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Sample records for danish wheat varieties

  1. Policosanol contents and compositions of wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Irmak, Sibel; Dunford, Nurhan Turgut

    2005-07-13

    Policosanol (PC) is the common name for a mixture of high molecular weight (20-36 carbon) aliphatic primary alcohols, which are constituents of plant epicuticular waxes. Wheat germ oil has been reported to improve human physical fitness, and this effect is attributed to its high PC, specifically its high octacosanol (OC) content. Although the PC composition of wheat leaves has been studied extensively, information on PC content and composition of wheat grain fractions is scarce. The objective of this study was to examine the PC contents and compositions of wheat grain fractions of 31 varieties grown in Oklahoma. PC compositions of the samples were identified using a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer. The PC content of wheat bran was higher than that of the germ, shorts, and flour. The Trego and Intrada varieties had the highest PC content among the 31 wheat varieties studied. Tetracosanol (C24), hexacosanol (C26), and OC (C28) were the major PC components in all varieties. This study showed that wheat varieties grown under identical growing conditions and management differ significantly in PC content and composition. PMID:15998118

  2. Nutritional composition of Pakistani wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Ikhtiar, Khan; Alam, Zeb

    2007-08-01

    Pakistani wheat varieties are grown over a wide agro-climatic range and as such are anticipated to exhibit yield and quality differences. It is therefore necessary to investigate the nutritional status of wheat varieties in terms of biochemical and physiochemical characteristics available for food and nutritional purposes in Pakistan. The result shows that wheat grains of different varieties contain a net protein level of 9.15%-10.27%, 2.15%-2.55% total fats, 1.72%-1.85% dietary fibers, 77.65x10(-6)-84.25x10(-6) of potassium and 7.70x10(-6)-35.90x10(-6) of sodium ions concentration, 0.24x10(-6)-0.84x10(-6) of phosphorus, 1.44%-2.10% ash, 31.108-43.602 g of thousand grain mass (TGM) and 8.38%-9.67% moisture contents. This study is significant in providing an opportunity to explore the available wheat varieties and to further improve their nutritional excellence and also essential for setting nutritional regulations for domestic and export purposes. PMID:17657856

  3. Selecting wheat varieties for tortilla production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat flour tortillas are the second most consumed bread product behind white pan bread. Manufactured tortillas are formulated with highly viscoelastic hard red wheat flours selected and grown for bread making. However, the inherent properties of the bread making flours require costly reducing agent...

  4. Making better decisions: 2014 Colorado winter wheat variety performance trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers need timely reports of varietal performance for making informed variety selection for their farms each year. The objective of this document is to provide a yield and performance summary of the last three years of winter wheat variety trials run at multiple locations in eastern Colorado. Fort...

  5. Characterization of Wheat Varieties Using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Hongyi; Jiang, Yuying; Lian, Feiyu; Zhang, Yuan; Xia, Shanhong

    2015-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis were explored to discriminate eight wheat varieties. The absorption spectra were measured using THz time-domain spectroscopy from 0.2 to 2.0 THz. Using partial least squares (PLS), a regression model for discriminating wheat varieties was developed. The coefficient of correlation in cross validation (R) and root-mean-square error of cross validation (RMSECV) were 0.985 and 1.162, respectively. In addition, interval PLS was applied to optimize the models by selecting the most appropriate regions in the spectra, improving the prediction accuracy (R = 0.992 and RMSECV = 0.967). Results demonstrate that THz spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis can provide rapid, nondestructive discrimination of wheat varieties. PMID:26024421

  6. Spectral behavior of wheat yield variety trials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Little variation between varieties is seen at jointing, but the variability is found to increase during grain filling and decline again at maturity. No relationship is found between spectral response and yield, and when yields are segregated into various classes the spectral response is the same. Spring and winter nurseries are found to separate during the reproductive stage because of differences in dates of heading and maturity, but they exhibit similar spectral responses. The transformed normalized difference is at a minimum after the maximum grain weight occurs and the leaves begin to brown and fall off. These data of 100% ground cover demonstrate that it is not possible to predict grain yield from only spectral data. This, however, may not apply when reduced yields are caused by less-than-full ground cover

  7. [Disease index inversion of wheat stripe rust on different wheat varieties with hyperspectral remote sensing].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jie-Bin; Huang, Chong; Wang, Hai-Guang; Sun, Zhen-Yu; Ma, Zhan-Hong

    2009-12-01

    It is becoming more and more important to use mixed wheat varieties to control wheat stripe rust. Different wheat varieties were planted in field and stripe rust was caused by artificial inoculation. Disease index (DI) was assessed and the canopy reflection data of wheat canopy were obtained by ASD FieldSpec HandHeld FR(325-1 075 nm) made by ASD Company. The correlation analysis between DI and spectral data (reflectance and the first derivative) was conducted, and the estimation models between DI and reflection data (reflectance at 690 and 850 nm, SDr, NDVI and RVI) were built using linear regression method. The results showed that different combinations of wheat varieties had the similar variation at different disease index. DI has positive correlation with reflectance of wheat canopy in visible region, and has significant negative correlation in the near infrared region. DI has stable negative correlation with the first derivative in the region of 700-760 nm and with big fluctuation in other regions. The correlation was compared between DI and hyperspectral derivative index, and SDr has the best correlation with DI. DI estimation models were built based on the canopy reflectance at 690 and 850 nm, SDr, NDVI and RVI. The determinant coefficient of the models is between 0.588 and 0.855, 0.669 and 0.911, 0.534 and 0.773, and 0.587 and 0.751, respectively, and all the models were fit well. The results indicated that DI of wheat stripe rust could be inverted using hyperspectral remote sensing technique and that the inversion effect was hardly influenced by the different combinations of wheat varieties. PMID:20210168

  8. WWC REPORT: 2006 PREFERRED WHEAT VARIETIES FOR WASHINGTON BASED ON END-USE QUALITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meeting customers' demands for quality is key to the short and long term health of the wheat industry in Washington. The USDA ARS Western Wheat Quality Laboratory (WWQL) has been working in close association with the Washington Wheat Commission and WSU to develop a system of scoring wheat varieties...

  9. Physical, textural, and antioxidant properties of extruded waxy wheat bran snack utilizing several varieties of bran

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat represents a ubiquitous commodity and while industries valorize 10% of wheat bran, most of this antioxidant-rich byproduct gets discarded. The objective of this study was to incorporate wheat bran into an extruded snack. Bran varieties from hard red spring, white club Bruehl, and purple whea...

  10. Identification of wheat varieties with a parallel-plate capacitance sensor using fisher linear discriminant analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fisher’s linear discriminant (FLD) models for wheat variety classification were developed and validated. The inputs to the FLD models were the capacitance (C), impedance (Z), and phase angle ('), measured at two frequencies. Classification of wheat varieties was obtained as output of the FLD mod...

  11. Fusarium head blight resistance loci in a stratified population of wheat landraces and varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine if Chinese and Japanese wheat landraces and varieties have unique sources of Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance, an association mapping panel of 195 wheat accessions including both commercial varieties and landraces was genotyped with 364 genome-wide simple sequence repeat (SSR) and ...

  12. Registration of isogenic HMW-GS Ax1 protein deficient lines of an elite wheat variety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of isogenic wheat lines deficient in high-molecular weight subunit (HMW-GS) proteins encoded on the A-genome of an elite variety of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by USDA-ARS at the Western Regional Research Center in Albany, CA. This set of A-genome encoded HMW-GS defi...

  13. Metabolic Biomarker Panels of Response to Fusarium Head Blight Infection in Different Wheat Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Forseille, Lily; Boyle, Kerry; Merkley, Nadine; Burton, Ian; Fobert, Pierre R.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic changes in spikelets of wheat varieties FL62R1, Stettler, Muchmore and Sumai3 following Fusarium graminearum infection were explored using NMR analysis. Extensive 1D and 2D 1H NMR measurements provided information for detailed metabolite assignment and quantification leading to possible metabolic markers discriminating resistance level in wheat subtypes. In addition, metabolic changes that are observed in all studied varieties as well as wheat variety specific changes have been determined and discussed. A new method for metabolite quantification from NMR data that automatically aligns spectra of standards and samples prior to quantification using multivariate linear regression optimization of spectra of assigned metabolites to samples’ 1D spectra is described and utilized. Fusarium infection-induced metabolic changes in different wheat varieties are discussed in the context of metabolic network and resistance. PMID:27101152

  14. Bioavailability to rats of iron in six varieties of wheat grain intrinsically labeled with radioiron

    SciTech Connect

    House, W.A.; Welch, R.M.

    1987-03-01

    Bioavailability to anemic rats of iron in six varieties of wheat grain was assessed by a whole-body radioassay procedure. Intrinsically labeled kernels were harvested from plants grown in /sup 59/Fe-labeled nutrient solutions. The varieties used were selected from 18 varieties of field-grown wheat grain that were analyzed for iron, protein and phytate content. Concentrations of iron, phytate and protein in grain of field-grown varieties ranged from 34 to 55 ppm, 0.7 to 1.2% dry wt and 11.3 to 15.4% dry wt, respectively. In grain from varieties grown in nutrient solutions, iron, phytate and protein concentrations ranged from 35 to 50 ppm, 1 to 1.2% dry wt, and 13.8 to 16.8% dry wt, respectively. Depending on the variety of intrinsically labeled grain fed in test meals to anemic rats (hemoglobin averaged 5.8 g/dL), absorption of /sup 59/Fe ranged from about 62 to 74% of the dose; differences among varieties were not significant (P greater than 0.05). Rats fed /sup 59/Fe-labeled FeCl/sub 3/ absorbed about 71% of the dose, which was similar to the average amount (69% of dose) absorbed by rats fed wheat. We concluded that selection of wheat varieties for increased yield or protein content has not adversely affected the bioavailability of iron in the grain.

  15. Re-discovering ancient wheat varieties as functional foods.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Raymond

    2015-07-01

    With the gluten-free food market worth almost $1.6 bn in 2011, there is every reason for renewed interest in ancient grains. This resurgent interest is expressed in re-discovering ancient varieties as functional foods. In particular, people affected by celiac disease have to avoid all gluten in their diet and several ancient grains may offer an important alternative. PMID:26151025

  16. Re-discovering ancient wheat varieties as functional foods

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    With the gluten-free food market worth almost $1.6 bn in 2011, there is every reason for renewed interest in ancient grains. This resurgent interest is expressed in re-discovering ancient varieties as functional foods. In particular, people affected by celiac disease have to avoid all gluten in their diet and several ancient grains may offer an important alternative. PMID:26151025

  17. RNA interference targeting rye secalins alters flour protein composition in a wheat variety carrying a 1Bl.1RS translocation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat varieties carrying chromosome translocations from rye are part of the international wheat breeding pool, despite being associated with defects in dough processing quality. Among the proposed causes for the quality defects of flours from such wheats is the presence of the secalins, encoded by ...

  18. [The Classification of Wheat Varieties Based on Near Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging and Information Fusion].

    PubMed

    Dong, Gao; Guo, Jiani; Wang, Cheng; Chen, Zi-long; Zheng, Ling; Zhu, Da-zhou

    2015-12-01

    Hyperspectral imaging technology has great potential in the identification of crop varieties because it contains both image information and spectral information for the object. But so far most studies only used the spectral information, the image information has not been effectively utilized. In this study, hyperspectral images of single seed of three types including strong gluten wheat, medium gluten wheat, and weak gluten wheat were collected by near infrared hyperspectra imager, 12 morphological characteristics such as length, width, rectangularity, circularity and eccentricity were extracted, the average spectra of endosperm and embryo were acquired by the mask which was created by image segmentation. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLADA) and least squares support vector machine (LSSVM) were used to construct the classification model with image information, results showed that the binary classification accuracy between strong gluten wheat and weak gluten wheat could achieve 98%, for strong gluten wheat and medium gluten wheat, it was only 74.22%, which indicated that hyperspectral images could reflect the differences of varieties, but the accuracy might be poor when recognizing the varieties just by image information. Soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA), PLSDA and LSSVM were used to established the classification model with spectral information, the classification effect of endosperm is slightly better than the embryo, it demonstrated that the grain shape could influence the classification accuracy. Then, we fused the spectral and image information, SIMCA, PLSDA and LSSVM were used to established the identification model, the fusion model showed better performance than the individual image model and spectral model, the classification accuracy which used the PLSDA raise from 96.67% to 98.89%, it showed that digging the morphological and spectral characteristics of the hyperspectral image could effectively improve the classification

  19. [Identification of 1AL/1RS translocation in winter common wheat varieties of Ukrainian selection].

    PubMed

    Kozub, N O; Sozinov, I O; Koliuchyĭ, V T; Vlasenko, V A; Sobko, T O; Sozinov, O O

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of alcohol-soluble protein (gliadin) patterns of a group of winter common wheat varieties from different breeding centers of Ukraine resulted in identification of six varieties with the rye 1AL/1RS translocation. The line 7086 AR also carries this translocation. The identified 1AL/1RS translocation is similar to that of the variety Amigo in the secalin pattern. The appearance of this translocation in varieties developed in different breeding centers of the forest-steppe of Ukraine indicates its involvement in coadaptive gene associations. PMID:16396327

  20. Impact of Solid and Hollow Varieties of Winter and Spring Wheat on Severity of Wheat Stem Sawfly (Hymenoptera: Cephidae) Infestations and Yield and Quality of Grain.

    PubMed

    Szczepaniec, Adrianna; Glover, Karl D; Berzonsky, William

    2015-10-01

    Wheat stem sawfly (WSS), Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), has recently emerged as a key pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains and Canadian provinces. The expanding impact of WSS has caused considerable economic losses to wheat production. Solid-stem varieties of wheat remain the only effective measure of suppression of WSS, and the goal of this research was to test whether five solid- and hollow-stem varieties of winter and spring wheat reduce survival of WSS in South Dakota. We reported that solid-stem varieties had significantly lower numbers of WSS larvae, and this effect was especially evident when WSS infestation rates exceeded 15%. We also observed that the yield of solid-stem varieties was significantly lower than hollow-stem varieties when the abundance of WSS was low, but not when populations of WSS were relatively high. We did not observe consistent differences in grain quality between solid- and hollow-stem varieties, however, and in case of protein levels of grain, solid-stem wheat varieties performed better than hollow-stem wheat. We conclude that solid-stem varieties of wheat appear to effectively suppress WSS survival, and reduced yield of these varieties is less apparent when populations of C. cinctus are high enough to affect the yield of hollow-stem wheat. This is the first report to describe the effectiveness of solid-stem varieties of wheat on WSS in South Dakota. More research in the state is necessary before more robust conclusions can be drawn. PMID:26453720

  1. Comparison of bloat potential between a variety of soft-red versus a variety of hard-red winter wheat forage.

    PubMed

    Akins, M S; Kegley, E B; Coffey, K P; Caldwell, J D; Lusby, K S; Moore, J C; Coblentz, W K

    2009-10-01

    Some aspects of wheat pasture bloat have been researched extensively, but few studies have evaluated the effect of wheat type or variety on bloat. Eight Gelbvieh x Angus ruminally cannulated heifers (515 +/- 49 kg of BW) and 48 Angus heifers (238 +/- 12 kg of BW) grazed 1-ha pastures of hard-red or soft-red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to evaluate the effect of wheat variety on bloat potential. In Exp. 1, cattle grazed from November 11 to 22 and from November 26 to December 7, 2006, in a crossover design. In Exp. 2, cattle were shrunk for 20 h and then grazed from December 19 to 20, 2006, and from January 19 to 20, 2007. In both experiments, bloat was scored at 1000 and 1600 h daily. Rumen samples were collected at 0600, 1200, and 1800 h during each of the last 2 d of each period in Exp. 1 and during both days of each period of Exp. 2. Rumen samples were evaluated for pH, foam production and strength, and viscosity. In Exp. 1, cannulated heifers grazing soft-red had a greater (P < 0.01) percentage of observed bloat (21.9 vs. 5.6%) than those grazing hard-red winter wheat, but bloat incidence was low (2.1%) for the stocker cattle, with no difference between hard-red and soft-red winter wheat (P = 0.52). Viscosity of the rumen fluid was affected (P = 0.03) by the wheat variety x time interaction, with soft-red at 1200 and 1800 h being more viscous than soft-red at 0600 h and hard-red at all times. Foam strength, as determined by bubbling CO(2) gas through rumen fluid, had a wheat variety x time interaction (P = 0.02) with both wheat varieties similar at 0600 h but soft-red having greater foam strength at 1200 and 1800 h. In Exp. 2, no bloat was observed, and no differences between wheat varieties were observed for any of the rumen foam measures. Therefore, for these 2 varieties, the soft-red winter wheat had a greater bloat potential than the hard-red winter wheat based on results from the cannulated heifers, but no differences were observed in the frequency

  2. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure Analysis of European Hexaploid Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Nanna Hellum; Backes, Gunter; Stougaard, Jens; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj; Jahoor, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Progress in plant breeding is facilitated by accurate information about genetic structure and diversity. Here, Diversity Array Technology (DArT) was used to characterize a population of 94 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties of mainly European origin. In total, 1,849 of 7,000 tested markers were polymorphic and could be used for population structure analysis. Two major subgroups of wheat varieties, GrI and GrII, were identified using the program STRUCTURE, and confirmed by principal component analysis (PCA). These subgroups were largely separated according to origin; GrI comprised varieties from Southern and Eastern Europe, whereas GrII contained mostly modern varieties from Western and Northern Europe. A large proportion of the markers contributing most to the genetic separation of the subgroups were located on chromosome 2D near the Reduced height 8 (Rht8) locus, and PCR-based genotyping suggested that breeding for the Rht8 allele had a major impact on subgroup separation. Consistently, analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) suggested that different selective pressures had acted on chromosome 2D in the two subgroups. Our data provides an overview of the allele composition of bread wheat varieties anchored to DArT markers, which will facilitate targeted combination of alleles following DArT-based QTL studies. In addition, the genetic diversity and distance data combined with specific Rht8 genotypes can now be used by breeders to guide selection of crossing parents. PMID:24718292

  3. Tripartite Interactions of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus, Sitobion avenae and Wheat Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Xiang-Shun; Keller, Mike A.; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Wu, Yun-Feng; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2014-01-01

    The tripartite interactions in a pathosystem involving wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), and the BYDV vector aphid Sitobion avenae were studied under field conditions to determine the impact of these interactions on aphid populations, virus pathology and grain yield. Wheat varietal resistance to BYDV and aphids varied among the three wheat varieties studied over two consecutive years. The results demonstrated that (1) aphid peak number (APN) in the aphid + BYDV (viruliferous aphid) treatment was greater and occurred earlier than that in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment. The APN and the area under the curve of population dynamics (AUC) on a S. avenae-resistant variety 98-10-30 was significantly lower than on two aphid-susceptible varieties Tam200(13)G and Xiaoyan6. (2) The production of alatae (PA) was greater on the variety 98-10-30 than on the other varieties, and PA was greater in the aphid + BYDV treatment on 98-10-30 than in the non-viruliferous aphid treatment, but this trend was reversed on Tam200(13)G and Xiaoyan6. (3) The BYDV disease incidence (DIC) on the variety 98-10-30 was greater than that on the other two varieties in 2012, and the disease index (DID) on Tam200(13)G was lower than on the other varieties in the aphid + BYDV and BYDV treatments in 2012, but not in 2011 when aphid vector numbers were generally lower. (4) Yield loss in the aphid + BYDV treatment tended to be greater than that in the aphid or BYDV alone treatments across varieties and years. We suggested that aphid population development and BYDV transmission tend to promote each other under field conditions. The aphids + BYDV treatment caused greater yield reductions than non-viruliferous aphids or virus treatment. Wheat varietal resistance in 98-10-30 affects the aphid dispersal, virus transmission and wheat yield loss though inhibits aphid populations from increasing. PMID:25184214

  4. Application of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for the identification of wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Amir, Rai Muhammad; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Khan, Muhammad Issa; Khan, Moazzam Rafiq; Pasha, Imran; Nadeem, Muhammad

    2013-10-01

    Quality characteristics of wheat are determined by different physiochemical and rheological analysis by using different AACC methods. AACC methods are expensive, time consuming and cause destruction of samples. Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is one of the most important and emerging tool used for analyzing wheat for different quality parameters. This technique is rapid and sensitive with a great variety of sampling techniques. In the present study different wheat varieties were analyzed for quality assessment and were also characterized by using AACC methods and FTIR technique. The straight grade flour was analyzed for physical, chemical and rheological properties by standard methods and results were obtained. FTIR works on the basis of functional groups and provide information in the form of peaks. On basis of peaks the value of moisture, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrates and hardness of grain were determined. Peaks for water were observed in the range 1,640 cm(-1) and 3,300 cm(-1) on the basis of functional group H and OH. Protein was observed in the range from 1,600 cm(-1) to 1,700 cm(-1) and 1,550 cm(-1) to 1,570 cm(-1) on the basis of bond amide I and amide II respectively. Fat was also observed within these ranges but on the basis of C-H bond and also starch was observed in the range from 2,800 and 3,000 cm(-1) (C-H stretch region) and in the range 3,000 and 3,600 cm(-1) (O-H stretch region). As FTIR is a fast tool it can be easily emplyed for wheat varieties identification according to a set criterion. PMID:24426012

  5. Repeatability of mice consumption discrimination of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties across field experiments and mouse cohorts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole grain wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) foods can provide critical nutrients for health and nutrition in the human diet. However, undesirable flavors are often suggested as a barrier to increased whole-grain consumption, yet flavor differences among wheat varieties have not been widely studied. Pot...

  6. Prevalence of puroindoline alleles in wheat varieties from eastern Asia including the discovery of a new SNP in puroindoline b.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kernel texture (grain hardness) in common wheat, Triticum aestivum L., is of primary technological importance and is largely determined by puroindoline gene sequence and expression. We investigated the puroindoline haplotype of 246 Asian common wheat varieties. All but three were conclusively chara...

  7. Mapping a stripe rust resistance gene YrC591 in wheat variety C591 with SSR and AFLP marker

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici (PST), is one of the most destructive diseases of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). To determine inheritance of stripe rust resistance and map the resistance gene(s) in wheat variety C591, F1, F2, and F3 progenies derived from th...

  8. Planting Date and Variety Selection for Management of Viruses Transmitted by the Wheat Curl Mite (Acari: Eriophyidae).

    PubMed

    McMechan, Anthony J; Hein, Gary L

    2016-02-01

    Wheat is an important food grain worldwide, and it is the primary dryland crop in the western Great Plains. A complex of three viruses (Wheat streak mosaic, Wheat mosaic, and Triticum mosaic viruses) is a common cause of loss in winter wheat production in the Great Plains. All these viruses are transmitted by the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella Keifer). Once these viruses are established, there are no curative actions; therefore, prevention is the key to successful management. A study was designed to evaluate preventative management tactics (planting date, resistant varieties) for reducing the impact from this virus complex. The main plot treatments were three planting dates, and split-plot treatments were three wheat varieties. Varieties were planted at three different times during the fall to simulate early, recommended, and late planting dates. The varieties evaluated in this study were Mace (virus resistant), Millennium (mild tolerance), and Tomahawk (susceptible). Measurements of virus symptomology and yield were used to determine virus impact. Results consistently showed that the resistant Mace yielded more than Millennium or Tomahawk under virus pressure. In some years, delayed planting improved the yields for all varieties, regardless of their background; however, under the most severe virus pressure the combination of both management strategies was not sufficient to provide practical control of this complex. These results illustrate the importance of using a combination of management tactics for this complex, but also reinforce the importance for producers to use additional management strategies (e.g., control preharvest volunteer wheat) to manage this complex. PMID:26516091

  9. Diversity in quality traits amongst Indian wheat varieties I: flour and protein characteristics.

    PubMed

    Katyal, Mehak; Virdi, Amardeep Singh; Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder; Kaur, Seeratpreet; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2016-03-01

    The relationships of polymeric as well as monomeric proteins (unextractable and extractable) with various flour properties amongst Indian wheat varieties were evaluated. Unextractable polymeric proteins and unextractable monomeric proteins in flours ranged from 23.83% to 51.97% and 48.03% to 76.17%, respectively. Varieties with higher grain hardness index resulted into flours with higher a(∗), ash content and protein content. Unextractable polymeric and monomeric proteins were related to grain hardness index. Unextractable polymeric proteins showed a positive correlation with gluten index and LASRC. Majority of varieties with HMW-GS combinations of 91kDa+80kDa+78kDa+74kDa PPs showed very high grain hardness index (97-100). PMID:26471563

  10. Association Mapping and Validation of QTLs for Flour Yield in the Soft Winter Wheat Variety Kitahonami

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Goro; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Ito, Hiroyuki; Saito, Mika; Sato, Mikako; Jinno, Hironobu; Yoshimura, Yasuhiro; Nishimura, Tsutomu; Maejima, Hidekazu; Uehara, Yasushi; Kobayashi, Fuminori; Nakamura, Toshiki

    2014-01-01

    The winter wheat variety Kitahonami shows a superior flour yield in comparison to other Japanese soft wheat varieties. To map the quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with this trait, association mapping was performed using a panel of lines from Kitahonami’s pedigree, along with leading Japanese varieties and advanced breeding lines. Using a mixed linear model corrected for kernel types and familial relatedness, 62 marker-trait associations for flour yield were identified and classified into 21 QTLs. In eighteen of these, Kitahonami alleles showed positive effects. Pedigree analysis demonstrated that a continuous pyramiding of QTLs had occurred throughout the breeding history of Kitahonami. Linkage analyses using three sets of doubled haploid populations from crosses in which Kitahonami was used as a parent were performed, leading to the validation of five of the eight QTLs tested. Among these, QTLs on chromosomes 3B and 7A showed highly significant and consistent effects across the three populations. This study shows that pedigree-based association mapping using breeding materials can be a useful method for QTL identification at the early stages of breeding programs. PMID:25360619

  11. Synthesis and role of salicylic acid in wheat varieties with different levels of cadmium tolerance.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Viktória; Gondor, Orsolya K; Szalai, Gabriella; Darkó, Eva; Majláth, Imre; Janda, Tibor; Pál, Magda

    2014-09-15

    Wheat genotypes with different endogenous SA contents were investigated, in order to reveal how cadmium influences salicylic acid (SA) synthesis, and to find possible relationships between SA and certain protective compounds (members of the antioxidants and the heavy metal detoxification system) and between the SA content and the level of cadmium tolerance. Cadmium exposure induced SA synthesis, especially in the leaves, and it is suggested that the phenyl-propanoid synthesis pathway is responsible for the accumulation of SA observed after cadmium stress. Cadmium influenced the synthesis and activation of protective compounds to varying extents in wheat genotypes with different levels of tolerance; the roots and leaves also responded differently to cadmium stress. Although a direct relationship was not found between the initial SA levels and the degree of cadmium tolerance, the results suggest that the increase in the root SA level during cadmium stress in the Mv varieties could be related with the enhancement of the internal glutathione cycle, thus inducing the antioxidant and metal detoxification systems, which promote Cd stress tolerance in wheat seedlings. The positive correlation between certain SA-related compounds and protective compounds suggests that SA-related signalling may also play a role in the acclimation to heavy metal stress. PMID:25113613

  12. Determination compliance abilities of some triticale varieties and comparison with wheat in Southeastern Anatolia conditions of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kendal, Enver; Tekdal, Sertaç; Aktas, Hüsnü; Karaman, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    In this research, were used 3 triticale varieties (Tacettinbey, Karma 2000 and Presto), one durum (Sariçanak 98) and one bread (Nurkent) wheat varieties. The study, was randomized as complete block design with four replications in 4 location (southeastern Anatolia of Turkey) and under rainfed conditions during the growing season 2010-2011. With an analysis of variance, significant differences were determined among locations, genotypes and genotype x location interactions at the 1% and 5% level. Following results were obtained: period to heading 109 till 113 days, plant height between 96 and 127 cm, hectoliter weight between 68.2 and 81.7 kg/hl, thousand grain weight between 32.9 and 42.7 g, protein content between 13.3 and 14.7%, humidty kernels at harvest between 9.2 and 9.5% and grain yield between 4409 and 6119 kg/ha(-1). The highest grain yield was obtained with Sariçanak 98 (durum wheat variety) while the best thousant grain weight was obtained by the triticale variety Tacettinbey. The triticale variety Karma 2000 showed higher protein content (14.7%) than other the other triticale varieties as well as durum and bread wheat varieties included trial. For the Southeastern Anatolia Region he results of this study demonstrated that the grain yield of triticale varieties were lower compared to common wheat. Nevertheless the triticale grain yield was higher than these of durum and bread wheat varieties under the more extrem (higher temperature and drought) growing conditions of the Kiziltepe region. For triticale the highest mean grain yield has been obtained fwith the variety Tacettinbey which is spring type. New sping type vatieties are more suitable than wheat for the more extreme growing conditions of the Southeastern Anatolia Region. PMID:26072587

  13. Relationship of various flour properties with noodle making characteristics among durum wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amritpal; Singh, Narpinder; Kaur, Seeratpreet; Katyal, Mehak; Virdi, Amardeep Singh; Kaur, Davinder; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2015-12-01

    The grain, flour, dough and noodle making properties of Indian durum wheat varieties were evaluated. Varieties having higher grain weight had lower hardness and higher yellow pigment content. Gluten performance index showed positive correlation with α-helix and negative with intermolecular+antiparallel-β-sheets in gluten. The proportion of extracted polymeric proteins was related to dough strength. Elastic (G') and loss (G″) modulus of dough were positively correlated to intermolecular+antiparallel-β-sheets and negatively with β-turn+ β-sheets proportion of dough and gluten. PDW291 with exceptionally higher G' and G″ and best noodle making properties showed the presence 90 kDa and 88 kDa polypeptides corresponding to 14+15 and type 2 banding pattern. PMID:26041226

  14. Gel-free/label-free proteomic analysis of wheat shoot in stress tolerant varieties under iron nanoparticles exposure.

    PubMed

    Yasmeen, Farhat; Raja, Naveed Iqbal; Razzaq, Abdul; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-11-01

    Iron nanoparticles (Fe NPs) have stimulatory effects on the germination ratio and plant growth of wheat. To elucidate the effects of Fe NPs on shoot of drought tolerant Pakistan-13 and salt tolerant NARC-11, a gel-free/label-free proteomic technique was used. The weights/lengths of seedling, shoot, and root of wheat varieties were increased on 5ppm Fe NPs exposure. The number of proteins related to photosynthesis and protein metabolism was decreased and increased in drought tolerant variety and salt tolerant variety, respectively, treated with Fe NPs compared to untreated plants. Differentially changed proteins in drought tolerant variety and salt tolerant variety were mainly related to photosynthesis. Out of photosynthesis related proteins, light reaction was enhanced in salt tolerant variety compared to drought tolerant variety on Fe NPs exposure. The abundance of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small chain in drought tolerant variety was higher than that in salt tolerant variety; however, in salt tolerant variety, it was increased 3 fold by Fe NPs exposure compared to untreated plant. These results suggest that Fe NPs improve the growth of wheat seedling, which might be associated with the increase of protein abundance in photosynthesis in salt tolerant variety. PMID:27530299

  15. Effects of Post-harvest Storage Duration and Variety on Nutrient Digestibility and Energy Content Wheat in Finishing Pigs.

    PubMed

    Guo, P P; Li, P L; Li, Z C; Stein, H H; Liu, L; Xia, T; Yang, Y Y; Ma, Y X

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of post-harvest storage duration and wheat variety on the digestibility and energy content of new season wheat fed to finishing pigs. Two wheat varieties (Shi and Zhong) were harvested in 2013 and stored in the warehouse of the Fengning Pig Experimental Base at China Agricultural University for 3, 6, 9, or 12 mo. For each storage period, 12 barrows were placed in metabolism crates and allotted to diets containing 1 of the 2 wheat varieties in a randomized complete block design. The experimental diets contained 97.34% wheat and 2.66% of a vitamin and trace mineral premix. With an extension of storage duration from 3 mo to 12 mo, the gross energy (GE) and crude protein (CP) of the wheat decreased by 2.0% and 12.01%, respectively, while the concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and starch content increased by 30.26%, 19.08%, and 2.46%, respectively. Total non-starch polysaccharide, total arabinose, total xylose and total mannose contents decreased by 46.27%, 45.80%, 41.71%, and 75.66%, respectively. However, there were no significant differences in the chemical composition between the two wheat varieties with the exception of ADF which was approximately 13.37% lower in Shi. With an extension of storage duration from 3 mo to 12 mo, the digestible energy (DE), metabolizable energy (ME) content and the apparent total tract digestibility of GE, CP, dry matter, organic matter, ether extract, ADF and metabolizability of energy in wheat decreased linearly (p<0.01) by 5.74%, 7.60%, 3.75%, 3.88%, 3.50%, 2.47%, 26.22%, 27.62%, and 3.94%, respectively. But the digestibility of NDF changed quadratically (p<0.01). There was an interaction between wheat variety and storage time for CP digestibility (p<0.05), such that the CP digestibility of variety Zhong was stable during 9 mo of storage, while the CP digestibility of variety Shi decreased (p<0.05). In conclusion, the GE, DE, and ME of wheat

  16. Comprehensive identification of LMW-GS genes and their protein products in a common wheat variety.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Yeol; Beom, Hye-Rang; Altenbach, Susan B; Lim, Sun-Hyung; Kim, Yeong-Tae; Kang, Chon-Sik; Yoon, Ung-Han; Gupta, Ravi; Kim, Sun-Tae; Ahn, Sang-Nag; Kim, Young-Mi

    2016-05-01

    Although it is well known that low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) from wheat affect bread and noodle processing quality, the function of specific LMW-GS proteins remains unclear. It is important to find the genes that correspond to individual LMW-GS proteins in order to understand the functions of specific proteins. The objective of this study was to link LMW-GS genes and haplotypes characterized using well known Glu-A3, Glu-B3, and Glu-D3 gene-specific primers to their protein products in a single wheat variety. A total of 36 LMW-GS genes and pseudogenes were amplified from the Korean cultivar Keumkang. These include 11 Glu-3 gene haplotypes, two from the Glu-A3 locus, two from the Glu-B3 locus, and seven from the Glu-D3 locus. To establish relationships between gene haplotypes and their protein products, a glutenin protein fraction was separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) and 17 protein spots were analyzed by N-terminal amino acid sequencing and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). LMW-GS proteins were identified that corresponded to all Glu-3 gene haplotypes except the pseudogenes. This is the first report of the comprehensive characterization of LMW-GS genes and their corresponding proteins in a single wheat cultivar. Our approach will be useful to understand the contributions of individual LMW-GS to the end-use quality of flour. PMID:26882917

  17. Diversity in quality traits amongst Indian wheat varieties II: Paste, dough and muffin making properties.

    PubMed

    Singh, Narpinder; Kaur, Amritpal; Katyal, Mehak; Bhinder, Seerat; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2016-04-15

    The relationship between protein molecular weight (MW) distribution, quality characteristics and muffin making properties amongst Indian wheat varieties were evaluated. Flours from varieties with higher grain weight showed lower proportion of fine particles. Lactic acid solvent retention capacity (LASRC), sedimentation value (SV) and dough stability (DS) correlated with the proportion of 0-55 μm size particles. Paste peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity showed positive correlation with polymeric protein and negatively with monomeric protein, α-amylase activity and sodium carbonate solvent retention capacity (NaSRC). Gluten strength indicators such as DS, dough development time (DDT), LASRC and gluten index (GI) were positively related to polymeric protein and negatively to monomeric protein. Both G' and G″ were correlated significantly with GI, LASRC, DS and DDT. The varieties that possesses high MW glutenin subunits combinations of 91 kDa + 84 kDa + 78 kDa + 74 kDa showed lower G' and G″. Muffin volume was positively correlated with gluten content and LASRC. PMID:26616955

  18. Screening of wheat varieties and associated bacterial population in old alluvial soil of Burdwan, West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Datta, J K; Chakraborty, S; Gupta, S; Saha, R N; Mondal, N

    2007-01-01

    In order to screen out the best variety of wheat (Triticum aestivum) out of eight varieties (viz., HP 1633, BW 11, NW 1014, Sonalika, HUW 468, K 9107, HP 1731 and HUW 234), a field experiment was conducted (from Dec. 2002 to April 2003) in a randomized block design replicated thrice at Crop Research and Seed Multiplication Farm, Burdwan University, West Bengal, India. Various morpho physiological parameters viz., plant population, length of shoot and root, leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR), leaf area ratio (LAR), leaf area duration (LAD), net assimilation rate (NAR), yield attributes viz., length of panicles, number of grains per panicle, grain yield, straw yield, pigment content in flag leaf (chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll and carotenoid content) were estimated and analyzed statistically Soil bacterial populations were also estimated in the fallow land before sowing of seeds and after harvesting of crop. The HUW 468 variety records higher grain yield, maximum panicle length and maximum chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll content. PMID:17717978

  19. QTL conferring fusarium crown rot resistance in the elite bread wheat variety EGA Wylie.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhi; Kilian, Andrzej; Yan, Guijun; Liu, Chunji

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium crown rot (FCR) is one of the most damaging cereal diseases in semi-arid regions worldwide. The genetics of FCR resistance in the bread wheat (Triticum eastivum L.) variety EGA Wylie, the most resistant commercial variety available, was studied by QTL mapping. Three populations of recombinant inbred lines were developed with this elite variety as the resistant parent. Four QTL conferring FCR resistance were detected and resistance alleles of all of them were derived from the resistant parent EGA Wylie. One of these loci was located on the short arm of chromosome 5D (designated as Qcrs.cpi-5D). This QTL explains up to 31.1% of the phenotypic variance with an LOD value of 9.6. The second locus was located on the long arm of chromosome 2D (designated as Qcrs.cpi-2D) and explained up to 20.2% of the phenotypic variance with an LOD value of 4.5. Significant effects of both Qcrs.cpi-5D and Qcrs.cpi-2D were detected in each of the three populations assessed. Another two QTL (designated as Qcrs.cpi-4B.1 and Qcrs.cpi-4B.2, respectively) were located on the short arm of chromosome 4B. These two QTL explained up to 16.9% and 18.8% of phenotypic variance, respectively. However, significant effects of Qcrs.cpi-4B.1 and Qcrs.cpi-4B.2 were not detected when the effects of plant height was accounted for by covariance analysis. The elite characteristics of this commercial variety should facilitate the incorporation of the resistance loci it contains into breeding programs. PMID:24776887

  20. [A microsatellite marker linked to the stripe rust resistance gene YrV23 in the wheat variety Vilmorin23].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Bing; Xu, Shi-Chang; Xu, Zhong; Liu, Tai-Guo; Lin, Rui-Ming

    2006-03-01

    Vilmorin23 is an internationally used differential host variety for studies on the interactions between wheat stripe rust and wheat. It contains the stripe rust resistance gene YrV23 and is potentially an important source of stripe rust resistance worldwide. SSR analysis was performed on the wheat NIL Taichuang 29*6/YrV23 carrying the resistant gene YrV23 against stripe rust, Vilmorin 23 and its recurrent parent Taichung 29. Fifty pairs of SSR primers on wheat chromosome 2B were screened and a reproducible polymorphic DNA fragment amplified by Xwmc356 was found. Genetic linkage was tested on 150 segregating F2 plants. It showed that the microsatellite marker Xwmc356 was linked to the resistance gene YrV23 with a genetic distance of 9.4 cM. PMID:16551597

  1. Population genetic diversity of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici on different wheat varieties in Tianshui, Gansu Province.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Gangming; Zhuang, Hua; Wang, Fuping; Wei, Guorong; Huang, Lili; Kang, Zhensheng

    2013-01-01

    Population genetic diversity in Tianshui city was analyzed with SSR markers in 605 single-pustule isolates of the stripe rust pathogen, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), obtained from 19 varieties of wheat. Significant differences in genetic diversity among populations were defected. Genetic diversity was highest in population on Tian 863-13, a highly resistant variety, whereas genetic diversity was lowest in population on Huixianhong, a highly susceptible variety. Seven populations from seven varieties that carried the common Yr18 resistance gene were clustered as one sub-group at 0.88 similarity coefficient, which showed that resistance gene selection had close relation with pathogen's component. The results of present study can provide a theoretical basis for integrated management of wheat stripe rust and effective deployment of resistance genes in Pst over-summering zones in China. PMID:23054697

  2. Relationship of Deoxynivalenol Content in Grain, Chaff, and Straw with Fusarium Head Blight Severity in Wheat Varieties with Various Levels of Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Fang; Wu, Jirong; Zhao, Hongyan; Xu, Jianhong; Shi, Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    A total of 122 wheat varieties obtained from the Nordic Genetic Resource Center were infected artificially with an aggressive Fusariumasiaticum strain in a field experiment. We calculated the severity of Fusarium head blight (FHB) and determined the deoxynivalenol (DON) content of wheat grain, straw and glumes. We found DON contamination levels to be highest in the glumes, intermediate in the straw, and lowest in the grain in most samples. The DON contamination levels did not increase consistently with increased FHB incidence. The DON levels in the wheat varieties with high FHB resistance were not necessarily low, and those in the wheat varieties with high FHB sensitivity were not necessarily high. We selected 50 wheat genotypes with reduced DON content for future research. This study will be helpful in breeding new wheat varieties with low levels of DON accumulation. PMID:25751146

  3. The Effect of Variety and Growing Conditions on the Chemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Wheat for Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Ball, M. E. E.; Owens, B.; McCracken, K. J.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of variety and growing conditions of wheat on broiler performance and nutrient digestibility. One hundred and sixty-four wheat samples, collected from a wide range of different sources, locations, varieties and years, were analyzed for a range of chemical and physical parameters. Chemical and physical parameters measured included specific weight, thousand grain weight (TG), in vitro viscosity, gross energy, N, NDF, starch, total and soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), lysine, threonine, amylose, hardness, rate of starch digestion and protein profiles. Ninety-four of the wheat samples were selected for inclusion in four bird trials. Birds were housed in individual wire metabolizm cages from 7 to 28 d and offered water and feed ad libitum. Dry matter intake (DMI), live weight gain (LWG) and gain:feed were determined weekly. A balance collection was carried out from 14 to 21 d for determination of apparent metabolizable energy (AME), ME:gain, DM retention, oil and NDF digestibility. At 28 d the birds were sacrificed, the contents of the jejunum removed for determination of in vivo viscosity and the contents of the ileum removed for determination of ileal DM, starch and protein digestibility. The wheat samples used in the study had wide-ranging chemical and physical parameters, leading to bird DMI, LWG, gain:feed, ME:GE, AME content and ileal starch and protein digestibility being significantly (p<0.05) affected by wheat sample. A high level of N fertilizer application to the English and NI wheat samples tended to benefit bird performance, with increases of up to 3.4, 7.2 and 3.8% in DMI, LWG and gain:feed, respectively. Fungicide application also appeared to have a positive effect on bird performance, with fungicide treated (+F) wheat increasing bird DMI, LWG and gain:feed by 6.6, 9.3 and 2.7%, over the non-fungicide treated (-F) wheats. An increase (p<0.1) of 9.3% in gain:feed was also observed at the low seed

  4. Effect of processing on phenolic composition of dough and bread fractions made from refined and whole wheat flour of three wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingjian; Luthria, Devanand; Fuerst, E Patrick; Kiszonas, Alecia M; Yu, Liangli; Morris, Craig F

    2014-10-29

    This study investigated the effect of breadmaking on the assay of phenolic acids from flour, dough, and bread fractions of three whole and refined wheat varieties. Comparison of the efficacy of two commonly used methods for hydrolysis and extraction of phenoilc acids showed that yields of total phenolic acids (TPA) were 5-17% higher among all varieties and flour types when samples were directly hydrolyzed in the presence of ascorbate and EDTA as compared to the method separating free, soluble conjugates and bound, insoluble phenolic acids. Ferulic acid (FA) was the predominant phenolic acid, accounting for means of 59 and 81% of TPA among all refined and whole wheat fractions, respectively. All phenolic acids measured were more abundant in whole wheat than in refined samples. Results indicated that the total quantified phenolic acids did not change significantly when breads were prepared from refined and whole wheat flour. Thus, the potential phytochemical health benefits of total phenolic acids appear to be preserved during bread baking. PMID:25286188

  5. Quantitative and qualitative differences in celiac disease epitopes among durum wheat varieties identified through deep RNA-amplicon sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Wheat gluten is important for the industrial quality of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (T. turgidum L.). Gluten proteins are also the source of immunogenic peptides that can trigger a T cell reaction in celiac disease (CD) patients, leading to inflammatory responses in the small intestine. Various peptides with three major T cell epitopes involved in CD are derived from alpha-gliadin fraction of gluten. Alpha-gliadins are encoded by a large multigene family and amino acid variation in the CD epitopes is known to influence the immunogenicity of individual gene family members. Current commercial methods of gluten detection are unable to distinguish between immunogenic and non-immunogenic CD epitope variants and thus to accurately quantify the overall CD epitope load of a given wheat variety. Such quantification is indispensable for correct selection of wheat varieties with low potential to cause CD. Results A 454 RNA-amplicon sequencing method was developed for alpha-gliadin transcripts encompassing the three major CD epitopes and their variants. The method was used to screen developing grains on plants of 61 different durum wheat cultivars and accessions. A dedicated sequence analysis pipeline returned a total of 304 unique alpha-gliadin transcripts, corresponding to a total of 171 ‘unique deduced protein fragments’ of alpha-gliadins. The numbers of these fragments obtained in each plant were used to calculate quantitative and quantitative differences between the CD epitopes expressed in the endosperm of these wheat plants. A few plants showed a lower fraction of CD epitope-encoding alpha-gliadin transcripts, but none were free of CD epitopes. Conclusions The dedicated 454 RNA-amplicon sequencing method enables 1) the grouping of wheat plants according to the genetic variation in alpha-gliadin transcripts, and 2) the screening for plants which are potentially less CD-immunogenic. The resulting alpha-gliadin sequence database will

  6. Subcellular localization and responses of superoxide dismutase isoforms in local wheat varieties subjected to continuous soil drought.

    PubMed

    Huseynova, Irada M; Aliyeva, Durna R; Aliyev, Jalal A

    2014-08-01

    Water is a key factor influencing the yield and quality of crops. One of the parameters of plant biological tolerance to constantly changing environmental conditions is the change of activities and numerous molecular forms of antioxidant enzymes. Two durum (Triticum durum Desf.) wheat varieties contrasting for drought tolerance, such as Barakatli-95 (drought tolerant) and Garagylchyg-2 (drought sensitive) were grown over a wide area in the field. Experiments were carried out to study the effect of soil drought on changes in activities and subcellular localization of superoxide dismutase isoforms. The levels of malondialdehyde, glycine betaine and total proteins were also analyzed. The level of the enzyme activity appeared to depend on the wheat varieties, duration of drought and stages of leaf development. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) revealed the presence of 9 isoenzymes of superoxide dismutase in wheat leaves during drought. Mn-SOD was found in the mitochondrial fractions, Fe-SOD in the chloroplast fraction and Cu/Zn-SOD is localized in all subcellular fractions. Wheat leaves contain three different isoforms of SOD (Mn-, Fe-, Cu/Zn-SOD). Three isoforms of Mn-SOD, one isoform of Fe-SOD and five of Cu/Zn-SOD were observed in wheat leaves using 3 mM KCN and 5 mM H2O2 as selective inhibitors. The expression of Mn-SOD was preferentially enhanced by drought stress. It seems that Mn-SOD isoforms more than SOD ones play a major role in the scavenging of superoxide radicals. The observed data showed that status of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD could provide a meaningful tool for depicting drought tolerance of wheat genotype. PMID:24560039

  7. [Analysis of wheat and rye semidwarfing gene distribution in spring hexaploid triticale (Triticosecale Wittm.) varieties and lines].

    PubMed

    Korshunova, A D; Divashchuk, M G; Solov'ev, A A; Karlov, G I

    2015-03-01

    A collection of spring hexaploid triticale varieties and promising breeding lines has been examined for the presence of wheat Rht-B1b, Rht-B1e, and Rht8c semidwarfing genes and the rye Hl semidwarfing gene. It was discovered in spring triticale that these semidwarfing genes are represented by only one, the Rht-B1b wheat gene. The presence of this gene is associated with shortening of spring triticale plants by 28 cm on average, which constituted 26% of their initial height. Rht-B1b was found in all of the studied commercial varieties of spring triticale, which rendered it possible to conclude that plant height reduction is a necessary condition for increasing the competitiveness of this crop culture. PMID:26027372

  8. Classification of wheat varieties based on structural features of arabinoxylans as revealed by endoxylanase treatment of flour and grain.

    PubMed

    Ordaz-Ortiz, José Juan; Devaux, Marie-Françoise; Saulnier, Luc

    2005-10-19

    Arabinoxylans (AX) are cell wall polysaccharides of complex structure involved in many aspects of wheat flour end uses. The study of the variations of AX structure can lead to the identification of genes involved in their biosynthesis, and thus in the control of the various aspects of grain quality related to their presence. A method is proposed to identify AX variations directly in whole grain by enzymatic degradation. An endoxylanase from Trichoderma viride was used to extract AX from a collection of 20 wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.). Enzymatic degradation products were analyzed by HPAEC and multivariate analysis techniques (principal component analysis, canonical correlation analysis, and cluster analysis) were applied to analyze chromatographic data. The method evidenced variations in the proportion of mono- and disubstitution of the xylan backbone by arabinose side chains, allowing classification of the different varieties according to the structural features of AX. A similar classification was obtained starting from flour or whole grain, indicating that the method was specific of AX from endosperm tissues. In conclusion, the method combining endoxylanase treatment of wheat grain and the analysis of degradation products, e.g., enzymatic fingerprinting, can be applied to collections of wheat cultivars, and possibly other cereals in order to establish quantitative trait loci related to the biosynthesis of AX. PMID:16218687

  9. Location, seeding date, and variety interactions on winter wheat yield in Southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Southeast US, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a crop grown during the winter when climate conditions are usually influenced by El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Therefore, an understanding of how management practices can be adjusted to reduce the impact of climate-related risks became impo...

  10. Blends of Soft Red Winter Wheat Varieties Increased Yield in North Carolina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed mixtures, or blends, of small grain cultivars have been widely used to manage foliar fungal diseases and stabilize yield. However, blends are unknown in eastern U.S. wheat production, where numerous diseases and abiotic stresses often take a toll. In 2004-05 and 2005-06, a field experiment wa...

  11. Effects of Planting Date and Barley Variety on Russian Wheat Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Populations in Colorado, Kansas, and Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Sotelo, P A; Hein, G L; Peairs, F B; Smith, C M

    2014-10-01

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an important pest in the western Great Plains of the United States, where it causes hundreds of millions of dollars of losses to barley and wheat production through reduced yields. Experiments to evaluate the effect of early planting and resistance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) on D. noxia were conducted at Fort Collins, CO; Tribune, KS; and Sidney, NE, in 2007, 2008, and 2009. Treatments included two planting dates and four cultivars, the D. noxia-resistant barley cultivars 'Stoneham' (Otis*4/STARS 9577B) and 'Sidney' (Otis*4/STARS 9301B), the susceptible cultivar 'Otis', and Otis treated with thiamethoxam. In tiller samples collected from May through early July, consistently lower D. noxia populations were found in plots planted ≍30 d earlier than normal at Fort Collins in all three years, and at Tribune in 2007. With one location-year exception, lower D. noxia populations occurred on plants of resistant varieties or the susceptible variety Otis treated with thiamethoxam than on untreated Otis plants. There were no significant differences in D. noxia populations produced on plants of either resistant variety and susceptible Otis plants treated with thiamethoxam. Interactions between resistant varieties and early planting resulted in reduced D. noxia populations at Fort Collins in 2007 and 2009, and at Tribune and Sidney in 2007. Planting D. noxia-resistant barley varieties, planting varieties earlier than normal, and the synergistic effect of resistant variety and early planting can significantly reduce D. noxia infestations on barley in the western High Plains. PMID:26309288

  12. Mapping a stripe rust resistance gene YrC591 in wheat variety C591 with SSR and AFLP markers.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Niu, Y C; Chen, X M

    2009-01-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici (PST), is one of the most destructive diseases of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). To determine inheritance of stripe rust resistance and map the resistance gene(s) in wheat variety C591, F(1), F(2,) and F(3) progenies derived from the Taichung 29 x C591 cross were inoculated with Chinese PST race CY32 in the greenhouse. Genetic analysis identified a single dominant gene, temporarily designated YrC591. A total of 178 SSR and 130 AFLP markers were used to test the parents and resistant and susceptible bulks. From the bulk segregant analysis, seven polymorphic SSR and two AFLP markers were selected for genotyping the F(2) population. SSR marker Xcfa2040-7B, and SCAR marker SC-P35M48 derived from AFLP marker P35M48 ( 373 ) were identified to be closely linked to the resistance gene with genetic distances of 8.0 and 11.7 cM, respectively. The SSR markers mapped the resistance gene on chromosome arm 7BL. In the seedling test with five PST races, the reaction patterns of C591 were different from wheat cultivars or lines carrying Yr2 or Yr6 that also are found on chromosome 7B. The results indicate that YrC591 is probably a novel stripe rust resistance gene. PMID:18946654

  13. The use of certified seeds of improved wheat varieties in farms and the contributions of certified seed usage to enterprise economies: the case of Ankara province in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tanrivermiş, Harun; Akdoğan, Ilyas

    2007-12-15

    In this research, the use of certificated seeds of improved wheat varieties in farms of Ankara, which have an important share in wheat production of Turkey and the contributions of the certified seeds usage to enterprise economy have been evaluated by using data collected from farms via a questionnaire. The low level of use of certificated wheat seed in farms is associated with many factors, such as price of the seed (cost), yield gains and suitability of the varieties for the farming aims of producers. Average productivity is 49.5% and average net profit is 39.7% higher in the production of wheat with certificated seeds of improved varieties in farms in comparison to farming with traditional varieties. Average productivity in wheat production with uncertified seeds of improved varieties is 24.9% and net profit per unit area is 24.3% higher than wheat production with traditional varieties. The net economic benefit of wheat production using certificated seeds of improved varieties and that of wheat farming with uncertified seeds has been estimated at $ 102.40 and $ 62.70 ha(-1), respectively. Some $ 6.4 benefit is generated in return for $ 1 of expense in wheat farming with certificated seeds of improved varieties instead of traditional varieties. In the absence of state subsidies for certificated seeds the use of uncertified seeds seems to be advantageous for producers. While the amount of subsidy per hectare will be a minimum of $ 101 for certificated seeds per hectare of planting area (as technological improvement), the support will be encouraging for usage of certified seeds. Many variables, such as farm size, use of certified seeds, topography of land, production system, education level and frequency of visiting the agriculture organizations of the producers influence the level of gross profit per unit area in wheat farming. Low level of use of certificated seed in farms decreases the economic benefit of new varieties which are developed as a result of long

  14. Correlation between Cold- and Drought-Induced Frost Hardiness in Winter Wheat and Rye Varieties 1

    PubMed Central

    Cloutier, Yves; Siminovitch, David

    1982-01-01

    Exposure of six wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and one rye (Secale cereale L.) cultivar to 40% relative humidity for 24 hours induced the same degree of freezing tolerance in seedling epicotyls as did cold conditioning for 4 weeks at 2°C. Frost hardiness varietal relationships were the same in desiccation-stressed and cold-hardened seedlings. Drought stress could, therefore, be used as a rapid and simple method for inducing frost hardiness in seedling shoots in replacement of cold conditioning. Images PMID:16662170

  15. Mapping of a major stripe rust resistance gene in Chinese native wheat variety Chike using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fanghui; Niu, Yongchun; Deng, Hui; Tan, Genjia

    2007-12-01

    Chike (accession number Su1900), a Chinese native wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety, is resistant to the currently prevailing physiological races of Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici in China. Genetic analysis indicated that resistance to the physiological race CY32 of the pathogen in the variety was controlled by one dominant gene. In this study, BSA (bulked segregant analysis) methods and SSRs (simple sequence repeats) marker polymorphic analysis are used to map the gene. The resistant and susceptible DNA bulks were prepared from the segregating F2 population of the cross between Taichung 29, a susceptible variety as maternal parent, and Chike as paternal parent. Over 400 SSR primers were screened, and five SSR markers Xwmc44, Xgwm259, Xwmc367, Xcfa2292, and Xbarc80 on the chromosome arm 1BL were found to be polymorphic between the resistant and the susceptible DNA bulks as well as their parents. Genetic linkage was tested on segregating F2 population with 200 plants, including 140 resistant and 60 susceptible plants. All the five SSR markers were linked to the stripe rust resistance gene in Chike. The genetic distances for the markers Xwmc44, Xgwm259, Xwmc367, Xcfa2292, and Xbarc80 to the target gene were 8.3 cM, 9.1 cM, 17.2 cM, 20.6 cM, and 31.6 cM, respectively. Analysis using 21 nulli-tetrasomic Chinese Spring lines further confirmed that all the five markers were located on chromosome 1B. On the basis of the above results, it is reasonable to assume that the major stripe rust resistance gene YrChk in Chike was located on the chromosome arm 1BL, and its comparison with the other stripe rust resistance genes located on 1B suggested that YrChk may be a novel gene that provides the resistance against stripe rust in Chike. Exploration and utilization of resources of disease resistance genes in native wheat varieties will be helpful both to diversify the resistance genes and to amend the situation of resistance gene simplification in the commercial

  16. Variation between Ethiopian and North American Barley Varieties (Hordeum vulgare) in Response to Russian Wheat Aphid (Diuraphis noxia) populations

    PubMed Central

    Araya, Alemu; Belay, Tesfay; Hussein, Temam

    2014-01-01

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), causes severe damage to barley, Hordeum vulgare L. (Poales: Poaceae), in the highlands of Ethiopia. Little information is available on the control of this pest in Ethiopia. An experiment aimed at evaluating the resistance of barley varieties from the USA to D. noxia populations and determining biotypic variation between Ethiopian and North American D. noxia populations was conducted. The D. noxia-resistant barley varieties Burton and RWA-1758 from the USA, the resistant barley line 3296-15 from Ethiopia, and a local Ethiopian susceptible variety were included in a randomized design in a greenhouse under natural light conditions. There were highly significant differences (P < 0.001) in the mean D. noxia population, leaf chlorosis, leaf rolling, plant stunting, number of tillers per plant, and the percentage of infested tillers per plant between the resistant and susceptible varieties. The aphid population per tiller was lower on the resistant barley plants than on the susceptible plants. Severe plant damage was observed on the local barley variety, while the least damage was observed on Burton, followed by RWA-1758. Burton and RWA-1758 were therefore highly resistant and moderately resistant, respectively, to the northern Ethiopian D. noxia populations, indicating similarities in biotypes between the United States and northern Ethiopian D. noxia populations. The damage to variety 3296-15 was greater than to Burton and RWA-1758. Leaf chlorosis scores and leaf rolling scores for variety 3296-15 upon treatment with the north Ethiopian D. noxia population indicate likely biotypic variation between D. noxia populations of northern and central Ethiopia. PMID:25373187

  17. Effect of Stay-Green Wheat, a Novel Variety of Wheat in China, on Glucose and Lipid Metabolism in High-Fat Diet Induced Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jinshan; Zhang, Chao; Luo, Xiaoqin; Wang, Li; Zhang, Ruijuan; Wang, Zhenlin; Fan, Daidi; Yang, Haixia; Deng, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    The use of natural hypoglycemic compounds is important in preventing and managing Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 150–180 g were divided into four groups to investigate the effects of the compounds in stay-green wheat (SGW), a novel variety of wheat in China, on T2DM rats. The control group (NDC) was fed with a standard diet, while T2DM was induced in the rats belonging to the other three groups by a high-fat diet followed by a streptozotocin (STZ) injection. The T2DM rats were further divided into a T2DM control group (DC), which was fed with the normal diet containing 50% common wheat flour, a high dose SGW group (HGW) fed with a diet containing 50% SGW flour, and a low dose SGW group (LGW) fed with a diet containing 25% SGW flour and 25% common wheat flour. Our results showed that SGW contained cereal antioxidants, particularly high in flavonoids and anthocyanins (46.14 ± 1.80 mg GAE/100 g DW and 1.73 ± 0.14 mg CGE/100 g DW, respectively). Furthermore, SGW exhibited a strong antioxidant activity in vitro (30.33 ± 2.66 μg TE/g DW, p < 0.01). Administration of the SGW at a high and low dose showed significant down-regulatory effects on fasting blood glucose (decreasing by 11.3% and 7.0%, respectively), insulin levels (decreasing by 12.3% and 9.7%, respectively), and lipid status (decreasing by 9.1% and 7.5%, respectively) in T2DM rats (p < 0.01). In addition, the T2DM groups treated with SGW at a high and low dose showed a significant increase in the blood superoxide dismutase (1.17 fold and 1.15 fold, respectively) and glutathione peroxidase activities (1.37 fold and 1.30 fold, respectively) compared with the DC group (p < 0.01). The normalized impaired antioxidant status of the pancreatic islet and of the liver compared with the DC group was also significantly increased. Our results indicated that SGW components exerting a glycemic control and a serum lipid regulation effect may be due to their free radical

  18. Clinostating effects on biochemical characteristics and productivity of healthy and virus-infected wheat plants of dwarf apogee variety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, L. T.; Silayeva, A. M.; Mishchenko, I. A.; Boyko, A. L.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of clinostating on physiological processes and biochemical characteristics of wheat plants ( Triticum aestivum L.) both healthy and infected by the wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) were studied. In six experiments, each lasting over 30 days, healthy and infected plants of the dwarf Apogee variety were grown under conditions of continuous horizontal and vertical clinostating with 2 rpm at 21 ± 2 °C and 6000 lx (the optimal moisture of a substrate being maintained). The control variants (healthy and infected) were simultaneously grown under the same conditions of temperature and illumination in stationary containers and in open pots. During the experiment, visual observations were carried out over the state of tested plants. After completing the experiment, biometric indices, pigment, carbohydrate and dry matter contents were determined in all the plants. It was shown that clinostating sharply reduced the reproductive function of healthy plants and considerably affected their biomass (productivity) and concentration of chlorophylls and sugars. The viral infection resulted in further reduction of these characteristics. In control variants the viral effect was more significant. We speculate that clinostating reduced the rate of reproduction and spread of the virus.

  19. Physicochemical and rheological properties of starch and flour from different durum wheat varieties and their relationships with noodle quality.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amritpal; Shevkani, Khetan; Katyal, Mehak; Singh, Narpinder; Ahlawat, Arvind Kumar; Singh, Anju Mahendru

    2016-04-01

    Starch and flour properties of different Indian durum wheat varieties were evaluated and related to noodle-making properties. Flours were evaluated for pasting properties, protein characteristics (extractable as well as unextractable monomeric and polymeric proteins) and dough rheology (farinographic properties), while starches were evaluated for granule size, thermal, pasting, and rheological properties. Flour peak and final viscosities related negatively to the proportion of monomeric proteins but positively to that of polymeric proteins whereas opposite relations were observed for dough rheological properties (dough-development time and stability). Starches from varieties with higher proportion of large granules showed the presence of less stable amylose-lipids and had more swelling power, peak viscosity and breakdown viscosity than those with greater proportion of small granules. Noodle-cooking time related positively to the proportion of monomeric proteins and starch gelatinization temperatures but negatively to that of polymeric proteins and amylose content. Varieties with more proteins resulted in firmer noodles. Noodle-cohesiveness related positively to the proportion of polymeric proteins and amylose-lipids complexes whereas springiness correlated negatively to amylose content and retrogradation tendency of starches. PMID:27413243

  20. [Effects of ozone pollution on the accumulation and distribution of dry matter and biomass carbon of different varieties of wheat].

    PubMed

    Kou, Tai-ji; Yu, Wei-wei; Zhu, Jian-guo; Zhu, Xin-kai

    2012-08-01

    Effects of surface ozone pollution on the terrestrial ecosystem and plant growth have drawn great attention. With the support of the free-air ozone concentration enrichment (O3-FACE) system located in Jiangdu City, Jiangsu Province, the effects of elevated atmospheric ozone (pO3) on the accumulation and distribution of dry matter and biomass carbon as well as the C/N ratio of crop residue of five wheat (Tritcium aestivum L.) varieties (Yangmai 15, Yangmai 16, Yannong 19, Yangfumai 2 and Jiaxing 002) were investigated in the Yangtze River delta, the target pO3 of which was 50% higher than the ambient pO3. The results showed that the accumulation and distribution of different wheat varieties responded differently to elevated pO3. Elevated pO3 decreased the biomass of Yangmai 15 and Jiaxing 002, increased the Yangfumai 2 biomass, and had no effects on the total biomass of Yangmai 16 and Yannog 19, among which a significant difference was found for Jiaxing 002. Elevated pO3 significantly increased the ratios of root to shoot for Yangmai 15 and Jiaxing 002 and significantly decreased the root/shoot ratios of Yannong 19 and Yangfumai 2, but had no effect on Yangmai 16, leading to an obvious difference in dry matter distributed among aboveground and belowground parts. O3 enrichment decreased the wheatear weight of Yangmai 15, Yangmai 16 and Jiaxing 002, and had no effect on that of Yannong 19 and Yangfumai 2. Elevated pO3 significantly decreased the proportion of grain weight to ear weight by 8.2%-15.5% for Jiaxing 002, Yannong 19 and Yangfumai 2, whereas the proportion was increased for Yangmai 15 and not affected for Yangmai 16, suggesting that O3 enrichment lead to different decreases in the yield of Jiaxing 002, Yannong 19, Yangfumai 2 and Yangmai 16. Elevated pO3 significantly increased the straw carbon of Yannong 19 and Yanfumai 2 by 14.1%-22.9% and significantly decreased the straw C/N ratio by 10.9%-29.1%. The rising pO3 significantly decreased the straw carbon of

  1. Glycaemic indices of three Sri Lankan wheat bread varieties and a bread-lentil meal.

    PubMed

    Hettiaratchi, U P K; Ekanayake, S; Welihinda, J

    2009-01-01

    The glycaemic index (GI) concept ranks individual foods and mixed meals according to the blood glucose response. Low-GI foods with a slow and prolonged glycaemic response are beneficial for diabetic people, and several advantages have been suggested also for non-diabetic individuals. The recent investigations imply an increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Sri Lanka. Thus, the present study was designed primarily to determine the glycaemic indices of some bread varieties in Sri Lanka as bread has become a staple diet among most of the urban people. A second objective was to observe the effects of macronutrients and physicochemical properties of starch on GI. Glycaemic responses were estimated according to FAO/WHO guidelines and both glucose and white bread were used as standards. Non-diabetic individuals aged 22-30 years (n=10) participated in the study. The test meals included white sliced bread, wholemeal bread, ordinary white bread and a mixed meal of wholemeal bread with lentil curry. The GI values (+/-standard error of the mean) of the meals were 77+/-6, 77+/-6, 80+/-4, 61+/-6, respectively (with glucose as the standard). The GI values of the bread varieties or the meal did not differ significantly (P >0.05). However, the meal can be categorized as a medium-GI food while the other bread varieties belong to the high-GI food group. A significant negative correlation was obtained with protein (P=0.042) and fat (P=0.039) contents of the food items and GI. Although the GI values of the foods are not significantly different, the inclusion of lentils caused the GI to decrease from a high-GI category to a medium-GI category. According to the present study, a ratio of 1.36 can be used to interconvert the GI values obtained with the two standards. PMID:19418328

  2. Molecular and genealogical analysis of grain dormancy in Japanese wheat varieties, with specific focus on MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 on chromosome 3A.

    PubMed

    Chono, Makiko; Matsunaka, Hitoshi; Seki, Masako; Fujita, Masaya; Kiribuchi-Otobe, Chikako; Oda, Shunsuke; Kojima, Hisayo; Nakamura, Shingo

    2015-03-01

    In the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar 'Zenkoujikomugi', a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter of MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 on chromosome 3A (MFT-3A) causes an increase in the level of gene expression, resulting in strong grain dormancy. We used a DNA marker to detect the 'Zenkoujikomugi'-type (Zen-type) SNP and examined the genotype of MFT-3A in Japanese wheat varieties, and we found that 169 of 324 varieties carry the Zen-type SNP. In Japanese commercial varieties, the frequency of the Zen-type SNP was remarkably high in the southern part of Japan, but low in the northern part. To examine the relationship between MFT-3A genotype and grain dormancy, we performed a germination assay in three wheat-growing seasons. On average, the varieties carrying the Zen-type SNP showed stronger grain dormancy than the varieties carrying the non-Zen-type SNP. Among commercial cultivars, 'Iwainodaichi' (Kyushu), 'Junreikomugi' (Kinki-Chugoku-Shikoku), 'Kinuhime' (Kanto-Tokai), 'Nebarigoshi' (Tohoku-Hokuriku), and 'Kitamoe' (Hokkaido) showed the strongest grain dormancy in each geographical group, and all these varieties, except for 'Kitamoe', were found to carry the Zen-type SNP. In recent years, the number of varieties carrying the Zen-type SNP has increased in the Tohoku-Hokuriku region, but not in the Hokkaido region. PMID:25931984

  3. Characterization of a mini core collection of Japanese wheat varieties using single-nucleotide polymorphisms generated by genotyping-by-sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Fuminori; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Wu, Jianzhong; Katayose, Yuichi; Handa, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    A core collection of Japanese wheat varieties (JWC) consisting of 96 accessions was established based on their passport data and breeding pedigrees. To clarify the molecular basis of the JWC collection, genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping was performed using the genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach. Phylogenetic tree and population structure analyses using these SNP data revealed the genetic diversity and relationships among the JWC accessions, classifying them into four groups; “varieties in the Hokkaido area”, “modern varieties in the northeast part of Japan”, “modern varieties in the southwest part of Japan” and “classical varieties including landraces”. This clustering closely reflected the history of wheat breeding in Japan. Furthermore, to demonstrate the utility of the JWC collection, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for three traits, namely, “days to heading in autumn sowing”, “days to heading in spring sowing” and “culm length”. We found significantly associated SNP markers with each trait, and some of these were closely linked to known major genes for heading date or culm length on the genetic map. Our study indicates that this JWC collection is a useful set of germplasm for basic and applied research aimed at understanding and utilizing the genetic diversity among Japanese wheat varieties. PMID:27162493

  4. Heavy metal and metalloid concentrations in components of 25 wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties in the vicinity of lead smelters in Henan province, China.

    PubMed

    Xing, Weiqin; Zhang, Hongyi; Scheckel, Kirk G; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Soil contamination and human impacts have been reported in the vicinity of lead (Pb) smelters in Henan, China. However, no information is available on crop uptake of soil contaminants near these smelters. Grains, glume, rachis, and stem/leaf samples of 25 wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties were collected from a small, smelter-impacted agricultural area of Beishe Village, Henan Province, and were analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), Pb, and zinc (Zn) concentrations. The study aim was to evaluate the level of contaminant uptake in wheat and ostensibly observe if specific varieties of wheat were more susceptible to uptake. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in whole grain flour were 0.0915, 0.192, 3.22, 0.280, and 32.5 mg kg(-1), respectively. Grain concentrations of all 25 varieties for Cd as well as 16 varieties for Pb exceeded the maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) for consumption. Mean pollution indexes (MPI) (element concentration of wheat grain/MPC for As, Cd or Pb) of the grains varied 0.562-2.15. As, Pb, and Cd contributed 5.22, 40.0, and 54.8 % to the MPI for all 25 varieties, respectively. This survey highlights Cd and Pb contamination of wheat grains in the vicinity of lead smelters in Henan Province, and likely other farm villages in the area. Further work is needed to examine uptake and contamination of other crops and vegetables impacted from the lead smelters in Henan Province and the absorption of toxic elements from food sources by local inhabitants. PMID:26661959

  5. Hydrogen isotope composition of leaf wax n-alkanes in glaucous and non-glaucous varieties of wheat (Triticum spp.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Eley, Yvette; Frizell-Armitage, Amelia; Uauy, Cristobal

    2015-04-01

    The use of the 2H/1H composition of terrestrial plants in climate and ecology studies depends on fundamental understanding of the processes within the plant that control fractionation of these two isotopes. Little is currently known about the extent of 2H/1H fractionation at different steps of biosynthesis, after the initial H uptake following leaf water photolysis. Knowing this effect is particularly important when seeking to interpret the 2H/1H composition of leaf wax biomarkers from plants that differ in the amount and type of individual compound classes in their leaf waxes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the link between the quantity and distribution of n-alkyl lipids in leaf waxes and their isotopic composition. We used a genetic approach to suppress glaucousness in 2 varieties of wheat (Alchemy and Malacca), which resulted in glaucous and non-glaucous phenotypes of both varieties. Both phenotypes were then grown outdoors under identical environmental conditions in central Norfolk, UK. At the end of the growing season, the plants were sampled for soil water, leaf water, and leaf wax isotopic measurements. Comparison of the leaf wax composition of the non-glaucous and glaucous phenotypes revealed that the non-glaucous varieties were characterised by the absence of diketones and a greater concentration of n-alkanes and primary alcohols.. Our results showed very small differences between glaucous and non-glaucous varieties with regard to soil (mean values, <2 per mil) and leaf (<1 per mil) water 2H/1H. Conversely, there was 15-20 and 10-15 per mil 2H-depletion in the C29 and C31 n-alkanes, respectively, from the non-glaucous phenotype. This 2H-depletion in the non-glaucous phenotype demonstrated that the suppression of diketone production and the increase in n-alkane and primary alcohol concentrations are linked with a shift in the 2H/1H composition of n-alkanes. The initial results of this work suggest that plants using the same environmental water

  6. Anchoring durum wheat diversity in the reality of traditional agricultural systems: varieties, seed management, and farmers’ perception in two Moroccan regions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional agrosystems are the places were crop species have evolved and continue to evolve under a combination of human and environmental pressures. A better knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the dynamics of crop diversity in these agrosystems is crucial to sustain food security and farmers’ self-reliance. It requires as a first step, anchoring a description of the available diversity in its geographical, environmental, cultural and socio-economic context. Methods We conducted interviews with farmers cultivating durum wheat in two contrasted traditional agrosystems of Morocco in the Pre-Rif (163 farmers) and in the oases of the Atlas Mountains (110 farmers). We documented the varietal diversity of durum wheat, the main characteristics of the farms, the farming and seed management practices applied to durum wheat, and the farmers’ perception of their varieties. Results As expected in traditional agrosystems, farmers largely practiced diversified subsistence agriculture on small plots and relied on on-farm seed production or informal seed exchange networks. Heterogeneity nevertheless prevailed on many variables, especially on the modernization of practices in the Pre-Rif region. Fourteen (resp. 11) traditional and 5 (resp. 3) modern varieties were identified in the Pre-Rif region (resp. in the Atlas Mountains). The majority of farmers grew a single variety, and most traditional varieties were distributed in restricted geographical areas. At the farm level, more than half of the varieties were renewed in the last decade in the Pre-Rif, a more rapid renewal than in the Atlas Mountain. Modern varieties were more prevalent in the Pre-Rif region and were integrated in the traditional practices of seed production, selection and exchange. They were clearly distinguished by the farmers from the landraces, the last ones being appreciated for their quality traits. Conclusions The surveyed traditional agrosystems constitute open, dynamic and heterogeneous

  7. Dissection of drought response of modern and underutilized wheat varieties according to Passioura's yield-water framework

    PubMed Central

    Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Grausgruber, Heinrich; Kaul, Hans-Peter; Bodner, Gernot

    2015-01-01

    Trait-based breeding is essential to improve wheat yield, particularly when stress adaptation is targeted. A set of modern and underutilized wheat genotypes was examined in a 2-year field experiment with distinct seasonal water supply. Yield formation and drought response strategies were analyzed in relation to components of Passioura's yield-water framework based on phenological, morphological, physiological, and root characteristics. Limited water supply resulted in 60% yield loss and substantially lower water use (37%), water use efficiency (32.6%), and harvest index (14%). Phenology and root length density were key determinants of water use. Late flowering underutilized wheat species with large root system and swift ground coverage showed greatest water use. Leaf chlorophyll concentration and stomata conductance were higher in modern cultivars, supporting their high biomass growth and superior water use efficiency. While, lower chlorophyll concentration and stomata conductance of underutilized wheats indicated a water saving strategy with an intrinsic limitation of potential growth. Harvest index was strongly dependent on phenology and yield components. Optimized flowering time, reduced tillering, and strong grain sink of modern cultivars explained higher harvest index compared to underutilized wheats. Cluster analysis revealed the consistent differentiation of underutilized and modern wheats based on traits underlying Passioura's yield-water framework. We identified physiological and root traits within modern cultivars to be targeted for trait-based crop improvement under water-limited conditions. High capacity of water use in underutilized genetic resources is related to yield-limiting phenological and morphological traits, constraining their potential role for better drought resistance. Still some genetic resources provide adaptive features for stress resistance compatible with high yield as revealed by high harvest index under drought of Khorasan wheat

  8. Dissection of drought response of modern and underutilized wheat varieties according to Passioura's yield-water framework.

    PubMed

    Nakhforoosh, Alireza; Grausgruber, Heinrich; Kaul, Hans-Peter; Bodner, Gernot

    2015-01-01

    Trait-based breeding is essential to improve wheat yield, particularly when stress adaptation is targeted. A set of modern and underutilized wheat genotypes was examined in a 2-year field experiment with distinct seasonal water supply. Yield formation and drought response strategies were analyzed in relation to components of Passioura's yield-water framework based on phenological, morphological, physiological, and root characteristics. Limited water supply resulted in 60% yield loss and substantially lower water use (37%), water use efficiency (32.6%), and harvest index (14%). Phenology and root length density were key determinants of water use. Late flowering underutilized wheat species with large root system and swift ground coverage showed greatest water use. Leaf chlorophyll concentration and stomata conductance were higher in modern cultivars, supporting their high biomass growth and superior water use efficiency. While, lower chlorophyll concentration and stomata conductance of underutilized wheats indicated a water saving strategy with an intrinsic limitation of potential growth. Harvest index was strongly dependent on phenology and yield components. Optimized flowering time, reduced tillering, and strong grain sink of modern cultivars explained higher harvest index compared to underutilized wheats. Cluster analysis revealed the consistent differentiation of underutilized and modern wheats based on traits underlying Passioura's yield-water framework. We identified physiological and root traits within modern cultivars to be targeted for trait-based crop improvement under water-limited conditions. High capacity of water use in underutilized genetic resources is related to yield-limiting phenological and morphological traits, constraining their potential role for better drought resistance. Still some genetic resources provide adaptive features for stress resistance compatible with high yield as revealed by high harvest index under drought of Khorasan wheat

  9. Report on hard red spring wheat varieties grown in cooperative plot and nursery experiments in the spring wheat region in 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Hard Red Spring Wheat Uniform Regional Nursery (HRSWURN) was planted for the 84th year in 2014. The nursery contained 26 entries submitted by 6 different scientific or industry breeding programs, and 5 checks (Table 1). Trials were conducted as randomized complete blocks with three replicates ex...

  10. Report on hard red spring wheat varieties grown in cooperative plot and nursery experiments in the spring wheat region in 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Hard Red Spring Wheat Uniform Regional Nursery (HRSWURN) was planted for the 80th year in 2008. The nursery contained 37 entries submitted by 13 different scientific or industry breeding programs, and 5 checks. Trials were conducted as randomized complete blocks with three replicates except wher...

  11. Report on hard red spring wheat varieties grown in cooperative plot and nursery experiments in the spring wheat region in 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Hard Red Spring Wheat Uniform Regional Nursery (HRSWURN) was planted for the 82nd year in 2010. The nursery contained 32 entries submitted by 7 different scientific or industry breeding programs, and 5 checks. Trials were conducted as randomized complete blocks with three replicates except where...

  12. Report on Hard Red Spring Wheat Varieties Grown in Cooperative Plot and Nursery Experiments in the Spring Wheat Region in 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Hard Red Spring Wheat Uniform Regional Nursery (HRSWURN) was planted for the 81st year in 2009. The nursery contained 32 entries submitted by 8 different scientific or industry breeding programs, and 5 checks. Trials were conducted as randomized complete blocks with three replicates except where...

  13. Report on hard red spring wheat varieties grown in cooperative plot and nursery experiments in the spring wheat region in 2013

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Hard Red Spring Wheat Uniform Regional Nursery (HRSWURN) was planted for the 83rd year in 2013. The nursery contained 29 entries submitted by 7 different scientific or industry breeding programs, and 5 checks (Table 1). Trials were conducted as randomized complete blocks with three replicates ex...

  14. Colonisation of winter wheat grain by Fusarium spp. and mycotoxin content as dependent on a wheat variety, crop rotation, a crop management system and weather conditions.

    PubMed

    Czaban, Janusz; Wróblewska, Barbara; Sułek, Alicja; Mikos, Marzena; Boguszewska, Edyta; Podolska, Grażyna; Nieróbca, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted during three consecutive growing seasons (2007/08, 2008/09 and 2009/10) with four winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars - 'Bogatka', 'Kris', 'Satyna' and 'Tonacja' - grown on fields with a three-field crop rotation (winter triticale, spring barley, winter wheat) and in a four-field crop rotation experiment (spring wheat, spring cereals, winter rapeseed, winter wheat). After the harvest, kernels were surface disinfected with 2% NaOCl and then analysed for the internal infection by different species of Fusarium. Fusaria were isolated on Czapek-Dox iprodione dichloran agar medium and identified on the basis of macro- and micro-morphology on potato dextrose agar and synthetic nutrient agar media. The total wheat grain infection by Fusarium depended mainly on relative humidity (RH) and a rainfall during the flowering stage. Intensive rainfall and high RH in 2009 and 2010 in the period meant the proportions of infected kernels by the fungi were much higher than those in 2008 (lack of precipitation during anthesis). Weather conditions during the post-anthesis period changed the species composition of Fusarium communities internally colonising winter wheat grain. The cultivars significantly varied in the proportion of infected kernels by Fusarium spp. The growing season and type of crop rotation had a distinct effect on species composition of Fusarium communities colonising the grain inside. A trend of a higher percentage of the colonised kernels by the fungi in the grain from the systems using more fertilisers and pesticides as well as the buried straw could be perceived. The most frequent species in the grain were F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2008, and F. avenaceum, F. graminearum, F. tricinctum and F. poae in 2009 and 2010. The contents of deoxynivalenol and zearalenon in the grain were correlated with the percentage of kernels colonised by F. graminearum and were the highest in 2009 in the grain from the four

  15. Differential Responses in Two Varieties of Winter Wheat to Elevated Ozone Concentration Under Fully Open-air Field Conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two modern cultivars (Yangmai16 (Y16) and Yangfumai 2 (Y2)) of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) of almost identical phenology were investigated for impacts of elevated ozone concentration (E-O3) on physiological characters related to photosynthesis under fully open-air field conditions in China. ...

  16. [The effect of the genome of the variety on the adaptive characteristics of alloplasmic strains of winter wheat].

    PubMed

    Simonenko, V K; Khangil'din, V V; Vlasenko, V A

    2000-01-01

    The analysis of adaptability and genetical distances between 12 cytoplasms of Aegilops, Triticum and Haynaldia villosa for three winter wheat genomes showed an existence of genome-plasmon interactions. The plasmons of Ae. variabilis, Ae. cylindrica, Ae. squarrosa var. strangulata, T. dicoccoides appeared to be perspective in practical breeding for adaptability. Interactions are revealed as alteration of productivity and adaptability, and as genetic divergence. PMID:10920857

  17. On-farm dynamic management of genetic diversity: the impact of seed diffusions and seed saving practices on a population-variety of bread wheat

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Mathieu; Demeulenaere, Elise; Dawson, Julie C; Khan, Abdul Rehman; Galic, Nathalie; Jouanne-Pin, Sophie; Remoue, Carine; Bonneuil, Christophe; Goldringer, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Since the domestication of crop species, humans have derived specific varieties for particular uses and shaped the genetic diversity of these varieties. Here, using an interdisciplinary approach combining ethnobotany and population genetics, we document the within-variety genetic structure of a population-variety of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in relation to farmers’ practices to decipher their contribution to crop species evolution. Using 19 microsatellites markers, we conducted two complementary graph theory-based methods to analyze population structure and gene flow among 19 sub-populations of a single population-variety [Rouge de Bordeaux (RDB)]. The ethnobotany approach allowed us to determine the RDB history including diffusion and reproduction events. We found that the complex genetic structure among the RDB sub-populations is highly consistent with the structure of the seed diffusion and reproduction network drawn based on the ethnobotanical study. This structure highlighted the key role of the farmer-led seed diffusion through founder effects, selection and genetic drift because of human practices. An important result is that the genetic diversity conserved on farm is complementary to that found in the genebank indicating that both systems are required for a more efficient crop diversity conservation. PMID:23346224

  18. On-farm dynamic management of genetic diversity: the impact of seed diffusions and seed saving practices on a population-variety of bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Mathieu; Demeulenaere, Elise; Dawson, Julie C; Khan, Abdul Rehman; Galic, Nathalie; Jouanne-Pin, Sophie; Remoue, Carine; Bonneuil, Christophe; Goldringer, Isabelle

    2012-12-01

    Since the domestication of crop species, humans have derived specific varieties for particular uses and shaped the genetic diversity of these varieties. Here, using an interdisciplinary approach combining ethnobotany and population genetics, we document the within-variety genetic structure of a population-variety of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in relation to farmers' practices to decipher their contribution to crop species evolution. Using 19 microsatellites markers, we conducted two complementary graph theory-based methods to analyze population structure and gene flow among 19 sub-populations of a single population-variety [Rouge de Bordeaux (RDB)]. The ethnobotany approach allowed us to determine the RDB history including diffusion and reproduction events. We found that the complex genetic structure among the RDB sub-populations is highly consistent with the structure of the seed diffusion and reproduction network drawn based on the ethnobotanical study. This structure highlighted the key role of the farmer-led seed diffusion through founder effects, selection and genetic drift because of human practices. An important result is that the genetic diversity conserved on farm is complementary to that found in the genebank indicating that both systems are required for a more efficient crop diversity conservation. PMID:23346224

  19. Association Analysis of Genomic Loci Important for Grain Weight Control in Elite Common Wheat Varieties Cultivated with Variable Water and Fertiliser Supply

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kunpu; Wang, Junjun; Zhang, Liyi; Rong, Chaowu; Zhao, Fengwu; Peng, Tao; Li, Huimin; Cheng, Dongmei; Liu, Xin; Qin, Huanju; Zhang, Aimin; Tong, Yiping; Wang, Daowen

    2013-01-01

    Grain weight, an essential yield component, is under strong genetic control and markedly influenced by the environment. Here, by genome-wide association analysis with a panel of 94 elite common wheat varieties, 37 loci were found significantly associated with thousand-grain weight (TGW) in one or more environments differing in water and fertiliser levels. Five loci were stably associated with TGW under all 12 environments examined. Their elite alleles had positive effects on TGW. Four, two, three, and two loci were consistently associated with TGW in the irrigated and fertilised (IF), rainfed (RF), reduced nitrogen (RN), and reduced phosphorus (RP) environments. The elite alleles of the IF-specific loci enhanced TGW under well-resourced conditions, whereas those of the RF-, RN-, or RP-specific loci conferred tolerance to the TGW decrease when irrigation, nitrogen, or phosphorus were reduced. Moreover, the elite alleles of the environment-independent and -specific loci often acted additively to enhance TGW. Four additional loci were found associated with TGW in specific locations, one of which was shown to contribute to the TGW difference between two experimental sites. Further analysis of 14 associated loci revealed that nine affected both grain length and width, whereas the remaining loci influenced either grain length or width, indicating that these loci control grain weight by regulating kernel size. Finally, the elite allele of Xpsp3152 frequently co-segregated with the larger grain haplotype of TaGW2-6A, suggesting probable genetic and functional linkages between Xpsp3152 and GW2 that are important for grain weight control in cereal plants. Our study provides new knowledge on TGW control in elite common wheat lines, which may aid the improvement of wheat grain weight trait in further research. PMID:23469248

  20. The Analysis Of The Strain Influence On Some Yield Elemnts On An Assortment Of Isogenic Wheat Varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Păniţă, Ovidiu

    2015-09-01

    In the years 2012-2014 on Banu-Maracine DRS were tested an assortment consists of 25 isogenic lines of common wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp.vulgare), with the combination of Rht1&rht8 genes, the analyzed characters being the hight of the strain (cm), the number of seeds/spike, seeds weight/spike (g), no. of spikes/m2, weight of a thousand seeds (WTS) (g) and no. of emerged plants/m2. Based on recorded data and statistical processing of those, they were identified a numbers of links between these characters, links quantified by using the correlation. Regarding the classification based on the average high of the strain, it was found that that there is a strong link between some characters too. Based on component analysis, the no. of seeds/spike and the seeds weight/spikes are components that influence in excess of 83% variance analysis, a total of five genotypes having positive scores for both factors.

  1. Glycine, Nitrate, and Ammonium Uptake by Classic and Modern Wheat Varieties in a Short-Term Microcosm Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract Plants take up nitrogen principally in the form of nitrate and ammonium; however, evidence is growing that they can also use organic N in the form of amino acids. Selecting varieties that better use organic N could be important in maximizing productivity in organic and low-input systems be...

  2. The house mouse (Mus musculus L.) exerts strong differential grain consumption preferences among hard red and white spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties in a single-elimination tournament design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) plays a central role in the health and nutrition of humans. Yet, little is known about possible flavor differences among different varieties. We have developed a model system using the house mouse (Mus musculus) to determine feeding preferences as a prelude to extending res...

  3. Association of puroindoline b-2 variants with grain traits, yield components and flag leaf size in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties of Yellow and Huai Valley of China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 169 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties (landraces and cultivars) were used to asses the relationship between Puroindoline D1 alleles and Puroindoline b-B2 variants and grain hardness, other grain traits, grain yield components, and flag leaf size. Results indicated that the average SK...

  4. Comparative effect of salinity on growth, grain yield, water use efficiency, δ(13)C and δ(15)N of landraces and improved durum wheat varieties.

    PubMed

    Chamekh, Zoubeir; Ayadi, Sawsen; Karmous, Chahine; Trifa, Youssef; Amara, Hajer; Boudabbous, Khaoula; Yousfi, Salima; Serret, Maria Dolors; Araus, José Luis

    2016-10-01

    Supplemental irrigation with low-quality water will be paramount in Mediterranean agriculture in the future, where durum wheat is a major crop. Breeding for salinity tolerance may contribute towards improving resilience to irrigation with brackish water. However, identification of appropriate phenotyping traits remains a bottleneck in breeding. A set of 25 genotypes, including 19 landraces and 6 improved varieties most cultivated in Tunisia, were grown in the field and irrigated with brackish water (6, 13 and 18dSm(-1)). Improved genotypes exhibited higher grain yield (GY) and water use efficiency at the crop level (WUEyield or 'water productivity'), shorter days to flowering (DTF), lower N concentration (N) and carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) in mature kernels and lower nitrogen isotope composition (δ(15)N) in the flag leaf compared with landraces. GY was negatively correlated with DTF and the δ(13)C and N of mature kernels and was positively correlated with the δ(15)N of the flag leaf. Moreover, δ(13)C of mature kernels was negatively correlated with WUEyield. The results highlight the importance of shorter phenology together with photosynthetic resilience to salt-induced water stress (lower δ(13)C) and nitrogen metabolism (higher N and δ(15)N) for assessing genotypic performance to salinity. PMID:27593462

  5. Direct measurement of sodium and potassium in the transpiration stream of salt-excluding and non-excluding varieties of wheat.

    PubMed

    Watson, R; Pritchard, J; Malone, M

    2001-09-01

    The xylem-feeding insect Philaenus spumarius was used to analyse sodium and potassium fluxes in the xylem of intact, transpiring wheat plants. Two cultivars were compared: the salt-excluding (Chinese Spring) and the non-excluding (Langdon). Chinese Spring accumulated much less sodium in its leaves than the salt-sensitive Langdon. After 7 d in 150 mol m(-3) NaCl, the sodium concentration in the leaf sap of Langdon reached over 600 mol m(-3). This was some three-fold greater than that in Chinese Spring. Similar findings have previously been reported from these cultivars. The reduced ion accumulation was specific to sodium; accumulation of K(+) was unaffected by NaCl in Chinese Spring, such that it developed a much lower leaf Na(+)/K(+) ratio than Langdon. The spittlebug, P. spumarius was used to sample xylem sap from both cultivars. This approach showed that the leaf xylem sap of Chinese Spring had much lower levels of sodium than that of Langdon. In the 150 mol m(-3) NaCl treatment, sodium levels in the leaf xylem reached only 2-3 mol m(-3) in Chinese Spring, compared with 8-10 mol m(-3) in Langdon. Transpiration rates were found to be similar in the two varieties. The lower leaf xylem content alone was thus sufficient to account for the reduced accumulation of sodium in leaves of Chinese Spring. The mechanisms by which xylem sodium might be lowered are discussed and it is concluded that sodium is probably excluded from the xylem in the root of Chinese Spring. PMID:11520876

  6. Wheat for Kids! [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    "Wheat for Kids" contains information at the elementary school level about: the structure of the wheat kernel; varieties of wheat and their uses; growing wheat; making wheat dough; the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and nutrition; Idaho's part of the international wheat market; recipes; and word games based on the information…

  7. WheatGenome.info: A Resource for Wheat Genomics Resource.

    PubMed

    Lai, Kaitao

    2016-01-01

    An integrated database with a variety of Web-based systems named WheatGenome.info hosting wheat genome and genomic data has been developed to support wheat research and crop improvement. The resource includes multiple Web-based applications, which are implemented as a variety of Web-based systems. These include a GBrowse2-based wheat genome viewer with BLAST search portal, TAGdb for searching wheat second generation genome sequence data, wheat autoSNPdb, links to wheat genetic maps using CMap and CMap3D, and a wheat genome Wiki to allow interaction between diverse wheat genome sequencing activities. This portal provides links to a variety of wheat genome resources hosted at other research organizations. This integrated database aims to accelerate wheat genome research and is freely accessible via the web interface at http://www.wheatgenome.info/ . PMID:26519407

  8. The Interactive Effects of Transgenically Overexpressed 1Ax1 with Various HMW-GS Combinations on Dough Quality by Introgression of Exogenous Subunits into an Elite Chinese Wheat Variety

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Lei, Qian; Meng, Dandan; Ma, Fengyun; Hu, Wei; Chen, Mingjie; Chang, Junli; Wang, Yuesheng; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2013-01-01

    Seed storage proteins in wheat endosperm, particularly high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS), are primary determinants of dough properties, and affect both end-use quality and grain utilization of wheat (Triticum aestivum L). In order to investigate the interactive effects between the transgenically overexpressed 1Ax1 subunit with different HMW-GS on dough quality traits, we developed a set of 8 introgression lines (ILs) overexpressing the transgenic HMW-glutenin subunit 1Ax1 by introgression of this transgene from transgenic line B102-1-2/1 into an elite Chinese wheat variety Chuanmai107 (C107), using conventional crossing and backcrossing breeding technique. The donor C107 strain lacks 1Ax1 but contains the HMW-GS pairs 1Dx2+1Dy12 and 1Bx7+1By9. The resultant ILs showed robust and stable expression of 1Ax1 even after five generations of self-pollination, and crossing/backcrossing three times. In addition, overexpression of 1Ax1 was compensated by the endogenous gluten proteins. All ILs exhibited superior agronomic performance when compared to the transgenic parent line, B102-1-2/1. Mixograph results demonstrated that overexpressed 1Ax1 significantly improved dough strength, resistance to extension and over-mixing tolerance, in the targeted wheat cultivar C107. Further, comparisons among the ILs showed the interactive effects of endogenous subunits on dough properties when 1Ax1 was overexpressed: subunit pair 17+18 contributed to increased over-mixing tolerance of the dough; expression of the Glu-D1 allele maintained an appropriate balance between x-type and y-type subunits and thereby improved dough quality. It is consistent with ILs C4 (HMW-GS are 1, 17+18, 2+12) had the highest gluten index and Zeleny sedimentation value. This study demonstrates that wheat quality could be improved by using transgenic wheat overexpressing HMW-GS and the feasibility of using such transgenic lines in wheat quality breeding programs. PMID:24167625

  9. Role of Fungicides, Application of Nozzle Types, and the Resistance Level of Wheat Varieties in the Control of Fusarium Head Blight and Deoxynivalenol

    PubMed Central

    Mesterházy, Ákos; Tóth, Beáta; Varga, Monika; Bartók, Tibor; Szabó-Hevér, Ágnes; Farády, László; Lehoczki-Krsjak, Szabolcs

    2011-01-01

    Fungicide application is a key factor in the control of mycotoxin contamination in the harvested wheat grain. However, the practical results are often disappointing. In 2000-2004, 2006-2008 and 2007 and 2008, three experiments were made to test the efficacy of fungicide control on Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) in wheat and to find ways to improve control of the disease and toxin contamination. In a testing system we have used for 20 years, tebuconazole and tebuconazole + prothioconazole fungicides regularly reduced symptoms by about 80% with a correlating reduction in toxin contamination. Averages across the years normally show a correlation of r = 0.90 or higher. The stability differences (measured by the stability index) between the poorest and the best fungicides are about 10 or more times, differing slightly in mycotoxin accumulation, FHB index (severity) and Fusarium damaged kernels (FDK). The weak fungicides, like carbendazim, were effective only when no epidemic occurred or epidemic severity was at a very low level. Similar fungicide effects were seen on wheat cultivars which varied in FHB resistance. In this study, we found three fold differences in susceptibility to FHB between highly susceptible and moderately resistant cultivars when treated with fungicides. In the moderately resistant cultivars, about 50% of the fungicide treatments lowered the DON level below the regulatory limit. In the most susceptible cultivars, all fungicides failed to reduce mycotoxin levels low enough for grain acceptance, in spite of the fact that disease was significantly reduced. The results correlated well with the results of the large-scale field tests of fungicide application at the time of natural infection. The Turbo FloodJet nozzle reduced FHB incidence and DON contamination when compared to the TeeJet XR nozzle. Overall, the data suggest that significant decreases in FHB incidence and deoxynivalenol contamination in field situations are possible with proper fungicide

  10. Wheat Quality Council, Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee, 2014 Crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eleven experimental lines of hard spring wheat were grown at up to five locations in 2014 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Wheat samples were submitted through the Wheat Quality Council and processed and milled at the USDA-ARS Hard Red Spr...

  11. 7 CFR 201.10 - Variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS...-sudangrass, Soybean; Sudangrass; Sunflower; Tobacco; Trefoil, birdsfoot; Triticale; Wheat, common; Wheat... seed,” shall apply only to seed of the variety named, except for the labeling of hybrids as provided...

  12. Image texture analysis of crushed wheat kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayas, Inna Y.; Martin, C. R.; Steele, James L.; Dempster, Richard E.

    1992-03-01

    The development of new approaches for wheat hardness assessment may impact the grain industry in marketing, milling, and breeding. This study used image texture features for wheat hardness evaluation. Application of digital imaging to grain for grading purposes is principally based on morphometrical (shape and size) characteristics of the kernels. A composite sample of 320 kernels for 17 wheat varieties were collected after testing and crushing with a single kernel hardness characterization meter. Six wheat classes where represented: HRW, HRS, SRW, SWW, Durum, and Club. In this study, parameters which characterize texture or spatial distribution of gray levels of an image were determined and used to classify images of crushed wheat kernels. The texture parameters of crushed wheat kernel images were different depending on class, hardness and variety of the wheat. Image texture analysis of crushed wheat kernels showed promise for use in class, hardness, milling quality, and variety discrimination.

  13. HARD SPRING WHEAT TECHNICAL COMMITTEE 2007 CROP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twelve experimental lines of hard spring wheat were grown at up to five locations in 2007 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Samples of wheat were submitted through the Wheat Quality Council and processed and milled at the USDA Hard Red Spri...

  14. Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee 2009 Crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirteen hard spring wheat lines that were developed by breeders throughout the spring wheat region of the U. S. were grown at up to five locations in 2009 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Samples of wheat were milled at the USDA Hard Red ...

  15. Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee, 2008 Crop.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eleven hard spring wheat lines that were developed by breeders throughout the spring wheat region of the U. S. were grown at up to five locations in 2008 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Samples of wheat were milled at the USDA Hard Red Sp...

  16. Registration of 'LCS Wizard' wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to develop widely adapted hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties to meet the needs of mills, bakeries, and consumers in the eastern and Great Plains regions of the United States. ‘LCS Wizard’ (Reg. No. CV-1111, PI 669574), a hard red winter (HRW) wheat,...

  17. Surface Variety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02175 Surface Variety This image of part of Aram Chaos shows two different surface textures with distinctly different brightnesses. The lighter layer appears to be on top (therefore younger) than the darker surface.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 2.1N, Longitude 338.7E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  18. Dune Variety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02173 Dune Variety

    This image of the east end of Coprates Chasma contains several dune fields. The dunes in the center of the image are larger and darker than the dunes at the bottom.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -14.8N, Longitude 304.3E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Canyon Variety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03281 Canyon Variety

    This image shows paret of the west end of Melas Chasma. Landslide deposits are visible at the top of the image, with dark dunes appearing at the bottom.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8.2N, Longitude 281.0E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  20. LC/MS analysis of proteolytic peptides in wheat extracts for determining the content of the allergen amylase/trypsin inhibitor CM3: influence of growing area and variety.

    PubMed

    Prandi, Barbara; Faccini, Andrea; Tedeschi, Tullia; Galaverna, Gianni; Sforza, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    Food allergy from wheat is triggered by several protein classes, such as LTPs, ω5-gliadins and α-amylase/trypsin inhibitors. The latter proteins, belonging to the prolamin superfamily, are mostly involved in baker's asthma, a form of occupational allergy in which the sensitization occurs through the respiratory tract. α-Amylase/trypsin inhibitors were also found to be involved in wheat-related atopic dermatitis. In this work, the allergen Tri a 30 (the CM3 α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor) was quantified in durum wheat salt soluble extracts using a peptidomic approach. CM3 protein identification was confirmed by using LTQ-OrbiTrap analysis on peptides obtained from the enzymatically digested protein separated by gel electrophoresis. Then, marker peptides derived from the protein after enzymatic cleavage of the full wheat extracts were identified by LC-MS/MS. One of them was used as marker for quantitative determination on an UPLC/ESI-MS system by using its isotopically labelled analogue as internal standard, allowing to assess the protein content in the different samples. The CM3 allergenic proteins were found to greatly vary among different cultivation areas. PMID:23578625

  1. Weather, disease, and wheat breeding effects on Kansas wheat varietal yields, 1985 to 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yields in Kansas have increased due to wheat breeding and improved agronomic practices, but are subject to climate and disease challenges. The objective of this research is to quantify the impact of weather, disease, and genetic improvement on wheat yields of varieties g...

  2. Fusarium head blight symptoms and mycotoxin levels in single kernels of infected wheat spikes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study of how the Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease spreads and manifests disease symptoms and mycotoxins in infected grains in spikelets along the spikes among wheat varieties is important to understand the FHB resistance of different wheat varieties. Two wheat varieties with different FHB resi...

  3. Wheat in the Mediterranean revisited – tetraploid wheat landraces assessed with elite bread wheat Single Nucleotide Polymorphism markers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) panels recently developed for the assessment of genetic diversity in wheat are primarily based on elite varieties, mostly those of bread wheat. The usefulness of such SNP panels for studying wheat evolution and domestication has not yet been fully explored and ascertainment bias issues can potentially affect their applicability when studying landraces and tetraploid ancestors of bread wheat. We here evaluate whether population structure and evolutionary history can be assessed in tetraploid landrace wheats using SNP markers previously developed for the analysis of elite cultivars of hexaploid wheat. Results We genotyped more than 100 tetraploid wheat landraces and wild emmer wheat accessions, some of which had previously been screened with SSR markers, for an existing SNP panel and obtained publically available genotypes for the same SNPs for hexaploid wheat varieties and landraces. Results showed that quantification of genetic diversity can be affected by ascertainment bias but that the effects of ascertainment bias can at least partly be alleviated by merging SNPs to haplotypes. Analyses of population structure and genetic differentiation show strong subdivision between the tetraploid wheat subspecies, except for durum and rivet that are not separable. A more detailed population structure of durum landraces could be obtained than with SSR markers. The results also suggest an emmer, rather than durum, ancestry of bread wheat and with gene flow from wild emmer. Conclusions SNP markers developed for elite cultivars show great potential for inferring population structure and can address evolutionary questions in landrace wheat. Issues of marker genome specificity and mapping need, however, to be addressed. Ascertainment bias does not seem to interfere with the ability of a SNP marker system developed for elite bread wheat accessions to detect population structure in other types of wheat. PMID:24885044

  4. [Development of Triticale and soft wheat forms with substituted wheat and rye chromosomes].

    PubMed

    Suvorova, E Iu; Cherednichenko, V N; Semenov, V I

    2000-01-01

    During hybridization between winter forms of hexaploid (6x) triticale and soft wheat varieties the intergenomic substitution of alian chromosomes occurs. As a result of these crosses the forms of 6x-triticale with D(R)-substitution of chromosomes in R-rye genome by wheat ones of D-genome and wheat revertants with rye chromosomes replacing the wheat ones are originated. This is the simplest and the most effective technique for developing of selected lines of triticale and soft wheat with alien substituted chromosomes and valuable genes transfer. PMID:11213630

  5. Eat Wheat!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    This pamphlet contains puzzles, games, and a recipe designed to teach elementary school pupils about wheat. It includes word games based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and on foods made from wheat. The Food Guide Pyramid can be cut out of the pamphlet and assembled as a three-dimensional information source and food guide.…

  6. Wheat Newsletter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review was written for readers of the Annual Wheat Newsletter, Volume 53. It summarizes activities on wheat research during 2006 at the U.S. Grain Marketing Research Laboratory (USGMRL). The article includes technical abstracts of research accomplishments from the Grain Quality and Structure ...

  7. Mapping QTL for Soft Wheat Quality in Multiple Populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soft wheat is used to make a wide variety of products and thus variation for quality parameters is important to breed soft wheat cultivars suitable for different uses. Breeders need more knowledge about the genetics of soft wheat quality and systems for marker-assisted selection (MAS). MAS is best...

  8. Milling and Baking Test Results for Eastern Soft Wheats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soft Wheat Quality Council (SWQC) will provide an organizataion structure to evaluate the quality of soft wheat experimental lines and varieties that may be grown in the traditional soft wheat growing regions of the U.S. The SWQC will also establish other activities as requested by the membersh...

  9. Stem rust resistance in 'Jagger' winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    "Jagger" has been utilized widely as a parent to develop hard red winter wheat varieties throughout the U.S. southern Great Plains. Jagger has resistance to stem rust pathogen race TTTTF, which is virulent to many winter wheat cultivars, yet the genetic basis of this resistance remains unknown. Mark...

  10. Relationship between lutein and mycotoxin content in durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Rosa M; Sulyok, Michael; Jirsa, Ondřej; Spitzer, Tomáš; Krska, Rudolf; Polišenská, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Levels of lutein and a number of mycotoxins were determined in seven varieties of durum wheat (Triticum durum) and two varieties of common wheat (Triticum aestivum) in order to explore possible relationships amongst these components. Durum wheat cultivars always showed both higher lutein and mycotoxin contents than common wheat cultivars. The mycotoxins detected in both common and durum wheat cultivars were produced by the genera Fusarium, Claviceps, Alternaria and Aspergillus. Fusarium was the major producer of mycotoxins (26 mycotoxins) followed by Claviceps (14 mycotoxins), which was present only in some cultivars such as Chevalier (common wheat), Lupidur and Selyemdur (both durum wheat), Alternaria (six mycotoxins) and Aspergillus (three mycotoxins). Positive correlations between the levels of lutein and mycotoxins in durum wheat cultivars were found for the following mycotoxins: deoxynivalenol (DON), its derivative DON-3-glucoside, moniliformin, culmorin and its derivatives (5-hydroxyculmorin and 15-hydroxyculmorin). PMID:24844356

  11. [Wheat dependent exercise induced anaphylaxis possibly sensitized by the hydrolyzed wheat proteins in a facial cleansing soap].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Miwa; Okura, Risa; Yoshioka, Haruna; Hiromasa, Kana; Yoshioka, Manabu; Nakamura, Motonobu

    2012-03-01

    There are increasing cases of wheat dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) with transcutaneous or transmucosal sensitization. Hydrolyzed wheat included in a certain brand of soap was identified as a cause of sensitization. The useful clues to detect this disorder consist of the patient's past usage of a soap containing hydrolyzed wheat, the appearance of cutaneous or mucosal symptoms after the intake of wheat or washing with this soap, and a high level of specific IgE for wheat gluten. Because hydrolyzed wheat is used as an additive in a wide variety of cosmetics, we should pay careful attention to the ingredients of cosmetics when observing WDEIA. PMID:22428462

  12. Population divergence in the wheat leaf rust fungus Puccinia triticina is correlated with wheat evolution

    PubMed Central

    Liu, M; Rodrigue, N; Kolmer, J

    2014-01-01

    Co-evolution of fungal pathogens with their host species during the domestication of modern crop varieties has likely affected the current genetic divergence of pathogen populations. The objective of this study was to determine if the evolutionary history of the obligate rust pathogen on wheat, Puccinia triticina, is correlated with adaptation to hosts with different ploidy levels. Sequence data from 15 loci with different levels of polymorphism were generated. Phylogenetic analyses (parsimony, Bayesian, maximum likelihood) showed the clear initial divergence of P. triticina isolates collected from Aegilops speltoides (the likely B genome donor of modern wheat) in Israel from the other isolates that were collected from tetraploid (AB genomes) durum wheat and hexaploid (ABD genomes) common wheat. Coalescence-based genealogy samplers also indicated that P. triticina on A. speltoides, diverged initially, followed by P. triticina isolates from durum wheat in Ethiopia and then by isolates from common wheat. Isolates of P. triticina found worldwide on cultivated durum wheat were the most recently coalesced and formed a clade nested within the isolates from common wheat. By a relative time scale, the divergence of P. triticinia as delimited by host specificity appears very recent. Significant reciprocal gene flow between isolates from common wheat and isolates from durum wheat that are found worldwide was detected, in addition to gene flow from isolates on common wheat to isolates on durum wheat in Ethiopia. PMID:24301080

  13. Wheat: The Whole Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This publication presents information on wheat. Wheat was originally a wild grass and not native to the United States. Wheat was not planted there until 1777 (and then only as a hobby crop). Wheat is grown on more acres than any other grain in this country. Soft wheats are grown east of the Mississippi River, and hard wheats are grown west of the…

  14. The Wheat CAP Project: Integrating Marker-Assisted Selection into US Wheat Breeding Programs.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Public wheat breeding programs are responsible for the development of the majority of commercial varieties grown in the United States. For the wheat industry to remain competitive, these programs must integrate new technologies into conventional breeding efforts. The USDA-ARS Regional Genotyping Lab...

  15. Wheat Lipids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article is a chapter of a book entitled “Wheat: Chemistry and Technology”, the 4th edition, K. Khan and P.R. Shewry (eds.), to be published in 2007 following the 3rd edition, Y. Pomeranz (ed.), published in 1988 by AACC International Inc., St. Paul, MN. The chapter covers the subject area of wh...

  16. Danish auroral science history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stauning, P.

    2011-01-01

    Danish auroral science history begins with the early auroral observations made by the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe during the years from 1582 to 1601 preceding the Maunder minimum in solar activity. Included are also the brilliant observations made by another astronomer, Ole Rømer, from Copenhagen in 1707, as well as the early auroral observations made from Greenland by missionaries during the 18th and 19th centuries. The relations between auroras and geomagnetic variations were analysed by H. C. Ørsted, who also played a vital role in the development of Danish meteorology that came to include comprehensive auroral observations from Denmark, Iceland and Greenland as well as auroral and geomagnetic research. The very important auroral investigations made by Sophus Tromholt are outlined. His analysis from 1880 of auroral observations from Greenland prepared for the significant contributions from the Danish Meteorological Institute, DMI, (founded in 1872) to the first International Polar Year 1882/83, where an expedition headed by Adam Paulsen was sent to Greenland to conduct auroral and geomagnetic observations. Paulsen's analyses of the collected data gave many important results but also raised many new questions that gave rise to auroral expeditions to Iceland in 1899 to 1900 and to Finland in 1900 to 1901. Among the results from these expeditions were 26 unique paintings of the auroras made by the artist painter, Harald Moltke. The expedition to Finland was headed by Dan la Cour, who later as director of the DMI came to be in charge of the comprehensive international geomagnetic and auroral observations made during the Second International Polar Year in 1932/33. Finally, the article describes the important investigations made by Knud Lassen during, among others, the International Geophysical Year 1957/58 and during the International Quiet Sun Year (IQSY) in 1964/65. With his leadership the auroral and geomagnetic research at DMI reached a high international

  17. Aging and variety seeking.

    PubMed

    Novak, Deanna L; Mather, Mara

    2007-12-01

    The authors examined the influence of age on variety seeking in 3 experiments. When given choices among jellybeans or music, age differences in variety seeking emerged. Younger adults selected similar levels of variety when choosing what to consume immediately and what to consume later. In contrast, older adults consistently chose less variety when making choices to be consumed at a later time than when making choices to be consumed immediately. This pattern may be related to an increased focus on regulating future emotional experience that is associated with age. PMID:18179293

  18. New broad-spectrum resistance to septoria tritici blotch derived from synthetic hexaploid wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Septoria tritici blotch (STB), caused by the ascomycete Mycosphaerella graminicola, is one of the most devastating foliar diseases of wheat. We screened five synthetic hexaploid wheats (SHs), 13 wheat varieties that represent the differential set of cultivars and two susceptible checks with a global...

  19. ESTIMATION OF HRW WHEAT HEAT DAMAGE BY DSC, CAPILLARY ZONE ELECTROPHORESIS, PHOTOACOUSTIC SPECTROSCOPY AND RHEOMETRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of heat damage was estimated using Hard Red Winter (HRW) wheat varieties grown in Oklahoma. The testing was done on wheat kernels, flour, and isolated starch. Whole-wheat kernels were analyzed by Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (PAS). Flour was analyzed by DSC, Capillary Electrophoresis (CE...

  20. Evolutionary Genomics of Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat is the world’s largest and most important food crop for direct human consumption, therefore, continued wheat improvement is paramount for feeding an ever-increasing human population. Wheat improvement is tightly associated with the characterization and understanding of wheat evolution and gene...

  1. Spring Wheat Breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Common wheat, known as bread wheat, is one of major crops for human food consumption. It is further classified into spring and winter wheat based on the distinct growing seasons. Spring wheat is grown worldwide and usually planted in the spring and harvested in late summer or early fall. In this c...

  2. Overseas Varietal Analysis 2011 Crop Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2011 U.S. Wheat Associates Overseas Varietal Analysis project evaluated ten soft red winter wheat varieties: Malabar and AGI 303 from Ohio, Terral TV 8861 from Louisiana, SY 9978 and Coker 9804 from North Carolina, Merl and Shirley from Virginia, AGS 2060 from Arkansas, and USG 3201 and USG 3251...

  3. Overseas Varietal Analysis 2010 Crop Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2010 U.S. Wheat Associates Overseas Varietal Analysis project evaluated ten soft red winter wheat varieties: Jamestown, Merl and Shirley from Virginia; Coker 9553 and Oakes from North Carolina; Baldwin from Georgia; Renegade and DK 9577 from Arkansas; USG 3555 from Tennessee; and, Malabar from O...

  4. Overseas Varietal Analysis: 2008 Crop Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2008 U.S. Wheat Associates Overseas Varietal Analysis evaluated ten soft red winter wheat varieties DK 9577, USG 3665, and USG 3350 from Arkansas, Jamestown, Tribute, and USG 3555 from Virginia, Branson, Magnolia, and Coker 9553 from North Carolina, and Bess from Missouri. Samples were evaluate...

  5. Wheat Forages Contain Variable Levels of Condensed Tannin Reactive Substances

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Even though winter wheat pasture in the southern Great Plains is considered excellent forage, devastating losses of stocker cattle can occur due to pasture bloat. Tannins are known to reduce the incidence and severity of bloat. We examined tannins in adapted wheat varieties that are commonly grazed ...

  6. Registration of ‘Dy10-DLC’ wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dy10-DLC wheat (Triticum aestivum) was developed by USDA-ARS at the Western Regional Research Center in Albany, CA. Dy10-DLC was identified from an EMS-mutagenized population of an elite hexaploid wheat variety Summit by screening M3 seeds for altered storage protein profiles using one-dimensiona...

  7. Milling behavior of a soft durum wheat line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the initial hybridization of two wild grasses to form the wheat species Triticum turgidum some 0.5 m years ago, the puroindoline genes from both wild species were eliminated, along with their inherent and mysterious ability to soften kernels. Consequently, all durum wheat varieties have very ...

  8. Peanut variety tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Beckham, and Custer counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 10 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 6 Virginia type...

  9. Peanut variety tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Beckham, and Custer counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 9 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 7 Virginia types...

  10. Varieties of Musical Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bharucha, J. Jamshed; Curtis, Meagan; Paroo, Kaivon

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that music cognition involves the use of acoustic and auditory codes to evoke a variety of conscious experiences. The variety of domains that are encompassed by music is so diverse that it is unclear whether a single domain of structure or experience is defining. Music is best understood as a form of communication in which…

  11. Peanut Variety Tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managed peanut variety trials located in various state-wide regions are an essential part of peanut variety development and release. In this study, trials were conducted in Caddo, Custer, and Tillman counties of Oklahoma. Trial entries included 8 runner types, 4 Spanish types, and 4 Virginia types...

  12. Varieties of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, G. L.

    The English language is not a monolithic entity but an amalgam of many different varieties that can be associated respectively with groups of speakers, with individuals, and with the occasion. Among such varieties are slang, regional and class dialects, the language of children, and the language used by public speakers, journalists, lawyers,…

  13. Unlocking the genetic diversity of Creole wheats.

    PubMed

    Vikram, Prashant; Franco, Jorge; Burgueño-Ferreira, Juan; Li, Huihui; Sehgal, Deepmala; Saint Pierre, Carolina; Ortiz, Cynthia; Sneller, Clay; Tattaris, Maria; Guzman, Carlos; Sansaloni, Carolina Paola; Fuentes-Davila, Guillermo; Reynolds, Matthew; Sonders, Kai; Singh, Pawan; Payne, Thomas; Wenzl, Peter; Sharma, Achla; Bains, Navtej Singh; Singh, Gyanendra Pratap; Crossa, José; Singh, Sukhwinder

    2016-01-01

    Climate change and slow yield gains pose a major threat to global wheat production. Underutilized genetic resources including landraces and wild relatives are key elements for developing high-yielding and climate-resilient wheat varieties. Landraces introduced into Mexico from Europe, also known as Creole wheats, are adapted to a wide range of climatic regimes and represent a unique genetic resource. Eight thousand four hundred and sixteen wheat landraces representing all dimensions of Mexico were characterized through genotyping-by-sequencing technology. Results revealed sub-groups adapted to specific environments of Mexico. Broadly, accessions from north and south of Mexico showed considerable genetic differentiation. However, a large percentage of landrace accessions were genetically very close, although belonged to different regions most likely due to the recent (nearly five centuries before) introduction of wheat in Mexico. Some of the groups adapted to extreme environments and accumulated high number of rare alleles. Core reference sets were assembled simultaneously using multiple variables, capturing 89% of the rare alleles present in the complete set. Genetic information about Mexican wheat landraces and core reference set can be effectively utilized in next generation wheat varietal improvement. PMID:26976656

  14. Unlocking the genetic diversity of Creole wheats

    PubMed Central

    Vikram, Prashant; Franco, Jorge; Burgueño-Ferreira, Juan; Li, Huihui; Sehgal, Deepmala; Saint Pierre, Carolina; Ortiz, Cynthia; Sneller, Clay; Tattaris, Maria; Guzman, Carlos; Sansaloni, Carolina Paola; Fuentes-Davila, Guillermo; Reynolds, Matthew; Sonders, Kai; Singh, Pawan; Payne, Thomas; Wenzl, Peter; Sharma, Achla; Bains, Navtej Singh; Singh, Gyanendra Pratap; Crossa, José; Singh, Sukhwinder

    2016-01-01

    Climate change and slow yield gains pose a major threat to global wheat production. Underutilized genetic resources including landraces and wild relatives are key elements for developing high-yielding and climate-resilient wheat varieties. Landraces introduced into Mexico from Europe, also known as Creole wheats, are adapted to a wide range of climatic regimes and represent a unique genetic resource. Eight thousand four hundred and sixteen wheat landraces representing all dimensions of Mexico were characterized through genotyping-by-sequencing technology. Results revealed sub-groups adapted to specific environments of Mexico. Broadly, accessions from north and south of Mexico showed considerable genetic differentiation. However, a large percentage of landrace accessions were genetically very close, although belonged to different regions most likely due to the recent (nearly five centuries before) introduction of wheat in Mexico. Some of the groups adapted to extreme environments and accumulated high number of rare alleles. Core reference sets were assembled simultaneously using multiple variables, capturing 89% of the rare alleles present in the complete set. Genetic information about Mexican wheat landraces and core reference set can be effectively utilized in next generation wheat varietal improvement. PMID:26976656

  15. Wheat production in the controlled environments of space.

    PubMed

    Bugbee, B; Salisbury, F B

    1985-01-01

    Space agricultural research at the Utah State University includes studies of wheat growth in a controlled environment life support system. Wheat was chosen as a candidate for research in bioregenerative systems because it can be processed into a variety of foods, it is an efficient producer, it is a major world food crop, much is known about wheat genetics and breeding, it grows well in continuous light, and converts energy into a high grain yield. Studies examine quantum yield and short-term photosynthesis, growth rates, yield and harvest index, plant density and light intensity, carbon dioxide concentrations, and breeding wheat for space agriculture. PMID:11540895

  16. Energy balance of wheat conversion to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Stumborg, M.A.; Zentner, R.P.; Coxworth, E.

    1996-12-31

    The Western Canadian ethanol industry uses wheat as the preferred feed stock. The net energy balance of an ethanol system based on this starchy feed stock is of interest if Canada utilizes ethanol fuels from wheat as one of its measures to meet international commitments for greenhouse gas reduction and energy conservation under the Green Plan. The wheat to ethanol production systems for the Brown and Thin Black soil zones of the Canadian Prairies were analyzed from soil to processing completion to determine the net energy balance. The data clearly demonstrates the positive net energy balance, with the energy balance ranging from 1.32 to 1.63:1 for the Brown soil zone, and from 1.19 to 1.47:1 for the Thin Black soil zone. The final energy balance depends upon the agronomic practices and wheat variety assumed for the production system.

  17. The Danish vaccination register.

    PubMed

    Grove Krause, T; Jakobsen, S; Haarh, M; Mølbak, K

    2012-01-01

    Immunisation information systems (IIS) are valuable tools for monitoring vaccination coverage and for estimating vaccine effectiveness and safety. Since 2009, an advanced IIS has been developed in Denmark and will be implemented during 2012–14. This IIS is based on a database existing since 2000. The reporting of all administered vaccinations including vaccinations outside the national programme will become mandatory. Citizens will get access to data about their own vaccinations and healthcare personnel will get access to information on the vaccinations of their patients. A national concept of identification, a national solution combining a personal code and a card with codes, ensures easy and secure access to the register. From the outset, the IIS will include data on childhood vaccinations administered from 1996 and onwards. All Danish citizens have a unique identifier, a so called civil registration number, which allows the linking of information on vaccinations coming from different electronic data sources. The main challenge will be to integrate the IIS with the different electronic patient record systems currently existing at general practitioner, vaccination clinic and hospital level thereby avoiding double-entry. A need has been identified for an updated international classification of vaccine products on the market. Such a classification would also be useful for the future exchange of data on immunisations from IIS between countries. PMID:22551494

  18. End-use quality of U.S. soft white winter and spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    End-use quality of wheat grain is central to the breeding, selection, production, marketing, use, and value of varieties. The objective assessment of the end-use quality of individual wheat varieties and advance breeding lines in the U.S. often falls under the purview of the U.S.D.A. Agricultural Re...

  19. Quality requirements of soft red winter wheat for making northern-style Chinese steamed bread

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flours of 19 soft red winter (SRW) wheat varieties having protein contents of 6.6 to 9.9% were used to determine the suitability of SRW wheat for making steamed bread and the influences of flour characteristics on the quality attributes of steamed bread. Fourteen varieties produced steamed bread of ...

  20. Identification of New Sources of Resistance to Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa in Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    : Bacterial leaf streak (BLS) caused by Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa, has emerged as an important disease of wheat in the United States. Planting resistant varieties offers the best strategy to manage BLS in the absence of effective bactericides. However, most of the wheat varieties current...

  1. Trichomicosis pubis: black variety.

    PubMed Central

    Neri, I; Frassetto, A; Pasquinelli, G; Patrizi, A

    1994-01-01

    A case of a 25 year old man with the black variety of trichomicosis pubis is presented on account of its extreme rareity. Scanning electron microscopy confirms that trichomicosis pubis is caused by bacterial colonisation of the pubic hair and shows that bacteria are able to penetrate cuticular horny cells directly through their free plasma membrane. Images PMID:8001950

  2. Residual phosphorus and zinc influence wheat productivity under rice-wheat cropping system.

    PubMed

    Amanullah; Inamullah

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) deplete soil fertility and crop productivity. One strategy to increase crop productivity under rice-wheat system is balanced application of crop nutrients. Field experiment was conducted to assess the impact of phosphorus (0, 40, 80, 120 kg P ha(-1)) and zinc (0, 5, 10, 15 kg Zn ha(-1)) on the productivity of rice genotypes (fine and coarse) and their residual effects on the grain yield (GY) and its components (YC) of the succeeding wheat crop under rice-wheat cropping system (RWCS) in North Western Pakistan during 2011-12 and 2012-13. After rice harvest in both years, wheat variety "Siren-2010" was grown on the same layout but no additional P, K and Zn was applied to wheat crop in each year. The GY and YC of wheat significantly increased in the treatments receiving the higher P levels (120 > 80 > 40 > 0 kg P ha(-1)) and Zn (15 > 10 > 5 > 0 kg Zn ha(-1)) in the previous rice crop. The residual soil P and Zn contents after rice harvest, GY and YC of wheat increased significantly under low yielding fine genotype (B-385) as compared to the high yielding coarse genotypes (F-Malakand and Pukhraj). The residual soil P and Zn, GY and of wheat increased significantly in the second year as compared with the first year of experiment. These results confirmed strong carry over effects of both P and Zn applied to the previous rice crop on the subsequent wheat crop under RWCS. PMID:27026947

  3. Quantifying variety-specific heat resistance and the potential for adaptation to climate change.

    PubMed

    Tack, Jesse; Barkley, Andrew; Rife, Trevor W; Poland, Jesse A; Nalley, Lawton Lanier

    2016-08-01

    The impact of climate change on crop yields has become widely measured; however, the linkages for winter wheat are less studied due to dramatic weather changes during the long growing season that are difficult to model. Recent research suggests significant reductions under warming. A potential adaptation strategy involves the development of heat resistant varieties by breeders, combined with alternative variety selection by producers. However, the impact of heat on specific wheat varieties remains relatively unstudied due to limited data and the complex genetic basis of heat tolerance. Here, we provide a novel econometric approach that combines field-trial data with a genetic cluster mapping to group wheat varieties and estimate a separate extreme heat impact (temperatures over 34 °C) across 24 clusters spanning 197 varieties. We find a wide range of heterogeneous heat resistance and a trade-off between average yield and resistance. Results suggest that recently released varieties are less heat resistant than older varieties, a pattern that also holds for on-farm varieties. Currently released - but not yet adopted - varieties do not offer improved resistance relative to varieties currently grown on farm. Our findings suggest that warming impacts could be significantly reduced through advances in wheat breeding and/or adoption decisions by producers. However, current adaptation-through-adoption potential is limited under a 1 °C warming scenario as increased heat resistance cannot be achieved without a reduction in average yields. PMID:26577840

  4. Variation in the content of dietary fiber and components thereof in wheats in the HEALTHGRAIN Diversity Screen.

    PubMed

    Gebruers, Kurt; Dornez, Emmie; Boros, Danuta; Fraś, Anna; Dynkowska, Wioletta; Bedo, Zoltan; Rakszegi, Mariann; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2008-11-12

    Within the HEALTHGRAIN diversity screening program, the variation in the content of dietary fiber and components thereof in different types of wheat was studied. The wheat types were winter (131 varieties) and spring (20 varieties) wheats (both Triticum aestivum L., also referred to as common wheats), durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf., 10 varieties), spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L., 5 varieties), einkorn wheat (T. monococcum L., 5 varieties), and emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum Schubler, 5 varieties). Common wheats contained, on average, the highest level of dietary fiber [11.5-18.3% of dry matter (dm)], whereas einkorn and emmer wheats contained the lowest level (7.2-12.8% of dm). Intermediate levels were measured in durum and spelt wheats (10.7-15.5% of dm). Also, on the basis of the arabinoxylan levels in bran, the different wheat types could be divided this way, with ranges of 12.7-22.1% of dm for common wheats, 6.1-14.4% of dm for einkorn and emmer wheats, and 10.9-13.9% of dm for durum and spelt wheats. On average, bran arabinoxylan made up ca. 29% of the total dietary fiber content of wheat. In contrast to what was the case for bran, the arabinoxylan levels in flour were comparable between the different types of wheat. For wheat, in general, they varied between 1.35 and 2.75% of dm. Einkorn, emmer, and durum wheats contained about half the level of mixed-linkage beta-glucan (0.25-0.45% of dm) present in winter, spring, and spelt wheats (0.50-0.95% of dm). All wheat types had Klason lignin, the levels of which varied from 1.40 to 3.25% of dm. The arabinoxylan contents in bran and the dietary fiber contents in wholemeal were inversely and positively related with bran yield, respectively. Aqueous wholemeal extract viscosity, a measure for the level of soluble dietary fiber, was determined to large extent by the level of water-extractable arabinoxylan. In conclusion, the present study revealed substantial variation in the contents of dietary fiber and

  5. Proteomics of Wheat Flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat is a major food crop grown on more than 215 million hectares of land throughout the world. Wheat flour provides an important source of protein for human nutrition and is used as a principal ingredient in a wide range of food products, largely because wheat flour, when mixed with water, has un...

  6. Wheat: Science and Trade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is for a book review of Wheat: science and trade, edited by B.F. Carver. The book provides an indepth review of wheat biology, production, breeding, processing, and trade and is organized in four sections. "Making of a Wheat Plant" reviews domestication, evolution, development, and molecular ...

  7. Wheat Stripe Rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a chapter on wheat stripe rust in a book entitled “Wheat: Science and Trade”. The chapter provides an overview on various aspects of wheat stripe rust and control, including distribution and epidemiology; origin and historical importance; taxonomy, lifecycle, and host range; genetic variati...

  8. VARIETIES OF VIOLENT BEHAVOR*

    PubMed Central

    WIDOM, CATHY SPATZ

    2014-01-01

    There is an implicit assumption of homogeneity across violent behaviors and offenders in the criminology literature. Arguing against this assumption, I draw on three distinct literatures [child abuse and neglect (CAN) and violence, violence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and CAN and PTSD] to provide a rationale for an examination of varieties of violent behaviors. I use data from my prospective cohort design study of the long-term consequences of CAN to define three varieties of violent offenders using age of documented cases of CAN, onset of PTSD, and first violent arrest in a temporally correct manner [CAN → to violence, CAN → PTSD → violence (PTSD first), and CAN → violence → PTSD (violence first)], and a fourth variety, violence only. The results illustrate meaningful heterogeneity in violent behavior and different developmental patterns and characteristics. There are three major implications: First, programs and policies that target violence need to recognize the heterogeneity and move away from a “one-size-fits-all” approach. Second, violence prevention policies and programs that target abused and neglected children are warranted, given the prominent role of CAN in the backgrounds of these violent offenders. Third, criminologists and others interested in violence need to attend to the role of PTSD, which is present in about one fifth (21 percent) of these violent offenders, and not relegate the study of these offenders to the psychiatric and psychological literatures. PMID:25505799

  9. Development of high amylose wheat through TILLING

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Wheat (Triticum spp.) is an important source of food worldwide and the focus of considerable efforts to identify new combinations of genetic diversity for crop improvement. In particular, wheat starch composition is a major target for changes that could benefit human health. Starches with increased levels of amylose are of interest because of the correlation between higher amylose content and elevated levels of resistant starch, which has been shown to have beneficial effects on health for combating obesity and diabetes. TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes) is a means to identify novel genetic variation without the need for direct selection of phenotypes. Results Using TILLING to identify novel genetic variation in each of the A and B genomes in tetraploid durum wheat and the A, B and D genomes in hexaploid bread wheat, we have identified mutations in the form of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in starch branching enzyme IIa genes (SBEIIa). Combining these new alleles of SBEIIa through breeding resulted in the development of high amylose durum and bread wheat varieties containing 47-55% amylose and having elevated resistant starch levels compared to wild-type wheat. High amylose lines also had reduced expression of SBEIIa RNA, changes in starch granule morphology and altered starch granule protein profiles as evaluated by mass spectrometry. Conclusions We report the use of TILLING to develop new traits in crops with complex genomes without the use of transgenic modifications. Combined mutations in SBEIIa in durum and bread wheat varieties resulted in lines with significantly increased amylose and resistant starch contents. PMID:22584013

  10. Identification of the VERNALIZATION 4 gene reveals the origin of spring growth habit in ancient wheats from South Asia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat varieties with a winter growth habit require long exposures to low temperatures (vernalization) to accelerate flowering. Natural variation in the vernalization genes regulating this requirement has favored wheat adaptation to different environments. The main wheat vernalization genes VRN1, V...

  11. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Studies Of Wheat In The Mid Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olinger, Jill M.; Griffiths, Peter R.

    1989-12-01

    Official grain standards of the United States state that wheat may be divided into seven classes which are: Durum, Red Durum, Hard Red Spring, Hard Red Winter, Soft Red Winter, White, and Mixed.1 Most end uses of wheat involve converting the grain into flour through one of a variety of grinding methods. The quality of wheat-based products is often very dependent upon the type or class of wheat which was used to make the flour. Pasta products, for example, are made almost exclusively from the flour of durum wheats, which are the hardest of the wheats listed above. The highest quality breads are produced using flour from wheats classed as hard, whereas cakes, cookies and pastries are considered best when flour from wheats classed as soft are used. It is obvious then that the capability of determining the class of a particular wheat, especially with respect to hardness, is of economic importance to growers, processors, and merchants of wheat and wheat products. Hardness has been measured in many different ways 2-5 but, as of yet, no one method has become the method of choice. This paper reports on the use of principal components analysis (PCA) of mid infrared diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra of diluted ground wheats to aid in the classification of those wheats with respect to their hardness. The theory and mathematics involved in a principal component analysis have been described elsewhere.9

  12. Subjectless Sentences in Child Danish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Cornelia; Plunkett, Kim

    1998-01-01

    Examined data for two Danish children to determine subject omission, verb usage, and sentence subjects. Found that children exhibit asymmetry in subject omission according to verb type as subjects are omitted from main verb utterances more frequently than from copula utterances. Concluded that treatment of child subject omission should involve…

  13. Nature and Nationhood: Danish Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnack, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I shall discuss Danish perspectives on nature, showing the interdependence of conceptions of "nature" and "nationhood" in the formations of a particular cultural community. Nature, thus construed, is never innocent of culture and cannot therefore simply be "restored" to some pristine, pre-lapsarian state. On the other hand,…

  14. Gluten intake in 6-36-month-old Danish infants and children based on a national survey.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Camilla; Trolle, Ellen; Gondolf, Ulla H; Husby, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Coeliac disease (CD) affects about 1 % of the general population. Information concerning gluten intake in the general population is scarce. In particular, variation in gluten intake during the complementary feeding period may be an independent risk factor in CD pathogenesis. We determined the intake of gluten from wheat, barley, rye and oats in a cross-sectional National Danish Survey of Dietary Habits among Infants and Young Children (2006-2007). The study population comprised a random sample of 1743 children aged 6-36 months, recruited from the National Danish Civil Registry. The protein contents from wheat, rye, barley and oats were found in the National Danish Food Composition Table, and multiplied with the amounts in the recipes. The amounts of gluten were calculated as the amount of cereal protein × 0·80 for wheat and oats, ×0·65 for rye and ×0·50 for barley. Dietary intake was recorded daily for seven consecutive days in pre-coded food records supplemented with open-answer possibilities. Gluten intake increased with age (P < 0·0001). Oats were introduced first, rapidly outpaced by wheat, the intake of which continued to increase with age, whereas oats started to decrease at 12 months. Boys had a higher intake of energy (P ≤ 0·0001) and all types of gluten, except for barley (P ≤ 0·87). In 8-10-month-old (P < 0·0001) and 10-12-month-old (P = 0·007), but not in 6-8-month-old infants (P = 0·331), non-breast-fed infants had higher total gluten intake than partially breast-fed infants. In conclusion, this study presents representative population-based data on gluten intake in Danish infants and young children. PMID:25191593

  15. Screening of Wheat Genotypes for Boron Efficiency in Bangladesh

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of Bangladeshi wheat genotypes (varieties and advanced lines) have been tested for boron efficiency through sand culture experiments over two years (2007-08 & 2008-09) against two Thai check varieties ‘Fang 60’ (boron efficient) and ‘SW41’ (boron inefficient). Performances of the genotypes ...

  16. Induced Mutations for Improving Production on Bread and Durum Wheat

    SciTech Connect

    Stamo, Ilirjana; Ylli, Ariana; Dodbiba, Andon

    2007-04-23

    Wheat is a very important crop and has been bred for food and its improvement is continuous from cross-breeding. Radiation and chemically induced mutations have provided variability in selection for novel varieties. Four bread and one durum wheat cultivars were exposed to gamma rays, Cs 137 with doses 10, 15 and 20 krad (2000 seeds of each dose and cultivars). We have isolated mutant plants with height reduced and on cv Progress spike without chaff.

  17. Induced Mutations for Improving Production on Bread and Durum Wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamo, Ilirjana; Ylli, Ariana; Dodbiba, Andon

    2007-04-01

    Wheat is a very important crop and has been bred for food and its improvement is continuous from cross-breeding. Radiation and chemically induced mutations have provided variability in selection for novel varieties. Four bread and one durum wheat cultivars were exposed to gamma rays, Cs 137 with doses 10, 15 and 20 krad (2000 seeds of each dose and cultivars). We have isolated mutant plants with height reduced and on cv Progress spike without chaff.

  18. Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples.

    PubMed

    Galinha, C; Anawar, H M; Freitas, M C; Pacheco, A M G; Almeida-Silva, M; Coutinho, J; Maçãs, B; Almeida, A S

    2011-11-01

    The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordão/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit <22mg/kg) indicating that soils should be supplemented with Zn during cultivation. The concentrations of metals in roots and straw of both varieties of wheat decreased in the order of K>Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation, Jord

  19. A SNP-Based Molecular Barcode for Characterization of Common Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Gao, LiFeng; Jia, JiZeng; Kong, XiuYing

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is grown as a staple crop worldwide. It is important to develop an effective genotyping tool for this cereal grain both to identify germplasm diversity and to protect the rights of breeders. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping provides a means for developing a practical, rapid, inexpensive and high-throughput assay. Here, we investigated SNPs as robust markers of genetic variation for typing wheat cultivars. We identified SNPs from an array of 9000 across a collection of 429 well-known wheat cultivars grown in China, of which 43 SNP markers with high minor allele frequency and variations discriminated the selected wheat varieties and their wild ancestors. This SNP-based barcode will allow for the rapid and precise identification of wheat germplasm resources and newly released varieties and will further assist in the wheat breeding program. PMID:26985664

  20. A SNP-Based Molecular Barcode for Characterization of Common Wheat.

    PubMed

    Gao, LiFeng; Jia, JiZeng; Kong, XiuYing

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is grown as a staple crop worldwide. It is important to develop an effective genotyping tool for this cereal grain both to identify germplasm diversity and to protect the rights of breeders. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping provides a means for developing a practical, rapid, inexpensive and high-throughput assay. Here, we investigated SNPs as robust markers of genetic variation for typing wheat cultivars. We identified SNPs from an array of 9000 across a collection of 429 well-known wheat cultivars grown in China, of which 43 SNP markers with high minor allele frequency and variations discriminated the selected wheat varieties and their wild ancestors. This SNP-based barcode will allow for the rapid and precise identification of wheat germplasm resources and newly released varieties and will further assist in the wheat breeding program. PMID:26985664

  1. Review of methodologies and a protocol for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of wheat

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Huw D; Doherty, Angela; Wu, Huixia

    2005-01-01

    Since the first report of wheat transformation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens in 1997, various factors that influence T-DNA delivery and regeneration in tissue culture have been further investigated and modified. This paper reviews the current methodology literature describing Agrobacterium transformation of wheat and provides a complete protocol that we have developed and used to produce over one hundred transgenic lines in both spring and winter wheat varieties. PMID:16270934

  2. Review of methodologies and a protocol for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of wheat.

    PubMed

    Jones, Huw D; Doherty, Angela; Wu, Huixia

    2005-09-01

    Since the first report of wheat transformation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens in 1997, various factors that influence T-DNA delivery and regeneration in tissue culture have been further investigated and modified. This paper reviews the current methodology literature describing Agrobacterium transformation of wheat and provides a complete protocol that we have developed and used to produce over one hundred transgenic lines in both spring and winter wheat varieties. PMID:16270934

  3. Wheat Quality Council Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee 2010 Crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeders’ experimental lines of wheat are evaluated for overall quality before being released for commercial production. The Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee provides milling and baking quality data on breeders’ experimental lines of wheat that are annually submitted to the Wheat Quality Counc...

  4. Resistance of Wheat Accessions to the English Grain Aphid Sitobion avenae.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiang-Shun; Liu, Ying-Jie; Wang, Yu-Han; Wang, Zhe; Yu, Xin-Lin; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Gai-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, is a major pest species of wheat crops; however, certain varieties may have stronger resistance to infestation than others. Here, we investigated 3 classical resistance mechanisms (antixenosis, antibiosis, and tolerance) by 14 wheat varieties/lines to S. avenae under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, alatae given the choice between 2 wheat varieties, strongly discriminated against certain varieties. Specifically, the 'Amigo' variety had the lowest palatability to S. avenae alatae of all varieties. 'Tm' (Triticum monococcum), 'Astron,' 'Xanthus,' 'Ww2730,' and 'Batis' varieties also had lower palatability than other varieties. Thus, these accessions may use antibiosis as the resistant mechanism. In contrast, under field conditions, there were no significant differences in the number of alatae detected on the 14 wheat varieties. One synthetic line (98-10-30, a cross between of Triticum aestivum (var. Chris) and Triticum turgidum (var. durum) hybridization) had low aphid numbers but high yield loss, indicating that it has high antibiosis, but poor tolerance. In comparison, 'Amigo,' 'Xiaoyan22,' and some '186Tm' samples had high aphid numbers but low yield loss rates, indicating they have low antibiosis, but good tolerance. Aphid population size and wheat yield loss rates greatly varied in different fields and years for '98-10-35,' 'Xiaoyan22,' 'Tp,' 'Tam200,' 'PI high,' and other '186Tm' samples, which were hybrid offspring of T. aestivum and wheat related species. Thus, these germplasm should be considered for use in future studies. Overall, S. avenae is best adapted to 'Xinong1376,' because it was the most palatable variety, with the greatest yield loss rates of all 14 wheat varieties. However, individual varieties/lines influenced aphid populations differently in different years. Therefore, we strongly recommend a combination of laboratory and long-term field experiments in targeted planting

  5. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the...

  6. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the...

  7. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the...

  8. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the...

  9. Registration of 'Ripper' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Ripper’ (Reg. No. CV-1016, PI 644222) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2006 through an exclusive marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado S...

  10. Registration of 'Snowmass' wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Snowmass’ (Reg. No. CV-1050, PI 658597) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in July 2009 through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State Uni...

  11. Agrometeorology and Wheat Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter wheat phenology varies among shoots on the plant to main stems on plants within a plot to locations across a landscape. Most often phenological measurements have focused on small treatment plots under presumably similar soils and topography. Many models exist to predict wheat phenology for sm...

  12. Wheat: Science and Trade

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Up-to-date textbooks are needed to educate the agricultural scientists of tomorrow. This manuscript comprises one chapter in such a textbook, “Wheat: Science and Trade”, and covers the subject of wheat genetic engineering. The chapter begins with a summary of key discussion elements and ends with a...

  13. Registration of 'Okfield' wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Okfield' (Reg. No. CV-_______, PI 643087) is a hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar developed and released cooperatively by the Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Stn. (AES) and the USDA-ARS in 2005. It is recommended for dryland wheat production using either grain-only and dual-purpose m...

  14. Registration of 'Antero' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ’Antero’ (Reg. No. CV-XXXX, PI 667743) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2012 through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State Univ...

  15. Registration of 'Denali' wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Denali' (PI 664256) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released cooperatively by Colorado State University (CSU) and Kansas State University (KSU) August, 2011, through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research...

  16. Registration of 'Byrd' wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Byrd' (PI 664257) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released August, 2011, through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State University (CSU), USDA-ARS ...

  17. The Response of Durum Wheat to the Preceding Crop in a Mediterranean Environment

    PubMed Central

    Ercoli, Laura; Masoni, Alessandro; Pampana, Silvia; Mariotti, Marco; Arduini, Iduna

    2014-01-01

    Crop sequence is an important management practice that may affect durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) production. Field research was conducted in 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 seasons in a rain-fed cold Mediterranean environment to examine the impact of the preceding crops alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), maize (Zea mays L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on yield and N uptake of four durum wheat varieties. The response of grain yield of durum wheat to the preceding crop was high in 2007-2008 and was absent in the 2008-2009 season, because of the heavy rainfall that negatively impacted establishment, vegetative growth, and grain yield of durum wheat due to waterlogging. In the first season, durum wheat grain yield was highest following alfalfa, and was 33% lower following wheat. The yield increase of durum wheat following alfalfa was mainly due to an increased number of spikes per unit area and number of kernels per spike, while the yield decrease following wheat was mainly due to a reduction of spike number per unit area. Variety growth habit and performance did not affect the response to preceding crop and varieties ranked in the order Levante > Saragolla = Svevo > Normanno. PMID:25401153

  18. The response of durum wheat to the preceding crop in a Mediterranean environment.

    PubMed

    Ercoli, Laura; Masoni, Alessandro; Pampana, Silvia; Mariotti, Marco; Arduini, Iduna

    2014-01-01

    Crop sequence is an important management practice that may affect durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) production. Field research was conducted in 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 seasons in a rain-fed cold Mediterranean environment to examine the impact of the preceding crops alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), maize (Zea mays L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) on yield and N uptake of four durum wheat varieties. The response of grain yield of durum wheat to the preceding crop was high in 2007-2008 and was absent in the 2008-2009 season, because of the heavy rainfall that negatively impacted establishment, vegetative growth, and grain yield of durum wheat due to waterlogging. In the first season, durum wheat grain yield was highest following alfalfa, and was 33% lower following wheat. The yield increase of durum wheat following alfalfa was mainly due to an increased number of spikes per unit area and number of kernels per spike, while the yield decrease following wheat was mainly due to a reduction of spike number per unit area. Variety growth habit and performance did not affect the response to preceding crop and varieties ranked in the order Levante > Saragolla = Svevo > Normanno. PMID:25401153

  19. Evolution of New Disease Specificity at a Single Resistance Locus in a Crop-Weed Complex: Reconstitution of the Lr21 Gene in Wheat.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf-rust resistance gene Lr21, present in modern varieties of hexaploid wheat, originated in goatgrass Aegilops tauschii Coss., the D genome donor of wheat. The goatgrass donor was collected in Iran where it grows as a weed in wheat fields as part of the native agricultural ecosystem. In order to ...

  20. Control of stripe rust of spring wheat with foliar fungicides, 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nine foliar fungicide treatments were tested for efficacy to control stripe rust on spring wheat at Pullman, Washington during the 2007 growth season using a randomized completed block design experiment with non-treated plots as the experimental control. Susceptible wheat variety ‘Lemhi’ was used i...

  1. Milling and Baking Test REsults for Eastern Soft Winter Wheats Harvested in 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Soft Wheat Quality Council (SWQC) will provide an organization structure to evaluate the quality of soft wheat experimental lines and variety that may be grown in the traditional growing regions of the United States. The SWQC also will establish other activities as requested by the membership. ...

  2. Sources of resistance to stem rust race Ug99 in spring wheat germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis Pers.:Pers. f. sp. tritici Eriks & E. Henn.) race TTKSK (Ug99) with virulence to the majority of the world’s wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties has spread from Uganda throughout eastern and southern Africa, Yemen, and Iran. The identification and spread of vari...

  3. Exotic Scab Resistance Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) Effects on Soft Red Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a disease that periodically strikes the mid-Atlantic region of the USA. Breeding for resistant wheat varieties is an effective method of disease control. The objective of this study was to evaluate the eff...

  4. Resistance to Ug99 stem rust in six bread wheat cultivars maps to chromosome 6DS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over 80% of wheat area worldwide is currently grown to varieties that are susceptible to the Ug99 race group of the stem rust fungus. Wheat lines Niini, Tinkio, Coni, Pfunye, Blouk and Ripper were resistant to Ug99 at the seedling and adult plant stages. We mapped stem rust resistance in populations...

  5. Prediction of wheat tortilla quality using multivariate modeling of kernel, flour and dough properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat grain attributes that influence tortilla quality are not fully understood. This impedes genetic improvement efforts to develop wheat varieties for the growing market. This study used a multivariate discriminant analysis to predict tortilla quality using a set of 16 variables derived from kerne...

  6. Wheat grain consumption and selection by inbred and outbred strains of mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to its commensal relationship, agricultural cereal seeds, including wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), represent a primary food for the house mouse (Mus musculus L.). C57BL/6J mice exert strong selection and consumption preferences among different varieties of wheat grains. The present study examined...

  7. Discovery and mapping of single feature polymorphisms in wheat using affymetrix arrays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single feature polymorphisms (SFPs) can be a rich source of markers for gene mapping and function studies. To explore the feasibility of using the Affymetrix GeneChip to discover and map SFPs in the large hexaploid wheat genome, six wheat varieties of diverse origins were analyzed for significant pr...

  8. ABA And GA Signaling, Bridging The Gap Between Wheat And Arabidopsis.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat is subject to problems with drought stress as well as preharvest sprouting (PHS) on the mother plant when cool moist conditions persist close to the time of harvest. PHS is one barrier to the adoption of hard white wheat varieties as a new market class in the U.S. It is believed that problems ...

  9. Bran characteristics and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Varietal variations in physical and compositional characteristics of bran and their associations with bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF) were investigated using bran obtained from roller milling of 18 wheat varieties. Bran was characterized for composition including protein, fat, ...

  10. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of multiple polyphenol oxidase genes in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum) kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polypheol oxidase (PPO, Ec 1.10.31) is a major cause of discoloring in raw dough containing wheat flour. PPO is a ubiquitous enzyme that occurs in the outer layers of wheat kernels. High levels of flour PPO have been associated with dimished end-product color and brightness in a variety of products,...

  11. Successful School Principalship in Danish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moos, Lejf; Krejsler, John; Kofod, Klaus Kasper; Jensen, Bent Brandt

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Aims at conceptualizing and investigating the meaning of good school principalship within the space for manoeuvring that is available within the context of Danish comprehensive schools. The paper aims to present findings from case studies of two Danish schools within the frame of reference. Design/methodology/approach: Outlines the…

  12. Genetic diversity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes.

    PubMed

    Degewione, A; Alamerew, S

    2013-11-01

    Wheat is one most important cereal crops grown in Ethiopia. Yet, keeping in view insufficient information on exotic bread wheat genotypes is limiting the access to useful traits present among the genotypes in the Somali region of Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to assess the extent of genetic diversity among bread wheat genotypes. Twenty six bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes obtained from ICARDA-CIMMYT were tested at Gode and Kelafo research sites at three cropping seasons (2009/10, 2010/11 and 2011/12) under irrigation. The experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with three replications. Ten agronomic traits were included in the study. The mean values, ranges and the coefficient of variation of the 10 characters indicated the existence of sufficient variability among genotypes. Multivariate techniques were used to classify 26 bread wheat genotypes. Principal component analysis showed that the first six principal components explained about 91.87% of the total variation. D2 analysis showed the 26 bread wheat genotypes grouped into six clusters. This made to become moderate diversity among the genotypes. The crosses between genotypes selected from cluster-III with cluster-VI and cluster V with cluster VI are expected to produce better genetic recombination and segregation in their progenies. Therefore, these bread wheat genotypes need to be crossed and selected to develop high yielding pure line variety. PMID:24511742

  13. Wheat-based foods and non celiac gluten/wheat sensitivity: Is drastic processing the main key issue?

    PubMed

    Fardet, Anthony

    2015-12-01

    While gluten and wheat must be absolutely avoided in coeliac disease and allergy, respectively, nutritional recommendations are largely more confused about non-coeliac wheat/gluten sensitivity (NCWGS). Today, some even recommend avoiding all cereal-based foods. In this paper, the increased NCWGS prevalence is hypothesized to parallel the use of more and more drastic processes applied to the original wheat grain. First, a parallel between gluten-related disorders and wheat processing and consumption evolution is briefly proposed. Notably, increased use of exogenous vital gluten is considered. Drastic processing in wheat technology are mainly grain fractionation and refining followed by recombination and salt, sugars and fats addition, being able to render ultra-processed cereal-based foods more prone to trigger chronic low-grade inflammation. Concerning bread, intensive kneading and the choice of wheat varieties with high baking quality may have rendered gluten less digestible, moving digestion from pancreatic to intestinal proteases. The hypothesis of a gluten resistant fraction reaching colon and interacting with microflora is also considered in relation with increased inflammation. Besides, wheat flour refining removes fiber co-passenger which have potential anti-inflammatory property able to protect digestive epithelium. Finally, some research tracks are proposed, notably the comparison of NCWGS prevalence in populations consuming ultra-versus minimally-processed cereal-based foods. PMID:26364045

  14. Genetic transformation of wheat via particle bombardment.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Caroline A; Jones, Huw D

    2014-01-01

    Since its first invention in the late 1980s the particle gun has evolved from a basic gunpowder driven machine firing tungsten particles to one more refined which uses helium gas as the propellant to launch alternative heavy metal particles such as gold and silver. The simple principle is that DNA-coated microscopic particles (microcarriers) are accelerated at high speed by helium gas within a vacuum and travel at such a velocity as to penetrate target cells. However, the process itself involves a range of parameters which are open to variation: microparticle type and size, gun settings (rupture pressure, target distance, vacuum drawn, etc.), preparation of components (e.g., gold coating), and preparation of plant tissues. Here is presented a method optimized for transformation of wheat immature embryos using the Bio-Rad PDS-1000/He particle gun to deliver gold particles coated with a gene of interest and the selectable marker gene bar at 650 psi rupture pressure. Following bombardment, various tissue culture phases are used to encourage embryogenic callus formation and regeneration of plantlets and subsequent selection using glufosinate ammonium causes suppression of non-transformed tissues, thus assisting the detection of transformed plants. This protocol has been used successfully to generate transgenic plants for a wide range of wheat varieties, both spring and winter bread wheats (T. aestivum L.) and durum wheats (T. turgidum L.). PMID:24243206

  15. Argentina wheat yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    Five models based on multiple regression were developed to estimate wheat yields for the five wheat growing provinces of Argentina. Meteorological data sets were obtained for each province by averaging data for stations within each province. Predictor variables for the models were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. Buenos Aires was the only province for which a trend variable was included because of increasing trend in yield due to technology from 1950 to 1963.

  16. Lunasin in wheat: a chemical and molecular study on its presence or absence.

    PubMed

    Dinelli, Giovanni; Bregola, Valeria; Bosi, Sara; Fiori, Jessica; Gotti, Roberto; Simonetti, Emanuela; Trozzi, Caterina; Leoncini, Emanuela; Prata, Cecilia; Massaccesi, Luca; Malaguti, Marco; Quinn, Robert; Hrelia, Silvana

    2014-05-15

    Lunasin is a peptide whose anticancer properties are widely reported. Originally isolated from soybean seeds, lunasin was also found in cereal (wheat, rye, barley and Triticale), Solanum and amaranthus seeds. However, it was recently reported that searches of transcript and DNA sequence databases for wheat and other cereals failed to identify sequences with similarity to those encoding the lunasin peptide in soy. In order to clarify the presence or absence of lunasin in wheat varieties, a broad investigation based on chemical (LC-ESI-MS) and molecular (PCR) analyses was conducted. Both approaches pointed out the absence of lunasin in the investigated wheat genotypes; in particular no compounds with a molecular weight similar to that of lunasin standard and no lunasin-related sequences were found in the analysed wheat samples. These findings confirm the hypothesis, reported in recent researches, that lunasin is not a wheat-derived peptide. PMID:24423565

  17. Application and Estimation of Wheat Production Emulation System in Hebei Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shijuan; Zhu, Yeping; Xue, Yan

    In according with wheat ecophysiological characteristics, the author applied technologies of system engineering method, crop simulation and computer to build wheat developing process cooperative models including growth model,developmental phase models, water balance model and nitrogen balance model etc. with the support of basic data such as variety characteristics, weather data, soil level and cultivation management, then further constructed Wheat Production Emulation System (WPES) with several additional functions such simulating wheat phenology stages and production features, warning of the and wheat growth three-dimensional display. This system was validated and calibrated through actual experiment for four wheat growing seasons in Hebei province. Predicted yield and biomass were significantly correlated with strong mechanism and prediction performance as well as its universal

  18. 21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wheat gluten. 184.1322 Section 184.1322 Food and....1322 Wheat gluten. (a) Wheat gluten (CAS Reg. No. 8002-80-0) is the principal protein component of wheat and consists mainly of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is obtained by hydrating wheat flour...

  19. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested...

  20. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested...

  1. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested...

  2. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested...

  3. Patterns of homoeologous gene expression shown by RNA sequencing in hexaploid bread wheat

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) has a large, complex and hexaploid genome consisting of A, B and D homoeologous chromosome sets. Therefore each wheat gene potentially exists as a trio of A, B and D homoeoloci, each of which may contribute differentially to wheat phenotypes. We describe a novel approach combining wheat cytogenetic resources (chromosome substitution ‘nullisomic-tetrasomic’ lines) with next generation deep sequencing of gene transcripts (RNA-Seq), to directly and accurately identify homoeologue-specific single nucleotide variants and quantify the relative contribution of individual homoeoloci to gene expression. Results We discover, based on a sample comprising ~5-10% of the total wheat gene content, that at least 45% of wheat genes are expressed from all three distinct homoeoloci. Most of these genes show strikingly biased expression patterns in which expression is dominated by a single homoeolocus. The remaining ~55% of wheat genes are expressed from either one or two homoeoloci only, through a combination of extensive transcriptional silencing and homoeolocus loss. Conclusions We conclude that wheat is tending towards functional diploidy, through a variety of mechanisms causing single homoeoloci to become the predominant source of gene transcripts. This discovery has profound consequences for wheat breeding and our understanding of wheat evolution. PMID:24726045

  4. Language Varieties and Standard Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quirk, Randolph

    It is argued that viewing learners' errors as evidence for the emergence of new varieties of the English language is dangerously mistaken, particularly where it leads to the abandonment of Standard English as a model for learners. It is shown how this view is mistaken by: (1) citing recent British thinking on the relationship of varieties of…

  5. Toward Cost-Effective Fingerprinting Methodology to Distinguish Maize Open-Pollinated Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Africa, many smallholder farmers grow open pollinated maize varieties (OPVs), as they allow seed recycling and out-yield traditional farmer’s (unimproved) landraces. One popular OPV, ZM521 released by the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), has been provided to farmers, o...

  6. Insects which challenge global wheat production: Russian wheat aphid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The book chapter on Russian wheat aphid, (Diuraphis noxia (Mord.)), is one of several that addresses significant pests in the book entitled, Wheat Science and Trade. The chapter gives a detailed account of the history of the Russian wheat aphid as global pest, and its biology, ecology and managemen...

  7. Applying statistics to a wheat cultivar development program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of cultivar development programs is to advance, through breeding, varieties suitable in quality for release to growers. Wheat breeders make many crosses to introgress desirable traits. Due to genetic segregation and recombination, the breeding process quickly becomes an exercise in dealin...

  8. RNAi mediated, stable resistance to Triticum mosaic virus in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV), discovered in 2006, affects wheat production systems in the Great Plains of the United States. There are no available TriMV resistant commercial varieties. RNA interference (RNAi) was evaluated as an alternative strategy to generate resistance to TriMV. An RNAi pANDA...

  9. Hyperspectral imaging for detection of scab in wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delwiche, Stephen R.; Kim, Moon S.

    2000-12-01

    Scab (Fusarium head blight) is a disease that causes wheat kernels to be shriveled, underweight, and difficult to mill. Scab is also a health concern because of the possible concomitant production of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol. Current official inspection procedures entail manual human inspection. A study was undertaken to explore the possibility of detecting scab-damaged wheat kernels by machine vision. A custom-made hyperspectral imaging system, possessing a wavelength range of 425 to 860 nm with neighboring bands 3.7 nm apart, a spatial resolution of 0.022 mm2/pixel, and 16-bit per pixel dynamic range, gathered images of non-touching kernels from three wheat varieties. Each variety was represented by 32 normal and 32 scab-damaged kernels. From a search of wavelengths that could be used to separate the two classes (normal vs. scab), a linear discriminant function was constructed from the best R((lambda) 1)/R((lambda) 2), based on the assumption of a multivariate normal distribution for each class and the pooling of the covariance error that averaged between 2 and 17%, dependent on wheat variety. With expansion to the testing of more varieties, a two-to-four wavelength machine vision system appears to be a feasible alternative to manual inspection.

  10. Development of taxon-specific sequences of common wheat for the detection of genetically modified wheat.

    PubMed

    Iida, Mayu; Yamashiro, Satomi; Yamakawa, Hirohito; Hayakawa, Katsuyuki; Kuribara, Hideo; Kodama, Takashi; Furui, Satoshi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Maitani, Tamio; Hino, Akihiro

    2005-08-10

    Qualitative and quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) systems aimed at the specific detection and quantification of common wheat DNA are described. Many countries have issued regulations to label foods that include genetically modified organisms (GMOs). PCR technology is widely recognized as a reliable and useful technique for the qualitative and quantitative detection of GMOs. Detection methods are needed to amplify a target GM gene, and the amplified results should be compared with those of the corresponding taxon-specific reference gene to obtain reliable results. This paper describes the development of a specific DNA sequence in the waxy-D1 gene for common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and the design of a specific primer pair and TaqMan probe on the waxy-D1 gene for PCR analysis. The primers amplified a product (Wx012) of 102 bp. It is indicated that the Wx012 DNA sequence is specific to common wheat, showing homogeneity in qualitative PCR results and very similar quantification accuracy along 19 distantly related common wheat varieties. In Southern blot and real-time PCR analyses, this sequence showed either a single or a low number of copy genes. In addition, by qualitative and quantitative PCR using wx012 primers and a wx012-T probe, the limits of detection of the common wheat genome were found to be about 15 copies, and the reproducibility was reliable. In consequence, the PCR system using wx012 primers and wx012-T probe is considered to be suitable for use as a common wheat-specific taxon-specific reference gene in DNA analyses, including GMO tests. PMID:16076109

  11. Factors Affecting the Radiosensitivity of Hexaploid Wheat to -Irradiation: Radiosensitivity of Hexaploid Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Gu, Jiayu; Zhao, Linshu; Guo, Huijun; Xie, Yongdun; Zhao, Shirong; Song, Xiyun; Han, Longzhi; Liu, Luxiang

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the radiosensitivity of plants, an important factor in crop mutation breeding programs, requires a thorough investigation of the factors that contribute to this trait. In this study, we used the highly radiosensitive wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety HY1 and J411, a γ-irradiation-insensitive control, which were screened from a natural population, to examine the factors affecting radiosensitivity, including free radical content and total antioxidant capacity, as well as the expression of TaKu70 and TaKu80 (DNA repair-related genes) as measured by real-time PCR. We also investigated the alternative splicing of this gene in the wild-type wheat ecotype by sequence analysis. Free radical contents and total antioxidant capacity significantly increased upon exposure of HY1 wheat to γ-irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. By contrast, in J411, the free radical contents exhibited a similar trend, but the total antioxidant capacity exhibited a downward trend upon increasing γ-irradiation. Additionally, we detected dose-dependent increases in TaKu70 and TaKu80 expression levels in γ-irradiated HY1, while in J411, TaKu70 expression levels increased, followed by a decline. We also detected alternative splicing of TaKu70 mRNA, namely, intron retention, in HY1 but not in J411. Our findings indicate that γ-irradiation induces oxidative stress and DNA damage in hexaploid wheat, resulting in growth retardation of seedlings, and they suggest that TaKu70 may play a causal role in radiosensitivity in HY1. Further studies are required to exploit these factors to improve radiosensitivity in other wheat varieties. PMID:27551965

  12. Uniquely identifying wheat plant structures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Uniquely naming wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell) plant parts is useful for communicating plant development research and the effects of environmental stresses on normal wheat development. Over the past 30+ years, several naming systems have been proposed for wheat shoot, leaf, spike, spikelet, ...

  13. Aphid–parasitoid community structure on genetically modified wheat

    PubMed Central

    von Burg, Simone; van Veen, Frank J. F.; Álvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Romeis, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of genetically modified (GM) plants, one of the main concerns has been their potential effect on non-target insects. Many studies have looked at GM plant effects on single non-target herbivore species or on simple herbivore–natural enemy food chains. Agro-ecosystems, however, are characterized by numerous insect species which are involved in complex interactions, forming food webs. In this study, we looked at transgenic disease-resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum) and its effect on aphid–parasitoid food webs. We hypothesized that the GM of the wheat lines directly or indirectly affect aphids and that these effects cascade up to change the structure of the associated food webs. Over 2 years, we studied different experimental wheat lines under semi-field conditions. We constructed quantitative food webs to compare their properties on GM lines with the properties on corresponding non-transgenic controls. We found significant effects of the different wheat lines on insect community structure up to the fourth trophic level. However, the observed effects were inconsistent between study years and the variation between wheat varieties was as big as between GM plants and their controls. This suggests that the impact of our powdery mildew-resistant GM wheat plants on food web structure may be negligible and potential ecological effects on non-target insects limited. PMID:21247941

  14. Integrated exploration study of Norwegian-Danish basin, northwestern Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Joergensen, N.B.; Haselton, T.M.

    1987-05-01

    The Norwegian-Danish basin (NDB) extends from offshore Norway southeast through Denmark. This study, initiated by the Danish Energy Agency to evaluate hydrocarbon potential, consists of geophysical structural and stratigraphic mapping combined with geologic source rock and reservoir analysis. Approximately 25 wells and 15,000 km of seismic data were included. Formation of the NDB resulted from uplift of the Variscan foldbelt followed by subsidence of the foreland, i.e., the NDB and the North German basin. The Ringkoebing-Fyn High, a positive feature probably established in the late Precambrian and persisting to present, separates the basins, thus constituting the southern boundary of the NDB. Northeast the basin is bounded by the Fennoscandian shield and to the west by the North Sea graben system. Following deposition of Rotliegendes eolian and fluviatile sandstones, a major Late Permian marine transgression deposited up to 2000 m of evaporites and carbonates. Early Triassic regression resulted in thick red-bed deposits. Halokinesis commencing in the Upper Triassic dominated subsequent structural development. Continued subsidence led to deposition of Early Jurassic shelf mudstones overlain by deltaic sandstones. Rising seas during Late Cretaceous allowed widespread deposition of oceanic pelagic chalk. Early Paleocene wrench movements produced inversion. Basinal downwarping during the Tertiary was accompanied by progradation from the northeast. The complex tectonic history provides numerous different structural styles and a variety of depositional environments. To date only obvious structural features have been tested. This integrated basin study demonstrates that a number of other hydrocarbon plays remain to be explored.

  15. Reckoning wheat yield trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, M.; Huybers, P.

    2012-06-01

    Wheat yields have increased approximately linearly since the mid-twentieth century across the globe, but stagnation of these trends has now been suggested for several nations. We present a new statistical test for whether a yield time series has leveled off and apply it to wheat yield data from 47 different regions to show that nearly half of the production within our sample has transitioned to level trajectories. With the major exception of India, the majority of leveling in wheat yields occurs within developed nations—including the United Kingdom, France and Germany—whose policies appear to have disincentivized yield increases relative to other objectives. The effects of climate change and of yields nearing their maximum potential may also be important.

  16. A diploid wheat TILLING resource for wheat functional genomics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Triticum monococcum L., an A genome diploid einkorn wheat, was the first domesticated crop. As a diploid, it is attractive genetic model for the study of gene structure and function of wheat-specific traits. Diploid wheat is currently not amenable to reverse genetics approaches such as insertion mutagenesis and post-transcriptional gene silencing strategies. However, TILLING offers a powerful functional genetics approach for wheat gene analysis. Results We developed a TILLING population of 1,532 M2 families using EMS as a mutagen. A total of 67 mutants were obtained for the four genes studied. Waxy gene mutation frequencies are known to be 1/17.6 - 34.4 kb DNA in polyploid wheat TILLING populations. The T. monococcum diploid wheat TILLING population had a mutation frequency of 1/90 kb for the same gene. Lignin biosynthesis pathway genes- COMT1, HCT2, and 4CL1 had mutation frequencies of 1/86 kb, 1/92 kb and 1/100 kb, respectively. The overall mutation frequency of the diploid wheat TILLING population was 1/92 kb. Conclusion The mutation frequency of a diploid wheat TILLING population was found to be higher than that reported for other diploid grasses. The rate, however, is lower than tetraploid and hexaploid wheat TILLING populations because of the higher tolerance of polyploids to mutations. Unlike polyploid wheat, most mutants in diploid wheat have a phenotype amenable to forward and reverse genetic analysis and establish diploid wheat as an attractive model to study gene function in wheat. We estimate that a TILLING population of 5, 520 will be needed to get a non-sense mutation for every wheat gene of interest with 95% probability. PMID:23134614

  17. Physiochemical and thermal characteristics of starch isolated from a waxy wheat genotype exhibiting partial expression of Wx proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique wheat genotype carrying waxy type allelic composition at the Wx loci, Gunji-1, was developed and its starch properties were evaluated in comparison to parental waxy and wild type wheat varieties. Gunji-1 was null in all three of the Wx genes, but exhibited a lower level of Wx proteins than ...

  18. Introgression of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance from Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis Eig) into bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf rust and stripe rust are devastating wheat diseases, causing significant yield losses in many regions of the world. The use of resistant varieties is the most efficient way to protect wheat crops from these diseases. Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis or AES), which is a diploid wild relati...

  19. Effect of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain color and hardness on the consumption preference of a mouse model system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain is a staple food and provides necessary nutrients for human health and nutrition. Yet, flavor differences among wheat varieties are not well understood. Grain flavor and consumption preference can be examined using the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) as a...

  20. Genotype and environment variation for arabinoxylans in hard winter and spring wheats of the U.S. Pacific Northwest.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of high quality wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties depends on a thorough understanding of the constituents of grain, and their variation due to genetics and environment. Arabinoxylans (pentosans) are key constituents of wheat grain and have broad and far-reaching influences on m...

  1. Major controlling factors and prediction models for arsenic uptake from soil to wheat plants.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yunchao; Lv, Jialong; Liu, Ke; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Cao, Yingfei

    2016-08-01

    The application of current Chinese agriculture soil quality standards fails to evaluate the land utilization functions appropriately due to the diversity of soil properties and plant species. Therefore, the standards should be amended. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate arsenic (As) enrichment in various soils from 18 Chinese provinces in parallel with As transfer to 8 wheat varieties. The goal of the study was to build and calibrate soil-wheat threshold models to forecast the As threshold of wheat soils. In Shaanxi soils, Wanmai and Jimai were the most sensitive and insensitive wheat varieties, respectively; and in Jiangxi soils, Zhengmai and Xumai were the most sensitive and insensitive wheat varieties, respectively. Relationships between soil properties and the bioconcentration factor (BCF) were built based on stepwise multiple linear regressions. Soil pH was the best predictor of BCF, and after normalizing the regression equation (Log BCF=0.2054 pH- 3.2055, R(2)=0.8474, n=14, p<0.001), we obtained a calibrated model. Using the calibrated model, a continuous soil-wheat threshold equation (HC5=10((-0.2054 pH+2.9935))+9.2) was obtained for the species-sensitive distribution curve, which was built on Chinese food safety standards. The threshold equation is a helpful tool that can be applied to estimate As uptake from soil to wheat. PMID:27151676

  2. 21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wheat gluten. 184.1322 Section 184.1322 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1322 Wheat gluten. (a) Wheat gluten (CAS Reg. No. 8002-80-0) is the principal protein component of wheat and consists mainly of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheat gluten. 184.1322 Section 184.1322 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1322 Wheat gluten. (a) Wheat gluten (CAS Reg. No. 8002-80-0) is the principal protein component of wheat and consists mainly of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheat gluten. 184.1322 Section 184.1322 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1322 Wheat gluten. (a) Wheat gluten (CAS Reg. No. 8002-80-0) is the principal protein component of wheat and consists mainly of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Wheat gluten. 184.1322 Section 184.1322 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1322 Wheat gluten. (a) Wheat gluten (CAS Reg. No. 8002-80-0) is the principal protein component of wheat and consists mainly of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is...

  6. Mogens Jansen: An Interview with a Danish Reading Educator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engberg, Eva

    1985-01-01

    The president of the Danish Association of Reading Teachers discusses the positive effects of international cooperation on reading education, the influence of society's demands on curriculum, and the instinctive features and benefits of Danish Reading instruction. (FL)

  7. The Danish Collaborative Bacteraemia Network (DACOBAN) database

    PubMed Central

    Gradel, Kim Oren; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl; Arpi, Magnus; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Østergaard, Christian; Søgaard, Mette

    2014-01-01

    The Danish Collaborative Bacteraemia Network (DACOBAN) research database includes microbiological data obtained from positive blood cultures from a geographically and demographically well-defined population serviced by three clinical microbiology departments (1.7 million residents, 32% of the Danish population). The database also includes data on comorbidity from the Danish National Patient Registry, vital status from the Danish Civil Registration System, and clinical data on 31% of nonselected records in the database. Use of the unique civil registration number given to all Danish residents enables linkage to additional registries for specific research projects. The DACOBAN database is continuously updated, and it currently comprises 39,292 patients with 49,951 bacteremic episodes from 2000 through 2011. The database is part of an international network of population-based bacteremia registries from five developed countries on three continents. The main purpose of the DACOBAN database is to study surveillance, risk, and prognosis. Sex- and age-specific data on background populations enables the computation of incidence rates. In addition, the high number of patients facilitates studies of rare microorganisms. Thus far, studies on Staphylococcus aureus, enterococci, computer algorithms for the classification of bacteremic episodes, and prognosis and risk in relation to socioeconomic factors have been published. PMID:25258557

  8. Sugarcane Variety Census: Florida 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  9. Cross Cultural Varieties of Politeness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hondo, Junko; Goodman, Bridget

    2001-01-01

    The treatment of politeness features is particularly revealing of the complex dynamics that language teachers face given the cultural variety present in schools and colleges. Along with its positive contributions to the learning environment, the growing student diversity poses a significant challenge for both students and educators. This paper…

  10. Chapter 3: Seed and Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed is one of the most important factors in sugarbeet production. Seed selection is one of the most important decisions a grower can make. Without a uniform plant population of a sugarbeet variety adapted to the growing region, the producer will have difficulty achieving economical crop production....

  11. New Developments in Forage Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage crops harvested for hay or haylage or grazed support dairy, beef, sheep and horse production. Additional livestock production from reduced forage acreage supports the need for forage variety improvement. The Consortium for Alfalfa Improvement is a partnership model of government, private no...

  12. Variety, Palatability, and Obesity1234

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Fiona; Wardle, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Among the key characteristics of the Western obesogenic food environment is a highly palatable and varied food supply. Laboratory investigations of eating behavior in both humans and animals established key roles for palatability and variety in stimulating appetite, delaying satiety, and promoting excessive energy intake. There is a robust effect of food palatability and variety on short-term food intake, and increased variety and palatability also cause weight gain in animal models. However, laboratory paradigms do not replicate the complexities of eating in a natural setting, and there is a shortage of evidence to estimate the magnitude of effects on weight in humans. There are substantial individual differences in susceptibility to the palatability effect and this may be a key determinant in individual vulnerability to weight gain. The understanding of pathways through which palatability and variety can affect eating is advancing, and epidemiologic and intervention studies are needed to translate laboratory findings into applications in public health or clinical domains, and to establish whether there is a role for greater regulation of the food environment in tackling increases in obesity. PMID:25398751

  13. Sugarcane Variety Census: Florida 2008

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Florida sugarcane industry produces about 25% of all sugar produced in the U.S. Varieties originate from two sources, a private breeding and selection program of the United States Sugar Corporation in Clewiston, Florida and a public program at Canal Point, Florida supported by the USDA-Agricultu...

  14. Registration of Warhorse wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Warhorse' (Reg. No. CV-1096, PI 670157) hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Station in September 2013. Warhorse is of unknown pedigree, derived from a composite of three topcrosses made to the same F1 population in 200...

  15. Registration of Camelot Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Camelot ' (PI 653832) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed cooperatively by the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS and released in 2008. In addition to researchers at the releasing institutions, USDA-ARS researchers at Manhattan, KS, and St. Paul, MN, ...

  16. Registration of 'Chesapeake' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Chesapeake’ (Reg. No. CV-1011, PI 643935) is a soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that was jointly developed and released by the Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, and the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in 2005. Ches...

  17. Registration of "Merl" Wheat.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Merl’ (Reg. No. CV- , PI 658598) soft red winter (SRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)developed and tested as VA03W-412 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in March 2009. Merl was derived from the three-way cross ‘Roane’ / Pioneer Brand ‘2643’ // ‘38158’ (PI 619052). Merl is a...

  18. Registration of Colter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colter’ (Reg. No. CV-1099, PI 670156) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Stations in September 2013. Colter was derived from the cross MT9982*2/BZ9W96-895. MT9982 is a sib selection of 'Yellowstone', and BZ9W96-895 is an unr...

  19. Registration of 'Otto' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance to strawbreaker foot rot (caused by Oculimacula yallundae Crous & W. Gams and O. acuformis Crous & W. Gams) and to stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Eriks.) are important traits for winter wheat cultivars produced in the Pacifi Northwest region of the Uni...

  20. Registration of 'Guymon' wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Guymon' (Reg. No. CV-_______, PI 643133) is a hard white (HW) winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar developed and released cooperatively by the Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Stn. (AES) and the USDA-ARS in 2005. It is recommended for grain-only and dual-purpose production systems in an area of the so...

  1. Wheat - Aegilops introgressions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aegilops is the most closely related genus to Triticum in the tribe Triticeae. Aegilops speltoides Tausch (B genome donor) and Ae. tauschii Coss. (D genome donor) contributed two of the three genomes present in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD genomes). The Aegilops genus c...

  2. Modelling Wheat Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In wheat, a shorter pre-anthesis phase is often associated with increased grain protein content (GPC) but decreased grain yield. Cultivar differences in pre-anthesis development are mainly determined by vernalization requirement, photoperiod sensitivity and earliness per se. This research examines w...

  3. Registration of 'Tiger' wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Tiger’ hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at Research Center-Hays, Kansas State University and released by Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station in 2010. Tiger was selected from a three-way cross KS98H245/’Trego’//KS98HW518 made in 1999 at Hays, KS. The objective of this ...

  4. Registration of 'Cowboy' wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Cowboy' (Reg. No. CV-1095, PI 668564) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released cooperatively by Colorado State University (CSU) and the University of Wyoming (UWYO) in August 2011. In addition to researchers at CSU and U...

  5. Analysis of factors important for the occurrence of Campylobacter in Danish broiler flocks.

    PubMed

    Sommer, H M; Heuer, O E; Sørensen, A I V; Madsen, M

    2013-08-01

    For more than a decade human campylobacteriosis has been the leading zoonosis in many developed countries. Consumption of poultry or poultry products has been identified as the primary source of infection in humans. This study was conducted to identify risk factors for the occurrence of Campylobacter in Danish broiler flocks. The study was based on a large data set consisting of Campylobacter positive status for nearly 6000 broiler flocks and 43 explanatory variables. Data were obtained from the Danish Campylobacter surveillance programme in poultry and from the responses to a standardized questionnaire answered via interviews with broiler farm owners. Two hundred and forty broiler farms, comprising 539 broiler houses, were included in the study and their Campylobacter status was followed over a 2-year period (1999-2000). The large number of observations made it possible to carry out a multivariate analysis including all 43 variables. A multivariate analysis was conducted using a generalized linear model, and the correlations between the houses from the same farms were accounted for by adding a variance structure to the model. The procedures for analyses included backward elimination, forward selection and expanding of the number of observations used in the variance analysis along with the reduction of the number of parameters in the model. The unit of analysis was 'broiler house', meaning that all results from a broiler house were aggregated into one prevalence figure (number of positive flocks/total number of flocks delivered over the 2-year period). The following factors were found to be significantly associated with the occurrence of Campylobacter in the broiler flocks: old broiler houses, late introduction of whole wheat in the feed, relatively high broiler age at slaughter, improper rodent control, large number of chimneys on the broiler house, farm located in an area with a high density of cattle farms, having more than one broiler house on the farm, and

  6. Cross-Species Extrapolation of Models for Predicting Lead Transfer from Soil to Wheat Grain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ke; Lv, Jialong; Dai, Yunchao; Zhang, Hong; Cao, Yingfei

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of Pb from the soil to crops is a serious food hygiene security problem in China because of industrial, agricultural, and historical contamination. In this study, the characteristics of exogenous Pb transfer from 17 Chinese soils to a popular wheat variety (Xiaoyan 22) were investigated. In addition, bioaccumulation prediction models of Pb in grain were obtained based on soil properties. The results of the analysis showed that pH and OC were the most important factors contributing to Pb uptake by wheat grain. Using a cross-species extrapolation approach, the Pb uptake prediction models for cultivar Xiaoyan 22 in different soil Pb levels were satisfactorily applied to six additional non-modeled wheat varieties to develop a prediction model for each variety. Normalization of the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) to specific soil physico-chemistry is essential, because doing so could significantly reduce the intra-species variation of different wheat cultivars in predicted Pb transfer and eliminate the influence of soil properties on ecotoxicity parameters for organisms of interest. Finally, the prediction models were successfully verified against published data (including other wheat varieties and crops) and used to evaluate the ecological risk of Pb for wheat in contaminated agricultural soils. PMID:27518712

  7. Cross-Species Extrapolation of Models for Predicting Lead Transfer from Soil to Wheat Grain

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ke; Lv, Jialong; Dai, Yunchao; Zhang, Hong; Cao, Yingfei

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of Pb from the soil to crops is a serious food hygiene security problem in China because of industrial, agricultural, and historical contamination. In this study, the characteristics of exogenous Pb transfer from 17 Chinese soils to a popular wheat variety (Xiaoyan 22) were investigated. In addition, bioaccumulation prediction models of Pb in grain were obtained based on soil properties. The results of the analysis showed that pH and OC were the most important factors contributing to Pb uptake by wheat grain. Using a cross-species extrapolation approach, the Pb uptake prediction models for cultivar Xiaoyan 22 in different soil Pb levels were satisfactorily applied to six additional non-modeled wheat varieties to develop a prediction model for each variety. Normalization of the bioaccumulation factor (BAF) to specific soil physico-chemistry is essential, because doing so could significantly reduce the intra-species variation of different wheat cultivars in predicted Pb transfer and eliminate the influence of soil properties on ecotoxicity parameters for organisms of interest. Finally, the prediction models were successfully verified against published data (including other wheat varieties and crops) and used to evaluate the ecological risk of Pb for wheat in contaminated agricultural soils. PMID:27518712

  8. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management

    PubMed Central

    Cianferoni, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy) or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy). A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker’s asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or eosinophilic gastritis (EG), which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to

  9. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management.

    PubMed

    Cianferoni, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy) or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy). A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker's asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or eosinophilic gastritis (EG), which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to

  10. Protocatechuic Acid Levels Discriminate Between Organic and Conventional Wheat from Denmark.

    PubMed

    Weesepoel, Yannick; Heenan, Samuel; Boerrigter-Eenling, Rita; Venderink, Tjerk; Blokland, Marco; van Ruth, Saskia

    2016-01-01

    Organic wheat retails at higher market prices than the conventionally grown counterparts. In view of fair competition and sustainable consumer confidence, the organic nature of organic wheat needs to be assured. Amongst other controls this requires analytical tests based on discriminating traits. In this paper, phenolic acids were examined by liquid chromatography analysis as biomarkers for discriminating between the two groups by means of a controlled grown full factorial design Danish wheat sample set. By combining baseline and retention-time correction pre-treatments and principal component analysis, discrimination between organic and conventional produce was found to be expressed in the first principal component (93%), whilst the second principal component accounted for the production year (4%). Upon examination of the loadings plot, a single chromatographic peak was found to account for a large part in the discrimination between the two wheat production systems. This was further underpinned by statistically significant differences found in concentrations between the organic and conventional production systems of this phenolic acid (ANOVA, P<0.05). The phenolic acid was tentatively identified as protocatechuic acid by negative mode mass spectrometry. The results obtained implied that protocatechuic acid may serve as a single marker for discrimination between organic and conventional produced wheat. PMID:27198816

  11. Gametocidal chromosomes enhancing chromosome aberration in common wheat induced by 5-azacytidine.

    PubMed

    Su, W-Y; Cong, W-W; Shu, Y-J; Wang, D; Xu, G-H; Guo, C-H

    2013-01-01

    The gametocidal (Gc) chromosome from Aegilops spp induces chromosome mutation, which is introduced into common wheat as a tool of chromosome manipulation for genetic improvement. The Gc chromosome functions similar to a restriction-modification system in bacteria, in which DNA methylation is an important regulator. We treated root tips of wheat carrying Gc chromosomes with the hypomethylation agent 5-azacytidine; chromosome breakage and micronuclei were observed in these root tips. The frequency of aberrations differed in wheat containing different Gc chromosomes, suggesting different functions inducing chromosome breakage. Gc chromosome 3C caused the greatest degree of chromosome aberration, while Gc chromosome 3C(SAT) and 2C caused only slight chromosome aberration. Gc chromosome 3C induced different degrees of chromosome aberration in wheat varieties Triticum aestivum var. Chinese Spring and Norin 26, demonstrating an inhibition function in common wheat. PMID:23884766

  12. Thinopyrum ponticum chromatin-integrated wheat genome shows salt-tolerance at germination stage.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wen-Ye; Tomita, Motonori

    2015-01-01

    A wild wheatgrass, Thinopyrum ponticum (2n = 10x = 70), which exhibits substantially higher levels of salt tolerance than cultivated wheat, was employed to transfer its salt tolerance to common wheat by means of wide hybridization. A highly salt-tolerant wheat line S148 (2n = 42) was obtained from the BC3F2 progenies between Triticum aestivum (2n = 42) and Th. ponticum. In the cross of S148 × salt-sensitive wheat variety Chinese Spring, the BC4F2 seeds at germination stage segregated into a ratio of 3 salt tolerant to 1 salt sensitive, indicating that the salt tolerance was conferred by a dominant gene block. Genomic in situ hybridization analysis revealed that S148 had a single pair of Th. ponticum-T. aestivum translocated chromosomes bearing the salt-tolerance. This is an initial step of molecular breeding for salt-tolerant wheat. PMID:25809604

  13. Anaerobic digestion of spring and winter wheat: Comparison of net energy yields.

    PubMed

    Rincón, Bárbara; Heaven, Sonia; Salter, Andrew M; Banks, Charles J

    2016-10-14

    Anaerobic digestion of wheat was investigated under batch conditions. The article compares the potential net energy yield between a winter wheat (sown in the autumn) and a spring wheat (sown in the spring) grown in the same year and harvested at the same growth stage in the same farm. The spring wheat had a slightly higher biochemical methane potential and required lower energy inputs in cultivation, but produced a lower dry biomass yield per hectare, which resulted in winter wheat providing the best overall net energy yield. The difference was small; both varieties gave a good net energy yield. Spring sowing may also offer the opportunity for growing an additional over-winter catch crop for spring harvest, thus increasing the overall biomass yield per hectare, with both crops being potential digester feedstocks. PMID:27409161

  14. A Pest Management Approach to the Control of Pratylenchus thornei on Wheat in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Van Gundy, S. D.; Perez B., J. G.; Stolzy, L. H.; Thomason, I. J.

    1974-01-01

    The lesion nematode, Pratylenchus thornei, was clearly demonstrated as a parasite of wheat. It reduced plant stands and stunted plants in the field under the environmental conditions found in Sonora, Mexico. Other soil organisms also may have contributed to the problem. The nematode is widely distributed throughout the wheat-growing region, and may be a problem each growing season. Nematicides controlled the nematode and increased yields, but they were not economical. No resistance was found in existing commercial wheat cultivars. A pest management approach using variety selection, nitrogen fertilizer, planting in cool soil (15 C) and a crop rotation avoiding wheat after wheat was the most practical solution to this problem on a commercial scale. PMID:19308110

  15. The Danish Communicative Developmental Inventories: Validity and Main Developmental Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleses, Dorthe; Vach, Werner; Slott, Malene; Wehberg, Sonja; Thomsen, Pia; Madsen, Thomas O.; Basboll, Hans

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a large-scale cross-sectional study of Danish children's early language acquisition based on the Danish adaptation of the "MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories" (CDI). Measures of validity and reliability imply that the Danish adaptation of the American CDI has been adjusted linguistically and culturally in…

  16. Genetics of tan spot resistance in wheat.

    PubMed

    Faris, Justin D; Liu, Zhaohui; Xu, Steven S

    2013-09-01

    Tan spot is a devastating foliar disease of wheat caused by the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Pyrenophora tritici-repentis. Much has been learned during the past two decades about the genetics of wheat-P. tritici-repentis interactions. Research has shown that the fungus produces at least three host-selective toxins (HSTs), known as Ptr ToxA, Ptr ToxB, and Ptr ToxC, that interact directly or indirectly with the products of the dominant host genes Tsn1, Tsc2, and Tsc1, respectively. The recent cloning and characterization of Tsn1 provided strong evidence that the pathogen utilizes HSTs to subvert host resistance mechanisms to cause disease. However, in addition to host-HST interactions, broad-spectrum, race non-specific resistance QTLs and recessively inherited qualitative 'resistance' genes have been identified. Molecular markers suitable for marker-assisted selection against HST sensitivity genes and for race non-specific resistance QTLs have been developed and used to generate adapted germplasm with good levels of tan spot resistance. Future research is needed to identify novel HSTs and corresponding host sensitivity genes, determine if the recessively inherited resistance genes are HST insensitivities, extend the current race classification system to account for new HSTs, and determine the molecular basis of race non-specific resistance QTLs and their relationships with host-HST interactions at the molecular level. Necrotrophic pathogens such as P. tritici-repentis are likely to become increasingly significant under a changing global climate making it imperative to further characterize the wheat-P. tritici-repentis pathosystem and develop tan spot resistant wheat varieties. PMID:23884599

  17. Diverse expression pattern of wheat transcription factors against abiotic stresses in wheat species.

    PubMed

    Baloglu, Mehmet Cengiz; Inal, Behcet; Kavas, Musa; Unver, Turgay

    2014-10-15

    Abiotic stress including drought and salinity affects quality and yield of wheat varieties used for the production of both bread and pasta flour. bZIP, MBF1, WRKY, MYB and NAC transcription factor (TF) genes are the largest transcriptional regulators which are involved in growth, development, physiological processes, and biotic/abiotic stress responses in plants. Identification of expression profiling of these TFs plays a crucial role to understand the response of different wheat species against severe environmental changes. In the current study, expression analysis of TaWLIP19 (wheat version of bZIP), TaMBF1, TaWRKY10, TaMYB33 and TaNAC69 genes was examined under drought and salinity stress conditions in Triticum aestivum cv. (Yuregir-89), Triticum turgidum cv. (Kiziltan-91), and Triticum monococcum (Siyez). After drought stress application, all five selected genes in Kiziltan-91 were induced. However, TaMBF1 and TaWLIP19 were the only downregulated genes in Yuregir-89 and Siyez, respectively. Except TaMYB33 in Siyez, expression level of the remaining genes increased under salt stress condition in all Triticum species. For determination of drought response to selected TF members, publicly available RNA-seq data were also analyzed in this study. TaMBF1, TaWLIP19 and TaNAC69 transcripts were detected through in silico analysis. This comprehensive gene expression analysis provides valuable information for understanding the roles of these TFs under abiotic stresses in modern wheat cultivars and ancient einkorn wheat. In addition, selected TFs might be used for determination of drought or salinity-tolerant and susceptible cultivars for molecular breeding studies. PMID:25130909

  18. Distribution of Rht genes in winter wheat germplasm from the eastern and central United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over seventy percent of wheat cultivars grown worldwide have a semi-dwarf phenotype controlled by the major genes Rht-B1 (formally Rht1), Rht-D1 (formally Rht2) from the Japanese variety ‘Norin10’ and Rht8 from the Korean variety ‘Akakomugi’. The objective of this study was to determine their frequ...

  19. The wheat and barley vernalization gene VRN3 is an orthologue of FT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter wheat and barley varieties require an extended exposure to low temperatures to accelerate flowering (vernalization), whereas spring varieties do not have this requirement. In this study, we show that in these species the vernalization gene VRN3 is completely linked to a gene similar to Arabid...

  20. An assessment of wheat breeding gains in hot environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourdji, S. M.; Mathews, K.; Reynolds, M.; Crossa, J.; Lobell, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    Wheat, a critical crop for ensuring global food security, has the lowest optimum temperatures among the major cereals, and is already grown in many heat stress areas, thereby increasing risks to production from a warming climate. Historical spring wheat trial data from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) was used to investigate the relationship between environmental conditions and yield in major wheat-growing areas, assess the response to future warming, and identify different rates of genetic gains due to variety improvement across environments and breeding nurseries. Results were compared for two nurseries: 1) the Elite Spring Wheat Yield Trial (ESWYT), which aims to improve yield potential under optimal environmental conditions, and 2) the Semi-Arid Wheat Yield Trial (SAWYT), where improvements are targeted in semi-arid, rainfed environments, frequently subject to heat and water stress. Yields from 25 years of trial data were paired with reconstructed daily weather data in an empirical model with environmental variables averaged by growth stage. Temperature, radiation, day length and interaction terms between temperature and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) were all determined to be significant terms in the model. Results show a detrimental response to warming across all temperatures in the grain-filling, or final growth stage, particularly under low VPD/ humid conditions. A negative response to warming was also observed in the reproductive stage after ~14C, although high VPD conferred no additional benefit, perhaps due to a higher sensitivity and/or exposure to water stress during this period. A projected 2C season average warming was seen to have differential effects between ESWYT and SAWYT, with SAWYT germplasm less sensitive to warming up until ~21C, but an equally negative response to further warming for both nurseries. The regions where wheat is already grown under hot, and sometimes humid, conditions, particularly in south and south

  1. New wheat microRNA using whole-genome sequence.

    PubMed

    Kurtoglu, Kuaybe Yucebilgili; Kantar, Melda; Budak, Hikmet

    2014-06-01

    MicroRNAs are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, taking roles in a variety of fundamental biological processes. Hence, their identification, annotation and characterization are of great significance, especially in bread wheat, one of the main food sources for humans. The recent availability of 5× coverage Triticum aestivum L. whole-genome sequence provided us with the opportunity to perform a systematic prediction of a complete catalogue of wheat microRNAs. Using an in silico homology-based approach, stem-loop coding regions were derived from two assemblies, constructed from wheat 454 reads. To avoid the presence of pseudo-microRNAs in the final data set, transposable element related stem-loops were eliminated by repeat analysis. Overall, 52 putative wheat microRNAs were predicted, including seven, which have not been previously published. Moreover, with distinct analysis of the two different assemblies, both variety and representation of putative microRNA-coding stem-loops were found to be predominant in the intergenic regions. By searching available expressed sequences and small RNA library databases, expression evidence for 39 (out of 52) putative wheat microRNAs was provided. Expression of three of the predicted microRNAs (miR166, miR396 and miR528) was also comparatively quantified with real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. This is the first report on in silico prediction of a whole repertoire of bread wheat microRNAs, supported by the wet-lab validation. PMID:24395439

  2. Evaluation of tolerance of 20 wheat cultivars to Russian wheat aphid Diuraphis noxza (Mordvilko) at seedling stage under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Rassoulian, Gh Reza; Shekarian, B

    2003-01-01

    The Russian wheat aphid (R.W.A) is an aggressive pest of wheat, barley and other small grains in different parts of the world and during, the recent years in Iran. This aphid causes high damage, so that much insecticides have been used against it. At present time utilization of resistant varieties is one of the most important methods to control it. Therefore in order to evaluate the tolerance of 20 wheat cultivars, seeds were planted in 18 cm diameter plastic pots and put in cages. One week after infestation the seedling foliage were cut and put in separate plastic bags, also roots were washed and put in other plastic bags. Number of aphids and plant heights and weights were analyzed based on ANOVA and treatment means were compared. The results indicated that the cultivars of yavaras, Arvand mutant, Bezostia and Alamut had a high tolerance at seedling stage. PMID:15149118

  3. Wheat yield forecasts using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colwell, J. E.; Rice, D. P.; Nalepka, R. F.

    1977-01-01

    Several considerations of winter wheat yield prediction using LANDSAT data were discussed. In addition, a simple technique which permits direct early season forecasts of wheat production was described.

  4. Durum Wheat (Triticum Durum Desf.) Lines Show Different Abilities to Form Masked Mycotoxins under Greenhouse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cirlini, Martina; Generotti, Silvia; Dall’Erta, Andrea; Lancioni, Pietro; Ferrazzano, Gianluca; Massi, Andrea; Galaverna, Gianni; Dall’Asta, Chiara

    2013-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is the most prevalent trichothecene in Europe and its occurrence is associated with infections of Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum, causal agents of Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat. Resistance to FHB is a complex character and high variability occurs in the relationship between DON content and FHB incidence. DON conjugation to glucose (DON-3-glucoside, D3G) is the primary plant mechanism for resistance towards DON accumulation. Although this mechanism has been already described in bread wheat and barley, no data are reported so far about durum wheat, a key cereal in the pasta production chain. To address this issue, the ability of durum wheat to detoxify and convert deoxynivalenol into D3G was studied under greenhouse controlled conditions. Four durum wheat varieties (Svevo, Claudio, Kofa and Neodur) were assessed for DON-D3G conversion; Sumai 3, a bread wheat variety carrying a major QTL for FHB resistance (QFhs.ndsu-3B), was used as a positive control. Data reported hereby clearly demonstrate the ability of durum wheat to convert deoxynivalenol into its conjugated form, D3G. PMID:24368326

  5. Adherence to treatment: practice, education and research in Danish community pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Haugbølle, Lotte S.; Herborg, Hanne

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the practice, education and research concerning medication adherence in Danish community pharmacy. Methods: The authors supplemented their expertise in the area of medication adherence through their contacts with other educators and researchers as well as by conducting searches in the Danish Pharmacy Practice Evidence Database, which provides annually updated literature reviews on intervention research in Danish pharmacy practice. Results: Practice: Medication adherence is the focus of and/or is supported by a large number of services and initiatives used in pharmacy practice such as governmental funding, IT-supported medicine administration systems, dose-dispensing systems, theme years in pharmacies on adherence and concordance, standards for counselling at the counter, pharmacist counselling, medication reviews and inhaler technique assessment. Education: In Denmark, pharmacy and pharmaconomist students are extensively trained in the theory and practice of adherence to therapy. Pharmacy staff can choose from a variety of continuing education and post-graduate programmes which address patient adherence. Research: Nine ongoing and recently completed studies are described. Early research in Denmark comprised primarily smaller, qualitative studies centred on user perspectives, whereas later research has shifted the focus towards larger, quantitative, controlled studies and action-oriented studies focusing on patient groups with chronic diseases (such as diabetes, asthma, coronary vascular diseases). Conclusions: Our analysis has documented that Danish pharmaceutical education and research has focused strongly on adherence to treatment for more than three decades. Adherence initiatives in Danish community pharmacies have developed substantially in the past 5-10 years, and, as pharmacies have prioritised their role in health care and patient safety, this development can be expected to continue in future years. PMID:25136393

  6. Phenotyping for drought adaptation in wheat using physiological traits

    PubMed Central

    Monneveux, Philippe; Jing, Ruilian; Misra, Satish C.

    2012-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum spp) is one of the first domesticated food crops. It represents the first source of calories (after rice) and an important source of proteins in developing countries. As a result of the Green Revolution, wheat yield sharply increased due to the use of improved varieties, irrigation, pesticides, and fertilizers. The rate of increase in world wheat production, however, slowed after 1980, except in China, India, and Pakistan. Being adapted to a wide range of moisture conditions, wheat is grown on more land area worldwide than any other crop, including in drought prone areas. In these marginal rain-fed environments where at least 60 m ha of wheat is grown, amount and distribution of rainfall are the predominant factors influencing yield variability. Intensive work has been carried out in the area of drought adaptation over the last decades. Breeding strategies for drought tolerance improvement include: definition of the target environment, choice and characterization of the testing environment, water stress management and characterization, and use of phenotyping traits with high heritability. The use of integrative traits, facilitated by the development and application of new technologies (thermal imaging, spectral reflectance, stable isotopes) is facilitating high throughput phenotyping and indirect selection, consequently favoring yield improvement in drought prone environments. PMID:23181021

  7. Phenotyping for drought adaptation in wheat using physiological traits.

    PubMed

    Monneveux, Philippe; Jing, Ruilian; Misra, Satish C

    2012-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum spp) is one of the first domesticated food crops. It represents the first source of calories (after rice) and an important source of proteins in developing countries. As a result of the Green Revolution, wheat yield sharply increased due to the use of improved varieties, irrigation, pesticides, and fertilizers. The rate of increase in world wheat production, however, slowed after 1980, except in China, India, and Pakistan. Being adapted to a wide range of moisture conditions, wheat is grown on more land area worldwide than any other crop, including in drought prone areas. In these marginal rain-fed environments where at least 60 m ha of wheat is grown, amount and distribution of rainfall are the predominant factors influencing yield variability. Intensive work has been carried out in the area of drought adaptation over the last decades. Breeding strategies for drought tolerance improvement include: definition of the target environment, choice and characterization of the testing environment, water stress management and characterization, and use of phenotyping traits with high heritability. The use of integrative traits, facilitated by the development and application of new technologies (thermal imaging, spectral reflectance, stable isotopes) is facilitating high throughput phenotyping and indirect selection, consequently favoring yield improvement in drought prone environments. PMID:23181021

  8. Impacts of climate change on wheat in England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    Semenov, Mikhail A.

    2008-01-01

    The frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events are likely to increase with global warming. However, it is not clear how these events might affect agricultural crops and whether yield losses resulting from severe droughts or heat stress will increase in the future. The aim of this paper is to analyse changes in the magnitude and spatial patterns of two impact indices for wheat: the probability of heat stress around flowering and the severity of drought stress. To compute these indices, we used a wheat simulation model combined with high-resolution climate scenarios based on the output from the Hadley Centre regional climate model at 18 sites in England and Wales. Despite higher temperature and lower summer precipitation predicted in the UK for the 2050s, the impact of drought stress on simulated wheat yield is predicted to be smaller than that at present, because wheat will mature earlier in a warmer climate and avoid severe summer drought. However, the probability of heat stress around flowering that might result in considerable yield losses is predicted to increase significantly. Breeding strategies for the future climate might need to focus on wheat varieties tolerant to high temperature rather than to drought. PMID:18682360

  9. Effect of warming temperatures on US wheat yields.

    PubMed

    Tack, Jesse; Barkley, Andrew; Nalley, Lawton Lanier

    2015-06-01

    Climate change is expected to increase future temperatures, potentially resulting in reduced crop production in many key production regions. Research quantifying the complex relationship between weather variables and wheat yields is rapidly growing, and recent advances have used a variety of model specifications that differ in how temperature data are included in the statistical yield equation. A unique data set that combines Kansas wheat variety field trial outcomes for 1985-2013 with location-specific weather data is used to analyze the effect of weather on wheat yield using regression analysis. Our results indicate that the effect of temperature exposure varies across the September-May growing season. The largest drivers of yield loss are freezing temperatures in the Fall and extreme heat events in the Spring. We also find that the overall effect of warming on yields is negative, even after accounting for the benefits of reduced exposure to freezing temperatures. Our analysis indicates that there exists a tradeoff between average (mean) yield and ability to resist extreme heat across varieties. More-recently released varieties are less able to resist heat than older lines. Our results also indicate that warming effects would be partially offset by increased rainfall in the Spring. Finally, we find that the method used to construct measures of temperature exposure matters for both the predictive performance of the regression model and the forecasted warming impacts on yields. PMID:25964323

  10. Effect of warming temperatures on US wheat yields

    PubMed Central

    Tack, Jesse; Barkley, Andrew; Nalley, Lawton Lanier

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase future temperatures, potentially resulting in reduced crop production in many key production regions. Research quantifying the complex relationship between weather variables and wheat yields is rapidly growing, and recent advances have used a variety of model specifications that differ in how temperature data are included in the statistical yield equation. A unique data set that combines Kansas wheat variety field trial outcomes for 1985–2013 with location-specific weather data is used to analyze the effect of weather on wheat yield using regression analysis. Our results indicate that the effect of temperature exposure varies across the September−May growing season. The largest drivers of yield loss are freezing temperatures in the Fall and extreme heat events in the Spring. We also find that the overall effect of warming on yields is negative, even after accounting for the benefits of reduced exposure to freezing temperatures. Our analysis indicates that there exists a tradeoff between average (mean) yield and ability to resist extreme heat across varieties. More-recently released varieties are less able to resist heat than older lines. Our results also indicate that warming effects would be partially offset by increased rainfall in the Spring. Finally, we find that the method used to construct measures of temperature exposure matters for both the predictive performance of the regression model and the forecasted warming impacts on yields. PMID:25964323

  11. Competitive Expression of Endogenous Wheat CENH3 May Lead to Suppression of Alien ZmCENH3 in Transgenic Wheat × Maize Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Zhu, Qilin; Wang, Haiyan; Xiao, Jin; Xing, Liping; Chen, Peidu; Jin, Weiwei; Wang, Xiu-E

    2015-11-20

    Uniparental chromosome elimination in wheat × maize hybrid embryos is widely used in double haploid production of wheat. Several explanations have been proposed for this phenomenon, one of which is that the lack of cross-species CENH3 incorporation may act as a barrier to interspecies hybridization. However, it is unknown if this mechanism applies universally. To study the role of CENH3 in maize chromosome elimination of wheat × maize hybrid embryos, maize ZmCENH3 and wheat αTaCENH3-B driven by the constitutive CaMV35S promoter were transformed into wheat variety Yangmai 158. Five transgenic lines for ZmCENH3 and six transgenic lines for αTaCENH3-B were identified. RT-PCR analysis showed that the transgene could be transcribed at a low level in all ZmCENH3 transgenic lines, whereas transcription of endogenous wheat CENH3 was significantly up-regulated. Interestingly, the expression levels of both wheat CENH3 and ZmCENH3 in the ZmCENH3 transgenic wheat × maize hybrid embryos were higher than those in the non-transformed Yangmai 158 × maize hybrid embryos. This indicates that the alien ZmCENH3 in wheat may induce competitive expression of endogenous wheat CENH3, leading to suppression of ZmCENH3 over-expression. Eliminations of maize chromosomes in hybrid embryos of ZmCENH3 transgenic wheat × maize and Yangmai 158 × maize were compared by observations on micronuclei presence, by marker analysis using maize SSRs (simple sequence repeats), and by FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) using 45S rDNA as a probe. The results indicate that maize chromosome elimination events in the two crosses are not significantly different. Fusion protein ZmCENH3-YFP could not be detected in ZmCENH3 transgenic wheat by either Western blotting or immnunostaining, whereas accumulation and loading of the αTaCENH3-B-GFP fusion protein was normal in αTaCENH3-B transgenic lines. As ZmCENH3-YFP did not accumulate after AM114 treatment, we speculate that low levels of Zm

  12. Wheat-related disorders: A broad spectrum of ‘evolving’ diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gasbarrini, GB

    2014-01-01

    Throughout the world, cereals have always been recognized as a fundamental food. Human evolution, through the development of cooking, led to the production of food rich in gluten, in order to take full advantage of the nutritional properties of this food. The result has been that gluten intolerance has arisen only in those populations that developed the art of cooking wheat. It is also recognized that wheat, one of the central elements of the Mediterranean diet, cannot be tolerated in some individuals. Among the wheat-related pathologies, coeliac disease is the best known: it is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the gastrointestinal tract, which develops in genetically predisposed individuals. The most common manifestation is the malabsorption of nutrients. Recently, another wheat-related disease has appeared: non-coeliac gluten sensitivity, defined as the onset of a variety of manifestations related to wheat, rye and barley ingestion, in patients in whom coeliac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded. In this paper we will explore the damaging power of wheat, analysing the harmful process by which it realizes the onset of clinical manifestations associated with wheat-related disorders. PMID:25083282

  13. Resistance of Wheat Accessions to the English Grain Aphid Sitobion avenae

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiang-Shun; Liu, Ying-Jie; Wang, Yu-Han; Wang, Zhe; Yu, Xin-lin; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Gai-Sheng; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, is a major pest species of wheat crops; however, certain varieties may have stronger resistance to infestation than others. Here, we investigated 3 classical resistance mechanisms (antixenosis, antibiosis, and tolerance) by 14 wheat varieties/lines to S. avenae under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, alatae given the choice between 2 wheat varieties, strongly discriminated against certain varieties. Specifically, the ‘Amigo’ variety had the lowest palatability to S. avenae alatae of all varieties. ‘Tm’ (Triticum monococcum), ‘Astron,’ ‘Xanthus,’ ‘Ww2730,’ and ‘Batis’ varieties also had lower palatability than other varieties. Thus, these accessions may use antibiosis as the resistant mechanism. In contrast, under field conditions, there were no significant differences in the number of alatae detected on the 14 wheat varieties. One synthetic line (98-10-30, a cross between of Triticum aestivum (var. Chris) and Triticum turgidum (var. durum) hybridization) had low aphid numbers but high yield loss, indicating that it has high antibiosis, but poor tolerance. In comparison, ‘Amigo,’ ‘Xiaoyan22,’ and some ‘186Tm’ samples had high aphid numbers but low yield loss rates, indicating they have low antibiosis, but good tolerance. Aphid population size and wheat yield loss rates greatly varied in different fields and years for ‘98-10-35,’ ‘Xiaoyan22,’ ‘Tp,’ ‘Tam200,’ ‘PI high,’ and other ‘186Tm’ samples, which were hybrid offspring of T. aestivum and wheat related species. Thus, these germplasm should be considered for use in future studies. Overall, S. avenae is best adapted to ‘Xinong1376,’ because it was the most palatable variety, with the greatest yield loss rates of all 14 wheat varieties. However, individual varieties/lines influenced aphid populations differently in different years. Therefore, we strongly recommend a combination of

  14. Trend Analyses of Nitrate in Danish Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, B.; Thorling, L.; Dalgaard, T.; Erlandsen, M.

    2012-04-01

    This presentation assesses the long-term development in the oxic groundwater nitrate concentration and nitrogen (N) loss due to intensive farming in Denmark. Firstly, up to 20-year time-series from the national groundwater monitoring network enable a statistically systematic analysis of distribution, trends and trend reversals in the groundwater nitrate concentration. Secondly, knowledge about the N surplus in Danish agriculture since 1950 is used as an indicator of the potential loss of N. Thirdly, groundwater recharge CFC (Chlorofluorocarbon) age determination allows linking of the first two dataset. The development in the nitrate concentration of oxic groundwater clearly mirrors the development in the national agricultural N surplus, and a corresponding trend reversal is found in groundwater. Regulation and technical improvements in the intensive farming in Denmark have succeeded in decreasing the N surplus by 40% since the mid 1980s while at the same time maintaining crop yields and increasing the animal production of especially pigs. Trend analyses prove that the youngest (0-15 years old) oxic groundwater shows more pronounced significant downward nitrate trends (44%) than the oldest (25-50 years old) oxic groundwater (9%). This amounts to clear evidence of the effect of reduced nitrate leaching on groundwater nitrate concentrations in Denmark. Are the Danish groundwater monitoring strategy obtimal for detection of nitrate trends? Will the nitrate concentrations in Danish groundwater continue to decrease or are the Danish nitrate concentration levels now appropriate according to the Water Framework Directive?

  15. Escherichia vulneris in a Danish soccer wound.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, C F; Klebe, T M; Prag, J

    1997-01-01

    Escherichia vulneris was isolated from an infected soccer wound, a finding which has not apparently been described in Europe before, but by questioning Danish clinical microbiological laboratories a further 12 cases were discovered. Treatment with simple debridement and cefuroxime quickly eradicated the bacteria in our case. PMID:9255899

  16. Evaluating University Continuing Education: A Danish Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thune, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The Danish Evaluation Institute is conducting systematic assessments of three master's programs in public administration, public policy, and public management. They have found that explicit criteria have advantages and disadvantages. Development of criteria attempts to meet the following demands: uniformity, relevance of level, scope, precision,…

  17. Care and Education in the Danish Creche

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brostrom, Stig; Hansen, Ole Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This article seeks to identify the relation between policy and lived life, for the small child in the Danish creche. To accomplish this, the article integrates demography, traditions, national curriculum and psychological, educational, and recent developments in research. It is an attempt to reveal knowledge and consequences, by conducting the…

  18. The Danish Free School Tradition under Pressure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    2015-01-01

    The Danish free school tradition has entailed a large degree of associational freedom for non-governmental schools, religious as well as non-religious. Until the late 1990s, the non-governmental schools were under no strict ideological or pedagogical limitations; they could recruit teachers and students according to their own value base, and were…

  19. Haplotype variation of Green Revolution gene Rht-D1 during wheat domestication and improvement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chihong; Gao, Lifeng; Sun, Jiaqiang; Jia, Jizeng; Ren, Zhenglong

    2014-08-01

    Green Revolution made a substantial contribution to wheat yields worldwide in the 1960s and 1970s. It is of great importance to analyze the haplotype variation of Rht-D1, the Green Revolution gene, during wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) domestication and breeding to understand its evolution and function in wheat breeding history. In this study, the Rht-D1 and its flanking regions were sequenced and single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected based on a panel of 45 accessions of Aegilops tauschii, 51 accessions of landraces and 80 accessions of commercial varieties. Genetic diversity in the wild accessions was much higher than that in the varieties and higher than that reported previously. Seven haplotypes (Hapl I to Hapl VII) of Rht-D1 were identified and their evolutionary relationships were proposed. In addition to the well-known Green Revolution allele Rht-D1b, Hapl VII (an allele Rht-D1k) was identified in early breeding varieties, which reduced plant height by 16%. The results suggested that Rht-D1k had been used in breeding before the Green Revolution and made a great contribution to wheat production worldwide. Based on the breeding history and molecular evidence, we proposed that the wheat Green Revolution in China and International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) occurred independently. PMID:24645900

  20. Plant morphophysiological and anatomical factors associated with nitrous oxide flux from wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Baruah, K K; Gogoi, Boby; Borah, Leena; Gogoi, Manoshi; Boruah, R

    2012-07-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the dynamics of nitrous oxide (N₂O) emission from wheat varieties viz., Sonalika, HUW 468, HUW 234 and DBW 14 grown in alluvial soils of North Bank Plain Agroclimatic Zone of Assam, India. Attempts were made to find out the relationship of N₂O emission with plant morphophysiological, anatomical and soil properties. N₂O fluxes from wheat varieties ranged from 40 μg N₂O-N m⁻² h⁻¹ to 295 μg N₂O-N m⁻² h⁻¹. Soil organic carbon and soil temperature have shown significant relationship with N₂O flux. The rate of leaf transpiration recorded from the wheat varieties at different growth stages exhibited a positive correlation with N₂O emission suggesting that movement of N₂O along with the transpirational water flow may be an important mechanism of N₂O transport and emission through wheat plants. Anatomical investigation by scanning electron microscope revealed that N₂O emission has relationship with stomatal frequency of leaf and leaf sheaths. Variety HUW 234 with the highest stomatal frequency of leaf and leaf sheath also recorded higher seasonal N₂O emission compared to other varieties. Seasonal N₂O emission (E(sif)) of the varieties ranged from 3.25 to 3.81 kg N₂O-N ha⁻¹. Significant variations in E(sif) values were recorded within the varieties. PMID:22146810

  1. The air quality in Danish urban areas.

    PubMed

    Jensen, F P; Fenger, J

    1994-10-01

    The Danish air pollution abatement is based by and large on emission control. Since the ratification of the international sulfur protocol of 1985, there has been a continuous tightening of the permissible sulfur content in fuels and of the maximum emissions from power plants. As a consequence, the total annual emission of sulfur dioxide (SO2) has been reduced from 450,000 tons in the seventies to 180,000 tons in 1990. This has had a pronounced effect on the SO2 levels in Danish urban areas. Thus, in Copenhagen, the yearly averages have fallen to about 25%. For nitrogen oxides emitted from the power plants, similar regulations are in force. With this legislation, the most important and crucial source of air pollution in Danish urban areas is road traffic. The contribution of nitrogen oxides from national traffic accounts for nearly half the total Danish emission and is increasing steadily; this is consistent with an observed increase of nitrogen oxides in ambient air. The permissible levels of lead in petrol has been reduced drastically. After an introduction of reduced tax on lead-free petrol, it now accounts for more than two-thirds of the total consumption. As a result, the concentration of lead in urban ambient air has been reduced to less than one-sixth. The introduction of 3-way catalytic converters from October 1990 will result in reductions in the emission of a series of pollutants, e.g., lead, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides. In 1980, a Danish air quality monitoring program was established as a cooperative effort between the authorities, the Government, the countries, the municipalities, and the Greater Copenhagen Council.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7821296

  2. Wheat breadmaking properties in dependance on wheat enzymes status and climate conditions.

    PubMed

    Tomić, Jelena; Torbica, Aleksandra; Popović, Ljiljana; Hristov, Nikola; Nikolovski, Branislava

    2016-05-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate albumins profile, proteolytic and amylolytic activity level and baking performance of wheat varieties grown in two production years with different climate conditions (2011 and 2012) in four locations. The results of ANOVA showed that variety, location, production year, and their interactions all had significant effects on all tested wheat quality parameters. The enzymatic activity and specific bread volume were mainly influenced by the variety. The samples from 2012 production year, had the lower values of albumin content, proteolytic and amylolytic activity, and bread specific volume. The correlation analysis, performed for 2011 production year, showed that albumin fraction (15-30 kDa) and proteolytic activity were negatively correlated with bread specific volume indicating the role of this fraction on lowering the crucial bread quality parameter. In 2012 production year, albumin fractions (5-15 kDa; 50-65 kDa) showed the most correlations, especially with parameters of bread quality. PMID:26776009

  3. [Non-celiac disease non-wheat allergy wheat sensitivity].

    PubMed

    Zopf, Yurdagül; Dieterich, Walburga

    2015-11-01

    Non-celiac non-wheat allergy wheat sensitivity is regarded as discrete glutensensitivity diagnosed after the exclusion of celiac disease and wheat allergy. Due to the absence of reliable biomarkers no exact prevalence rates are known and estimations range between 0,5-6 %. Soon after ingestion of wheat, patients complain of intestinal symptoms mainly bloating, abdominal pain, diarrhea or nausea which improve fast under glutenfree diet. Often extraintestinal manifestation as tiredness, muscle or joint pain, headache and depression are reported. Actually, there are no serological markers and no intestinal mucosal damage was found in patients. The underlying mechanism of the disease is completely unknown and beside of gluten other wheat proteins as well as amylase-trypsin-inhibitor or short chain sugars are discussed as triggers. In addition, the involvement of the intestinal microbiome in pathology of glutensensitivity must be considered. PMID:26536646

  4. New insights into wheat toxicity: Breeding did not seem to contribute to a prevalence of potential celiac disease's immunostimulatory epitopes.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Miguel; Rodriguez-Quijano, Marta; Nunes, Fernando M; Carrillo, Jose Maria; Branlard, Gérard; Igrejas, Gilberto

    2016-12-15

    Gluten proteins, namely gliadins, are the primary trigger of the abnormal immune response in celiac disease. It has been hypothesised that modern wheat breeding practices may have contributed to the increase in celiac disease prevalence during the latter half of the 20th century. Our results do not support this hypothesis as Triticum aestivum spp. vulgare landraces, which were not subjected to breeding practices, presented higher amounts of potential celiac disease's immunostimulatory epitopes when compared to modern varieties. Furthermore, high variation between wheat varieties concerning the toxic epitopes amount was observed. We carried out quantitative analysis of gliadin types by RP-HPLC to verify its correlation with the amount of toxic epitopes: ω-type gliadins content explain about 40% of the variation of toxic epitopes in tetraploid wheat varieties. This research provides new insights regarding wheat toxicity and into the controversial idea that human practices may have conducted to an increased exposure to toxic epitopes. PMID:27451149

  5. Varieties of maximal line subbundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oxbury, W. M.

    2000-07-01

    The point of this note is to make an observation concerning the variety M(E) parametrizing line subbundles of maximal degree in a generic stable vector bundle E over an algebraic curve C. M(E) is smooth and projective and its dimension is known in terms of the rank and degree of E and the genus of C (see Section 1). Our observation (Theorem 3·1) is that it has exactly the Chern numbers of an étale cover of the symmetric product S[delta]C where [delta] = dim M(E).This suggests looking for a natural map M(E) [rightward arrow] S[delta]C; however, it is not clear what such a map should be. Indeed, we exhibit an example in which M(E) is connected and deforms non-trivially with E, while there are only finitely many isomorphism classes of étale cover of the symmetric product. This shows that for a general deformation in the family M(E) cannot be such a cover (see Section 4).One may conjecture that M(E) is always connected. This would follow from ampleness of a certain Picard-type bundle on the Jacobian and there seems to be some evidence for expecting this, though we do not pursue this question here.Note that by forgetting the inclusion of a maximal line subbundle in E we get a natural map from M(E) to the Jacobian whose image W(E) is analogous to the classical (Brill-Noether) varieties of special line bundles. (In this sense M(E) is precisely a generalization of the symmetric products of C.) In Section 2 we give some results on W(E) which generalise standard Brill-Noether properties. These are due largely to Laumon, to whom the author is grateful for the reference [9].

  6. Registration of 'Rollag' spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) (caused primarily by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe) is a disease that annually threatens wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in the northern plains of the United States. Resistance to this disease is a high priority trait in the University of Minnesota’s spring wheat breedi...

  7. Registration of 'Thunder CL' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Thunder CL' (Reg. No. CV- , PI XXXXXX) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2008 through a marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorado State Uni...

  8. Registration of 'Bill Brown' wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Bill Brown’ (Reg. No. CV-133, PI 653260) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2007 through an exclusive marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorad...

  9. Registration of Vision 40 Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potential exists to develop and market hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the eastern United States, where a majority of the mills, bakeries, and consumers reside. The primary objective of this study was to develop adapted and competitive hard winter wheat cultivars possessing high-valu...

  10. Registration of 'Bill Brown' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Bill Brown’ (Reg. No. CV-133, PI 653260) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released in August 2007 through an exclusive marketing agreement with the Colorado Wheat Research Foundation. In addition to researchers at Colorad...

  11. Development of the Wheat Plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1) Wheat development is important in creating structures such as leaves and roots needed to capture resources, and also to create the structures ultimately needed to produce viable seed or the desired quality for grain. 2) Wheat canopy development can be considered at many scales of the plant but of...

  12. Wheat landraces: A mini review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers developed and utilized diverse wheat landraces to meet the complexity of a multitude of spatio-temporal, agro-ecological systems and to provide reliable sustenance and a sustainable food source to local communities. The genetic structure of wheat landraces is an evolutionary approach to surv...

  13. Genetic relationships and structure among open pollinated maize varieties adapted to eastern and southern Africa using microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), in collaboration with the national agricultural systems (NARS) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), have developed various stress-tolerant and more nutritious open-pollinated varieties (OPVs) of maize that are suitable for smallholder farmers’ g...

  14. Major factors influencing cadmium uptake from the soil into wheat plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ke; Lv, Jialong; He, Wenxiang; Zhang, Hong; Cao, Yingfei; Dai, Yunchao

    2015-03-01

    At present, soil quality standards for agriculture have not been improved for many years and are applied uniformly for a diverse variety of crops and different soil types, not fully considering the effects of soil properties on cadmium (Cd) uptake via soil-plant transfer. In this study, the characteristics of Cd transfer from soil to eight wheat varieties were investigated, and the results showed that Xiaoyan 22 was moderately sensitive to Cd. Upon growing Xiaoyan 22 in 18 different Chinese soils, we studied the major controlling factors of Cd transfer and constructed a bioaccumulation prediction model from the soil properties. The results showed that pH was the most important factor contributing to Cd uptake. After calibration for the eight wheat varieties, a continuous soil threshold model for wheat was derived for the species sensitive distribution based on food safety standards. PMID:25499054

  15. 7 CFR 920.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.6 Varieties. Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of kiwifruit....

  16. 7 CFR 920.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.6 Varieties. Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of kiwifruit....

  17. 7 CFR 920.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.6 Varieties. Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of kiwifruit....

  18. 7 CFR 920.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.6 Varieties. Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of kiwifruit....

  19. 7 CFR 920.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Definitions § 920.6 Varieties. Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of kiwifruit....

  20. Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee 2006 Crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeders’ experimental lines of wheat are evaluated for overall quality before being released for commercial production. The Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee provides milling and baking quality data on breeders’ experimental lines of wheat that are annually submitted to the Wheat Quality Counc...

  1. Incidence of Wheat streak mosaic virus, Triticum mosaic virus, and Wheat mosaic virus in wheat curl mites recovered from maturing winter wheat spikes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat curl mites (WCM; Aceria tosichella) transmit Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV), and Wheat mosaic virus (WMoV) to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains region of the United States. These viruses can be detected in single, double, or triple combinations i...

  2. Food variety and biodiversity: Econutrition.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, M L; Specht, R L

    1998-12-01

    Both annual biomass production and biodiversity at any locality on earth are continually under threat as the population of Homo sapiens steadily increases, with the resultant pollution of atmosphere, soil and water. Today, environmental degradation and global warming (with its effect on evaporative aerodynamics and cellular respiration) have increased at an alarming rate. The ABP of all terrestrial plant communities (natural or cultivated) is slowly declining, thus reducing the energy supply of component plants and resident animals; in turn, the biodiversity of all the world's ecosystems, plant and animal, is threatened. The maintenance of biodiversity is important to human health for several reasons: (i) a varied food supply is essential to maintain the health of the omnivorous human species; (ii) a range of diverse food sources is necessary to safe-guard against climatic and pestilent disasters which may affect one or more of the food sources; (iii) a diversity of plants and animals may provide a rich source of medicinal material, essential for the extraction of undiscovered therapeutic compounds; (iv) intact ecosystems of indigenous plants and animals appear to act as a buffer to the spread of invasive plants and animals, and of pathogens and toxins, thus contributing to the health of populations nearby; and (v) the 'spiritual' values of exploring the diversity of plants, animals and ecosystems in an area appear to have a beneficial effect on mental health, strengthening the feeling of 'belonging to the landscape'. The variety of foods, their energy contents and food values, consumed throughout the year is amenable to scientific enquiry; as is the amount of energy expended in this collection or production. The control and management of food production and of water supplies, with attention to safety issues, has led to an improvement in life expectancy for a proportion of the world's population. The question is at what point might human health be disadvantaged by

  3. Molecular mapping of YrSP and its relationship with other genes for stripe rust resistance in wheat chromosome 2BL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is an important disease of wheat worldwide. Resistance is the best way to control the disease. YrSP, a gene originally from wheat variety Spaldings Prolific and providing resistance to a broad spectrum of races, is used for differen...

  4. Cyclical partenogenetic reproduction in the Russian wheat aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the United States: Sexual reproduction and its outcome on biotypic diversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA) (Diuraphis noxia Kurd.) is an invasive species detected in the United States (US) in 1986. It soon became a serious threat to cereal production in the western US and more recently diversified into biotypes capable of killing resistant wheat varieties in the field. Aphids ...

  5. Oxalate oxidases and differentiating surface structure in wheat: germins.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, B G

    2000-01-01

    Oxalate oxidases (OXOs) have been found to be concentrated in the surface tissues of wheat embryos and grains: germin is concentrated in root and leaf sheaths that surround germinated embryos; pseudogermin (OXO-psi) is concentrated in the epidermis and bracts that 'encircle' mature grains. Most strikingly, the epidermal accumulation of OXO-psi was found to presage the transition of a delicate 'skin', similar to the fragile epidermis of human skin, into the tough shell (the miller's 'beeswing') that is typical of mature wheat grains. A narrow range of oxalate concentration (1--2 mM) in the hydrated tissues of major crop cereals (barley, maize, oat, rice, rye and wheat) contrasted with wide variations in their OXO expression, e.g. cold-tolerant and cold-sensitive varieties of maize have similar oxalate contents but the former was found to contain approx. 20-fold more germin than did the latter. Well-known OXOs in sorghum, a minor cereal, and beet, a dicotyledon, were found to have little antigenic relatedness to the germins, but the beet enzyme did share some of the unique stability properties that are peculiar to the germin-like OXOs that are found only in the major crop cereals. Their concentration in surface structures of domesticated wheat suggests a biochemical role for germin-like OXOs: programmed cell death in surface tissues might be a constitutive as well as an adaptive form of differentiation that helps to produce refractory barriers against tissue invasion by predators. Incidental to the principal investigation, and using an OXO assay (oxalate-dependent release of CO(2)) that did not rely on detecting H(2)O(2), which is often fully degraded in cell extracts, it was found that OXO activity in soluble extracts of wheat was manifested only in standard solution assays if the extract was pretreated in a variety of ways, which included preincubation with pepsin or highly substituted glucuronogalactoarabinoxylans (cell-wall polysaccharides). PMID:10861243

  6. Bioavailability of trace elements in beans and zinc-biofortified wheat in pigs.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Dorthe; Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Torun, Bulent; Cakmak, Ismail; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to study bioavailability of trace elements in beans and wheat containing different levels of zinc and to study how the water solubility of trace elements was related to the bioavailability in pigs. Three wheat and two bean types were used: wheat of Danish origin as a control (CtrlW), two Turkish wheat types low (LZnW) and high (HZnW) in zinc, a common bean (Com), and a faba bean (Faba). Two diets were composed by combining 81 % CtrlW and 19 % Com or Faba beans. Solubility was measured as the trace element concentration in the supernatant of feedstuffs, and diets incubated in distilled water at pH 4 and 38°C for 3 h. The bioavailability of zinc and copper of the three wheat types and the two bean-containing diets were evaluated in the pigs by collection of urine and feces for 7 days. The solubility of zinc was 34-63 %, copper 18-42 %, and iron 3-11 %. The zinc apparent digestibility in pigs was similar in the three wheat groups (11-14 %), but was significantly higher in the CtrlW+Faba group (23 %) and negative in the CtrlW+Com group (-30 %). The apparent digestibility of copper was higher in the HZnW (27 %) and CtrlW+Faba (33 %) groups than in the CtrlW (17 %) and LZnW (18 %) groups. The apparent copper digestibility of the CtrlW+Com diet was negative (-7 %). The solubility and digestibility results did not reflect the concentration in feedstuffs. The in vitro results of water solubility showed no relationship to the results of trace mineral bioavailability in pigs. PMID:22639384

  7. Familial varieties of primary aldosteronism.

    PubMed

    Stowasser, M; Gunasekera, T G; Gordon, R D

    2001-12-01

    1. Improved approaches to screening and diagnosis have revealed primary aldosteronism (PAL) to be much more common than previously thought, with most patients normokalaemic. The spectrum of this disorder has been further broadened by the study of familial varieties. 2. Familial hyperaldosteronism type I (FH-I) is a glucocorticoid-remediable form of PAL caused by the inheritance of an adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)- regulated, hybrid CYP11B1/CYP11B2 gene. Diagnosis has been greatly facilitated by the advent of genetic testing. The severity of hypertension varies widely in FH-I, even among members of the same family, and has demonstrated relationships with gender, degree of biochemical disturbance and hybrid gene crossover point position. Hormone "day curve" studies show that the hybrid gene dominates over wild-type CYP11B2 in terms of aldosterone regulation. This may be due, in part, to a defect in wild-type CYP11B2-induced aldosterone production. Control of hypertension in FH-I requires only partial suppression of ACTH and much smaller glucocorticoid doses than previously recommended. 3. Familial hyperaldosteronism type II (FH-II) is not glucocorticoid remediable and is not associated with the hybrid gene mutation. Familial hyperaldosteronism type II is clinically, biochemically and morphologically indistinguishable from apparently non-familial PAL. Linkage studies in one informative family did not show segregation of FH-II with the CYP11B2, AT1 or MEN1 genes, but a genome-wide search has revealed linkage with a locus in chromosome 7. As has already occurred in FH-I, elucidation of causative mutations is likely to facilitate earlier detection of PAL. PMID:11903322

  8. Validation of the danish national diabetes register.

    PubMed

    Green, Anders; Sortsø, Camilla; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup; Emneus, Martha

    2015-01-01

    The Danish National Diabetes Register (NDR) was established in 2006 and builds on data from Danish health registers. We validated the content of NDR, using full information from the Danish National Patient Register and data from the literature. Our study indicates that the completeness in NDR is ≥95% concerning ascertainment from data sources specific for diabetes, ie, prescriptions with antidiabetic drugs and diagnoses of diabetes in the National Patient Register. Since the NDR algorithm ignores diabetes-related hospital contacts terminated before 1990, the establishment of the date of inclusion is systematically delayed for ≥10% of the registrants in general and for ≥30% of the inclusions before 1997 in particular. This bias is enhanced for ascertainment by chiropody services and by frequent measurements of blood glucose because the date of reimbursement of services, rather than the date of encounter, has been taken as the date of inclusion in NDR. We also find that some 20% of the registrations in NDR may represent false positive inclusions of persons with frequent measurements of blood glucose without having diabetes. We conclude that NDR is a novel initiative to support research in the epidemiological and public health aspects of diabetes in Denmark, but we also present a list of recommended changes for improving validity, by reducing the impact of current sources of bias and misclassifications. PMID:25565889

  9. Drought Tolerance in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Prodhan, Zakaria Hossain; Faruq, Golam

    2013-01-01

    Drought is one of the most important phenomena which limit crops' production and yield. Crops demonstrate various morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses to tackle drought stress. Plants' vegetative and reproductive stages are intensively influenced by drought stress. Drought tolerance is a complicated trait which is controlled by polygenes and their expressions are influenced by various environmental elements. This means that breeding for this trait is so difficult and new molecular methods such as molecular markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping strategies, and expression patterns of genes should be applied to produce drought tolerant genotypes. In wheat, there are several genes which are responsible for drought stress tolerance and produce different types of enzymes and proteins for instance, late embryogenesis abundant (lea), responsive to abscisic acid (Rab), rubisco, helicase, proline, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and carbohydrates during drought stress. This review paper has concentrated on the study of water limitation and its effects on morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses of wheat with the possible losses caused by drought stress. PMID:24319376

  10. Drought tolerance in wheat.

    PubMed

    Nezhadahmadi, Arash; Prodhan, Zakaria Hossain; Faruq, Golam

    2013-01-01

    Drought is one of the most important phenomena which limit crops' production and yield. Crops demonstrate various morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses to tackle drought stress. Plants' vegetative and reproductive stages are intensively influenced by drought stress. Drought tolerance is a complicated trait which is controlled by polygenes and their expressions are influenced by various environmental elements. This means that breeding for this trait is so difficult and new molecular methods such as molecular markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping strategies, and expression patterns of genes should be applied to produce drought tolerant genotypes. In wheat, there are several genes which are responsible for drought stress tolerance and produce different types of enzymes and proteins for instance, late embryogenesis abundant (lea), responsive to abscisic acid (Rab), rubisco, helicase, proline, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and carbohydrates during drought stress. This review paper has concentrated on the study of water limitation and its effects on morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses of wheat with the possible losses caused by drought stress. PMID:24319376

  11. Antioxidant properties of bran extracts from "Akron" wheat grown at different locations.

    PubMed

    Yu, Liangli; Perret, Jonathan; Harris, Mary; Wilson, John; Haley, Scott

    2003-03-12

    Bran extracts of Akron wheat grown at four nonirrigated and one irrigated testing locations were examined and compared for their free radical scavenging properties against the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(*)) and the radical cation ABTS(*)(+), chelating capacities, and total phenolic content (TPC) to determine the potential effects of environmental factors on the antioxidant properties of hard winter wheat. The environmental factors included total solar radiation, average daily solar radiation, and number of hours exceeding 32 degrees C. The results showed that bran samples from different growing locations may significantly differ in their radical scavenging activities against both DPPH(*) and ABTS(*)(+), chelating capacities, and TPC. A significant negative correlation was detected between the chelating activities of the bran samples from the four nonirrigated locations and total solar or daily average solar radiation (r = -0.999 and P = 0.001). These data suggest potential influences of growing conditions on the antioxidant properties of hard winter wheat and the possibility of producing wheat that is strong in a selected antioxidant property by optimizing the growing conditions of a selected wheat variety. More research is required to further investigate the relationship among antioxidant properties and environmental factors using different wheat varieties and larger sample sizes. PMID:12617585

  12. Proteomic profiling of 16 cereal grains and the application of targeted proteomics to detect wheat contamination.

    PubMed

    Colgrave, Michelle L; Goswami, Hareshwar; Byrne, Keren; Blundell, Malcolm; Howitt, Crispin A; Tanner, Gregory J

    2015-06-01

    Global proteomic analysis utilizing SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and LC-MS/MS of total protein and gluten-enriched extracts derived from 16 economically important cereals was undertaken, providing a foundation for the development of MS-based quantitative methodologies that would enable the detection of wheat contamination in foods. The number of proteins identified in each grain correlated with the number of entries in publicly available databases, highlighting the importance of continued advances in genome sequencing to facilitate accurate protein identification. Subsequently, candidate wheat-specific peptide markers were evaluated by multiple-reaction monitoring MS. The selected markers were unique to wheat, yet present in a wide range of wheat varieties that represent up to 80% of the bread wheat genome. The final analytical method was rapid (15 min) and robust (CV < 10%), showed linearity (R(2) > 0.98) spanning over 3 orders of magnitude, and was highly selective and sensitive with detection down to 15 mg/kg in intentionally contaminated soy flour. Furthermore, application of this technology revealed wheat contamination in commercially sourced flours, including rye, millet, oats, sorghum, buckwheat and three varieties of soy. PMID:25873154

  13. Mutations in Durum Wheat SBEII Genes affect Grain Yield Components, Quality, and Fermentation Responses in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hazard, Brittany; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Naemeh, Mahmoudreza; Hamilton, M. Kristina; Rust, Bret; Raybould, Helen E.; Newman, John W.; Martin, Roy; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Increased amylose in wheat (Triticum ssp.) starch is associated with increased resistant starch, a fermentable dietary fiber. Fermentation of resistant starch in the large intestine produces short-chain fatty acids that are associated with human health benefits. Since wheat foods are an important component of the human diet, increases in amylose and resistant starch in wheat grains have the potential to deliver health benefits to a large number of people. In three replicated field trials we found that mutations in starch branching enzyme II genes (SBEIIa and SBEIIb) in both A and B genomes (SBEIIa/b-AB) of durum wheat [T. turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.] resulted in large increases of amylose and resistant starch content. The presence of these four mutations was also associated with an average 5% reduction in kernel weight (P = 0.0007) and 15% reduction in grain yield (P = 0.06) compared to the wild type. Complete milling and pasta quality analysis showed that the mutant lines have an acceptable quality with positive effects on pasta firmness and negative effects on semolina extraction and pasta color. Positive fermentation responses were detected in rats (Rattus spp.) fed with diets incorporating mutant wheat flour. This study quantifies benefits and limitations associated with the deployment of the SBEIIa/b-AB mutations in durum wheat and provides the information required to develop realistic strategies to deploy durum wheat varieties with increased levels of amylose and resistant starch. PMID:27134286

  14. [Genetic control of embryo lethality in crosses between common wheat and rye].

    PubMed

    Tikhenko, N D; Tsvetkova, N V; Voĭlokov, A V

    2005-08-01

    The phenotypic manifestation and genetic control of embryo lethality observed in crosses between common wheat and rye were studied. It was found that crosses between common wheat and inbred self-fertile rye lines L2 and 535 gave rise to ungerminating grains, in which the development and differentiation of the hybrid embryo are arrested. Study of the degree of embryo development in the hybrid grains obtained by crossing common wheat varieties with inbred rye lines L2 and 535 showed that genotypes of the parents affected the ratio between undifferentiated embryos of various sizes. Analysis of this trait was performed by test crosses according to a novel pedigree program with the use of interlinear hybrids and a set of fourth-generation hybrid recombinant inbred lines. Rye line L2 was shown to bear the Eml (Embryo lethality) gene, which terminates the development of the hybrid embryo in amphihaploids. The suggestion of complementary interaction between wheat and rye genes during formation of a "n ew" character in wheat-rye F1 hybrids is discussed. A method of detecting an allele not complementary to the rye Eml allele in wheat is proposed. The proposed test program allows appropriate study of the system of wheat and rye genes involved in complementary interaction in the genotype of a distant hybrid. PMID:16161628

  15. Genetic and epigenetic alterations induced by different levels of rye genome integration in wheat recipient.

    PubMed

    Zheng, X L; Zhou, J P; Zang, L L; Tang, A T; Liu, D Q; Deng, K J; Zhang, Y

    2016-01-01

    The narrow genetic variation present in common wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties has greatly restricted the improvement of crop yield in modern breeding systems. Alien addition lines have proven to be an effective means to broaden the genetic diversity of common wheat. Wheat-rye addition lines, which are the direct bridge materials for wheat improvement, have been wildly used to produce new wheat cultivars carrying alien rye germplasm. In this study, we investigated the genetic and epigenetic alterations in two sets of wheat-rye disomic addition lines (1R-7R) and the corresponding triticales. We used expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat, amplified fragment length polymorphism, and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism analyses to analyze the effects of the introduction of alien chromosomes (either the entire genome or sub-genome) to wheat genetic background. We found obvious and diversiform variations in the genomic primary structure, as well as alterations in the extent and pattern of the genomic DNA methylation of the recipient. Meanwhile, these results also showed that introduction of different rye chromosomes could induce different genetic and epigenetic alterations in its recipient, and the genetic background of the parents is an important factor for genomic and epigenetic variation induced by alien chromosome addition. PMID:27323191

  16. Research on the Distant Hybrids of Wheat Obtained via Low-Energy Ion-Beam Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shouwei; Cheng, Yuhong; Qin, Guangyong; Su, Mingjie

    2003-06-01

    The whole DNA of soybean was implanted into four varieties of wheat of Zhongyu 5, Huaiyin 9628, Wenyou 1, Jimai 5 respectively via ion-beam mediation. There were 5 plants obtained whose protein content was higher than 18.5%, the highest one was 21.44%. There were 3 plants obtained whose protein content was lower than 11.5%, the lowest one was 10.96%. We can see that the whole DNA of soybean transformed into wheat via ion beam implantation can induce the increase in wheat protein content dramatically. The result also shows that the transformation efficiency of different gene types of wheat receptor varies greatly that the implanting time has a certain effect on the efficiency of transformation.

  17. [The alien genetic variability for amelioration of wheat grain quality characteristics].

    PubMed

    Rybalka, O I

    2008-01-01

    The alien germplasm presented by different wild wheat relatives such as Ae. umbellulata (UU, 2n = 14), Ae. cylindrica (CCDD, 2n = 28), Ae. tauschii (DD, 2n = 14), Ae. ventricosa (DDUnUn, 2n = 28), Ae. variabilis (UUSS, 2n = 28), T. palmovae (AADD, 2n = 28) was involved into interspecific crosses with T. aestivum to produce transfers of exotic Gli/Glu-alleles to cultivated bread wheat varieties. The array of novel exotic Gli/Glu-alleles was introduced into cultivated wheat genome. Considerable negative as well as positive influence of some exotic alleles on bread-making quality characters or endosperm texture was observed. The original interspecific material with improved quality characteristics was recommended to be applied for wheat breeding. PMID:19140427

  18. Identifying future threats: impact of climate change on wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, M. A.

    2009-04-01

    The frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events are likely to increase with global warming. However, it is not clear how these events might affect agricultural crops and whether yield losses resulting from severe droughts or heat stress will increase in the future. The aim of this paper is to analyse changes in the magnitude and spatial patterns of two impact indices for wheat: the probability of heat stress around flowering and the severity of drought stress. To compute these indices, we used a wheat simulation model combined with high-resolution climate scenarios based on the LARS-WG stochastic weather generator and the output from the Hadley Centre regional climate model at 18 sites in England and Wales. Despite higher temperature and lower summer precipitation predicted in the UK for the 2050s, the reduction in grain yield related to drought stress is predicted to be smaller than that at present, because wheat will mature earlier in a warmer climate and avoid severe summer drought. However, the probability of heat stress around flowering, that affects pollination and might result in considerable yield losses, is predicted to increase significantly. Breeding strategies for the future climate might need to focus on wheat varieties tolerant to high temperature rather than to drought.

  19. Genetic transformation of wheat via Agrobacterium-mediated DNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Caroline A; Doherty, Angela; Jones, Huw D

    2014-01-01

    The method described involves an initial incubation of wheat immature embryos in a liquid culture of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The Agrobacterium strain is engineered to contain a binary vector with a gene of interest and a selectable marker gene placed between the T-DNA borders; the T-DNA is the region transferred to the plant cells, thus harnessing the bacterium's natural ability to deliver specific DNA into host cells. Following the initial inoculation with the Agrobacterium, the embryos are co-cultivated for several days after which the Agrobacterium is selectively destroyed using an antibiotic. Tissue culture of the embryos on plant media with a correct balance of hormones allows embryogenic callus formation followed by regeneration of plantlets, and in the later stages of tissue culture a selectable marker (herbicide) is included to minimize the incidence of non-transformed plants. This protocol has been used successfully to generate transformed plants of a wide range of wheat varieties, both spring and winter bread wheats (T. aestivum L.) and durum wheats (T. turgidum L.). PMID:24243208

  20. [Monitoring winter wheat population dynamics using an active crop sensor].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun-Hua; Yue, Shan-Chao; Hou, Peng; Meng, Qing-Feng; Cui, Zhen-Ling; Li, Fei; Chen, Xin-Ping

    2011-02-01

    Tiller density plays an important role in attaining optimum grain yield and applying topdressing N in winter wheat. However, the traditional approach based on determining tiller density is time-consuming and labor-intensive. As technology advances, remote sensing might provide an opportunity in eliminating this7 problem. In the present paper, an N rate experiment and a variety-seeding and sowing dates experiment were conducted in Quzhou County, Hebei Province in 2008/2009 to develop the models to predict the amount of winter wheat tillers. Positive linear relationships between vegetation indices and tillers were observed across growth stages (R2, 0.25-0.64 for NDVI; 0.26-0.65 for RVI). The validation results indicated that the prediction using NDVI had the higher coefficient of determination (R2, 0.54-0.64), the lower root mean square error (RMSE, 260-350 tillers m(-2)) and relative error (RE, 16.3%-23.0%) at early growth stages of winter wheat. We conclude that active GreenSeeker sensor is a promising tool for timely monitoring of winter wheat tiller density. PMID:21510421

  1. Comprehensive identification of LMW-GS genes and their protein products in a common wheat variety

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although it is well known that low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) affect bread and noodle processing quality, the function of specific LMW-GS proteins remains unclear. It is important to find the genes that correspond to individual LMW-GS proteins in order to understand the functions o...

  2. Brazil wheat yield covariance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate wheat yields for the wheat growing states of Rio Grande do Sul, Parana, and Santa Catarina in Brazil. The meteorological data of these three states were pooled and the years 1972 to 1979 were used to develop the model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature.

  3. 19 CFR 19.32 - Wheat manipulation; reconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wheat manipulation; reconditioning. 19.32 Section... Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.32 Wheat manipulation; reconditioning. (a) The mixing, blending, or commingling of imported wheat and domestic wheat, or of imported wheat of different classes and grades, as...

  4. 19 CFR 19.32 - Wheat manipulation; reconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Wheat manipulation; reconditioning. 19.32 Section... Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.32 Wheat manipulation; reconditioning. (a) The mixing, blending, or commingling of imported wheat and domestic wheat, or of imported wheat of different classes and grades, as...

  5. 19 CFR 19.32 - Wheat manipulation; reconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wheat manipulation; reconditioning. 19.32 Section... Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.32 Wheat manipulation; reconditioning. (a) The mixing, blending, or commingling of imported wheat and domestic wheat, or of imported wheat of different classes and grades, as...

  6. 19 CFR 19.32 - Wheat manipulation; reconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wheat manipulation; reconditioning. 19.32 Section... Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.32 Wheat manipulation; reconditioning. (a) The mixing, blending, or commingling of imported wheat and domestic wheat, or of imported wheat of different classes and grades, as...

  7. Dough Rheology and Wet Milling of Hard Waxy Wheat Flours

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To realize the full potential of waxy wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), wet milling of waxy wheat flour to produce gluten and waxy wheat starch was investigated. Flours of six advanced lines of waxy hard wheats, one normal hard wheat (‘Karl 92’), and one partial waxy wheat (‘Trego’) were fractionated by...

  8. 19 CFR 19.32 - Wheat manipulation; reconditioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheat manipulation; reconditioning. 19.32 Section... Bonded for the Storage of Wheat § 19.32 Wheat manipulation; reconditioning. (a) The mixing, blending, or commingling of imported wheat and domestic wheat, or of imported wheat of different classes and grades, as...

  9. Annoying Danish Relatives: Comprehension and Production of Relative Clauses by Danish Children with and without SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen De Lopez, Kristine; Olsen, Lone Sundahl; Chondrogianni, Vasiliki

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with SLI and to compare errors with those produced by TD…

  10. Private Mitochondrial DNA Variants in Danish Patients with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Christian M.; Aidt, Frederik H.; Havndrup, Ole; Hedley, Paula L.; Jensen, Morten K.; Kanters, Jørgen K.; Pham, Tam T.; Bundgaard, Henning; Christiansen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a genetic cardiac disease primarily caused by mutations in genes coding for sarcomeric proteins. A molecular-genetic etiology can be established in ~60% of cases. Evolutionarily conserved mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups are susceptibility factors for HCM. Several polymorphic mtDNA variants are associated with a variety of late-onset degenerative diseases and affect mitochondrial function. We examined the role of private, non-haplogroup associated, mitochondrial variants in the etiology of HCM. In 87 Danish HCM patients, full mtDNA sequencing revealed 446 variants. After elimination of 312 (69.9%) non-coding and synonymous variants, a further 109 (24.4%) with a global prevalence > 0.1%, three (0.7%) haplogroup associated and 19 (2.0%) variants with a low predicted in silico likelihood of pathogenicity, three variants: MT-TC: m.5772G>A, MT-TF: m.644A>G, and MT-CYB: m.15024G>A, p.C93Y remained. A detailed analysis of these variants indicated that none of them are likely to cause HCM. In conclusion, private mtDNA mutations are frequent, but they are rarely, if ever, associated with HCM. PMID:25923817

  11. TdERF1, an ethylene response factor associated with dehydration responses in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum)

    PubMed Central

    Makhloufi, Emna; Yousfi, Fatma-Ezzahra; Pirrello, Julien; Bernadac, Anne; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2015-01-01

    Water deficit and increasing salinization reduce productivity of wheat, the leading crop for human diet. While the complete genome sequence of this crop has not been deciphered, a BAC library screening allowed the isolation of TdERF1, the first ethylene response factor gene from durum wheat. This gene is putatively involved in mediating salt stress tolerance and its characterization provides clues toward understanding the mechanisms underlying the adaptation/tolerance of durum wheat to suboptimal growth conditions. TdERF1 expression is differentially induced by high salt treatment in 2 durum wheat varieties, the salt-tolerant Grecale (GR) and the salt-sensitive Om Rabiaa (OR). To further extend these findings, we show here that the expression of this ERF is correlated with physiological parameters, such as the accumulation of osmo-regulators and membrane integrity, that discriminate between the 2 contrasted wheat genotypes. The data confirm that GR and OR are 2 contrasted wheat genotypes with regard to salt-stress and show that TdERF1 is also induced by water stress with an expression pattern clearly discriminating between the 2 genotypes. These findings suggest that TdERF1 might be involved in responses to salt and water stress providing a potential genetic marker discriminating between tolerant and sensitive wheat varieties. PMID:26338450

  12. TdERF1, an ethylene response factor associated with dehydration responses in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum).

    PubMed

    Makhloufi, Emna; Yousfi, Fatma-Ezzahra; Pirrello, Julien; Bernadac, Anne; Ghorbel, Abdelwahed; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2015-01-01

    Water deficit and increasing salinization reduce productivity of wheat, the leading crop for human diet. While the complete genome sequence of this crop has not been deciphered, a BAC library screening allowed the isolation of TdERF1, the first ethylene response factor gene from durum wheat. This gene is putatively involved in mediating salt stress tolerance and its characterization provides clues toward understanding the mechanisms underlying the adaptation/tolerance of durum wheat to suboptimal growth conditions. TdERF1 expression is differentially induced by high salt treatment in 2 durum wheat varieties, the salt-tolerant Grecale (GR) and the salt-sensitive Om Rabiaa (OR). To further extend these findings, we show here that the expression of this ERF is correlated with physiological parameters, such as the accumulation of osmo-regulators and membrane integrity, that discriminate between the 2 contrasted wheat genotypes. The data confirm that GR and OR are 2 contrasted wheat genotypes with regard to salt-stress and show that TdERF1 is also induced by water stress with an expression pattern clearly discriminating between the 2 genotypes. These findings suggest that TdERF1 might be involved in responses to salt and water stress providing a potential genetic marker discriminating between tolerant and sensitive wheat varieties. PMID:26338450

  13. Parenting among Wealthy Danish Families: A Concerted Civilising Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Dil

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the parenting practices of wealthy Danish families and offers insight into the workings of dominant parenting norms within contemporary Danish society. Based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted among 15 families living north of Copenhagen, Denmark, this article identifies the parenting strategies of people with ample…

  14. Statistical Learning in Emerging Lexicons: The Case of Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Stephanie F.; Bleses, Dorthe; Basboll, Hans; Lambertsen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This research explored the impact of neighborhood density (ND), word frequency (WF), and word length (WL) on the vocabulary size of Danish-speaking children. Given the particular phonological properties of Danish, the impact was expected to differ from that reported in studies on English and French. Method: The monosyllabic words in the…

  15. Educational Ambassadors in the Danish Trade Union Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keil, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The concept of Educational Ambassadors is embedded within the so-called "Danish model" of industrial relations. The Danish industrial relations system is characterised by strong collective organisations with national coverage, which conclude the collective agreements for various industries or sectors and which are mostly grouped under central…

  16. 7 CFR 51.348 - One variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false One variety. 51.348 Section 51.348 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Apples for Processing Definitions § 51.348 One variety. One variety within...

  17. 7 CFR 201.10 - Variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... seed,” shall apply only to seed of the variety named, except for the labeling of hybrids as provided in § 201.11a. If separate percentages for the kind and the variety or hybrid are shown, the name of the kind and the name of the variety or the term “hybrid” shall be clearly associated with the...

  18. Maize variety and method of production

    DOEpatents

    Pauly, Markus; Hake, Sarah; Kraemer, Florian J

    2014-05-27

    The disclosure relates to a maize plant, seed, variety, and hybrid. More specifically, the disclosure relates to a maize plant containing a Cal-1 allele, whose expression results in increased cell wall-derived glucan content in the maize plant. The disclosure also relates to crossing inbreds, varieties, and hybrids containing the Cal-1 allele to produce novel types and varieties of maize plants.

  19. Definite Article Usage across Varieties of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahid, Ridwan

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the extent of definite article usage variation in several varieties of English based on a classification of its usage types. An annotation scheme based on Hawkins and Prince was developed for this purpose. Using matching corpus data representing Inner Circle varieties and Outer Circle varieties, analysis was made on…

  20. Relationship between bran characteristics and bran starch of selected soft wheats grown in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ya; Ng, Perry K W

    2016-04-15

    The aims of this study were to investigate differences among chosen wheat varieties in their bran starch (the starch adherent to bran particles after a dry milling process) quantity, bran particle size, and milled bran thickness, and to investigate the relationship between bran characteristics and bran starch content. The neutral saccharide profile of the wheat bran was dominated by arabinose, xylose, and glucose, whereas mannose and galactose were present in small amounts. Bran thickness was found to have a positive correlation with bran starch content. Bound ferulic acid to xylose ratio showed positive correlations with percent large bran particles, and negative correlations with bran starch content. Bran characteristics can explain the variation seen in bran starch content and percent large bran particles of various wheat varieties. Bound ferulic acid to xylose ratio and bran thickness could both play roles in the mechanical properties of bran, and therefore change the percent of large bran particles produced during milling. PMID:26616971

  1. Study of rust resistance genes in wheat germplasm with DNA markers

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Asma; Shaheen, Tayyaba; Gulzar, Tahsin; Rahman, Mahmood ur; Jalal, Fatima; Sattar, Summera; Ehsan, Beenish; Iqbal, Zafar; Younas, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Wheat is a vital dietary component for human health and widely consumed in the world. Wheat rusts are dangerous pathogens and contribute serious threat to its production. In present study, PCR-Based DNA Markers were employed to check the rust resistance genes among 20 wheat genotypes and 22 markers were amplified. NTSYS-pc 2.2 was used to calculate genetic diversity and Nei and Li's coefficients ranged from 0.55 to 0.95. Cluster analysis was obtained using UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method of Arithmetic Average) algorithm. Maximum no. of genes (23) was amplified from TW-760010 genotype whereas minimum no of genes (14) were amplified from TW-76005 genotype. The data gained from present study open up new ways to produce new varieties by breeding rust resistant germplasm to avoid the economic and food loss and varieties with improved characteristics. PMID:25097381

  2. Screening for celiac disease in Danish adults

    PubMed Central

    Horwitz, Anna; Skaaby, Tea; Kårhus, Line Lund; Schwarz, Peter; Jørgensen, Torben; Rumessen, Jüri J.; Linneberg, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. The prevalence of celiac disease (CD) as recorded in the Danish National Patient Registry is ∼50/100,000 persons. This is much lower than the reported prevalence of CD in other Nordic countries and underdiagnosis is suspected. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of CD in a population-based study of Danish adults. Methods. A total of 2297 adults aged 24–76 years living in the southwestern part of Copenhagen were screened for CD by immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG antibodies to transglutaminases and deamidated gliadin. IgA/IgG-positive participants were invited to a clinical evaluation, including biopsies, by a gastroenterologist. Results. Of the invited 56 participants, 40 underwent a full clinical evaluation and 8 persons were diagnosed with CD; 2 of the 16 persons, who did not complete the clinical evaluation, were considered by experts to have probable CD. None of the above 56 participants had a known history of CD or a recorded diagnosis of CD in National Patient Registry. By combining cases of biopsy-proven CD (n = 8), probable CD (n = 2), and registry-recorded CD (n = 1), the prevalence of CD was estimated to be 479/100,000 (11/2297) persons (95% CI: 197–761). Conclusion. In this general adult population, the prevalence of CD as estimated by screening and clinical evaluation was 10 times higher than the registry-based prevalence of CD. Of 11 participants diagnosed with CD in our screening study, 10 were unaware of the diagnosis prior to the study. Thus, our study suggests that CD is markedly underdiagnosed in Danish adults. PMID:25687734

  3. Cadmium minimization in wheat: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Abbas, Tahir; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Hannan, Fakhir; Keller, Catherine; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; Ok, Yong Sik

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its subsequent transfer to food chain is a major environmental issue worldwide. Understanding wheat response to Cd stress and its management for aiming to reduce Cd uptake and accumulation in wheat may help to improve wheat growth and grain quality. This paper reviewed the toxic effects, tolerance mechanisms, and management of Cd stress in wheat. It was concluded that Cd decreased germination, growth, mineral nutrients, photosynthesis and grain yield of wheat and plant response to Cd toxicity varies with cultivars, growth conditions and duration of stress applied. Cadmium caused oxidative stress and genotoxicity in wheat plants. Stimulation of antioxidant defense system, osmoregulation, ion homeostasis and over production of signalling molecules are important adaptive strategies of wheat under Cd stress. Exogenous application of plant growth regulators, inorganic amendments, proper fertilization, silicon, and organic, manures and biochar, amendments are commonly used for the reduction of Cd uptake in wheat. Selection of low Cd-accumulating wheat cultivars, crop rotation, soil type, and exogenous application of microbes are among the other agronomic practices successfully employed in reducing Cd uptake by wheat. These management practices could enhance wheat tolerance to Cd stress and reduce the transfer of Cd to the food chain. However, their long-term sustainability in reducing Cd uptake by wheat needs further assessment. PMID:27062345

  4. [Differentiation, identification and development of database of T. aestivum L. varieties of Ukrainian selection on the basis of sequence-tagged analysis of microsatellite repeats].

    PubMed

    Chebotar', S V; Sivolap, Iu M

    2001-01-01

    Determination of the variety genotype is very important for the development of theory and practice of plant breeding and for right protection of a variety originator. In this reason attention is focused on the molecular markers generated by polymerase chain reaction. On the basis of STMS-analysis principles of identification and development of database, which reflect molecular-genetics peculiarities of some varieties of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Institute and other Ukrainian breeding organizations, are formulated. Allelic state at microsatellite loci and their distribution were investigated. Wheat varieties were ranged according to genetic distances, data on pedigree and cluster distribution of varieties obtained using computer programs were compared. PMID:11944322

  5. Interpersonal violence: patterns in a Danish community.

    PubMed Central

    Hedeboe, J; Charles, A V; Nielsen, J; Grymer, F; Møller, B N; Møller-Madson, B; Jensen, S E

    1985-01-01

    We studied all cases of assault with violence (1,639) in a Danish population of 275,000 over a one-year period. Most victims were young men. The incidence rose during evenings, nights and weekends, and assaults were often seen in or around bars and restaurants. Women accounted for 64 per cent of all victims of assault in the home. Influence of alcohol was identified in 43 per cent of all cases. The fist was the most frequent agent of assault; use of firearms was a very rare act of violence but was associated with death in three out of five cases. There were 10 deaths in all. PMID:4003631

  6. Biofortification of wheat grain with iron and zinc: integrating novel genomic resources and knowledge from model crops

    PubMed Central

    Borrill, Philippa; Connorton, James M.; Balk, Janneke; Miller, Anthony J.; Sanders, Dale; Uauy, Cristobal

    2014-01-01

    Wheat, like many other staple cereals, contains low levels of the essential micronutrients iron and zinc. Up to two billion people worldwide suffer from iron and zinc deficiencies, particularly in regions with predominantly cereal-based diets. Although wheat flour is commonly fortified during processing, an attractive and more sustainable solution is biofortification, which requires developing new varieties of wheat with inherently higher iron and zinc content in their grains. Until now most studies aimed at increasing iron and zinc content in wheat grains have focused on discovering natural variation in progenitor or related species. However, recent developments in genomics and transformation have led to a step change in targeted research on wheat at a molecular level. We discuss promising approaches to improve iron and zinc content in wheat using knowledge gained in model grasses. We explore how the latest resources developed in wheat, including sequenced genomes and mutant populations, can be exploited for biofortification. We also highlight the key research and practical challenges that remain in improving iron and zinc content in wheat. PMID:24600464

  7. Expression of a radish defensin in transgenic wheat confers increased resistance to Fusarium graminearum and Rhizoctonia cerealis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao; Zhou, Miaoping; Zhang, Zengyan; Ren, Lijuan; Du, Lipu; Zhang, Boqiao; Xu, Huijun; Xin, Zhiyong

    2011-03-01

    Fusarium head blight (scab), primarily caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. Wheat sharp eyespot, mainly caused by Rhizoctonia cerealis, is one of the major diseases of wheat in China. The defensin RsAFP2, a small cyteine-rich antifungal protein from radish (Raphanus sativus), was shown to inhibit growth in vitro of agronomically important fungal pathogens, such as F. graminearum and R. cerealis. The RsAFP2 gene was transformed into Chinese wheat variety Yangmai 12 via biolistic bombardment to assess the effectiveness of the defensin in protecting wheat from the fungal pathogens in multiple locations and years. The genomic PCR and Southern blot analyses indicated that RsAFP2 was integrated into the genomes of the transgenic wheat lines and heritable. RT-PCR and Western blot proved that the RsAFP2 was expressed in these transgenic wheat lines. Disease tests showed that four RsAFP2 transgenic lines (RA1-RA4) displayed enhanced resistance to F. graminearum compared to the untransformed Yangmai 12 and the null-segregated plants. Assays on Q-RT-PCR and disease severity showed that the express level of RsAFP2 was associated with the enhanced resistance degree. Two of these transgenic lines (RA1 and RA2) also exhibited enhanced resistance to R. cerealis. These results indicated that the expression of RsAFP2 conferred increased resistance to F. graminearum and R. cerealis in transgenic wheat. PMID:21279533

  8. Proteomic profiling analysis reveals that glutathione system plays important roles responding to osmotic stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianhui; Dong, Wen; Zhang, Daijing; Gao, Xiaolong; Jiang, Lina; Shao, Yun; Tong, Doudou; Li, Chunxi

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important crops in the world, and osmotic stress has become one of the main factors affecting wheat production. Understanding the mechanism of the response of wheat to osmotic stress would be greatly significant. In the present study, isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) was used to analyze the changes of protein expression in the wheat roots exposed to different osmotic stresses. A total of 2,228 expressed proteins, including 81 differentially expressed proteins, between osmotic stress and control, were found. The comprehensive analysis of these differentially expressed proteins revealed that osmotic stress increased the variety of expressed proteins and suppressed the quantity of expressed proteins in wheat roots. Furthermore, the proteins for detoxifying and reactive oxygen species scavenging, especially the glutathione system, played important roles in maintaining organism balance in response to osmotic stress in wheat roots. Thus, the present study comprehensively describes the protein expression changes in wheat roots in response to osmotic stress, providing firmer foundation to further study the mechanism of osmotic resistance in wheat. PMID:27602297

  9. Proteomic profiling analysis reveals that glutathione system plays important roles responding to osmotic stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) roots

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wen; Zhang, Daijing; Gao, Xiaolong; Shao, Yun; Tong, Doudou

    2016-01-01

    Wheat is one of the most important crops in the world, and osmotic stress has become one of the main factors affecting wheat production. Understanding the mechanism of the response of wheat to osmotic stress would be greatly significant. In the present study, isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) was used to analyze the changes of protein expression in the wheat roots exposed to different osmotic stresses. A total of 2,228 expressed proteins, including 81 differentially expressed proteins, between osmotic stress and control, were found. The comprehensive analysis of these differentially expressed proteins revealed that osmotic stress increased the variety of expressed proteins and suppressed the quantity of expressed proteins in wheat roots. Furthermore, the proteins for detoxifying and reactive oxygen species scavenging, especially the glutathione system, played important roles in maintaining organism balance in response to osmotic stress in wheat roots. Thus, the present study comprehensively describes the protein expression changes in wheat roots in response to osmotic stress, providing firmer foundation to further study the mechanism of osmotic resistance in wheat. PMID:27602297

  10. EVALUATION OF DURUM SPRING WHEAT SUSCEPTIBILITY TO WHEAT STEM SAWFLY (HYMENOPTERA: CEPHIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton, is the primary arthropod pest of wheat, Triticum aestivum, in the Northern Great Plains. Rotation to non-host crops should decrease infestation of susceptible spring or winter wheats. Information is unavailable on wheat stem sawfly infestation potentia...

  11. Reflectance characteristics of Russian wheat aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) stress and abundance in winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko)) infests wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and other small grains and grasses. Russian wheat aphid infestations are unpredictable in time and space. In favorable conditions, Russian wheat aphid feeding can result in heavy...

  12. An analysis of Pseudomonas genomic diversity in take-all infected wheat fields reveals the lasting impact of wheat cultivars on the soil microbiota.

    PubMed

    Mauchline, T H; Chedom-Fotso, D; Chandra, G; Samuels, T; Greenaway, N; Backhaus, A; McMillan, V; Canning, G; Powers, S J; Hammond-Kosack, K E; Hirsch, P R; Clark, I M; Mehrabi, Z; Roworth, J; Burnell, J; Malone, J G

    2015-11-01

    Manipulation of the soil microbiota associated with crop plants has huge promise for the control of crop pathogens. However, to fully realize this potential we need a better understanding of the relationship between the soil environment and the genes and phenotypes that enable microbes to colonize plants and contribute to biocontrol. A recent 2 years of investigation into the effect of wheat variety on second year crop yield in the context of take-all fungal infection presented the opportunity to examine soil microbiomes under closely defined field conditions. Amplicon sequencing of second year soil samples showed that Pseudomonas spp. were particularly affected by the wheat cultivar grown in year one. Consequently, 318 rhizosphere-associated Pseudomonas fluorescens strains were isolated and characterized across a variety of genetic and phenotypic traits. Again, the wheat variety grown in the first year of the study was shown to exert considerable selective pressure on both the extent and nature of Pseudomonas genomic diversity. Furthermore, multiple significant correlations were identified within the phenotypic/genetic structure of the Pseudomonas population, and between individual genotypes and the external wheat field environment. The approach outlined here has considerable future potential for our understanding of plant-microbe interactions, and for the broader analysis of complex microbial communities. PMID:26337499

  13. An analysis of P seudomonas genomic diversity in take‐all infected wheat fields reveals the lasting impact of wheat cultivars on the soil microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Chedom‐Fotso, D.; Chandra, G.; Samuels, T.; Greenaway, N.; Backhaus, A.; McMillan, V.; Canning, G.; Powers, S. J.; Hammond‐Kosack, K. E.; Hirsch, P. R.; Clark, I. M.; Mehrabi, Z.; Roworth, J.; Burnell, J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Manipulation of the soil microbiota associated with crop plants has huge promise for the control of crop pathogens. However, to fully realize this potential we need a better understanding of the relationship between the soil environment and the genes and phenotypes that enable microbes to colonize plants and contribute to biocontrol. A recent 2 years of investigation into the effect of wheat variety on second year crop yield in the context of take‐all fungal infection presented the opportunity to examine soil microbiomes under closely defined field conditions. Amplicon sequencing of second year soil samples showed that P seudomonas spp. were particularly affected by the wheat cultivar grown in year one. Consequently, 318 rhizosphere‐associated P seudomonas fluorescens strains were isolated and characterized across a variety of genetic and phenotypic traits. Again, the wheat variety grown in the first year of the study was shown to exert considerable selective pressure on both the extent and nature of P seudomonas genomic diversity. Furthermore, multiple significant correlations were identified within the phenotypic/genetic structure of the Pseudomonas population, and between individual genotypes and the external wheat field environment. The approach outlined here has considerable future potential for our understanding of plant–microbe interactions, and for the broader analysis of complex microbial communities. PMID:26337499

  14. Selenium-enriched durum wheat improves the nutritional profile of pasta without altering its organoleptic properties.

    PubMed

    De Vita, Pasquale; Platani, Cristiano; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; Colecchia, Salvatore Antonio; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Padalino, Lucia; Di Gennaro, Spartaco; Petrozza, Angelo

    2017-01-01

    Two field experiments were conducted over three growing seasons (2006-07, 2008-09 and 2009-10) to evaluate Se-enriched pasta through foliar fertilization at various rates and timing of application on 4 durum wheat varieties. Our findings confirm the effectiveness of foliar Se fertilization to increase Se concentrations in durum wheat grain, even at high Se rates (120gSeha(-1)). Se fortification was significant across different genotypes, with greater Se accumulation in landraces ('Timilia') and obsolete varieties ('Cappelli'), with respect to modern varieties. The Se content in the grain was increased by up to 35-fold that of the untreated control. The Se concentration decreased during milling (11%), while processing and cooking of pasta did not show significant decreases. This biofortification stategy had no effects on grain quality parameters, except for reduced gluten index in the high-gluten variety PR22D89, as well as for the sensorial properties of the spaghetti. PMID:27507488

  15. Functional characterization of GPC-1 genes in hexaploid wheat

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Stephen; Jun, Yan; Uauy, Cristobal; Tabbita, Facundo; Fahima, Tzion; Slade, Ann; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Distelfeld, Assaf

    2016-01-01

    In wheat, monocarpic senescence is a tightly regulated process during which nitrogen (N) and micronutrients stored pre-anthesis are remobilized from vegetative tissues to the developing grains. Recently, a close connection between senescence and remobilization was shown through the map-based cloning of the GPC (Grain Protein Content) gene in wheat. GPC-B1 encodes a NAC transcription factor associated with earlier senescence and increased grain protein, iron and zinc content, and is deleted or non-functional in most commercial wheat varieties. In the current research, we identified 'loss of function' ethyl methane sulphonate mutants for the two GPC-B1 homoeologous genes; GPC-A1 and GPC-D1, in a hexaploid wheat mutant population. The single gpc-a1 and gpc-d1 mutants, the double gpc-1 mutant and control lines were grown under field conditions at four locations and were characterized for senescence, GPC, micronutrients and yield parameters. Our results show a significant delay in senescence in both the gpc-a1 and gpc-d1 single mutants and an even stronger effect in the gpc-1 double mutant in all the environments tested in this study. The accumulation of total N in the developing grains showed a similar increase in the control and gpc-1 plants until 25 days after anthesis (DAA) but at 41 and 60 DAA the control plants had higher Grain N content than the gpc-1 mutants. At maturity, GPC in all mutants was significantly lower than in control plants while grain weight was unaffected. These results demonstrate that theGPC-A1 and GPC-D1 genes have a redundant function and play a major role in the regulation of monocarpic senescence and nutrient remobilization in wheat. PMID:24170335

  16. Developing and Evaluating a Multimodal Course Format: Danish for Knowledge Workers--Labour Market-Related Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederiksen, Karen-Margrete; Laursen, Katja Årosin

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents our reflections on developing the Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) course "Danish for knowledge workers--labour market-related Danish." As defined by Laursen and Frederiksen (2015), knowledge workers are "highly educated people who typically work at universities, at other institutions of higher…

  17. Ethanol production from mixtures of wheat straw and wheat meal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bioethanol can be produced from sugar-rich, starch-rich (first generation; 1G) or lignocellulosic (second generation; 2G) raw materials. Integration of 2G ethanol with 1G could facilitate the introduction of the 2G technology. The capital cost per ton of fuel produced would be diminished and better utilization of the biomass can be achieved. It would, furthermore, decrease the energy demand of 2G ethanol production and also provide both 1G and 2G plants with heat and electricity. In the current study, steam-pretreated wheat straw (SPWS) was mixed with presaccharified wheat meal (PWM) and converted to ethanol in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Results Both the ethanol concentration and the ethanol yield increased with increasing amounts of PWM in mixtures with SPWS. The maximum ethanol yield (99% of the theoretical yield, based on the available C6 sugars) was obtained with a mixture of SPWS containing 2.5% water-insoluble solids (WIS) and PWM containing 2.5% WIS, resulting in an ethanol concentration of 56.5 g/L. This yield was higher than those obtained with SSF of either SPWS (68%) or PWM alone (91%). Conclusions Mixing wheat straw with wheat meal would be beneficial for both 1G and 2G ethanol production. However, increasing the proportion of WIS as wheat straw and the possibility of consuming the xylose fraction with a pentose-fermenting yeast should be further investigated. PMID:20598120

  18. Distribution of Wheat Germ Agglutinin in Young Wheat Plants 12

    PubMed Central

    Mishkind, Michael; Keegstra, Kenneth; Palevitz, Barry A.

    1980-01-01

    A liquid phase, competition-binding radioimmunoassay for wheat germ agglutinin, with a detection limit of 10 nanograms, was developed in order to determine the distribution of this lectin in young wheat plants. Affinity columns for wheat germ agglutinin removed all antigenically detectable activity from crude extracts of wheat tissue; thus, the antigenic cross-reactivity detected by the assay possesses sugar-binding specificity similar to the wheat germ-derived lectin. The amount of lectin per dry grain is approximately 1 microgram, all associated with the embryo. At 34 days of growth, the level of lectin per plant was reduced by about 50%, with approximately one-third in the roots and two-thirds in the shoot. The data also indicate that actively growing regions of the plant (the bases of the leaves and rapidly growing adventitious roots) contain the highest levels of lectin. Half of the lectin associated with the roots could be solubilized by washing intact roots in buffer containing oligomers of N-acetylglucosamine, whereas the remainder is liberated only upon homogenization of the tissue. Images PMID:16661559

  19. Evaluation of Pakistan wheat germplasms for stripe rust resistance using molecular markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat production in Pakistan is seriously constrained due to rust diseases. Stripe (yellow) rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici is one of these diseases that can limit yields in the area. Thus developing and cultivating genetically diverse and resistant varieties is the only sustaina...

  20. Quantitative trait loci for resistance to Fusarium head blight in a Chinese wheat landrace Haiyanzhong

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat causes not only significant reduction in grain yield and end-use quality, but also the contamination of the grain with mycotoxins that are detrimental to human and animal health after consumption of infected grain. Growing resistant varieties is an effective appro...

  1. Gene discovery and molecular pre-breeding for insect resistance in wheat and barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-breeding research has a significant role in linking between genetic resources and breeding as it shortens the time frame between genetic enhancement and the development of new, improved crop varieties. The Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia, is one of the most damaging insect pests of w...

  2. Molecular characterization of a new powdery mildew resistance gene Pm54 in soft red winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew has caused increasing damage to wheat production in the southeastern USA. To combat the disease, there is a continuing need to discover new genes or quantitative trait loci for mildew resistance and promptly adopt those loci in breeding programs. Pioneer® variety 26R61 (shortened as 2...

  3. Fine mapping of the Lr46/Yr29 locus in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rust diseases, including leaf rust (Puccinia triticina), stripe rust (P. striiformis f. sp. tritici), and stem rust (P. graminis f. sp. tritici) are globally the most important diseases of wheat. Genetic resistance is the best form of control but frequent race changes typically render new varieties ...

  4. REGISTRATION OF W4909 AND W4910 BREAD WHEAT GERMPLASM LINES WITH HIGH SALINITY TOLERANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although variation in salt tolerance was observed among bread and durum wheat varieties, none of these cultivated crops were as tolerant as some wild annual and perennial Triticeae species. The most salt tolerant are species belonging to the genus Thinopyrum. Some of these species have been crossed...

  5. Measurement of blend concentrations of conventional and waxy hard wheats using NIR spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding development of waxy hard wheat lines adapted to the North American climate has been underway for more than a decade, with releases of viable varieties imminent. Because of an anticipated premium value placed on waxy lots, a rapid and accurate method is desired to identify and quantify the m...

  6. Measurement of trichothecene mycotoxins in wheat using a biolayer interferometry-based biosensor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi. The fungi can infest a variety of important agricultural commodities including wheat, barley, maize, peanuts, and tree nuts. Certain of the mycotoxins are potential threats to animal and human health and, for this reason, extensive monitoring i...

  7. The Use of Image-Spectroscopy Technology as a Diagnostic Method for Seed Health Testing and Variety Identification.

    PubMed

    Vrešak, Martina; Olesen, Merete Halkjaer; Gislum, René; Bavec, Franc; Ravn Jørgensen, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Application of rapid and time-efficient health diagnostic and identification technology in the seed industry chain could accelerate required analysis, characteristic description and also ultimately availability of new desired varieties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of multispectral imaging and single kernel near-infrared spectroscopy (SKNIR) for determination of seed health and variety separation of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and winter triticale (Triticosecale Wittm. & Camus). The analysis, carried out in autumn 2013 at AU-Flakkebjerg, Denmark, included nine winter triticale varieties and 27 wheat varieties provided by the Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences Maribor, Slovenia. Fusarium sp. and black point disease-infected parts of the seed surface could successfully be distinguished from uninfected parts with use of a multispectral imaging device (405-970 nm wavelengths). SKNIR was applied in this research to differentiate all 36 involved varieties based on spectral differences due to variation in the chemical composition. The study produced an interesting result of successful distinguishing between the infected and uninfected parts of the seed surface. Furthermore, the study was able to distinguish between varieties. Together these components could be used in further studies for the development of a sorting model by combining data from multispectral imaging and SKNIR for identifying disease(s) and varieties. PMID:27010656

  8. The Use of Image-Spectroscopy Technology as a Diagnostic Method for Seed Health Testing and Variety Identification

    PubMed Central

    Vrešak, Martina; Halkjaer Olesen, Merete; Gislum, René; Bavec, Franc; Ravn Jørgensen, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Application of rapid and time-efficient health diagnostic and identification technology in the seed industry chain could accelerate required analysis, characteristic description and also ultimately availability of new desired varieties. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of multispectral imaging and single kernel near-infrared spectroscopy (SKNIR) for determination of seed health and variety separation of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and winter triticale (Triticosecale Wittm. & Camus). The analysis, carried out in autumn 2013 at AU-Flakkebjerg, Denmark, included nine winter triticale varieties and 27 wheat varieties provided by the Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences Maribor, Slovenia. Fusarium sp. and black point disease-infected parts of the seed surface could successfully be distinguished from uninfected parts with use of a multispectral imaging device (405–970 nm wavelengths). SKNIR was applied in this research to differentiate all 36 involved varieties based on spectral differences due to variation in the chemical composition. The study produced an interesting result of successful distinguishing between the infected and uninfected parts of the seed surface. Furthermore, the study was able to distinguish between varieties. Together these components could be used in further studies for the development of a sorting model by combining data from multispectral imaging and SKNIR for identifying disease(s) and varieties. PMID:27010656

  9. Danish Ophthalmology - from start to 1865.

    PubMed

    Norn, Mogens

    2016-03-01

    This short paper mentioned the medical treatment using the 'holy' springs, the first 'eye doctor' in Denmark, the first picture of spectacles which was found in Viborg Cathedral of the high priest before he performs circumcisio praeputii on Jesus Christ, further cataract reclination in Denmark from around year zero and cataract extraction in 1667 in Denmark on a goose by Francisco Borri and on humans by the Danish Georg Heuermann in 1755. Epidemic military eye diseases in 1807, 1856 and 1865 are also described in this study. From 1856, a new ophthalmological period started in Denmark with the first eye hospital (lazaret only for eye diseases), and in 1864, patients with eye diseases were transported from the few beds in the surgical departments in the municipal hospital to the first civil eye department in Denmark, the eye hospital Sct. Annae in Copenhagen. The new scientific period started with Jacob Christian Bentz (ophthalmia granulosa, joint editor of the Danish Medical Journal) and Heinrich Lehmann. PMID:26899921

  10. Danish experiences on EIA of livestock projects

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, Per . E-mail: pc@plan.aau.dk

    2006-07-15

    Since its introduction into Danish planning in 1989, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has been widely discussed. At the centre of the debate has been the question of whether EIA actually offered anything new and there has been a great deal of scepticism about the efficacy of the instrument, especially when it comes to livestock projects. In an evaluation of the Danish EIA experience, we have looked more closely at how the EIA instruments function regarding livestock projects. This article addresses both the EIA process as well as the EIA screening. It is demonstrated that the EIA screening in its own right is a kind of regulatory instrument. Examining the assessments made during screening more closely, we conclude that there is still some way to go in order to make the assessment broader and more holistic in accordance with the ambitions set out in the EIA directive to contribute to a more sustainable development. Although the provisions laid down are the same the praxis related to the field has developed at a considerable speed. In order to understand this development we have closely examined how the decisions made by the Nature Protection Board of Appeal (NPBA) have been changed and conclude that these changes definitely address some of the shortcomings found in the evaluation.

  11. The physician's civil liability under Danish law.

    PubMed

    Fenger, N; Broberg, M

    1991-01-01

    The physician's liability in Danish law is based on negligence, which is assessed by the courts largely on the basis of expert opinions. Such opinions are provided primarily by the Medico-Legal Council rather than by experts selected by the parties. The evaluation of negligence is based on a "reasonable man" standard and the performance expected of a competent colleague; a hospital will be responsible for the negligence of its employees. The burden of proof generally lies with the plaintiff; negligence will not be presumed and the assessment of the evidence of negligence will be adapted to the individual situation, e.g. factors such as the degree of specialization involved, the time which the physician had at his disposal to make his decision and the resources available to him will be taken into consideration. The courts have shown themselves willing to allow for the fact that doctors differ, i.e. recognizing that there must be scope for reasonable discretion. Because the culpa principle is central, the standard applied to medical knowledge will be that which pertained at the time of the treatment. Where a non-specialist is confronted with a problem which may go beyond the knowledge of his limits and experience, he is under an obligation to refer the patient. The principle of informed consent to treatment is accepted in Danish law, but such consent will readily be considered to have been given tacitly. PMID:23511859

  12. Thyroid function in Danish greenhouse workers

    PubMed Central

    Toft, Gunnar; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2006-01-01

    Background From animal studies it is known that currently used pesticides can disturb thyroid function. Methods In the present study we investigated the thyroid function in 122 Danish greenhouse workers, to evaluate if greenhouse workers classified as highly exposed to pesticides experiences altered thyroid levels compared to greenhouse workers with lower exposure. Serum samples from the greenhouse workers were sampled both in the spring and the fall to evaluate if differences in pesticide use between seasons resulted in altered thyroid hormone levels. Results We found a moderate reduction of free thyroxine (FT4) (10–16%) among the persons working in greenhouses with a high spraying load both in samples collected in the spring and the fall, but none of the other measured thyroid hormones differed significantly between exposure groups in the cross-sectional comparisons. However, in longitudinal analysis of the individual thyroid hormone level between the spring and the fall, more pronounced differences where found with on average 32% higher thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level in the spring compared to the fall and at the same time a 5–9% lower total triiodthyroxin (TT3), free triiodthyroxine (FT3) and FT4. The difference between seasons was not consistently more pronounced in the group classified as high exposure compared to the low exposure groups. Conclusion The present study indicates that pesticide exposure among Danish greenhouse workers results in only minor disturbances of thyroid hormone levels. PMID:17147831

  13. Registration of 'UI Stone' spring wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soft white spring wheat (Triticum aestivumL.) is an important wheat class being used in domestic and international markets, especially in Idaho and Pacific Northwest (PNW). The objective of this study was to develop a SWS wheat cultivar with high grain yield, desirable end-use quality, and resistanc...

  14. Registration of ‘Babe’ wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soft white wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the predominant market class of wheat produced in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend f. sp. tritici) is a major foliar fungal disease problem for wheat cultivars grown in the region. The objective...

  15. Growing Wheat. People on the Farm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes the daily life of the Don Riffel family, wheat farmers in Kansas. Beginning with early morning, the booklet traces the family's activities through a typical harvesting day in July, while explaining how a wheat farm is run. The booklet also briefly describes the wheat growing…

  16. The value of wheat landraces (Editorial)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whether man was domesticated by wheat, or wheat was domesticated by man is but two faces of the same coin; both incidents marked a turning point in human history and led to the emergence of human civilization in the Fertile Crescent of the Old World. The complex history of wheat domestication from i...

  17. TaER Expression Is Associated with Transpiration Efficiency Traits and Yield in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jiacheng; Yang, Zhiyuan; Madgwick, Pippa J.; Carmo-Silva, Elizabete; Parry, Martin A. J.; Hu, Yin-Gang

    2015-01-01

    ERECTA encodes a receptor-like kinase and is proposed as a candidate for determining transpiration efficiency of plants. Two genes homologous to ERECTA in Arabidopsis were identified on chromosomes 6 (TaER2) and 7 (TaER1) of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), with copies of each gene on the A, B and D genomes of wheat. Similar expression patterns were observed for TaER1 and TaER2 with relatively higher expression of TaER1 in flag leaves of wheat at heading (Z55) and grain-filling (Z73) stages. Significant variations were found in the expression levels of both TaER1 and TaER2 in the flag leaves at both growth stages among 48 diverse bread wheat varieties. Based on the expression of TaER1 and TaER2, the 48 wheat varieties could be classified into three groups having high (5 varieties), medium (27 varieties) and low (16 varieties) levels of TaER expression. Significant differences were also observed between the three groups varying for TaER expression for several transpiration efficiency (TE)- related traits, including stomatal density (SD), transpiration rate, photosynthetic rate (A), instant water use efficiency (WUEi) and carbon isotope discrimination (CID), and yield traits of biomass production plant-1 (BYPP) and grain yield plant-1 (GYPP). Correlation analysis revealed that the expression of TaER1 and TaER2 at the two growth stages was significantly and negatively associated with SD (P<0.01), transpiration rate (P<0.05) and CID (P<0.01), while significantly and positively correlated with flag leaf area (FLA, P<0.01), A (P<0.05), WUEi (P<0.05), BYPP (P<0.01) and GYPP (P<0.01), with stronger correlations for TaER1 than TaER2 and at grain-filling stage than at heading stage. These combined results suggested that TaER involved in development of transpiration efficiency -related traits and yield in bread wheat, implying a function for TaER in regulating leaf development of bread wheat and contributing to expression of these traits. Moreover, the results indicate

  18. Floral Transformation of Wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Sujata; Loar, Star; Steber, Camille; Zale, Janice

    A method is described for the floral transformation of wheat using a protocol similar to the floral dip of Arabidopsis. This method does not employ tissue culture of dissected embryos, but instead pre-anthesis spikes with clipped florets at the early, mid to late uninucleate microspore stage are dipped in Agrobacterium infiltration media harboring a vector carrying anthocyanin reporters and the NPTII selectable marker. T1 seeds are examined for color changes induced in the embryo by the anthocyanin reporters. Putatively transformed seeds are germinated and the seedlings are screened for the presence of the NPTII gene based on resistance to paromomycin spray and assayed with NPTII ELISAs. Genomic DNA of putative transformants is digested and analyzed on Southern blots for copy number to determine whether the T-DNA has integrated into the nucleus and to show the number of insertions. The non-optimized transformation efficiencies range from 0.3 to 0.6% (number of transformants/number of florets dipped) but the efficiencies are higher in terms of the number of transformants produced/number of seeds set ranging from 0.9 to 10%. Research is underway to maximize seed set and optimize the protocol by testing different Agrobacterium strains, visual reporters, vectors, and surfactants.

  19. High-density SNP genotyping array for hexaploid wheat and its secondary and tertiary gene pool.

    PubMed

    Winfield, Mark O; Allen, Alexandra M; Burridge, Amanda J; Barker, Gary L A; Benbow, Harriet R; Wilkinson, Paul A; Coghill, Jane; Waterfall, Christy; Davassi, Alessandro; Scopes, Geoff; Pirani, Ali; Webster, Teresa; Brew, Fiona; Bloor, Claire; King, Julie; West, Claire; Griffiths, Simon; King, Ian; Bentley, Alison R; Edwards, Keith J

    2016-05-01

    In wheat, a lack of genetic diversity between breeding lines has been recognized as a significant block to future yield increases. Species belonging to bread wheat's secondary and tertiary gene pools harbour a much greater level of genetic variability, and are an important source of genes to broaden its genetic base. Introgression of novel genes from progenitors and related species has been widely employed to improve the agronomic characteristics of hexaploid wheat, but this approach has been hampered by a lack of markers that can be used to track introduced chromosome segments. Here, we describe the identification of a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms that can be used to genotype hexaploid wheat and to identify and track introgressions from a variety of sources. We have validated these markers using an ultra-high-density Axiom(®) genotyping array to characterize a range of diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheat accessions and wheat relatives. To facilitate the use of these, both the markers and the associated sequence and genotype information have been made available through an interactive web site. PMID:26466852

  20. Cultivar preferences of ovipositing wheat stem sawflies as influenced by the amount of volatile attractant.

    PubMed

    Weaver, David K; Buteler, Micaela; Hofland, Megan L; Runyon, Justin B; Nansen, Christian; Talbert, Luther E; Lamb, Peggy; Carlson, Gregg R

    2009-06-01

    The wheat stem sawfly, Cephus cinctus Norton, causes severe losses in wheat grown in the northern Great Plains. Much of the affected area is planted in monoculture with wheat, Triticum aestivum L., grown in large fields alternating yearly between crop and no-till fallow. The crop and fallow fields are adjacent. This cropping landscape creates pronounced edge effects of sawfly infestations and may be amenable to trap cropping using existing agricultural practices. The behavioral preference for two wheat varieties was assessed in the context of developing trap crops for this insect. In field nurseries, stem lodging assessments indicated that the cultivar 'Conan' was infrequently damaged, whereas 'Reeder' was often heavily damaged. In laboratory choice and no-choice tests, 'Reeder' was significantly preferred by ovipositing wheat stem sawfly females. These two cultivars did not differ significantly in height or developmental stage, factors known to impact sawfly preference. Although Conan received fewer eggs than Reeder in no-choice tests, oviposition was further reduced in choice tests, indicating that females clearly preferred Reeder. In field trials where the overall dimensions of the spatial structure in choice tests was varied, females always selected Reeder over Conan in alternating block, row, and interseeded planting scenarios. Reeder releases greater amounts of the attractive compound, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate than Conan but is similar to Conan for three other known, behaviorally active volatile compounds. The results are discussed in terms of cultivar selection for large scale trap crop experiments for the wheat stem sawfly. PMID:19610414

  1. Chemical composition, functional and sensory characteristics of wheat-taro composite flours and biscuits.

    PubMed

    Himeda, Makhlouf; Njintang Yanou, Nicolas; Fombang, Edith; Facho, Balaam; Kitissou, Pierre; Mbofung, Carl M F; Scher, Joel

    2014-09-01

    The physicochemical, alveographic and sensory characteristics of precooked taro-wheat composite flours and their biscuits were investigated. A 2x7 factorial design consisting of two varieties of taro flour (Red Ibo Ngaoundere, RIN, and egg-like varieties) and 7 levels of wheat substitutions (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 %) was used for this purpose. It was observed that water absorption capacity (range 95-152 g/100 g), water solubility index (range 18.8-29.5 g/100 g) and swelling capacity (range 125.4-204.6 mL/100 g) of composite flours significantly (p < 0.05) increased with increase in taro level. Conversely the dough elasticity index (range 59.8-0 %), extensibility (78-22 mm) and strength (range 281-139 × 10(-4) joules) significantly (p < 0.05) diminished with increase in wheat substitution. Up to 10 % substitution with RIN taro flour and 15 % with egg-like taro flour, the composite taro-wheat dough exhibited elasticity indices acceptable for the production of baking products, whereas at all levels of taro substitution, the composite biscuits samples were either acceptable as or better (5-10 % substitution with RIN flour) than 100 % wheat biscuit. PMID:25190844

  2. Puroindoline allelic diversity in Indian wheat germplasm and identification of new allelic variants

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rohit; Arora, Shaweta; Singh, Kashmir; Garg, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Grain hardness is an important quality trait that influences product development in wheat. This trait is governed by variation in puroindoline proteins (PINA and PINB). Our study evaluated 551 Indian wheat germplasm lines for diversity in Pina and Pinb genes. Eighty-two lines were shortlisted for full length sequencing and grain hardness studies. Sequencing studies identified six unknown alleles: two for the Pina gene and four for the Pinb gene. Five of them were novel with non-synonymous changes in the corresponding amino acid sequences. Identified mutations in the deduced mature proteins and their pre- and pro-peptides influenced the hardness characteristics of the grain. We classified these 82 varieties into different hardness categories with reference to international and Indian systems of classification. The majority of Indian wheat varieties were categorized as hard. This study revealed that unexplored Indian wheat germplasm can be a good source of genetic variability for both Pina and Pinb genes, helping in marker-assisted breeding and in obtaining wheat with different textural properties. PMID:26366114

  3. 7 CFR 945.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED.... Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of Irish potatoes according to...

  4. 7 CFR 945.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED.... Varieties means and includes all classifications or subdivisions of Irish potatoes according to...

  5. Dietary Variety Impairs Habituation in Children

    PubMed Central

    Temple, Jennifer L.; Giacomelli, April M.; Roemmich, James N.; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The purpose of these studies was to test the hypothesis that dietary variety decreases the rate of habituation and increases energy intake in children. Design In Experiment 1, salivation in response to the same or a variety of food cues was measured followed by consumption of the study food(s). In Experiment 2, children responded in a computer task to earn points for the same or a variety of low or high energy density foods, which were then consumed. Main Outcome Measures Salivation, number of responses, and energy intake were measured. Results Participants in the same groups habituated faster than those in the variety groups (p < .05), and in Experiment 2, the effect of variety was independent of energy density. Participants in the variety groups also consumed more energy than those in the same groups in both experiments (p < .05). Conclusions Dietary variety disrupted habituation and increased energy intake in children. In addition, the response to dietary variety was independent of energy density, suggesting that increasing variety of low energy density foods may increase consumption. PMID:18248101

  6. Annoying Danish relatives: comprehension and production of relative clauses by Danish children with and without SLI.

    PubMed

    Jensen De López, Kristine; Sundahl Olsen, Lone; Chondrogianni, Vasiliki

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with SLI and to compare errors with those produced by TD children. Eighteen children with SLI, eighteen TD age-matched (AM) and nine TD language-matched (LM) Danish-speaking children participated in a comprehension and in a production task. All children performed better on the comprehension compared with the production task, as well as on SRCs compared to ORCs and produced various avoidance strategies. In the ORC context, children with SLI produced more reversal errors than the AM children, who opted for passive ORCs. These results are discussed within current theories of SLI and indicate a deficiency with the assignment of thematic roles rather than with the structural make-up of RCs. PMID:23200200

  7. Sensory characteristics and consumer liking of sausages with 10% fat and added rye or wheat bran

    PubMed Central

    Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Vuholm, Stine; Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Kristensen, Mette; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum; Raben, Anne; Kehlet, Ursula

    2014-01-01

    Improving the nutritional profile of sausages through the addition of dietary fiber might affect appetite, sensory characteristics, and liking differently depending on the fiber source. This study investigates the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of sausages with 10% (w/w) fat and added rye or wheat bran. Sensory descriptive attributes (odor, appearance, texture, and flavor) of rye bran sausage (RBS) and wheat bran sausage (WBS) were evaluated by a trained sensory panel (n = 9). A sausage with wheat flour (WFS) and two commercial 20% (20%S) and 10% (10%S) (w/w) fat sausages were also included. Liking was investigated in consumer tests with two Danish target groups (49 children aged between six and nine and 24 parents). RBS and WBS were similar with regard to their sensory descriptive attributes, but the structure of these sausages was coarser and the color was more brown than the other sausages. RBS was similar to the commercial 10%S with regard to several sensory attributes and liking, whereas WBS was the least juicy, had a higher intensity of cereal odor and flavor, and the lowest liking. PMID:25473511

  8. Adverse Effects of Wheat Gluten.

    PubMed

    Koning, Frits

    2015-01-01

    Man began to consume cereals approximately 10,000 years ago when hunter-gatherers settled in the fertile golden crescent in the Middle East. Gluten has been an integral part of the Western type of diet ever since, and wheat consumption is also common in the Middle East, parts of India and China as well as Australia and Africa. In fact, the food supply in the world heavily depends on the availability of cereal-based food products, with wheat being one of the largest crops in the world. Part of this is due to the unique properties of wheat gluten, which has a high nutritional value and is crucial for the preparation of high-quality dough. In the last 10 years, however, wheat and gluten have received much negative attention. Many believe that it is inherently bad for our health and try to avoid consumption of gluten-containing cereals; a gluten-low lifestyle so to speak. This is fueled by a series of popular publications like Wheat Belly; Lose the Wheat, Lose the Weight, and Find Your Path Back to Health. However, in reality, there is only one condition where gluten is definitively the culprit: celiac disease (CD), affecting approximately 1% of the population in the Western world. Here, I describe the complexity of the cereals from which gluten is derived, the special properties of gluten which make it so widely used in the food industry, the basis for its toxicity in CD patients and the potential for the development of safe gluten and alternatives to the gluten-free diet. PMID:26606684

  9. Origin and spread of wheat in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodson, John R.; Li, Xiaoqiang; Zhou, Xinying; Zhao, Keliang; Sun, Nan; Atahan, Pia

    2013-07-01

    Wheat was added as a new crop to the existing millet and rice based agricultural systems of China. Here we present 35 radiocarbon ages from wheat seeds collected from 18 sites between western (Xinjiang Province) and eastern (Henan Province) China. The earliest wheat ages cluster around 2100-1800 BCE in northern China's Hexi corridor of Gansu Province, where millet was already a well-established crop. Wheat first appears in Xinjiang and Henan about 300-400 years later, and perhaps a little earlier than this in Xinjiang, and we hypothesize that the likely route of wheat into China was via Russia through Gansu.

  10. Homoeologous copy-specific expression patterns of MADS-box genes for floral formation in allopolyploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Miku; Tanaka, Hiroko; Shitsukawa, Naoki; Kitagawa, Satoshi; Takumi, Shigeo; Murai, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The consensus model for floral organ formation in higher plants, the so-called ABCDE model, proposes that floral whorl-specific combinations of class A, B, C, D, and E genes specify floral organ identity. Class A, B, C, D and E genes encode MADS-box transcription factors; the single exception being the class A gene APETALA2. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a hexaploid species with a genome constitution AABBDD; the hexaploid originated from a cross between tetraploid T. turgidum (AABB) and diploid Aegilops tauschii (DD). Tetraploid wheat is thought to have originated from a cross between the diploid species T. urartu (AA) and Ae. speltoides (BB). Consequently, the hexaploid wheat genome contains triplicated homoeologous copies (homoeologs) of each gene derived from the different ancestral diploid species. In this study, we examined the expression patterns of homoeologs of class B, C and D MADS-box genes during floral development. For the class B gene wheat PISTILLATA2 (WPI2), the homoeologs from the A and D genomes were expressed, while expression of the B genome homoeolog was suppressed. For the class C gene wheat AGAMOUS1 (WAG1), the homoeologs on the A and B genomes were expressed, while expression of the D genome homoeolog was suppressed. For the class D gene wheat SEEDSTICK (WSTK), the B genome homoeolog was preferentially expressed. These differential patterns of homoeolog expression were consistently observed among different hexaploid wheat varieties and synthetic hexaploid wheat lines developed by artificial crosses between tetraploid wheat and Ae. tauschii. These results suggest that homoeolog-specific regulation of the floral MADS-box genes occurs in allopolyploid wheat. PMID:26616759

  11. Update on zebra chip variety screening trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable management of zebra chip (ZC) disease of potato requires the identification and development of tolerant or resistant potato varieties. For five years (2010-2014), over 280 potato varieties and advanced breeding lines were screened for ZC under controlled field cage conditions, by infecti...

  12. Innovativeness and Variety of Internet Shopping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Brian F.; Neuendorf, Kimberly A.; Valdiserri, Colin M.

    2003-01-01

    This survey of 208 Internet users examined the factors underlying Internet usage and shopping. Data were gathered on Information shopping (IS) innovativeness, overall IS frequency, visit variety, purchase variety, network prevalence, education, age, gender, employment, extensiveness of Internet use, and non-shopping Internet applications. (MES)

  13. 7 CFR 51.890 - One variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false One variety. 51.890 Section 51.890 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Table Grapes (European or Vinifera Type) 1 Definitions § 51.890 One variety....

  14. 7 CFR 201.10 - Variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.10 Variety. (a) The following kinds of agricultural seeds are generally... seed,” shall apply only to seed of the variety named, except for the labeling of hybrids as provided...

  15. Second Language Learners' Attitudes towards English Varieties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Weimin; Hu, Guiling

    2008-01-01

    This pilot project investigates second language (L2) learners' attitudes towards three varieties of English: American (AmE), British (BrE) and Australian (AuE). A 69-word passage spoken by a female speaker of each variety was used. Participants were 30 Chinese students pursuing Masters or Doctoral degrees in the United States, who listened to each…

  16. 7 CFR 201.10 - Variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.10 Variety. (a) The following kinds of agricultural seeds are generally... seed,” shall apply only to seed of the variety named, except for the labeling of hybrids as provided...

  17. 7 CFR 201.10 - Variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.10 Variety. (a) The following kinds of agricultural seeds are generally... seed,” shall apply only to seed of the variety named, except for the labeling of hybrids as provided...

  18. 21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the...)(3), and (g), except that: (1) Whole wheat flour or whole durum wheat flour or both are used as...

  19. 21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the...)(3), and (g), except that: (1) Whole wheat flour or whole durum wheat flour or both are used as...

  20. 21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the...)(3), and (g), except that: (1) Whole wheat flour or whole durum wheat flour or both are used as...

  1. 21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the...)(3), and (g), except that: (1) Whole wheat flour or whole durum wheat flour or both are used as...

  2. Wheat Rusts in the United States in 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2007 90% of wheat stem rust races were QFC and 10% were RCRS Both races are relatively avirulent to wheat cultiars grown in the U.S. Wheat stem rust occurred in scattered locations on research plots of susceptible wheat cultivars in 2007, and did not cause yield loss. Wheat leaf rust was widespr...

  3. Diseases Which Challenge Global Wheat Production - The Cereal Rusts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rusts of wheat are common and widespread diseases in the US and throughout the world. Wheat rusts have been important throughout the history of wheat cultivation and are currently important diseases that are responsible for regularly occurring yield losses in wheat. The wheat rust fungi are obli...

  4. Wheat genetics resource center: the first 25 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Wheat Genetics Resource Center, a pioneering center without walls, has served the wheat genetics community for 25 years. The Wheat Genetics Resource Center (WGRC) assembled a working collection of over 11,000 wild wheat relatives and cytogenetic stocks for conservation use in wheat genome analys...

  5. 21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are the...)(3), and (g), except that: (1) Whole wheat flour or whole durum wheat flour or both are used as...

  6. Is the Danish wind energy model replicable for other countries?

    SciTech Connect

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Lindboe, Hans H.; Odgaard, Ole

    2008-03-15

    Though aspects of the Danish wind energy model are unique, policymakers might do well to imitate such aspects as a strong political commitment, consistent policy mechanisms, and an incremental, ''hands-on'' approach to R and D. (author)

  7. Explicit Sex--Liberation or Exploitation: Danish "Permissiveness" Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachy, Victor

    1976-01-01

    Reviews various Danish legislative actions leading up to the lifting of the ban on pornography, and discusses possible consequences of such liberalization by analyzing police statistics from a five year period. (MH)

  8. The effects of short-term selenium stress on Polish and Finnish wheat seedlings-EPR, enzymatic and fluorescence studies.

    PubMed

    Łabanowska, Maria; Filek, Maria; Kościelniak, Janusz; Kurdziel, Magdalena; Kuliś, Ewa; Hartikainen, Helina

    2012-02-15

    Biochemical analyses of antioxidant content were compared with measurements of fluorescence and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to examine the alteration of radicals in wheat seedlings exposed to 2 days of selenium stress. Two genotypes of Polish and one of Finnish wheat, differing in their tolerance to long-term stress treatment, were cultured under hydroponic conditions to achieve the phase of 3-leave seedlings. Afterwards, selenium (sodium selenate, 100 μM concentration) was added to the media. After Se-treatment, all varieties showed an increase in carbohydrates (soluble and starch), ascorbate and glutathione content in comparison to non-stressed plants. These changes were more visible in Finnish wheat. On the basis of lipid peroxidation measurements, Finnish wheat was recognized as the genotype more sensitive to short-term Se-stress than the Polish varieties. The antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione reductase) increased in Polish genotypes, whereas they decreased in Finnish wheat plants cultured on Se media. The action of reactive oxygen species in short-term action of Se stress was confirmed by the reduction of PSII and PSI system activities (measured by fluorescence parameters and EPR, respectively). EPR studies showed changes in redox status (especially connected with Mn(II)/Mn(III), and semiquinone/quinone ratios) in wheat cell after Se treatment. The involvement of the carbohydrate molecules as electron traps in production of long-lived radicals is postulated. PMID:22153751

  9. Wheat signature modeling and analysis for improved training statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F. (Principal Investigator); Malila, W. A.; Cicone, R. C.; Gleason, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The spectral, spatial, and temporal characteristics of wheat and other signatures in LANDSAT multispectral scanner data were examined through empirical analysis and simulation. Irrigation patterns varied widely within Kansas; 88 percent of wheat acreage in Finney was irrigated and 24 percent in Morton, as opposed to less than 3 percent for western 2/3's of the State. The irrigation practice was definitely correlated with the observed spectral response; wheat variety differences produced observable spectral differences due to leaf coloration and different dates of maturation. Between-field differences were generally greater than within-field differences, and boundary pixels produced spectral features distinct from those within field centers. Multiclass boundary pixels contributed much of the observed bias in proportion estimates. The variability between signatures obtained by different draws of training data decreased as the sample size became larger; also, the resulting signatures became more robust and the particular decision threshold value became less important.

  10. Spontaneous and Divergent Hexaploid Triticales Derived from Common Wheat × Rye by Complete Elimination of D-Genome Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changyou; Ji, Wanquan

    2015-01-01

    Background Hexaploid triticale could be either synthesized by crossing tetraploid wheat with rye, or developed by crossing hexaploid wheat with a hexaploid triticale or an octoploid triticale. Methodology/Principal Findings Here two hexaploid triticales with great morphologic divergence derived from common wheat cultivar M8003 (Triticum aestivum L.) × Austrian rye (Secale cereale L.) were reported, exhibiting high resistance for powdery mildew and stripe rust and potential for wheat improvement. Sequential fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) karyotyping revealed that D-genome chromosomes were completely eliminated and the whole A-genome, B-genome and R-genome chromosomes were retained in both lines. Furthermore, plentiful alterations of wheat chromosomes including 5A and 7B were detected in both triticales and additionally altered 5B, 7A chromosome and restructured chromosome 2A was assayed in N9116H and N9116M, respectively, even after selfing for several decades. Besides, meiotic asynchrony was displayed and a variety of storage protein variations were assayed, especially in the HMW/LMW-GS region and secalins region in both triticales. Conclusion This study confirms that whole D-genome chromosomes could be preferentially eliminated in the hybrid of common wheat × rye, “genome shock” was accompanying the allopolyploidization of nascent triticales, and great morphologic divergence might result from the genetic variations. Moreover, new hexaploid triticale lines contributing potential resistance resources for wheat improvement were produced. PMID:25781330

  11. Introgression of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance from Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis Eig) into bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Millet, E; Manisterski, J; Ben-Yehuda, P; Distelfeld, A; Deek, J; Wan, A; Chen, X; Steffenson, B J

    2014-06-01

    Leaf rust and stripe rust are devastating wheat diseases, causing significant yield losses in many regions of the world. The use of resistant varieties is the most efficient way to protect wheat crops from these diseases. Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis or AES), which is a diploid wild relative of wheat, exhibits a high frequency of leaf and stripe rust resistance. We used the resistant AES accession TH548 and induced homoeologous recombination by the ph1b allele to obtain resistant wheat recombinant lines carrying AES chromosome segments in the genetic background of the spring wheat cultivar Galil. The gametocidal effect from AES was overcome by using an "anti-gametocidal" wheat mutant. These recombinant lines were found resistant to highly virulent races of the leaf and stripe rust pathogens in Israel and the United States. Molecular DArT analysis of the different recombinant lines revealed different lengths of AES segments on wheat chromosome 6B, which indicates the location of both resistance genes. PMID:25209724

  12. Registration of 'Red Ruby' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Red Ruby’ soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2007 via an exclusive licensing agreement through Michigan State University (MSU) Technologies. Red Ruby was selected from the cross Pioneer ‘2552’/Pioneer ‘2737W’ ma...

  13. Adapting wheat to uncertain future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, Mikhail; Stratonovitch, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    This study describes integration of climate change projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) multi-model ensemble with the LARS-WG weather generator, which delivers an attractive option for downscaling of large-scale climate projections from global climate models (GCMs) to local-scale climate scenarios for impact assessments. A subset of 18 GCMs from the CMIP5 ensemble and 2 RCPs, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, were integrated with LARS-WG. Climate sensitivity indexes for temperature and precipitation were computed for all GCMs and for 21 regions in the world. For computationally demanding impact assessments, where it is not practical to explore all possible combinations of GCM × RCP, climate sensitivity indexes could be used to select a subset of GCMs from CMIP5 with contrasting climate sensitivity. This would allow to quantify uncertainty in impacts resulting from the CMIP5 ensemble by conducting fewer simulation experiments. As an example, an in silico design of wheat ideotype optimised for future climate scenarios in Europe was described. Two contrasting GCMs were selected for the analysis, "hot" HadGEM2-ES and "cool" GISS-E2-R-CC, along with 2 RCPs. Despite large uncertainty in climate projections, several wheat traits were identified as beneficial for the high-yielding wheat ideotypes that could be used as targets for wheat improvement by breeders.

  14. Registration of TAM401 wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'TAM 401', a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivar (PI658500) with experimental designation TX03M1096, was developed and released by Texas AgriLife Research in 2008. TAM 401 is an F4 derived line from the cross 'Mason' (PI 594044)/'Jagger' (PI593688). TAM 401 is an early maturing apic...

  15. Registration of 'Clara CL' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Clara CL’ hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed at the Agricultural Research Center-Hays, Kansas State University and released by the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station in 2011. Clara CL carries one Clearfield gene and has the tolerance to imazamox herbicide. Clara CL wa...

  16. Registration of 'NE01643' Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NE01643 is a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar developed cooperatively by the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS and released in 2007 by the developing institutions and the South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station. NE01643 will be marketed under the na...

  17. Registration of Vision 30 Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Vision 30’ (Reg. No. CV-1062, PI 661153) hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and tested as VA06HRW-49 and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in March 2010. Vision 30 was derived from the cross 92PAN1#33/VA97W-414. Vision 30 is high yielding, awned,...

  18. Registration of Vision 45 Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Vision 45’ (Reg. No. CV-1110, PI 667642), is a hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar that was developed and tested as VA07HRW-45 and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in 2012. Vision 45 was derived from the cross ‘Provinciale’/‘Vision 10’ using a modifie...

  19. Flower volatiles, crop varieties and bee responses.

    PubMed

    Klatt, Björn K; Burmeister, Carina; Westphal, Catrin; Tscharntke, Teja; von Fragstein, Maximilian; von Fragstein, Maximillian

    2013-01-01

    Pollination contributes to an estimated one third of global food production, through both the improvement of the yield and the quality of crops. Volatile compounds emitted by crop flowers mediate plant-pollinator interactions, but differences between crop varieties are still little explored. We investigated whether the visitation of crop flowers is determined by variety-specific flower volatiles using strawberry varieties (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne) and how this affects the pollination services of the wild bee Osmia bicornis L. Flower volatile compounds of three strawberry varieties were measured via headspace collection. Gas chromatography showed that the three strawberry varieties produced the same volatile compounds but with quantitative differences of the total amount of volatiles and between distinct compounds. Electroantennographic recordings showed that inexperienced females of Osmia bicornis had higher antennal responses to all volatile compounds than to controls of air and paraffin oil, however responses differed between compounds. The variety Sonata was found to emit a total higher level of volatiles and also higher levels of most of the compounds that evoked antennal responses compared with the other varieties Honeoye and Darselect. Sonata also received more flower visits from Osmia bicornis females under field conditions, compared with Honeoye. Our results suggest that differences in the emission of flower volatile compounds among strawberry varieties mediate their attractiveness to females of Osmia bicornis. Since quality and quantity of marketable fruits depend on optimal pollination, a better understanding of the role of flower volatiles in crop production is required and should be considered more closely in crop-variety breeding. PMID:23977347

  20. Reinforcement Effect of Alkali-Hydrolyzed Wheat Gluten and Shear-Degraded Wheat Starch in Carboxylated Styrene-Butadiene Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat gluten (WG) and wheat starch (WS) are the protein and carbohydrate obtained from wheat flours. Wheat gluten is not water soluble or dispersible due to its hydrophobic nature. To prepare wheat gluten dispersions, an alkali hydrolysis reaction was carried out to produce a stable aqueous disper...

  1. Influence of clinorotation on the resistance to the viral disease of wheat plants of different geographical origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, L. T.; Chetirkin, P. V.; Mishchenko, I. A.

    In the development of controlled ecological systems of life supply for spacecrafts of great importance are the living plants particularly wheat. There exits a high probability of the appearance of viral disease during the space flight, whereas the virus may remain latent under terrestrial conditions. We investigated the varieties of wheat of different ecologo-geographic origin: Chaika and Sarativska-29 (steppe zone of Ukraine), Colectivna-3 (forest - steppe zone of Ukraine) and Apogee (bred in the USA for the needs of space research activities). The growth reactions of different varieties of plants were connected with variety specificities, presence and concentration of viral infection and clinostating. Spring wheat Sarativska-29 stored by 32 % more above - ground biomass and by 45% more of the roots in virus infected horizontally clinostated plants compared with stationary ones, both infected and healthy. In clinostated WSMV-infected wheat plants of Chaika variety there were increases in the concentrations of chlorophylls a and b and carotenoids compared with stationary plants. The clinostated Apogee variety plants proved the most responsive to viral infection. Indirect IFA detected the reduction of viral reproduction of the WSMV with prolonged clinostating. The reduction of viral reproduction in various varieties causes variety - specific physiologo-biochemical processes in ontogenesis. Photosynthetic pigment content in clinostated Apogee wheat increased on the 15th day after inoculation by 50 % and the content of carotenoids nearly twice compared with non infected clinostated plants. Clinostating of healthy plants decreased their concentrations of carotenoids and the sum of chlorophylls. The interaction of two factors: viral infection and clinostating alleviates the negative impact of each of them on the photosynthetic apparatus of wheat. WSMV - infected Apogee wheat plants displayed a specific response a reaction opposite to that of noninfected ones towards the

  2. Haritaki (Chebulic myrobalan) and its varieties

    PubMed Central

    Ratha, Kshirod Kumar; Joshi, Girish Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Haritaki (Terminalia chebula Retz., Family: Combretaceae) possesses a great therapeutic value and is widely distributed in India, up to an altitude of 1500 m. Though Terminalia chebula Retz is the only botanical source of Haritaki, the uses of its varieties along with their sources, identifying features and therapeutic uses are described in Ayurvedic classics and other medical literature. In the present study, a detailed review has been carried out on different varieties of Haritaki. PMID:24501534

  3. 75 FR 77612 - Plant Variety Protection Board; Reestablishment of the Plant Variety Protection Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service Plant Variety Protection Board; Reestablishment of the Plant Variety Protection Board AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In accordance with the... Zankowski, USDA, Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS), 10301 Baltimore Blvd., Room 401,...

  4. [Glycemic index of two varieties of pasta and two varieties of rice].

    PubMed

    Ridner, Edgardo; Di Sibio, Antonio

    2015-06-01

    The IG has been extensively studied as an indicator of the physiological effects of a carbohydrate meal with applications in the management and prevention of diabetes, dyslipidemia and obesity. A standard assay was performed to measure the glycemic index (GI) of two significant sources of carbohydrates following the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended methodology, determining the incremental area under the blood glucose response curve of a 50g carbohydrate portion of the test food compared to the same amount of carbohydrate from a glucose solution by the same subject measured in capillary whole blood before and 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after ingestion in a total of 9 subjects. The following results were obtained: Parboil rice: 73, Long Grain White Rice: 59; Pasta of durum wheat (Triticum durum): 71, Pasta of regular flour (Triticum aestivium): 38. This test confirms the low glycemic index of pasta made from durum wheat, and is the first measurement for pasta of common wheat flour properly characterized. It also indicates the values of the prevailing presentations of rice in the region, adding a reference for professionals and authorities. PMID:26817379

  5. Sonora exploratory study for the detection of wheat-leaf rust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The applicability of LANDSAT remote sensing technology to the detection of a wheat-leaf-rust epidemic in Sonora, Mexico, during 1977 was investigated. LANDSAT data acquired during crop years 1975-76 and 1976-77 were clustered, classified, and analyzed in order to detect agricultural changes. Analysis of 1977 data indicates a significant proportion of the identified wheat is stressed (potentially rust-infected). Additional analyses show a significant increase in fallowing during the year, as well as a substantial decrease in reservoir levels in the Sonora agricultural region. Ground observations are required to substantiate these analyses. The possibility exists that heat-rust is not LANDSAT detectable and that the clusters identified as containing stressed signatures represent different varieties of wheat or perhaps nonwheat crops.

  6. Study of wheat protein based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Peng

    Wheat gluten is a naturally occurring protein polymer. It is produced in abundance by the agricultural industry, is biodegradable and very inexpensive (less than $0.50/lb). It has unique viscoelastic properties, which makes it a promising alternative to synthetic plastics. The unplasticized wheat gluten is, however, brittle. Plasticizers such as glycerol are commonly used to give flexibility to the articles made of wheat gluten but with the penalty of greatly reduced stiffness. Former work showed that the brittleness of wheat gluten can also be improved by modifying it with a tri-thiol additive with no penalty of reduced stiffness. However, the cost of the customer designed tri-thiol additive was very high and it was unlikely to make a cost effective material from such an expensive additive. Here we designed a new, inexpensive thiol additive called SHPVA. It was synthesized from polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) through a simple esterification reaction. The mechanical data of the molded wheat gluten/SHPVA material indicated that wheat gluten was toughened by SHPVA. As a control, the wheat gluten/PVA material showed no improvement compared with wheat gluten itself. Several techniques have been used to characterize this novel protein/polymer blend. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) study showed two phases in both wheat gluten/PVA and wheat gluten/SHPVA material. However, scanning electron microscope (SEM) pictures indicated that PVA was macroscopically separated from wheat gluten, while wheat gluten/SHPVA had a homogeneous look. The phase image from the atomic force microscope (AFM) gave interesting contrast based on the difference in the mechanical properties of these two phases. The biodegradation behavior of these protein/polymer blends was examined in soil. SHPVA was not degraded in the time period of the experiment. Wheat gluten/SHPVA degraded slower than wheat gluten. We also developed some other interesting material systems based on wheat gluten, including the

  7. House dust in seven Danish offices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mølhave, L.; Schneider, T.; Kjærgaard, S. K.; Larsen, L.; Norn, S.; Jørgensen, O.

    Floor dust from Danish offices was collected and analyzed. The dust was to be used in an exposure experiment. The dust was analyzed to show the composition of the dust which can be a source of airborne dust indoors. About 11 kg of dust from vacuum cleaner bags from seven Danish office buildings with about 1047 occupants (12 751 m 2) was processed according to a standardized procedure yielding 5.5 kg of processed bulk dust. The bulk dust contained 130.000-160.000 CFU g -1 microorganisms and 71.000-90.000 CFU g -1 microfungi. The content of culturable microfungi was 65-123 CFU 30 g -1 dust. The content of endotoxins ranged from 5.06-7.24 EU g -1 (1.45 ng g -1 to 1.01 ng g -1). Allergens (ng g -1) were from 147-159 (Mite), 395-746 (dog) and 103-330 (cat). The macro molecular organic compounds (the MOD-content) varied from 7.8-9.8 mg g -1. The threshold of release of histamine from basophil leukocytes provoked by the bulk dust was between 0.3 and 1.0 mg ml -1. The water content was 2% (WGT) and the organic fraction 33%. 6.5-5.9% (dry) was water soluble. The fiber content was less than 0.2-1.5% (WGT) and the desorbable VOCs was 176-319 μg g -1. Most of the VOC were aldehydes. However, softeners for plastic (DBP and DEHP) were present. The chemical composition includes human and animal skin fragments, paper fibers, glass wool, wood and textilefibers and inorganic and metal particles. The sizes ranged from 0.001-1 mm and the average specific density was 1.0 g m -3. The bulk dust was resuspended and injected into an exposure chamber. The airborne dust was sampled and analyzed to illustrate the exposures that can result from sedimented dirt and dust. The airborne dust resulting from the bulk dust reached concentrations ranging from 0.26-0.75 mg m -3 in average contained 300-170 CFU m -3. The organic fraction was from 55-70% and the water content about 2.5% (WGT). The content of the dust was compared to the similar results reported in the literature and its toxic potency is

  8. Addition of nonstarch polysaccharides degrading enzymes to two hulless barley varieties fed in diets for weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Prandini, A; Sigolo, S; Morlacchini, M; Giuberti, G; Moschini, M; Rzepus, M; Della Casa, G

    2014-05-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of 2 hulless barley varieties, with or without the addition of a nonstarch polysaccharide (NSP) enzyme complex (β-glucanase and xylanase), on growth performance of weaned piglets in a 42-d feeding study. The study was conducted with 140 piglets (PIC × Duroc). Pigs were allocated to pens (4 castrated males or 4 females per pen) based on BW and sex, and pens were assigned to 5 experimental diets with 4 pens of castrated males and 3 pens of females per treatment. Five isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were compared: 1) control corn-based diet (CTR), 2) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the Astartis hulless barley variety (AS), 3) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the AS supplemented with the NSP enzyme complex (ASE), 4) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the Alamo hulless barley variety (AL), and 5) diet with corn and wheat bran replaced by the AL supplemented with the NSP enzyme complex (ALE). The diets were formulated to meet or exceed nutrient requirements and offered in 2 phases: d 0 to 14 and d 14 to 42. At the end of the study, pigs fed AS and AL had equal weights as pigs fed CTR. Pigs fed the hulless barley diets had greater (P < 0.05) ADG during the second phase (P2) and overall phase, BW at d 42, and G:F during the P2 than those fed the CTR. Pigs fed the ASE and ALE had greater (P < 0.05) ADFI during the P2 and overall ADG than those fed the AS and AL. The increases in ADG during the P2 and final BW obtained with NSP enzyme supplementation were greater in pigs fed the AS than those fed the AL (barley × enzyme, P < 0.05). On the other hand, the NSP enzyme complex increased G:F in pigs fed the AS during the P2 and overall phase, but it had no effect on those fed the AL (barley × enzyme, P < 0.05). In conclusion, hulless barley with or without the NSP enzyme complex can be a replacement ingredient for corn and wheat bran in weaned pig diets. Addition of the NSP enzyme complex to AS

  9. [Nixtamalization cooking characteristics of 11 maize varieties].

    PubMed

    Billeb de Sinibaldi, A C; Bressani, R

    2001-03-01

    In the present study, 11 maize varieties were analyzed for their nixtamalization cooking quality. The 11 varieties were grown in the same locality and in the same year. The samples were evaluated for their physical characteristics, such as moisture content averaging 13.3%, average 1000 kernel weight (312.5 g), grain hardness through density (1.28 g/ml) and percent floaters (9.5%). These data indicated that all maize varieties had a hard endosperm which is recommended for the nixtamalization cooking process. The 11 varieties were formed on the average by 5.7% seed coat, 11.5% germ and 82.8% endosperm. The low seed coat content suggest a low solids loss during processing. Cooking quality evaluation was done by applying a standard lime cooking procedure to all varieties. An average solid loss of 3.2% was measured, with 0.8% of seed coat still attached to the endosperm. Water absorption at the end of cooking was 40.8% without soaking and 46.9% at the end of soaking. Nixtamal moisture was 47.9% after soaking and only 41.5% at the end of cooking. Cooking time with soaking for 50% moisture in the grain varied from 69 to 122 minutes at 1500 meters over sea level. The cooked grain was dried with hot air and ground however, the particle size obtained was not as that in commercial nixtamalized maize flour. However, the cooking quality parameters to make dough and tortillas were acceptable, with a penetration index of hydrated flour of 178.6 mm, pH 7.97, water absorption index (WAI) of 3.23 g gel/g flour and 4.11% water solubility index (WSI). All flours from the 11 varieties of maize gave acceptable tortillas as evaluated by physical characteristics and sensory quality. However of the 11 varieties 7 including the control were superior for nixtamalization cooking quality. PMID:11515238

  10. The historical perspective of dryland agriculture: lessons learned from 10,000 years of wheat cultivation.

    PubMed

    Araus, J L; Ferrio, J P; Buxó, R; Voltas, J

    2007-01-01

    Wheat is one of the founder crops of Western agriculture. This study reconstructs agronomic conditions, potential yields, and kernel weight in the beginnings of cultivation of domesticated free-threshing wheat, c. 8000 BC. The carbon and nitrogen stable isotope compositions and the dimensions of fossil grains of naked wheat (Triticum aestivum/durum) were analysed. Samples were collected in Tell Halula and Akarçay Tepe, two Neolithic archaeological sites from the Middle Euphrates (the claimed core area for wheat domestication). The samples analysed include the oldest reported remains of naked wheat. Consistently wetter conditions but lower kernel weights were found in the Neolithic compared with the present day. Besides, the estimated yields were clearly beyond what is expected from the gathering of wild stands of cereals. Patterns of phenotypic adaptation achieved by wheat after its diffusion through the Mediterranean were also assessed. On the one hand, the study looked at variation in morphophysiological traits as related to local climate in a set of 68 durum wheat landraces from the Middle Euphrates. On the other hand, an assessment was made of regional adaptation around the Mediterranean Basin in a set of 90 landraces, traditional varieties, and modern cultivars from different origins by characterizing agronomic and morphophysiological variability. Significant relationships were observed between phenotypic variation among landraces from the Middle Euphrates and both minimum temperatures and the ratio of precipitation to potential evapotranspiration of the sites of origin. In addition, consistent differences in grain yield, plant structure, and water status were found among genotypes following both north-south and east-west gradients across the Mediterranean. These differences are associated with contrasting environmental and selection pressures. PMID:17050642

  11. Safeguarding world wheat and barley production against Russian wheat aphid: An international pre-breeding initiative

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia, is one of the most damaging insect pests of wheat and barley throughout the World. This aphid, although is not yet present in Australia, is extremely damaging with up to 70% yield loses in wheat and barley producing lands, causing significant financia...

  12. Relationship between Russian wheat aphid abundance and edaphic and topographic characteristics of wheat fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study explores the spatial relationship between Russian wheat aphid population density and variation in edaphic or topographic factors within wheat fields. Multiple regression analysis was applied to data collected from six wheat fields located in three States, Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska....

  13. Binary mixtures of waxy wheat and conventional wheat as measured by nir reflectance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Waxy wheat contains very low concentration (generally <2%) of amylose in endosperm starch, in contrast to conventional wheat whose starch is typically 20% amylose, with the balance being the branched macromolecule, amylopectin. With the release of a commercial hard winter waxy wheat cultivar in the ...

  14. Differentiating stress induced by greenbugs and Russian wheat aphids in wheat using remote sensing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Outbreaks of Greenbug (Schizaphis graminum Rondani) and Russian wheat aphid appear in the Great Plains almost every year and have had significant economic impacts on wheat yields. Early detection of aphid infestation is a critical part of integrated pest management (IPM) for wheat and sorghum produ...

  15. Chromatin Structure of Wheat Breeding Lines Resistant to Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV) is an important disease limiting wheat production, however no WSMV resistance effective above 18°C is present within the primary genetic pool of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In contrast, the wild relative Thinopyrum intermedium (2n=6x=42) shows good resistance to WS...

  16. Physiological responses of hard red winter wheat to infection by wheat streak mosaic virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) causes significant yield loss in hard red winter wheat in the U.S. Southern High Plains. Despite the prevalence of this pathogen, little is known about the physiological response of wheat to WSMV infection. A 2-year study was initiated to (i) investigate the effect o...

  17. Evaluation and reselection of wheat resistance to Russian wheat aphid biotype 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia, Mordvilko) biotype 2 (RWA2) is virulent to most known RWA resistance genes and severely threatens wheat production in the hard winter wheat area of the US western Great Plains. We determined RWA2 reactions of 386 cultivars from China, 227 advanced breeding...

  18. Resistance among U.S. wheat Triticum aestivum cultivars to the wheat pathotype of Magnaporthe oryzae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Magnaporthe oryzae is the causal agent of blast on several graminaceous plants. The M. oryzae population causing wheat blast has not been found outside South America. U.S. wheat production is at risk to this pathogen if introduced and established. Proactive testing of US wheat cultivars for their re...

  19. Effects of Processing on Wheat Tortilla Quality: Benefits of Hard White Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The suitability of Kansas hard white winter (HWW) wheat milled at a high extraction rate for tortilla production was investigated. Tortillas were made from eight wheat cultivars milled at 80% extraction: four HWW wheat cultivars included Betty, Heyne, Oro Blanco and NuWest; three hard red winter (H...

  20. Modification of Extensigraph Dough Preparation Method Developed for Wheat Breeding Lines and Commercial Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dough rheological characteristics - resistance to extension and extensibility, are very important wheat flour quality traits for the milling and baking industries, and for new wheat varietal selection in wheat breeding programs. Current available techniques or test methods, such as the AACCI extens...

  1. Association Analysis of Soft Wheat Quality Traits in Eastern US Soft Winter Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soft wheat quality is highly heritable, is controlled by multiple loci, and has been mapped in a number of bi-parental crosses. We extended the mapping information on soft wheat quality by using association analysis between genetic markers and quality phenotyping in 192 soft winter wheat cultivars ...

  2. Grain and vegetative biomass reduction by the Russian wheat aphid in winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), is a severe pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), other small grains, and grasses. Although the Russian wheat aphid is a significant pest of small grains, its feeding effects on grain yield and vegetative biomass in ...

  3. Detection of greenbug infestation on wheat using ground-based radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhiming

    Scope of methods of study. The purpose of this greenhouse study was to characterize stress in wheat caused by greenbugs using ground-based radiometry. Experiments were conducted to (a) identify spectral bands and vegetation indices sensitive to greenbug infestation; (b) differentiate stress caused due to greenbugs from water stress; (c) examine the impacts of plant growth stage on detection of greenbug infestation; and (d) compare infestations due to greenbug and Russian wheat aphid. Wheat (variety-TAM 107) was planted (seed spacing 1 in. x 3 in.) in plastic flats with dimension 24 in. x 16 in. x 8.75 in. Fifteen days after sowing, wheat seedlings were infested with greenbugs (biotype-E). Nadir measurement of canopy reflectance started the day after infestation and lasted until most infested plants were dead. Using a 16-band Cropscan radiometer, spectral reflectance data were collected daily (between 13:00--14:00 hours) and 128 vegetation indices were derived in addition to greenbug counts per tiller. Using SAS PROC MIXED, sensitivity of band and vegetation indices was identified based on Threshold Day. Subsequent to Threshold Day there was a consistent significant spectral difference between control and infested plants. Sensitivity of band and vegetation indices was further examined using correlation and relative sensitivity analyses. Findings and conclusions. Results show that it is possible to detect greenbug-induced stress on wheat using hand-held radiometers, such as Cropscan. Band 694 nm and the ratio-based vegetation index (RVI) derived from the band 694 nm and 800 nm were identified as most sensitive to greenbug infestation. Landsat TM bands and their derived vegetation indices also show potential for detecting wheat stress caused by greenbug infestation. Also, RVIs particularly derived using spectral band 694 nm and 800 nm were found useful in differentiating greenbug infestation from water stress. Furthermore, vegetation indices such as Normalized total

  4. Evaluation of Pakistan wheat germplasms for stripe rust resistance using molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Sobia, Tabassum; Muhammad, Ashraf; Chen, XianMing

    2010-09-01

    Wheat production in Pakistan is seriously constrained due to rust diseases and stripe rust (yellow) caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, which could limit yields. Thus development and cultivation of genetically diverse and resistant varieties is the most sustainable solution to overcome these diseases. The first objective of the present study was to evaluate 100 Pakistan wheat cultivars that have been grown over the past 60 years. These cultivars were inoculated at the seedling stage with two virulent stripe rust isolates from the United States and two from Pakistan. None of the wheat cultivars were resistant to all tested stripe rust isolates, and 16% of cultivars were susceptible to the four isolates at the seedling stage. The data indicated that none of the Pakistan wheat cultivars contained either Yr5 or Yr15 genes that were considered to be effective against most P. striiformis f. sp. tritici isolates from around the world. Several Pakistan wheat cultivars may have gene Yr10, which is effective against isolate PST-127 but ineffective against PST-116. It is also possible that these cultivars may have other previously unidentified genes or gene combinations. The second objective was to evaluate the 100 Pakistan wheat cultivars for stripe rust resistance during natural epidemics in Pakistan and Washington State, USA. It was found that a higher frequency of resistance was present under field conditions compared with greenhouse conditions. Thirty genotypes (30% of germplasms) were found to have a potentially high temperature adult plant (HTAP) resistance. The third objective was to determine the genetic diversity in Pakistan wheat germplasms using molecular markers. This study was based on DNA fingerprinting using resistance gene analog polymorphism (RGAP) marker analysis. The highest polymorphism detected with RGAP primer pairs was 40%, 50% and 57% with a mean polymorphism of 36%. A total of 22 RGAP markers were obtained in this study. RGAP, simple

  5. LACIE: Wheat yield models for the USSR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakamoto, C. M.; Leduc, S. K.

    1977-01-01

    A quantitative model determining the relationship between weather conditions and wheat yield in the U.S.S.R. was studied to provide early reliable forecasts on the size of the U.S.S.R. wheat harvest. Separate models are developed for spring wheat and for winter. Differences in yield potential and responses to stress conditions and cultural improvements necessitate models for each class.

  6. [Studies of the relationship between the breeding efficiency of anther culture and the use of different hybrid generations as anther-donor plants in wheat].

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng-She; Li, Jing-Qi; Zou, Shu-Fang; Yan, Wen-Xian; Yang, Jin-Rong; Liu, Jun; Huang, Xiao-Gang

    2002-10-01

    The wheat haploid plantlets from anther culture were of theoretical and applied interest. Induced haploid spirophytes may play a key role, not only in increasing the efficiency of breeding programs by producing pure lines rapidly, but also in the elucidation of fundamental genetics. However large number of experiments turned out that there are many problems with low rate of green plantlet from anther culture, difficulties of saving plantlets though summer, low rate of double chromosome, extrusive contradiction between technique of wheat anther culture and variety improvement. So wheat anther culture has not played a role in wheat breeding. Studies were carried out on the relationship between the breeding efficiency of anther culture and the use of different hybrid generations as anther-donor plants in wheat. It was shown that previously the low breeding efficiency of anther culture in wheat cross breeding was mainly due to the use of F1 as anther donors. Experimental results demonstrated that the breeding efficiency of anther culture in F1 generation was very low, especially when the doubled haploid population was very small. Based on the experimental results as well as the theoretical analysis this paper proposes that the use of F2 or F3 (especially F3) as anther donors in combination with the conventional selection in the fields will increase the breeding efficiency of anther culture. Under the guidance of this proposal two wheat varieties have been developed within 5-7 years through anther culture. PMID:12561475

  7. Anatomy and Cytogenetic Identification of a Wheat-Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng Line with Early Maturation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liangming; Liu, Yang; Du, Wanli; Jing, Fan; Wang, Zhonghua; Wu, Jun; Chen, Xinhong

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies, our research team successfully transferred the Ns genome from Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng into Triticum aestivum (common wheat cv. 7182) using embryo culture. In the present study, one of these lines, i.e., hybrid progeny 25-10-3, which matured about 10-14 days earlier than its wheat parent, was assessed using sequenced characterized amplified region (SCAR) analysis, EST-SSR and EST-STS molecular markers, and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). We found that this was a stable wheat-P. huashanica disomic addition line (2n = 44 = 22 II) and the results demonstrated that it was a 6Ns disomic chromosome addition line, but it exhibited many different features compared with previously characterized lines, i.e., a longer awn, early maturation, and no twin spikelets. It was considered to be an early-maturing variety based on the early stage of inflorescence initiation in field experiments and binocular microscope observations over three consecutive years. This characteristic was distinct, especially from the single ridge stage and double ridge stage until the glume stage. In addition, it had a higher photosynthesis rate and economic values than common wheat cv. 7182, i.e., more spikelets per spike, more florets per spikelet, more kernels per spike, and a higher thousand-grain weight. These results suggest that this material may comprise a genetic pool of beneficial genes or chromosome segments, which are suitable for introgression to improve the quality of common wheat. PMID:26461884

  8. Early prediction of wheat quality: analysis during grain development using mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghirardo, Andrea; Sørensen, Helle Aagaard; Petersen, Marianne; Jacobsen, Susanne; Søndergaard, Ib

    2005-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry and multivariate data analysis have been used for the determination of wheat quality at different stages of grain development. Wheat varieties with one of two different end-use qualities (i.e. suitable or not suitable for bread-making purposes) were investigated. The samples were collected from grains from 15 until 45 days post-anthesis (dpa). Gluten proteins from wheat grains were extracted and subsequently analysed by mass spectrometry. Discrimination partial least-squares regression and soft independent modelling of class analogy were used to determine the quality of new and unknown wheat samples. With these methods, we were able to predict correctly the end-use qualities at every stage investigated. This new fast technique, based on the rapidity of mass spectrometry combined with the objectivity of multivariate data analysis, offers a method that can replace the traditional rather time-consuming ones such as gel electrophoresis. This study focused on the determination of wheat quality at 15 dpa, when the grain is due for harvest 1 month later. PMID:15655793

  9. Anatomy and Cytogenetic Identification of a Wheat-Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng Line with Early Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wanli; Jing, Fan; Wang, Zhonghua; Wu, Jun; Chen, Xinhong

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies, our research team successfully transferred the Ns genome from Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng into Triticum aestivum (common wheat cv. 7182) using embryo culture. In the present study, one of these lines, i.e., hybrid progeny 25-10-3, which matured about 10–14 days earlier than its wheat parent, was assessed using sequenced characterized amplified region (SCAR) analysis, EST-SSR and EST-STS molecular markers, and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). We found that this was a stable wheat-P. huashanica disomic addition line (2n = 44 = 22 II) and the results demonstrated that it was a 6Ns disomic chromosome addition line, but it exhibited many different features compared with previously characterized lines, i.e., a longer awn, early maturation, and no twin spikelets. It was considered to be an early-maturing variety based on the early stage of inflorescence initiation in field experiments and binocular microscope observations over three consecutive years. This characteristic was distinct, especially from the single ridge stage and double ridge stage until the glume stage. In addition, it had a higher photosynthesis rate and economic values than common wheat cv. 7182, i.e., more spikelets per spike, more florets per spikelet, more kernels per spike, and a higher thousand-grain weight. These results suggest that this material may comprise a genetic pool of beneficial genes or chromosome segments, which are suitable for introgression to improve the quality of common wheat. PMID:26461884

  10. Occurrence of Ionophores in the Danish Environment

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Søren Alex; Björklund, Erland

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics in the environment are a potential threat to environmental ecosystems as well as human health and safety. Antibiotics are designed to have a biological effect at low doses, and the low levels detected in the environment have turned focus on the need for more research on environmental occurrence and fate, to assess the risk and requirement for future regulation. This article describes the first occurrence study of the antibiotic polyether ionophores (lasalocid, monensin, narasin, and salinomycin) in the Danish environment. Various environmental matrices (river water, sediment, and soil) have been evaluated during two different sampling campaigns carried out in July 2011 and October 2012 in an agricultural area of Zealand, Denmark. Lasalocid was not detected in any of the samples. Monensin was measured at a concentration up to 20 ng·L−1 in river water and 13 µg·kg−1 dry weight in the sediment as well as being the most frequently detected ionophore in the soil samples with concentrations up to 8 µg·kg−1 dry weight. Narasin was measured in sediment samples at 2 µg·kg−1 dry weight and in soil between 1 and 18 µg·kg−1 dry weight. Salinomycin was detected in a single soil sample at a concentration of 30 µg·kg−1 dry weight.

  11. Enrichment of provitamin A content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by introduction of the bacterial carotenoid biosynthetic genes CrtB and CrtI.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Zeng, Jian; Li, Yin; Hu, Wei; Chen, Ling; Miao, Yingjie; Deng, Pengyi; Yuan, Cuihong; Ma, Cheng; Chen, Xi; Zang, Mingli; Wang, Qiong; Li, Kexiu; Chang, Junli; Wang, Yuesheng; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2014-06-01

    Carotenoid content is a primary determinant of wheat nutritional value and affects its end-use quality. Wheat grains contain very low carotenoid levels and trace amounts of provitamin A content. In order to enrich the carotenoid content in wheat grains, the bacterial phytoene synthase gene (CrtB) and carotene desaturase gene (CrtI) were transformed into the common wheat cultivar Bobwhite. Expression of CrtB or CrtI alone slightly increased the carotenoid content in the grains of transgenic wheat, while co-expression of both genes resulted in a darker red/yellow grain phenotype, accompanied by a total carotenoid content increase of approximately 8-fold achieving 4.76 μg g(-1) of seed dry weight, a β-carotene increase of 65-fold to 3.21 μg g(-1) of seed dry weight, and a provitamin A content (sum of α-carotene, β-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin) increase of 76-fold to 3.82 μg g(-1) of seed dry weight. The high provitamin A content in the transgenic wheat was stably inherited over four generations. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that enhancement of provitamin A content in transgenic wheat was also a result of the highly coordinated regulation of endogenous carotenoid biosynthetic genes, suggesting a metabolic feedback regulation in the wheat carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. These transgenic wheat lines are not only valuable for breeding wheat varieties with nutritional benefits for human health but also for understanding the mechanism regulating carotenoid biosynthesis in wheat endosperm. PMID:24692648

  12. Refrigerated dough quality: effect of environment and genotypes of hard red spring wheat.

    PubMed

    Simsek, S; Whitney, K L; Ohm, J B; Anderson, J; Mergoum, M

    2011-01-01

    Refrigerated dough products use wheat flour as their primary ingredient, so the quality and chemical composition of the flour determine the quality of the final product. Six varieties of hard red spring wheat, grown in 3 locations in Minnesota, U.S.A., were evaluated for use in refrigerated dough products. Total arabinoxylan percentages in the flours ranged from 0.97 to 1.54. Xylanase activity of the flour was measured and ranged from 0.20 to 0.84 mU/g. An important factor in the suitability for refrigerated dough is the syruping during storage. A large amount of variability in dough syruping was observed among the varieties and locations when the extent of dough syruping was measured over a period of 10 d. The mean dough syruping on day 10 ranged from 2.05% to 14.83%. Despite the significant interaction effect of genotype and environment, 2 varieties, Glenn and Oklee, had lower dough syrup formation with greater stability across growing locations and storage days than other varieties. Practical Application: Refrigerated dough production is one of the fastest growing segments of the ready-to-use food industry. Well-formulated and processed refrigerated doughs are practical to consume and should stay fresh during extended periods of storage; thus, maintenance of dough quality during refrigeration is critical. This study was designed to perform the research on genotypic and environmental effects on variations in dough syruping during refrigeration storage of doughs from hard red spring wheats. PMID:21535707

  13. Trivalent Graphs, Volume Conjectures and Character Varieties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawata, Satoshi; Pichai, Ramadevi; Zodinmawia

    2014-10-01

    The generalized volume conjecture and the AJ conjecture (a.k.a. the quantum volume conjecture) are extended to colored quantum invariants of the theta and tetrahedron graph. The character variety of the fundamental group of the complement of a trivalent graph with E edges in S 3 is a Lagrangian subvariety of the Hitchin moduli space over the Riemann surface of genus g = E/3 + 1. For the theta and tetrahedron graph, we conjecture that the configuration of the character variety is locally determined by large color asymptotics of the quantum invariants of the trivalent graph in terms of complex Fenchel-Nielsen coordinates. Moreover, the q-holonomic difference equation of the quantum invariants provides the quantization of the character variety.

  14. Winter wheat and summer shade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artru, S.; Garre, S.; Lassois, L.; Dupraz, C.

    2014-12-01

    Agroforestry research is in full expansion, but uncertainty remains on the performance of combinations of species with regard to the broad range of possible species associations. In addition, the variability of environmental conditions under which agroforestry stands can be successfully developed is unknown. Under Belgian pedoclimatic conditions, tree-crop competition for light might be the principal limiting factor in the agroforestry context. Most studies show that shade stress induces a systematic reduction of final crop yield. However, the response of a specific crop to shade is highly dependent on environmental conditions. In agroforestry systems, the tree canopy reduces the incident radiation for the crop following a dynamic spatio-temporal pattern. In this study, we will report on the efficiency of wheat under artificial dynamic shade in the experimental farm of Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Belgium in order to evaluate it's potential for agroforestry purposes in the same region. Wheat productivity and development under artificial shade conditions have been monitored during 1 year and the observations will be continued for 2 more years. We constructed an artificial shade structure, which mimics the light environment observed under hybrid walnut agroforestry trees: periodic fluctuation in radiation transmittance and discontinuous light quantity. We collected information on biomass development, soil state and radiation patterns in the field. Using this data, we evaluated the influence of dynamic shade, light availability and the efficiency with which energy is converted in wheat dry matter under the artificial shade treatment. This, in combination with modeling, will allow a thorough study of the potential of wheat-walnut agroforestry systems in the Hesbaye region in Belgium.

  15. Registration of 'TAM 113' wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘TAM 113’ (Reg. No. CV-1081, PI 666125), a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar with experimental designation TX02A0252, was developed and released by Texas AgriLife Research in 2010. TAM 113 is an F5–derived line from the cross TX90V6313/TX94V3724 made at Vernon, TX in 1995. Both T...

  16. Hyperelliptic Prym Varieties and Integrable Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Rui Loja; Vanhaecke, Pol

    We introduce two algebraic completely integrable analogues of the Mumford systems which we call hyperelliptic Prym systems, because every hyperelliptic Prym variety appears as a fiber of their momentum map. As an application we show that the general fiber of the momentum map of the periodic Volterra lattice is an affine part of a hyperelliptic Prym variety, obtained by removing n translates of the theta divisor, and we conclude that this integrable system is algebraic completely integrable.

  17. Achieving yield gains in wheat.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew; Foulkes, John; Furbank, Robert; Griffiths, Simon; King, Julie; Murchie, Erik; Parry, Martin; Slafer, Gustavo

    2012-10-01

    Wheat provides 20% of calories and protein consumed by humans. Recent genetic gains are <1% per annum (p.a.), insufficient to meet future demand. The Wheat Yield Consortium brings expertise in photosynthesis, crop adaptation and genetics to a common breeding platform. Theory suggest radiation use efficiency (RUE) of wheat could be increased ~50%; strategies include modifying specificity, catalytic rate and regulation of Rubisco, up-regulating Calvin cycle enzymes, introducing chloroplast CO(2) concentrating mechanisms, optimizing light and N distribution of canopies while minimizing photoinhibition, and increasing spike photosynthesis. Maximum yield expression will also require dynamic optimization of source: sink so that dry matter partitioning to reproductive structures is not at the cost of the roots, stems and leaves needed to maintain physiological and structural integrity. Crop development should favour spike fertility to maximize harvest index so phenology must be tailored to different photoperiods, and sensitivity to unpredictable weather must be modulated to reduce conservative responses that reduce harvest index. Strategic crossing of complementary physiological traits will be augmented with wide crossing, while genome-wide selection and high throughput phenotyping and genotyping will increase efficiency of progeny screening. To ensure investment in breeding achieves agronomic impact, sustainable crop management must also be promoted through crop improvement networks. PMID:22860982

  18. Genomic regions associated with the nitrogen limitation response revealed in a global wheat core collection.

    PubMed

    Bordes, Jacques; Ravel, C; Jaubertie, J P; Duperrier, B; Gardet, O; Heumez, E; Pissavy, A L; Charmet, G; Le Gouis, J; Balfourier, F

    2013-03-01

    Modern wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties in Western Europe have mainly been bred, and selected in conditions where high levels of nitrogen-rich fertilizer are applied. However, high input crop management has greatly increased the risk of nitrates leaching into groundwater with negative impacts on the environment. To investigate wheat nitrogen tolerance characteristics that could be adapted to low input crop management, we supplied 196 accessions of a wheat core collection of old and modern cultivars with high or moderate amounts of nitrogen fertilizer in an experimental network consisting of three sites and 2 years. The main breeding traits were assessed including grain yield and grain protein content. The response to nitrogen level was estimated for grain yield and grain number per m(2) using both the difference and the ratio between performance at the two input levels and the slope of joint regression. A large variability was observed for all the traits studied and the response to nitrogen level. Whole genome association mapping was carried out using 899 molecular markers taking into account the five ancestral group structure of the collection. We identified 54 main regions involving almost all chromosomes that influence yield and its components, plant height, heading date and grain protein concentration. Twenty-three regions, including several genes, spread over 16 chromosomes were involved in the response to nitrogen level. These chromosomal regions may be good candidates to be used in breeding programs to improve the performance of wheat varieties at moderate nitrogen input levels. PMID:23192671

  19. The Danish National Lymphoma Registry: Coverage and Data Quality

    PubMed Central

    Arboe, Bente; El-Galaly, Tarec Christoffer; Clausen, Michael Roost; Munksgaard, Peter Svenssen; Stoltenberg, Danny; Nygaard, Mette Kathrine; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfeldt; Christensen, Jacob Haaber; Gørløv, Jette Sønderskov; Brown, Peter de Nully

    2016-01-01

    Background The Danish National Lymphoma Register (LYFO) prospectively includes information on all lymphoma patients newly diagnosed at hematology departments in Denmark. The validity of the clinical information in the LYFO has never been systematically assessed. Aim To test the coverage and data quality of the LYFO. Methods The coverage was tested by merging data of the LYFO with the Danish Cancer Register and the Danish National Patient Register, respectively. The validity of the LYFO was assessed by crosschecking with information from medical records in subgroups of patients. A random sample of 3% (N = 364) was made from all patients in the LYFO. In addition, four subtypes of lymphomas were validated: CNS lymphomas, diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, peripheral T-cell lymphomas, and Hodgkin lymphomas. A total of 1,706 patients from the period 2000–2012 were included. The positive predictive values (PPVs) and completeness of selected variables were calculated for each subgroup and for the entire cohort of patients. Results The comparison of data from the LYFO with the Danish Cancer Register and the Danish National Patient Register revealed a high coverage. In addition, the data quality was good with high PPVs (87% to 100%), and high completeness (92% to 100%). Conclusion The LYFO is a unique, nationwide clinical database characterized by high validity, good coverage and prospective data entry. It represents a valuable resource for future lymphoma research. PMID:27336800

  20. Physiology and transcriptomics of water-deficit stress responses in wheat cultivars TAM 111 and TAM 112

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hard red winter wheat crops on the U.S. Southern Great Plains often experience moderate to severe drought stress, especially during the grain filling stage, resulting in significant yield losses. Among popular commercial varieties, TAM 111 and TAM 112 showed a superior adaptation to water-deficit c...

  1. Novel QTL for stripe rust resistance on chromosomes 4A and 6B in soft white winter wheat cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust (caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) of wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a devastating disease in temperate regions when susceptible varieties are grown and environmental conditions sustain high disease pressures. With frequent and severe outbreaks, disease resistance is a key too...

  2. Progress on development and application of single kernel NIR sorting technology for assessment of FHB resistance in wheat germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant breeders working on developing Fusarium resistant wheat varieties need to evaluate kernels coming from a multitude of crosses for Fusarium Damaged Kernels (FDKs). We are developing Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopic methods to sort FDKs from sound kernels and to determine DON levels of FDKs non...

  3. Genome wide association study of seedling and adult plant leaf rust resistance in elite spring wheat breeding lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaf rust is an important disease, threatening wheat production annually. Identification of resistance genes or QTLs for effective field resistance could greatly enhance our ability to breed durably resistant varieties. We applied a genome wide association study (GWAS) approach to identify resista...

  4. Genome-wide comparative diversity uncovers multiple targets of selection for improvement in hexaploid wheat landrace and cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domesticated crops have experienced strong human-driven selection aimed at the development of improved varieties adapted to local conditions. To detect regions of the wheat genome subject to selection during improvement, we developed a high-throughput array to interrogate 9,000 gene-associated DNA m...

  5. Four new rice varieties for specialty markets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although conventional long grain rice varieties are grown on over 75% of the acreage in the US, there is interest in developing rice cultivars which possess specific qualities required for certain value-added markets. USDA ARS researchers at Beaumont, TX and Stuttgart, AR, in various collaborations ...

  6. 7 CFR 51.348 - One variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false One variety. 51.348 Section 51.348 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  7. 7 CFR 51.348 - One variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false One variety. 51.348 Section 51.348 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  8. 7 CFR 51.348 - One variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false One variety. 51.348 Section 51.348 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  9. 7 CFR 51.348 - One variety.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false One variety. 51.348 Section 51.348 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  10. Immigrant Children's Swedish--A New Variety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotsinas, Ulla-Britt

    1988-01-01

    Posits two hypotheses arising from the great immigration to Sweden and the immigrants' use and learning of Swedish: (1) Swedish as used by immigrant children may show certain features, related to a creolization process; and (2) the Swedish language may in future show signs of influence from the varieties used by persons with immigrant background.…

  11. Phonological Convergence in a Contracting Language Variety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Barbara E.; Gerfen, Chip

    2004-01-01

    Most work investigating the role of convergence in situations of language attrition has focused on the morpho-syntactic restructuring of the dying language variety. A central concern of such research has been untangling the factors driving the restructuring with an eye towards establishing whether the changes observed are best viewed as externally…

  12. 7 CFR 923.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Varieties. 923.6 Section 923.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  13. 7 CFR 923.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Varieties. 923.6 Section 923.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  14. 7 CFR 923.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Varieties. 923.6 Section 923.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  15. 7 CFR 923.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Varieties. 923.6 Section 923.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  16. Redefinition of Aureobasidium pullulans and its varieties.

    PubMed

    Zalar, P; Gostincar, C; de Hoog, G S; Ursic, V; Sudhadham, M; Gunde-Cimerman, N

    2008-01-01

    Using media with low water activity, a large numbers of aureobasidium-like black yeasts were isolated from glacial and subglacial ice of three polythermal glaciers from the coastal Arctic environment of Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Spitsbergen), as well as from adjacent sea water, sea ice and glacial meltwaters. To characterise the genetic variability of Aureobasidium pullulans strains originating from the Arctic and strains originating pan-globally, a multilocus molecular analysis was performed, through rDNA (internal transcribed spacers, partial 28 S rDNA), and partial introns and exons of genes encoding beta-tubulin (TUB), translation elongation factor (EF1alpha) and elongase (ELO). Two globally ubiquitous varieties were distinguished: var. pullulans, occurring particularly in slightly osmotic substrates and in the phyllosphere; and var. melanogenum, mainly isolated from watery habitats. Both varieties were commonly isolated from the sampled Arctic habitats. However, some aureobasidium-like strains from subglacial ice from three different glaciers in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Spitsbergen), appeared to represent a new variety of A. pullulans. A strain from dolomitic marble in Namibia was found to belong to yet another variety. No molecular support has as yet been found for the previously described var. aubasidani. A partial elongase-encoding gene was successfully used as a phylogenetic marker at the (infra-)specific level. PMID:19287524

  17. Redefinition of Aureobasidium pullulans and its varieties

    PubMed Central

    Zalar, P.; Gostinčar, C.; de Hoog, G.S.; Uršič, V.; Sudhadham, M.; Gunde-Cimerman, N.

    2008-01-01

    Using media with low water activity, a large numbers of aureobasidium-like black yeasts were isolated from glacial and subglacial ice of three polythermal glaciers from the coastal Arctic environment of Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Spitsbergen), as well as from adjacent sea water, sea ice and glacial meltwaters. To characterise the genetic variability of Aureobasidium pullulans strains originating from the Arctic and strains originating pan-globally, a multilocus molecular analysis was performed, through rDNA (internal transcribed spacers, partial 28 S rDNA), and partial introns and exons of genes encoding β-tubulin (TUB), translation elongation factor (EF1α) and elongase (ELO). Two globally ubiquitous varieties were distinguished: var. pullulans, occurring particularly in slightly osmotic substrates and in the phyllosphere; and var. melanogenum, mainly isolated from watery habitats. Both varieties were commonly isolated from the sampled Arctic habitats. However, some aureobasidium-like strains from subglacial ice from three different glaciers in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Spitsbergen), appeared to represent a new variety of A. pullulans. A strain from dolomitic marble in Namibia was found to belong to yet another variety. No molecular support has as yet been found for the previously described var. aubasidani. A partial elongase-encoding gene was successfully used as a phylogenetic marker at the (infra-)specific level. PMID:19287524

  18. "Legal Language": Varieties, Genres, Registers, Discourses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurzon, Dennis

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes classification of "legal language," clarifying terms such as "variety,""genre,""register," and "discourse," and related issues in languages for special purposes, particularly as they apply to professions. Argues that "genre," not "register," is the most appropriate term for legal language, and that study of legal discourse should focus on…

  19. RECENTLY RELEASED USDA/ARS GRAPE VARIETIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production practices for the latest table grape varieties released by ARS, SJVASC, Parlier, California are summarized along with their performance. Sweet Scarlet provides growers with a mid-season, red seedless grape with a light Muscat flavor. It has exceptional eating quality because of its ...

  20. 7 CFR 923.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Varieties. 923.6 Section 923.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED...

  1. 7 CFR 51.2112 - Mixed varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mixed varieties. 51.2112 Section 51.2112 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF...

  2. Menu Variety in Mississippi Child Care Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Kathy B.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the variety of lunch menus in licensed child care centers in Mississippi. A total of 460 lunch menus were analyzed using nutrient analysis software, and a frequency analysis showed the most commonly used foods. Found that foods used most often included white bread, sliced ham, and sausage pizza. Results support the need for nutrition…

  3. 7 CFR 922.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Varieties. 922.6 Section 922.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES...

  4. 7 CFR 922.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Varieties. 922.6 Section 922.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES...

  5. 7 CFR 922.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Varieties. 922.6 Section 922.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES...

  6. 7 CFR 922.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Varieties. 922.6 Section 922.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES...

  7. 7 CFR 922.6 - Varieties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Varieties. 922.6 Section 922.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES...

  8. On the Basis of the Basic Variety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Bonnie D.

    1997-01-01

    Considers the interplay between source and target language in relation to two points made by Klein and Perdue: (1) the argument that the analysis of the target language should not be used as the model for analyzing interlanguage data; and (2) the theoretical claim that under the technical assumptions of minimalism, the Basic Variety is a "perfect"…

  9. Ecological impacts of wheat seeding after a Sierra Nevada wildfire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The Highway Fire burned 1680 ha of mixed ponderosa pine-oak-chaparral in the newly created Giant Sequoia National Monument and the adjacent Sequoia National Forest of Fresno County, California in August 2001. The USDA Forest Service Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) program recommended that portions of the burned forest be seeded with a non-persistent variety of wheat at a density of 157 kg ha-1 (140 lb/ac). The present study compared the vascular plant diversity and cover in seeded and unseeded parts of this burn to evaluate the ecological impact of seeding an alien grass. In the first post-fire growing season, the natural regeneration of unseeded control sites averaged ???55% ground surface covered. Wheat seeding enhanced the ground cover, averaging 95% ground surface cover. Wheat was the dominant species on the seeded sites, comprising 67% of the total cover. Dominance-diversity curves were markedly affected by the seeding and indicated a disruption in the natural ecological structure of these communities. On seeded sites, wheat dominated and all other species were poorly represented whereas, on unseeded control sites, there was a more equitable distribution of species. Correlated with the wheat cover was a significant decrease in species richness at all scales examined. Total species richness was reduced from 152 species across all unseeded sites to 104 species on all seeded sites. Average species richness, at scales from 1 to 1000 m2, was 30-40% lower on seeded sites. Species most strongly inhibited were post-fire endemics whose lifecycle is restricted to immediate post-fire environments. Seeded sites had fewer alien species than unseeded sites; however, this may not have any lasting effect since other studies show the primary alien threat is not in the first post-fire year. Seeding was also associated with an order of magnitude drop in Pinus ponderosa seedling recruitment and, coupled with the massive thatch still remaining on the site, it is likely

  10. Gene Flow in Genetically Modified Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Rieben, Silvan; Kalinina, Olena; Schmid, Bernhard; Zeller, Simon L.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding gene flow in genetically modified (GM) crops is critical to answering questions regarding risk-assessment and the coexistence of GM and non-GM crops. In two field experiments, we tested whether rates of cross-pollination differed between GM and non-GM lines of the predominantly self-pollinating wheat Triticum aestivum. In the first experiment, outcrossing was studied within the field by planting “phytometers” of one line into stands of another line. In the second experiment, outcrossing was studied over distances of 0.5–2.5 m from a central patch of pollen donors to adjacent patches of pollen recipients. Cross-pollination and outcrossing was detected when offspring of a pollen recipient without a particular transgene contained this transgene in heterozygous condition. The GM lines had been produced from the varieties Bobwhite or Frisal and contained Pm3b or chitinase/glucanase transgenes, respectively, in homozygous condition. These transgenes increase plant resistance against pathogenic fungi. Although the overall outcrossing rate in the first experiment was only 3.4%, Bobwhite GM lines containing the Pm3b transgene were six times more likely than non-GM control lines to produce outcrossed offspring. There was additional variation in outcrossing rate among the four GM-lines, presumably due to the different transgene insertion events. Among the pollen donors, the Frisal GM line expressing a chitinase transgene caused more outcrossing than the GM line expressing both a chitinase and a glucanase transgene. In the second experiment, outcrossing after cross-pollination declined from 0.7–0.03% over the test distances of 0.5–2.5 m. Our results suggest that pollen-mediated gene flow between GM and non-GM wheat might only be a concern if it occurs within fields, e.g. due to seed contamination. Methodologically our study demonstrates that outcrossing rates between transgenic and other lines within crops can be assessed using a phytometer approach and

  11. Visual impairment in Danish children 1985.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, T

    1987-02-01

    In 1985 150 children aged 0-18 were reported to the Danish National Register for Visually Impaired Children. Cross tabulation of the ophthalmological diagnoses by site and type of affection was performed with respect to year of birth, aetiology, visual acuity and birth weight. Finally the relations between aetiology and the presence of additional handicaps are demonstrated. The 'incidence of notification' (IN) was calculated for each birth year as the number of notified children per 100,000 within each birth year group showing variations between 46 in the 1984 birth year group and 3 in the 1970 birth year group with a mean value of 14. The figures stress the impact of congenital and neonatal visual impairment. The significance of IN is discussed with respect to other concepts of incidence. It is concluded that the presented epidemiological method is useful as a tool of analysis in the planning of preventional strategies. From the tables the following main features may be highlighted: Nearly 90% of the blinding causes anatomically are located in the posterior segment of the eye, the optic pathways or in the brain. Isolated visual handicap was notified in 34% of the children, while another 48% presented central nervous system involvement. From an aetiological point of view it is noteworthy that no specific aetiology could be encircled in 38% of the material. In conclusion, it is proposed that future lines of ophthalmological work in the prevention of visual handicap in childhood should concentrate on a higher degree of specificity in diagnostic procedures and an intensified search for specific aetiologies in every single child with visual impairment. PMID:3577699

  12. The Nature of "Udeskole": Outdoor Learning Theory and Practice in Danish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentsen, Peter; Jensen, Frank Sondergaard

    2012-01-01

    An increasing number of Danish teachers have started introducing school-based outdoor learning as a weekly or biweekly "outdoor school" day for school children--often called "udeskole" in Danish. Although at least 14% of Danish schools practise this form of outdoor teaching with some classes, it is not mentioned in the national curriculum and…

  13. Early Vocabulary Development in Danish and other Languages: A CDI-Based Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleses, Dorthe; Vach, Werner; Slott, Malene; Wehberg, Sonja; Thomsen, Pia; Madsen, Thomas O.; Basboll, Hans

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to describe the trajectory of Danish children's early lexical development relative to other languages, by comparing a Danish study based on the Danish adaptation of "The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories" (CDI) to 17 comparable CDI-studies. The second objective is to address the feasibility…

  14. Semantic Categorization of Placement Verbs in L1 and L2 Danish and Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadierno, Teresa; Ibarretxe-Antuñano, Iraide; Hijazo-Gascón, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates semantic categorization of the meaning of placement verbs by Danish and Spanish native speakers and two groups of intermediate second language (L2) learners (Danish learners of L2 Spanish and Spanish learners of L2 Danish). Participants described 31 video clips picturing different types of placement events. Cluster analyses…

  15. 21 CFR 136.180 - Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. 136.180... § 136.180 Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods whole wheat bread, graham bread, entire wheat bread, whole wheat rolls, graham rolls, entire wheat rolls, whole wheat buns, graham...

  16. 21 CFR 136.180 - Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. 136.180... § 136.180 Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods whole wheat bread, graham bread, entire wheat bread, whole wheat rolls, graham rolls, entire wheat rolls, whole wheat buns, graham...

  17. 21 CFR 136.180 - Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. 136.180... § 136.180 Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods whole wheat bread, graham bread, entire wheat bread, whole wheat rolls, graham rolls, entire wheat rolls, whole wheat buns, graham...

  18. 21 CFR 136.180 - Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. 136.180... § 136.180 Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods whole wheat bread, graham bread, entire wheat bread, whole wheat rolls, graham rolls, entire wheat rolls, whole wheat buns, graham...

  19. 21 CFR 136.180 - Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. 136.180... § 136.180 Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods whole wheat bread, graham bread, entire wheat bread, whole wheat rolls, graham rolls, entire wheat rolls, whole wheat buns, graham...

  20. Fitness attributes of Fusarium graminearum isolates from wheat in New York possessing a 3-ADON or 15-ADON trichothecene genotype.

    PubMed

    Spolti, Pierri; Del Ponte, Emerson M; Cummings, Jaime A; Dong, Yanhong; Bergstrom, Gary C

    2014-05-01

    In all, 50 isolates of Fusarium graminearum from wheat spikes in New York, including 25 isolates each of the 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-ADON) and 3-ADON genotype, were tested to determine whether 3-ADON isolates are more fit for saprophytic survival and pathogenicity on wheat spikes than are 15-ADON isolates. The isolates were characterized and compared for 14 different attributes of saprophytic fitness and pathogenic fitness on a susceptible wheat variety. Isolates of the two genotypes could not be differentiated for most of these traits. Three principle components-ascospore production on corn stalks, total trichothecene amount in wheat kernels, and incidence of diseased spikelets up from the point of inoculation-accounted for 29.4, 18.9, and 10.8% of the variation among the isolates, respectively. A bootstrapping procedure grouped the isolates into two distinct groups, with 27 and 23 isolates each, with isolates from both genotypes represented in similar proportions (15-ADON/3-ADON, n = 14/13 and 11/12). Within the contemporary population of F. graminearum causing wheat head blight in New York, isolates with a 3-ADON genotype did not possess any detectable advantage over isolates with a 15-ADON genotype in saprophytic fitness or in pathogenic fitness on a susceptible wheat cultivar. PMID:24283539