns and durations of these journeys. In 2009, horses from 16 states in the northern USA were transported to 6 equine slaughter plants in Canada. Thirty-two percent of loads were from auction centers, 33% from feedlots, and 35% from horse collection centers. The median duration of the journey was 19 h. Thirty-six percent of horses were transported for < 6 h, 11% for 6 to 18 h, 13% for 18 to 24 h, 25% for 24 to 36 h, 9% for 36 to 48 h, and apparently 6% > 48 h. Some journeys exceeded those specified in regulations and, based on other research, would put these horses at risk of negative welfare outcomes, such as dehydration, injury, and fatigue. PMID:26028678

  16. An F2 Pig Resource Population as a Model for Genetic Studies of Obesity and Obesity-Related Diseases in Humans: Design and Genetic Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Kogelman, Lisette J. A.; Kadarmideen, Haja N.; Mark, Thomas; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Bruun, Camilla S.; Cirera, Susanna; Jacobsen, Mette J.; Jørgensen, Claus B.; Fredholm, Merete

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a rising worldwide public health problem. Difficulties to precisely measure various obesity traits and the genetic heterogeneity in human have been major impediments to completely disentangle genetic factors causing obesity. The pig is a relevant model for studying human obesity and obesity-related (OOR) traits. Using founder breeds divergent with respect to obesity traits we have created an F2 pig resource population (454 pigs), which has been intensively phenotyped for 36 OOR traits. The main rationale for our study is to characterize the genetic architecture of OOR traits in the F2 pig design, by estimating heritabilities, genetic, and phenotypic correlations using mixed- and multi-trait BLUP animal models. Our analyses revealed high coefficients of variation (15–42%) and moderate to high heritabilities (0.22–0.81) in fatness traits, showing large phenotypic and genetic variation in the F2 population, respectively. This fulfills the purpose of creating a resource population divergent for OOR traits. Strong genetic correlations were found between weight and lean mass at dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning (0.56–0.97). Weight and conformation also showed strong genetic correlations with slaughter traits (e.g., rg between abdominal circumference and leaf fat at slaughtering: 0.66). Genetic correlations between fat-related traits and the glucose level vary between 0.35 and 0.74 and show a strong correlation between adipose tissue and impaired glucose metabolism. Our power calculations showed a minimum of 80% power for QTL detection for all phenotypes. We revealed genetic correlations at population level, for the first time, for several difficult to measure and novel OOR traits and diseases. The results underpin the potential of the established F2 pig resource population for further genomic, systems genetics, and functional investigations to unravel the genetic background of OOR traits. PMID:23515185

  17. Incidence of salmonellae in fecal samples of production swine and swine at slaughter plants in the United States in 1978.

    PubMed Central

    McKinley, G A; Fagerberg, D J; Quarles, C L; George, B A; Wagner, D E; Rollins, L D

    1980-01-01

    Nine swine slaughter plants and 19 swine production units were randomly selected for sampling from the six highest swine-producing states representing a total of 64% of the United States swine production. Three composites of 10 fresh swine fecal samples were obtained from each slaughter plant, representing three different farm sources of swine. Two composite fecal samples were collected from two different production pens from each production unit. Samples were analyzed for salmonellae. Isolated salmonellae were biochemically and serologically identified and tested for antibiotic susceptibility and resistance transfer ability. Salmonellae were recovered from swine at seven of the nine slaughter plants and 16 of the 27 composites of slaughter swine. Of the 19 production units, 3 had swine shedding salmonellae. Resistances found included streptomycin, tetracycline, and sulfadiazine. Of the 52 total isolates tested, 71% had some level of antibiotic resistance. Only 3 of 37 resistant isolated could transfer resistance under the conditions used. PMID:7425616

  18. Effect of pre-slaughter handling, exercise and the presence of a dog on lamb welfare and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, M A; Worth, G M; Stuart, A D; Dobbie, P M; Clerens, S

    2016-08-01

    Before slaughter, lambs may experience several stressors such as feed and water deprivation, handling and transport that have the potential to negatively impact welfare and meat quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-slaughter handling, exercise and the presence of a dog on the behaviour and physiology of lambs and meat quality at slaughter. At 6 months of age, 60 lambs (n=20 lambs/replicate; three replicates) were allocated to one of the two treatment groups (n=30 lambs/treatment): low (LOW) intensive handling or high (HIGH) intensive handling. LOW lambs were moved short distances, quietly and without the use of a dog before transport. HIGH lambs were moved quickly, long distances and with a dog present before transport. Lamb behaviour (standing, lying, rumination and panting) was recorded for 1 h before (post-treatment) and after transport (post-transport), and for 30 min before slaughter (pre-slaughter). Blood samples were collected before (baseline), after transport (post-transport) and at exsanguination (at slaughter) to assess cortisol, lactate and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations. At slaughter, lamb carcases (M. longissimus lumborum) were evaluated for pH levels, drip and cook loss, and tenderness. HIGH lambs spent more time standing (P<0.001) and panting (P<0.001) and less time lying (P<0.001) and ruminating (P<0.001) post-treatment than LOW lambs, but more (P<0.001) time ruminating post-transport. All lambs spent more time standing (P<0.001) and less time lying (P<0.001) and panting (P<0.001) post-transport and pre-slaughter than post-treatment. Cortisol concentrations were greater (P<0.001) in lambs post-transport and at slaughter compared with baseline values. Lactate concentrations were lower (P=0.002) in HIGH than LOW lambs. In addition, NEFA concentrations were higher (P<0.001) post-transport and at slaughter in HIGH compared with LOW lambs. Ultimate pH was higher (P<0.001) in HIGH than LOW lambs and p

  19. Risk Factors for Whole Carcass Condemnations in the Swiss Slaughter Cattle Population

    PubMed Central

    Vial, Flavie; Schärrer, Sara; Reist, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We used meat-inspection data collected over a period of three years in Switzerland to evaluate slaughterhouse-level, farm-level and animal-level factors that may be associated with whole carcass condemnation (WCC) in cattle after slaughter. The objective of this study was to identify WCC risk factors so they can be communicated to, and managed by, the slaughter industry and veterinary services. During meat inspection, there were three main important predictors of the risk of WCC; the slaughtered animal's sex, age, and the size of the slaughterhouse it was processed in. WCC for injuries and significant weight loss (visible welfare indicators) were almost exclusive to smaller slaughterhouses. Cattle exhibiting clinical syndromes that were not externally visible (e.g. pneumonia lesions) and that are associated with fattening of cattle, end up in larger slaughterhouses. For this reason, it is important for animal health surveillance to collect data from both types of slaughterhouses. Other important risk factors for WCC were on-farm mortality rate and the number of cattle on the farm of origin. This study highlights the fact that the many risk factors for WCC are as complex as the production system itself, with risk factors interacting with one another in ways which are sometimes difficult to interpret biologically. Risk-based surveillance aimed at farms with reoccurring health problems (e.g. a history of above average condemnation rates) may be more appropriate than the selection, of higher-risk animals arriving at slaughter. In Switzerland, the introduction of a benchmarking system that would provide feedback to the farmer with information on condemnation reasons, and his/her performance compared to the national/regional average could be a first step towards improving herd-management and financial returns for producers. PMID:25901751

  20. Genetic correlations between visual slaughter conformation scores and growth and reproductive traits in Canchim cattle.

    PubMed

    Borba, L H F; Baldi, F; Feitosa, F L B; da Silva, L O C; Pereira, A S C; Alencar, M M

    2016-01-01

    We obtained heritability and (co)variance component estimates for slaughter conformation scores at 420 days of age (SCS420), age at calving (first, AFC; second, ASC), calving occurrence until 38 months of age (CP38), weight at 420 days of age (W420), and scrotal circumference at 420 days (SC420) in Canchim (5/8 Charolais + 3/8 Zebu) cattle. A total of 23,168 records of Canchim animals, including 12,493 females and 10,675 males, were analyzed. SCS420 indicated carcass structure, muscle development, and subcutaneous fat deposition. The slaughter conformation score of each animal was relative to the whole contemporary group; 1 corresponded to the lowest expression of the trait and 6 to the highest. Heritabilities, and genetic and residual correlation estimates between SCS420 and reproductive and weight traits, were estimated by multitrait analyses using an animal model with Bayesian inference, employing a linear model for AFC, ASC, SC420, and W420 and a threshold model for CP38 and SCS420. Heritability estimates for SCS420, AFC, ASC, CP38, W420, and SC420 were 0.11, 0.15, 0.15, 0.15, 0.30, and 0.30, respectively. Genetic correlation estimates between SCS420 and the other traits were 0.08 (AFC), 0.58 (ASC), 0.08 (CP38), 0.43 (W420), and 0.17 (SC420). Visual slaughter conformation scores respond to individual selection and can be used as selection criteria in Canchim cattle. Selection to improve sexual precocity would not be effective in improving carcass conformation and composition, and selection for animals with high breeding values for yearling weight may improve slaughter conformation at the yearling stage. PMID:27323049

  1. Salmonella contamination, serovars and antimicrobial resistance profiles of cattle slaughtered in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Madoroba, Evelyn; Kapeta, Daniel; Gelaw, Awoke K

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistant Salmonella are among the leading causes of foodborne infections. Our aim was to determine Salmonella contamination during cattle slaughter in South African rural abattoirs (n = 23) and environmental samples. Furthermore, antimicrobial resistance patterns of the Salmonella isolates were determined. Samples of cattle faeces (n = 400), carcass sponges (n = 100), intestinal contents (n = 62), hides (n = 67), and water from the abattoirs (n = 75) were investigated for Salmonella species using microbiological techniques and species-specific polymerase chain reaction targeting the invA gene. In total 92 Salmonella species isolates were recovered. The Salmonella mean frequency of occurrence on hides, carcasses, and intestinal contents was 35.37% (n = 81). Eleven faecal samples (2.75%) tested positive for Salmonella. The predominant serovar was Salmonella Enteritidis. Diverse serovars that were identified on carcasses were not necessarily found on the hides and intestinal contents. The inconsistent occurrence of the diverse Salmonella serovars on hides, carcasses, and intestinal contents implies that in addition to carriage on hides and in intestinal contents, other external factors also play an important role regarding carcass contamination. The 92 Salmonella were serotyped and tested for susceptibility towards the following antimicrobials: ampicillin, cefotaxime, enrofloxacin, kanamycin, and oxytetracycline using the disk diffusion method. Most Salmonella (n = 66; 71.7%) isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial with highest resistance observed towards oxytetracycline (51.90%), which highlights the need for strict hygiene during slaughter and prudent antimicrobial use during animal production. In conclusion, cattle slaughtered in South African rural abattoirs harbour diverse Salmonella serovars that are resistant to antimicrobials, which could be a public health risk. The findings should assist policymakers with improving implementation

  2. Risk factors for whole carcass condemnations in the Swiss slaughter cattle population.

    PubMed

    Vial, Flavie; Schärrer, Sara; Reist, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We used meat-inspection data collected over a period of three years in Switzerland to evaluate slaughterhouse-level, farm-level and animal-level factors that may be associated with whole carcass condemnation (WCC) in cattle after slaughter. The objective of this study was to identify WCC risk factors so they can be communicated to, and managed by, the slaughter industry and veterinary services. During meat inspection, there were three main important predictors of the risk of WCC; the slaughtered animal's sex, age, and the size of the slaughterhouse it was processed in. WCC for injuries and significant weight loss (visible welfare indicators) were almost exclusive to smaller slaughterhouses. Cattle exhibiting clinical syndromes that were not externally visible (e.g. pneumonia lesions) and that are associated with fattening of cattle, end up in larger slaughterhouses. For this reason, it is important for animal health surveillance to collect data from both types of slaughterhouses. Other important risk factors for WCC were on-farm mortality rate and the number of cattle on the farm of origin. This study highlights the fact that the many risk factors for WCC are as complex as the production system itself, with risk factors interacting with one another in ways which are sometimes difficult to interpret biologically. Risk-based surveillance aimed at farms with reoccurring health problems (e.g. a history of above average condemnation rates) may be more appropriate than the selection, of higher-risk animals arriving at slaughter. In Switzerland, the introduction of a benchmarking system that would provide feedback to the farmer with information on condemnation reasons, and his/her performance compared to the national/regional average could be a first step towards improving herd-management and financial returns for producers. PMID:25901751

  3. Pig shipping container test sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, H.E. Jr.

    1995-01-13

    This test plan outlines testing of the integrity of the pig shipping container. It is divided into four sections: (1) drop test requirements; (2) test preparations; (3) perform drop test; and (4) post-test examination.

  4. Solanum malacoxylon toxicity to pigs.

    PubMed

    Rucksan, B E; Wells, G A; Lewis, G

    1978-08-19

    Newly weaned pigs were given Solanum malacoxylon at dose rates of 0.2 and 1.0 g per kg body-weight per week for eight weeks. The Solanum malacoxylon was given either as an aqueous extract (SM) or as an aqueous extract incubated with fresh rumen liquor (SMLR). Tubulonephrosis, dose related in severity, was evident in all treated pigs and focal calcification in kidney and lung occurred in pigs receiving the higher dose rate. There was a marked hypercalcaemia and hypophosphataemia over the trial period; the latter feature was in contrast with the hyperphosphataemia produced in sheep. Incubation of SM with rumen liquor enhanced hypophosphataemia at both dose levels in the pig but its effect on serum calcium was equivocal. PMID:695263

  5. Poultry slaughter wastewater treatment with an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor.

    PubMed

    Chávez P, C; Castillo L, R; Dendooven, L; Escamilla-Silva, E M

    2005-10-01

    Removal of organic material from poultry slaughter wastewater as determined by changes in biological oxygen demand (BOD5) was investigated by adding three different types of inoculum combining cow manure, yeast extract or hydraulic residence time as variables with response vector of reduction of BOD5. In a 3-l reactors, a 95% removal of BOD5 from poultry slaughter wastewater was obtained with organic loading rates up to 31 kg BOD5 m(-3) d(-1) without loss of stability. This 95% removal was obtained between 25 and 39 degrees C with a hydraulic residence time between 3.5 and 4.5 h. The growth of the consortium of micro-organisms in the reactor followed a first-order kinetic with a constant specific growth rate of 0.054 h(-1). It was concluded that an inoculum from cow manure added with nutrients and yeast extract allowed a 95% removal of BOD5 from poultry slaughter wastewater at ambient temperatures within a hydraulic residence time of 4 h, sharply reducing possible environmental hazards. PMID:15936942

  6. Effect of slaughter methods on the quality of Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Fei; Huang, Rui-Ji; Liu, Lin; Zhou, Xuxia; Ding, Yu-Ting

    2015-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the influence of slaughter methods on the quality of Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) during refrigerated storage on board. Fishes were slaughtered by asphyxia in air (AA), asphyxia in ice water (AI) or stunning fish heads (SH), and the rigor mortis, pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), trimethylamine (TMA), 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and sensory properties for the fishes were analyzed. On day 0, Chilean jack mackerel samples of AI group displayed higher pH values than those of AA and SH groups. TVB-N, TMA and TBARS values of all samples increased with the storage time, and these values of AI had a lower increase than AA and SH. Moreover, samples of AI had a better sensory score than AA and SH during storage. It can be concluded that slaughter method of asphyxia in ice water for Chilean jack mackerel exhibit the better efficiency on maintaining the fish quality during refrigerated storage on board. PMID:25745250

  7. Genotypic and antimicrobial characterization of pathogenic bacteria at different stages of cattle slaughtering in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Loiko, Márcia R; de Paula, Cheila M D; Langone, Ana C J; Rodrigues, Rochele Q; Cibulski, Samuel; Rodrigues, Rogério de O; Camargo, Anderson C; Nero, Luís A; Mayer, Fabiana Q; Tondo, Eduardo C

    2016-06-01

    Meat can be contaminated in different stages of the slaughtering process and the identification of these stages is the starting point to implement adequate control measures. The objectives of this study were to assess the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in cattle carcasses, to identify the most important contamination points of the slaughtering process, and to evaluate the possible risk factors related to them in a cattle slaughterhouse. To this aim, 108 cattle carcasses were sampled at three stages of the slaughtering process: Point 1 (hides after bleeding); Point 2 (carcasses after hide removal); and Point 3 (carcasses immediately after division). Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Livingstone were isolated from the carcasses. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization indicated that there was cross-contamination among animals, since bacteria with identical genotypic and phenotypic profiles were isolated from different animals at the same sampling day. Furthermore, this is the first report about the isolation of E. coli O157:H7 in a bovine slaughterhouse from southern Brazil. PMID:26896744

  8. Transport versus on-farm slaughter of bison: Physiological stress, animal welfare, and avoidable trim losses

    PubMed Central

    McCorkell, Robert; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Galbraith, Jayson; Schaefer, Al; Caulkett, Nigel; Boysen, Soren; Pajor, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Ranched bison are typically less acclimated to handling than are domesticated livestock, suggesting that they might be more vulnerable to handling and transportation stressors. Grain-finished bison were slaughtered on-farm (n = 11), or held for 48 h, transported to a research abattoir, held in lairage for 18 h, and then slaughtered (n = 11). An additional group (n = 10) was sampled at a conventional fixed location abattoir. Measures included serum cortisol and corticosterone concentrations during on-farm handling and exsanguination, serum glucose, creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and trim losses. Transport was associated with an increase in trim loss. On-farm, glucose was elevated, CPK was positively associated with handling order over 12 h, and corticosterone concentration, although lower than cortisol concentration, showed a greater response to prolonged disturbance. With appropriate on-farm handling facilities, the use of on-farm slaughter and mobile abattoir could avoid muscle damage and trim losses, and mitigate injuries sustained during handling and transport of bison. PMID:24155478

  9. Identification of risk factors for Campylobacter contamination levels on broiler carcasses during the slaughter process.

    PubMed

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Baré, Julie; Berkvens, Dirk; Van Damme, Inge; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-06-01

    Campylobacter carcass contamination was quantified across the slaughter line during processing of Campylobacter positive batches. These quantitative data were combined together with information describing slaughterhouse and batch related characteristics in order to identify risk factors for Campylobacter contamination levels on broiler carcasses. The results revealed that Campylobacter counts are influenced by the contamination of incoming birds (both the initial external carcass contamination and the colonization level of caeca) and the duration of transport and holding time that can be linked with feed withdrawal period. In addition, technical aspects of the slaughter process such as a dump based unloading system, electrical stunning, lower scalding temperature, incorrect setting of plucking, vent cutter and evisceration machines were identified as risk factors associated with increased Campylobacter counts on processed carcasses. As such the study indicates possible improvements of the slaughter process that can result in better control of Campylobacter numbers under routine processing of Campylobacter positive batches without use of chemical or physical decontamination. Moreover, all investigated factors were existing variations of the routine processing practises and therefore proposed interventions are practically and economically achievable. PMID:27016637

  10. Effect of the pre-slaughter logistic chain on meat quality of lambs.

    PubMed

    Miranda-de la Lama, G C; Villarroel, M; Olleta, J L; Alierta, S; Sañudo, C; Maria, G A

    2009-12-01

    A total of 144 lambs were sampled in a 3×2×2 factorial design, testing three residence (stay) times at a pre-slaughter classification centre (0, 7, and 28days) and two seasons (summer and winter), with two replicates in each season. Meat from the longissimus dorsi was analysed in terms of pH, WHC, texture, colour (L∗a∗b∗, chroma and hue) and carcass bruising. Stay time had a significant effect (p<0.001) on meat texture, while season had a significant effect (p<0.001) on all variables analysed. Overall, stay time had less effect on meat quality than season and the interaction between treatments was not significant. Meat from lambs slaughtered in winter had some dark-cutting characteristics, with darker colour, higher ultimate pH, tougher meat and lower press juice. In conclusion, pre-slaughter classification and season are sources of stress for lambs and affect meat quality traits. PMID:20416651

  11. Elodontoma in Two Guinea Pigs.

    PubMed

    Capello, Vittorio; Lennox, Angela; Ghisleni, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Elodontoma was diagnosed in two pet guinea pigs, one involving a maxillary premolar tooth and the other affecting a mandibular incisor tooth. Diagnostic imaging, including radiographs, computed tomography, and oral endoscopy was performed in order to quantify dental disease. Diagnostic imaging was also used to guide treatment of acquired dental disease, which included intraoral restoration of normal occlusal plane and tooth extraction using an extraoral approach. These are the first histologically confirmed cases of elodontoma in guinea pigs. PMID:26415388

  12. Solanum malacoxylon poisoning in pigs.

    PubMed

    Done, S H; Tokarina, C H; Dämmrich, K; Döbereiner, J

    1976-03-01

    Solanum malacoxylon was given orally to four pigs. The animals were examined clinically and subjected to post mortem examination. Macroscopic lesions were not seen with the exception of a small calcified plaque in the endocardium of one animal. Microscopic examinations revealed slight calcification of elastic fibres in the soft tissues. The pathological changes in the bones were extensive and are described in detail. The pigs showed minimal lesions at dose levels which cause considerable systemic calcification in cattle and sheep. PMID:1265362

  13. Comparison of Respiratory Disease Prevalence among Voluntary Monitoring Systems for Pig Health and Welfare in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Eze, J. I.; Correia-Gomes, C.; Borobia-Belsué, J.; Tucker, A. W.; Sparrow, D.; Strachan, D. W.; Gunn, G. J.

    2015-01-01

    Surveillance of animal diseases provides information essential for the protection of animal health and ultimately public health. The voluntary pig health schemes, implemented in the United Kingdom, are integrated systems which capture information on different macroscopic disease conditions detected in slaughtered pigs. Many of these conditions have been associated with a reduction in performance traits and consequent increases in production costs. The schemes are the Wholesome Pigs Scotland in Scotland, the BPEX Pig Health Scheme in England and Wales and the Pig Regen Ltd. health and welfare checks done in Northern Ireland. This report set out to compare the prevalence of four respiratory conditions (enzootic pneumonia-like lesions, pleurisy, pleuropneumonia lesions and abscesses in the lung) assessed by these three Pig Health Schemes. The seasonal variations and year trends associated with the conditions in each scheme are presented. The paper also highlights the differences in prevalence for each condition across these schemes and areas where further research is needed. A general increase in the prevalence of enzootic pneumonia like lesions was observed in Scotland, England and Wales since 2009, while a general decrease was observed in Northern Ireland over the years of the scheme. Pleurisy prevalence has increased since 2010 in all three schemes, whilst pleuropneumonia has been decreasing. Prevalence of abscesses in the lung has decreased in England, Wales and Northern Ireland but has increased in Scotland. This analysis highlights the value of surveillance schemes based on abattoir pathology monitoring of four respiratory lesions. The outputs at scheme level have significant value as indicators of endemic and emerging disease, and for producers and herd veterinarians in planning and evaluating herd health control programs when comparing individual farm results with national averages. PMID:26020635

  14. Lifetime traceability of weaner pigs in concrete-based and deep-litter production systems in Australia.

    PubMed

    Schembri, N; Sithole, F; Toribio, J A; Hernández-Jover, M; Holyoake, P K

    2007-11-01

    A field study was conducted on a 2,300-sow piggery in southwestern New South Wales, Australia, over a 17-wk period (from weaning at 4 wk of age) to assess the suitability for lifetime traceability of weaners of 4 identification devices: 1) full duplex ear tag (FDX, Allflex), 2) half duplex ear tag designed for cattle (HDX, Leadertronic), 3) conventional ear tag (Leader), and 4) ear tattoo (Ketchum ear tattoo 101). Visual readability, retention rate, electronic failures, and adverse side effects were assessed at 8 wk after application at both sites and before slaughter at 14 or 17 wk after application at site A and site B, respectively. A total of 394 weaner pigs were randomly assigned after weaning to 6 treatment groups and reared either in small groups in intensive, indoor, concrete-based pens (n = 224; site A) or in a large group on deep litter (n = 170; site B). Visual readability was similar for all ear tag types before slaughter (P > 0.05); however, visual readability of the ear tattoo was lower (P < 0.05), with between 78.2 and 60.0% illegible due to ink fading. Few tags were lost in the 8-wk period after application; however, tag loss increased for each tag device after this period and varied with housing system. Conventional tag loss was greater among pigs housed at site A (29.0%) than in pigs housed at site B (4.9%) in the 6- to 9-wk period before slaughter. The overall readability of FDX and HDX tags did not differ (P > 0.05) between sites; however, overall readability of FDX tags at 98.4% was better (P < 0.05) than 71.8% for HDX tags. Tag costs ranged from $0.73 for the conventional ear tag to $2.42 for the HDX ear tag. The identification devices did not induce production-limiting adverse effects after they were applied. Under conditions of this study, FDX electronic ear tags were the most efficacious for lifetime identification of weaner pigs on-farm. PMID:17686903

  15. Validation of the danish national diabetes register.

    PubMed

    Green, Anders; Sortsø, Camilla; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup; Emneus, Martha

    2015-01-01

    The Danish National Diabetes Register (NDR) was established in 2006 and builds on data from Danish health registers. We validated the content of NDR, using full information from the Danish National Patient Register and data from the literature. Our study indicates that the completeness in NDR is ≥95% concerning ascertainment from data sources specific for diabetes, ie, prescriptions with antidiabetic drugs and diagnoses of diabetes in the National Patient Register. Since the NDR algorithm ignores diabetes-related hospital contacts terminated before 1990, the establishment of the date of inclusion is systematically delayed for ≥10% of the registrants in general and for ≥30% of the inclusions before 1997 in particular. This bias is enhanced for ascertainment by chiropody services and by frequent measurements of blood glucose because the date of reimbursement of services, rather than the date of encounter, has been taken as the date of inclusion in NDR. We also find that some 20% of the registrations in NDR may represent false positive inclusions of persons with frequent measurements of blood glucose without having diabetes. We conclude that NDR is a novel initiative to support research in the epidemiological and public health aspects of diabetes in Denmark, but we also present a list of recommended changes for improving validity, by reducing the impact of current sources of bias and misclassifications. PMID:25565889

  16. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus in pigs, Togo, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Ducatez, Mariette F.; Awoume, Félix; Webby, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    We collected 325 nasal swabs from freshly slaughtered previously healthy pigs from October 2012 through January 2014 in a slaughterhouse near Lomé in Togo. Influenza A virus genome was detected by RT-PCR in 2.5% to 12.3% of the pooled samples, and results of hemagglutinin subtyping RT-PCR assays showed the virus in all the positive pools to be A(H1N1)pdm09. Virus was isolated on MDCK cells from a representative specimen, A/swine/Togo/ONA32/2013(H1N1). The isolate was fully sequenced and harbored 8 genes similar to A(H1N1)pdm09 virus genes circulating in humans in 2012–2013, suggesting human-to-swine transmission of the pathogen. PMID:25778544

  17. [Bromhexine residues in calves, pigs, and in the milk of cows].

    PubMed

    Eichler, V D; Kreuzer, H

    1975-04-01

    After several oral applications of N-cyclohexyl-N-methyl-(2-amino-3,5-dibromobenzyl)-aminehydrochloride (bromhexine, Bisolvon-R) to various calves and pigs the residue behaviour was examined. In animals slaughtered immediately after the final application significant amounts of Bisolvon were found. The substance showed a greater affinity to liver and fat tissue whilst, in general, in the muscle tissue, the lungs and kidneys only very small amounts were traceable. In the liver and lungs 3 different metabolites appeared in small quantities. They were partly in conjugated and partly in free form. Within 2 days the amounts greatly decreased and after 7 days at the latest, no residues were traceable; only in the fat of both animal species and in the kidneys of the calves were small quantities of Bisolvon still to be found. Excretion by the milk following oral and parenteral application was also studied. Only traces of Bisolvon were found, which rapidly decreased. Results of the studies show that, neither at a later date of slaughtering nor immediately after the final application, the residues in the animal tissues and in the milk examined present a danger to the health of the human consumer. PMID:1174076

  18. Effect of average litter weight in pigs on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of the offspring as depending on birth weight.

    PubMed

    Pardo, C E; Kreuzer, M; Bee, G

    2013-11-01

    Offspring born from normal litter size (10 to 15 piglets) but classified as having lower than average birth weight (average of the sow herd used: 1.46 ± 0.2 kg; mean ± s.d.) carry at birth negative phenotypic traits normally associated with intrauterine growth restriction, such as brain-sparing and impaired myofiber hyperplasia. The objective of the study was to assess long-term effects of intrauterine crowding by comparing postnatal performance, carcass characteristics and pork quality of offspring born from litters with higher (>1.7 kg) or lower (<1.3 kg) than average litter birth weight. From a population of multiparous Swiss Large White sows (parity 2 to 6), 16 litters with high (H = 1.75 kg) or low (L = 1.26 kg) average litter birth weight were selected. At farrowing, two female pigs and two castrated pigs were chosen from each litter: from the H-litters those with the intermediate (HI = 1.79 kg) and lowest (HL = 1.40 kg) birth weight, and from L-litters those with the highest (LH = 1.49 kg) and intermediate (LI = 1.26 kg) birth weight. Average birth weight of the selected HI and LI piglets differed (P < 0.05), whereas birth weight of the HL- and LH-piglets were similar (P > 0.05). These pigs were fattened in group pen and slaughtered at 165 days of age. Pre-weaning performance of the litters and growth performance, carcass and meat quality traits of the selected pigs were assessed. Number of stillborn and pig mortality were greater (P < 0.05) in L- than in H-litters. Consequently, fewer (P < 0.05) piglets were weaned and average litter weaning weight decreased by 38% (P < 0.05). The selected pigs of the L-litters displayed catch-up growth during the starter and grower-finisher periods, leading to similar (P > 0.05) slaughter weight at 165 days of age. However, HL-gilts were more feed efficient and had leaner carcasses than HI-, LH- and LI-pigs (birth weight class × gender interaction P < 0.05). Meat quality traits were mostly similar between groups. The

  19. Minimal residues of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus in pig carcases and boar semen.

    PubMed

    Wang, F I

    1999-10-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a highly contagious disease that affects pigs of all ages worldwide. One of the key features of PRRS pathogenesis is the prolonged viremia in which the virus coexists with antibody. Prolonged viremia raises the concern that porcine products and boar semen may be contaminated by residues of the PRRS virus serving as vehicles for spreading of the virus. To answer this question, we sampled blood, muscles and viscera organs from market pigs slaughtered using an on-the-rail system and utilized a direct reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect residual viral RNA. We found that the overall seropositive rate of the market pigs was 85.4% (205/240), yet only 7.9% (11/140) of the blood samples contained detectable amounts of virus residues, and all tested carcase specimens (n = 472) were negative. The clinical sensitivity of this PCR varied with the tissues tested, with 5 TCID50 per 50 microliters of serum, as determined by means of a spiking experiment. Semen samples (n = 38) of clinically healthy seropositive and seronegative boars were collected from six herds which were routinely subjected to artificial insemination for production purposes. None of the seminal plasma or sperm-rich fractions contained PCR detectable virus residues. However, the possibility of PRRS virus present in semen cannot be totally excluded. We conclude that in naturally infected albeit clinically healthy pigs, the amounts of PRRS virus residues in carcases or semen are minimal. Thus, the risk of these products causing animal health hazards is low. PMID:10518317

  20. Effect of feeding food waste-broiler litter and bakery by-product mixture to pigs.

    PubMed

    Kwak, W S; Kang, J S

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding aerobically processed and vacuum-dried food waste-broiler litter and bakery by-product mixture to finishing pigs on performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and taste panel test. A corn-soy diet (Control) was replaced with food waste mixture (FWM) at dietary levels of 25% (25% FWM) and 50% (50% FWM) on a dry matter (DM) basis. Diets were fed to a total of 45 pigs (mean body weight 69.4kg) during the eight wk of finishing period. After slaughtering, longissmus muscle at 24h postmortem was used for meat quality analysis. Restaurant food waste was high in protein (22.0%) and fat (23.9%). Supplementing a corn-soy diet with FWM increased (P<0.05) feed DM intake, did not alter (P>0.05) average daily gain, decreased (P<0.05) feed efficiency especially for 50% FWM treatment, and substantially reduced (P<0.05) feed cost, compared with feeding a corn-soy diet only. Feeding FWM up to 50% did not affect (P>0.05) carcass characteristics (carcass weight, dressing percentage, backfat thickness and carcass grade), meat fatty acid composition, meat quality (marbling score, pH, water holding capacity, drip loss, L*, a*, b* values, Warner-Bratzler shear force, cooking loss), and taste panel test (flavor, taste, tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptance) compared with feeding a corn-soy diet. However, meat color was paler (P<0.05) for 50% FWM fed animals than a corn-soy diet fed animals. Meat color was the only limiting factor when FWM was fed to finishing pigs. In conclusion, aerobically processed and vacuum-dried food waste-broiler litter and bakery by-product mixture was similar to a corn-soy diet in feed value for finishing pigs. PMID:16171681

  1. Comparative Analyses of QTLs Influencing Obesity and Metabolic Phenotypes in Pigs and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Mette J.; Cirera, Susanna; Kogelman, Lisette J. A.; Bruun, Camilla S.; Mark, Thomas; Jørgensen, Claus B.; Grarup, Niels; Appel, Emil V. R.; Galjatovic, Ehm A. A.; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Guerin, Maryse; Huby, Thierry; Lesnik, Philipppe; Meuwissen, Theo H. E.; Kadarmideen, Haja N.; Fredholm, Merete

    2015-01-01

    The pig is a well-known animal model used to investigate genetic and mechanistic aspects of human disease biology. They are particularly useful in the context of obesity and metabolic diseases because other widely used models (e.g. mice) do not completely recapitulate key pathophysiological features associated with these diseases in humans. Therefore, we established a F2 pig resource population (n = 564) designed to elucidate the genetics underlying obesity and metabolic phenotypes. Segregation of obesity traits was ensured by using breeds highly divergent with respect to obesity traits in the parental generation. Several obesity and metabolic phenotypes were recorded (n = 35) from birth to slaughter (242 ± 48 days), including body composition determined at about two months of age (63 ± 10 days) via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanning. All pigs were genotyped using Illumina Porcine 60k SNP Beadchip and a combined linkage disequilibrium-linkage analysis was used to identify genome-wide significant associations for collected phenotypes. We identified 229 QTLs which associated with adiposity- and metabolic phenotypes at genome-wide significant levels. Subsequently comparative analyses were performed to identify the extent of overlap between previously identified QTLs in both humans and pigs. The combined analysis of a large number of obesity phenotypes has provided insight in the genetic architecture of the molecular mechanisms underlying these traits indicating that QTLs underlying similar phenotypes are clustered in the genome. Our analyses have further confirmed that genetic heterogeneity is an inherent characteristic of obesity traits most likely caused by segregation or fixation of different variants of the individual components belonging to cellular pathways in different populations. Several important genes previously associated to obesity in human studies, along with novel genes were identified. Altogether, this study provides novel insight that

  2. Effect of Organic Acids on Salmonella Shedding and Colonization in Pigs on a Farm with High Salmonella Prevalence.

    PubMed

    Rasschaert, G; Michiels, J; Tagliabue, M; Missotten, J; De Smet, S; Heyndrickx, M

    2016-01-01

    This study builds on the results of a previous study in which six commercial feed products based on organic acids were evaluated with respect to Salmonella contamination of piglets in an artificially challenged seeder model. In the present study, the efficacy of three of these commercial products was assessed for Salmonella reduction in fattening pigs on one closed farm with a natural high Salmonella prevalence. In each of four fattening compartments, one of the following feed treatments was evaluated during two consecutive fattening rounds: (i) butyric acid (active ingredients at 1.3 kg/ton of feed; supplement A1), (ii) a combination of short-chain organic acids (mixture of free acids and salts) and natural extracts (2.92 kg/ton; supplement A4), (iii) a 1:1 blend of two commercial products consisting of medium-chain fatty acids, lactic acid, and oregano oil (3.71 kg/ton; supplement A5+A6), and (iv) a control feed. On the farm, the Salmonella status of the fattening pigs was evaluated by taking fecal samples twice during the fattening period. At the slaughterhouse, samples were collected from the cecal contents and the ileocecal lymph nodes. Salmonella isolates were serotyped and characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. This farm had a particularly high number of pigs shedding Salmonella with a wide variety of sero- and pulsotypes. Only the feed blend based on the medium-chain fatty acids was able to significantly reduce Salmonella prevalence both on the farm and at the slaughterhouse. With this combined supplement, the Salmonella reduction in the feces at slaughter age, in cecal contents at slaughter, and the lymph nodes was 50, 36, and 67%, respectively, compared with the control animals. This promising finding calls for further investigation including cost-efficiency of this combined feed product and its effect on the animals. PMID:26735029

  3. Pervasive Environmental Contamination with Human Feces Results in High Prevalence of Zoonotic Sarcocystis Infection in Pigs in the Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Kaur, M; Singh, B B; Sharma, R; Gill, J P S

    2016-04-01

    Three species of Sarcocystis-S. miescheriana, S. suihominis, and S. porcifelis-have been recorded from pigs ( Sus scrofa ). Among these 3 species, the zoonotic species S. suihominis is of paramount importance and an important food safety issue. Previous studies indicate prevalence of porcine Sarcocystis species in India, but molecular evidence, among other evidence, is required for proper species differentiation. Myocardium from 250 stray and farm pigs destined for slaughter for human consumption were collected from slaughter shops located in urban slums in Punjab, northern India. Tissues were examined for Sarcocystis by using an intact cyst isolation method, pepsin acid digestion, Sarcocystis 18S ribosomal RNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real-time quantitative PCR with melting curve analysis (qPCR-MCA). The combination of primers was used for 18S rRNA PCR amplification followed by sequencing. Ten representative samples were sequenced in both the directions from which 7 readable sequences were obtained for phylogenetic analysis. Sarcocystis cysts/zoites were recorded in 146 (58.4%), 169 (67.6%), 182 (72.8%), and 191 (76.4%) of samples by using intact cyst isolation, pepsin HCl digestion, conventional PCR, and qPCR-MCA, respectively. Molecularly, 1 S. miescheriana isolate and 6 isolates of the zoonotic species S. suihominis were recorded. This is the first study providing molecular identification for the presence of zoonotic species S. suihomonis in India. The prevalence of zoonotic S. suihominis in pork in India is worrisome and warrants intervention policies to stop the practice of rearing pigs under unhygienic conditions. PMID:26588086

  4. Genetic characterisation of Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) strains from feral pigs in the Brazilian Pantanal: An opportunity to reconstruct the history of PCV2 evolution.

    PubMed

    Franzo, Giovanni; Cortey, Martí; de Castro, Alessandra Marnie Martins Gomes; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Szabo, Matias Pablo Juan; Drigo, Michele; Segalés, Joaquim; Richtzenhain, Leonardo José

    2015-07-01

    Since its discovery, Porcine circovirus type 2 has emerged as one of the most relevant swine infectious diseases, causing relevant economic losses for the pig industry. While four genotypes were identified, only three (PCV2a, PCV2b and PCV2d) are currently circulating and display a worldwide distribution. Another genotype, PCV2c, has been described only once in Danish archive samples collected between 1980 and 1990. In addition to commercial pigs, PCV2 has been demonstrated to infect wild boars and other wild species, which can potentially serve as a reservoir for domestic populations. In this study, eight sequences obtained from feral pigs in the Pantanal region (Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil) were compared with reference sequences and other Brazilian sequences, and the results revealed remarkable genetic diversity, with all four genotypes currently recognised being detected (PCV2a, PCV2b, PCV2c and PCV2d). This finding represents a remarkable discovery, as it is the first detection of PCV2c since 1990 and the first-ever detection of PCV2c in live animals. The peculiar population history and ecological scenario of feral pigs in the Pantanal coupled with the complex, and still only partially known relationship of feral pigs with other PCV2 susceptible species (i.e., domestic pigs, wild boars and peccaries), open exciting questions concerning PCV2 origin and evolution. Overall, the results of the present study led us to form the following hypothesis: the PCV2 strains found in feral pigs may be the last descent of the strains that circulated among European pigs in the past, or they may have infected these feral pigs more recently through a bridge species. PMID:25975522

  5. The efficacy of oxytetracycline treatment at batch, pen and individual level on Lawsonia intracellularis infection in nursery pigs in a randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Inge; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Nielsen, Jens Peter

    2016-02-01

    Antimicrobial consumption in animal husbandry is of great scientific and political concern due to the risk of selection of resistant bacteria. Whilst a reduction in the use of antimicrobials is therefore preferable, the efficacy of treatment must be maintained in order to ensure animal welfare and profitability of pig production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three treatment strategies under field conditions against Lawsonia intracellularis (LI)-related diarrhoea. A randomised clinical trial was carried out in four Danish pig herds, including a total of 520 pigs from 36 nursery batches. A high prevalence of LI was demonstrated in all herds prior to the initiation of the study. Treatment efficacy was assessed by faecal shedding of LI, the occurrence of diarrhoea and average daily weight gain (ADG) after treatment. All strategies were implemented at batch level at presence of LI-related diarrhoea and included daily treatment with 10mg oxytetracycline (OTC) per kilogram of bodyweight for 5 days, though the OTC was administered differently: either by oral treatment of all pigs in a batch, by oral treatment of pigs in diarrhoeic pens only, or by intramuscular treatment of individual diarrhoeic pigs only. The treatment strategies were randomly allocated to batches and were initiated at the presence of diarrhoea. From the included batches, 100% of the trial pigs were medicated in the batch treatment strategy, 87% in the pen treatment strategy and 55% in the individual treatment strategy. All strategies reduced the occurrence of diarrhoea and faecal shedding of LI after treatment. However, batch treatment was found to be most efficient in reducing both high-level LI shedding and diarrhoea when compared to the treatment of diarrhoeic pens or individual diarrhoeic pigs. There was no significant difference identified in ADG between the treatment strategies. In conclusion, batch treatment of all pigs in a section resulted in the highest efficacy

  6. A comparison of blood loss during the Halal slaughter of lambs following Traditional Religious Slaughter without stunning, Electric Head-Only Stunning and Post-Cut Electric Head-Only Stunning.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Rizvan; Knowles, Toby G; Wotton, Steve B

    2015-12-01

    Blood lost at exsanguination during the Halal slaughter of lambs was compared between the slaughter methods of Traditional Religious Slaughter without stunning (TRS), Electric Head-Only Stunning (EHOS) and Post-Cut Electric Head-Only Stunning (PCEHOS). Two protocols were examined, Experimental (80 lambs) and Commercial (360 lambs), assessing varying periods of animal orientation during the 4 min bleeding process (upright orientation before vertical hanging). Live-weight, blood weight (Experimental only), carcass weights and by-product weights were recorded. The Experimental protocol highlighted an increase in blood loss at 60s in EHOS and PCEHOS compared to TRS (P<0.001) but by 90 s there was no significant difference. A post-slaughter change in animal orientation from an upright to a vertical hanging position aided the amount of blood loss. The bleeding of lambs is largely completed by 2 min. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in final blood loss between treatments. This research was undertaken to inform discussion on the merits of different slaughter methods compatible with Halal requirements. PMID:26159062

  7. The effects of pre-slaughter restraint (for the purpose of cattle identification) on post-slaughter responses and carcass quality following the electrical stun/killing of cattle in a Jarvis Beef stunner.

    PubMed

    Mpamhanga, C J; Wotton, S B

    2015-09-01

    This study compared normal post-Jarvis stun/kill responses and carcass quality with those occurring when crush restraint was not used during pre-slaughter. The carcasses of 1065 cattle slaughtered during one week at a commercial abattoir were evaluated for quality. The post-stun/kill responses of 788 of these animals were also assessed. An additional study of data from the carcasses of 6061 cattle was further evaluated for quality findings. A significant reduction in post-stun/kill limb movement, muscle tone and the expression of brainstem functions was recorded when restraint was not used. Abolishing crush restraint pre-slaughter also produced a significant reduction in the incidence of blood splash. In addition, the study also showed that animal identification post-slaughter could be successfully implemented with no negative consequences to food safety or traceability. It is suggested that abolishing the use of pre-slaughter crush restraint of cattle would enhance animal welfare and operator safety in plants whether electrical, or mechanical stunning was employed. PMID:26002177

  8. Annoying Danish Relatives: Comprehension and Production of Relative Clauses by Danish Children with and without SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen De Lopez, Kristine; Olsen, Lone Sundahl; Chondrogianni, Vasiliki

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with SLI and to compare errors with those produced by TD…

  9. Parenting among Wealthy Danish Families: A Concerted Civilising Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Dil

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the parenting practices of wealthy Danish families and offers insight into the workings of dominant parenting norms within contemporary Danish society. Based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted among 15 families living north of Copenhagen, Denmark, this article identifies the parenting strategies of people with ample…

  10. Statistical Learning in Emerging Lexicons: The Case of Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Stephanie F.; Bleses, Dorthe; Basboll, Hans; Lambertsen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This research explored the impact of neighborhood density (ND), word frequency (WF), and word length (WL) on the vocabulary size of Danish-speaking children. Given the particular phonological properties of Danish, the impact was expected to differ from that reported in studies on English and French. Method: The monosyllabic words in the…

  11. Educational Ambassadors in the Danish Trade Union Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keil, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The concept of Educational Ambassadors is embedded within the so-called "Danish model" of industrial relations. The Danish industrial relations system is characterised by strong collective organisations with national coverage, which conclude the collective agreements for various industries or sectors and which are mostly grouped under central…

  12. Screening for celiac disease in Danish adults

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Anna; Skaaby, Tea; Kårhus, Line Lund; Schwarz, Peter; Jørgensen, Torben; Rumessen, Jüri J.; Linneberg, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The prevalence of celiac disease (CD) as recorded in the Danish National Patient Registry is ∼50/100,000 persons. This is much lower than the reported prevalence of CD in other Nordic countries and underdiagnosis is suspected. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of CD in a population-based study of Danish adults. Methods. A total of 2297 adults aged 24–76 years living in the southwestern part of Copenhagen were screened for CD by immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG antibodies to transglutaminases and deamidated gliadin. IgA/IgG-positive participants were invited to a clinical evaluation, including biopsies, by a gastroenterologist. Results. Of the invited 56 participants, 40 underwent a full clinical evaluation and 8 persons were diagnosed with CD; 2 of the 16 persons, who did not complete the clinical evaluation, were considered by experts to have probable CD. None of the above 56 participants had a known history of CD or a recorded diagnosis of CD in National Patient Registry. By combining cases of biopsy-proven CD (n = 8), probable CD (n = 2), and registry-recorded CD (n = 1), the prevalence of CD was estimated to be 479/100,000 (11/2297) persons (95% CI: 197–761). Conclusion. In this general adult population, the prevalence of CD as estimated by screening and clinical evaluation was 10 times higher than the registry-based prevalence of CD. Of 11 participants diagnosed with CD in our screening study, 10 were unaware of the diagnosis prior to the study. Thus, our study suggests that CD is markedly underdiagnosed in Danish adults. PMID:25687734

  13. Sero-epidemiological survey and risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis among slaughtered cattle in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akinseye, Victor O; Adesokan, Hezekiah K; Ogugua, Akwoba J; Adedoyin, Folashade J; Otu, Patricia I; Kwaghe, Ayi V; Kolawole, Noah O; Okoro, Oyinye J; Agada, Charity A; Tade, Adeniyi O; Faleke, Olufemi O; Okeke, Anyanwu L; Akanbi, Ibikunle M; Ibitoye, Mofoluwake M; Dipeolu, Morenike O; Dale, Emma J; Lorraine, Perrett; Taylor, Andrew V; Awosanya, Emmanuel A; Cadmus, Eniola O; Stack, Judy A; Cadmus, Simeon I

    2016-01-01

    Bovine brucellosis is endemic in Nigeria; however, limited data exist on nationwide studies and risk factors associated with the disease. Using a cross-sectional sero-epidemiological survey, we determined the prevalence of and risk factors for brucellosis in slaughtered cattle in three geographical regions of Nigeria. Serum samples from randomly selected unvaccinated cattle slaughtered over a period of 3 years (between December 2010 and September 2013) from northern, southern and south-western Nigeria were tested for antibodies to Brucella abortus using the Rose Bengal test. Data associated with risk factors of brucellosis were analysed by Stata Version 12. In all, 8105 cattle were screened. An overall seroprevalence of 3.9% (315/8105) was recorded by the Rose Bengal test, with 3.8%, 3.4% and 4.0% from the northern, southern and south-western regions, respectively. Bivariate analysis showed that cattle screened in northern Nigeria were less likely to be seropositive for antibodies to Brucella spp. than those from south-western Nigeria (odds ratio = 0.94; 95% confidence interval: 0.73-1.22). However, logistic regression analysis revealed that breed ( p = 0.04) and sex ( p £ 0.0001) of cattle were statistically significant for seropositivity to Brucella spp. The study found that brucellosis was endemic at a low prevalence among slaughtered cattle in Nigeria, with sex and breed of cattle being significant risk factors. Considering the public health implications of brucellosis, we advocate coordinated surveillance for the disease among diverse cattle populations in Nigeria, as is carried out in most developed countries. PMID:27247065

  14. Detection, seroprevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in pig tonsils in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Bonardi, S; Bruini, I; D'Incau, M; Van Damme, I; Carniel, E; Brémont, S; Cavallini, P; Tagliabue, S; Brindani, F

    2016-10-17

    Yersiniosis is the third most common reported zoonoses in Europe, with Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis responsible for 98.66% and 0.94% of the confirmed human cases in 2013. From June 2013 to October 2014, 201 pigs at slaughter belonging to 67 batches were tested for Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in tonsils. Diaphragm muscle samples were tested for antibodies against Yersinia by a commercially available ELISA test. Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 was detected in 55/201 pig tonsils (27.4%; 95% CI 23.1-37.1). The positive pigs came from 38/67 batches (56.7%) and were reared in 36/61 farms (59.0%). There was no statistical difference between farrow-to-finish and finishing farms. The mean count of Y. enterocolitica was 3.56±0.85log10CFU/g with a minimum of 2.0log10CFU/g and a maximum of 4.78log10CFU/g. Y. pseudotuberculosis was isolated from 4/201 pig tonsils (2.0%; 95% CI 0.0-4.5). Three isolates belonged to serotype O:3 and one to serotype O:1. The positive pigs belonged to 4/67 batches (6.0%) and came from finishing farms only. Y. pseudotuberculosis could be enumerated in one sample only (4.27log10CFU/g). The ELISA test demonstrated that 56.1% of the meat juice samples were positive for Yersinia antibodies. Serological positivity was found in 67.9% (36/53) of the Y. enterocolitica- and 75.0% (3/4) of the Y. pseudotuberculosis positive pigs. A significant association was found between serological results and the presence of Y. enterocolitica in tonsils (OR=1.97, p=0.044). All the Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, gentamicin, ceftazidime, ertapenem and meropenem, 94.5% to cefotaxime, 89.1% to kanamycin and 78.2% to tetracycline. The highest resistance rates were observed for ampicillin (100%), sulphonamides (98.2%) and streptomycin (78.2%). Y. pseudotuberculosis strains were sensitive to all the antimicrobials tested, i.e. amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, azithromycin, cephalothin, cefoxitin

  15. Endemicity of Zoonotic Diseases in Pigs and Humans in Lowland and Upland Lao PDR: Identification of Socio-cultural Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Holt, Hannah R; Inthavong, Phouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Blaszak, Kate; Keokamphe, Chattouphone; Somoulay, Virasack; Phongmany, Anousone; Durr, Peter A; Graham, Kerryne; Allen, John; Donnelly, Blánaid; Blacksell, Stuart D; Unger, Fred; Grace, Delia; Alonso, Silvia; Gilbert, Jeff

    2016-04-01

    In Lao People's Democratic Republic pigs are kept in close contact with families. Human risk of infection with pig zoonoses arises from direct contact and consumption of unsafe pig products. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Luang Prabang (north) and Savannakhet (central-south) Provinces. A total of 59 villages, 895 humans and 647 pigs were sampled and serologically tested for zoonotic pathogens including: hepatitis E virus (HEV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and Trichinella spiralis; In addition, human sera were tested for Taenia spp. and cysticercosis. Seroprevalence of zoonotic pathogens in humans was high for HEV (Luang Prabang: 48.6%, Savannakhet: 77.7%) and T. spiralis (Luang Prabang: 59.0%, Savannakhet: 40.5%), and lower for JEV (around 5%), Taenia spp. (around 3%) and cysticercosis (Luang Prabang: 6.1, Savannakhet 1.5%). Multiple correspondence analysis and hierarchical clustering of principal components was performed on descriptive data of human hygiene practices, contact with pigs and consumption of pork products. Three clusters were identified: Cluster 1 had low pig contact and good hygiene practices, but had higher risk of T. spiralis. Most people in cluster 2 were involved in pig slaughter (83.7%), handled raw meat or offal (99.4%) and consumed raw pigs' blood (76.4%). Compared to cluster 1, cluster 2 had increased odds of testing seropositive for HEV and JEV. Cluster 3 had the lowest sanitation access and had the highest risk of HEV, cysticercosis and Taenia spp. Farmers which kept their pigs tethered (as opposed to penned) and disposed of manure in water sources had 0.85 (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.91) and 2.39 (95% CI: 1.07 to 5.34) times the odds of having pigs test seropositive for HEV, respectively. The results have been used to identify entry-points for intervention and management strategies to reduce disease exposure in humans and pigs, informing control activities in a cysticercosis hyper-endemic village. PMID:27070428

  16. Interpersonal violence: patterns in a Danish community.

    PubMed Central

    Hedeboe, J; Charles, A V; Nielsen, J; Grymer, F; Møller, B N; Møller-Madson, B; Jensen, S E

    1985-01-01

    We studied all cases of assault with violence (1,639) in a Danish population of 275,000 over a one-year period. Most victims were young men. The incidence rose during evenings, nights and weekends, and assaults were often seen in or around bars and restaurants. Women accounted for 64 per cent of all victims of assault in the home. Influence of alcohol was identified in 43 per cent of all cases. The fist was the most frequent agent of assault; use of firearms was a very rare act of violence but was associated with death in three out of five cases. There were 10 deaths in all. PMID:4003631

  17. Comparison of slaughter value for once-calved heifers and heifers of Polish Holstein-Friesian×Limousine crossbreds.

    PubMed

    Nogalski, Zenon; Sobczuk-Szul, Monika; Pogorzelska-Przybyłek, Paulina; Wielgosz-Groth, Zofia; Purwin, Cezary; Modzelewska-Kapituła, Monika

    2016-07-01

    The study compared the slaughter value and meat quality of heifers and once-calved heifers slaughtered at the age of 18 and 28months, respectively. The once-calved heifers at the age of 15months, were bred with semen of Limousine bulls and following the calving they fed their offspring and then they were slaughtered. There were no differences in the carcass conformation and fatness between the treatments. Once-calved heifers' carcasses had a higher proportion (P<0.05) of 5 most valuable primal cuts as compared with heifers. Meat of once-calved heifers contained more (P<0.05) intramuscular fat, was darker (P<0.01), and exhibited a higher water-holding capacity and lower cooking loss (P<0.05) as compared with heifers' meat. In conclusion, due to the possibility for obtaining additional offspring and a heavier pre-slaughter weight without reducing the slaughter value of the carcass and meat quality, it is recommended to use heifers originating from commercial crossbreeding as the once-calved ones. PMID:26928230

  18. Calicophoron daubneyi (Paramphistomidae) in slaughtered cattle in Castilla y León (Spain).

    PubMed

    Ferreras, M Carmen; González-Lanza, Camino; Pérez, Valentín; Fuertes, Miguel; Benavides, Julio; Mezo, Mercedes; González-Warleta, Marta; Giráldez, Javier; Martínez-Ibeas, Ana María; Delgado, Laetitia; Fernández, Miguel; Manga-González, M Yolanda

    2014-01-31

    The prevalence and aetiology of natural paramphistomosis was investigated in cattle slaughtered in the Castilla y León region (Spain) over a 3 year-period. The overall prevalence of positive animals was 6.20%. The parasite burden per animal ranged from 8 to 8005 (median=144) and the ruminal atrium had the highest parasite burden whereas the ruminal dorsal sac the lowest. The prevalence and parasite burden increased with age while these parameters were lower in cattle under intensive management. Calicophoron daubneyi was the only Paramphistomidae species identified using morphoanatomical, histological and molecular methods in the studied animals. PMID:24295956

  19. Livestock transport from the perspective of the pre-slaughter logistic chain: a review.

    PubMed

    Miranda-de la Lama, G C; Villarroel, M; María, G A

    2014-09-01

    New developments in livestock transport within the pre-slaughter chain are discussed in terms of three logistic nodes: origin, stopovers and slaughterhouse. Factors as transport cost, haulier, truck specifications, micro-environment conditions, loading density, route planning, vehicle accidents and journey length are discussed as well as causes of morbidity, mortality, live weight and carcass damage. Taking into account current trends towards increased transport times, logistics stopovers and mixed transport, there is a need to develop systems of evaluation and decision-making that provide tools and protocols that can minimize the biological cost to animals, which may have been underestimated in the past. PMID:24824530

  20. Characterization of pig colonic mucins.

    PubMed Central

    Fogg, F J; Hutton, D A; Jumel, K; Pearson, J P; Harding, S E; Allen, A

    1996-01-01

    Pig colonic mucins isolated from the adherent mucus gel in the presence of proteinase inhibitors were solubilized by homogenization and the component mucins fractionated by CsC1 density-gradient centrifugation. Polymeric and reduced pig colonic mucin were both largely excluded on Sepharose CL-2B, papain-digested colonic mucin was included. The M(r) values of polymeric, reduced and digested mucins were 5.5 x 10(6), 2.1 x 10(6) and 0.6 x 10(6) respectively. This suggests that pig colonic mucin is comprised of 2-3 subunits, each subunit containing 3-4 glycosylated regions. The intrinsic viscosities of polymeric, reduced and digested mucin were 240 ml.g-1, 100 ml.g-1 and 20 ml.g-1 respectively. Polymeric pig colonic mucin comprised 16% protein per mg of glycoprotein and was rich in serine, threonine and proline (43% of total amino acids). There were approx. 150 disulphide bridges and 53 free thiol groups per mucin polymer. A seventh of the protein content was lost on reduction. This protein was particularly rich in proline and the hydrophobic amino acids. Papain-digested pig colonic mucin contained 11% protein per mg of glycoprotein and was rich in serine, threonine, glutamate and aspartate. All types of amino acids with the exception of aspartate were lost on digestion. The amino acid analysis of the proteolytically digested regions of pig colonic mucin are markedly different to the tandem repeat regions of the human mucin genes shown to be expressed in the colon. PMID:8670173

  1. Developing and Evaluating a Multimodal Course Format: Danish for Knowledge Workers--Labour Market-Related Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederiksen, Karen-Margrete; Laursen, Katja Årosin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents our reflections on developing the Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) course "Danish for knowledge workers--labour market-related Danish." As defined by Laursen and Frederiksen (2015), knowledge workers are "highly educated people who typically work at universities, at other institutions of higher…

  2. Genetic diversity of Streptococcus suis serotypes 2 and 1/2 isolates recovered from carrier pigs in closed herds

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Gabriela; Harel, Josée; Lacouture, Sonia; Gottschalk, Marcelo

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare, by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), the diversity of Streptococcus suis serotypes 1/2 and 2 isolates recovered at slaughter houses from the tonsils of clinically healthy pigs. The pigs belonged to herds with or without clinical signs of S. suis disease. Overall, a low diversity was observed among isolates of serotype 1/2. A representative isolate recovered from a diseased animal presented a relatively high similarity (85%), with most isolates recovered from carrier pigs, from herds either with or without clinical signs of S. suis disease. For serotype 2 isolates, a relatively high degree of heterogeneity was observed in the whole population. Two subpopulations were observed for serotype 2 isolates, which arose from herds with clinical signs. Interestingly, the representative isolate coming from the diseased pig was included in a small closed cluster, with 2 isolates recovered from carrier pigs belonging to the same herd. On the other hand, most of the S. suis serotype 2 isolates originating from herds with no history of S. suis disease, were closely related (90% similarity). Furthermore, they presented different RAPD patterns from those originating from animals from the herd presenting S. suis clinical signs due to this serotype. Results suggest that, in the herds studied, clinical manifestations due to serotype 2 are probably related to the virulence of a specific isolate. Conversely, for the herd affected with serotype 1/2, clinical manifestations of the disease were more likely to be the result of inherent herd factors than the virulence of the specific isolate. PMID:12418779

  3. Qualitative and quantitative risk assessment for human salmonellosis due to multi-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 from consumption of Danish dry-cured pork sausages.

    PubMed

    Alban, Lis; Olsen, Anne Mette; Nielsen, Bent; Sørensen, Rie; Jessen, Birthe

    2002-01-22

    Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 (DT104) is unwanted in products for human consumption due to its antibiotic resistance and ability to cause disease. We intended to set up an improved monitoring and management program to aid in deciding when to use pork contaminated with DT104 for production of sausages without jeopardizing consumer safety. We started by carrying out two assessments of the risk for human health associated with consumption of sausages produced by: (1) Danish pork from average slaughter days; (2) imported pork (IMP) with average prevalence of DT104. The assessments showed that, if Salmonella is present, it is usually in lower numbers (< or =50 per 400 cm(2) surface). Additionally, during processing, the numbers will be reduced by at least 2 log-units. In Danish (DK) pork, DT104 constitutes 0.2-1.0% of the Salmonella isolates reported, while in imported pork (IMP), 18%. We estimated that out of one million, 25 g servings of DK dry-cured sausages, up to two DT104 bacteria could be found in each of 245 servings. Out of one million servings of 25 g IMP dry-cured sausages, up to two DT104 bacteria would occur in each of 19,260 servings. PMID:11849720

  4. Impact of particulate matter and ammonia on average daily weight gain, mortality and lung lesions in pigs.

    PubMed

    Michiels, A; Piepers, S; Ulens, T; Van Ransbeeck, N; Del Pozo Sacristán, R; Sierens, A; Haesebrouck, F; Demeyer, P; Maes, D

    2015-09-01

    The present study investigated the simultaneous influence of particulate matter (PM10) and ammonia (NH3) on performance, lung lesions and the presence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae) in finishing pigs. A pig herd experiencing clinical problems of M. hyopneumoniae infections was selected. In total, 1095 finishing pigs of two replicates in eight compartments each were investigated during the entire finishing period (FP). Indoor PM10 and NH3 were measured at regular intervals during the FP with two Grimm spectrometers and two Graywolf Particle Counters (PM10) and an Innova photoacoustic gas monitor (NH3). Average daily weight gain (ADG) and mortality were calculated and associated with PM10 and NH3 during the FP. Nasal swabs (10 pigs/compartment) were collected one week prior to slaughter to detect DNA of M. hyopneumoniae with nested PCR (nPCR). The prevalence and extent of pneumonia lesions, and prevalence of fissures and pleurisy were examined at slaughter (29 weeks). The results from the nasal swabs and lung lesions were associated with PM10 and NH3 during the FP and the second half of the FP. In the univariable model, increasing PM10 concentrations resulted in a higher odds of pneumonia lesions (second half of the FP: OR=8.72; P=0.015), more severe pneumonia lesions (FP: P=0.04, second half of the FP: P=0.009), a higher odds of pleurisy lesions (FP: OR=20.91; P<0.001 and second half of the FP: OR=40.85; P<0.001) and a higher number of nPCR positive nasal samples (FP: OR=328.00; P=0.01 and second half of the FP: OR=185.49; P=0.02). Increasing NH3 concentrations in the univariable model resulted in a higher odds of pleurisy lesions (FP: OR=21.54; P=0.003) and a higher number of nPCR positive nasal samples (FP: OR=70.39; P=0.049; second half of the FP: OR=8275.05; P=0.01). In the multivariable model, an increasing PM10 concentration resulted in a higher odds of pleurisy lesions (FP: OR=8.85; P=0.049). These findings indicate that the respiratory health

  5. Agronomic recycling of pig slurry and pig sewage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Garrido, Melisa; Sánchez García, Pablo; Faz Cano, Ángel; Büyükkılıç Yanardag, Asuman; Yanardag, Ibrahim; Kabas, Sebla; Ángeles Múñoz García, María; María Rosales Aranda, Rosa; Segura Ruíz, Juan Carlos

    2013-04-01

    Recycling pig slurry as organic fertilizer is a convenient and suitable way of waste elimination due to its low cost and high agronomic benefits. The objectives of this two year study are focused on improving and recycling pig slurry appropriately, and monitoring the soil-plant system at the same time. The evaluation of the agronomic effectiveness of different types of pig slurry (raw, solid, treated and depurated) in different doses (170 kg N ha-1 (legislated dose), 340 and 510 kg N ha-1) is innovative because the fertilizer value of each amendment can be balanced. Furthermore environmental issues such us volatilisation, leaching and salinisation have been considered for each treatment in order to set the viability of the study and to justify the treatments applied. Electrical conductivity, Kjeldhal nitrogen, sodium and potassium are the physico-chemical parameters most influenced in soils treated with doses 340 and 510 kg N ha-1. Additionally plant samples, especially halophyte, have shown the highest major and minor nutrients contents. Finally, pig slurry application in legislated doses could be considered a useful environmental practice; however, the development of the crop will be very influenced by the type of dose and amendment selected.

  6. Modelling food safety and economic consequences of surveillance and control strategies for Salmonella in pigs and pork.

    PubMed

    Baptista, F M; Halasa, T; Alban, L; Nielsen, L R

    2011-05-01

    Targets for maximum acceptable levels of Salmonella in pigs and pork are to be decided. A stochastic simulation model accounting for herd and abattoir information was used to evaluate food safety and economic consequences of different surveillance and control strategies, based among others on Danish surveillance data. An epidemiological module simulated the Salmonella carcass prevalence for different scenarios. Cost-effectiveness analysis was used to compare the costs of the different scenarios with their expected effectiveness. Herd interventions were not found sufficient to attain Salmonella carcass prevalence <1%. The cost-effectiveness of abattoir interventions changed with abattoir size. The most cost-effective strategy included the use of steam vacuum and steam ultrasound. Given uncertainty of the effect of steam vacuum and steam ultrasound, model results should be updated as more information becomes available. This framework contributes to informed decision-making for a more cost-effective surveillance and control of Salmonella in pigs and pork. PMID:20653990

  7. Effect of Floor Space Allowance on Pig Productivity across Stages of Growth: A Field-scale Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joon H.; Choi, Hong L.; Heo, Yong J.; Chung, Yoon P.

    2016-01-01

    A total of 152 pig farms were randomly selected from the five provinces in South Korea. During the experiment, the average temperature and relative humidity was 24.7°C and 74% in summer and 2.4°C and 53% in winter, respectively. The correlation between floor space allowance (FSA) and productivity index was analyzed, including non-productive sow days (NPD), number of weaners (NOW), survival rate (SR), appearance rate of A-grade pork (ARA), and days at a slaughter weight of 110 kg (d-SW) at different growth stages. The objectives of the present study were i) to determine the effect of FSA on the pig productivity index and ii) to suggest the minimum FSA for pigs based on scientific baseline data. For the pregnant sow, NPD could be decreased if pregnant sows were raised with a medium level (M) of FSA (3.10 to 3.67 m2/head) while also keeping the pig house clean which improves hygiene, and operating the ventilation system properly. For the farrowing sows, the NOW tended to decrease as the FSA increased. Similarly, a high level of FSA (H) is significantly negative with weaner SR of farrowing sows (p-value = 0.017), indicating this FSA tends to depress SR. Therefore, a FSA of 2.30 to 6.40 m2/head (very low) could be appropriate for weaners because a limited space can provide a sense of security and protection from external interruptions. The opposite trend was observed that an increase in floor space (>1.12 m2/head) leads to increase the SR of growing pigs. For the fattening pigs, H level of FSA was negatively correlated with SR, but M level of FSA was positively correlated with SR, indicating that SR tended to increase with the FSA of 1.10 to 1.27 m2/head. In contrast, ARA of male fattening pigs showed opposite results. H level of FSA (1.27 to 1.47 m2/head) was suggested to increase productivity because ARA was most affected by H level of space allowance with positive correlation (R2 = 0.523). The relationship between the FSA and d-SW of fattening pigs was hard to

  8. Effect of Floor Space Allowance on Pig Productivity across Stages of Growth: A Field-scale Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon H; Choi, Hong L; Heo, Yong J; Chung, Yoon P

    2016-05-01

    A total of 152 pig farms were randomly selected from the five provinces in South Korea. During the experiment, the average temperature and relative humidity was 24.7°C and 74% in summer and 2.4°C and 53% in winter, respectively. The correlation between floor space allowance (FSA) and productivity index was analyzed, including non-productive sow days (NPD), number of weaners (NOW), survival rate (SR), appearance rate of A-grade pork (ARA), and days at a slaughter weight of 110 kg (d-SW) at different growth stages. The objectives of the present study were i) to determine the effect of FSA on the pig productivity index and ii) to suggest the minimum FSA for pigs based on scientific baseline data. For the pregnant sow, NPD could be decreased if pregnant sows were raised with a medium level (M) of FSA (3.10 to 3.67 m(2)/head) while also keeping the pig house clean which improves hygiene, and operating the ventilation system properly. For the farrowing sows, the NOW tended to decrease as the FSA increased. Similarly, a high level of FSA (H) is significantly negative with weaner SR of farrowing sows (p-value = 0.017), indicating this FSA tends to depress SR. Therefore, a FSA of 2.30 to 6.40 m(2)/head (very low) could be appropriate for weaners because a limited space can provide a sense of security and protection from external interruptions. The opposite trend was observed that an increase in floor space (>1.12 m(2)/head) leads to increase the SR of growing pigs. For the fattening pigs, H level of FSA was negatively correlated with SR, but M level of FSA was positively correlated with SR, indicating that SR tended to increase with the FSA of 1.10 to 1.27 m(2)/head. In contrast, ARA of male fattening pigs showed opposite results. H level of FSA (1.27 to 1.47 m(2)/head) was suggested to increase productivity because ARA was most affected by H level of space allowance with positive correlation (R(2) = 0.523). The relationship between the FSA and d-SW of fattening pigs was

  9. Danish Ophthalmology - from start to 1865.

    PubMed

    Norn, Mogens

    2016-03-01

    This short paper mentioned the medical treatment using the 'holy' springs, the first 'eye doctor' in Denmark, the first picture of spectacles which was found in Viborg Cathedral of the high priest before he performs circumcisio praeputii on Jesus Christ, further cataract reclination in Denmark from around year zero and cataract extraction in 1667 in Denmark on a goose by Francisco Borri and on humans by the Danish Georg Heuermann in 1755. Epidemic military eye diseases in 1807, 1856 and 1865 are also described in this study. From 1856, a new ophthalmological period started in Denmark with the first eye hospital (lazaret only for eye diseases), and in 1864, patients with eye diseases were transported from the few beds in the surgical departments in the municipal hospital to the first civil eye department in Denmark, the eye hospital Sct. Annae in Copenhagen. The new scientific period started with Jacob Christian Bentz (ophthalmia granulosa, joint editor of the Danish Medical Journal) and Heinrich Lehmann. PMID:26899921

  10. Danish experiences on EIA of livestock projects

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, Per . E-mail: pc@plan.aau.dk

    2006-07-15

    Since its introduction into Danish planning in 1989, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been widely discussed. At the centre of the debate has been the question of whether EIA actually offered anything new and there has been a great deal of scepticism about the efficacy of the instrument, especially when it comes to livestock projects. In an evaluation of the Danish EIA experience, we have looked more closely at how the EIA instruments function regarding livestock projects. This article addresses both the EIA process as well as the EIA screening. It is demonstrated that the EIA screening in its own right is a kind of regulatory instrument. Examining the assessments made during screening more closely, we conclude that there is still some way to go in order to make the assessment broader and more holistic in accordance with the ambitions set out in the EIA directive to contribute to a more sustainable development. Although the provisions laid down are the same the praxis related to the field has developed at a considerable speed. In order to understand this development we have closely examined how the decisions made by the Nature Protection Board of Appeal (NPBA) have been changed and conclude that these changes definitely address some of the shortcomings found in the evaluation.

  11. The physician's civil liability under Danish law.

    PubMed

    Fenger, N; Broberg, M

    1991-01-01

    The physician's liability in Danish law is based on negligence, which is assessed by the courts largely on the basis of expert opinions. Such opinions are provided primarily by the Medico-Legal Council rather than by experts selected by the parties. The evaluation of negligence is based on a "reasonable man" standard and the performance expected of a competent colleague; a hospital will be responsible for the negligence of its employees. The burden of proof generally lies with the plaintiff; negligence will not be presumed and the assessment of the evidence of negligence will be adapted to the individual situation, e.g. factors such as the degree of specialization involved, the time which the physician had at his disposal to make his decision and the resources available to him will be taken into consideration. The courts have shown themselves willing to allow for the fact that doctors differ, i.e. recognizing that there must be scope for reasonable discretion. Because the culpa principle is central, the standard applied to medical knowledge will be that which pertained at the time of the treatment. Where a non-specialist is confronted with a problem which may go beyond the knowledge of his limits and experience, he is under an obligation to refer the patient. The principle of informed consent to treatment is accepted in Danish law, but such consent will readily be considered to have been given tacitly. PMID:23511859

  12. Thyroid function in Danish greenhouse workers

    PubMed Central

    Toft, Gunnar; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2006-01-01

    Background From animal studies it is known that currently used pesticides can disturb thyroid function. Methods In the present study we investigated the thyroid function in 122 Danish greenhouse workers, to evaluate if greenhouse workers classified as highly exposed to pesticides experiences altered thyroid levels compared to greenhouse workers with lower exposure. Serum samples from the greenhouse workers were sampled both in the spring and the fall to evaluate if differences in pesticide use between seasons resulted in altered thyroid hormone levels. Results We found a moderate reduction of free thyroxine (FT4) (10–16%) among the persons working in greenhouses with a high spraying load both in samples collected in the spring and the fall, but none of the other measured thyroid hormones differed significantly between exposure groups in the cross-sectional comparisons. However, in longitudinal analysis of the individual thyroid hormone level between the spring and the fall, more pronounced differences where found with on average 32% higher thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level in the spring compared to the fall and at the same time a 5–9% lower total triiodthyroxin (TT3), free triiodthyroxine (FT3) and FT4. The difference between seasons was not consistently more pronounced in the group classified as high exposure compared to the low exposure groups. Conclusion The present study indicates that pesticide exposure among Danish greenhouse workers results in only minor disturbances of thyroid hormone levels. PMID:17147831

  13. Effect of animal mixing as a stressor on biomarkers of autophagy and oxidative stress during pig muscle maturation.

    PubMed

    Rubio-González, A; Potes, Y; Illán-Rodríguez, D; Vega-Naredo, I; Sierra, V; Caballero, B; Fàbrega, E; Velarde, A; Dalmau, A; Oliván, M; Coto-Montes, A

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the postmortem evolution of potential biomarkers of autophagy (Beclin 1, LC3-II/LC3-I ratio) and oxidative stress (total antioxidant activity, TAA; superoxide dismutase activity, SOD and catalase activity, CAT) in the Longissimus dorsi muscle of entire male ((Large White×Landrace)×Duroc) pigs subjected to different management treatments that may promote stress, such as mixing unfamiliar animals at the farm and/or during transport and lairage before slaughter. During the rearing period at the farm, five animals were never mixed after the initial formation of the experimental groups (unmixed group at the farm, UF), whereas 10 animals were subjected to a common routine of being mixed with unfamiliar animals (mixed group at the farm, MF). Furthermore, two different treatments were used during the transport and lairage before slaughter: 10 pigs were not mixed (unmixed group during transport and lairage, UTL), whereas five pigs were mixed with unfamiliar animals on the lorry and during lairage (mixed group during transport and lairage, MTL). These mixing treatments were then combined into three pre-slaughter treatments - namely, UF-UTL, MF-UTL and MF-MTL. The results show that MF-UTL and MF-MTL increased significantly the muscle antioxidant defense (TAA, SOD and CAT) at short postmortem times (4 and 8 h; P<0.001), followed by an earlier depletion of the antioxidant activity at 24 h postmortem (P<0.05). We also found that mixing unfamiliar animals, both at the farm and during transport and lairage, triggers postmortem muscle autophagy, which showed an earlier activation (higher expression of Beclin 1 and LC3-II/LC3-I ratio at 4 h postmortem followed by a decreasing pattern of this ratio along first 24 h postmortem) in the muscle tissues of animals from the MF-UTL and MF-MTL groups, as an adaptive strategy of the muscle cells for counteracting induced stress. From these results, we propose that monitoring the evolution of the main

  14. Genetically modified feeds in animal nutrition. 1st communication: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in poultry, pig and ruminant nutrition.

    PubMed

    Aulrich, K; Böhme, H; Daenicke, R; Halle, I; Flachowsky, G

    2001-01-01

    During the last few years, animal nutrition has been confronted with genetically modified organisms (GMO), and their significance will increase in the future. The study presents investigations on the substantial equivalence of the transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn and the corresponding nontransgenic hybrid Cesar and parameters of nutrition physiology such as digestibility and energy content for poultry, pigs and ruminants. The results of the analysed corn samples as well as of the silage samples illustrated substantial equivalence in all investigated ingredients, such as crude nutrients, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals and non-starch polysaccharides. The results of the experiments using poultry, pigs, wethers and fattening bulls were not influenced by the genetic modification of corn. The determined values for the digestibilities and the energy contents for poultry, pigs and wethers were not affected by the used corn variety. Neither the examined parameters of the fattening experiments with bulls nor the slaughter results showed any significant differences between the bulls fed on silages made from the nontransgenic or transgenic corn. PMID:11865766

  15. Accuracy of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in assessing carcass composition from different pig populations.

    PubMed

    Soladoye, O P; López Campos, Ó; Aalhus, J L; Gariépy, C; Shand, P; Juárez, M

    2016-11-01

    The accuracy of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in assessing carcass composition from pigs with diverse characteristics was examined in the present study. A total of 648 pigs from three different sire breeds, two sexes, two slaughter weights and three different diets were employed. DXA estimations were used to predict the dissected/chemical yield for lean and fat of carcass sides and primal cuts. The accuracy of the predictions was assessed based on coefficient of determination (R(2)) and residual standard deviation (RSD). The linear relationships for dissected fat and lean for all the primal cuts and carcass sides were high (R(2)>0.94, P<0.01), with low RSD (<1.9%). Relationships between DXA and chemical fat and lean of pork bellies were also high (R(2)>0.94, P<0.01), with RSD <2.9%. These linear relationships remained high over the full range of variation in the pig population, except for sire breed, where the coefficient of determination decreased when carcasses were classified based on this variable. PMID:27395824

  16. Transfer of blood urea nitrogen to cecal microbial nitrogen is increased by fructo-oligosaccharide feeding in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Kiyonori; Min, Xiao; Li, Xiao; Hasegawa, Ena; Sakaguchi, Ei

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the mechanism by which nitrogen (N) availability is improved by fructo-oligosaccharide (FOS) in guinea pigs. Adult male guinea pigs were fed a commercial pellet diet (50 g/day) with either 5% glucose or 5% FOS for 7 days in individual metabolism cages. After 7 days of feeding the diet, (15) N-urea was administered intravenously 1 h before slaughter under anesthesia. The amount and concentration of total, protein, bacterial, ammonia and urea N and the (15) N atom % excess were measured in blood, liver, gut contents and urine. The (15) N atom % excess of total and protein N, and the amount of total, protein and bacteria N and (15) N in the cecum were significantly increased by the consumption of FOS. Furthermore, the concentration and amount of short-chain fatty acids were significantly increased by the consumption of FOS. In contrast, the amount of urinary (15) N was significantly decreased by the consumption of FOS. These results suggest that consumption of FOS increases transfer of blood urea N into the large intestine for bacterial N synthesis, which is subsequently re-absorbed by cecotrophy, and contributes to the increase of N utilization in guinea pigs. PMID:24961929

  17. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Haccp Implementation in the Chinese Slaughtering and Meat Productprocessing Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Shunlong; Ma, Chenglin; Yang, Yinsheng; Bai, Li; He, Linyi

    The paper reports the results of a study of the costs and benefits associated with the implementation and operation of HACCP in the Chinese slaughtering and meat product processing industry. The research results suggest that although some kinds of intangible costs are more regularly referred to, the major costs of implementing and operating HACCP in the industry are still relatively tangible, such as investment in new equipments and product testing. And although most respondents indicated that the costs of implementing and operating HACCP were approximately in accordance with their prior expectations, still a significant majority indicated that some costs exceeded their expectations. The results also suggest that the slaughtering and meat product processing enterprises do derive benefits from implementing and operating HACCP, and some of them have derived distinct benefits. The results have implications for the further adoption of HACCP not only in the industry itself but also in the Chinese food industry as a whole. Policy makers should take account of these research results and make more quantitative researches to offer more comprehensive and classified information to help food enterprises make decisions on HACCP implementation and operation.

  18. Effects of suckling duration on growth, slaughtering and carcass quality characteristics of Kivircik lambs.

    PubMed

    Ekiz, Bulent; Kocak, Omur; Yalcintan, Hulya; Yilmaz, Alper

    2016-02-01

    Effects of suckling length (45, 75 and 120 days) and birth type (single and twin) on lamb growth, slaughtering and carcass quality characteristics were investigated using 40 Kivircik lambs. SC-45 and SC-75 lambs were weaned at 45 and 75 days of age, respectively, whilst SC-120 lambs remained with their mothers until the end of the experimental period. Lambs from all studied groups were slaughtered at 120 days of age. Weaning treatment caused a decrease in average daily gain in SC-45 and SC-75 lambs, and therefore, final weight was higher in SC-120 lambs than lambs from weaned groups. SC-120 lambs had higher empty body weight, cold carcass weight, dressing percentage, carcass measurements, carcass fatness (proportions of the kidney knob and channel fat, subcutaneous and intramuscular fat in pelvic limb) and non-carcass fatness (omental and mesenteric fat proportion) than weaned lambs. As a conclusion, the potential losses in meat production due to weaning should be considered before deciding the weaning of lambs at early ages. PMID:26676241

  19. Potential of a commercially available water acidification product for reducing Campylobacter in broilers prior to slaughter.

    PubMed

    Haughton, P N; Lyng, J; Fanning, S; Whyte, P

    2013-06-01

    1. This study investigated the potential of a commercially available acidified water treatment (PWT) for reducing the number of Campylobacter in vitro and other bacteria in the gut of live broilers. 2. In vitro tests indicated that PWT was highly effective for reducing Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli at the recommended concentration in water, reducing populations by greater than 7 log10 CFU/ml after 24 h exposure. The decrease in the number of Salmonella serovar Enteritidis and Escherichia coli was not significant. 3. Addition of PWT to the broiler drinking water for the first 7 d, 2 d before and 2 d after each feed change and at feed withdrawal prior to slaughter or only after feed withdrawal had no effect on the number of Campylobacter in caecal samples on farm before thinning and depopulation compared to untreated controls. 4. Although PWT was effective for reducing Campylobacter in water, the results suggest that it does not reduce the number of Campylobacter in the caeca of broilers prior to slaughter under the conditions used in the study. PMID:23796116

  20. Genetic resistance to Teladorsagia circumcincta: IgA and parameters at slaughter in Churra sheep.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Valladares, M; Vara-Del Río, M P; Cruz-Rojo, M A; Rojo-Vázquez, F A

    2005-06-01

    SUMMARY Previous experiments have shown that genetic resistance to infection by Teladorsagia circumcincta in sheep can be measured by the level of IgA in gastric mucus, jointly with other parameters. The aim of this study has been to observe the influence of IgA on adult worms. The experiment was carried out with Churra sheep experimentally infected with T. circumcincta. At slaughter, gastric content, gastric mucus, blood samples and faeces were recovered to determine the number of eggs in utero, length of adult females, worm burden, number of L4, titre of serum pepsinogen, peripheral eosinophilia and eggs per gram (epg). IgA activity in gastric mucus, serum, nasal secretions and saliva were tested against somatic antigen from fourth-stage larvae (L4), somatic antigen from the adult stage and excretory-secretory (E/S) antigen from the adult stage. The results showed a significant correlation between serum IgA and gastric mucus (P<0.01) as well as in nasal secretions (P<0.01). We found negative correlations between IgA activity in gastric mucus with the eggs in utero and with adult female length. Furthermore there were also strong relationships between the peripheral eosinophilia with serum (P<0.01) and gastric mucus IgA activity (P<0.01). Moreover serum pepsinogen and the number of L4 at slaughter were related (P<0.01). PMID:16048640

  1. A slaughter house study on prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths among small ruminants at Mhow, Indore.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Deepak K; Agrawal, Vivek; Haque, Manjurul

    2015-12-01

    A total of 1,405 faecal samples (960 goat and 445 sheep) were examined from animals slaughtered at slaughter house, Mhow, Indore, for a period of 1 year (Feb. 2011-Jan. 2012). Examination of faecal samples by qualitative method exhibited 90.05 % prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) helminths. Among the various helminths, the highest prevalence was of strongyles (85.40 %) followed by amphistomes (21.78 %), Trichuris spp. (21.70 %), Strongyloides spp. (12.24 %), Moniezia spp. (5.77 %) and Fasciola spp. (4.56 %). In monsoon season maximum prevalence (92.96 %) was recorded followed by winter (89.20 %) and summer (87.76 %). Age and sex wise prevalence was higher in less than 1 year of age group (91.05 %) and in females (90.96 %). Percent prevalence of GI helminths was slightly higher in sheep (90.11 %) as compare with goats (90.00 %). PMID:26688650

  2. Suckling kid breed and slaughter weight discrimination using muscle colour and visible reflectance.

    PubMed

    Ripoll, G; Alcalde, M J; Horcada, A; Panea, B

    2011-02-01

    Meat colour was evaluated in 141 male suckling kids from five Spanish breeds: Blanca Andaluza (BA), Blanca Celtibérica (BC), Moncaína (MO), Negra Serrana-Castiza (NE) and Pirenaica (PI). Kids were slaughtered at 7.5 and 11.5 kg. pH and colour were measured in the longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle. pH values did not differ significantly among breeds. Lightness tended to decrease and redness to increase as weight increased. BC and NE at light weight and BC and BA at heavy weight were characterized by greater lightness, chroma and hue. At both weights MO and PI were darker and showed lower values for chroma and hue. BA at light weight and NE at heavy weight were characterized by values that were between those of the former groups for all variables. Discriminant analysis based on colour and pH correctly classified 48.9% of the kids into their breed and slaughter weight. PMID:21041040

  3. Prediction of slaughter cow composition using live animal and carcass traits.

    PubMed

    O'Mara, F M; Williams, S E; Tatum, J D; Hilton, G G; Pringle, T D; Wise, J W; Williams, F L

    1998-06-01

    Slaughter cows (n = 120), representing four genotypes (British, continental, Bos indicus, and dairy) and three body condition classes (thin, moderate, and fat), n = 10 per subclass, were used to identify practical and accurate prediction equations for the yield of boneless manufacturing beef of specific fat percentages. Cows and their carcasses were weighed and evaluated for USDA yield and quality grade factors and for physical muscle and fat indicators. Carcass sides were fabricated; total fat percentage (TFP) was calculated as total fat (trimmed and chemical) divided by side weight, and tissue lean percentage (TLP) was calculated as boneless fat-free lean divided by soft tissue weight. Data were analyzed using maximum R2 multiple regression. The best live trait prediction model for TFP included live preliminary yield grade (LPYG), body condition score (LCOND), visual live muscle score (LMUSC), and live weight (LWT), R2 = .83. The best carcass trait TFP prediction model included adjusted preliminary yield grade (CPYGA); kidney, pelvic, and heart fat adjustment (CKPHADJ); marbling score (CMARB); and hot carcass weight (HCW), R2 = .92. The best live trait TLP prediction model included LPYG, LCOND, LMUSC, and LWT, R2 = .82. The best carcass trait TLP prediction model included CPYGA, CKPHADJ, CMARB, and lean maturity, R2 = .91. These data indicate that TFP and TLP of slaughter cows can be accurately and practically predicted using live animal and carcass traits. PMID:9655579

  4. A Cross-Sectional Study Investigating Cystic Hydatidosis in Slaughtered Cattle of Western Province in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Banda, Fredrick; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo; Muma, John Bwalya; Munyeme, Musso; Mweemba Munang'andu, Hetron

    2013-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2007 to November 2008 to estimate the prevalence of hydatidosis in slaughtered cattle from two abattoirs in Mongu, Western Province, Zambia, using prospective and retrospective data. Out of the 4061 cattle examined during postmortem inspection, 84 (2.1%) were positive for hydatidosis. No cases were detected from Kaoma and Shangombo districts; however, prevalence ranged from 0.6% to 2.5% in districts where it was present. Sex was found to be positively associated with hydatidosis (P = 0.035) with female cattle being more likely to have hydatidosis (OR = 1.62). In the retrospective study (1994 to 2007), annual prevalence of hydatidosis ranged from 1.56% (n = 12,641) in 2006 to 4.7% (n = 2633) in 2001 with an overall prevalence of 3% (4689/158,456). This value is comparable to that observed in cattle slaughtered between October 2007 and November 2008 (2.1%). Hydatidosis was observed in the lungs (51.2%), liver (47.6%), and kidneys (1.2%). The percentage of viable cysts was 43.7%. This study confirms the presence of hydatidosis in cattle in Western Province of Zambia and estimates economic losses due to organ condemnations. Data presented herein provides a useful baseline for developing policy and intervention measures. PMID:27335848

  5. Pathological studies on white spots of the liver in fattening pigs.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, M; Yoshihara, S; Suda, H; Ikeda, K

    1983-01-01

    Hepatic lesions were found in fattening pigs derived from a farm where swine had been suffering from the multiple occurrence of white spots in the liver. They were examined at a slaughter-house for 18 months. The white spots were classified into three patterns on the basis of the macroscopic appearance; that is a compact, a mesh-worked, and a lymphonodular pattern. Histologically, the following 3 kinds of lesions were seen: (1) Eosinophilic interstitial hepatitis accompanied with intralobular necrosis, arteriolar degeneration, boring focus, granuloma and the existence of Nematoda larvae. (2) Fibrosis accompanied occasionally with infiltration of a few eosinophils and lymphocytes. (3) Lymphofollicular hyperplasia. As to the relationship between macroscopic and histologic patterns, compact white spots were generally produced by eosinophilic interstitial hepatitis. The mesh-worked pattern consisted of eosinophilic interstitial hepatitis or fibrosis, and the lymphonodular pattern of lymphofollicular hyperplasia. The incidence of eosinophilic interstitial hepatitis was relatively high over a period from July to December and rather low over a period from January to June. That of fibrosis was considerably high all the year round. Lymphofollicular hyperplasia showed no distinct seasonal incidence. Intestinal ascarids were frequently detected over a period from August to October. Pigs having CF antibody against Ascaris suum increased in number over a period from August to December. From these results, the cause of the multiple occurrence of white spots in the liver was regarded as A. suum infection. PMID:6680776

  6. Compensatory Growth of Congenital Solitary Kidneys in Pigs Reflects Increased Nephron Numbers Rather Than Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    van Vuuren, Stefan H.; Sol, Chalana M.; Broekhuizen, Roel; Lilien, Marc R.; Oosterveld, Michiel J. S.; Nguyen, Tri Q.

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with unilateral MultiCystic Kidney Dysplasia (MCKD) or unilateral renal agenesis (URA) have a congenital solitary functioning kidney (CSFK) that is compensatory enlarged. The question whether this enlargement is due to increased nephron numbers and/or to nephron hypertrophy is unresolved. This question is of utmost clinical importance, since hypertrophy is associated with a risk of developing hypertension and proteinuria later in life with consequent development of CKD and cardiovascular disease. Methodology/Principal Findings In a cohort of 32,000 slaughter pigs, 7 congenital solitary functioning kidneys and 7 control kidneys were identified and harvested. Cortex volume was measured and with a 3-dimensional stereologic technique the number and volume of glomeruli was determined and compared. The mean total cortex volume was increased by more than 80% and the mean number of glomeruli per kidney was 50% higher in CSFKs than in a single control kidney, equaling 75% of the total nephron number in both kidneys of control subjects. The mean total glomerular volume in the CSFKs was not increased relative to the controls. Conclusions/Significance Thus, in pigs, compensatory enlargement of a CSFK is based on increased nephron numbers. Extrapolation of these findings to the human situation suggests that patients with a CSFK might not be at increased risk for developing hyperfiltration-associated renal and cardiovascular disease in later life due to a lower nephron number. PMID:23185419

  7. Dietary Carob Pods on Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Fattening Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kotrotsios, Nikolaos; Christaki, Efterpi; Bonos, Eleftherios; Florou-Paneri, Panagiota

    2012-01-01

    In this experiment the effect of dietary carob pods in the growth performance of fattening pigs and their meat quality, including steak chemical composition and fatty acid profile, were examined. A total of 160 weaning piglets, 30 days old, were allocated into four equal groups with 4 subgroups of 5 female and 5 males each. The animals were fed with isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets, containing either 0 or 75 or 100 or 125 g of carob pods per kg of feed. At the end of the experiment, on the 180 day of age, carcass subcutaneous fat thickness, steak chemical composition and steak fatty acid profile were determined. The results of the experiment showed that the dietary addition of 75 or 100 g/kg carob pods increased body weight at slaughter and carcass weight. No significant effect was noticed on the other examined carcass parameters. Consequently, carob pods could be suggested as a potential feed for fattening pigs without any adverse effect on their meat quality. PMID:25049640

  8. Determination of the lean meat percentage of pig carcasses using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Collewet, G; Bogner, P; Allen, P; Busk, H; Dobrowolski, A; Olsen, E; Davenel, A

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of Workpackage 3 of the European Eupigclass project was to test indirect methods of measuring the lean meat percentage of a carcass that would be less costly, at least as accurate and more consistent than dissection. Magnetic resonance imaging was one of the three indirect methods tested to measure the lean meat weight and the lean meat percentage of pig carcasses, the other methods being X-ray CT and vision techniques. One hundred and twenty carcasses from three different genotypes and from both sexes were slaughtered. The left parts of the carcasses were fully dissected and the right parts were investigated with an indirect method using a 1.5T MRI system. The acquisition protocol was chosen to give an optimized contrast between fat and muscle tissues. Two different approaches, image segmentation and PLS regression, were used to extract information from the images. Automatic image segmentation was performed to quantify the volume of muscle in the images and gave a standard error of prediction using a linear regression with the dissection of the left half carcasses of 586g and 1.10% for lean meat weight and lean meat percentage, respectively. PLS regression using the signal intensities histograms gave an estimation error of 465g for lean meat weight. These results showed that MRI could be used in place of full dissection for authorizing and monitoring classification equipment of pig carcasses. PMID:22063881

  9. Quality Comparison of Pork Loin and Belly from Three-way Crossbred Pigs during Postmortem Storage

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Dong-Gyun; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the meat quality characteristics of pork loin and belly from 3 different three-way crossbred pigs: Yorkshire × Landrace × Duroc (YLD), Yorkshire × Chester White × Yorkshire (YCY), and Yorkshire × Berkshire × Duroc (YBD). Each of the twenty crossed pigs were randomly selected with their live weights at the range of 110-120 kg. After being slaughtered and cooled at 0℃ for 24 h in a chilling room, the parts of loin and belly on the left side of the cooled carcasses were cut and prepared for analysis. The intramuscular fat contents of the loins from YLD were higher than those of the other crossbreds (p<0.05), and the YCY bellies had the highest moisture contents (p<0.05). Water holding capacity (WHC) of the loins from YCY were higher than the other crossbreds (p<0.05). Shear force values of the YBD loins were higher than the others (p<0.05). The TBARS values of YCY loins were significantly lower than the others at 0 d, but the difference disappeared after 14 d of storage. Sensory scores of YLD were ranked higher than the YCY or YBD in both the loins and bellies (p<0.05). The relatively high sensory values of YLD crossbred pork could be explained by the better WHC, the low shear forces, and the higher fat contents. The results indicated that the meat qualities could be altered by three-way crossbreeding. PMID:26760937

  10. Designing a risk communication strategy for health hazards posed by traditional slaughter of goats in Tshwane, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Qekwana, Daniel N; McCrindle, Cheryl M E; Oguttu, James W

    2014-01-01

    In African societies, traditional slaughter is linked to celebrations like weddings or births, as well as funerals and ancestor veneration. Participants in traditional slaughter of goats are at risk of exposure to hazards during slaughter, food preparation and consumption of goat meat. For risk mitigation strategies to be implemented, identification of the population at risk is required. This study is based on the premise that the demographic profile of people involved in traditional slaughter of goats is important for risk communication. Both structured and informal interviews were recorded and analysed using a thematic analysis. A total of 105 people were interviewed at taxi ranks in Tshwane, Gauteng. Of these, 48 were women and 57 men. The median age of women and men was 40.6 years and 44.3 years, respectively. The majority of respondents (61.9%, n = 65) interviewed were from the Gauteng Province. Sixty percent (n = 63) of respondents had a secondary education, whilst less than 4.81% (n = 5) of respondents had no formal education. This study demonstrated that interviewing commuters at taxi ranks gave access to a cross section of gender, age, language and origin. It was found that both genders were involved in traditional slaughter of goats. Risk communication strategies should thus target women as well as men. Communication strategies to mitigate the risks of traditional slaughter of goats should take into consideration the dynamic nature of demographic and cultural norms. In light of the wide demographic profile of the respondents, it was concluded that it should be possible to use taxi ranks for successful dissemination of food safety and occupational health risk mitigation messages. PMID:25685926

  11. Oxfendazole flukicidal activity in pigs.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Pedro; Terrones, Susana; Cabrera, María; Hoban, Cristian; Ceballos, Laura; Moreno, Laura; Canton, Candela; Donadeu, Meritxell; Lanusse, Carlos; Alvarez, Luis

    2014-08-01

    Although oxfendazole (OFZ) is a well know broad-spectrum benzimidazole anthelmintic, the assessment of its potential trematodicidal activity remains unexplored. OFZ administration at single high doses has been recommended to control Taenia solium cysticercus in pigs. The current study investigated the flukicidal activity obtained after a single high (30mg/kg) oral dose of OFZ in pigs harbouring a natural Fasciola hepatica infection. Sixteen (16) local ecotype pigs were randomly allocated into two (2) experimental groups of 8 animals each named as follow: Untreated control and OFZ treated, in which animals received OFZ (Synanthic(®), Merial Ltd., 9.06% suspension) orally at 30mg/kg. At seven (7) days post-treatment, all the animals were sacrificed and direct adult liver fluke counts were performed following the WAAVP guidelines. None of the animals involved in this experiment showed any adverse event during the study. OFZ treatment as a single 30mg/kg oral dose showed a 100% efficacy against F. hepatica. In conclusion, the trial described here demonstrated an excellent OFZ activity against F. hepatica in naturally infected pigs, after its administration at a single oral dose of 30mg/kg. PMID:24713198

  12. Investigation of candidate regions influencing litter size in Danish Landrace sows.

    PubMed

    Bjerre, D; Mark, T; Sørensen, P; Proschowsky, H F; Vernersen, A; Jørgensen, C B; Fredholm, M

    2010-05-01

    Selection for increased litter size has been one of the main objectives in Danish pig breeding since 1992. This selection has led to an average increase of 0.30 piglets/litter per year for Landrace and Yorkshire sows, resulting in an average litter size of 15.3 piglets born alive in 2007, with an SD of 3.5 piglets. The objective of this study was to investigate differences in identity by state relationships and allele effects associated with litter size across 17 selected microsatellite marker positions on chromosomes 11, 13, and 15. For this purpose, 357 Danish Landrace sows with high and low EBV for litter size were genotyped. An assignment test showed that 91 and 90% of the sows could be assigned correctly to the group of sows representing high and low EBV, respectively, based on genotype information. Allele effects were estimated separately for each marker by using deregressed EBV and a linear model that include both a polygenic and an allele effect. The investigated region on chromosome 13 was found to have a greater average identity by state relationship compared with the other regions, indicating that selection has taken place in this region. This is supported by an increased average allele effect of microsatellite alleles in the region. In spite of the apparent increased historical selection pressure on chromosome 13, fairly large variation in allele effects was observed, indicating that the markers within the region may be used for marker-assisted selection. However, substantial variation in allele effects was observed for several markers on all 3 investigated chromosomes, indicating that selection should preferably be based on several markers. PMID:20118429

  13. The effects of naturally deoxynivalenol-contaminated oats on the clinical condition, blood parameters, performance and carcass composition of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Bergsjø, B; Langseth, W; Nafstad, I; Jansen, J H; Larsen, H J

    1993-01-01

    A feeding trial with naturally deoxynivalenol (DON)-contaminated oats included in feed mixtures at graded levels was conducted in growing pigs. The DON concentrations were 0, 0.7, 1.7, and 3.5 mg/kg of complete feed mixture given ad libitum to different groups. The data recorded were feed consumption, body weight gain, slaughter weight, biochemical and haematological data including serum immunoglobulin A, clinical condition and post-mortem pathology including histopathology. Significantly decreasing body weight gain throughout the experimental period, decreased slaughter weight and reduced feed utilization efficiency were observed for the group fed a diet containing 3.5 mg/kg of DON. At the same DON concentration, there were increased liver weights and decreased concentrations of serum protein and albumin, and a temporary fall in packed blood cell volume, serum calcium and serum phosphorus. For the groups fed diets containing 1.7 and 3.5 mg/kg of DON, a statistically significant, dose-related decrease in daily feed consumption was observed. No other effects on haematological, biochemical or immunological parameters were recorded. The carcass quality was not affected in any group. It was concluded that significant effects in growing pigs may be observed at a dietary DON concentration of 1.7 mg/kg, originating from naturally contaminated oats included in a diet that was otherwise adequate and contained only minor traces of other mycotoxins. PMID:8146954

  14. Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Prestice Black-Pied Pig Breed.

    PubMed

    Matoušek, Václav; Kernerová, Naděžda; Hyšplerová, Klára; Jirotková, Dana; Brzáková, Michaela

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate fattening performance, carcass value and meat quality in pigs of Prestice Black-Pied breed in relation to slaughter weight (SW) and gender (barrows and gilts, resp.). Pigs were divided into weight categories: SW1 (75 to 99.9 kg), SW2 (100 to 109.9 kg) and SW3 (110 to 130 kg) and all individual traits were analyzed by the general linear model procedure (SAS 9.3). Average SW of each weight group was as follows: SW1 94.2 kg, SW2 105.8 kg, and SW3 115.2 kg. Differences among average backfat thickness of 36.07 mm in SW1, 40.16 mm in SW2, and 43.21 mm in SW3 were significant (p<0.01). Lean meat content was 48.94% (SW1), 48.78% (SW2), and 48.76% (SW3). Pigs were slaughtered at average weight of 105.7 kg for barrows and 104.4 kg for gilts. Average backfat thickness for barrows was 40.90 mm and 38.72 mm for gilts (significant difference p<0.05). Lean meat content was 48.75% in barrows and 48.91% in gilts. The values of pH45, characterizing the meat of very good quality. The loin in SW3 was darker than the muscles of SW1 and SW2. Drip loss was the lowest in SW1 (1.96%), compared to the highest drip loss in SW3 (2.59%). Content of intramuscular fat was 2.68% in SW3, 2.79% in SW2, and SW1 had the lowest content 2.47%. The values of pH45, colour lightness and drip loss were similar in both genders. However barrows had higher intramuscular fat content by 0.31% than gilts (p<0.05). PMID:26954141

  15. Toxoplasmosis in pigs-The last 20 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigs are important to the economy of many countries because they are a source of food for humans. Infected pig meat is a source of Toxoplasma gondii infection for humans and animals in many countries. This parasite also causes mortality in pigs, especially neonatal pigs. Most pigs acquire T. gondii ...

  16. Annoying Danish relatives: comprehension and production of relative clauses by Danish children with and without SLI.

    PubMed

    Jensen De López, Kristine; Sundahl Olsen, Lone; Chondrogianni, Vasiliki

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with SLI and to compare errors with those produced by TD children. Eighteen children with SLI, eighteen TD age-matched (AM) and nine TD language-matched (LM) Danish-speaking children participated in a comprehension and in a production task. All children performed better on the comprehension compared with the production task, as well as on SRCs compared to ORCs and produced various avoidance strategies. In the ORC context, children with SLI produced more reversal errors than the AM children, who opted for passive ORCs. These results are discussed within current theories of SLI and indicate a deficiency with the assignment of thematic roles rather than with the structural make-up of RCs. PMID:23200200

  17. Endemicity of Zoonotic Diseases in Pigs and Humans in Lowland and Upland Lao PDR: Identification of Socio-cultural Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Hannah R.; Inthavong, Phouth; Khamlome, Boualam; Blaszak, Kate; Keokamphe, Chattouphone; Somoulay, Virasack; Phongmany, Anousone; Durr, Peter A.; Graham, Kerryne; Allen, John; Donnelly, Blánaid; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Unger, Fred; Grace, Delia; Alonso, Silvia; Gilbert, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    In Lao People’s Democratic Republic pigs are kept in close contact with families. Human risk of infection with pig zoonoses arises from direct contact and consumption of unsafe pig products. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Luang Prabang (north) and Savannakhet (central-south) Provinces. A total of 59 villages, 895 humans and 647 pigs were sampled and serologically tested for zoonotic pathogens including: hepatitis E virus (HEV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and Trichinella spiralis; In addition, human sera were tested for Taenia spp. and cysticercosis. Seroprevalence of zoonotic pathogens in humans was high for HEV (Luang Prabang: 48.6%, Savannakhet: 77.7%) and T. spiralis (Luang Prabang: 59.0%, Savannakhet: 40.5%), and lower for JEV (around 5%), Taenia spp. (around 3%) and cysticercosis (Luang Prabang: 6.1, Savannakhet 1.5%). Multiple correspondence analysis and hierarchical clustering of principal components was performed on descriptive data of human hygiene practices, contact with pigs and consumption of pork products. Three clusters were identified: Cluster 1 had low pig contact and good hygiene practices, but had higher risk of T. spiralis. Most people in cluster 2 were involved in pig slaughter (83.7%), handled raw meat or offal (99.4%) and consumed raw pigs’ blood (76.4%). Compared to cluster 1, cluster 2 had increased odds of testing seropositive for HEV and JEV. Cluster 3 had the lowest sanitation access and had the highest risk of HEV, cysticercosis and Taenia spp. Farmers which kept their pigs tethered (as opposed to penned) and disposed of manure in water sources had 0.85 (95% CI: 0.18 to 0.91) and 2.39 (95% CI: 1.07 to 5.34) times the odds of having pigs test seropositive for HEV, respectively. The results have been used to identify entry-points for intervention and management strategies to reduce disease exposure in humans and pigs, informing control activities in a cysticercosis hyper-endemic village. PMID:27070428

  18. Effects of preslaughter feed withdrawal time on finishing pig carcass, body weight gain, and food safety characteristics in a commercial environment.

    PubMed

    Frobose, H L; Dritz, S S; Tokach, M D; Prusa, K J; DeRouchey, J M; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L

    2014-08-01

    The effects of feed withdrawal time before slaughter on finishing pig carcass composition were evaluated in 2 studies. In Exp. 1, 728 pigs (BW = 128.9 ± 1.2 kg) were allotted to 1 of 4 treatments in a randomized design with number of pigs per pen and location within barn balanced across treatment. The 4 treatments were feed withdrawal times of 8, 24, 36, or 48 h and there were 12 replicate pens per treatment. Before feed withdrawal, pigs were fed a standard corn-soybean meal diet containing dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), bakery coproducts, and 5.0 mg/kg ractopamine HCl. Feed withdrawal time decreased (linear; P < 0.02) live weight, HCW, and backfat while increasing percentage yield (quadratic; P < 0.01) and fat-free lean index (FFLI; linear; P < 0.001). In Exp. 2, 843 pigs (BW = 125.4 ± 1.6 kg) were used to determine the impact of feed withdrawal on growth, carcass, blood lactate, and meat quality. There were 4 treatments: withholding feed for 8, 12, 24, or 36 h, with 10 replicates per treatment. Pigs were fed a common corn-soybean meal-based diet containing 20% DDGS and 5.0 mg/kg ractopamine HCl. Withholding feed decreased (linear; P < 0.001) live weight, ultimately resulting in decreased (P < 0.01) HCW. There were no differences in FFLI or backfat, but percentage yield (linear; P < 0.001) increased with longer withdrawal times. Carcass contaminations by stomach contents escaping from the oral cavity after shackling (leaking ingesta) or visible fecal contamination of the exterior of the carcass (runny bung) were also measured. Although withholding feed did not affect runny bung, it increased (linear; P < 0.001) the incidence of leaking ingesta, whereas blood lactate, visual color score, and purge loss were unaffected. Withholding feed increased 45-min pH (quadratic; P > 0.02) and ultimate pH (linear; P < 0.01) and increased (quadratic; P < 0.03) visual marbling score. Withholding feed decreased (linear; P < 0.001) feed intake, resulting in feed

  19. Effects of Dietary Supplementation with Ferulic Acid or Vitamin E Individually or in Combination on Meat Quality and Antioxidant Capacity of Finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y. J.; Li, L. Y.; Li, J. L.; Zhang, L.; Gao, F.; Zhou, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of vitamin E (VE), ferulic acid (FA) and their combination supplementation on meat quality and antioxidant capacities of finishing pigs. Sixty barrows were randomly allocated to four experimental diets using a 2×2 factorial arrangement with 2 VE supplemental levels (0 or 400 mg/kg) and 2 FA supplemental levels (0 or 100 mg/kg) in basal diets. After 28 days, six pigs per treatment were slaughtered. The results showed that VE supplementation increased loin eye area of pigs (p<0.05) and FA supplementation increased pH45min value (p<0.05). The interaction of FA×VE was observed in shear force of longissimus dorsi muscle (p<0.05). Moreover, supplementation with VE decreased hepatic and sarcous malondialdehyde (MDA) content, increased hepatic glutathione (GSH) content and sarcous glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity (p<0.05). Additionally, supplementation with FA increased hepatic GSH-Px activity and decreased sarcous MDA content (p<0.05). However, dietary treatment did not affect the expression of genes related to nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2 (NFE2L2) pathway. These results suggest that dietary FA and VE could partially improve meat quality and antioxidant capacity of finishing pigs, but not by activating NFE2L2 pathway under the normal conditions of farming. PMID:25656211

  20. Description of the pig production systems, biosecurity practices and herd health providers in two provinces with high swine density in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Alawneh, J I; Barnes, T S; Parke, C; Lapuz, E; David, E; Basinang, V; Baluyut, A; Villar, E; Lopez, E L; Blackall, P J

    2014-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2011 and March 2012 in two major pig producing provinces in the Philippines. Four hundred and seventy one pig farms slaughtering finisher pigs at government operated abattoirs participated in this study. The objectives of this study were to group: (a) smallholder (S) and commercial (C) production systems into patterns according to their herd health providers (HHPs), and obtain descriptive information about the grouped S and C production systems; and (b) identify key HHPs within each production system using social network analysis. On-farm veterinarians, private consultants, pharmaceutical company representatives, government veterinarians, livestock and agricultural technicians, and agricultural supply stores were found to be actively interacting with pig farmers. Four clusters were identified based on production system and their choice of HHPs. Differences in management and biosecurity practices were found between S and C clusters. Private HHPs provided a service to larger C and some larger S farms, and have little or no interaction with the other HHPs. Government HHPs provided herd health service mainly to S farms and small C farms. Agricultural supply stores were identified as a dominant solitary HHP and provided herd health services to the majority of farmers. Increased knowledge of the routine management and biosecurity practices of S and C farmers and the key HHPs that are likely to be associated with those practices would be of value as this information could be used to inform a risk-based approach to disease surveillance and control. PMID:24529343

  1. The role of movement restrictions and pre-emptive destruction in the emergency control strategy against CSF outbreaks in domestic pigs.

    PubMed

    Thulke, Hans-Hermann; Eisinger, Dirk; Beer, Martin

    2011-04-01

    Classical swine fever (CSF) outbreaks in domestic pig herds lead to the implementation of standard control measures according to legislative regulations. Ideal outbreak control entails the swift and efficient culling of all pigs on premises detected positive for CSF virus. Often all pig holdings around the detected cases are pre-emptively destroyed to exclude transmission into the neighbourhood. In addition to these measures, zones are defined in which surveillance and protection measures are intensified to prevent further distant disease spread. In particular, all movements are prohibited within standstill areas. Standstill also excludes the transport of fattened pigs to slaughter. Historical outbreaks provide evidence of the success of this control strategy. However, the extent to which the individual strategy elements contribute to this success is unknown. Therefore, we applied a spatially and temporally explicit epidemic model to the problem. Its rule-based formulation is tailored to a one-by-one model implementation of existing control concepts. Using a comparative model analysis the individual contributions of single measures to overall control success were revealed. From the results of the model we concluded that movement restrictions had the dominant impact on strategy performance suggesting a reversal of the current conceptual thinking. Additional measures such as pre-emptive culling only became relevant under imperfect compliance with movement restrictions. The importance of movement restrictions for the overall control success illustrates the need for explicit consideration of this measure when contingency strategies are being amended (e.g. emergency vaccination) and associated risks assessed. PMID:21300412

  2. A Simple Model for Learning Improvement: Weigh Pig, Feed Pig, Weigh Pig. Occasional Paper #23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Keston H.; Good, Megan R.; Coleman, Chris M.; Smith, Kristen L.

    2014-01-01

    Assessing learning does not by itself result in increased student accomplishment, much like a pig never fattened up because it was weighed. Indeed, recent research shows that while institutions are more regularly engaging in assessment, they have little to show in the way of stronger student performance. This paper clarifies how assessment results…

  3. Pigs taking wing with transposons and recombinases

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Karl J; Carlson, Daniel F; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

    2007-01-01

    Swine production has been an important part of our lives since the late Mesolithic or early Neolithic periods, and ranks number one in world meat production. Pig production also contributes to high-value-added medical markets in the form of pharmaceuticals, heart valves, and surgical materials. Genetic engineering, including the addition of exogenous genetic material or manipulation of the endogenous genome, holds great promise for changing pig phenotypes for agricultural and medical applications. Although the first transgenic pigs were described in 1985, poor survival of manipulated embryos; inefficiencies in the integration, transmission, and expression of transgenes; and expensive husbandry costs have impeded the widespread application of pig genetic engineering. Sequencing of the pig genome and advances in reproductive technologies have rejuvenated efforts to apply transgenesis to swine. Pigs provide a compelling new resource for the directed production of pharmaceutical proteins and the provision of cells, vascular grafts, and organs for xenotransplantation. Additionally, given remarkable similarities in the physiology and size of people and pigs, swine will increasingly provide large animal models of human disease where rodent models are insufficient. We review the challenges facing pig transgenesis and discuss the utility of transposases and recombinases for enhancing the success and sophistication of pig genetic engineering. 'The paradise of my fancy is one where pigs have wings.' (GK Chesterton). PMID:18047690

  4. Risk factors for hide contamination of Scottish cattle at slaughter with Escherichia coli O157.

    PubMed

    Mather, A E; Innocent, G T; McEwen, S A; Reilly, W J; Taylor, D J; Steele, W B; Gunn, G J; Ternent, H E; Reid, S W J; Mellor, D J

    2007-08-16

    In the slaughter processing of cattle, contaminated hides have been identified as one of the major sources of Escherichia coli O157 carcase contamination. Logistic regression analysis was applied to data collected in a large scale study in Scotland involving 222 cattle forming 34 groups sent for slaughter from 30 farms to 10 slaughterhouses. Aspects of individual animal characteristics, farm management practices and slaughterhouse features were examined to identify potential risk factors for hide contamination at harvest. Two models were developed, the first in which slaughterhouse was modelled as a fixed effect, and a second model where slaughterhouse and farm groups were modelled as random effects. In the first model, there was a significantly increased risk of a carcase testing positive for E. coli O157 on the hide if either the hide of the carcase immediately before or after it on the line was contaminated (OR 3.6; 95% CI: 1.4-9.9). If both adjacent carcases had contaminated hides, the odds ratio for the study carcase having a contaminated hide rose to 11.5 (95% CI: 4.4-32.5). If animals were held in lairage, receiving hay as feed appeared to have a protective effect on hide contamination. Transportation to the slaughterhouse by haulier, as opposed to transport by the farmer, was associated with a 5.4 increase in the odds of E. coli O157 contamination. The use of a crush in the lairage, often employed when reading ear tags, was also found to significantly increase the odds of hide contamination with E. coli O157. In the second model, the inclusion of slaughterhouse and farm group as random effects resulted in two of the previously identified factors being associated with hide contamination. If at least one of the adjacent carcases on the line had a contaminated hide, the associated odds ratio was 6.6 (95% CI: 2.8-15.9), which rose to 22.7 (95% CI: 9.3-55.5) if both adjacent hides were contaminated. Receiving hay in lairage was found to be important to the model

  5. Pig Abattoir Inspection Data: Can It Be Used for Surveillance Purposes?

    PubMed Central

    Correia-Gomes, Carla; Smith, Richard P.; Eze, Jude I.; Henry, Madeleine K.; Gunn, George J.; Williamson, Susanna; Tongue, Sue C.

    2016-01-01

    Statutory recording of carcass lesions at the abattoir may have significant potential as a resource for surveillance of livestock populations. Food Standards Agency (FSA) data in Great Britain are not currently used for surveillance purposes. There are concerns that the sensitivity of detection, combined with other issues, may make the outputs unreliable. In this study we postulate that FSA data could be used for surveillance purposes. To test this we compared FSA data with BPHS (a targeted surveillance system of slaughtered pigs) and laboratory diagnostic scanning surveillance (FarmFile) data, from mid-2008 to mid-2012, for respiratory conditions and tail bite lesions in pigs at population level. We also evaluated the agreement/correlation at batch level between FSA and BPHS inspections in four field trials during 2013. Temporal trends and regional differences at population level were described and compared using logistic regression models. Population temporal analysis showed an increase in respiratory disease in all datasets but with regional differences. For tail bite, the temporal trend and monthly patterns were completely different between the datasets. The field trials were run in three abattoirs and included 322 batches. Pearson’s correlation and Cohen’s kappa tests were used to assess correlation/agreement between inspections systems. It was moderate to strong for high prevalence conditions but slight for low prevalence conditions. We conclude that there is potential to use FSA data as a component of a surveillance system to monitor temporal trends and regional differences of chosen indicators at population level. At producer level and for low prevalence conditions it needs further improvement. Overall a number of issues still need to be addressed in order to provide the pig industry with the confidence to base their decisions on these FSA inspection data. Similar conclusions, at national level, may apply to other livestock sectors but require further

  6. Pig Abattoir Inspection Data: Can It Be Used for Surveillance Purposes?

    PubMed

    Correia-Gomes, Carla; Smith, Richard P; Eze, Jude I; Henry, Madeleine K; Gunn, George J; Williamson, Susanna; Tongue, Sue C

    2016-01-01

    Statutory recording of carcass lesions at the abattoir may have significant potential as a resource for surveillance of livestock populations. Food Standards Agency (FSA) data in Great Britain are not currently used for surveillance purposes. There are concerns that the sensitivity of detection, combined with other issues, may make the outputs unreliable. In this study we postulate that FSA data could be used for surveillance purposes. To test this we compared FSA data with BPHS (a targeted surveillance system of slaughtered pigs) and laboratory diagnostic scanning surveillance (FarmFile) data, from mid-2008 to mid-2012, for respiratory conditions and tail bite lesions in pigs at population level. We also evaluated the agreement/correlation at batch level between FSA and BPHS inspections in four field trials during 2013. Temporal trends and regional differences at population level were described and compared using logistic regression models. Population temporal analysis showed an increase in respiratory disease in all datasets but with regional differences. For tail bite, the temporal trend and monthly patterns were completely different between the datasets. The field trials were run in three abattoirs and included 322 batches. Pearson's correlation and Cohen's kappa tests were used to assess correlation/agreement between inspections systems. It was moderate to strong for high prevalence conditions but slight for low prevalence conditions. We conclude that there is potential to use FSA data as a component of a surveillance system to monitor temporal trends and regional differences of chosen indicators at population level. At producer level and for low prevalence conditions it needs further improvement. Overall a number of issues still need to be addressed in order to provide the pig industry with the confidence to base their decisions on these FSA inspection data. Similar conclusions, at national level, may apply to other livestock sectors but require further

  7. Analysis of meat juice ELISA results and questionnaire data to investigate farm-level risk factors for Salmonella infection in UK pigs.

    PubMed

    Smith, R P; Clough, H E; Cook, A J C

    2010-11-01

    The study set out to explore risk factors for Salmonella infection in pigs, based on seroprevalence amongst slaughtered pigs, using a large study population of holdings and a comprehensive list of farm characteristics. Farm data were collected from pig quality assurance schemes and supplemented by a postal questionnaire. These data were used with meat juice serology results from ongoing abattoir Salmonella surveillance, for a multivariable risk factor analysis, modelling the ELISA sample to positive ratio directly (ELISA ratio). The study population contained 566 farms, covering a geographically representative spread of farms within the United Kingdom, with a mean average of 224 sample results per holding over a 4-year period. The model highlighted that temporal factors (quarterly and yearly cycles) and monthly meteorological summaries for rainfall, sunshine and temperature were associated with Salmonella presence (P < 0.01). The ELISA ratio was found to be highest in autumn and lowest in spring and summer, whereas yearly averages showed a greater degree of variation than seasonal. Two feed variables (homemix and barley) were found to be protective factors, as was a conventional, rather than organic or freedom foods, farm enterprise type. The number of annual pig deliveries and dead stock collections, and the main cause of pig mortality on the farm were found to be associated with Salmonella infection. Scottish farms had a lower ELISA ratio than other regions, and an increased number of pig farms within a 10-km radius was associated with a higher ELISA ratio. The study demonstrated that the analysis of routinely collected data from surveillance and quality assurance schemes was cost-effective, with sufficient power to detect modest associations between Salmonella and exposure variables. The model results can be used to inform on-farm Salmonella control policies and could target-specific geographical regions and seasons to assist the efficiency of surveillance. PMID

  8. Is the Danish wind energy model replicable for other countries?

    SciTech Connect

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Lindboe, Hans H.; Odgaard, Ole

    2008-03-15

    Though aspects of the Danish wind energy model are unique, policymakers might do well to imitate such aspects as a strong political commitment, consistent policy mechanisms, and an incremental, ''hands-on'' approach to R and D. (author)

  9. Explicit Sex--Liberation or Exploitation: Danish "Permissiveness" Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachy, Victor

    1976-01-01

    Reviews various Danish legislative actions leading up to the lifting of the ban on pornography, and discusses possible consequences of such liberalization by analyzing police statistics from a five year period. (MH)

  10. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in Market-Weight Turkeys On-Farm and at Slaughter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To monitor the effects of feed withdrawal on the prevalence of Campylobacter, market weight turkeys from six farms were examined before and after perimarketing events (feed withdrawal, transport, and holding at the slaughterhouse). Prior to transport, birds (n = 30/farm) were slaughtered on-farm an...

  11. 9 CFR 313.50 - Tagging of equipment, alleyways, pens, or compartments to prevent inhumane slaughter or handling...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tagging of equipment, alleyways, pens... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION HUMANE SLAUGHTER OF LIVESTOCK § 313.50 Tagging of equipment, alleyways, pens, or... shall attach a “U.S. Rejected” tag thereto. No equipment, alleyway, pen or compartment so tagged...

  12. Sub-iliac Lymph Nodes at Slaughter Lack Ability to Predict Salmonella-enteric Prevalence for Swine Farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study was to assess the value of deep systemic sub-iliac lymph nodes collected at slaughter as predictors of Salmonella prevalence in live hogs. An observational study was conducted on 24 farms from September 2006 to February 2009. At least one cohort or herd was visited for each fa...

  13. The Effect of Slaughter Season on the Fatty Acid Profile in Four Types of Fat Deposits in Crossbred Beef Bulls

    PubMed Central

    Sobczuk-Szul, Monika; Wroński, Marek; Wielgosz-Groth, Zofia; Mochol, Magdalena; Rzemieniewski, Arkadiusz; Nogalski, Zenon; Pogorzelska-Przybyłek, Paulina; Purwin, Cezary

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of slaughter season on the fatty acid profile in four types of fat deposits in crossbred (Polish Holstein Friesian Black-and-White×Limousine) beef bulls. The percentage share of fatty acids was determined by gas chromatography and were divided into the following categories of fatty acids: saturated (SFAs), unsaturated (UFAs), monounsaturated (MUFAs), polyunsaturated (PUFAs), desirable hypocholesterolemic (DFAs) and undesirable hypercholesterolemic (OFAs), n-3 and n-6. Perinephric fat was characterized by the highest SFA concentrations (59.89%), and subcutaneous fat had the highest MUFA content (50.63%). Intramuscular fat was marked by a high percentage share of PUFAs and the highest PUFA/SFA ratio. The slaughter season had a significant effect on the levels of C18:3, C20:4 (p≤0.01) and conjugated linoleic acid (p≤0.05). There was an interaction between the slaughter season and fat type for the content of C20:4 (p≤0.01) and C20:5 (p≤0.05). The results of this study show that beef from cattle slaughtered in the summer season has a higher nutritional value and more health-promoting properties. PMID:25049787

  14. Prevalence, distribution, and molecular characterization of Salmonella recovered from swine finishing herds and a slaughter facility in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine are a reservoir for Salmonella spp., and pork and pork products are vehicles of Salmonella infections. The objective of this investigation was to determine the distribution and types of Salmonella in 12 swine finishing herds and a slaughter facility in Santa Catarina, Brazil. A total of 1,258 ...

  15. Why poultry should be stunned at slaughter and the welfare advantages/challenges of electrical and gas stunning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry are stunned immediately prior to slaughter to facilitate automated processing, to suppress the subsequent death struggle and thereby minimize carcass damage and down grades, and to render the bird unconscious and incapable to perceive pain. A stunning method should be considered ethical if ...

  16. [Authorizing procedure and performing of ritual slaughter after the judgement of the German Constitutional Court in Karlsruhe].

    PubMed

    Stegen, D

    2003-05-01

    The judgement of the German Constitutional Court from February the 15th in 2002 allows Moslems to perform ritual slaughter, provided that they can state compelling religious reasons. Animal protection was assessed just as a public interest in contrast to the constitutional rights of religious and professional freedom. However this can not be kept up any more as it is aimed to integrate animal protection into the German constitutional law. The authorities now have the duty to investigate each request for ritual slaughter carefully. This investigation must include a close look at the compelling religious reasons, the expert knowledge of the applicant (which includes stunning methods), the local facilities of the slaughterhouse and which is more for whom the meat is for. It is also important whether the animal is slaughtered for sacrificial or commercial reasons. Furthermore the consequences which threaten the religious community, if their members don't live according to the rules, have to be shown. Electric stunning and the fact that it is accepted by Islamic authorities has also to be pointed out. It seems to be possible to turn down a request for ritual slaughter referring that to the fact that animal protection is aimed to be part of the constitutional law. PMID:12822252

  17. Microbiology and evisceration efficiency of broiler carcasses slaughtered and held up to 8 hours postmortem prior to scalding and defeathering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The implementation of on farm slaughter could eliminate potential animal welfare issues associated with cooping, transport, dumping, and shackling live broilers. This research evaluated evisceration efficiency and the microbiological implications of delaying scalding and defeathering for up to 8 h a...

  18. 76 FR 6572 - Non-Ambulatory Disabled Veal Calves and Other Non-Ambulatory Disabled Livestock at Slaughter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ...The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is requesting comments on two petitions for rulemaking submitted to the Agency that raise issues associated with the disposition of non-ambulatory disabled veal calves and other non-ambulatory disabled livestock at slaughter. The first petition, submitted by the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS), requests that FSIS repeal a provision in......

  19. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domestic donkeys (Equus asinus) in Durango, Mexico slaughtered for human consumption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Nothing is known about Toxoplasma gondii prevalence in donkeys in Mexico. Meat from donkey is consumed by humans in Mexico and also exported to other countries. We sought to determine the presence of antibodies against T. gondii in 239 domestic donkeys (Equus asinus) for slaughter in Dur...

  20. Bioavailability of trace elements in beans and zinc-biofortified wheat in pigs.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Dorthe; Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Torun, Bulent; Cakmak, Ismail; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to study bioavailability of trace elements in beans and wheat containing different levels of zinc and to study how the water solubility of trace elements was related to the bioavailability in pigs. Three wheat and two bean types were used: wheat of Danish origin as a control (CtrlW), two Turkish wheat types low (LZnW) and high (HZnW) in zinc, a common bean (Com), and a faba bean (Faba). Two diets were composed by combining 81 % CtrlW and 19 % Com or Faba beans. Solubility was measured as the trace element concentration in the supernatant of feedstuffs, and diets incubated in distilled water at pH 4 and 38°C for 3 h. The bioavailability of zinc and copper of the three wheat types and the two bean-containing diets were evaluated in the pigs by collection of urine and feces for 7 days. The solubility of zinc was 34-63 %, copper 18-42 %, and iron 3-11 %. The zinc apparent digestibility in pigs was similar in the three wheat groups (11-14 %), but was significantly higher in the CtrlW+Faba group (23 %) and negative in the CtrlW+Com group (-30 %). The apparent digestibility of copper was higher in the HZnW (27 %) and CtrlW+Faba (33 %) groups than in the CtrlW (17 %) and LZnW (18 %) groups. The apparent copper digestibility of the CtrlW+Com diet was negative (-7 %). The solubility and digestibility results did not reflect the concentration in feedstuffs. The in vitro results of water solubility showed no relationship to the results of trace mineral bioavailability in pigs. PMID:22639384

  1. Isolation of Leptospira hardjo from kidneys of Ontario cattle at slaughter.

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, J F; Miller, R B; Nicholson, V M

    1987-01-01

    Kidneys from 117 cattle from 110 Ontario farms were examined at slaughter for leptospires. Leptospira hardjo (hardjo-bovis A) was isolated from 11 kidneys and L. kennewicki from one. The isolations were all made (12/89, 13.5%) from beef cattle from feedlots, no isolates being obtained from dairy or beef cattle from extensive farms (0/28). Isolations were only made from cattle with antibody titers (greater than or equal to 20) against the serovars recovered. Isolation was more sensitive than immunofluorescence in identifying leptospira, particularly in animals with low antibody titers against L. hardjo. Leptospira were isolated from two kidneys with multiple gross lesions of focal nephritis, but there was no correlation between the presence of scanty kidney lesions and isolations of leptospira. Leptospira hardjo infection appears to be common in Ontario feedlot cattle. PMID:3300922

  2. Consciousness, unconsciousness and death in the context of slaughter. Part II. Evaluation methods.

    PubMed

    Terlouw, Claudia; Bourguet, Cécile; Deiss, Véronique

    2016-08-01

    This second review describes indicators of consciousness and unconsciousness that can be used in the abattoir. These indicators evaluate different aspects of cerebral functioning, but only indirectly. It is therefore necessary to monitor several indicators. Animals are considered unconscious if signs of consciousness are absent, and signs of unconsciousness are present. Given that the unconscious state may be reversible it is further necessary to monitor these indicators until the end of bleeding. The techniques used to diagnose brain death in humans cannot be used in the slaughterhouse. Under field conditions, at the end of bleeding, the absence of breathing and of brainstem reflexes and the adequacy of the exsanguination are verified. If these three aspects are confirmed, in the context of the slaughterhouse and at this stage of the slaughter process the loss of vital functions is irreversible and the animal can be considered dead. PMID:27086068

  3. Effects of dietary soybean hulls and wheat middlings on body composition, nutrient and energy retention, and the net energy of diets and ingredients fed to growing and finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Stewart, L L; Kil, D Y; Ji, F; Hinson, R B; Beaulieu, A D; Allee, G L; Patience, J F; Pettigrew, J E; Stein, H H

    2013-06-01

    The objectives of this experiment were 1) to determine the effect of dietary soybean hulls (SBH) and wheat middlings (WM) on body composition, nutrient and energy retention, and the NE of diets and ingredients fed to growing or finishing pigs and 2) to determine if finishing pigs use the energy in SBH and WM more efficiently than growing pigs. Forty growing barrows (initial BW: 25.4 ± 0.7 kg) and 40 finishing barrows (initial BW: 84.8 ± 0.9 kg) were randomly allotted to 5 groups within each stage of growth. Two groups at each stage of growth served as the initial slaughter group. The remaining pigs were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments and harvested at the conclusion of the experiment. The basal diet was based on corn and soybean meal and was formulated to be adequate in all nutrients. Two additional diets were formulated by mixing 70% of the basal diet and 30% SBH or 30% WM. In the growing phase, ADG, G:F, and retention of lipids were greater (P < 0.05) for pigs fed the basal diet than for pigs fed the diets containing SBH or WM. Retention of energy was also greater (P < 0.05) for pigs fed the basal diet than for pigs fed the SBH. In the finishing phase, pigs fed the SBH diet tended (P = 0.10) to have a greater ADG than pigs fed the WM diet, and energy retention was greater (P < 0.05) for pigs fed the basal diet than for pigs fed the WM diet. The NE of the basal diet fed to growing pigs was greater (P < 0.01) than the NE of the diets containing SBH or WM, and there was a tendency for a greater (P = 0.05) NE of the basal diet than of the other diets when fed to finishing pigs. The NE of SBH did not differ from the NE of WM in either growing or finishing pigs, and there was no interaction between ingredients and stage of growth on the NE of diets or ingredients. The NE of diets for growing pigs (1,668 kcal/kg) was not different from the NE of diets for finishing pigs (1,823 kcal/kg), and the NE of the diets containing SBH (1,688 kcal/kg) was not different

  4. Cryptosporidium parvum pig genotype II diagnosed in pigs from the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigs may represent a source of Cryptosporidium sp. infection to humans. The objective of this study was to identify the species present in pigs from the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and verify what risks pigs represent in transmission of human cryptosporidiosis, since there is no such informati...

  5. Molecular studies on pig cryptosporidiosis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Rzeżutka, A; Kaupke, A; Kozyra, I; Pejsak, Z

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium intestinal parasites have been detected in farmed pigs worldwide. Infections are usually asymptomatic with a low number of oocysts shed in pig feces. This makes the recognition of infection difficult or unsuccessful when microscopic methods are used. The aim of this study was molecular identification of Cryptosporidium species in pig herds raised in Poland with regard to the occurrence of zoonotic species. In total, 166 pig fecal samples were tested. The examined pigs were aged 1 to 20 weeks. Overall, 39 pig farms were monitored for parasite presence. The detection and identification of Cryptosporidium DNA was performed on the basis of PCR-RFLP and nucleotide sequence analysis of the amplified 18 SSU rRNA and COWP gene fragments. Infected animals were housed in 21 (53.8%) of the pig farms monitored. The presence of Cryptosporidum was confirmed in 46 (27.7%) samples of pig feces. Among positive fecal samples, 34 (29.3%) were collected from healthy animals, and 12 (24%) from diarrheic pigs. Most infected animals (42.1%) were 2 to 3 months old. The following parasite species were detected: C. scrofarum, C. suis and C. parvum. Indeed, asymptomatic infections caused by C. scrofarum were observed in the majority of the herds. Mixed infections caused by C. suis and C. scrofarum were not common; however, they were observed in 8.6% of the positive animals. C. parvum DNA was found only in one sample collected from a diarrheic pig. The application of molecular diagnostic tools allowed for detection and identification of Cryptosporidium species in pigs. The sporadic findings of C. parvum are subsequent evidence for the contribution of pigs in the transmission of cryptosporidiosis from animals to humans. PMID:25638969

  6. Prevalence of Linguatula serrata nymphs in slaughtered sheeps in Isfahan province, southwest of Iran.

    PubMed

    Kheirabadi, Khodadad Pirali; Fallah, Aziz A; Azizi, Hamidreza; Samani, Amir Dehghani; Dehkordi, Shahram Danesh

    2015-09-01

    Linguatula serrata, well known as tongue worm; is an aberrant cosmopolitan parasite, which inhabits the carnivorous mammals (especially Canidae) respiratory system. The discharged eggs infect many plant feeder animals including human that produces visceral and nasopharyngeal linguatulosis which is known as Marrara syndrome in man. In current study, the prevalence rate of infection with L. serrata nymphs in mesenteric and mediastinal lymph nodes (MLNs) of slaughtered sheeps was investigated in Esfahan Province, Iran. The MLNs of 506 slaughtered sheeps, including 236 females and 270 males, were examined for L. serrata nymphs by cutting the MLNs longitudinally and then microscopic studies for L. serrata nymphs. Sheeps were categorized into four age groups, including <1 year, 1-2 years, 2-3 years and >3 years. Results showed that 11.66 % of examined sheeps were infected with L. serrata. Age had significant effect on the prevalence rate of this parasite in sheeps (infection in sheeps with >3 years old was more than other groups significantly) and sex had no significant effect on the prevalence rate of this parasite in sheeps. Infection rate in winter was significantly lower than infection rate in spring; but there were no significant differences between the other seasons. As high prevalence rate of infection in sheeps, suggesting possibly similar high rate of infection in other animals and man in the investigated area, which this emphasizes undertaking strict control measures to reduce risk of zoonotic outbreaks. This study was demonstrated infection rate of L. serrata in sheeps in central parts of Iran. PMID:26345063

  7. Physicochemical traits of Holstein loin and top round veal from two slaughter age groups.

    PubMed

    Yim, Dong-Gyun; Park, Sang-Woon; Chung, Ku-Young

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the physicochemical and microbial quality of loin (m. longissimus dorsi) and top round (m. Semimembranosus) in Holstein veal produced from two slaughter age groups (5 and 8 months of age). A total of 20 Holstein calves were randomly selected from a local cattle farm. The slaughtered cold carcasses were vacuum-packaged. The samples were analyzed for proximate composition and physicochemical analyses and stored for 1, 7, 10, 20 and 30 days for microbiological analyses. Fat and protein contents of loin for the 8 month group were higher than those for the 5 month groups (p < 0.05). For both loin and top round muscles, the pH, cooking loss and the shear force values for the 5 month group was higher than those for the 8 month group (p < 0.05). On the other hands, the water-holding capacity (WHC) for the 8 month group was higher than those for the 5 month group (p < 0.05). In terms of meat color, CIE L* (lightness) for both muscle were higher in the 5 month group than in the 8 month groups. On the other hands, a* (redness) were higher in the 8 month group than in the 5 month groups (p < 0.05). Total aerobic counts in all samples remained up to 30 days at values less than 7 log CFU/g. However, there was no significant difference for both muscles between the two age groups. The results indicate that Holstein muscles from the 8 month group had desirable quality properties than those from the 5 month group. PMID:26290744

  8. Reduced susceptibility to quinolones among Salmonella serotypes isolated from poultry at slaughter in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Boscán-Duque, Leonardo A; Arzálluz-Fisher, Ana M; Ugarte, Carmen; Sánchez, Damarys; Wittum, Thomas E; Hoet, Armando E

    2007-09-01

    Today there are recognized global "hot spots" that are areas in which nontyphoid Salmonella serotypes have been reported to have a high prevalence of quinolone resistance. There is concern that resistant strains can be disseminated from these localized geographical areas by travelers or via commercial food products. The objective of this article is to report a high frequency of reduced susceptibility to first- and second-generation quinolones among nontyphoid Salmonella isolates from poultry at slaughter in two processing plants belonging to the largest poultry integration companies in Zulia State, Venezuela. Nearly all (74 of 77; 96.1%) of the isolated strains were resistant to nalidixic acid, and 3.7% were resistant to ciprofloxacin; most (45 of 77; 58%) exhibited reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin (15 of 77; 19.5%). In contrast, all of the isolates were susceptible to beta-lactamic antimicrobial drugs. Ninety-three percent (72 of 77) of the isolates were either Salmonella Parathyphi B or Salmonella Heidelberg, which have been reported as invasive Salmonella. The predominant serotypes in each slaughter plant showed different antimicrobial susceptibilities, only having in common their high resistance to nalidixic acid, suggesting that different clones disseminated in each commercial integration. The detection of high frequency of reduced susceptibility to first- and second-generation quinolones among nontyphoid Salmonella isolates from fresh poultry during processing is noteworthy. Resistance to quinolone drugs will not only make antimicrobial therapy more complicated if foodborne disease results, but also these quinolone-resistant strains can disseminate from this local hot spot to other geographical areas, spreading the resistance against this important antimicrobial drug. PMID:17900079

  9. The prevalence of leptospirosis and its association with multifocal interstitial nephritis in swine at slaughter.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, T F; McEwen, S A; Prescott, J F; Meek, A H

    1989-01-01

    An abattoir survey was undertaken to determine the prevalence of leptospirosis and its association with lesions of multifocal interstitial nephritis (so-called "white spotted kidneys") in swine at slaughter. Both cross-sectional and case-control study designs were used. Of 197 kidneys from hogs randomly selected at slaughter, 11 (5.6%) had generalized grey-white foci typical of multifocal interstitial nephritis (MFIN). Antibody titers greater than or equal to 1:80 against Leptospira pomona were detected in nine (4.6%) hogs and against L. bratislava in 63 (32%) of these hogs. Leptospira pomona (kennewicki) was detected by immunofluorescence in 5/197 (2.5%) of randomly selected hogs. Leptospires identified as genotype kennewicki were isolated from six (9.8%) of 61 kidneys cultured. Leptospira bratislava was not detected by immunofluorescence or culture. There was a highly significant (p = 0.00) and strong association (odds ratio (OR) = 195) between high L. pomona titer (greater than or equal to 1:80) and the presence of leptospires in the kidneys, as detected by culture. There was also a significant (p = 0.046) and strong (OR = 8.10) association between multifocal interstitial nephritis and the presence of renal leptospires as detected by culture. The association between leptospiral titer and MFIN lesions in the prevalence survey group of animals was statistically significant (p = 0.031), but this association was not significant in the case-control study group (p = 0.071) The failure to identify L. bratislava despite serological evidence of infection suggests that some of these seropositive animals may have been transiently infected at an early age, that serological findings were falsely positive, or that immunofluorescence and isolation attempts failed to detect L. bratislava if they were indeed present in the kidneys.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2766150

  10. Characterisation of mycobacteria isolated from slaughter cattle in pastoral regions of Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Oloya, J; Kazwala, R; Lund, A; Opuda-Asibo, J; Demelash, B; Skjerve, E; Johansen, TB; Djønne, B

    2007-01-01

    Background Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic problem in pastoral cattle and communities in Uganda. Tuberculin tests in pastoral cattle had shown a high herd but low animal prevalence, with a high proportion of avian reactors. No work had been done to identify the mycobacterial species involved. The objective of the study was to isolate and characterise Mycobacterial species causing tuberculous lesions in slaughtered animals. Lesioned organs compatible with bovine tuberculosis in slaughtered cattle from pastoral areas in Uganda were collected and cultured to isolate mycobacteria. AccuProbe culture identification kits for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, M. avium complex and M. avium were used to identify the isolates. Spoligotyping and Insertion Sequence (IS) 1311 and IS1245 Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism analysis (RFLP) were used to further characterise the isolates. Results Of the 61 lesioned organs and tissues cultured, 19 isolates were identified as M. bovis, 3 as M. avium subsp.hominissuis, 1 as M. intracellulare, 1 as a mixed culture of M. bovis and M. avium sp. and 1 as M. avium sp. and unidentified mycobacteria. Eleven other mycobacteria outside the tuberculosis and avium complex groups were also isolated. Ten new spoligopatterns grouped into three clusters were identified from M. bovis isolates. Two of the three M. avium subsp.hominissuis isolates showed similar patterns on the IS1311 RFLP but all were different on the IS1245 RFLP. Conclusion The isolation of M. bovis confirms the ongoing infection with spoligotypes unique to Uganda. Isolation of environmental mycobacteria could explain the high avian or non specific tuberculin reactor patterns commonly observed in pastoral cattle and suggests their pathogenic or opportunistic role in the infection of cattle with disseminated bovine tuberculous lesions. PMID:17961243

  11. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  12. Catheterization of the urethra in female pigs.

    PubMed

    Musk, G C; Zwierzchoniewska, M; He, B

    2015-10-01

    Female pigs are commonly utilized as an animal model for biomedical research and require urethral catheterization. Sixteen pigs were anaesthetized for research purposes and required the placement of a urethral catheter. Post-mortem examination of the vaginas revealed the urethral opening to be consistently halfway from the mucocutaneous junction of the vulva to the cervix. A shallow diverticulum was also observed on the ventral floor of the urethral opening. To optimize conditions for success the pig should be carefully positioned supine, a vaginal speculum and light source should be used, the pig should be adequately anaesthetized, and the anatomy of the vagina should be reviewed. PMID:25977261

  13. Carcass traits and cutting yields of entire and immunocastrated pigs fed increasing protein levels with and without ractopamine hydrochloride supplementation.

    PubMed

    Needham, T; Hoffman, L C

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of increasing balanced protein, with and without ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC), in the finisher diets of immunocastrates on their carcass cutting yields and respective muscle, fat, and bone proportions. Carcass traits and yields of 120 individually housed entire male pigs and immunocastrates were evaluated following a 2 × 2 × 3 factorial design. Vaccination occurred at 16 and 20 wk of age and slaughtering at 24 wk. Up until 20 wk of age, all pigs received a commercial grower diet. Low-, medium-, and high-protein (7.50, 9.79, and 12.07 g standardized ileal digestible [SID] lysine/kg, respectively) diets were then fed for the last 28 d with RAC supplemented at 0 or 10 mg/kg. Immunocastration and RAC supplementation increased ( = 0.003 and = 0.017, respectively) the live weight at slaughter. The interaction between sex and protein ( = 0.039) for caliper backfat depths showed greater backfat depths in immunocastrates fed medium protein whereas RAC decreased ( = 0.027) the caliper backfat depth. Feeding RAC increased the trotters ( = 0.040), tenderloins (fillets; < 0.001), shoulder ( = 0.002), hindquarter ( = 0.026), loin ( = 0.028), and belly ( = 0.044) percentages. The shoulder ( < 0.001), hindquarter ( < 0.001), and loin ( = 0.005) muscle percentages were increased and the hindquarter fat percentages were decreased ( = 0.032) with RAC supplementation. Immunocastration increased the belly cut ( = 0.006), loin fat ( < 0.001), and belly fat ( < 0.001) percentages. Therefore, carcass cutting and lean yields can be improved by RAC supplementation while decreasing the backfat depth, and the increase in backfat due to immunocastration could be avoided with the correct dietary protein level. PMID:26440353

  14. Effects of sex and inclusion of dried distillers grains with solubles on slaughter yield and meat characteristics of Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Adamski, M P; Kowalczyk, A M; Lukaszewicz, E T; Korzeniowska, M

    2011-12-01

    1. The effects of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) dietary inclusion concentration, and sex, on body weight, slaughter efficiency and meat characteristics of Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos f. domestica, strain P55) were studied. 2. Sexed ducklings (n = 160) were divided randomly into 4 groups (each with 4 replicates). From d 1 to d 21, all the birds received the same commercial feed, then from 22 to 49 d of age the ducks were fed in the following groups: control (commercial feed) and three experimental groups (15%, 25% and 30% inclusion of DDGS). All ducks were weighed individually at d 1, 21 and 49. On the day of slaughter, 5 males and 5 females, of body weight close to the average weight for group and sex, were selected from each group, slaughtered and the following parameters were evaluated: slaughter yield, weight, and percentage of particular elements of carcase, physical and chemical characteristics of meat. 3. The results obtained showed that DDGS included from 22 to 49 d of rearing, at concentrations up to 30%, in a commercial Pekin duck diet did not affect the live body weight, slaughter yield, weight, and percentage of breast and leg muscle, skin with subcutaneous fat, and abdominal fat. There were no differences in physical characteristics (pH(15), pH(24,) meat colour values L*, a*and b*, and hygroscopicity) of breast muscle, as well as in cholesterol content. DDGS addition at 30% significantly increased fat content in male, and crude protein in female, breast meat. Sex effect was observed only in a few traits and was diet dependent. Final body weight of females fed 30% DDGS was significantly lower than males; in the control and 15% DDGS group females had higher percentage of skin with subcutaneous fat. 4. The results obtained, and relative costs of feeds produced, allows the recommendation of DDGS addition at up to 30% to commercial Pekin duck diets from 22 d of age. PMID:22221240

  15. Comparison of Muscle Transcriptome between Pigs with Divergent Meat Quality Phenotypes Identifies Genes Related to Muscle Metabolism and Structure

    PubMed Central

    Damon, Marie; Wyszynska-Koko, Joanna; Vincent, Annie; Hérault, Frédéric; Lebret, Bénédicte

    2012-01-01

    Background Meat quality depends on physiological processes taking place in muscle tissue, which could involve a large pattern of genes associated with both muscle structural and metabolic features. Understanding the biological phenomena underlying muscle phenotype at slaughter is necessary to uncover meat quality development. Therefore, a muscle transcriptome analysis was undertaken to compare gene expression profiles between two highly contrasted pig breeds, Large White (LW) and Basque (B), reared in two different housing systems themselves influencing meat quality. LW is the most predominant breed used in pig industry, which exhibits standard meat quality attributes. B is an indigenous breed with low lean meat and high fat contents, high meat quality characteristics, and is genetically distant from other European pig breeds. Methodology/Principal Findings Transcriptome analysis undertaken using a custom 15 K microarray, highlighted 1233 genes differentially expressed between breeds (multiple-test adjusted P-value<0.05), out of which 635 were highly expressed in the B and 598 highly expressed in the LW pigs. No difference in gene expression was found between housing systems. Besides, expression level of 12 differentially expressed genes quantified by real-time RT-PCR validated microarray data. Functional annotation clustering emphasized four main clusters associated to transcriptome breed differences: metabolic processes, skeletal muscle structure and organization, extracellular matrix, lysosome, and proteolysis, thereby highlighting many genes involved in muscle physiology and meat quality development. Conclusions/Significance Altogether, these results will contribute to a better understanding of muscle physiology and of the biological and molecular processes underlying meat quality. Besides, this study is a first step towards the identification of molecular markers of pork quality and the subsequent development of control tools. PMID:22470472

  16. Development of a serological ELISA using a recombinant protein to identify pig herds infected with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae.

    PubMed

    Song, Yong; La, Tom; Phillips, Nyree D; Hampson, David J

    2015-12-01

    Brachyspira hyodysenteriae is an anaerobic spirochaete that can induce swine dysentery (SD), a severe mucohaemorrhagic colitis in grower and fattener pigs. The aim of this study was to develop a serological ELISA for use as a screening method to detect evidence of herd infection. Bioinformatic analysis of the complete genome sequence of strain WA1 was used to identify genes predicted to encode outer membrane proteins. Twenty candidate genes were expressed in an Escherichia coli mediated system, and purified as histidine-tagged recombinant proteins. Selection of optimal antigens under different conditions was conducted using Western blot and ELISA with a range of pig sera from infected and uninfected pigs. From this analysis, three recombinant proteins were selected as being most suitable for use as antigens. These antigens then were tested under optimized conditions in an indirect ELISA detecting IgG2 using 1551 sera from healthy pigs at slaughter, comprising 896 from 18 herds considered to be free from SD and 655 from 12 infected herds. Using a cut-off value for positivity of the mean plus five standard deviations of the mean for the negative sera, the best overall results were obtained with the ELISA using antigen H114, which was 100% specific and 91.7% sensitive at detecting the reported status of the herds. This new ELISA should be a useful adjunct for detecting and monitoring the status of herds with respect to the presence of B. hyodysenteriae, and should prove useful for understanding the dynamics of infection in herds where the spirochaete is present. PMID:26542367

  17. Combined steam and ultrasound treatment of broilers at slaughter: a promising intervention to significantly reduce numbers of naturally occurring campylobacters on carcasses.

    PubMed

    Musavian, Hanieh S; Krebs, Niels H; Nonboe, Ulf; Corry, Janet E L; Purnell, Graham

    2014-04-17

    Steam or hot water decontamination treatment of broiler carcasses is hampered by process limitations due to prolonged treatment times and adverse changes to the epidermis. In this study, a combination of steam with ultrasound (SonoSteam®) was investigated on naturally contaminated broilers that were processed at conventional slaughter speeds of 8,500 birds per hour in a Danish broiler plant. Industrial-scale SonoSteam equipment was installed in the evisceration room, before the inside/outside carcass washer. The SonoSteam treatment was evaluated in two separate trials performed on two different dates. Numbers of naturally occurring Campylobacter spp. and TVC were determined from paired samples of skin excised from opposite sides of the breast of the same carcass, before and after treatments. Sampling was performed at two different points on the line: i) before and after the SonoSteam treatment and ii) before the SonoSteam treatment and after 80 min of air chilling. A total of 44 carcasses were examined in the two trials. Results from the first trial showed that the mean initial Campylobacter contamination level of 2.35 log₁₀ CFU was significantly reduced (n=12, p<0.001) to 1.40 log₁₀ CFU after treatment. A significant reduction (n=11, p<0.001) was also observed with samples analyzed before SonoSteam treatment (2.64 log₁₀ CFU) and after air chilling (1.44 log₁₀ CFU). In the second trial, significant reductions (n=10, p<0.05) were obtained for carcasses analyzed before (mean level of 2.23 log₁₀ CFU) and after the treatment (mean level of 1.36 log₁₀ CFU). Significant reductions (n=11, p<0.01) were also found for Campylobacter numbers analyzed before the SonoSteam treatment (2.02 log₁₀ CFU) and after the air chilling treatment (1.37 log₁₀ CFU). The effect of air chilling without SonoSteam treatment was determined using 12 carcasses pre- and postchill. Results showed insignificant reductions of 0.09 log₁₀ from a mean initial level of

  18. DIETARY STRATEGIES TO REDUCE FOODBORNE PATHOGENS IN PIGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine can carry foodborne pathogenic bacteria that cause human illness, most notably Salmonella. Slaughter facilities in the U.S. and EU reduce the horizontal and vertical spread of pathogens on carcasses and finished products. However, we can enhance the effectiveness of the post-slaughter treatm...

  19. House dust in seven Danish offices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mølhave, L.; Schneider, T.; Kjærgaard, S. K.; Larsen, L.; Norn, S.; Jørgensen, O.

    Floor dust from Danish offices was collected and analyzed. The dust was to be used in an exposure experiment. The dust was analyzed to show the composition of the dust which can be a source of airborne dust indoors. About 11 kg of dust from vacuum cleaner bags from seven Danish office buildings with about 1047 occupants (12 751 m 2) was processed according to a standardized procedure yielding 5.5 kg of processed bulk dust. The bulk dust contained 130.000-160.000 CFU g -1 microorganisms and 71.000-90.000 CFU g -1 microfungi. The content of culturable microfungi was 65-123 CFU 30 g -1 dust. The content of endotoxins ranged from 5.06-7.24 EU g -1 (1.45 ng g -1 to 1.01 ng g -1). Allergens (ng g -1) were from 147-159 (Mite), 395-746 (dog) and 103-330 (cat). The macro molecular organic compounds (the MOD-content) varied from 7.8-9.8 mg g -1. The threshold of release of histamine from basophil leukocytes provoked by the bulk dust was between 0.3 and 1.0 mg ml -1. The water content was 2% (WGT) and the organic fraction 33%. 6.5-5.9% (dry) was water soluble. The fiber content was less than 0.2-1.5% (WGT) and the desorbable VOCs was 176-319 μg g -1. Most of the VOC were aldehydes. However, softeners for plastic (DBP and DEHP) were present. The chemical composition includes human and animal skin fragments, paper fibers, glass wool, wood and textilefibers and inorganic and metal particles. The sizes ranged from 0.001-1 mm and the average specific density was 1.0 g m -3. The bulk dust was resuspended and injected into an exposure chamber. The airborne dust was sampled and analyzed to illustrate the exposures that can result from sedimented dirt and dust. The airborne dust resulting from the bulk dust reached concentrations ranging from 0.26-0.75 mg m -3 in average contained 300-170 CFU m -3. The organic fraction was from 55-70% and the water content about 2.5% (WGT). The content of the dust was compared to the similar results reported in the literature and its toxic potency is

  20. Method and a horizontal pipeline pig launching mechanism for sequentially launching pipeline pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.W.

    1992-08-18

    This patent describes a method for timed automatic sequential launching of serially oriented pipeline pigs from a pig launching system having a tubular pig storage and launching magazine into a gas transmission pipeline. It comprises providing a source of hydraulic fluid medium; locating a free piston within the tubular pig storage and launching magazine for motive contact with the last of the serially oriented pipeline pigs; employing gas pressure from the gas transmission pipeline for pressurizing the hydraulic fluid medium from the source; introducing the pressurized hydraulic fluid medium into the hydraulic chamber; controllably releasing the restraining of the first of the serially oriented pipeline pigs from the tubular pig storage and launching magazine.