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Sample records for danish printing industry

  1. Printed circuit board industry.

    PubMed

    LaDou, Joseph

    2006-05-01

    The printed circuit board is the platform upon which microelectronic components such as semiconductor chips and capacitors are mounted. It provides the electrical interconnections between components and is found in virtually all electronics products. Once considered low technology, the printed circuit board is evolving into a high-technology product. Printed circuit board manufacturing is highly complicated, requiring large equipment investments and over 50 process steps. Many of the high-speed, miniaturized printed circuit boards are now manufactured in cleanrooms with the same health and safety problems posed by other microelectronics manufacturing. Asia produces three-fourths of the world's printed circuit boards. In Asian countries, glycol ethers are the major solvents used in the printed circuit board industry. Large quantities of hazardous chemicals such as formaldehyde, dimethylformamide, and lead are used by the printed circuit board industry. For decades, chemically intensive and often sloppy manufacturing processes exposed tens of thousands of workers to a large number of chemicals that are now known to be reproductive toxicants and carcinogens. The printed circuit board industry has exposed workers to high doses of toxic metals, solvents, acids, and photolithographic chemicals. Only recently has there been any serious effort to diminish the quantity of lead distributed worldwide by the printed circuit board industry. Billions of electronics products have been discarded in every region of the world. This paper summarizes recent regulatory and enforcement efforts. PMID:16580876

  2. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry-6 Pharmacia].

    PubMed

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2014-01-01

    The article series provides a written and pictorial account of the Danish pharmaceutical industry's products from their introduction until about 1950. Part 6 deals with products from A/S Pharmacia. A/S Pharmacia was established in Copenhagen in 1922 as a Danish limited company by the enterprising pharmacist Edward Jacobsen. Pharmacia was not Jacobsen's first pharmaceutical company as previously he had established a pharmaceutical agency already in 1913 which in 1919 was reorganized to a limited company by the name of A/S Edward Jacobsen. This agency was later extended to include a production of generics. Jacobsen remained the co-owner and manager of Pharmacia until 1934 where he resigned and established another company, A/S Ejco, for the manufacture of generics. It is worth mentioning that already in 1911 a Swedish pharmaceutical company was established named AB Pharmacia. Today we do not know whether Edward Jacobsen knew about this Swedish company. Later on in 1936 AB Pharmacia and A/S Pharmacia made a contract concerning mutual market sharing, and a research cooperation was brought about between the two companies which resulted in an increase of turnover for A/S Pharmacia. In 1955 the cooperation between the two companies was increased as the Swedish company joined as principal shareholder with the purpose of continuing and developing the Danish company as an independent pharmaceutical company with its own research and development as well as manufacture, control and marketing. Therefore Pharmacia in Denmark was able to establish a synthesis factory in Koge and move the domicile to new premises in Hillered. In 1993 Pharmacia was presented in a printed matter as "The largest Nordic pharmaceutical company" as a result of the merger between the Swedish Kabi Pharmacia, formerly established by a merger between Kabi Vitrum and AB Pharmacia, and the Italian Farmitalia Carlo Erba. Only two years later in 1995 Pharmacia merged with the American pharmaceutical company The

  3. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry--8. Lundbeck].

    PubMed

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kirkegaard, Hanne; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2016-01-01

    production of packaging material with Danish text were supplied by Lundbeck to the respective manufacturers. However, it is not unlikely either that the currency restrictions which were made after 1932 encouraged Lundbeck, where possible, first of all to import raw materials and bulk products and then manufacture the finished products in Valby. This was the case with Anusol, which Lundbeck certainly emphazised in the advertisement. It has to be pointed out that at that time there were no legal requirements regarding dating, neither of the user instructions nor of advertisements. Thus it is not due to mistakes or omissions made by Lundbeck that these materials are undated. The user instructions which Lundbeck had inserted in the packages were made and distributed at a time where no legal restrictions were in force neither regarding form nor content of such. The user instructions for products marketed after 1932 had probably been presented to the Pharmacopoeia Commission as this was statutory. It is, however, uncertain whether the Commission has dealt with the contents and the look of the user instructions. The most important task of the Commission was besides of the work with maintaining the Pharmacopoeia to look after the economic interests of the pharmacies so that only new drug substances could be marketed by the pharmaceutical industry, cf. below. In order to find out whether, and if so to which extent, the Pharmacopoeia Commission has been occupied in evaluating the informative and promoting printed matters of the industry, would require studies of the unprinted files of the Commission, and that is outside the scope of this article. At that time it was not against the law to inform in a user instruction that in case of a longer period of treatment, it would be more economical for the patient to buy a larger package. If you look at these patient information leaflets with today's eyes in the light of the present detailed, comprehensive and rigid regulations which the EU

  4. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry--3. Alfred Benzon].

    PubMed

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kirkegaard, Hanne; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2011-01-01

    The article series provides a written and pictorial account of the Danish pharmaceutical industry's products from their introduction until about 1950. Part 3 deals with products from the company founded by Alfred Benzon in 1849. Alfred Nicolai Benzon owned the Swan Pharmacy in Copenhagen. In 1863 he started an independent company manufacturing branded pharmaceuticals, thus combining the pharmacy's activities with the wholesale business. The family owned the company until 1952, when it was converted into a foundation. After several restructuring rounds, the medicine production business continued as Benzon Pharma A/S until 1990, when Nycomed Pharma A/S bought up all the branded pharmaceuticals. As the first pharmaceutical company in Denmark, Alfred Benzon was an industrial frontrunner in the country at the time, supplying not only the domestic market but foreign markets as well. Alfred Benzon was the first Danish company to produce ether for anesthesia, and malt extract, a dietetic preparation. The high quality of both products made them valuable export articles. In the early 1890s, Alfred Benzon became the first Danish company to start the research-based production of extract of thyroid glands from slaughtered cattle. This was the beginning of a long-standing specialization in producing organotherapeutic substances from animal organs originating from Danish animal husbandry. In 1932 the company had 26 preparations of this type in its range, many of them on the market for several years. These medicine substances included iron preparations and effervescent salts followed by sulfonamides, synthetic hormones and a substance to counteract motion sickness. PMID:21879529

  5. Novel industrial application: flammable and toxic gas monitoring in the printing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Esther; Spector, Yechiel

    1999-12-01

    The present paper describes an Open Path Electro-Optical Gas Monitoring System specifically designed for in-situ on-line monitoring of flammable and toxic atmospheres in the Printing Industry in general, and for air-duct applications in particular. The printing industry posies unique fire hazards due to the variety of toxic and flammable chemical employed in the various printing process. Flammable material such as paper, ink, solvents, thinners, metal powders, cornstarch powders, cloth, synthetic materials are frequently used in the printing industry in several processes such as letter-pressing, lithography, screen printing etc.

  6. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry-7].

    PubMed

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kirkegaard, Hanne; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R

    2014-01-01

    A/S GEA Farmaceutisk Fabrik was established as a family business in 1927 by the pharmacist Knud L. Gad Andresen who until then had been employed in the pharmaceutical industry. Gad Andresen wanted to run a company focusing on the development of generics, and he wanted this development to take place in a close cooperation with Danish physicians. This has indeed been achieved with success. In 1995 GEA was purchase'd by the American pharmaceutical company Bristol-Myers Squibb who in a press release characterized GEA as Denmark's second largest manufacturer of generics. Immediately after this takeover GEA's R&D department ceased the research in innovative products and from now on exclusively focused on the development of generics. Three years later GEA was sold to the German generic company Hexal who later on resold GEA to the Swiss generic company Sandoz. GEA changed ownership another couple of times until the last owner went bankrupt in 2011. GEA is yet again a model example of an early Danish pharmaceutical company which was established as an individual company, and which had a long commercial success with the production and marketing of generics. GEA's earliest products, the organotherapeutics, were not innovations. The innovative products were developed already in the 1890s in Denmark by Alfred Benzon, and later on copies followed a.o. from Medicinalco and from foreign companies before GEA marketed their generics. Therefore GEA had to promote their preparations as especially qualified medicinal products and to intimate that the products of the competitors were less "active'". At the end of the 1920s the Ministry of Health became aware of the fact that there might be health problems related to the none-existing control of both the or- ganotherapeutic preparations and actually also the other medicinal products of the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore the Ministry had requested the National Board of Health for a statement regarding this problem. The National Board

  7. Employee Motivation on the Organisational Growth of Printing Industry in the Kumasi Metropolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enninful, Ebenezer Kofi; Boakye-Amponsah, Abraham; Osei-Poku, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The printing industry is supposed to be a major contributor to Ghana's development through employment creation and the enhancement of information to the general public. The main purpose of the study was to assess employee motivation on the printing industry within Kumasi Metropolis. The study employed both the quantitative and qualitative surveys…

  8. The Challenge of Change. National Printing Industry Training Council Training Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesnich, J.; And Others

    Principally concerned with printing, publishing, and paper and paper products, the Australian printing industry is segmented into two sectors: general production and specialist (concerned with a variety of processes and products.) Current arrangements for entry-level training in the industry generally consist of off-the-job training usually…

  9. GUIDES TO POLLUTION PREVENTION: THE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document reviews the operations of printed circuit board manufacturers, identifies techniques that allow these companies to reduce wastes, and provides a set of self-audit checklists to assist printed circuit board manufacturers in setting up a waste reduction program. his r...

  10. Comparative Ratings of Printed Nutrition Materials Developed by Industry and Government Producers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Cheryl Lynn; Bunda, Mary Anne

    1983-01-01

    A study investigated the quality of supplemental, printed nutrition materials sponsored by the food industry and government agencies and evaluated their appropriateness for classroom instruction. Materials were rated by teachers, curriculum specialists, and nutrition specialists. (Authors/PP)

  11. Workflow modeling in the graphic arts and printing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuijn, Chris

    2003-12-01

    The last few years, a lot of effort has been spent on the standardization of the workflow in the graphic arts and printing industry. The main reasons for this standardization are two-fold: first of all, the need to represent all aspects of products, processes and resources in a uniform, digital framework and, secondly, the need to have different systems communicate with each other without having to implement dedicated drivers or protocols. Since many years, a number of organizations in the IT sector have been quite busy developing models and languages on the topic of workflow modeling. In addition to the more formal methods (such as, e.g., extended finite state machines, Petri Nets, Markov Chains etc.) introduced a number of decades ago, more pragmatic methods have been proposed quite recently. We hereby think in particular of the activities of the Workflow Management Coalition that resulted in an XML based Process Definition Language. Although one might be tempted to use the already established standards in the graphic environment, one should be well aware of the complexity and uniqueness of the graphic arts workflow. In this paper, we will show that it is quite hard though not impossible to model the graphic arts workflow using the already established workflow systems. After a brief summary of the graphic arts workflow requirements, we will show why the traditional models are less suitable to use. It will turn out that one of the main reasons for the incompatibility is that the graphic arts workflow is primarily resource driven; this means that the activation of processes depends on the status of different incoming resources. The fact that processes can start running with a partial availability of the input resources is a further complication that asks for additional knowledge on process level. In the second part of this paper, we will discuss in more detail the different software components that are available in any graphic enterprise. In the last part, we will

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF SHOP TOWEL USAGE IN THE AUTOMOTIVE AND PRINTING INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This assessment identifies the environmental impacts and usage trends of shop towels in the printing and automotive repair industries. The shop towels are used to clean equipment and to wipe up contaminants for a variety of operations. Four types of shop towels were evaluated; wo...

  13. Resourceful Thinking about Printing and Related Industries: Economic Considerations and Environmental Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wikina, Suanu Bliss; Thompson, Cynthia Carlton; Blackwell, Elinor

    2010-01-01

    Increasing population, total economic volume, and human consumption levels have resulted in problems of resource shortages, climate change, ozone layer depletion, land regression, and deteriorating environmental pollution. Printing and related industries constitute one of the major sources of environmental pollution due to heavy energy and…

  14. Improving and streamlining the workflow in the graphic arts and printing industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuijn, Chris

    2003-01-01

    In order to survive in the economy of today, an ever-increasing productivity is required from all the partners participating in a specific business process. This is not different for the printing industry. One of the ways to remain profitable is, on one hand, to reduce costs by automation and aiming for large-scale projects and, on the other hand, to specialize and become an expert in the area in which one is active. One of the ways to realize these goals is by streamlining the communication of the different partners and focus on the core business. If we look at the graphic arts and printing industry, we can identify different important players that eventually help in the realization of printed material. For the printing company (as is the case for any other company), the most important player is the customer. This role can be adopted by many different players including publishers, companies, non-commercial institutions, private persons etc. Sometimes, the customer will be the content provider as well but this is not always the case. Often, the content is provided by other organizations such as design and prepress agencies, advertising companies etc. In most printing organizations, the customer has one contact person often referred to as the CSR (Customers Service Representative). Other people involved at the printing organization include the sales representatives, prepress operators, printing operators, postpress operators, planners, the logistics department, the financial department etc. In the first part of this article, we propose a solution that will improve the communication between all the different actors in the graphic arts and printing industry considerably and will optimize and streamline the overall workflow as well. This solution consists of an environment in which the customer can communicate with the CSR to ask for a quote based on a specific product intent; the CSR will then (after the approval from the customer's side) organize the work and brief

  15. Dielectric elastomer based active layer for macro-scaled industrial application in roto-flexographic printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, F.; D'Oriano, G.; Meo, M.

    2014-03-01

    The use of dielectric elastomer (DE) for the realisation of new generation actuators has attracted the interest of many researchers in the last ten years due to their high efficiency, a very good electromechanical coupling and large achievable strains [1-3]. Although these properties constitute a very important advantage, the industrial exploitation of such systems is hindered by the high voltages required for the actuation [4] that could potentially constitute also a risk for the operators. In this work we present a DE based active layer that can be used in different macro-scaled parts of industrial equipment for roto-flexographic printing substituting traditional mechanical devices, reducing manufacturing costs and enhancing its reliability. Moreover, the specific configuration of the system requires the driving voltage to be applied only in the mounting/dismounting step thus lowering further the operative costs without posing any threat for the workers. Starting from the industrial requirements, a complete thermo-mechanical characterisation using DSC and DMA was undertaken on acrylic elastomer films in order to investigate their behaviour under the operative frequencies and solicitations. Validation of the active layer was experimentally evaluated by manufacturing a DE actuator controlling both prestrain and nature of the complaint electrodes, and measuring the electrically induced Maxwell's strain using a laser vibrometer to evaluate the relative displacement along the z-axis.

  16. Cancer in printing workers in Denmark.

    PubMed Central

    Lynge, E; Rix, B A; Villadsen, E; Andersen, I; Hink, M; Olsen, E; Møller, U L; Silfverberg, E

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To study the cancer incidence in printing workers in Denmark. METHODS--The cohort of 15,534 men and 3593 women working in the printing industry in 1970 were followed up for death, emigrations, and incident cancer cases until the end of 1987. Their cancer incidence was compared with that of all economically active people in Denmark. The smoking and drinking habits reported by members of the printing trade unions at a survey in 1972 were compared with habits reported by members of other trade unions. RESULTS--Lung, bladder, renal pelvis, and primary liver cancers were in excess among the printing workers. The excess risks of lung cancer among the factory workers in newspaper and magazine production, of bladder cancer in typographers in printing establishments, of renal pelvis cancer in typographers and lithographers, and of primary liver cancer among lithographers and bookbinders exceeded those expected based on the reported smoking and drinking habits. CONCLUSION--Our results indicate, in line with a previous study from Manchester, that work with rotary letterpress printing was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. The inconsistent results from studies on bladder cancer in printing workers may point to a risk confined to a certain subgroup. The sixfold risk of primary liver cancer in Danish lithographers warrants studies in other countries. PMID:8535493

  17. High-performance camera module for fast quality inspection in industrial printing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fürtler, Johannes; Bodenstorfer, Ernst; Mayer, Konrad J.; Brodersen, Jörg; Heiss, Dorothea; Penz, Harald; Eckel, Christian; Gravogl, Klaus; Nachtnebel, Herbert

    2007-02-01

    Today, printing products which must meet highest quality standards, e.g., banknotes, stamps, or vouchers, are automatically checked by optical inspection systems. Typically, the examination of fine details of the print or security features demands images taken from various perspectives, with different spectral sensitivity (visible, infrared, ultraviolet), and with high resolution. Consequently, the inspection system is equipped with several cameras and has to cope with an enormous data rate to be processed in real-time. Hence, it is desirable to move image processing tasks into the camera to reduce the amount of data which has to be transferred to the (central) image processing system. The idea is to transfer relevant information only, i.e., features of the image instead of the raw image data from the sensor. These features are then further processed. In this paper a color line-scan camera for line rates up to 100 kHz is presented. The camera is based on a commercial CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) area image sensor and a field programmable gate array (FPGA). It implements extraction of image features which are well suited to detect print flaws like blotches of ink, color smears, splashes, spots and scratches. The camera design and several image processing methods implemented on the FPGA are described, including flat field correction, compensation of geometric distortions, color transformation, as well as decimation and neighborhood operations.

  18. Printing and papermaking: Energy consumption and conservation. (Latest citations from the Paper and Board, Printing, and Packaging Industries Research Associations database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning energy consumption and energy efficient design innovations for papermaking and printing equipment and operations. Economic analysis of energy utilization, computer controlled operations, energy efficient driers for papermaking and printing processes, ventilation systems, and heat recovery technology are included. (Contains a minimum of 181 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Printed photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pace, Giuseppina; Grimoldi, Andrea; Sampietro, Marco; Natali, Dario; Caironi, Mario

    2015-10-01

    Photodetectors convert light pulses into electrical signals and are fundamental building blocks for any opto-electronic system adopting light as a probe or information carrier. They have widespread technological applications, from telecommunications to sensors in industrial, medical and civil environments. Further opportunities are plastic short-range communications systems, interactive large-area surfaces and light-weight, flexible, digital imagers. These applications would greatly benefit from the cost-effective fabrication processes enabled by printing technology. While organic semiconductors are the most investigated materials for printed photodetectors, and are the main focus of the present review, there are notable examples of other inorganic or hybrid printable semiconductors for opto-electronic systems, such as quantum-dots and nanowires. Here we propose an overview on printed photodetectors, including three-terminal phototransistors. We first give a brief account of the working mechanism of these light sensitive devices, and then we review the recent progress achieved with scalable printing techniques such as screen-printing, inkjet and other non-contact technologies in the development of all-printed or hybrid systems.

  20. Machine vision system for the industrial quality control of printed circuit boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteve-Taboada, José J.; Pastor, Begoña; Goñi, Ignacio; García, Ramón; Hervas, Juan; Molina-Jiménez, Teresa; Simón, Santiago; Pérez, Emilio

    2005-09-01

    In this paper we present an automatic system for the on-line quality control of printed circuit boards. A line-scan camera permits the acquisition of a 550 mm wide image with a resolution up to 70 microns/pixel. The system detects the following type of errors: cuts and short circuits in tracks, stains, ink excess or faults, pores, omissions, "bites" and track narrowing. The input for the system are just the Gerber data files corresponding to the circuit to be analyzed. All the tolerances and precision factors can be modified directly from the user-friendly interface. For each analyzed board, the type of error detected and its location inside the circuit are indicated in the interface. For each set of analyzed circuits the system provides information for statistical control of the results.

  1. Use of life cycle assessment as decision-support tool for water reuse and handling of residues at a Danish industrial laundry.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Kim Riisgaard; Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik

    2004-10-01

    This analysis presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) carried out on six alternative options for the recycling of water at a Danish industrial laundry for workwear. The study focuses on the handling and disposal of the wet residues generated when wastewater is treated for recycling, and in accounting for long-term potential toxicity impacts. The analysed options are a combination of two water-upgrading technologies: biofilter and ultrafiltration, and three residue disposal alternatives: biogas followed by incineration of sludge at local wastewater treatment plant, thermal vitrification treatment for production of vitrified sand, and mineralization in a sludge bed. It is concluded from the results that with the current Danish environmental policy priorities, the environmental impacts of highest priority are the toxicity effects derived from the presence of heavy metals in the residues. Heavy metals originate from the dirt in the workwear that is washed in the laundry. It is further concluded that the studied water treatment technologies satisfy both the need of clean water for recycling and simultaneously help controlling a safe disposal of pollutants by concentration of the residues. The results of the study also confirm the potential of LCA as a decision-support tool for assisting water recycling initiatives and for residue handling management. The handling of residues has been identified as a stage of the water recycling strategy that bears important environmental impacts. This holistic perspective provided by LCA can be used as input for the definition of environmental management strategies at an industrial laundry, and the prioritization of investments to the environmental profile of laundry processes. In this case-study, the results of the LCA are made operational by, for example, selecting the water treatment technology which is associated wih a safe disposal of the wet residue. It is important to bear in mind that such prioritization depends on

  2. Commercial printing and electronic color printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Joseph W.

    1995-04-01

    Technologies such as Xeikon, Indigo, and the Heidelberg/Presstek GTO-DI can change both the way print buyers may purchase printed material and the way printers and trade services respond to changing demands. Our recent study surveys the graphic arts industry for their current views of these new products and provides forecasts of installations and usage with breakdowns by market segment and size of firm. The acceptance of desktop publishing and electronic prepress have not only paved the way for a totally electronic printing process, but it has broadened the base of people who develop color originals for reproduction. Electronic printing adds the ability to customize jobs on the fly. How print providers will respond to the impact of electronic color printing depends on how each firm perceives the 'threat.' Most printing companies are run by entrepreneurial individuals who have, as their highest priority, their own economic survival. Service bureaus are already looking at electronic color printing as yet another way to differentiate their businesses. The study was based on a mail survey with 682 responses from graphic arts firms, interviews with printers, suppliers, associations and industry executives, and detailed secondary research. Results of a new survey in progress in January 1995 is also presented.

  3. Educational Ambassadors in the Danish Trade Union Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keil, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The concept of Educational Ambassadors is embedded within the so-called "Danish model" of industrial relations. The Danish industrial relations system is characterised by strong collective organisations with national coverage, which conclude the collective agreements for various industries or sectors and which are mostly grouped under central…

  4. Work and Learning in Micro-enterprises in the Printing Industry. A Comparative Research Study into the Relationship between Technological and Organisational Developments and Training Activities in Micro-enterprises in the Printing Industry in Four European Countries. Synthesis Report. CEDEFOP Panorama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Tillaart, Harry; van den Berg, Sjaak; Warmerdam, John

    Work and learning in microenterprises in the printing industries of four European Community (EC) countries were examined through 17 case studies of firms with 10 or fewer employees (5 firms in Finland and 4 each in Ireland, the Netherlands, and Spain). Structured interviews were conducted with each firm's owner and a total of 90 staff at the 17…

  5. Leaf Printing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Charles W.

    1985-01-01

    Using many different media, students can turn leaves into images which can be used for study, bulletin boards, collections, and identification. The simple techniques described include pastel printing, smoke prints, ink or tempura printing, bleach printing on t-shirts, ditto machine printing using carbon paper, and making cutouts. (DH)

  6. Waiting time to pregnancy and pregnancy outcome among Danish workers in the textile, clothing, and footwear industries.

    PubMed

    Schaumburg, I; Boldsen, J L

    1992-06-01

    The relationship between time from planned to achieved pregnancy and pregnancy outcome has been studied in a group of 18,658 workers in the textile, clothing and footwear industries. Information on pregnancy outcome and delay in conception in the period 1979-84 was collected by self administered questionnaires in 1985. The response rate was 70.3%. During the study period there had been 5,171 live births and 708 spontaneous abortions. Information on delay in conception was collected in broad categories. The data were analysed by means of a newly developed statistical parametric model in order to collect all possible information from the highly grouped data. Median waiting time before a pregnancy which ended in spontaneous abortion was 1.68 times longer than median waiting time before a pregnancy leading to a live birth. There seems to be a correlation between the length of the waiting time and abortion. PMID:1496329

  7. A Reading Preference and Risk Taxonomy for Printed Proprietary Information Compromise in the Aerospace and Defense Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalker, Joshua Dylan

    2012-01-01

    The protection of proprietary information that users print from their information systems is a significant and relevant concern in the field of information security to both researchers and practitioners. Information security researchers have repeatedly indicated that human behaviors and perception are important factors influencing the information…

  8. FUGITIVE EMISSION REDUCTIONS DUE TO THE USE OF ENCLOSED DOCTOR BLADE SYSTEMS IN THE FLEXOGRAPHIC AND ROTOGRAVURE PRINTING INDUSTRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a quantification of the level of fugitive emission reductions resulting from the use of enclosed doctor blade (EDB) systems in place of traditional ink feed systems at flexographic and rotogravure printing operations. An EDB system is an innovative ink...

  9. BOK-Printed Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2013-01-01

    The use of printed electronics technologies (PETs), 2D or 3D printing approaches either by conventional electronic fabrication or by rapid graphic printing of organic or nonorganic electronic devices on various small or large rigid or flexible substrates, is projected to grow exponentially in commercial industry. This has provided an opportunity to determine whether or not PETs could be applicable for low volume and high-reliability applications. This report presents a summary of literature surveyed and provides a body of knowledge (BOK) gathered on the current status of organic and printed electronics technologies. It reviews three key industry roadmaps- on this subject-OE-A, ITRS, and iNEMI-each with a different name identification for this emerging technology. This followed by a brief review of the status of the industry on standard development for this technology, including IEEE and IPC specifications. The report concludes with key technologies and applications and provides a technology hierarchy similar to those of conventional microelectronics for electronics packaging. Understanding key technology roadmaps, parameters, and applications is important when judicially selecting and narrowing the follow-up of new and emerging applicable technologies for evaluation, as well as the low risk insertion of organic, large area, and printed electronics.

  10. Printed Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crain, John M. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-Hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  11. Printed electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crain, John M. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Korkut, Sibel A. (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  12. Printed Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crain, John M. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Korkut, Sibel A. (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-Hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  13. Using the Fuzzy DEMATEL to Determine Environmental Performance: A Case of Printed Circuit Board Industry in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Sang-Bing; Chien, Min-Fang; Xue, Youzhi; Li, Lei; Jiang, Xiaodong; Chen, Quan; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The method by which high-technology product manufacturers balance profits and environmental performance is of crucial concern for governments and enterprises. To examine the environmental performance of manufacturers, the present study applied Fuzzy-DEMATEL model to examine environmental performance of the PCB industry in Taiwan. Fuzzy theory was employed to examine the environmental performance criteria of manufacturers and analyse fuzzy linguistics. The fuzzy-DEMATEL model was then employed to assess the direction and level of interaction between environmental performance criteria. The core environmental performance criteria which were critical for enhancing environmental performance of the PCB industry in Taiwan were identified and presented. The present study revealed that green design (a1), green material procurement (a2), and energy consumption (b3) constitute crucial reason criteria, the core criteria influencing other criteria, and the driving factors for resolving problems. PMID:26052710

  14. Using the Fuzzy DEMATEL to Determine Environmental Performance: A Case of Printed Circuit Board Industry in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Sang-Bing; Chien, Min-Fang; Xue, Youzhi; Li, Lei; Jiang, Xiaodong; Chen, Quan; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    The method by which high-technology product manufacturers balance profits and environmental performance is of crucial concern for governments and enterprises. To examine the environmental performance of manufacturers, the present study applied Fuzzy-DEMATEL model to examine environmental performance of the PCB industry in Taiwan. Fuzzy theory was employed to examine the environmental performance criteria of manufacturers and analyse fuzzy linguistics. The fuzzy-DEMATEL model was then employed to assess the direction and level of interaction between environmental performance criteria. The core environmental performance criteria which were critical for enhancing environmental performance of the PCB industry in Taiwan were identified and presented. The present study revealed that green design (a1), green material procurement (a2), and energy consumption (b3) constitute crucial reason criteria, the core criteria influencing other criteria, and the driving factors for resolving problems. PMID:26052710

  15. Wastepaper recycling. (Latest citations from the Paper and Board, Printing, and Packaging Industries Research Associations database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the recycling of wastepaper fibers for the production of new paper products. The technology and development of the recycling industry; flotation processes; recycled fiber properties and improvement methods; and the installation, operation, and maintenance of paper recycling systems are among the topics discussed. The citations also examine applications, markets, new products, environmental impact, governmental policies, economics, regulations, production statistics, and wastepaper salvaging. Business information on new papermills, investments, and acquisitions is also included. De-inking of wastepaper is examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 130 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  16. Pulping effluents: Biological treatment. (Latest citations from the Paper and Board, Printing, and Packaging Industries Research Associations database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning effluent and wastewater biological treatment and disposal in the pulping industry. Effluent toxicity; treatment plant management, treatment systems, and equipment design; combined mechanical and biological treatment processes; biological degradation treatment in chemical pulp mills; and the handling and disposal of solid wastes are among the topics discussed. Also examined are performance evaluations of biological treatment processes in domestic and foreign plants in full scale operation and pilot programs. (Contains a minimum of 168 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Molecular printing

    PubMed Central

    Braunschweig, Adam B.; Huo, Fengwei; Mirkin, Chad A.

    2014-01-01

    Molecular printing techniques, which involve the direct transfer of molecules to a substrate with submicrometre resolution, have been extensively developed over the past decade and have enabled many applications. Arrays of features on this scale have been used to direct materials assembly, in nanoelectronics, and as tools for genetic analysis and disease detection. The past decade has witnessed the maturation of molecular printing led by two synergistic technologies: dip-pen nanolithography and soft lithography. Both are characterized by material and substrate flexibility, but dip-pen nanolithography has unlimited pattern design whereas soft lithography has limited pattern flexibility but is low in cost and has high throughput. Advances in DPN tip arrays and inking methods have increased the throughput and enabled applications such as multiplexed arrays. A new approach to molecular printing, polymer-pen lithography, achieves low-cost, high-throughput and pattern flexibility. This Perspective discusses the evolution and future directions of molecular printing. PMID:21378889

  18. Reconsidering Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Development Communication Report, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The role of print in serving the poor majority populations in the developing world is explored through discussions of (1) a rural Ghanian newspaper, the "Densu Times," (2) a popular French language magazine entitled "Famille et Developpement," published in Senegal, West Africa for change agents, (3) a series of cloth posters for classroom use in…

  19. High speed printing with polygon scan heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutz, Glenn

    2016-03-01

    To reduce and in many cases eliminate the costs associated with high volume printing of consumer and industrial products, this paper investigates and validates the use of the new generation of high speed pulse on demand (POD) lasers in concert with high speed (HS) polygon scan heads (PSH). Associated costs include consumables such as printing ink and nozzles, provisioning labor, maintenance and repair expense as well as reduction of printing lines due to high through put. Targets that are applicable and investigated include direct printing on plastics, printing on paper/cardboard as well as printing on labels. Market segments would include consumer products (CPG), medical and pharmaceutical products, universal ID (UID), and industrial products. In regards to the POD lasers employed, the wavelengths include UV(355nm), Green (532nm) and IR (1064nm) operating within the repetition range of 180 to 250 KHz.

  20. Occupational noise in printing companies.

    PubMed

    Mihailovic, Aleksandra; Grujic, Selena D; Kiurski, Jelena; Krstic, Jelena; Oros, Ivana; Kovacevic, Ilija

    2011-10-01

    The extent of noise in five printing companies in Novi Sad, Serbia, was determined using TES-1358A Sound Analyzer with RS-232 Interface. The data on equivalent A-level (dBA), as well as, maximum and minimum sound pressure levels were collected. It was found that folders and offset printing units are the predominant noise sources, with the average L (eq) levels of 87.66 and 82.7 dBA, respectively. Forty percent of the machines produced noise levels above the limiting threshold level of 85 dBA, allowed by law. The noise in all printing companies was dominated by higher frequency noise, and the maximum level mostly appeared at 4,000 Hz. For offset printing machines and folders, the means of L (eq) levels exceeded the permissible levels given by NR-80 curve at higher frequencies. There are no published studies of occupational noise and hearing impairment of workers exposed to hazardous noise in printing industry in Serbia. More extensive studies are needed to determine the exact impact of noise on the workers. Technical and organizational measures in order to control noise and prevent noise exposure, and general hearing conservation program to protect workers, should be introduced in printing industry. PMID:21161679

  1. Organ printing: promises and challenges.

    PubMed

    Mironov, Vladimir; Kasyanov, Vladimir; Drake, Christopher; Markwald, Roger R

    2008-01-01

    Organ printing or biomedical application of rapid prototyping, also defined as additive layer-by-layer biomanufacturing, is an emerging transforming technology that has potential for surpassing traditional solid scaffold-based tissue engineering. Organ printing has certain advantages: it is an automated approach that offers a pathway for scalable reproducible mass production of tissue engineered products; it allows a precised simultaneous 3D positioning of several cell types; it enables creation tissue with a high level of cell density; it can solve the problem of vascularization in thick tissue constructs; finally, organ printing can be done in situ. The ultimate goal of organ-printing technology is to fabricate 3D vascularized functional living human organs suitable for clinical implantation. The main practical outcomes of organ-printing technology are industrial scalable robotic biofabrication of complex human tissues and organs, automated tissue-based in vitro assays for clinical diagnostics, drug discovery and drug toxicity, and complex in vitro models of human diseases. This article describes conceptual framework and recent developments in organ-printing technology, outlines main technological barriers and challenges, and presents potential future practical applications. PMID:18154465

  2. Three-dimensional bio-printing.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qi; Hao, Jie; Lu, YangJie; Wang, Liu; Wallace, Gordon G; Zhou, Qi

    2015-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has been widely used in various manufacturing operations including automotive, defence and space industries. 3D printing has the advantages of personalization, flexibility and high resolution, and is therefore becoming increasingly visible in the high-tech fields. Three-dimensional bio-printing technology also holds promise for future use in medical applications. At present 3D bio-printing is mainly used for simulating and reconstructing some hard tissues or for preparing drug-delivery systems in the medical area. The fabrication of 3D structures with living cells and bioactive moieties spatially distributed throughout will be realisable. Fabrication of complex tissues and organs is still at the exploratory stage. This review summarize the development of 3D bio-printing and its potential in medical applications, as well as discussing the current challenges faced by 3D bio-printing. PMID:25921944

  3. Microcontact printing.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yunyan; Jiang, Xingyu

    2011-01-01

    Microcontact printing (μCP) is a useful technique for transferring certain molecules onto surfaces with high spatial resolution using elastomeric stamps. The stamp for μCP is fabricated by replica molding from a master made by microlithography. After wetting with a type of material as an "ink," the stamp comes into contact with the substrate. The ink is selectively transferred onto parts of the substrate wherever the stamp makes direct contact, to generate patterns and structures with designated features. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and μCP are useful in many different fields, e.g., in the studies of protein adsorption, cell attachment, and in the construction of sensors. PMID:20967634

  4. Danish auroral science history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, P.

    2011-01-01

    Danish auroral science history begins with the early auroral observations made by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe during the years from 1582 to 1601 preceding the Maunder minimum in solar activity. Included are also the brilliant observations made by another astronomer, Ole Rømer, from Copenhagen in 1707, as well as the early auroral observations made from Greenland by missionaries during the 18th and 19th centuries. The relations between auroras and geomagnetic variations were analysed by H. C. Ørsted, who also played a vital role in the development of Danish meteorology that came to include comprehensive auroral observations from Denmark, Iceland and Greenland as well as auroral and geomagnetic research. The very important auroral investigations made by Sophus Tromholt are outlined. His analysis from 1880 of auroral observations from Greenland prepared for the significant contributions from the Danish Meteorological Institute, DMI, (founded in 1872) to the first International Polar Year 1882/83, where an expedition headed by Adam Paulsen was sent to Greenland to conduct auroral and geomagnetic observations. Paulsen's analyses of the collected data gave many important results but also raised many new questions that gave rise to auroral expeditions to Iceland in 1899 to 1900 and to Finland in 1900 to 1901. Among the results from these expeditions were 26 unique paintings of the auroras made by the artist painter, Harald Moltke. The expedition to Finland was headed by Dan la Cour, who later as director of the DMI came to be in charge of the comprehensive international geomagnetic and auroral observations made during the Second International Polar Year in 1932/33. Finally, the article describes the important investigations made by Knud Lassen during, among others, the International Geophysical Year 1957/58 and during the International Quiet Sun Year (IQSY) in 1964/65. With his leadership the auroral and geomagnetic research at DMI reached a high international

  5. Nanoparticle composites for printed electronics.

    PubMed

    Männl, U; van den Berg, C; Magunje, B; Härting, M; Britton, D T; Jones, S; van Staden, M J; Scriba, M R

    2014-03-01

    Printed Electronics is a rapidly developing sector in the electronics industry, in which nanostructured materials are playing an increasingly important role. In particular, inks containing dispersions of semiconducting nanoparticles, can form nanocomposite materials with unique electronic properties when cured. In this study we have extended on our previous studies of functional nanoparticle electronic inks, with the development of a solvent-based silicon ink for printed electronics which is compatible with existing silver inks, and with the investigation of other metal nanoparticle based inks. It is shown that both solvent-based and water-based inks can be used for both silver conductors and semiconducting silicon, and that qualitatively there is no difference in the electronic properties of the materials printed with a soluble polymer binder to when an acrylic binder is used. PMID:24521927

  6. Nanoparticle composites for printed electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Männl, U.; van den Berg, C.; Magunje, B.; Härting, M.; Britton, D. T.; Jones, S.; van Staden, M. J.; Scriba, M. R.

    2014-03-01

    Printed Electronics is a rapidly developing sector in the electronics industry, in which nanostructured materials are playing an increasingly important role. In particular, inks containing dispersions of semiconducting nanoparticles, can form nanocomposite materials with unique electronic properties when cured. In this study we have extended on our previous studies of functional nanoparticle electronic inks, with the development of a solvent-based silicon ink for printed electronics which is compatible with existing silver inks, and with the investigation of other metal nanoparticle based inks. It is shown that both solvent-based and water-based inks can be used for both silver conductors and semiconducting silicon, and that qualitatively there is no difference in the electronic properties of the materials printed with a soluble polymer binder to when an acrylic binder is used.

  7. Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  8. Permanence and durability of digital prints on paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Černič, M.; Dolenc, J.; Scheicher, L.

    2006-06-01

    The paper used as a printing substrate in electro photographical techniques should achieve appropriate structure, surface and optical properties as well as thermal stability. Printing products are often exposed to negative influence from external climate conditions. Surface treatment with varnishing and lamination is a common solution for protecting the final products against light, higher temperatures and elevated relative humidity. In the context of the applied research done in cooperation with the printing industry we studied permanence and durability of paper, image of prints and final printed product. We were also examining the influence of accelerated artificial ageing of paper and colour prints in electro photographic printing technique (Xeikon), with two types of surface treatment on the quality of the printed products. Determination of basic physical, chemical and surface characteristics (mechanical strength, optical and colorimetric characteristics of paper) as well as the evaluation of permanence according to EN ISO 9706 (∞) have shown unsuitable optical and colorimetric properties of paper. The evaluation of durability of paper and prints after accelerated artificial ageing according to the EN ISO 5630-3 standard indicates unsuitable optical and colorimetric properties, which consequently cause low optical and colorimetric stability. Colour prints with a surface protection of polymer varnish or foil protection are very unstable, causing deterioration of colour, contrasts and colour balance. The results of research work are very useful for the evaluation of durable printing paper used for various new digital printing systems and for evaluation of printing material of permanent quality.

  9. Advances and Future Challenges in Printed Batteries.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ricardo E; Costa, Carlos M; Lanceros-Méndez, Senentxu

    2015-11-01

    There is an increasing interest in thin and flexible energy storage devices to meet modern society's needs for applications such as radio frequency sensing, interactive packaging, and other consumer products. Printed batteries comply with these requirements and are an excellent alternative to conventional batteries for many applications. Flexible and microbatteries are also included in the area of printed batteries when fabricated using printing technologies. The main characteristics, advantages, disadvantages, developments, and printing techniques of printed batteries are presented and discussed in this Review. The state-of-the-art takes into account both the research and industrial levels. On the academic level, the research progress of printed batteries is divided into lithium-ion and Zn-manganese dioxide batteries and other battery types, with emphasis on the different materials for anode, cathode, and separator as well as in the battery design. With respect to the industrial state-of-the-art, materials, device formulations, and manufacturing techniques are presented. Finally, the prospects and challenges of printed batteries are discussed. PMID:26404647

  10. Large Print Bibliography, 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Library, Pierre.

    This bibliography lists materials that are available in large print format from the South Dakota State Library. The annotated entries are printed in large print and include the title of the material and its author, call number, publication date, and type of story or subject area covered. Some recorded items are included in the list. The entries…

  11. High Relief Block Printing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Explains a method of block printing using styrofoam shapes to make high relief. Describes the creation of the block design as well as the actual printing process. Uses a range of paper types for printing so children can see the results of using different media. (LS)

  12. Future of printing: changes and challenges, technologies and markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipphan, Helmut

    1998-01-01

    Digitalization within the graphic arts industry is described and it is explained how it is improving and changing the print production strategies and which new kinds of print production systems are developed or can be expected. The relationship of printed media and electronic media is analyzed and a positioning for the next century is given. The state of the art of conventional printing technologies, especially using direct imagine techniques, and their position within the digital workflow are shortly described. Non-impact printing multicolor printing systems are explained, based on general design criteria and linked to existing and newly announced equipment. The use of high-tech components for building up successful systems with high reliability, high quality and low production costs is included with some examples. Digital printing systems open many opportunities in print production: distributed printing, personalization, print and book on demand are explained as examples. The overview of the several printing technologies and their positioning regarding quality and productivity leads to the scenario about the important position of printed media, also in the distant future.

  13. Pulping: Energy consumption and conservation. (Latest citations from the Paper and Board, Printing, and Packaging Industries Research Associations database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning energy saving processes, machinery, and plants applicable to the pulping industry. Topics include water removal and wet pressing, small power steam and electricity generation, mathematical modeling for determining energy consumption, mechanical pulping energy reduction techniques, fiber pretreatment, cooking methods and equipment, and heat recovery processes. Energy efficient pulp mill operation management is included. (Contains a minimum of 156 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Compact organic vapor jet printing print head

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, Stepehen R; McGraw, Gregory

    2015-01-27

    A first device is provided. The first device includes a print head, and a first gas source hermetically sealed to the print head. The print head further includes a first layer further comprising a plurality of apertures, each aperture having a smallest dimension of 0.5 to 500 microns. A second layer is bonded to the first layer. The second layer includes a first via in fluid communication with the first gas source and at least one of the apertures. The second layer is made of an insulating material.

  15. Compact organic vapor jet printing print head

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R; McGraw, Gregory

    2013-12-24

    A first device is provided. The first device includes a print head, and a first gas source hermetically sealed to the print head. The print header further includes a first layer comprising a plurality of apertures, each aperture having a smallest dimension of 0.5 to 500 microns. A second layer is bonded to the first layer. The second layer includes a first via in fluid communication with the first gas source and at least one of the apertures. The second layer is made of an insulating material.

  16. Compact organic vapor jet printing print head

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen; McGraw, Gregory

    2016-02-02

    A first device is provided. The first device includes a print head, and a first gas source hermetically sealed to the print head. The print head further includes a first layer further comprising a plurality of apertures, each aperture having a smallest dimension of 0.5 to 500 microns. A second layer is bonded to the first layer. The second layer includes a first via in fluid communication with the first gas source and at least one of the apertures. The second layer is made of an insulating material.

  17. The Danish vaccination register.

    PubMed

    Grove Krause, T; Jakobsen, S; Haarh, M; Mølbak, K

    2012-01-01

    Immunisation information systems (IIS) are valuable tools for monitoring vaccination coverage and for estimating vaccine effectiveness and safety. Since 2009, an advanced IIS has been developed in Denmark and will be implemented during 2012–14. This IIS is based on a database existing since 2000. The reporting of all administered vaccinations including vaccinations outside the national programme will become mandatory. Citizens will get access to data about their own vaccinations and healthcare personnel will get access to information on the vaccinations of their patients. A national concept of identification, a national solution combining a personal code and a card with codes, ensures easy and secure access to the register. From the outset, the IIS will include data on childhood vaccinations administered from 1996 and onwards. All Danish citizens have a unique identifier, a so called civil registration number, which allows the linking of information on vaccinations coming from different electronic data sources. The main challenge will be to integrate the IIS with the different electronic patient record systems currently existing at general practitioner, vaccination clinic and hospital level thereby avoiding double-entry. A need has been identified for an updated international classification of vaccine products on the market. Such a classification would also be useful for the future exchange of data on immunisations from IIS between countries. PMID:22551494

  18. Characterization of relief printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xing; Chen, Lin; Ortiz-Segovia, Maria-Valezzka; Ferwerda, James; Allebach, Jan

    2014-03-01

    Relief printing technology developed by Océ allows the superposition of several layers of colorant on different types of media which creates a variation of the surface height defined by the input to the printer. Evaluating the reproduction accuracy of distinct surface characteristics is of great importance to the application of the relief printing system. Therefore, it is necessary to develop quality metrics to evaluate the relief process. In this paper, we focus on the third dimension of relief printing, i.e. height information. To achieve this goal, we define metrics and develop models that aim to evaluate relief prints in two aspects: overall fidelity and surface finish. To characterize the overall fidelity, three metrics are calculated: Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), difference and root-mean-squared error (RMSE) between the input height map and scanned height map, and print surface angle accuracy. For the surface finish property, we measure the surface roughness, generate surface normal maps and develop a light reflection model that serves as a simulation of the differences between ideal prints and real prints that may be perceived by human observers. Three sets of test targets are designed and printed by the Océ relief printer prototypes for the calculation of the above metrics: (i) twisted target, (ii) sinusoidal wave target, and (iii) ramp target. The results provide quantitative evaluations of the printing quality in the third dimension, and demonstrate that the height of relief prints is reproduced accurately with respect to the input design. The factors that affect the printing quality include: printing direction, frequency and amplitude of the input signal, shape of relief prints. Besides the above factors, there are two additional aspects that influence the viewing experience of relief prints: lighting condition and viewing angle.

  19. Potential up-scaling of inkjet-printed devices for logical circuits in flexible electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, Kalyan Yoti E-mail: enrico.sowade@mb.tu-chemnitz.de; Sowade, Enrico E-mail: enrico.sowade@mb.tu-chemnitz.de; Martínez-Domingo, Carme; Ramon, Eloi; Carrabina, Jordi; Gomes, Henrique Leonel; Baumann, Reinhard R.

    2015-02-17

    Inkjet Technology is often mis-believed to be a deposition/patterning technology which is not meant for high fabrication throughput in the field of printed and flexible electronics. In this work, we report on the 1) printing, 2) fabrication yield and 3) characterization of exemplary simple devices e.g. capacitors, organic transistors etc. which are the basic building blocks for logical circuits. For this purpose, printing is performed first with a Proof of concept Inkjet printing system Dimatix Material Printer 2831 (DMP 2831) using 10 pL small print-heads and then with Dimatix Material Printer 3000 (DMP 3000) using 35 pL industrial print-heads (from Fujifilm Dimatix). Printing at DMP 3000 using industrial print-heads (in Sheet-to-sheet) paves the path towards industrialization which can be defined by printing in Roll-to-Roll format using industrial print-heads. This pavement can be termed as 'Bridging Platform'. This transfer to 'Bridging Platform' from 10 pL small print-heads to 35 pL industrial print-heads help the inkjet-printed devices to evolve on the basis of functionality and also in form of up-scaled quantities. The high printed quantities and yield of inkjet-printed devices justify the deposition reliability and potential to print circuits. This reliability is very much desired when it comes to printing of circuits e.g. inverters, ring oscillator and any other planned complex logical circuits which require devices e.g. organic transistors which needs to get connected in different staged levels. Also, the up-scaled inkjet-printed devices are characterized and they reflect a domain under which they can work to their optimal status. This status is much wanted for predicting the real device functionality and integration of them into a planned circuit.

  20. Dust control in pulp/paper mills. (Latest citations from the Paper and Board, Printing, and Packaging Industries Research Associations database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning machine design developments for dust control and extraction relative to paper/pulp mill processes such as radiation pulp/paper dryers, handling empty packaging sacks, packaging powdered products, sulfite pulping processes, and pigment conveying systems. The removal of electrostatic charges which generate dust circulation, measurement of the dust concentrations of paper, and procedures for eliminating dust from glassware in the bottling industry are among the topics examined. Also included are factors related to dust-generated health hazards to mill employees. Examples include dust effects on the human body, protective clothing, regulations, plant design, and good housekeeping operations. (Contains a minimum of 83 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  1. Engraving Print Classification

    SciTech Connect

    Hoelck, Daniel; Barbe, Joaquim

    2008-04-15

    A print is a mark, or drawing, made in or upon a plate, stone, woodblock or other material which is cover with ink and then is press usually into a paper reproducing the image on the paper. Engraving prints usually are image composed of a group of binary lines, specially those are made with relief and intaglio techniques. Varying the number and the orientation of lines, the drawing of the engraving print is conformed. For this reason we propose an application based on image processing methods to classify engraving prints.

  2. Subjectless Sentences in Child Danish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Cornelia; Plunkett, Kim

    1998-01-01

    Examined data for two Danish children to determine subject omission, verb usage, and sentence subjects. Found that children exhibit asymmetry in subject omission according to verb type as subjects are omitted from main verb utterances more frequently than from copula utterances. Concluded that treatment of child subject omission should involve…

  3. Nature and Nationhood: Danish Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnack, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I shall discuss Danish perspectives on nature, showing the interdependence of conceptions of "nature" and "nationhood" in the formations of a particular cultural community. Nature, thus construed, is never innocent of culture and cannot therefore simply be "restored" to some pristine, pre-lapsarian state. On the other hand,…

  4. Three-Dimensional Printing Surgical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Michelle F.; Butler, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Three-dimensional printing, a technology used for decades in the industrial field, gains a lot of attention in the medical field for its potential benefits. With advancement of desktop printers, this technology is accessible and a lot of research is going on in the medical field. Objective: To evaluate its application in surgical field, which may include but not limited to surgical planning, surgical education, implants, and prosthesis, which are the focus of this review. Methods: Research was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of science, and other reliable sources. We included original articles and excluded articles based on animals, those more than 10 years old, and those not in English. These articles were evaluated, and relevant studies were included in this review. Discussion: Three-dimensional printing shows a potential benefit in surgical application. Printed implants were used in patient in a few cases and show successful results; however, longer follow-up and more trials are needed. Surgical and medical education is believed to be more efficient with this technology than the current practice. Printed surgical instrument and surgical planning are also believed to improve with three-dimensional printing. Conclusion: Three-dimensional printing can be a very powerful tool in the near future, which can aid the medical field that is facing a lot of challenges and obstacles. However, despite the reported results, further research on larger samples and analytical measurements should be conducted to ensure this technology's impact on the practice. PMID:26301002

  5. Construction Print Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on construction print reading is designed to provide Marines of all ranks and Military Occupation Specialities with the basic information to recognize the terms and symbols used in construction prints; it is adaptable for nonmilitary instruction.…

  6. The Circle Block Print

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Annita

    2011-01-01

    Most students enjoy the printing process. Some may have experimented with printing in the past using found objects or cutouts made of cardboard. In this article, students create a design on a pie-shaped piece and then repeat it to make a radial design.

  7. Printing Ancient Terracotta Warriors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadecki, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    Standing in awe in Xian, China, at the Terra Cotta warrior archaeological site, the author thought of sharing this experience and excitement with her sixth-grade students. She decided to let her students carve patterns of the ancient soldiers to understand their place in Chinese history. They would make block prints and print multiple soldiers on…

  8. Multiple myeloma among Danish women: employment history and workplace exposures.

    PubMed

    Pottern, L M; Heineman, E F; Olsen, J H; Raffn, E; Blair, A

    1992-09-01

    To investigate the role of employment history and workplace exposures as risk factors for multiple myeloma among women, a population-based case-control study using the Danish Cancer Registry data linkage system was conducted. All cases of myeloma diagnosed in Danish women between 1970 and 1984 (1,010 cases) and 4,040 age-matched women alive at the time of case-diagnosis were identified. Industrial histories from 1964 forward were obtained from the nationwide Pension Fund for 363 cases and 1,517 controls, and the most recent occupation on the tax record was available for 607 cases and 2,596 controls. Using industry/occupational-code combinations for the cases and controls who had industry employment, Danish industrial hygienists assessed the likelihood of exposure to 47 workplace substances. An increased myeloma risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.2, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-1.5) was seen for women not in the Pension Fund, but who had an occupational title coded as 'Mrs/homemaker.' Nonsignificantly elevated risks of 1.3 or greater were observed for employment in: production of agricultural products; orchards/nurseries; spinning/weaving; other textile and plastics manufacturing; hotel, entertainment, and social services industries. Elevated, but nonsignificant risks were observed for possible and probable exposure to exhaust fumes, formaldehyde, wood dust, animals or animal products, and pesticides. The strongest association with myeloma was employment in the agricultural industry (OR = 1.5, CI = 0.8-2.8), however, the number of women who worked on family farms was unknown and could not be included in this risk estimate. PMID:1525323

  9. 3D-printing technologies for electrochemical applications.

    PubMed

    Ambrosi, Adriano; Pumera, Martin

    2016-05-21

    Since its conception during the 80s, 3D-printing, also known as additive manufacturing, has been receiving unprecedented levels of attention and interest from industry and research laboratories. This is in addition to end users, who have benefited from the pervasiveness of desktop-size and relatively cheap printing machines available. 3D-printing enables almost infinite possibilities for rapid prototyping. Therefore, it has been considered for applications in numerous research fields, ranging from mechanical engineering, medicine, and materials science to chemistry. Electrochemistry is another branch of science that can certainly benefit from 3D-printing technologies, paving the way for the design and fabrication of cheaper, higher performing, and ubiquitously available electrochemical devices. Here, we aim to provide a general overview of the most commonly available 3D-printing methods along with a review of recent electrochemistry related studies adopting 3D-printing as a possible rapid prototyping fabrication tool. PMID:27048921

  10. Analysis of Impact of 3D Printing Technology on Traditional Manufacturing Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Niyan; Chen, Qi; Liao, Linzhi; Wang, Xin

    With quiet rise of 3D printing technology in automobile, aerospace, industry, medical treatment and other fields, many insiders hold different opinions on its development. This paper objectively analyzes impact of 3D printing technology on mold making technology and puts forward the idea of fusion and complementation of 3D printing technology and mold making technology through comparing advantages and disadvantages of 3D printing mold and traditional mold making technology.

  11. Stop, Look, Listen, Print

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwing, Pauline E.

    1972-01-01

    Article describes the use of audiovisual aids in teaching third-graders how to make brayer, string, Styrofoam and gadget prints. Author advises close cooperation between art and classroom teachers. Printmaking as a means of communication is touched upon. (PD)

  12. Printed organic thin-film transistor-based integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Saumen; Noh, Yong-Young

    2015-06-01

    Organic electronics is moving ahead on its journey towards reality. However, this technology will only be possible when it is able to meet specific criteria including flexibility, transparency, disposability and low cost. Printing is one of the conventional techniques to deposit thin films from solution-based ink. It is used worldwide for visual modes of information, and it is now poised to enter into the manufacturing processes of various consumer electronics. The continuous progress made in the field of functional organic semiconductors has achieved high solubility in common solvents as well as high charge carrier mobility, which offers ample opportunity for organic-based printed integrated circuits. In this paper, we present a comprehensive review of all-printed organic thin-film transistor-based integrated circuits, mainly ring oscillators. First, the necessity of all-printed organic integrated circuits is discussed; we consider how the gap between printed electronics and real applications can be bridged. Next, various materials for printed organic integrated circuits are discussed. The features of these circuits and their suitability for electronics using different printing and coating techniques follow. Interconnection technology is equally important to make this product industrially viable; much attention in this review is placed here. For high-frequency operation, channel length should be sufficiently small; this could be achievable with a combination of surface treatment-assisted printing or laser writing. Registration is also an important issue related to printing; the printed gate should be perfectly aligned with the source and drain to minimize parasitic capacitances. All-printed organic inverters and ring oscillators are discussed here, along with their importance. Finally, future applications of all-printed organic integrated circuits are highlighted.

  13. Recent progress in printed 2/3D electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, Andreas; Patter, Paul; Popovic, Karl; Blümel, Alexander; Sax, Stefan; Lenz, Martin; Glushko, Oleksandr; Cordill, Megan J.; List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.

    2015-09-01

    New, energy-saving, efficient and cost-effective processing technologies such as 2D and 3D inkjet printing (IJP) for the production and integration of intelligent components will be opening up very interesting possibilities for industrial applications of molecular materials in the near future. Beyond the use of home and office based printers, "inkjet printing technology" allows for the additive structured deposition of photonic and electronic materials on a wide variety of substrates such as textiles, plastics, wood, stone, tiles or cardboard. Great interest also exists in applying IJP in industrial manufacturing such as the manufacturing of PCBs, of solar cells, printed organic electronics and medical products. In all these cases inkjet printing is a flexible (digital), additive, selective and cost-efficient material deposition method. Due to these advantages, there is the prospect that currently used standard patterning processes can be replaced through this innovative material deposition technique. A main issue in this research area is the formulation of novel functional inks or the adaptation of commercially available inks for specific industrial applications and/or processes. In this contribution we report on the design, realization and characterization of novel active and passive inkjet printed electronic devices including circuitry and sensors based on metal nanoparticle ink formulations and the heterogeneous integration into 2/3D printed demonstrators. The main emphasis of this paper will be on how to convert scientific inkjet knowledge into industrially relevant processes and applications.

  14. Successful School Principalship in Danish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Lejf; Krejsler, John; Kofod, Klaus Kasper; Jensen, Bent Brandt

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims at conceptualizing and investigating the meaning of good school principalship within the space for manoeuvring that is available within the context of Danish comprehensive schools. The paper aims to present findings from case studies of two Danish schools within the frame of reference. Design/methodology/approach: Outlines the…

  15. University Academics at a Crossroads? Continuity and Transformation in Danish University Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krejsler, John B.; Carney, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Within an overall policy script aimed at creating fewer "world-class" institutions, Danish universities are currently being remade to better serve the world of work and employment, the demands of high-technology industry, and the needs of society, which are increasingly described and defined in terms of appeals to "relevance to the economy/working…

  16. Printed hybrid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karioja, Pentti; Mäkinen, Jukka-Tapani; Keränen, Kimmo; Aikio, Janne; Alajoki, Teemu; Jaakola, Tuomo; Koponen, Matti; Keränen, Antti; Heikkinen, Mikko; Tuomikoski, Markus; Suhonen, Riikka; Hakalahti, Leena; Kopola, Pälvi; Hast, Jukka; Liedert, Ralf; Hiltunen, Jussi; Masuda, Noriyuki; Kemppainen, Antti; Rönkä, Kari; Korhonen, Raimo

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents research activities carried out at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland in the field of hybrid integration of optics, electronics and mechanics. Main focus area in our research is the manufacturing of electronic modules and product structures with printed electronics, film-over-molding and polymer sheet lamination technologies and the goal is in the next generation of smart systems utilizing monolithic polymer packages. The combination of manufacturing technologies such as roll-to-roll -printing, injection molding and traditional component assembly is called Printed Hybrid Systems (PHS). Several demonstrator structures have been made, which show the potential of polymer packaging technology. One demonstrator example is a laminated structure with embedded LED chips. Element thickness is only 0.3mm and the flexible stack of foils can be bent in two directions after assembly process and was shaped curved using heat and pressure. The combination of printed flexible circuit boards and injection molding has also been demonstrated with several functional modules. The demonstrators illustrate the potential of origami electronics, which can be cut and folded to 3D shapes. It shows that several manufacturing process steps can be eliminated by Printed Hybrid Systems technology. The main benefits of this combination are small size, ruggedness and conformality. The devices are ideally suited for medical applications as the sensitive electronic components are well protected inside the plastic and the structures can be cleaned easily due to the fact that they have no joints or seams that can accumulate dirt or bacteria.

  17. Digital multicolor printing: state of the art and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipphan, Helmut

    1995-04-01

    During the last 5 years, digital techniques have become extremely important in the graphic arts industry. All sections in the production flow for producing multicolor printed products - prepress, printing and postpress - are influenced by digitalization, in an evolutionary and revolutionary way. New equipment and network techniques bring all the sections closer together. The focus is put on high-quality multicolor printing, together with high productivity. Conventional offset printing technology is compared with the leading nonimpact printing technologies. Computer to press is contrasted with computer to print techniques. The newest available digital multicolor presses are described - the direct imaging offset printing press from HEIDELBERG with new laser imaging technique as well as the INDIGO and XEIKON presses based on electrophotography. Regarding technical specifications, economic calculations and print quality, it is worked out that each technique has its own market segments. An outlook is given for future computer to press techniques and the potential of nonimpact printing technologies for advanced high-speed multicolor computer to print equipment. Synergy effects from the NIP-technologies to the conventional printing technologies and vice versa are possible for building up innovative new products, for example hybrid printing systems. It is also shown that there is potential for improving the print quality, based on special screening algorithms, and a higher number of grey levels per pixel by using NIP-technologies. As an intermediate step in digitalization of the production flow, but also as an economical solution computer to plate equipment is described. By producing printed products totally in a digital way, digital color proofing as well as color management systems are needed. The newest high-tech equipment using NIP-technologies for producing proofs is explained. All in all it is shown that the state of the art in digital multicolor printing has reached

  18. Printing Technologies for Medical Applications.

    PubMed

    Shafiee, Ashkan; Atala, Anthony

    2016-03-01

    Over the past 15 years, printers have been increasingly utilized for biomedical applications in various areas of medicine and tissue engineering. This review discusses the current and future applications of 3D bioprinting. Several 3D printing tools with broad applications from surgical planning to 3D models are being created, such as liver replicas and intermediate splints. Numerous researchers are exploring this technique to pattern cells or fabricate several different tissues and organs, such as blood vessels or cardiac patches. Current investigations in bioprinting applications are yielding further advances. As one of the fastest areas of industry expansion, 3D additive manufacturing will change techniques across biomedical applications, from research and testing models to surgical planning, device manufacturing, and tissue or organ replacement. PMID:26856235

  19. "Profits to the Danes, for Us--Hog Stench?" The Campaign against Danish Swine CAFOs in Rural Lithuania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juska, Arunas

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes a grass-roots campaign to limit the expansion of Danish-owned industrial hog operator Saerimner in Lithuania. The industrialization of livestock production as well as local responses to the restructuring of meat production are interpreted within the broader context of the incorporation of peripheral regions into global agro-food…

  20. MANCHESTER MILLS, PRINT WORKS: BLUE DYE AND SOAPING; PRINTING AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MANCHESTER MILLS, PRINT WORKS: BLUE DYE AND SOAPING; PRINTING AND BLEACHING BUILDINGS. PHOTOCOPY OF c. 1905 VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST. From the collection of Mr. George Durette, Photographer, Manchester, N. H. - Amoskeag Millyard, Canal Street, Manchester, Hillsborough County, NH

  1. Emergence of 3D Printed Dosage Forms: Opportunities and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Alhnan, Mohamed A; Okwuosa, Tochukwu C; Sadia, Muzna; Wan, Ka-Wai; Ahmed, Waqar; Arafat, Basel

    2016-08-01

    The recent introduction of the first FDA approved 3D-printed drug has fuelled interest in 3D printing technology, which is set to revolutionize healthcare. Since its initial use, this rapid prototyping (RP) technology has evolved to such an extent that it is currently being used in a wide range of applications including in tissue engineering, dentistry, construction, automotive and aerospace. However, in the pharmaceutical industry this technology is still in its infancy and its potential yet to be fully explored. This paper presents various 3D printing technologies such as stereolithographic, powder based, selective laser sintering, fused deposition modelling and semi-solid extrusion 3D printing. It also provides a comprehensive review of previous attempts at using 3D printing technologies on the manufacturing dosage forms with a particular focus on oral tablets. Their advantages particularly with adaptability in the pharmaceutical field have been highlighted, which enables the preparation of dosage forms with complex designs and geometries, multiple actives and tailored release profiles. An insight into the technical challenges facing the different 3D printing technologies such as the formulation and processing parameters is provided. Light is also shed on the different regulatory challenges that need to be overcome for 3D printing to fulfil its real potential in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:27194002

  2. Inkjet printing of graphene.

    PubMed

    Arapov, Kirill; Abbel, Robert; de With, Gijsbertus; Friedrich, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    The inkjet printing of graphene is a cost-effective, and versatile deposition technique for both transparent and non-transparent conductive films. Printing graphene on paper is aimed at low-end, high-volume applications, i.e., in electromagnetic shielding, photovoltaics or, e.g., as a replacement for the metal in antennas of radio-frequency identification devices, thereby improving their recyclability and biocompatibility. Here, we present a comparison of two graphene inks, one prepared by the solubilization of expanded graphite in the presence of a surface active polymer, and the other by covalent graphene functionalization followed by redispersion in a solvent but without a surfactant. The non-oxidative functionalization of graphite in the form of a donor-type graphite intercalation compound was carried out by a Birch-type alkylation, where graphene can be viewed as a macrocarbanion. To increase the amount of functionalization we employed a graphite precursor with a high edge to bulk carbon ratio, thus, allowing us to achieve up to six weight percent of functional groups. The functionalized graphene can be readily dispersed at concentrations of up to 3 mg ml(-1) in non-toxic organic solvents, and is colloidally stable for more than 2 months. The two inks are readily inkjet printable with good to satisfactory spreading. Analysis of the sheet resistance of the deposited films demonstrated that the inks based on expanded graphite outperform the functionalized graphene inks, possibly due to the significantly larger graphene sheet size in the former, which minimizes the number of sheet-to-sheet contacts along the conductive path. We found that the sheet resistance of printed large-area films decreased with an increase of the number of printed layers. Conductivity levels reached approximately 1-2 kΩ □(-1) for 15 printing passes, which roughly equals a film thickness of 800 nm for expanded graphite based inks, and 2 MΩ □(-1) for 15 printing passes of

  3. Color management: printing processes - opportunities and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingram, Samuel T.

    2002-06-01

    Digital tools have impacted traditional methods employed to reproduce color images during the past decade. The shift from a purely photomechanical process in color reproduction to colorimetric reproduction offers tremendous opportunity in the graphic arts industry. But good things do not necessarily come to all in the same package. Printing processes possess different reproduction attributes: tone reproduction, gray balance and color correction requirements are as different as the ingredient sets selected for color reproduction. This paper will provide insight toward understanding advantages and limitations offered by the new digital technologies in printing, publishing and packaging. For the past five years the Clemson University Graphic Communications Department has conducted numerous color projects using the new digital colorimetric tools during the previous decade. Several approaches have been used including experimental research and typical production workflows. The use of colorimetric data in color reproduction has given an opportunity to realize real gains in color use, predictability and consistency. Meeting an image's separation and reproduction requirements for a specified printing process can involve disruption of the anticipated workflow. Understanding the printing process requirements and the fit within the specifications of a colorimetric workflow are critical to the successful adoption of a color managed workflow. The paper will also provide an insight into the issues and challenges experienced with a color managed workflow. The printing processes used include offset litho, narrow and wide-web flexography (paper, liner board, corrugated and film), screen printing (paper board and polycarbonates), and digital imaging with toner, ink and inkjet systems. A proposal for technology integration will be the focus of the presentation drawn from documented experiences in over 300 applications of color management tools. Discussion will include the structure of

  4. Suitability for 3D Printed Parts for Laboratory Use

    SciTech Connect

    Zwicker, Andrew P.; Bloom, Josh; Albertson, Robert; Gershman, Sophia

    2014-08-01

    3D printing has become popular for a variety of users, from industrial to the home hobbyist, to scientists and engineers interested in producing their own laboratory equipment. In order to determine the suitability of 3D printed parts for our plasma physics laboratory, we measured the accuracy, strength, vacuum compatibility, and electrical properties of pieces printed in plastic. The flexibility of rapidly creating custom parts has led to the 3D printer becoming an invaluable resource in our laboratory and is equally suitable for producing equipment for advanced undergraduate laboratories.

  5. Fully-printed, all-polymer integrated twilight switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dell'Erba, Giorgio; Perinot, Andrea; Grimoldi, Andrea; Natali, Dario; Caironi, Mario

    2015-10-01

    In this contribution we demonstrate an integrated photoactive switch employing a fully-printed planar photodetector and complementary Schmitt trigger. A photoactive switch is fundamental to several light driven systems, such as twilight sensors or industrial machinery control devices. This paper explores a fabrication methodology that enables reliable complementary logic building blocks and photodetectors with a fully-printed, all-polymer approach, resulting in a semi-transparent integrated system on a single plastic foil.

  6. Microarrays of phospholipid bilayers generated by inkjet printing.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Misato; Imaishi, Hiromasa; Morigaki, Kenichi

    2013-05-28

    We report an efficient and reproducible method to generate a microarray of model biological membranes on a solid substrate by applying the inkjet printing technology. Although inkjet printing is currently widely used for industrial fabrication processes, including biological materials, printing lipid membranes remains technically challenging due to the hydrophobic nature of droplets and instability of the lipid bilayer structure against dehydration. In the present study, we printed lipids onto a glass substrate covered with a micropatterned membrane of a polymeric phospholipid bilayer. Polymeric bilayers were formed by the lithographic photopolymerization of a diacetylene-containing phospholipid, 1,2-bis(10,12-tricosadiynoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DiynePC). After removal of nonpolymerized DiynePC with a detergent solution, natural lipid membranes were incorporated into the polymer-free regions (corrals) by using an electric-field-based inkjet printing device that can eject subfemtoliter volume droplets. To avoid rapid dehydration and destabilization, we preprinted an aqueous solution containing agarose and trehalose onto the corrals and subsequently printed lipid suspensions ("two-step-printing method"). After rinsing, stable lipid bilayer membranes were formed in the corrals. The bilayers were continuous and fluid as confirmed by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. We could introduce multiple bilayer patches having different lipid compositions into the neighboring corrals. The present results demonstrate that the combination of a patterned polymeric bilayer and inkjet printing technology enables efficient, reliable, and scalable generation of the model membrane microarrays having varied compositions. PMID:23627772

  7. Using Environmental Print to Enhance Emergent Literacy and Print Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, Michelle M.; Hood, Michelle; Ford, Ruth M.

    2013-01-01

    Given the ubiquitous and salient nature of environmental print, it has the potential to scaffold emergent literacy in young children. This randomised control study evaluated the effects of using environmental print compared to standard print (the same labels in manuscript form) in an 8-week intervention (30 min per week) to foster 3- to…

  8. For the Classroom: Print Shop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents an activity for students (ages 5-6 and 7-14) to identify external characteristics of marine life and plants through printing (using homemade stamp pads). Includes procedures and list of materials, and printing ideas. (JN)

  9. Music Sequencing and Printing Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassner, Kirk

    2000-01-01

    States that sequencing and printing software eliminates the barriers to students composing music. Describes "Master Tracks Pro," a sequencing program, and "Rhapsody," a printing program. Includes a lesson plan for setting pentatonic music to a poem. (CMK)

  10. Serendipitous Stencil Prints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    Printing, stamping, and rubbings are enjoyed by all ages, and the image-making capabilities of this media are endless and very spontaneous. In printmaking, images can be repeated, overlapped, inked in various colors, cut up, reassembled, and manipulated. Students find these methods to be engaging and serendipitous. This lesson, designed for eighth…

  11. Bloomin' Color Celery Prints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Describes a second and third grade art activity in which students used celery cores to create pictures in the style of Georgia O'Keefe. Explains that the students learned about O'Keefe's artwork and describes how the students created their prints. (CMK)

  12. Print Advertisements in Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Azirah

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines print advertisements in Malaysia to determine how advertisers seek to achieve their primary goal of persuading or influencing an audience by the use of both language and visuals. It describes the main component moves and rhetorical strategies used by writers to articulate the communicative purpose of the genre and the language…

  13. Legibility of Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloodsworth, James Gaston

    Legibility refers to the physical appearance of printed materials: line lengths, type size, style of type face, space between lines and between letters, margins, and physical format are some of the factors that are involved. After the turn of the century, especially after 1925, research became fairly common in this area, but has been meager since…

  14. Just press print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ornes, Stephen

    2013-09-01

    Patients requiring an organ transplant may one day no longer have to wait for a matching donor. As Stephen Ornes explains, researchers are making progress towards creating human organs with techniques such as 3D printing, using the patient's own cells for ink.

  15. "Printed-circuit" rectenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1977-01-01

    Rectifying antenna is less bulky structure for absorbing transmitted microwave power and converting it into electrical current. Printed-circuit approach, using microstrip technology and circularly polarized antenna, makes polarization orientation unimportant and allows much smaller arrays for given performance. Innovation is particularly useful with proposed electric vehicles powered by beam microwaves.

  16. Tin Can Textile Printing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Patricia; Sanford, Barbara

    1979-01-01

    Describes the process of "canning"--applying textile pigment or dye to cloth by moving a pigment-filled can across the fabric to create a linear design. This printing process is described as low-cost, easy, and suitable for all age and artistic levels. (Author/SJL)

  17. Printing and the Online Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Bennett J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses issues involved in offering printing for online library catalogs and weighs advantages and disadvantages of screen printing versus remote printing--speed, quality, privacy, convenience, noise, control, costs, accessibility and service. Additional technical issues discussed are buffered versus unbuffered asynchronous printer ports,…

  18. A laser printing based approach for printed electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T.; Hu, M.; Liu, Y.; Guo, Q.; Wang, X.; Zhang, W.; Lau, W.; Yang, J.

    2016-03-01

    Here we report a study of printing of electronics using an office use laser printer. The proposed method eliminates those critical disadvantages of solvent-based printing techniques by taking the advantages of electroless deposition and laser printing. The synthesized toner acts as a catalyst for the electroless copper deposition as well as an adhesion-promoting buffer layer between the substrate and deposited copper. The easy metallization of printed patterns and strong metal-substrate adhesion make it an especially effective method for massive production of flexible printed circuits. The proposed process is a high throughput, low cost, efficient, and environmentally benign method for flexible electronics manufacturing.

  19. Supramolecular approach to new inkjet printing inks.

    PubMed

    Hart, Lewis R; Harries, Josephine L; Greenland, Barnaby W; Colquhoun, Howard M; Hayes, Wayne

    2015-04-29

    Electronically complementary, low molecular weight polymers that self-assemble through tunable π-π stacking interactions to form extended supramolecular polymer networks have been developed for inkjet printing applications and successfully deposited using three different printing techniques. Sequential overprinting of the complementary components results in supramolecular network formation through complexation of π-electron rich pyrenyl or perylenyl chain-ends in one component with π-electron deficient naphthalene diimide residues in a chain-folding polyimide. The complementary π-π stacked polymer blends generate strongly colored materials as a result of charge-transfer absorption bands in the visible spectrum, potentially negating the need for pigments or dyes in the ink formulation. Indeed, the final color of the deposited material can be tailored by varying the end-groups of the π-electron rich polymer component. Piezoelectric printing techniques were employed in a proof of concept study to allow characterization of the materials deposited, and a thermal inkjet printer adapted with imaging software enabled in situ analysis of the ink drops as they formed and of their physical properties. Finally, continuous inkjet printing allowed greater volumes of material to be deposited, on a variety of different substrate surfaces, and demonstrated the utility and versatility of this novel type of ink for industrial applications. PMID:25839743

  20. Color-managed 3D printing with highly translucent printing materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikan, Can Ates; Brunton, Alan; Tanksale, Tejas Madan; Urban, Philipp

    2015-03-01

    Many 3D printing applications require the reproduction of an object's color in addition to its shape. One 3D printing technology, called multi-jetting (or poly-jetting), allows full color 3D reproductions by arranging multiple colored materials (UV curing photo-polymers) on a droplet level in a single object. One property of such printing materials is their high translucency posing new challenges for characterizing such 3D printers to create ICC profiles. In this paper, we will first describe the whole color-managed 3D printing workflow and will then focus on measuring the colors of highly translucent printing materials. We will show that measurements made by spectrophotometers used in the graphic arts industry are systematically biased towards lower reflection. We will then propose a trichromatic camera-based approach for measuring such colors. Error rates obtained in comparison with spectroradiometric measurements for the same viewing conditions are within the interinstrument-variability of hand-held spectrophotometers used in graphic arts.

  1. 48 CFR 952.208-70 - Printing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., acquisition, and dissemination of printed matter. Such printing must be obtained from the Government Printing Office (GPO), a contract source designated by GPO or a Joint Committee on Printing authorized federal... subcontract for, any printing (as that term is defined in Title I of the U.S. Government Printing and...

  2. 48 CFR 952.208-70 - Printing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., acquisition, and dissemination of printed matter. Such printing must be obtained from the Government Printing Office (GPO), a contract source designated by GPO or a Joint Committee on Printing authorized federal... subcontract for, any printing (as that term is defined in Title I of the U.S. Government Printing and...

  3. 48 CFR 952.208-70 - Printing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., acquisition, and dissemination of printed matter. Such printing must be obtained from the Government Printing Office (GPO), a contract source designated by GPO or a Joint Committee on Printing authorized federal... subcontract for, any printing (as that term is defined in Title I of the U.S. Government Printing and...

  4. 48 CFR 952.208-70 - Printing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., acquisition, and dissemination of printed matter. Such printing must be obtained from the Government Printing Office (GPO), a contract source designated by GPO or a Joint Committee on Printing authorized federal... subcontract for, any printing (as that term is defined in Title I of the U.S. Government Printing and...

  5. Biomimetic 4D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sydney Gladman, A.; Matsumoto, Elisabetta A.; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Mahadevan, L.; Lewis, Jennifer A.

    2016-04-01

    Shape-morphing systems can be found in many areas, including smart textiles, autonomous robotics, biomedical devices, drug delivery and tissue engineering. The natural analogues of such systems are exemplified by nastic plant motions, where a variety of organs such as tendrils, bracts, leaves and flowers respond to environmental stimuli (such as humidity, light or touch) by varying internal turgor, which leads to dynamic conformations governed by the tissue composition and microstructural anisotropy of cell walls. Inspired by these botanical systems, we printed composite hydrogel architectures that are encoded with localized, anisotropic swelling behaviour controlled by the alignment of cellulose fibrils along prescribed four-dimensional printing pathways. When combined with a minimal theoretical framework that allows us to solve the inverse problem of designing the alignment patterns for prescribed target shapes, we can programmably fabricate plant-inspired architectures that change shape on immersion in water, yielding complex three-dimensional morphologies.

  6. Biomimetic 4D printing.

    PubMed

    Gladman, A Sydney; Matsumoto, Elisabetta A; Nuzzo, Ralph G; Mahadevan, L; Lewis, Jennifer A

    2016-04-01

    Shape-morphing systems can be found in many areas, including smart textiles, autonomous robotics, biomedical devices, drug delivery and tissue engineering. The natural analogues of such systems are exemplified by nastic plant motions, where a variety of organs such as tendrils, bracts, leaves and flowers respond to environmental stimuli (such as humidity, light or touch) by varying internal turgor, which leads to dynamic conformations governed by the tissue composition and microstructural anisotropy of cell walls. Inspired by these botanical systems, we printed composite hydrogel architectures that are encoded with localized, anisotropic swelling behaviour controlled by the alignment of cellulose fibrils along prescribed four-dimensional printing pathways. When combined with a minimal theoretical framework that allows us to solve the inverse problem of designing the alignment patterns for prescribed target shapes, we can programmably fabricate plant-inspired architectures that change shape on immersion in water, yielding complex three-dimensional morphologies. PMID:26808461

  7. Electrohydrodynamic Printing and Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Saville, Dudley A. (Inventor); Poon, Hak Fei (Inventor); Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-hua (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An stable electrohydrodynamic filament is obtained by causing a straight electrohydrodynamic filament formed from a liquid to emerge from a Taylor cone, the filament having a diameter of from 10 nm to 100.mu.m. Such filaments are useful in electrohydrodynamic printing and manufacturing techniques and their application in liquid drop/particle and fiber production, colloidal deployment and assembly, and composite materials processing.

  8. [Aqueous Fingerprint of Printing and Dyeing Wastewater].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-feng; Wu, Jing; Cheng, Cheng; Yang, Lin; Zhao, Yu-fei; Lü, Qing; Fu, Xin-mei

    2015-12-01

    Aqueous fingerprint has an advantage to represent the organic components of water samples as compared to traditional parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC). Printing and dyeing wastewater is one of the major types of industrial wastewater in China. It is of huge volume and heavy pollution, containing large numbers of luminescent components and being difficult to be degraded. In this study the aqueous fingerprint of printing and dyeing wastewater was investigated with the fluorescent spectrometry. The experimental results showed that there existed two peaks in the aqueous fingerprint of the printing and dyeing wastewater, locating at the excitation/emission wavelength around 230/340 nm and 280/310 nm respectively. The intensity of the excitation/emission wavelength at 230/340 nm was higher than that of 280/310 nm. The locations and intensities of peaks varied within small range. The intensities of the two peaks linearly correlated with coefficient of 0.910 8 and slope of 1.506. The intensity ratio of Peak at 280/310 nm to Peak at 230/340 nm averagely was 0.777, ranging between 0.712 and 0.829. It was found that the aqueous fingerprints of sewage and aniline compounds were significantly different from that of the printing and dyeing wastewater, but the aqueous fingerprints of several types of widely-used dye were similar to that of the printing and dyeing wastewater. Thus dye may be the main luminescent components in the wastewater. The aqueous fingerprint can be used as a novel tool of early warning of waterbodies. PMID:26964226

  9. Plasmonic colour laser printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Vannahme, Christoph; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Mortensen, N. Asger; Kristensen, Anders

    2016-04-01

    Colour generation by plasmonic nanostructures and metasurfaces has several advantages over dye technology: reduced pixel area, sub-wavelength resolution and the production of bright and non-fading colours. However, plasmonic colour patterns need to be pre-designed and printed either by e-beam lithography (EBL) or focused ion beam (FIB), both expensive and not scalable processes that are not suitable for post-processing customization. Here we show a method of colour printing on nanoimprinted plasmonic metasurfaces using laser post-writing. Laser pulses induce transient local heat generation that leads to melting and reshaping of the imprinted nanostructures. Depending on the laser pulse energy density, different surface morphologies that support different plasmonic resonances leading to different colour appearances can be created. Using this technique we can print all primary colours with a speed of 1 ns per pixel, resolution up to 127,000 dots per inch (DPI) and power consumption down to 0.3 nJ per pixel.

  10. [Nazi Terror against the Danish Medical Profession. The February 20, 1945 Murders in Odense].

    PubMed

    Jeune, Bernard; Hess, Søren; Skytthe, Axel; Stræde, Therkel

    2015-01-01

    On February 20, 1945, during the German occupation of Denmark, members of a notorious Nazi terror organization named the Petergroup murdered four young medical doctors at the city and regional hospital of Odense. On the 70th anniversary of the crime, a symposium was organized at the Odense University Hospital, and a monument revealed close to the site of the murders in commemoration of the four victims of the crime. The young physicians were not known to be connected with the Danish resistance, and they were shot without their murderers even knowing their identities in an attempt to revenge the growing resistance in Denmark's central, third largest city, and as a reprisal for several cases where the hospital had treated wounded resistance fighters, and prevented their being handed over to the German police. The article describes the terror action of February 20, 1945 and its perpetrators, as well as other Nazi attacks on members of the Danish medical profession. It lines out the strong protest voiced by the Danish central administration against the Odense hospital killings which were on the very same day seconded by further killings and a German campaign of blowing up important Odense buildings including two newspaper printing houses. Conclusively, the authors - by way of obituaries and material from relatives of the murdered - portray the four victims of the atrocity Christian Fabricius Møller, Jørgen Hvalkof, Henning Magnus Adelsteen Dalsgaard, and Henning Ørsberg. PMID:27086451

  11. Cell filling in gravure printing for printed electronics.

    PubMed

    Cen, Jialiang; Kitsomboonloha, Rungrot; Subramanian, Vivek

    2014-11-18

    Highly scaled direct gravure is a promising printing technique for printed electronics due to its large throughput, high resolution, and simplicity. Gravure can print features in the single micron range at printing speeds of ∼1 m/s by using an optimized cell geometry and optimized printing conditions. The filling of the cells on the gravure cylinder is a critical process, since the amount of ink in the cells strongly impacts printed feature size and quality. Therefore, an understanding of cell filling is crucial to make highly scaled gravure printed electronics viable. In this work we report a novel experimental setup to investigate the filling process in real time, coupled with numerical simulations to gain insight into the experimental observations. By varying viscosity and filling speed, we ensure that the dimensionless capillary number is a good indicator of filling regime in real gravure printing. In addition, we also examine the effect of cell size on filling as this is important for increasing printing resolution. In the light of experimental and simulation results, we are able to rationalize the dominant failure in the filling process, i.e., air entrapment, which is caused by contact line pinning and interface deformation over the cell opening. PMID:25343219

  12. Recent trends in print portals and Web2Print applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuijn, Chris

    2009-01-01

    For quite some time now, the printing business has been under heavy pressure because of overcapacity, dropping prices and the delocalization of the production to low income countries. To survive in this competitive world, printers have to invest in tools that, on one hand, reduce the production costs and, on the other hand, create additional value for their customers (print buyers). The creation of customer portals on top of prepress production systems allowing print buyers to upload their content, approve the uploaded pages based on soft proofs (rendered by the underlying production system) and further follow-up the generation of the printed material, has been illustrative in this respect. These developments resulted in both automation for the printer and added value for the print buyer. Many traditional customer portals assume that the printed products have been identified before they are presented to the print buyer in the portal environment. The products are, in this case, typically entered by the printing organization in a so-called MISi system after the official purchase order has been received from the print buyer. Afterwards, the MIS system then submits the product to the customer portal. Some portals, however, also support the initiation of printed products by the print buyer directly. This workflow creates additional flexibility but also makes things much more complex. We here have to distinguish between special products that are defined ad-hoc by the print buyer and standardized products that are typically selected out of catalogs. Special products are most of the time defined once and the level of detail required in terms of production parameters is quite high. Systems that support such products typically have a built-in estimation module, or, at least, a direct connection to an MIS system that calculates the prices and adds a specific mark-up to calculate a quote. Often, the markup is added by an account manager on a customer by customer basis; in this

  13. Printing & Publishing from the Classroom to Careers. An Activity Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulen, Robert

    This activity guide was developed in Oregon using the theme of the 150th anniversary of the Oregon Trail to help teachers conduct classroom activities that make use of the skills involved in printing and publishing. It was written by a classroom teacher and designed and published by the printing industry. The guide has the following six purposes:…

  14. 3D/Additive Printing Manufacturing: A Brief History and Purchasing Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Bill; Wilson, Greg

    2016-01-01

    3D printing is recognized as a collection of technologies known as rapid prototyping, solid freeform fabrication, and most commonly, additive manufacturing (AM). With these emerging technologies it is possible to print (but not limited to): architectural models, discontinued car-part foundry patterns, industry-wide prototypes, human tissues, the…

  15. Multilaser print head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Douglas S.; Roblee, Jeffrey W.; Plummer, William T.; Clark, Peter P.

    1998-12-01

    This paper discusses the optical and opto-mechanical design of a new laser head developed at Polaroid for printing Helios binary film for printing high quality medical hard copy images. The head is part of an external drum printer for 14' X 17' film. The pixel size is 84 X 84 micrometer, produced by four lasers, with the smallest printable spot 3 X 6 micrometer, to produce 4096 gray levels. Two pixels side-by-side are simultaneously printed. The head has eight independent 840 nm diode lasers manufactured by Polaroid. Each laser emits up to 1.1 W over an emission length of about 100 micrometer, with a particularly uniform nearfield irradiance. The lasers are microlensed to equalize the divergences in the two principal meridians. Each packaged laser is aligned in a field-replaceable illuminator whose output beam, focused at infinity, is bore-sighted in a mechanical cylinder. The illuminators are arranged roughly radially. Eight lenses image the laser nearfields on a multi-facet mirror produced by diamond machining. The mirror facets truncate the beams to give the desired pixel shapes and separations. A reducing afocal relay images the mirror onto the film. The final element is a molded aspheric lens, mounted in an actuator to maintain focus on the film. The focusing unit also comprises a triangulation-based focus sensor. The alignment procedures and fixtures were devised concurrently with the head for manufacturing simplicity. The main physical structure is a casting, into which reference surfaces are machined. All optical subassemblies are attached to this casting, with a mixture of optical alignment and self-location. Semi-kinematic cylinder-in-V methodology is utilized. The active alignment steps are done in a sequence that tends to reduce errors from previous steps.

  16. Versioning of printed products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuijn, Chris

    2004-12-01

    During the definition of a printed product in an MIS system, a lot of attention is paid to the production process. The MIS systems typically gather all process-related parameters at such a level of detail that they can determine what the exact cost will be to make a specific product. This information can then be used to make a quote for the customer. Considerably less attention is paid to the content of the products since this does not have an immediate impact on the production costs (assuming that the number of inks or plates is known in advance). The content management is typically carried out either by the prepress systems themselves or by dedicated workflow servers uniting all people that contribute to the manufacturing of a printed product. Special care must be taken when considering versioned products. With versioned products we here mean distinct products that have a number of pages or page layers in common. Typical examples are comic books that have to be printed in different languages. In this case, the color plates can be shared over the different versions and the black plate will be different. Other examples are nation-wide magazines or newspapers that have an area with regional pages or advertising leaflets in different languages or currencies. When considering versioned products, the content will become an important cost factor. First of all, the content management (and associated proofing and approval cycles) becomes much more complex and, therefore, the risk that mistakes will be made increases considerably. Secondly, the real production costs are very much content-dependent because the content will determine whether plates can be shared across different versions or not and how many press runs will be needed. In this paper, we will present a way to manage different versions of a printed product. First, we will introduce a data model for version management. Next, we will show how the content of the different versions can be supplied by the customer

  17. Versioning of printed products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuijn, Chris

    2005-01-01

    During the definition of a printed product in an MIS system, a lot of attention is paid to the production process. The MIS systems typically gather all process-related parameters at such a level of detail that they can determine what the exact cost will be to make a specific product. This information can then be used to make a quote for the customer. Considerably less attention is paid to the content of the products since this does not have an immediate impact on the production costs (assuming that the number of inks or plates is known in advance). The content management is typically carried out either by the prepress systems themselves or by dedicated workflow servers uniting all people that contribute to the manufacturing of a printed product. Special care must be taken when considering versioned products. With versioned products we here mean distinct products that have a number of pages or page layers in common. Typical examples are comic books that have to be printed in different languages. In this case, the color plates can be shared over the different versions and the black plate will be different. Other examples are nation-wide magazines or newspapers that have an area with regional pages or advertising leaflets in different languages or currencies. When considering versioned products, the content will become an important cost factor. First of all, the content management (and associated proofing and approval cycles) becomes much more complex and, therefore, the risk that mistakes will be made increases considerably. Secondly, the real production costs are very much content-dependent because the content will determine whether plates can be shared across different versions or not and how many press runs will be needed. In this paper, we will present a way to manage different versions of a printed product. First, we will introduce a data model for version management. Next, we will show how the content of the different versions can be supplied by the customer

  18. Mogens Jansen: An Interview with a Danish Reading Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engberg, Eva

    1985-01-01

    The president of the Danish Association of Reading Teachers discusses the positive effects of international cooperation on reading education, the influence of society's demands on curriculum, and the instinctive features and benefits of Danish Reading instruction. (FL)

  19. The Danish Collaborative Bacteraemia Network (DACOBAN) database

    PubMed Central

    Gradel, Kim Oren; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Arpi, Magnus; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Østergaard, Christian; Søgaard, Mette

    2014-01-01

    The Danish Collaborative Bacteraemia Network (DACOBAN) research database includes microbiological data obtained from positive blood cultures from a geographically and demographically well-defined population serviced by three clinical microbiology departments (1.7 million residents, 32% of the Danish population). The database also includes data on comorbidity from the Danish National Patient Registry, vital status from the Danish Civil Registration System, and clinical data on 31% of nonselected records in the database. Use of the unique civil registration number given to all Danish residents enables linkage to additional registries for specific research projects. The DACOBAN database is continuously updated, and it currently comprises 39,292 patients with 49,951 bacteremic episodes from 2000 through 2011. The database is part of an international network of population-based bacteremia registries from five developed countries on three continents. The main purpose of the DACOBAN database is to study surveillance, risk, and prognosis. Sex- and age-specific data on background populations enables the computation of incidence rates. In addition, the high number of patients facilitates studies of rare microorganisms. Thus far, studies on Staphylococcus aureus, enterococci, computer algorithms for the classification of bacteremic episodes, and prognosis and risk in relation to socioeconomic factors have been published. PMID:25258557

  20. Block-Cell-Printing for live single-cell printing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kai; Chou, Chao-Kai; Xia, Xiaofeng; Hung, Mien-Chie; Qin, Lidong

    2014-01-01

    A unique live-cell printing technique, termed “Block-Cell-Printing” (BloC-Printing), allows for convenient, precise, multiplexed, and high-throughput printing of functional single-cell arrays. Adapted from woodblock printing techniques, the approach employs microfluidic arrays of hook-shaped traps to hold cells at designated positions and directly transfer the anchored cells onto various substrates. BloC-Printing has a minimum turnaround time of 0.5 h, a maximum resolution of 5 µm, close to 100% cell viability, the ability to handle multiple cell types, and efficiently construct protrusion-connected single-cell arrays. The approach enables the large-scale formation of heterotypic cell pairs with controlled morphology and allows for material transport through gap junction intercellular communication. When six types of breast cancer cells are allowed to extend membrane protrusions in the BloC-Printing device for 3 h, multiple biophysical characteristics of cells—including the protrusion percentage, extension rate, and cell length—are easily quantified and found to correlate well with their migration levels. In light of this discovery, BloC-Printing may serve as a rapid and high-throughput cell protrusion characterization tool to measure the invasion and migration capability of cancer cells. Furthermore, primary neurons are also compatible with BloC-Printing. PMID:24516129

  1. Instrumental color control in textile printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connelly, Roland L., Sr.

    1996-03-01

    In textile printing there are several color outputs that need to be controlled. Just as important is the color coordination of these outputs. The types of color output are the video display on the textile design system (CATD for Computer Aided Textile Design), the color scanner, the color pattern printer, and the actual pattern printed on the textile substrate. Each of these systems has its own gamut(s) that is partially overlapping of the others and will require mapping and/or truncation to adequately represent the colors of the final print in the other systems. One of the goals of instrumentation systems is to control these devices so that the message of the pattern is the same on all four media. To accomplish this is a significant task that has yet to be completed to meet the rigorous requirements of the textile and apparel industries. Several of the major problems and directions for solving them will be discussed in this paper. These include getting good instrumental measurements, translation of data between systems, and specific problems related to the hard copy output.

  2. 32. Photocopy of a photograph (original print in the collection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Photocopy of a photograph (original print in the collection of the New Hampshire Water Resources Board, Concord, New Hampshire 2 1/4 X 4 1/4 inch negative - Claremont Village Industrial District, Between B, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  3. 31. Photocopy of a photograph (original print in the collection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Photocopy of a photograph (original print in the collection of the New Hampshire Water Resources Board, Concord, New Hampshire) 1934, photographer unknown 3 1/4 X 4 5/8 inch negative EAST END OF THE TIMBER CRIB DAM AT THE GRIST MILL (right) AND THE SAW MILL (center). - Claremont Village Industrial District, Between B, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  4. Printing/Graphic Arts Technology. Technical Committee Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This Technical Committee Report prepared by industry representatives in Idaho lists the skills currently necessary for an employee in that state to obtain a job in printing and graphic arts technology, retain a job once hired, and advance in that occupational field. (Task lists are grouped according to duty areas generally used in industry…

  5. 25. Photocopy of a photograph (original print in the collection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photocopy of a photograph (original print in the collection of the New Hampshire Water Resources Board, Concord, New Hampshire) 1927, photographer unknown 2 3/8 X 4 inch negative VIEW OF THE NORTH END OF THE OLD TIMBER DAM AT DAM SITE No. 3 - Claremont Village Industrial District, Between B, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  6. 22. Photocopy of a photograph (original print in the collection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of a photograph (original print in the collection of the New Hampshire Water Resources Board, Concord, New Hampshire) 1927, photographer unknown 2 3/8 X 4 inch negative BUILDING OF DAM NO. 3, LOOKING SOUTH - Claremont Village Industrial District, Between B, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  7. 26. Photocopy of a photograph (original print in the collection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopy of a photograph (original print in the collection of the New Hampshire Water Resources Board, Concord, New Hampshire) 1927, photographer unknown 2 3/8 X 4 inch negative GENERAL VIEW OF THE POND OF DAM No.4. THE OLD TIMBER CRIB DAM No. 3 IS VISIBLE IN THE BACKGROUND - Claremont Village Industrial District, Between B, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  8. 19. Photocopy of a photograph (original print in the collection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photocopy of a photograph (original print in the collection of the New Hampshire Water Resources Board, Concord, New Hampshire) 1927, photographer unknown 2 3/8 X 4 inch negative BUILDING OF DAM No. 3, FROM THE NORTH - Claremont Village Industrial District, Between B, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  9. 24. Photocopy of a photograph (original print in the collection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photocopy of a photograph (original print in the collection of the New Hampshire Water Resources Board, Concord, New Hampshire) 1927, photographer unknown 2 3/8 X 4 inch negative VIEW OF THE OLD TIMBER CRIB DAM, LOOKING EAST FROM THE NORTH BANK - Claremont Village Industrial District, Between B, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  10. 20. Photocopy of a photograph (original print in the collection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photocopy of a photograph (original print in the collection of the New Hampshire Water Resources Board, Concord, New Hampshire) 1927, photographer unknown 2 3/8 X 4 inch negative BUILDING OF DAM No. 3, LOOKING SOUTH - Claremont Village Industrial District, Between B, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  11. 21. Photocopy of a photograph (original print in the collection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photocopy of a photograph (original print in the collection of the New Hampshire Water Resources Board, Concord, New Hampshire) 1927, photographer unknown 2 3/8 X 4 inch negative BUILDING OF DAM No. 3, LOOKING EAST FROM THE NORTH BANK, SHOWING THE WOODEN FORMWORK FOR THE CONCRETE DAM - Claremont Village Industrial District, Between B, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  12. The Danish Communicative Developmental Inventories: Validity and Main Developmental Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleses, Dorthe; Vach, Werner; Slott, Malene; Wehberg, Sonja; Thomsen, Pia; Madsen, Thomas O.; Basboll, Hans

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a large-scale cross-sectional study of Danish children's early language acquisition based on the Danish adaptation of the "MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories" (CDI). Measures of validity and reliability imply that the Danish adaptation of the American CDI has been adjusted linguistically and culturally in…

  13. Colour in flux: describing and printing colour in art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parraman, Carinna

    2008-01-01

    This presentation will describe artists, practitioners and scientists, who were interested in developing a deeper psychological, emotional and practical understanding of the human visual system who were working with wavelength, paint and other materials. From a selection of prints at The Prints and Drawings Department at Tate London, the presentation will refer to artists who were motivated by issues relating to how colour pigment was mixed and printed, to interrogate and explain colour perception and colour science, and in art, how artists have used colour to challenge the viewer and how a viewer might describe their experience of colour. The title Colour in Flux refers, not only to the perceptual effect of the juxtaposition of one colour pigment with another, but also to the changes and challenges for the print industry. In the light of screenprinted examples from the 60s and 70s, the presentation will discuss 21 st century ideas on colour and how these notions have informed the Centre for Fine Print Research's (CFPR) practical research in colour printing. The latter part of this presentation will discuss the implications for the need to change methods in mixing inks that moves away from existing colour spaces, from non intuitive colour mixing to bespoke ink sets, colour mixing approaches and colour mixing methods that are not reliant on RGB or CMYK.

  14. Inkjet printed multiwall carbon nanotube electrodes for dielectric elastomer actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baechler, Curdin; Gardin, Samuele; Abuhimd, Hatem; Kovacs, Gabor

    2016-05-01

    Dielectric elastomers (DE’s) offer promising applications as soft and light-weight electromechanical actuators. It is known that beside the dielectric material, the electrode properties are of particular importance regarding the DE performance. Therefore, in recent years various studies have focused on the optimization of the electrode in terms of conductivity, stretchability and reliability. However, less attention was given to efficient electrode processing and deposition methods. In the present study, digital inkjet printing was used to deposit highly conductive and stretchable electrodes on silicone. Inkjet printing is a versatile and cost effective deposition method, which allows depositing complex-shaped electrode patterns with high precision. The electrodes were printed using an ink based on industrial low-cost MWCNT. Experiments have shown that the strain-conductivity properties of the printed electrode are strongly depended on the deposition parameters like drop-spacing and substrate temperature. After the optimization of the printing parameters, thin film electrodes could be deposited showing conductivities of up to 30 S cm-1 without the need of any post-treatment. In addition, electromechanical tests with fabricated DE actuators have revealed that the inkjet printed MWCNT electrodes are capable to self-clear in case of a dielectric breakdown.

  15. Guide to Producing Print Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, CA.

    This is a simple how-to-do it manual intended to help projects that wish to produce print materials. It highlights the stages involved in producing print materials, giving an overview of the steps required and offering hints on different approaches to the various processes. The manual begins with the comprehensive layout (dummy) stage and proceeds…

  16. Effect of doctoring on the performance of direct gravure printing for conductive microfine lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuong Hoang, Huu; Lim Ko, Sung

    2015-11-01

    Printed electronics on flexible thin film has challenged and inspired the motivation of scientists in many fields. Among traditional printing methods such as stamping, flexography, offset, screen-printing, and inkjet, the gravure method is expected to reduce costs and increase productivity for printed electronics applications. In this research, conductive microfine line patterns, which print out the layer as microelectrodes for organic thin film transistor (OTFT) or microcircuit lines, have been designed with different size widths and lengths according to the printing direction, MD (machine direction), and CMD (cross machine direction, or transverse direction, TD, which is popularly used in industry). These patterns were printed with nano-particle silver ink on PI thin film, but had some serious problems with discontinuity and less filling after doctoring and printing. To solve these problems, the doctoring effect is investigated and analyzed before ink transferring, mainly in the printing machine direction and CMD. The uniformity and accuracy of the microfine lines are controlled and improved in order to achieve the stability of the printed pattern lines. In this work, considering the effect of the deflection of the doctor blade in the CMD (transverse direction), a doctoring model in the CMD is proposed and compared with the experimental result. Experimentally, proper doctoring conditions like blade stiffness and doctoring pressure are sought.

  17. Printed Module Interconnects

    SciTech Connect

    Stockert, Talysa R.; Fields, Jeremy D.; Pach, Gregory F.; Mauger, Scott A.; van Hest, Maikel F. A. M.

    2015-06-14

    Monolithic interconnects in photovoltaic modules connect adjacent cells in series, and are typically formed sequentially involving multiple deposition and scribing steps. Interconnect widths of 500 um every 10 mm result in 5% dead area, which does not contribute to power generation in an interconnected solar panel. This work expands on previous work that introduced an alternative interconnection method capable of producing interconnect widths less than 100 um. The interconnect is added to the module in a single step after deposition of the photovoltaic stack, eliminating the need for scribe alignment. This alternative method can be used for all types of thin film photovoltaic modules. Voltage addition with copper-indium-gallium-diselenide (CIGS) solar cells using a 2-scribe printed interconnect approach is demonstrated. Additionally, interconnect widths of 250 um are shown.

  18. Advances in digital printing and quality considerations of digitally printed images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waes, Walter C.

    1997-02-01

    The traditional 'graphic arts' market has changed very rapidly. It has been only ten years now since Aldus introduced its 'PageMaker' software for text and layout. The platform used was Apple-Mac, which became also the standard for many other graphic applications. The so-called high-end workstations disappeared. This was the start for what later was called: the desk top publishing revolution. At the same time, image scanning became also user-friendly and heavy duty scanners were reduced to desktop-size. Color- reproduction became a commodity product. Since then, the pre-press industry has been going through a technical nightmare, trying to keep up with the digital explosion. One after another, tasks and crafts of pre-press were being transformed by digital technologies. New technologies in this field came almost too fast for many people to adapt. The next digital revolution will be for the commercial printers. All the reasons are explained later in this document. There is now a definite need for a different business-strategy and a new positioning in the electronic media-world. Niches have to be located for new graphic arts- applications. Electronic services to-and-from originators' and executors environments became a requirement. Data can now flow on-line between the printer and the originator of the job. It is no longer the pre-press shop who is controlling this. In many cases, electronic data goes between the print-buyer or agency and the printer. High power communication-systems with accepted standard color- management are transforming the printer, and more particularly, the pre-press shop fatally. The new digital printing market, now in the beginning of its expected full expansion, has to do with growing requests coming from agencies and other print-buyers for: (1) short-run printing; (2) print-on-demand approximately in-time; (3) personalization or other forms of customization; (4) quick turnaround.

  19. The Danish Free School Tradition under Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    2015-01-01

    The Danish free school tradition has entailed a large degree of associational freedom for non-governmental schools, religious as well as non-religious. Until the late 1990s, the non-governmental schools were under no strict ideological or pedagogical limitations; they could recruit teachers and students according to their own value base, and were…

  20. Trend Analyses of Nitrate in Danish Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, B.; Thorling, L.; Dalgaard, T.; Erlandsen, M.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) age determination allows linking of the first two dataset. The development in the nitrate concentration of oxic groundwater clearly mirrors the development in the national agricultural N surplus, and a corresponding trend reversal is found in groundwater. Regulation and technical improvements in the intensive farming in Denmark have succeeded in decreasing the N surplus by 40% since the mid 1980s while at the same time maintaining crop yields and increasing the animal production of especially pigs. Trend analyses prove that the youngest (0-15 years old) oxic groundwater shows more pronounced significant downward nitrate trends (44%) than the oldest (25-50 years old) oxic groundwater (9%). This amounts to clear evidence of the effect of reduced nitrate leaching on groundwater nitrate concentrations in Denmark. Are the Danish groundwater monitoring strategy obtimal for detection of nitrate trends? Will the nitrate concentrations in Danish groundwater continue to decrease or are the Danish nitrate concentration levels now appropriate according to the Water Framework Directive?

  1. Escherichia vulneris in a Danish soccer wound.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, C F; Klebe, T M; Prag, J

    1997-01-01

    Escherichia vulneris was isolated from an infected soccer wound, a finding which has not apparently been described in Europe before, but by questioning Danish clinical microbiological laboratories a further 12 cases were discovered. Treatment with simple debridement and cefuroxime quickly eradicated the bacteria in our case. PMID:9255899

  2. Evaluating University Continuing Education: A Danish Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thune, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The Danish Evaluation Institute is conducting systematic assessments of three master's programs in public administration, public policy, and public management. They have found that explicit criteria have advantages and disadvantages. Development of criteria attempts to meet the following demands: uniformity, relevance of level, scope, precision,…

  3. Care and Education in the Danish Creche

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brostrom, Stig; Hansen, Ole Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to identify the relation between policy and lived life, for the small child in the Danish creche. To accomplish this, the article integrates demography, traditions, national curriculum and psychological, educational, and recent developments in research. It is an attempt to reveal knowledge and consequences, by conducting the…

  4. Conductive nanomaterials for printed electronics.

    PubMed

    Kamyshny, Alexander; Magdassi, Shlomo

    2014-09-10

    This is a review on recent developments in the field of conductive nanomaterials and their application in printed electronics, with particular emphasis on inkjet printing of ink formulations based on metal nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and graphene sheets. The review describes the basic properties of conductive nanomaterials suitable for printed electronics (metal nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and graphene), their stabilization in dispersions, formulations of conductive inks, and obtaining conductive patterns by using various sintering methods. Applications of conductive nanomaterials for electronic devices (transparent electrodes, metallization of solar cells, RFID antennas, TFTs, and light emitting devices) are also briefly reviewed. PMID:25340186

  5. Inkjet-printed graphene electronics.

    PubMed

    Torrisi, Felice; Hasan, Tawfique; Wu, Weiping; Sun, Zhipei; Lombardo, Antonio; Kulmala, Tero S; Hsieh, Gen-Wen; Jung, Sungjune; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Paul, Philip J; Chu, Daping; Ferrari, Andrea C

    2012-04-24

    We demonstrate inkjet printing as a viable method for large-area fabrication of graphene devices. We produce a graphene-based ink by liquid phase exfoliation of graphite in N-methylpyrrolidone. We use it to print thin-film transistors, with mobilities up to ∼95 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), as well as transparent and conductive patterns, with ∼80% transmittance and ∼30 kΩ/□ sheet resistance. This paves the way to all-printed, flexible, and transparent graphene devices on arbitrary substrates. PMID:22449258

  6. Requirements for printed wiring boards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In order to maintain the high standards of the NASA printed wiring programs, this publication: prescribes NASA's requirements for assuring reliable rigid printed wiring boards; describes and incorporates basic considerations necessary to assure reliable rigid printed wiring boards; establishes the supplier's responsibility to train and certify personnel; provides for supplier documentation of the fabrication and inspection procedures to be used for NASA work, including supplier innovations and changes in technology; and provides visual workmanship standards to aid those responsible for determining quality conformance to the established requirements.

  7. The air quality in Danish urban areas.

    PubMed

    Jensen, F P; Fenger, J

    1994-10-01

    The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. Thus, in Copenhagen, the yearly averages have fallen to about 25%. For nitrogen oxides emitted from the power plants, similar regulations are in force. With this legislation, the most important and crucial source of air pollution in Danish urban areas is road traffic. The contribution of nitrogen oxides from national traffic accounts for nearly half the total Danish emission and is increasing steadily; this is consistent with an observed increase of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. The permissible levels of lead in petrol has been reduced drastically. After an introduction of reduced tax on lead-free petrol, it now accounts for more than two-thirds of the total consumption. As a result, the concentration of lead in urban ambient air has been reduced to less than one-sixth. The introduction of 3-way catalytic converters from October 1990 will result in reductions in the emission of a series of pollutants, e.g., lead, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. In 1980, a Danish air quality monitoring program was established as a cooperative effort between the authorities, the Government, the countries, the municipalities, and the Greater Copenhagen Council.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7821296

  8. Airflow assisted printhead for high-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing onto non-conductive and tilted surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tse, Leo; Barton, Kira

    2015-08-01

    Electrohydrodynamic jet printing (e-jet printing) is a growing high resolution (<20 μm) printing technology. It is cost effective for small scale and highly customized feature production and it is compatible with a large range of materials. Conventional e-jet is generally restricted to surfaces with high flatness, therefore limiting the application of e-jet in research and industry. This paper will present an airflow assisted e-jet printhead that incorporates the use of airflow within the printhead to direct electrohydrodynamically generated ink droplets onto non-conductive and tilted surfaces. The printhead runs in open loop yet achieves consistent printing performance across large changes in standoff height (800 μm) between the printhead and printing surface. The printhead is able to print <20 μm droplets, which surpasses traditional inkjet technology. In conclusion, this printhead design has the potential to enable e-jet printing to be applied in unprecedented application areas.

  9. Fully printed metabolite sensor using organic electrochemical transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheiblin, Gaëtan; Aliane, Abdelkader; Coppard, Romain; Owens, Róisín. M.; Mailley, Pascal; Malliaras, George G.

    2015-08-01

    As conducting polymer based devices, organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are suited for printing process. The convenience of the screen-printing techniques allowed us to design and fabricate OECTs with a selected design and using different gate material. Depending on the material used, we were able to tune the transistor for different biological application. Ag/AgCl gate provided transistor with good transconductance, and electrochemical sensitivity to pH was provided by polyaniline ink. Finally, we validate the enzymatic sensing of glucose and lactate with a Poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) gate often used due to its biocompatible properties. The screen-printing process allowed us to fabricate a large amount of devices in a short period of time, using only commercially available grades of ink, showing by this way the possible transfer to industrial purpose.

  10. Color image reproduction: the evolution from print to multimedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Lindsay W.

    1997-02-01

    The electronic pre-press industry has undergone a very rapid evolution over the past decade, driven by the accelerating performance of desktop computers and affordable application software for image manipulation, page layout and color separation. These have been supported by the steady development of colo scanners, digital cameras, proof printers, RIPs and image setters, all of which make the process of reproducing color images in print easier than ever before. But is color print itself in decline as a medium? New channels of delivery for digital color images include CD-ROM, wideband networks and the Internet, with soft-copy screen display competing with hard-copy print for applications ranging from corporate brochures to home shopping. Present indications are that the most enduring of the graphic arts skills in the new multimedia world will be image rendering and production control rather than those related to photographic film and ink on paper.

  11. Multicolor lasing prints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ta, Van Duong; Yang, Shancheng; Wang, Yue; Gao, Yuan; He, Tingchao; Chen, Rui; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Sun, Handong

    2015-11-01

    This work demonstrates mass production of printable multi-color lasing microarrays based on uniform hemispherical microcavities on a distributed Bragg reflector using inkjet technique. By embedding two different organic dyes into these prints, optically pumped whispering gallery mode microlasers with lasing wavelengths in green and red spectral ranges are realized. The spectral linewidth of the lasing modes is found as narrow as 0.11 nm. Interestingly, dual-color lasing emission in the ranges of 515-535 nm and 585-605 nm is simultaneously achieved by using two different dyes with certain ratios. Spectroscopic measurements elucidate the energy transfer process from the green dye (donor) to the red one (acceptor) with an energy transfer efficiency up to 80% in which the nonradiative Förster resonance energy transfer dominates. As such, the acceptor lasing in the presence of donor exhibits a significantly lower (˜2.5-fold) threshold compared with that of the pure acceptor lasing with the same concentration.

  12. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  13. 3D printing in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dawood, A; Marti Marti, B; Sauret-Jackson, V; Darwood, A

    2015-12-01

    3D printing has been hailed as a disruptive technology which will change manufacturing. Used in aerospace, defence, art and design, 3D printing is becoming a subject of great interest in surgery. The technology has a particular resonance with dentistry, and with advances in 3D imaging and modelling technologies such as cone beam computed tomography and intraoral scanning, and with the relatively long history of the use of CAD CAM technologies in dentistry, it will become of increasing importance. Uses of 3D printing include the production of drill guides for dental implants, the production of physical models for prosthodontics, orthodontics and surgery, the manufacture of dental, craniomaxillofacial and orthopaedic implants, and the fabrication of copings and frameworks for implant and dental restorations. This paper reviews the types of 3D printing technologies available and their various applications in dentistry and in maxillofacial surgery. PMID:26657435

  14. Environmental Print: Real-World Early Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    What is environmental print? It is symbols all around. Environmental print is on signs, billboards, packages, junk mail, and everywhere. Young children easily recognize environmental print in their surroundings. Their everyday experiences with print are an important classroom tool to help children connect what they already know about written…

  15. Detection of latent prints by Raman imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Linda Anne; Connatser, Raynella Magdalene; Lewis, Sr., Samuel Arthur

    2011-01-11

    The present invention relates to a method for detecting a print on a surface, the method comprising: (a) contacting the print with a Raman surface-enhancing agent to produce a Raman-enhanced print; and (b) detecting the Raman-enhanced print using a Raman spectroscopic method. The invention is particularly directed to the imaging of latent fingerprints.

  16. Silver Ink For Jet Printing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, R. W.; Singaram, Saraswathi

    1989-01-01

    Metallo-organic ink containing silver (with some bismuth as adhesion agent) applied to printed-circuit boards and pyrolized in air to form electrically conductive patterns. Ink contains no particles of silver, does not have to be mixed during use to maintain homogeneity, and applied to boards by ink-jet printing heads. Consists of silver neodecanoate and bismuth 2-ethylhexanoate dissolved in xylene and/or toluene.

  17. Inkjet printing of aqueous rivulets: Formation, deposition, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromberg, Vadim

    The past two decades have seen an explosion of research and development into nanotechnology, ranging from synthesis of novel materials that exhibit unique behavior to the assembly of fully functional devices that hold the potential to benefit all sectors of industry and society as a whole. One significant challenge for this emerging technology is the scaling of newly developed processes to the industrial level where manufacturing should be cheap, fast and with high throughput. One approach to this problem has been to develop processes of material deposition and device fabrication via solution-based additive manufacturing techniques such as printing. Specifically, it is envisioned that (in)organic functional nanomaterial that can be processed into solution form can be deposited in a precise manner (i.e., printed) onto sheets of flexible plastic/glass in a process similar to the printing of newspaper (formally, the process is dubbed Roll-to-Roll). This work is focused on experimentally studying and developing one type of solution-based material deposition technique---drop-on-demand ink-jet printing. This technique allows highly-repeatable deposition of small (pico-liter) droplets of functional ink in precise locations on a given target substrate. Although the technology has been in existence and in continuous use for many decades in the paper graphics industry, its application to nanotechnology-based fabrication processes on non-porous substrates presents many challenges stemming from the coupling of the wetting, material transport, evaporation and solid deposition phenomena that occur when printing patterns more complex than single droplets. The focus of this research has been to investigate these phenomena for the case of printed rivulets of water-based inks. A custom ink-jet apparatus has been assembled to allow direct optical observation of the flow and deposition that occur during printing. Experimental results show the importance of substrate surface energy and

  18. Emerging Applications of Bedside 3D Printing in Plastic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chae, Michael P; Rozen, Warren M; McMenamin, Paul G; Findlay, Michael W; Spychal, Robert T; Hunter-Smith, David J

    2015-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques are an essential component of preoperative planning in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, conventional modalities, including three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions, are limited by their representation on 2D workstations. 3D printing, also known as rapid prototyping or additive manufacturing, was once the province of industry to fabricate models from a computer-aided design (CAD) in a layer-by-layer manner. The early adopters in clinical practice have embraced the medical imaging-guided 3D-printed biomodels for their ability to provide tactile feedback and a superior appreciation of visuospatial relationship between anatomical structures. With increasing accessibility, investigators are able to convert standard imaging data into a CAD file using various 3D reconstruction softwares and ultimately fabricate 3D models using 3D printing techniques, such as stereolithography, multijet modeling, selective laser sintering, binder jet technique, and fused deposition modeling. However, many clinicians have questioned whether the cost-to-benefit ratio justifies its ongoing use. The cost and size of 3D printers have rapidly decreased over the past decade in parallel with the expiration of key 3D printing patents. Significant improvements in clinical imaging and user-friendly 3D software have permitted computer-aided 3D modeling of anatomical structures and implants without outsourcing in many cases. These developments offer immense potential for the application of 3D printing at the bedside for a variety of clinical applications. In this review, existing uses of 3D printing in plastic surgery practice spanning the spectrum from templates for facial transplantation surgery through to the formation of bespoke craniofacial implants to optimize post-operative esthetics are described. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of 3D printing to become an essential office-based tool in plastic surgery to assist in preoperative planning, developing

  19. Emerging Applications of Bedside 3D Printing in Plastic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Michael P.; Rozen, Warren M.; McMenamin, Paul G.; Findlay, Michael W.; Spychal, Robert T.; Hunter-Smith, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques are an essential component of preoperative planning in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, conventional modalities, including three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions, are limited by their representation on 2D workstations. 3D printing, also known as rapid prototyping or additive manufacturing, was once the province of industry to fabricate models from a computer-aided design (CAD) in a layer-by-layer manner. The early adopters in clinical practice have embraced the medical imaging-guided 3D-printed biomodels for their ability to provide tactile feedback and a superior appreciation of visuospatial relationship between anatomical structures. With increasing accessibility, investigators are able to convert standard imaging data into a CAD file using various 3D reconstruction softwares and ultimately fabricate 3D models using 3D printing techniques, such as stereolithography, multijet modeling, selective laser sintering, binder jet technique, and fused deposition modeling. However, many clinicians have questioned whether the cost-to-benefit ratio justifies its ongoing use. The cost and size of 3D printers have rapidly decreased over the past decade in parallel with the expiration of key 3D printing patents. Significant improvements in clinical imaging and user-friendly 3D software have permitted computer-aided 3D modeling of anatomical structures and implants without outsourcing in many cases. These developments offer immense potential for the application of 3D printing at the bedside for a variety of clinical applications. In this review, existing uses of 3D printing in plastic surgery practice spanning the spectrum from templates for facial transplantation surgery through to the formation of bespoke craniofacial implants to optimize post-operative esthetics are described. Furthermore, we discuss the potential of 3D printing to become an essential office-based tool in plastic surgery to assist in preoperative planning, developing

  20. 3D printing of versatile reactionware for chemical synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kitson, Philip J; Glatzel, Stefan; Chen, Wei; Lin, Chang-Gen; Song, Yu-Fei; Cronin, Leroy

    2016-05-01

    In recent decades, 3D printing (also known as additive manufacturing) techniques have moved beyond their traditional applications in the fields of industrial manufacturing and prototyping to increasingly find roles in scientific research contexts, such as synthetic chemistry. We present a general approach for the production of bespoke chemical reactors, termed reactionware, using two different approaches to extrusion-based 3D printing. This protocol describes the printing of an inert polypropylene (PP) architecture with the concurrent printing of soft material catalyst composites, using two different 3D printer setups. The steps of the PROCEDURE describe the design and preparation of a 3D digital model of the desired reactionware device and the preparation of this model for use with fused deposition modeling (FDM) type 3D printers. The protocol then further describes the preparation of composite catalyst-silicone materials for incorporation into the 3D-printed device and the steps required to fabricate a reactionware device. This combined approach allows versatility in the design and use of reactionware based on the specific needs of the experimental user. To illustrate this, we present a detailed procedure for the production of one such reactionware device that will result in the production of a sealed reactor capable of effecting a multistep organic synthesis. Depending on the design time of the 3D model, and including time for curing and drying of materials, this procedure can be completed in ∼3 d. PMID:27077333

  1. A 3D printed superconducting aluminium microwave cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creedon, Daniel L.; Goryachev, Maxim; Kostylev, Nikita; Sercombe, Timothy B.; Tobar, Michael E.

    2016-07-01

    3D printing of plastics, ceramics, and metals has existed for several decades and has revolutionized many areas of manufacturing and science. Printing of metals, in particular, has found a number of applications in fields as diverse as customized medical implants, jet engine bearings, and rapid prototyping in the automotive industry. Although many techniques are used for 3D printing metals, they commonly rely on computer controlled melting or sintering of a metal alloy powder using a laser or electron beam. The mechanical properties of parts produced in such a way have been well studied, but little attention has been paid to their electrical properties. Here we show that a microwave cavity (resonant frequencies 9.9 and 11.2 GHz) 3D printed using an Al-12Si alloy exhibits superconductivity when cooled below the critical temperature of aluminium (1.2 K), with a performance comparable with the common 6061 alloy of aluminium. Superconducting cavities find application in numerous areas of physics, from particle accelerators to cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments. The result is achieved even with a very large concentration of non-superconducting silicon in the alloy of 12.18%, compared with Al-6061, which has between 0.4% and 0.8%. Our results may pave the way for the possibility of 3D printing superconducting cavity configurations that are otherwise impossible to machine.

  2. Printing nanotube/nanowire for flexible microsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tortorich, Ryan P.; Choi, Jin-Woo

    2014-04-01

    Printing has become an emerging manufacturing technology for mechanics, electronics, and consumer products. Additionally, both nanotubes and nanowires have recently been used as materials for sensors and electrodes due to their unique electrical and mechanical properties. Printed electrodes and conductive traces particularly offer versatility of fabricating low-cost, disposable, and flexible electrical devices and microsystems. While various printing methods such as screen printing have been conventional methods for printing conductive traces and electrodes, inkjet printing has recently attracted great attention due to its unique advantages including no template requirement, rapid printing at low cost, on-demand printing capability, and precise control of the printed material. Computer generated conductive traces or electrode patterns can simply be printed on a thin film substrate with proper conductive ink consisting of nanotubes or nanowires. However, in order to develop nanotube or nanowire ink, there are a few challenges that need to be addressed. The most difficult obstacle to overcome is that of nanotube/nanowire dispersion within a solution. Other challenges include adjusting surface tension and controlling viscosity of the ink as well as treating the surface of the printing substrate. In an attempt to pave the way for nanomaterial inkjet printing, we present a method for preparing carbon nanotube ink as well as its printing technique. A fully printed electrochemical sensor using inkjet-printed carbon nanotube electrodes is also demonstrated as an example of the possibilities for this technology.

  3. WikiPrints: rendering enterprise Wiki content for printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkner, Kathrin

    2010-02-01

    Wikis have become a tool of choice for collaborative, informative communication. In contrast to the immense Wikipedia, that serves as a reference web site and typically covers only one topic per web page, enterprise wikis are often used as project management tools and contain several closely related pages authored by members of one project. In that scenario it is useful to print closely related content for review or teaching purposes. In this paper we propose a novel technique for rendering enterprise wiki content for printing called WikiPrints, that creates a linearized version of wiki content formatted as a mixture between web layout and conventional document layout suitable for printing. Compared to existing print options for wiki content, Wikiprints automatically selects content from different wiki pages given user preferences and usage scenarios. Meta data such as content authors or time of content editing are considered. A preview of the linearized content is shown to the user and an interface for making manual formatting changes provided.

  4. 3D printing awareness: the future of making things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valpreda, F.

    2015-03-01

    The advent of 3D printing is giving us new production opportunities but is creating new economic and social assets. In the paper we will analyze the new conditions we will live in. The current industrial production scenario will be analyzed to see how it works and how 3D printing is being introduced into it: where the traditional production comes from and how it actually works, from the historical, technological, social and economic point of view, including transports of materials and products. This asset is being "polluted" and possibly transformed by 3D printing: what is it, how it works, but most important, how this technology is transforming our personal approach to industrial products. This technological innovation will transform our lives, possibly even more than how movable type printing did: we will see the opportunities offered to adopt this innovation not only for our everyday life, but also looking forward for environmental issues, (e)commerce reorganization and social quality improvement. In the final part we will also see what will be the keys to open a new kind of developing path, where technology will take an important part, what relationship with it humans will have, and which will be the keys to succeed in this challenge, identifying in knowledge, awareness and culture of innovation those keys.

  5. Validation of the danish national diabetes register.

    PubMed

    Green, Anders; Sortsø, Camilla; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup; Emneus, Martha

    2015-01-01

    The Danish National Diabetes Register (NDR) was established in 2006 and builds on data from Danish health registers. We validated the content of NDR, using full information from the Danish National Patient Register and data from the literature. Our study indicates that the completeness in NDR is ≥95% concerning ascertainment from data sources specific for diabetes, ie, prescriptions with antidiabetic drugs and diagnoses of diabetes in the National Patient Register. Since the NDR algorithm ignores diabetes-related hospital contacts terminated before 1990, the establishment of the date of inclusion is systematically delayed for ≥10% of the registrants in general and for ≥30% of the inclusions before 1997 in particular. This bias is enhanced for ascertainment by chiropody services and by frequent measurements of blood glucose because the date of reimbursement of services, rather than the date of encounter, has been taken as the date of inclusion in NDR. We also find that some 20% of the registrations in NDR may represent false positive inclusions of persons with frequent measurements of blood glucose without having diabetes. We conclude that NDR is a novel initiative to support research in the epidemiological and public health aspects of diabetes in Denmark, but we also present a list of recommended changes for improving validity, by reducing the impact of current sources of bias and misclassifications. PMID:25565889

  6. Study of Impingement Types and Printing Quality during Laser Printing of Viscoelastic Alginate Solutions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengyi; Xiong, Ruitong; Corr, David T; Huang, Yong

    2016-03-29

    Laser-induced forward transfer-based laser printing has been being implemented as a promising orifice-free direct-write strategy for different printing applications. The printing quality during laser printing is largely affected by the jet and droplet formation process and subsequential impingement. The objective of this study is to investigate the impingement-based printing type and resulting printing quality during the laser printing of viscoelastic alginate solutions, which are representative inks for soft structure printing such as bioprinting. Three printing types are identified: droplet-impingement printing, jet-impingement printing with multiple breakups, and jet-impingement printing with a single breakup. Printing quality, in terms of printed droplet morphology and size, has been investigated as a function of alginate concentration, laser fluence, and direct-writing height based on a time-resolved imaging approach and microarrays of printed droplets. Of these, the best printing quality is achieved with single-breakup jet-impingement printing, followed by multiple-breakup jet-impingement printing, with droplet-impingement printing producing the lowest quality printing. The printing quality can be improved by using high-concentration alginate solutions. The increase of laser fluence may lead to a well-defined primary droplet for low-concentration alginate solutions; however, this can cause the droplet diameter to increase, which may not be desirable. The direct-writing height (i.e., ribbon coating-receiving substrate distance) also influences the print quality. For example, an increase in direct-writing height can cause the printing type to change from the ideal jet-impingement with a single breakup, to the jet-impingement with multiple breakups, and even the least desired droplet-impingement printing, with only slight variations in droplet diameter. PMID:26934283

  7. Nanoparticle chemisorption printing technique for conductive silver patterning with submicron resolution

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Toshikazu; Fukuhara, Katsuo; Matsuoka, Ken; Minemawari, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Jun'ya; Fukuda, Nobuko; Aoshima, Keisuke; Arai, Shunto; Makita, Yuichi; Kubo, Hitoshi; Enomoto, Takao; Togashi, Takanari; Kurihara, Masato; Hasegawa, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanocolloid, a dense suspension of ligand-encapsulated silver nanoparticles, is an important material for printing-based device production technologies. However, printed conductive patterns of sufficiently high quality and resolution for industrial products have not yet been achieved, as the use of conventional printing techniques is severely limiting. Here we report a printing technique to manufacture ultrafine conductive patterns utilizing the exclusive chemisorption phenomenon of weakly encapsulated silver nanoparticles on a photoactivated surface. The process includes masked irradiation of vacuum ultraviolet light on an amorphous perfluorinated polymer layer to photoactivate the surface with pendant carboxylate groups, and subsequent coating of alkylamine-encapsulated silver nanocolloids, which causes amine–carboxylate conversion to trigger the spontaneous formation of a self-fused solid silver layer. The technique can produce silver patterns of submicron fineness adhered strongly to substrates, thus enabling manufacture of flexible transparent conductive sheets. This printing technique could replace conventional vacuum- and photolithography-based device processing. PMID:27091238

  8. An analysis of highly viscous flow using Imai's complex function method with application to screen printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawabata, Jun-ichi; Shi-igai, Hiroyoshi; Yabuno, Kohei; Saito, Tadayuki

    1992-06-01

    The complex function method is applied to screen printing flow with low Reynolds number assuming that the printing ink is Newtonian. The screen printing flow is expressed through a Taylor flow in the corner. The pressure distribution, vorticity distribution and stream lines of the Taylor flow can easily be obtained by using the complex function method. A new model of the flow which may better express the screen printing is obtained through this method by placing a sink at the origin of the Taylor flow. The appropriate corner angle for printing, theoretically derived from this method as 65.4°, corresponds to the empirical angle in industrial use. The pressure distribution of this model shows good agreement with the experimental results obtained in the present work.

  9. Nanoparticle chemisorption printing technique for conductive silver patterning with submicron resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Toshikazu; Fukuhara, Katsuo; Matsuoka, Ken; Minemawari, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Jun'ya; Fukuda, Nobuko; Aoshima, Keisuke; Arai, Shunto; Makita, Yuichi; Kubo, Hitoshi; Enomoto, Takao; Togashi, Takanari; Kurihara, Masato; Hasegawa, Tatsuo

    2016-04-01

    Silver nanocolloid, a dense suspension of ligand-encapsulated silver nanoparticles, is an important material for printing-based device production technologies. However, printed conductive patterns of sufficiently high quality and resolution for industrial products have not yet been achieved, as the use of conventional printing techniques is severely limiting. Here we report a printing technique to manufacture ultrafine conductive patterns utilizing the exclusive chemisorption phenomenon of weakly encapsulated silver nanoparticles on a photoactivated surface. The process includes masked irradiation of vacuum ultraviolet light on an amorphous perfluorinated polymer layer to photoactivate the surface with pendant carboxylate groups, and subsequent coating of alkylamine-encapsulated silver nanocolloids, which causes amine-carboxylate conversion to trigger the spontaneous formation of a self-fused solid silver layer. The technique can produce silver patterns of submicron fineness adhered strongly to substrates, thus enabling manufacture of flexible transparent conductive sheets. This printing technique could replace conventional vacuum- and photolithography-based device processing.

  10. Effect of nano-coated stencil on ultra-fine pitch printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoogar, Sharan

    The growing demand for compact handheld devices with increased functionality has posed new challenges to the electronics board assembly industry. The introduction of ultra-fine pitch components has elevated importance of the stencil printing process. The stencil printing process has been attributed to more than 50 percent of the total defects in Level 2 electronics assemblies as noted in many prior studies [Clouthier, 1997]. Achieving a good print can drastically reduce overall defects and rework costs. One of the major factors for a "good" print is the paste transfer efficiency (TE). TE is defined as the ratio of measured paste volume to the theoretical volume of the stencil aperture. The latest stencil technology available for ultra-fine pitch printing is the introduction of "nano-coated stencils". In this study, we will investigate the claim that a nano-coated stencil has better transfer efficiency than standard laser cut and electroformed stencils that lack this coating.

  11. Nanoparticle chemisorption printing technique for conductive silver patterning with submicron resolution.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Toshikazu; Fukuhara, Katsuo; Matsuoka, Ken; Minemawari, Hiromi; Tsutsumi, Jun'ya; Fukuda, Nobuko; Aoshima, Keisuke; Arai, Shunto; Makita, Yuichi; Kubo, Hitoshi; Enomoto, Takao; Togashi, Takanari; Kurihara, Masato; Hasegawa, Tatsuo

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanocolloid, a dense suspension of ligand-encapsulated silver nanoparticles, is an important material for printing-based device production technologies. However, printed conductive patterns of sufficiently high quality and resolution for industrial products have not yet been achieved, as the use of conventional printing techniques is severely limiting. Here we report a printing technique to manufacture ultrafine conductive patterns utilizing the exclusive chemisorption phenomenon of weakly encapsulated silver nanoparticles on a photoactivated surface. The process includes masked irradiation of vacuum ultraviolet light on an amorphous perfluorinated polymer layer to photoactivate the surface with pendant carboxylate groups, and subsequent coating of alkylamine-encapsulated silver nanocolloids, which causes amine-carboxylate conversion to trigger the spontaneous formation of a self-fused solid silver layer. The technique can produce silver patterns of submicron fineness adhered strongly to substrates, thus enabling manufacture of flexible transparent conductive sheets. This printing technique could replace conventional vacuum- and photolithography-based device processing. PMID:27091238

  12. 3D Printing: Print the future of ophthalmology.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenbin; Zhang, Xiulan

    2014-08-01

    The three-dimensional (3D) printer is a new technology that creates physical objects from digital files. Recent technological advances in 3D printing have resulted in increased use of this technology in the medical field, where it is beginning to revolutionize medical and surgical possibilities. It is already providing medicine with powerful tools that facilitate education, surgical planning, and organ transplantation research. A good understanding of this technology will be beneficial to ophthalmologists. The potential applications of 3D printing in ophthalmology, both current and future, are explored in this article. PMID:25159591

  13. Correlation Among Lip Print Pattern, Finger Print Pattern and Abo Blood Group

    PubMed Central

    N, Srilekha; A, Anuradha; Srinivas G, Vijay; Devi R, Sabitha

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To study correlation between lip print pattern, finger print pattern and ABO blood group. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of 27 males and 27 females who were aged between 20–40 years. Lip prints, finger prints and ABO and Rh blood groups of each individual were recorded. Lip prints were classified, based on Suzuki’s and Tsuchihashi’s classification and finger prints were classified, based on Michael’s and Kucken’s classification. The results were statistically analyzed by using Chi–square test. Results: Complete vertical lip print, loop finger print pattern, O+ blood group were predominant among individual groups. O+ blood group-type I lip print combination, loop finger print pattern-type IV lip print pattern combination, O+ blood group-loop finger print pattern combination and both B+ blood group-loop finger print pattern- type IV lip print pattern combination and O+ blood group-loop finger print pattern-type I lip print pattern were predominant. Conclusion: Though lip prints, finger prints and blood groups had their own specificities, correlation of the three parameters did not show any significance. PMID:24783079

  14. Three-dimensional printing physiology laboratory technology.

    PubMed

    Sulkin, Matthew S; Widder, Emily; Shao, Connie; Holzem, Katherine M; Gloschat, Christopher; Gutbrod, Sarah R; Efimov, Igor R

    2013-12-01

    Since its inception in 19th-century Germany, the physiology laboratory has been a complex and expensive research enterprise involving experts in various fields of science and engineering. Physiology research has been critically dependent on cutting-edge technological support of mechanical, electrical, optical, and more recently computer engineers. Evolution of modern experimental equipment is constrained by lack of direct communication between the physiological community and industry producing this equipment. Fortunately, recent advances in open source technologies, including three-dimensional printing, open source hardware and software, present an exciting opportunity to bring the design and development of research instrumentation to the end user, i.e., life scientists. Here we provide an overview on how to develop customized, cost-effective experimental equipment for physiology laboratories. PMID:24043254

  15. 8. Photographic contact print from a 8x10 original negative. (Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photographic contact print from a 8x10 original negative. (Original drawing located on abandoned NASA site, currently owned by the City of Downey, Downey, California). 1956 RECORD DRAWINGS. NORTH AMERICAN AVAIATION INC, INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERS. 1956 BLDG 25 & BLDG 42 ELEVATIONS. - NASA Industrial Plant, Storage Facility, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 16. Photographic contact print from a 8x10 original negative. (Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photographic contact print from a 8x10 original negative. (Original drawing located on abandoned NASA site, currently owned by the City of Downey, Downey, California). 1956 RECORD DRAWINGS. NORTH AMERICAN AVAIATION INC, INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERS. BLDGS 10, 25, & 42 ELEVATIONS & FLOOR PLANS. - NASA Industrial Plant, Maintenance Facility, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. Effects of Processing and Medical Sterilization Techniques on 3D-Printed and Molded Polylactic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geritano, Mariah Nicole

    Manufacturing industries have evolved tremendously in the past decade with the introduction of Additive Manufacturing (AM), also known as 3D Printing. The medical device industry has been a leader in adapting this new technology into research and development. 3D printing enables medical devices and implants to become more customizable, patient specific, and allows for low production numbers. This study compares the mechanical and thermal properties of traditionally manufactured parts versus parts manufactured through 3D printing before and after sterilization, and the ability of an FDM printer to produce reliable, identical samples. It was found that molded samples and 100% infill high-resolution samples have almost identical changes in properties when exposed to different sterilization methods, and similar cooling rates. The data shown throughout this investigation confirms that manipulation of printing parameters can result in an object with comparable material properties to that created through traditional manufacturing methods.

  18. Tissue printing on nitrocellulose membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.; Song, Yanru; Pont-Lezica, R.; Lin, Liangshiou; Ye, Zhenghua; Varner, J.E. )

    1989-04-01

    In the 1950's Daoust developed substrate film printing on gelatin and starch films to localize protease, amylase, DNAase and RNAase activities. These procedures were adapted to plant tissues by Yomo and Taylor (1973) and by Jacobsen and Knox (1973). Membranes such as nitrocellulose bind cellular materials from cut tissue surfaces with little lateral diffusion. Thus accurate chemical prints are obtained. When the tissue is pressed firmly onto nitrocellulose a physical impression is obtained which shows the anatomy of the tissue. We have used the tissue-print technique to localize (1) proteins with labeled antibodies, (2) RNA with labeled nucleic acid probes, (3) enzymes by catalytic activity, (4) glycoproteins by fluorescent lectins, (5) lectins by fluorescent sugars, (6) cysteine-rich proteins by dansylated iodoacetamide, (7) ascorbic acid by silver nitrate, (8) soluble fluorescent compounds by direct observation.

  19. Fingerprint + Iris = IrisPrint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Asem; Ross, Arun

    2015-05-01

    We consider the problem of generating a biometric image from two different traits. Specifically, we focus on generating an IrisPrint that inherits its structure from a fingerprint image and an iris image. To facilitate this, the continuous phase of the fingerprint image, characterizing its ridge flow, is first extracted. Next, a scheme is developed to extract "minutiae" from an iris image. Finally, an IrisPrint, that resembles a fingerprint, is created by mixing the ridge flow of the fingerprint with the iris minutiae. Preliminary experiments suggest that the new biometric image (i.e., IrisPrint) (a) can potentially be used for authentication by an existing fingerprint matcher, and (b) can potentially conceal and preserve the privacy of the original fingerprint and iris images.

  20. 29. Photocopy of a photograph (original print in the collection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photocopy of a photograph (original print in the collection of the New Hampshire Water Resources Board, Concord, New Hampshire) 1927, photographer unknown 2 3/8 X 4 inch negative VIEW OF THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF DAM No.4, TAKEN FROM BELOW; THE COVERED FOOTBRIDGE. THE BUILDING IN THE BACKGROUND HAS SINCE BEEN DEMOLISHED. - Claremont Village Industrial District, Between B, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  1. 23. Photocopy of a photograph (original print in the collection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photocopy of a photograph (original print in the collection of the New Hampshire Water Resources Board, Concord, New Hampshire) 1927, photographer unknown 2 3/8 X 4 inch negative BUILDING OF DAM No. 3, LOOKING EASTWARDS FROM THE NORTH BANK. CONSTRUCTION OF THE WOODEN FORMWORK USED IN CONSTRUCTING THE DAM IS VISIBLE IN THE FOREGROUND - Claremont Village Industrial District, Between B, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  2. 30. Photocopy of a photograph (original print in the collection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photocopy of a photograph (original print in the collection of the New Hampshire Water Resources Board, Concord, New Hampshire) 1934, photographer unknown 3 1/4 X 4 5/8 inch negative INTAKE TO THE POWER CANAL AT DAM No. 5. IDE'S 'ROUND BUILDING' IN THE FREEMAN AND O'NEIL COMPLEX IS VISIBLE ON THE LEFT. - Claremont Village Industrial District, Between B, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  3. 28. Photocopy of a photograph (original print in the collection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photocopy of a photograph (original print in the collection of the New Hampshire Water Resources Board, Concord, New Hampshire) 1927, photographer unknown 2 3/8 X 4 inch negative RIVER WALL ON THE NORTH SIDE, JUST WEST (DOWNSTREAM) OF THE COVERED FOOTBRIDGE. THE FIRE PUMP HOUSE (1927) AND BOILER ROOM (1919) OF THE SULLIVAN MACHINERY COMPANY ARE ALSO VISIBLE. - Claremont Village Industrial District, Between B, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  4. 46. Photocopy of a photograph (original print in the collection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopy of a photograph (original print in the collection of the Claremont Historical Society) ca. 1910, photographer unknown VIEW TO THE WEST FROM THE BROAD STREET BRIDGE, SHOWING THE MONADNOCK MILLS ON THE LEFT AND THE SUNAPEE MILL ON THE RIGHT. PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN BETWEEN CONSTRUCTION OF THE MONADNOCK BLEACH HOUSE (1902) AND MILL No. 6 (1915) - Claremont Village Industrial District, Between B, Claremont, Sullivan County, NH

  5. Solvent exposures in screen printing shops.

    PubMed

    Horstman, S W; Browning, S R; Szeluga, R; Burzycki, J; Stebbins, A

    2001-01-01

    A comprehensive description of working conditions, exposure patterns for organic solvents, and related health symptoms among workers in ten small screen printing companies located in Seattle, Washington, is presented. Sampling methods included continuous area monitoring, grab sampling, personal sampling, and time study observation. A total of 27 workers were observed and monitored for solvent exposure. Short-term peak exposures were characterized in terms of magnitude, duration and repetition, and their contribution to time weighted average (TWA) exposures were evaluated. A health questionnaire addressing the symptoms potentially attributable to solvents was used to investigate the possible health effects from exposure. Significant differences in the prevalence of headaches, dizziness, intoxication, and dry skin (p < 0.01) were reported among workers who had some solvent exposure compared with the referent group that was not exposed. Exposed workers were also more likely to report fatigue, loss of strength in the arms and hands, difficulty concentrating, sore throat, and a low alcohol tolerance. The study documented highly variable levels of solvent exposures. Screen printing workers in different companies, while performing the same basic tasks, had time weighted average (TWA) exposures ranging from 2% to 100% of the recommended threshold limit value (TLV) for mixtures. Continuous monitoring indicated that high short-term exposures are responsible for the bulk of TWA exposures. Grab samples and continuous monitoring verified that recommended Short Term Exposure Limits (STEL) for individual solvents may be exceeded on a routine basis. Frequent skin contact with solvents was also observed. Health problems in this industry and other small industries using organic solvents may result from these complex patterns of exposure. PMID:11759907

  6. High resolution printing of charge

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, John; Park, Jang-Ung

    2015-06-16

    Provided are methods of printing a pattern of charge on a substrate surface, such as by electrohydrodynamic (e-jet) printing. The methods relate to providing a nozzle containing a printable fluid, providing a substrate having a substrate surface and generating from the nozzle an ejected printable fluid containing net charge. The ejected printable fluid containing net charge is directed to the substrate surface, wherein the net charge does not substantially degrade and the net charge retained on the substrate surface. Also provided are functional devices made by any of the disclosed methods.

  7. Personal electronics printing via tapping mode composite liquid metal ink delivery and adhesion mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yi; He, Zhi-Zhu; Yang, Jun; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Printed electronics is becoming increasingly important in a variety of newly emerging areas. However, restricted to the rather limited conductive inks and available printing strategies, the current electronics manufacture is usually confined to industry level. Here, we show a highly cost-effective and entirely automatic printing way towards personal electronics making, through introducing a tapping-mode composite fluid delivery system. Fundamental mechanisms regarding the reliable printing, transfer and adhesion of the liquid metal inks on the substrate were disclosed through systematic theoretical interpretation and experimental measurements. With this liquid metal printer, a series of representative electronic patterns spanning from single wires to desired complex configurations such as integrated circuit (IC), printed-circuits-on-board (PCB), electronic paintings, or more do-it-yourself (DIY) devices, were demonstrated to be printed out with high precision in a moment. And the total machine cost already reached personally affordable price. This is hard to achieve by a conventional PCB technology which generally takes long time and is material, water and energy consuming, while the existing printed electronics is still far away from the real direct printing goal. The present work opens the way for large scale personal electronics manufacture and is expected to generate important value for the coming society. PMID:24699375

  8. Personal electronics printing via tapping mode composite liquid metal ink delivery and adhesion mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yi; He, Zhi-Zhu; Yang, Jun; Liu, Jing

    2014-04-01

    Printed electronics is becoming increasingly important in a variety of newly emerging areas. However, restricted to the rather limited conductive inks and available printing strategies, the current electronics manufacture is usually confined to industry level. Here, we show a highly cost-effective and entirely automatic printing way towards personal electronics making, through introducing a tapping-mode composite fluid delivery system. Fundamental mechanisms regarding the reliable printing, transfer and adhesion of the liquid metal inks on the substrate were disclosed through systematic theoretical interpretation and experimental measurements. With this liquid metal printer, a series of representative electronic patterns spanning from single wires to desired complex configurations such as integrated circuit (IC), printed-circuits-on-board (PCB), electronic paintings, or more do-it-yourself (DIY) devices, were demonstrated to be printed out with high precision in a moment. And the total machine cost already reached personally affordable price. This is hard to achieve by a conventional PCB technology which generally takes long time and is material, water and energy consuming, while the existing printed electronics is still far away from the real direct printing goal. The present work opens the way for large scale personal electronics manufacture and is expected to generate important value for the coming society.

  9. Conductive silver ink printing through the laser-induced forward transfer technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florian, C.; Caballero-Lucas, F.; Fernández-Pradas, J. M.; Artigas, R.; Ogier, S.; Karnakis, D.; Serra, P.

    2015-05-01

    Laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) is a technique which allows printing a wide variety of materials. It presents several advantages over inkjet printing, such as a potentially higher resolution, being free from clogging issues, and the possibility to work with a much broader range of viscosities. LIFT appears, therefore, as an interesting alternative in all those fields where miniaturization is a major requirement, as in the microelectronics industry. The fabrication of electronic devices requires the printing of small, narrow and thin conductive lines, and in this work we investigate the printing of continuous lines of conductive silver ink on glass substrates through LIFT. Lines are initially formed through sequentially printing adjacent droplets with different overlaps. We show that above a certain overlap continuous lines can be obtained, but unfortunately they show bulging, a problem which compromises the functionality of the lines. In order to solve the problem, other printing strategies are tested; they consist in printing adjacent droplets in alternate sequences. It is found that the alternate printing of two overlapping sets of droplets with an intermediate drying step allows obtaining functional continuous lines without bulging.

  10. Personal electronics printing via tapping mode composite liquid metal ink delivery and adhesion mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yi; He, Zhi-Zhu; Yang, Jun; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Printed electronics is becoming increasingly important in a variety of newly emerging areas. However, restricted to the rather limited conductive inks and available printing strategies, the current electronics manufacture is usually confined to industry level. Here, we show a highly cost-effective and entirely automatic printing way towards personal electronics making, through introducing a tapping-mode composite fluid delivery system. Fundamental mechanisms regarding the reliable printing, transfer and adhesion of the liquid metal inks on the substrate were disclosed through systematic theoretical interpretation and experimental measurements. With this liquid metal printer, a series of representative electronic patterns spanning from single wires to desired complex configurations such as integrated circuit (IC), printed-circuits-on-board (PCB), electronic paintings, or more do-it-yourself (DIY) devices, were demonstrated to be printed out with high precision in a moment. And the total machine cost already reached personally affordable price. This is hard to achieve by a conventional PCB technology which generally takes long time and is material, water and energy consuming, while the existing printed electronics is still far away from the real direct printing goal. The present work opens the way for large scale personal electronics manufacture and is expected to generate important value for the coming society. PMID:24699375

  11. Annual incidence, prevalence and transmission characteristics of Streptococcus agalactiae in Danish dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Mweu, Marshal M; Nielsen, Søren S; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils

    2012-10-01

    Contagious mastitis pathogens continue to pose an economic threat to the dairy industry. An understanding of their frequency and transmission dynamics is central to evaluating the effectiveness of control programmes. The objectives of this study were twofold: (1) to estimate the annual herd-level incidence rates and apparent prevalences of Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) in the population of Danish dairy cattle herds over a 10-year period from 2000 to 2009 inclusive and (2) to estimate the herd-level entry and exit rates (demographic parameters), the transmission parameter, β, and recovery rate for S. agalactiae infection. Data covering the specified period, on bacteriological culture of all bulk tank milk samples collected annually as part of the mandatory Danish S. agalactiae surveillance scheme, were extracted from the Danish Cattle Database and subsequently analysed. There was an increasing trend in both the incidence and prevalence of S. agalactiae over the study period. Per 100 herd-years the value of β was 54.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 46.0-63.7); entry rate 0.3 (95% CI 0.2-0.4); infection-related exit rate 7.1 (95% CI 5.6-8.9); non-infection related exit rate 9.2 (95% CI 7.4-11.5) and recovery rate 40.0 (95% CI 36.8-43.5). This study demonstrates a need to tighten the current controls against S. agalactiae in order to lower its incidence. PMID:22560559

  12. A Comparative Study on the Conductive Properties of Coated and Printed Silver Layers on a Paper Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, Cian; Spiesschaert, Yann; Amarandei, George; Stoeva, Zlatka; Tomov, Rumen I.; Tonchev, Dan; van Driessche, Isabel; Glowacki, Bartlomiej Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The industrial sector of flexible printed electronics has shown a dynamic growth in the last decades. Therefore, demand for new inks, coatings and printing methods leading to improved performances of the electronic components at room temperature is also increasing. Here, we present a study on the conductive properties of silver layers obtained by different coating and printing methods. The results obtained proved that drop-on-demand inkjet printing of water-based inks containing micron-sized silver flakes with narrow-size distribution is a feasible method for in situ fabrication of conductive silver coatings that does not require additional heat treatment. A rigorous optimization Taguchi experiment was carried out considering the major process parameters. This experiment showed that the printing pressure was the dominant factor defining the quality of the printed coatings and tracks.

  13. Annoying Danish Relatives: Comprehension and Production of Relative Clauses by Danish Children with and without SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen De Lopez, Kristine; Olsen, Lone Sundahl; Chondrogianni, Vasiliki

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with SLI and to compare errors with those produced by TD…

  14. Philadelphia Printing and Publishing, 1876-1976

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Thomas M.

    1976-01-01

    Two Philadelphia printing histories, both reflecting the relationship of printing to publishing, are examined in this article: the manufacture by the publisher of his own product and the development and commercialization of the photomechanical halftone process. (Author)

  15. CADAT Printed-Wiring-Board Designer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinkerhoff, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    CADAT printed-wiring-board system (PWB) designs printed-circuit and hybrid-circuit boards. It is comprised of four programs: preprocessor, placement program, organizer program, and the router. Component placement and interconnection paths are optimized.

  16. Parenting among Wealthy Danish Families: A Concerted Civilising Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Dil

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the parenting practices of wealthy Danish families and offers insight into the workings of dominant parenting norms within contemporary Danish society. Based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted among 15 families living north of Copenhagen, Denmark, this article identifies the parenting strategies of people with ample…

  17. Statistical Learning in Emerging Lexicons: The Case of Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Stephanie F.; Bleses, Dorthe; Basboll, Hans; Lambertsen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This research explored the impact of neighborhood density (ND), word frequency (WF), and word length (WL) on the vocabulary size of Danish-speaking children. Given the particular phonological properties of Danish, the impact was expected to differ from that reported in studies on English and French. Method: The monosyllabic words in the…

  18. Qualification of security printing features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simske, Steven J.; Aronoff, Jason S.; Arnabat, Jordi

    2006-02-01

    This paper describes the statistical and hardware processes involved in qualifying two related printing features for their deployment in product (e.g. document and package) security. The first is a multi-colored tiling feature that can also be combined with microtext to provide additional forms of security protection. The color information is authenticated automatically with a variety of handheld, desktop and production scanners. The microtext is authenticated either following magnification or manually by a field inspector. The second security feature can also be tile-based. It involves the use of two inks that provide the same visual color, but differ in their transparency to infrared (IR) wavelengths. One of the inks is effectively transparent to IR wavelengths, allowing emitted IR light to pass through. The other ink is effectively opaque to IR wavelengths. These inks allow the printing of a seemingly uniform, or spot, color over a (truly) uniform IR emitting ink layer. The combination converts a uniform covert ink and a spot color to a variable data region capable of encoding identification sequences with high density. Also, it allows the extension of variable data printing for security to ostensibly static printed regions, affording greater security protection while meeting branding and marketing specifications.

  19. Conservation of Drawings and Prints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Antoinette

    1972-01-01

    Some of the basic techniques of preserving and restoring prints and drawings are outlined. Examination, dry cleaning, stain removal, mending, backing removal, and lining are discussed, as well as aspects of the complexity of bleaching, types and nature of some stains and discolorations, and materials of poor quality used by many framers. (Author)

  20. Conservation of Photographic Print Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Alice

    1981-01-01

    Provides specific information on varying photographic materials and processes to aid archivists and curators in preserving photograph collections. Preservation problems related to major types of silver prints on paper (salt, albumen, collodion, gelatin) and to the silver image (oxidation, silver sulfide) are covered. Twenty references are cited.…

  1. Flexible substrate for printed wiring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asakura, M.; Yabe, K.; Tanaka, H.; Soda, A.

    1982-01-01

    A very flexible substrate for printed wiring is disclosed which is composed of a blend of phenoxy resin-polyisocyanate-brominated epoxy resin in which the equivalent ration of the functional groups is hydroxyl grouped: isocyanate group: epoxy group = 1:0.2 to 2:0.5 to 3. The product has outstanding solder resistance and is applied to metal without using adhesives.

  2. Printing. Performance Objectives. Intermediate Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seivert, Chester

    Several intermediate performance objectives and corresponding criterion measures are listed for each of 13 terminal objectives for an intermediate printing course. The materials were developed for a two-semester (3 hours daily) course with specialized classroom, shop, and practical experiences designed to enable the student to develop proficiency…

  3. The Power of the Print

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    The print has a long-standing tradition of carrying a political message. This can be seen in the works of artists from the German Expressionists, like Kathe Kollwitz and Emil Nolde, to Mexican printmakers like Jose Posada and Leopoldo Mendez. Whether it was during the Mexican Revolution of 1910, the War in Iraq, or the 2008 presidential election,…

  4. End of the Printed Line?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishengrad, Ruth

    1998-01-01

    Considers whether laptop and handheld computers will be able to replace printed textbooks in classrooms. Topics cover benefits of classroom computers, including the need for computer literacy; computer costs, including service contracts, theft, and the need for staff development; the problems with dated textbooks; publishers' concerns; and…

  5. All-printed paper memory.

    PubMed

    Lien, Der-Hsien; Kao, Zhen-Kai; Huang, Teng-Han; Liao, Ying-Chih; Lee, Si-Chen; He, Jr-Hau

    2014-08-26

    We report the memory device on paper by means of an all-printing approach. Using a sequence of inkjet and screen-printing techniques, a simple metal–insulator–metal device structure is fabricated on paper as a resistive random access memory with a potential to reach gigabyte capacities on an A4 paper. The printed-paper-based memory devices (PPMDs) exhibit reproducible switching endurance, reliable retention, tunable memory window, and the capability to operate under extreme bending conditions. In addition, the PBMD can be labeled on electronics or living objects for multifunctional, wearable, on-skin, and biocompatible applications. The disposability and the high-security data storage of the paper-based memory are also demonstrated to show the ease of data handling, which are not achievable for regular silicon-based electronic devices. We envision that the PPMDs manufactured by this cost-effective and time-efficient all-printing approach would be a key electronic component to fully activate a paper-based circuit and can be directly implemented in medical biosensors, multifunctional devices, and self-powered systems. PMID:25019420

  6. Projection transparencies from printed material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grunewald, L. S.; Nickerson, T. B.

    1968-01-01

    Method for preparing project transparencies, or view graphs, permits the use of almost any expendable printed material, pictures, charts, or text, in unlimited color or black and white. The method can be accomplished by either of two techniques, with a slight difference in materials.

  7. Latin American Folk Art Prints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navah, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Latin American customs and colors play an important role as second graders are introduced to multicultural experiences through food, music, dance, art, and craft. In this article, the author describes a printing project inspired by Guatemalan weavings and amate bark paintings. (Contains 2 online resources.)

  8. Design of printed circuit coils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, W. T.

    1969-01-01

    Spiral-like coil is printed with several extra turns which increase the realizable coil inductance. Included are shorting connections which not only short the extra turns, but also short out several turns of the main body. Coil tuning is accomplished by removing the shorts until the desired inductance is obtained.

  9. Improved pen alignment for bidirectional printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, Edgar; Allebach, Jan P.; Pizlo, Zygmunt

    2006-01-01

    The quality of the prints produced by an inkjet printer is highly dependent on the characteristics of the dots produced by the inkjet pens. While some literature discusses metrics for the objective evaluation of print quality, few of the efforts have combined automated quality tests with subjective assessment. We develop an algorithm for analyzing printed dots and study the effects of the dot characteristics on the perceived print alignment. We establish the perceptual preferences of human observers via a set of psychophysical experiments.

  10. Screening for celiac disease in Danish adults

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Anna; Skaaby, Tea; Kårhus, Line Lund; Schwarz, Peter; Jørgensen, Torben; Rumessen, Jüri J.; Linneberg, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The prevalence of celiac disease (CD) as recorded in the Danish National Patient Registry is ∼50/100,000 persons. This is much lower than the reported prevalence of CD in other Nordic countries and underdiagnosis is suspected. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of CD in a population-based study of Danish adults. Methods. A total of 2297 adults aged 24–76 years living in the southwestern part of Copenhagen were screened for CD by immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG antibodies to transglutaminases and deamidated gliadin. IgA/IgG-positive participants were invited to a clinical evaluation, including biopsies, by a gastroenterologist. Results. Of the invited 56 participants, 40 underwent a full clinical evaluation and 8 persons were diagnosed with CD; 2 of the 16 persons, who did not complete the clinical evaluation, were considered by experts to have probable CD. None of the above 56 participants had a known history of CD or a recorded diagnosis of CD in National Patient Registry. By combining cases of biopsy-proven CD (n = 8), probable CD (n = 2), and registry-recorded CD (n = 1), the prevalence of CD was estimated to be 479/100,000 (11/2297) persons (95% CI: 197–761). Conclusion. In this general adult population, the prevalence of CD as estimated by screening and clinical evaluation was 10 times higher than the registry-based prevalence of CD. Of 11 participants diagnosed with CD in our screening study, 10 were unaware of the diagnosis prior to the study. Thus, our study suggests that CD is markedly underdiagnosed in Danish adults. PMID:25687734

  11. Print Referencing during Read-Alouds: A Technique for Increasing Emergent Readers' Print Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Tricia A.; Ward, Allison E.; Justice, Laura M.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how educators can readily increase emergent readers' print knowledge by using an evidence-based technique called print referencing to ensure that classroom read-alouds include not only a comprehension focus, but also a complementary focus on print. Print referencing was recently described in "The Reading Teacher" as an…

  12. Interpersonal violence: patterns in a Danish community.

    PubMed Central

    Hedeboe, J; Charles, A V; Nielsen, J; Grymer, F; Møller, B N; Møller-Madson, B; Jensen, S E

    1985-01-01

    We studied all cases of assault with violence (1,639) in a Danish population of 275,000 over a one-year period. Most victims were young men. The incidence rose during evenings, nights and weekends, and assaults were often seen in or around bars and restaurants. Women accounted for 64 per cent of all victims of assault in the home. Influence of alcohol was identified in 43 per cent of all cases. The fist was the most frequent agent of assault; use of firearms was a very rare act of violence but was associated with death in three out of five cases. There were 10 deaths in all. PMID:4003631

  13. 48 CFR 970.5208-1 - Printing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and Operating Contracts 970.5208-1 Printing. As prescribed in 970.0808-3, insert the following clause... such printing being disallowed. (d) The Contractor shall include the substance of this clause in all... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Printing....

  14. 48 CFR 970.5208-1 - Printing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and Operating Contracts 970.5208-1 Printing. As prescribed in 970.0808-3, insert the following clause... such printing being disallowed. (d) The Contractor shall include the substance of this clause in all... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Printing....

  15. 48 CFR 970.5208-1 - Printing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and Operating Contracts 970.5208-1 Printing. As prescribed in 970.0808-3, insert the following clause... such printing being disallowed. (d) The Contractor shall include the substance of this clause in all... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Printing....

  16. 48 CFR 970.5208-1 - Printing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and Operating Contracts 970.5208-1 Printing. As prescribed in 970.0808-3, insert the following clause... such printing being disallowed. (d) The Contractor shall include the substance of this clause in all... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Printing....

  17. Corporate Web Sites in Traditional Print Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardun, Carol J.; Lamb, Larry

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Web presence in print advertisements to determine how marketers are creating bridges between traditional advertising and the Internet. Content analysis showed Web addresses in print ads; categories of advertisers most likely to link print ads with Web sites; and whether the Web site attempts to develop a database of potential…

  18. Image analysis of Renaissance copperplate prints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedges, S. Blair

    2008-02-01

    From the fifteenth to the nineteenth centuries, prints were a common form of visual communication, analogous to photographs. Copperplate prints have many finely engraved black lines which were used to create the illusion of continuous tone. Line densities generally are 100-2000 lines per square centimeter and a print can contain more than a million total engraved lines 20-300 micrometers in width. Because hundreds to thousands of prints were made from a single copperplate over decades, variation among prints can have historical value. The largest variation is plate-related, which is the thinning of lines over successive editions as a result of plate polishing to remove time-accumulated corrosion. Thinning can be quantified with image analysis and used to date undated prints and books containing prints. Print-related variation, such as over-inking of the print, is a smaller but significant source. Image-related variation can introduce bias if images were differentially illuminated or not in focus, but improved imaging technology can limit this variation. The Print Index, the percentage of an area composed of lines, is proposed as a primary measure of variation. Statistical methods also are proposed for comparing and identifying prints in the context of a print database.

  19. Print protection using high-frequency fractal noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Khaled W.; Blackledge, Jonathon M.; Datta, Sekharjit; Flint, James A.

    2004-06-01

    All digital images are band-limited to a degree that is determined by a spatial extent of the point spread function; the bandwidth of the image being determined by the optical transfer function. In the printing industry, the limit is determined by the resolution of the printed material. By band limiting the digital image in such away that the printed document maintains its fidelity, it is possible to use the out-of-band frequency space to introduce low amplitude coded data that remains hidden in the image. In this way, a covert signature can be embedded into an image to provide a digital watermark, which is sensitive to reproduction. In this paper a high frequency fractal noise is used as a low amplitude signal. A statistically robust solution to the authentication of printed material using high-fractal noise is proposed here which is based on cross-entropy metrics to provide a statistical confidence test. The fractal watermark is based on application of self-affine fields, which is suitable for documents containing high degree of texture. In principle, this new approach will allow batch tracking to be performed using coded data that has been embedded into the high frequency components of the image whose statistical characteristics are dependent on the printer/scanner technology. The details of this method as well as experimental results are presented.

  20. Printed circuit boards: a review on the perspective of sustainability.

    PubMed

    Canal Marques, André; Cabrera, José-María; Malfatti, Célia de Fraga

    2013-12-15

    Modern life increasingly requires newer equipments and more technology. In addition, the fact that society is highly consumerist makes the amount of discarded equipment as well as the amount of waste from the manufacture of new products increase at an alarming rate. Printed circuit boards, which form the basis of the electronics industry, are technological waste of difficult disposal whose recycling is complex and expensive due to the diversity of materials and components and their difficult separation. Currently, printed circuit boards have a fixing problem, which is migrating from traditional Pb-Sn alloys to lead-free alloys without definite choice. This replacement is an attempt to minimize the problem of Pb toxicity, but it does not change the problem of separation of the components for later reuse and/or recycling and leads to other problems, such as temperature rise, delamination, flaws, risks of mechanical shocks and the formation of "whiskers". This article presents a literature review on printed circuit boards, showing their structure and materials, the environmental problem related to the board, some the different alternatives for recycling, and some solutions that are being studied to reduce and/or replace the solder, in order to minimize the impact of solder on the printed circuit boards. PMID:24189538

  1. Piezoelectric Sol-Gel Composite Film Fabrication by Stencil Printing.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Tsukasa; Iwata, Kazuki; Kobayashi, Makiko

    2015-09-01

    Piezoelectric films using sol-gel composites could be useful as ultrasonic transducers in various industrial fields. For sol-gel composite film fabrication, the spray coating technique has been used often because of its adaptability for various substrates. However, the spray technique requires multiple spray coating processes and heating processes and this is an issue of concern, especially for on-site fabrication in controlled areas. Stencil printing has been developed to solve this issue because this method can be used to fabricate thick sol-gel composite films with one coating process. In this study, PbTiO3 (PT)/Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) films, PZT/PZT films, and Bi4Ti3O12 (BiT)/PZT films were fabricated by stencil printing, and PT/ PZT films were also fabricated using the spray technique. After fabrication, a thermal cycle test was performed for the samples to compare their ultrasonic performance. The sensitivity and signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) of the ultrasonic response of PT/PZT fabricated by stencil printing were equivalent to those of PT/PZT fabricated by the spray technique, and better than those of other samples between room temperature and 300°C. Therefore, PT/PZT films fabricated by stencil printing could be a good candidate for nondestructive testing (NDT) ultrasonic transducers from room temperature to 300°C. PMID:26688872

  2. Developing and Evaluating a Multimodal Course Format: Danish for Knowledge Workers--Labour Market-Related Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederiksen, Karen-Margrete; Laursen, Katja Årosin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents our reflections on developing the Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) course "Danish for knowledge workers--labour market-related Danish." As defined by Laursen and Frederiksen (2015), knowledge workers are "highly educated people who typically work at universities, at other institutions of higher…

  3. Thyroid function in Danish greenhouse workers

    PubMed Central

    Toft, Gunnar; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2006-01-01

    Background From animal studies it is known that currently used pesticides can disturb thyroid function. Methods In the present study we investigated the thyroid function in 122 Danish greenhouse workers, to evaluate if greenhouse workers classified as highly exposed to pesticides experiences altered thyroid levels compared to greenhouse workers with lower exposure. Serum samples from the greenhouse workers were sampled both in the spring and the fall to evaluate if differences in pesticide use between seasons resulted in altered thyroid hormone levels. Results We found a moderate reduction of free thyroxine (FT4) (10–16%) among the persons working in greenhouses with a high spraying load both in samples collected in the spring and the fall, but none of the other measured thyroid hormones differed significantly between exposure groups in the cross-sectional comparisons. However, in longitudinal analysis of the individual thyroid hormone level between the spring and the fall, more pronounced differences where found with on average 32% higher thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level in the spring compared to the fall and at the same time a 5–9% lower total triiodthyroxin (TT3), free triiodthyroxine (FT3) and FT4. The difference between seasons was not consistently more pronounced in the group classified as high exposure compared to the low exposure groups. Conclusion The present study indicates that pesticide exposure among Danish greenhouse workers results in only minor disturbances of thyroid hormone levels. PMID:17147831

  4. Danish Ophthalmology - from start to 1865.

    PubMed

    Norn, Mogens

    2016-03-01

    This short paper mentioned the medical treatment using the 'holy' springs, the first 'eye doctor' in Denmark, the first picture of spectacles which was found in Viborg Cathedral of the high priest before he performs circumcisio praeputii on Jesus Christ, further cataract reclination in Denmark from around year zero and cataract extraction in 1667 in Denmark on a goose by Francisco Borri and on humans by the Danish Georg Heuermann in 1755. Epidemic military eye diseases in 1807, 1856 and 1865 are also described in this study. From 1856, a new ophthalmological period started in Denmark with the first eye hospital (lazaret only for eye diseases), and in 1864, patients with eye diseases were transported from the few beds in the surgical departments in the municipal hospital to the first civil eye department in Denmark, the eye hospital Sct. Annae in Copenhagen. The new scientific period started with Jacob Christian Bentz (ophthalmia granulosa, joint editor of the Danish Medical Journal) and Heinrich Lehmann. PMID:26899921

  5. Danish experiences on EIA of livestock projects

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, Per . E-mail: pc@plan.aau.dk

    2006-07-15

    Since its introduction into Danish planning in 1989, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been widely discussed. At the centre of the debate has been the question of whether EIA actually offered anything new and there has been a great deal of scepticism about the efficacy of the instrument, especially when it comes to livestock projects. In an evaluation of the Danish EIA experience, we have looked more closely at how the EIA instruments function regarding livestock projects. This article addresses both the EIA process as well as the EIA screening. It is demonstrated that the EIA screening in its own right is a kind of regulatory instrument. Examining the assessments made during screening more closely, we conclude that there is still some way to go in order to make the assessment broader and more holistic in accordance with the ambitions set out in the EIA directive to contribute to a more sustainable development. Although the provisions laid down are the same the praxis related to the field has developed at a considerable speed. In order to understand this development we have closely examined how the decisions made by the Nature Protection Board of Appeal (NPBA) have been changed and conclude that these changes definitely address some of the shortcomings found in the evaluation.

  6. The physician's civil liability under Danish law.

    PubMed

    Fenger, N; Broberg, M

    1991-01-01

    The physician's liability in Danish law is based on negligence, which is assessed by the courts largely on the basis of expert opinions. Such opinions are provided primarily by the Medico-Legal Council rather than by experts selected by the parties. The evaluation of negligence is based on a "reasonable man" standard and the performance expected of a competent colleague; a hospital will be responsible for the negligence of its employees. The burden of proof generally lies with the plaintiff; negligence will not be presumed and the assessment of the evidence of negligence will be adapted to the individual situation, e.g. factors such as the degree of specialization involved, the time which the physician had at his disposal to make his decision and the resources available to him will be taken into consideration. The courts have shown themselves willing to allow for the fact that doctors differ, i.e. recognizing that there must be scope for reasonable discretion. Because the culpa principle is central, the standard applied to medical knowledge will be that which pertained at the time of the treatment. Where a non-specialist is confronted with a problem which may go beyond the knowledge of his limits and experience, he is under an obligation to refer the patient. The principle of informed consent to treatment is accepted in Danish law, but such consent will readily be considered to have been given tacitly. PMID:23511859

  7. The Common Sense Initiative and the printing sector subcommittee

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, S.A.

    1995-12-31

    EPA`s Common Sense Initiative (CSI) is a fundamentally different vision of how to formulate environmental policy. Through this initiative, EPA has convened representatives from federal, state, and local governments, community-based and national environmental groups, environmental justice groups, labor, and industry to examine the full range of environmental requirements which affect six pilot industries. The six industries are automobile manufacturing, computers and electronics, iron and steel, metal finishing, petroleum refining and printing. These six industries form a sizeable piece of the American economy, comprising over 11% of the US Gross Domestic Product. The stakeholders are looking for opportunities to change complicated environmental regulations into comprehensive simpler strategies for environmental protection that all can agree to, with an emphasis on pollution prevention.

  8. Mod silver metallization: Screen printing and ink-jet printing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vest, R. W.; Vest, G. M.

    1985-01-01

    Basic material efforts have proven to be very successful. Adherent and conductive films were achieved. A silver neodecanoate/bismuth 2-ethylhexanoate mixture has given the best results in both single and double layer applications. Another effort is continuing to examine the feasibility of applying metallo-organic deposition films by use of an ink jet printer. Direct line writing would result in a saving of process time and materials. So far, some well defined lines have been printed.

  9. Mod silver metallization: Screen printing and ink-jet printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vest, R. W.; Vest, G. M.

    1985-06-01

    Basic material efforts have proven to be very successful. Adherent and conductive films were achieved. A silver neodecanoate/bismuth 2-ethylhexanoate mixture has given the best results in both single and double layer applications. Another effort is continuing to examine the feasibility of applying metallo-organic deposition films by use of an ink jet printer. Direct line writing would result in a saving of process time and materials. So far, some well defined lines have been printed.

  10. Grey Component Replacement In Newspaper Printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhola, Helene

    1990-06-01

    The possibilities to achieve a good four-colour print quality are much more limited in newspaper printing than in heat-set or gravure web printing. Nevertheless, the percentage of four-colour printing and, consequently, the quality requirements continue to grow in newspapers. One way of making the printer's work easier in the colour separation process is the socalled Grey Component Replacement (GCR). This technology has been available with digital scanners for several years. Our laboratory has also studied its applicability, especially in newspaper printing, on different occasions.

  11. New Format for AGU Print Journals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Bill

    2010-08-01

    AGU has adopted a new print format for Journal of Geophysical Research, Water Resources Research, Geophysical Research Letters, and Reviews of Geophysics starting with the July 2010 issues. In the new format, pages are condensed and rotated so that two pages of journal text fit side by side on one printed page. Why has AGU chosen to go this route? The rising costs of print, the decline of print subscriptions, and the need to conserve resources used in printing have led us to consider many options in delivering our journals to our customers. The most effective version, of course, is the electronic version, but many customers still require print copies for various purposes. As long as there is a demand for print, we will attempt to meet that demand and to explore all possibilities for reducing the costs of the format.

  12. 3D gel printing for soft-matter systems innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Kawakami, Masaru; Gong, Jin; Makino, Masato; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Saito, Azusa

    2015-04-01

    In the past decade, several high-strength gels have been developed, especially from Japan. These gels are expected to use as a kind of new engineering materials in the fields of industry and medical as substitutes to polyester fibers, which are materials of artificial blood vessels. We consider if various gel materials including such high-strength gels are 3D-printable, many new soft and wet systems will be developed since the most intricate shape gels can be printed regardless of the quite softness and brittleness of gels. Recently we have tried to develop an optical 3D gel printer to realize the free-form formation of gel materials. We named this apparatus Easy Realizer of Soft and Wet Industrial Materials (SWIM-ER). The SWIM-ER will be applied to print bespoke artificial organs, including artificial blood vessels, which will be possibly used for both surgery trainings and actual surgery. The SWIM-ER can print one of the world strongest gels, called Double-Network (DN) gels, by using UV irradiation through an optical fiber. Now we also are developing another type of 3D gel printer for foods, named E-Chef. We believe these new 3D gel printers will broaden the applications of soft-matter gels.

  13. Printed sectoral horn power combiner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccia, Luigi; Emanuele, Antonio; Shamsafar, Alireza; Arnieri, Emilio; Amendola, Giandomenico

    2015-02-01

    In this work, it is presented a new configuration of planar power combiner/divider based on an H-plane sectoral horn antenna. This component is proposed to realise the basic building blocks of printed power-combining amplifiers. It will be shown how the sectoral horn elements can be implemented on substrate integrated waveguide and multilayer printed circuit board technologies, thus obtaining a high integration level. In the following, the design procedure will be described reporting an example of an 11-stage power divider/combiner in C-band. A prototype has been fabricated, and the measured results compared with the numerical model. Experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical expectations showing a single-stage efficiency of about 90% and a bandwidth of 40%.

  14. 3D-Printed Microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Au, Anthony K; Huynh, Wilson; Horowitz, Lisa F; Folch, Albert

    2016-03-14

    The advent of soft lithography allowed for an unprecedented expansion in the field of microfluidics. However, the vast majority of PDMS microfluidic devices are still made with extensive manual labor, are tethered to bulky control systems, and have cumbersome user interfaces, which all render commercialization difficult. On the other hand, 3D printing has begun to embrace the range of sizes and materials that appeal to the developers of microfluidic devices. Prior to fabrication, a design is digitally built as a detailed 3D CAD file. The design can be assembled in modules by remotely collaborating teams, and its mechanical and fluidic behavior can be simulated using finite-element modeling. As structures are created by adding materials without the need for etching or dissolution, processing is environmentally friendly and economically efficient. We predict that in the next few years, 3D printing will replace most PDMS and plastic molding techniques in academia. PMID:26854878

  15. Heat sinking for printed circuitry

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, S.K.; Richardson, G.; Pinkerton, A.L.

    1984-09-11

    A flat pak or other solid-state device mounted on a printed circuit board directly over a hole extends therethrough so that the bottom of the pak or device extends beyond the bottom of the circuit board. A heat sink disposed beneath the circuit board contacts the bottom of the pak or device and provides direct heat sinking thereto. Pressure may be applied to the top of the pak or device to assure good mechanical and thermal contact with the heat sink.

  16. Annoying Danish relatives: comprehension and production of relative clauses by Danish children with and without SLI.

    PubMed

    Jensen De López, Kristine; Sundahl Olsen, Lone; Chondrogianni, Vasiliki

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with SLI and to compare errors with those produced by TD children. Eighteen children with SLI, eighteen TD age-matched (AM) and nine TD language-matched (LM) Danish-speaking children participated in a comprehension and in a production task. All children performed better on the comprehension compared with the production task, as well as on SRCs compared to ORCs and produced various avoidance strategies. In the ORC context, children with SLI produced more reversal errors than the AM children, who opted for passive ORCs. These results are discussed within current theories of SLI and indicate a deficiency with the assignment of thematic roles rather than with the structural make-up of RCs. PMID:23200200

  17. Inkjet printing of UHF antennas on corrugated cardboards for packaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowade, Enrico; Göthel, Frank; Zichner, Ralf; Baumann, Reinhard R.

    2015-03-01

    In this study, a method based on inkjet printing has been established to develop UHF antennas on a corrugated cardboard for packaging applications. The use of such a standardized, paper-based packaging substrate as material for printing electronics is challenging in terms of its high surface roughness and high ink absorption rate, especially when depositing very thin films with inkjet printing technology. However, we could obtain well-defined silver layers on the cardboard substrates due to a primer layer approach. The primer layer is based on a UV-curable ink formulation and deposited as well as the silver ink with inkjet printing technology. Industrial relevant printheads were chosen for the deposition of the materials. The usage of inkjet printing allows highest flexibility in terms of pattern design. The primer layer was proven to optimize the surface characteristics of the substrate, mainly reducing the surface roughness and water absorptiveness. Thanks to the primer layer approach, ultra-high-frequency (UHF) radio-frequency identification (RFID) antennas were deposited by inkjet printing on the corrugated cardboards. Along with the characterization and interpretation of electrical properties of the established conductive antenna patterns, the performance of the printed antennas were analyzed in detail by measuring the scattering parameter S11 and the antenna gain.

  18. Characterisation of the n-colour printing process using the spot colour overprint model.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Kiran; Green, Phil; Pointer, Michael R

    2014-12-29

    This paper is aimed at reproducing the solid spot colours using the n-colour separation. A simplified numerical method, called as the spot colour overprint (SCOP) model, was used for characterising the n-colour printing process. This model was originally developed for estimating the spot colour overprints. It was extended to be used as a generic forward characterisation model for the n-colour printing process. The inverse printer model based on the look-up table was implemented to obtain the colour separation for n-colour printing process. Finally the real-world spot colours were reproduced using 7-colour separation on lithographic offset printing process. The colours printed with 7 inks were compared against the original spot colours to evaluate the accuracy. The results show good accuracy with the mean CIEDE2000 value between the target colours and the printed colours of 2.06. The proposed method can be used successfully to reproduce the spot colours, which can potentially save significant time and cost in the printing and packaging industry. PMID:25607147

  19. Regulatory Considerations in the Design and Manufacturing of Implantable 3D-Printed Medical Devices.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Robert J; Kashlan, Khaled N; Flanangan, Colleen L; Wright, Jeanne K; Green, Glenn E; Hollister, Scott J; Weatherwax, Kevin J

    2015-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing, or additive manufacturing, technology has rapidly penetrated the medical device industry over the past several years, and innovative groups have harnessed it to create devices with unique composition, structure, and customizability. These distinctive capabilities afforded by 3D printing have introduced new regulatory challenges. The customizability of 3D-printed devices introduces new complexities when drafting a design control model for FDA consideration of market approval. The customizability and unique build processes of 3D-printed medical devices pose unique challenges in meeting regulatory standards related to the manufacturing quality assurance. Consistent material powder properties and optimal printing parameters such as build orientation and laser power must be addressed and communicated to the FDA to ensure a quality build. Postprinting considerations unique to 3D-printed devices, such as cleaning, finishing and sterilization are also discussed. In this manuscript we illustrate how such regulatory hurdles can be navigated by discussing our experience with our group's 3D-printed bioresorbable implantable device. PMID:26243449

  20. 3D Printed Bionic Ears

    PubMed Central

    Mannoor, Manu S.; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A.; Soboyejo, Winston O.; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H.; McAlpine, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the precise anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  1. 3D printed bionic ears.

    PubMed

    Mannoor, Manu S; Jiang, Ziwen; James, Teena; Kong, Yong Lin; Malatesta, Karen A; Soboyejo, Winston O; Verma, Naveen; Gracias, David H; McAlpine, Michael C

    2013-06-12

    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing. PMID:23635097

  2. Commercial and industrial applications of color ink jet: a technological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunand, Alain

    1996-03-01

    In just 5 years, color ink-jet has become the dominant technology for printing color images and graphics in the office and home markets. In commercial printing, the traditional printing processes are being influenced by new digital techniques. Color ink-jet proofing, and concepts such as computer to film/plate or digital processes are contributing to the evolution of the industry. In industrial color printing, the penetration of digital techniques is just beginning. All widely used conventional contact printing technologies involve mechanical printing forms including plates, screens or engraved cylinders. Such forms, which need to be newly created and set up for each job, increase costs. In our era of fast changing customer demands, growing needs for customization, and increasing use of digital exchange of information, the commercial and industrial printing markets represent an enormous potential for digital printing technologies. The adoption characteristics for the use of color ink-jet in these industries are discussed. Examples of color ink-jet applications in the fields of billboard printing, floor/wall covering decoration, and textile printing are described. The requirements on print quality, productivity, reliability, substrate compatibility, and color lead to the consideration of various types of ink-jet technologies. Key technical enabling factors and directions for future improvements are presented.

  3. Precisionism: Art in the Industrial Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Brianna

    2006-01-01

    A result of the industrial age was a short-lived but powerful new American art movement called Precisionism, most evident in painting, but visible also in drawing, photography, and print-making, focusing on industrial and mechanical subjects. Precisionism originated in the 1920s, allied with European Cubism's fascination with shape and geometric…

  4. From 3D view to 3D print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dima, M.; Farisato, G.; Bergomi, M.; Viotto, V.; Magrin, D.; Greggio, D.; Farinato, J.; Marafatto, L.; Ragazzoni, R.; Piazza, D.

    2014-08-01

    In the last few years 3D printing is getting more and more popular and used in many fields going from manufacturing to industrial design, architecture, medical support and aerospace. 3D printing is an evolution of bi-dimensional printing, which allows to obtain a solid object from a 3D model, realized with a 3D modelling software. The final product is obtained using an additive process, in which successive layers of material are laid down one over the other. A 3D printer allows to realize, in a simple way, very complex shapes, which would be quite difficult to be produced with dedicated conventional facilities. Thanks to the fact that the 3D printing is obtained superposing one layer to the others, it doesn't need any particular work flow and it is sufficient to simply draw the model and send it to print. Many different kinds of 3D printers exist based on the technology and material used for layer deposition. A common material used by the toner is ABS plastics, which is a light and rigid thermoplastic polymer, whose peculiar mechanical properties make it diffusely used in several fields, like pipes production and cars interiors manufacturing. I used this technology to create a 1:1 scale model of the telescope which is the hardware core of the space small mission CHEOPS (CHaracterising ExOPlanets Satellite) by ESA, which aims to characterize EXOplanets via transits observations. The telescope has a Ritchey-Chrétien configuration with a 30cm aperture and the launch is foreseen in 2017. In this paper, I present the different phases for the realization of such a model, focusing onto pros and cons of this kind of technology. For example, because of the finite printable volume (10×10×12 inches in the x, y and z directions respectively), it has been necessary to split the largest parts of the instrument in smaller components to be then reassembled and post-processed. A further issue is the resolution of the printed material, which is expressed in terms of layers

  5. Watermarking and copyright labeling of printed images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hel-Or, Hagit Z.

    2001-07-01

    Digital watermarking is a labeling technique for digital images which embeds a code into the digital data so the data are marked. Watermarking techniques previously developed deal with on-line digital data. These techniques have been developed to withstand digital attacks such as image processing, image compression and geometric transformations. However, one must also consider the readily available attack of printing and scanning. The available watermarking techniques are not reliable under printing and scanning. In fact, one must consider the availability of watermarks for printed images as well as for digital images. An important issue is to intercept and prevent forgery in printed material such as currency notes, back checks, etc. and to track and validate sensitive and secrete printed material. Watermarking in such printed material can be used not only for verification of ownership but as an indicator of date and type of transaction or date and source of the printed data. In this work we propose a method of embedding watermarks in printed images by inherently taking advantage of the printing process. The method is visually unobtrusive to the printed image, the watermark is easily extracted and is robust under reconstruction errors. The decoding algorithm is automatic given the watermarked image.

  6. Biosurface engineering through ink jet printing.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohidus Samad; Fon, Deniece; Li, Xu; Tian, Junfei; Forsythe, John; Garnier, Gil; Shen, Wei

    2010-02-01

    The feasibility of thermal ink jet printing as a robust process for biosurface engineering was demonstrated. The strategy investigated was to reconstruct a commercial printer and take advantage of its colour management interface. High printing resolution was achieved by formulating bio-inks of viscosity and surface tension similar to those of commercial inks. Protein and enzyme denaturation during thermal ink jet printing was shown to be insignificant. This is because the time spent by the biomolecules in the heating zone of the printer is negligible; in addition, the air and substrate of high heat capacity absorb any residual heat from the droplet. Gradients of trophic/tropic factors can serve as driving force for cell growth or migration for tissue regeneration. Concentration gradients of proteins were printed on scaffolds to show the capability of ink jet printing. The printed proteins did not desorb upon prolonged immersion in aqueous solutions, thus allowing printed scaffold to be used under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Our group portrait was ink jet printed with a protein on paper, illustrating that complex biopatterns can be printed on large area. Finally, patterns of enzymes were ink jet printed within the detection and reaction zones of a paper diagnostic. PMID:19879112

  7. New Approaches for Printed Electronics Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, Ankit

    In printed electronics, electronic inks are patterned onto flexible substrates using roll-to-roll (R2R) compatible graphic printing methods. For applications where large-area, conformal electronics are necessary, printed electronics holds a competitive advantage over rigid, semiconductor circuitry, which does not scale efficiently to large areas. However, in order to fully realize the true potential of printed electronics, several manufacturing hurdles need to be overcome. Firstly, minimum feature sizes produced by graphic printing methods are typically greater than 25 microm, which is at least an order of magnitude higher for dense, high performing electronics. In this thesis, conductive features down to 1.5 microm are demonstrated using a novel inkjet printing-based process. Secondly, high-resolution printed conductors usually have poor current-carrying capacity, especially for longer wires in large-area applications. This thesis explores the fundamentals of aerosol-jet printing and reveals the regime for printing high-resolution lines with excellent current carrying capacity. Additionally, a novel manufacturing process is demonstrated, which can process 2.5 microm wide conductive wires with linear resistances as small as 5 O mm -1. Another challenge for printed electronics manufacturing is to deal with topography produced on the substrate surface by printed features. Besides complicating the subsequent use of contact-printing methods, surface topography is a source of poor device yields as well. This thesis describes two novel methodologies of creating topography-free printed surfaces. In the first method, nanometer-level smooth, planarized silver lines are obtained using a transfer printing approach. In the second method, open microchannels, imprinted in plastic substrates, are filled with a controlled amount of metal using liquid-based additive processes, to obtain conductive wires flush with the substrate surface. Finally, this thesis addresses the issue of

  8. Explicit Sex--Liberation or Exploitation: Danish "Permissiveness" Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachy, Victor

    1976-01-01

    Reviews various Danish legislative actions leading up to the lifting of the ban on pornography, and discusses possible consequences of such liberalization by analyzing police statistics from a five year period. (MH)

  9. Is the Danish wind energy model replicable for other countries?

    SciTech Connect

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Lindboe, Hans H.; Odgaard, Ole

    2008-03-15

    Though aspects of the Danish wind energy model are unique, policymakers might do well to imitate such aspects as a strong political commitment, consistent policy mechanisms, and an incremental, ''hands-on'' approach to R and D. (author)

  10. Plasma jet printing for flexible substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandhiraman, Ram P.; Singh, Eric; Diaz-Cartagena, Diana C.; Nordlund, Dennis; Koehne, Jessica; Meyyappan, M.

    2016-03-01

    Recent interest in flexible electronics and wearable devices has created a demand for fast and highly repeatable printing processes suitable for device manufacturing. Robust printing technology is critical for the integration of sensors and other devices on flexible substrates such as paper and textile. An atmospheric pressure plasma-based printing process has been developed to deposit different types of nanomaterials on flexible substrates. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes were deposited on paper to demonstrate site-selective deposition as well as direct printing without any type of patterning. Plasma-printed nanotubes were compared with non-plasma-printed samples under similar gas flow and other experimental conditions and found to be denser with higher conductivity. The utility of the nanotubes on the paper substrate as a biosensor and chemical sensor was demonstrated by the detection of dopamine, a neurotransmitter, and ammonia, respectively.