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Biodiversità, miglioramento genetico partecipativo e diritto al cibo. (Chi decide cosa mangerai stasera per cena?)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Questo lavoro affronta il problema del controllo del seme e di conseguenza della sicurezza alimentare nel mondo. Man mano che il miglioramento genetico è passato dalle mani degli agricoltori che lo hanno praticato per migliaia di anni a quelle di privati, si è anche passati da una grande agro-biodiversità, dovuta al fatto che gli agricoltori miglioravano ciascuno per il proprio

Salvatore Ceccarelli



The new Genetico-Racial Skin Classification: How to maximize the safety of any peel or laser treatment on any Asian, Caucasian or Black patient  

PubMed Central

The popular skin classifications, notably the ‘Fitzpatrick’ and ‘Obaji’ classifications, are primarily based on skin colour. Other criteria are occasionally considered, such as the degree of skin oiliness, thickness, sensibility, etc. Although these classifications are easy to understand and apply, their simplicity limits their precision, sophistication and applicability. The new genetico-racial skin classification proposed herein suggests that skin response to any peel or laser treatment is genetically programmed and is, therefore, linked to the genetic and racial origin of the patient. In other words, in addition to skin colour, the patient’s facial features and ancestry should be taken into account when classifying any skin. The new genetico-racial skin classification enables the physician to determine with great precision, and before any peel or laser treatment, the level of the patient’s suitability and the expected postoperative outcomes; therefore, reducing the likelihood of complications.

Fanous, Nabil; Cote, Valerie; Fanous, Amanda



Determinants of choice of market-oriented indigenous Horo cattle production in Dano district of western Showa, Ethiopia.  


Based on a survey data collected from 150 farming households in Dano district of western Showa of Ethiopia, this paper analyzes determinants of smallholders' choice for market oriented indigenous Horo cattle production and tries to suggest policy alternatives for sustainable use of animal genetic resource in the study area. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic model were employed to analyze the data. Eight explanatory variables including age of the household head, size of the grazing land, total size of cultivated land, farmer's experience in indigenous cattle production, farmer's attitude towards productivity of local breed, off-farm income, fattening practice, and availability of information and training of the head of the household regarding conservation, management and sustainable use indigenous cattle were found to be statistically significant variables to explain farmers' choice for market oriented indigenous cattle production activities. Besides, possible policy implications were made in order to improve conservation, management and sustainable use of market oriented indigenous cattle genetic resources. PMID:20574818

Alemayehu, Befikadu; Bogale, Ayalneh; Wollny, Clemens; Tesfahun, Girma




Microsoft Academic Search

CIGRAS-l es una variedad de soya sin Advances in soybean improvement in lipoxigenasas 2 (SBL2) y 3 (SBL3) que fue Costa Rica: CIGRAS-l a soybean variety desarrollada en el Centro para Investigaciones en lacking seed lipoxygenases, for human con- Granos y Semillas (CIGRAS) de la Universidad sumption. This soybean variety lacking li- de Costa Rica. Esta nueva variedad se origino

Fausto Camacho; Enrique Villalobos


Mutagenesi Applicata al Miglioramento Genetico delle Piante a Propagazione Vegetativa (Mutagenesis Applied to the Genetic Improvement of Plants with Vegetative Propagation).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes improvement in woody species of fruit-bearing plants through mutagenesis and present prospects; in vito culture and mutagenesis in plants and vegetative multiplication; prospects for exploitation of the vine of an energy plant; radioi...

P. Mannino P. L. Pisani G. Roselli S. Sansavini B. Donini



Análisis de cerámicas romanas Terra Sigillata mediante espectroscopía de plasmas inducidos por láser (LIPS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS) has been applied for the elemental analysis of roman pottery Terra Sigillata from different ceramic production centers. For each sample, representative LIP spectra of slip and body were obtained in addition of compositional depth profiles. In all the cases investigated, calcium and iron are the elements which best define the transition between slip and body

A. J. LóPez; G. NICoLáS; A. RAMIL; A. Yáñez


Actividad antioxidante de la melatonina sobre el hígado graso inducido por etionina en ratones# Antioxidant activity of melatonin on fatty liver induced by ethionine in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of melatonin in female mice with ethionine-induced hepatic oxidative stress (HOS), and the effect of this hormone on the gluthatione peroxidase enzyme antioxidant activity. Twenty adult female NMRI mice were given intraperitoneally 3 mg\\/kg melatonin in 1% ethanol daily for 15 days, and 1% ethanol to the control

SM Ferraro; A López-Ortega



Microsoft Academic Search

Physiological and biochemical alterations in low and high induced vigor bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Bean seeds of cultivars Rio Tibagi, Turrialba-4 and EMPASC-201 were artificially aged by storage in sealed plastic jars at 16% moisture content and 35°C. Seed samples were removed from storage at six-day intervals to obtain different vigor levels. The samples were submitted to standard germination

Ramiro Alizaga



Microsoft Academic Search

Cuatro reactores EGSB (R1-R4) fueron operados a velocidades de carga orgánica de 10 kgCOD\\/(m3.d), tiempos de retención hidráulicos de 3.6 h, velocidades superficiales de 10 m\\/h y diferentes concentraciones de nitrato a la entrada, 0, 20, 60 y 100 mgN-NO3-\\/L en R1, R2, R3 and R4, respectivamente. Después de 20 días de operación continua, la biomasa granular fue caracterizada en

P. Araya Kroff; A. L. Amaral; M. Mota; E. C. Ferreira; M. M. Alves



Microsoft Academic Search

The productivity of the rice is affected by several factors, among which are the diseases caused by fungus that can cause reduction in yield, in the physiologic and sanitary quality of the seed. The objective of this work was to verify the loss in yield caused by leaf diseases in irrigated rice and the efficiency of fungicides control with one

Leandro Jose Dallagnol; Lucas Navarini; Ricardo Silveiro Balardin; Alisson Gosenheimer; Anderson Antonelo Maffini



Caso Chernobyl: sus repercusiones en el sistema Internacional sobre responsabilidad civil por danos nucleares. (Chernobyl case: its repercussions on the International System on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damages).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the discovery of the Nuclear Energy the world has been development her life the present investigation is based in the accident of the one of the most important Nuclear Power Plant in the world, situated in the Union of Socialist Sovietic Republics. T...

J. L. Gonzalez Guadarrama



Desarrollo Y Puesta a Punto de Palpadores Ultrasonicos Fijos para el Seguimiento de Danos Inaccesibles (Design and Implementation of Contact Ultrasonic Sensors to Assess Internal Damage).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A sensor was developed to assess inner damage in fatigue tests of the carbon fiber-epoxy composite horizontal stabilizer of the A-320 aircraft. The sensor is implemented with a modified lead titanate crystal, a copper mesh acting as impedance adapter, pla...



EVP2D- um programa automatico para a analise elastovistoplastica e de dano de problemas bidimensionais e axissimetricos. (EVP2D- a computer code developed for the eslastoviscoplastic-damage analysis of axyssimetrical and two-dimensional problems).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This work aims to describe the computer code EVP2D developed for the elastoviscoplastic-damage analysis of metallic components, with particular emphasis dedicated to the problem of creep damage and rupture. After a brief introduction of the basic concepts...

O. J. A. Goncalves Filho



Proposta de criterio para valoracao monetaria de danos causados por derrames de petroleo ou de seus derivados no ambiente marinho. (Proposal of criterium for valuation of damages accused by petroleum and its derivatives spills on marine environment).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Answering to a Prosecuting Council request, CETESB-Environmental Protection Agency for the State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, developed the above proposal, which aim is to have the valuation for damages caused by petroleum and its derivatives spill on the sea. T...

A. Marcelino E. Haddad H. Aventurato M. A. V. Campos R. R. Serpa



Estimulacion proliferativa de celulas madre hematopoyeticas de raton por actividades circulantes producidas durante la recuperacion de un dano hematopoyetico radioinducido. (Stimulation of murine stem cell proliferation by circulating activities produced during the recovery of a radiation-induced hemopoietic injury).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proliferative activity of CFU-S, low in normal steady state, increases after treatment with different aggressors, i.e. radiation. This stimulation has been attributed in part to a local regulation system of stem cell proliferation, and at least in par...

M. T. Grande Azanedo



Social And Economic Correlates Of Induced Abortion In Santiago, Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Resumen  Desde 1962, se ha estado desarrollando un proyecto de investigación para estudiar el problema del aborto inducido y la planificación\\u000a de la familia en una de las cinco Areas en las cuales el Servicio Nacional de Salud divide la ciudad de Santiago. El proyecto\\u000a se dividió en un Estudio Piloto, que tenia por objetivoobtenerinformación sobre la incidencia del aborto inducido,

Requena B. Mariano



Vinhoto e cama de frango como coadjuvantes na compostagem de bagaço de cana de açúcar  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resumo: Atualmente, a agricultura está passando por um proc esso de modernização, trazendo com isso inúmeros fatores negativos que influenciam na degradação do meio ambiente. Dejetos estão sendo jogados em lugares impróprios trazendo danos ao ar, solo e águas. Percebendo a gravidade deste problema, este trabalho foi realiza do visando contribuir para o melhoramento das condições ambientais e propor renda

Fernando Lira; Renato Cassol de Oliveira



Spectrofluorimetric determination of cefixime using terbium-danofloxacin probe  

PubMed Central

Objective(s): Cefixime (Cfx), is a semi-synthetic third-generation oral cephalosporin antibiotic that is prescribed for the treatment of susceptible infections. There are some procedures for the determination of Cfx in pharmaceutical formulations and biological samples. Herein a spectrofluorimetric method was proposed for Cfx determination based on the fluorescence quenching of terbium-danofloxacin (Tb3+-Dano) in the presence of Cfx. Materials and Methods: Cfx was detected based on fluorescence quenching of terbium-danofloxacin (Tb3+-Dano) in the presence of Cfx with maximum excitation and emission wavelengths at 347 nm and 545 nm, respectively. The quenched fluorescence intensity of Tb3+- Dano system is proportional to the concentration of Cfx. The optimum conditions for the determination of Cfx were studied. Results: The maximum response was achieved under optimum conditions of [Tris buffer]= 0.008 mol/l (pH 6.5), [Tb3+]=1×10-4 mol/l and [Dano]=1×10-4 mol/l. The developed method was evaluated in terms of accuracy, precision and limit of detection. The linear concentration ranges for quantification of Cfx were 8.8×10-8-8.8×10-7 mol/l and 1.1×10-7-8.8×10-7 mol/l in standard and human serum samples with the detection limits (S/N=3) of 2.8×10-8 mol/l and 3.9×10-8 mol/l, respectively. The Cfx was determined in pharmaceutical tablets and spiked serum samples and the results were satisfactory. Conclusion: This method is simple, practical and relatively interference-free for determination of Cfx in pharmaceutical tablets and serum samples.

Manzoori, Jamshid L.; Amjadi, Mohammad; Soltani, Naser; Jouyban, Abolghasem



Use of experimental design and effective mobility calculations to develop a method for the determination of antimicrobials by capillary electrophoresis.  


A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method for the determination of chloramphenicol (CLP), danofloxacin (DANO), ciprofloxacin (CIPRO), enrofloxacin (ENRO), sulfamethazine (SMZ), sulfaquinoxaline (SQX) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is described. For the development, the effective mobilities were estimated and a central composite design was performed. The method was in-house validated for CLP, CIPRO, ENRO and SMX determination in pharmaceuticals. In comparison with the HPLC method recommended by the United States Pharmacopoeia, this CZE method exhibited the same performance, with the advantage that seven different antimicrobials in pharmaceutical formulations could be simultaneously determined. PMID:18761147

Mamani, Mónica Cecília Vargas; Amaya-Farfan, Jaime; Reyes, Felix Guillermo Reyes; Silva, José Alberto Fracassi da; Rath, Susanne



Finding flows in the one-way measurement model  

SciTech Connect

The one-way measurement model is a framework for universal quantum computation in which algorithms are partially described by a graph G of entanglement relations on a collection of qubits. A sufficient condition for an algorithm to perform a unitary embedding between two Hilbert spaces is for the graph G, together with input and output I, O vertices I,O is contained in V(G), to have a flow in the sense introduced by Danos and Kashefi [Phys. Rev. A 74, 052310 (2006)]. For the special case of |I|=|O|, using a graph-theoretic characterization, I show that such flows are unique when they exist. This leads to an efficient algorithm for finding flows by a reduction to solved problems in graph theory.

Beaudrap, Niel de [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)



Open-field host specificity test of Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent of tropical soda apple (Solanaceae) in the United States  

SciTech Connect

An open-field experiment was conducted to assess the suitability of the South American leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth for biological control of Solanum viarum Dunal in the USA. An open-field test with eggplant, Solanum melongena L., was conducted on the campus of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and a S. viarum control plot was established 40 km from the campus. One hundred adult beetles were released in each plot at the beginning of the experiment during the vegetative stage of the plants, and forty additional beetles were released in the S. melongena plot at the flowering stage. All the plants in each plot were checked twice a week and the number of adults, immatures, and eggs recorded. Results showed almost a complete rejection of eggplant by G. boliviana. No noticeable feeding damage was ever recorded on eggplant. The experiment was ended when the eggplants started to senesce or were severely damaged by whiteflies and spider mites. The results of this open-field experiment corroborate previous quarantine/laboratory host-specificity tests indicating that a host range expansion of G. boliviana to include eggplant is highly unlikely. Gratiana boliviana was approved for field release in May 2003 in the USA. To date, no non-target effects have been observed either on eggplant or native species of Solanum. (author) [Spanish] Una prueba de campo fue conducida para evaluar la especificidad del escarabajo suramericano defoliador Gratiana boliviana Spaeth para control biologico de Solanum viarum Dunal en los Estados Unidos. La prueba con berenjena se realizo en el campo experimental de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, y una parcela control con S. viarum fue establecida a 40 km. Cien escarabajos adultos fueron liberados en cada parcela al inicio del experimento durante la fase vegetativa, y cuarenta escarabajos adicionales fueron liberados en la parcela de berenjena durante la floracion. Todas las plantas en cada parcela fueron inspeccionadas dos veces a la semana y el numero de adultos, larvas, y posturas fueron registrados. Resultados indicaron un casi completo rechazo de la berenjena por G. boliviana. Ningun dano visible de defoliacion en la berenjena fue detectado. Las pruebas concluyeron cuando las plantas de berenjena alcazaron su madurez o fueron severamente danadas por mosca blanca y acaros. Resultados corroboran previas pruebas de especificidad en laboratorio/cuarentena que indican que la berenjena no es un hospedero de G. boliviana y que la posibilidad de llegar a ser una plaga de este cultivo es muy remota. Gratiana boliviana fue aprobado para ser liberado en el campo en mayo del 2003. Ningun dano ha sido observado hasta la fecha a plantas no blanco. (author)

Gandolfo, D.; McKay, F. [USDA-ARS South American Biological Control Laboratory, Hurlingham (Argentina); Medal, J.C.; Cuda, J.P. [University of Florida, Department of Entomology and Nematology, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)



Quantum games as quantum types  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, we present a new model for higher-order quantum programming languages. The proposed model is an adaptation of the probabilistic game semantics developed by Danos and Harmer [DH02]: we expand it with quantum strategies which enable one to represent quantum states and quantum operations. Some of the basic properties of these strategies are established and then used to construct denotational semantics for three quantum programming languages. The first of these languages is a formalisation of the measurement calculus proposed by Danos et al. [DKP07]. The other two are new: they are higher-order quantum programming languages. Previous attempts to define a denotational semantics for higher-order quantum programming languages have failed. We identify some of the key reasons for this and base the design of our higher-order languages on these observations. The game semantics proposed in this thesis is the first denotational semantics for a lambda-calculus equipped with quantum types and with extra operations which allow one to program quantum algorithms. The results presented validate the two different approaches used in the design of these two new higher-order languages: a first one where quantum states are used through references and a second one where they are introduced as constants in the language. The quantum strategies presented in this thesis allow one to understand the constraints that must be imposed on quantum type systems with higher-order types. The most significant constraint is the fact that abstraction over part of the tensor product of many unknown quantum states must not be allowed. Quantum strategies are a new mathematical model which describes the interaction between classical and quantum data using system-environment dialogues. The interactions between the different parts of a quantum system are described using the rich structure generated by composition of strategies. This approach has enough generality to be put in relation with other work in quantum computing. Quantum strategies could thus be useful for other purposes than the study of quantum programming languages.

Delbecque, Yannick


A Prospective Study on Time to Recovery in 254 Injured Novice Runners  

PubMed Central

Objectives Describe the diagnoses and the time to recovery of running-related injuries in novice runners. Design Prospective cohort study on injured runners. Method This paper is a secondary data analysis of a 933-person cohort study (DANO-RUN) aimed at characterizing risk factors for injury in novice runners. Among those sustaining running-related injuries, the types of injuries and time to recovery is described in the present paper. All injured runners were diagnosed after a thorough clinical examination and then followed prospectively during their recovery. If they recovered completely from injury, time to recovery of each injury was registered. Results A total of 254 runners were injured. The proportion of runners diagnosed with medial tibial stress syndrome was 15%, 10% for patellofemoral pain, 9% for medial meniscal injury, 7% for Achilles tendinopathy and 5% for plantar fasciitis. Among the 220 runners (87%) recovering from their injury, the median time to recovery was 71 days (minimum ?=?9 days, maximum ?=?617 days). Conclusions Medial tibial stress syndrome was the most common injury followed by patellofemoral pain, medial meniscal injury and Achilles tendinopathy. Half of the injured runners were unable to run 2×500 meters without pain after 10 weeks. Almost 5% of the injured runners received surgical treatment.

Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; R?nnow, Lotte; Rasmussen, Sten; Lind, Martin



[Benefits of decumanum phlebodium intake on the muscle damage in the response to intense physical exercise in sedentary subjects].  


Introducción: El ejercicio intenso provoca un daño muscular inflamatorio que, en sujetos sedentarios provoca un aumento del riesgo cardiovascular. El Phlebodium decumanum (PD) ha evidenciado efectos inmunomoduladores protectores frente a ese daño en los deportistas. Para conocer los efectos del PD en una población sedentaria frente al ejercicio excéntrico, y como modelo del daño muscular inflamatorio. Metodología: Se llevó a cabo un estudio experimental, doble ciego, multigrupo, randomizado, con un grupo experimental (n = 17) al que se le administró una formulación de PD (3,6 g/sujeto distribuidos en 9 dosis de 400 mg desde el día pretest), y un grupo control (n = 16) que tomó sustancia placebo. Se realizaron dos ergoespirometrías en tapiz rodante a cada participante: una previa al estudio (protocolo de Bruce modificado) para descartar signos de isquemia durante el esfuerzo y valorar el VO2max; la segunda, aplicando un protocolo excéntrico (14% de desnivel descendente), durante 10 minutos en estado estable a una intensidad entre 70-80% del VO2max individual, como protocolo experimental. Se efectuaron comparaciones intragrupo e intergrupo del porcentaje de cambio pre-postesfuerzo en variables sanguíneas y de funcionalidad muscular. Resultados: El estudio evidencia aumentos significativos de enzimas musculares MG, CPK y LDH en los dos grupos de estudio, sin cambios para la TncI, siendo significativamente menores en el grupo al que se le administró PD. Se observaron reducciones significativas de los test funcionales SJ, CMJ en ambos grupos, lo que mostró un apreciable menor descenso en el grupo PD. Se apreció una reducción del índice elástico y de la dinamomentría manual solo en el grupo control, aunque las diferencias con el grupo PD no alcanzaron una significación estadística. Conclusiones: El protocolo del ejercicio excéntrico en el presente estudio ha inducido daños musculoesqueléticos y en la funcionalidad muscular, que han resultado significativamente menores en el grupo PD, al mostrar los efectos protectores del Phlebodium Decumanum en tratamientos cortos, frente al daño muscular también en el esfuerzo agudo. PMID:24972482

Vargas Corzo, M C; Aguilar Cordero, M J; De Teresa Galván, C; Segura Millán, D; Miranda Leon, M T; Castillo Rueda, G; Guisado Barrilao, R-



Introduction of cloned human papillomavirus genomes into mouse cells and expression at the RNA level.  


The entire DNA genomes of five different human papillomaviruses (HPVs) were cloned into the BamHI site of pBR322 (HPV-1a, HPV-3, HPV-4, and HPV-9) or the EcoRI site of pBR325 (HPV-2), using as starting materials virus preparations isolated from papillomas of individual patients. Under stringent hybridization conditions (Tm-28 degrees), the five cloned HPVs exhibited less than 10% homology with one another. To establish model cell systems that may be useful for the identification of HPV genes and HPV gene products, mouse thymidine kinase negative (tk-) cells were cotransformed to the tk+ phenotype with the herpesvirus thymidine kinase gene and each of the five HPV cloned DNAs (either as intact recombinants or excised HPV DNA without removal of pBR). In most tk+ cell clones, a complex pattern of multiple high molecular weight inserts of HPV DNA were present in high copy number. Most of the HPV DNA sequences in the cotransformed cells were not present as unit-length episomal viral DNA. Analyses of the integration pattern (DNA blot) and RNA expression (RNA blot) of several HPV-1a and HPV-3 transformed cell lines suggest that some copies of the viral genome are integrated in a similar manner in different cell lines leading to the expression of identical viral RNA-containing species. Two of the cell lines transformed by the intact HPV-1a/pBR322 recombinant synthesized substantial amounts of four discrete viral polyadenylated cytoplasmic RNA species of 1.9, 3.2, 3.8, and 4.5 kb. Two cell lines transformed by the intact HPV-3/pBR322 recombinant synthesized 4-5 polyadenylated cytoplasmic viral RNA species ranging from 0.8 to 4.6 kb. The analysis shows that each viral RNA species appears to be a hybrid RNA molecule containing both HPV and pBR322 sequences. Based on these findings and the molecular organization of the HPV-1a genome (O. Danos, M. Katinka, and M. Yaniv (1982). EMBO J. 1, 231-237), it is possible that transcription of each of the HPV-1a RNA species is initiated using the HPV early promoter and terminated in pBR322. PMID:6193636

Brackmann, K H; Green, M; Wold, W S; Rankin, A; Loewenstein, P M; Cartas, M A; Sanders, P R; Olson, K; Orth, G; Jablonska, S; Kremsdorf, D; Favre, M



Microbial community diversity associated with moonmilk deposits in a karstic cave system in Ireland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microbial ecology in subterranean systems has yet to be fully studied. Cave systems present highly unusual and extreme habitats, where microbial activity can potentially play a major role in nutrient cycling and possibly contribute to the formation of characteristic subaerial structures. How microorganisms actually function in cave systems, and what ecological roles they may perform, has yet to be widely addressed, although recent studies using molecular techniques combined with analytical geochemistry have begun to answer some questions surrounding subterranean microbial ecology (Northup et al., 2003). Moonmilk has a ‘cottage-cheese' like consistency, comprised of fine crystal aggregates of carbonate minerals, commonly calcite, hydromagnesite and gypsum, and is believed to be at least partially precipitated by microbial activity (Baskar et al., 2006). Microbial metabolic processes have been implicated in the formation of moonmilk, probably a result of biochemical corrosion of bedrock under high moisture conditions. Mineral weathering via bacterial activity has become accepted as a major influence on subsurface geochemistry and formation of belowground structures (Summers-Engel et al., 2004). While many studies focus on bacterial communities in subterranean systems, fungal community structure is also likely to be important in cave systems, given the important role fungi play in the transformations of organic and inorganic substrates (Gadd, 2004) and the significant role of fungi in mineral dissolution and secondary mineral formation (Burford et al., 2003). In general, it is agreed that both biotic and abiotic processes influence moonmilk formation, yet the diversity of the microbial community associated with moonmilk formations has not been characterised to date. Ballinamintra Cave (Waterford County, Ireland) is largely protected from human influence due to accessibility difficulties and thereby offers an opportunity to study microbial community structure that has been unaltered by human disturbance or practices. The aim of this study was to examine microbial community diversity associated with moonmilk deposits at Ballynamintra Cave, Ireland using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA). The results revealed considerable bacterial and fungal diversity associated with moonmilk in a karstic cave system, suggesting that the microbial community implicated in moonmilk formation may be more diverse than previously thought. These results suggest that microbes may have important functional roles in subterranean environments. Although the moonmilk in this study was largely comprised of calcite, microbial involvement in calcite precipitation could result in the bioavailability of a range of organic compounds for subsequent microbial metabolism. References: Baskar, S., Baskar, R., Mauclaire, L., and McKenzie, J.A. 2006. Microbially induced calcite precipitation in culture experiments: Possible origin for stalactites in Sahastradhara caves, Dehradun, India. Current Science 90: 58-64. Burford, E.P., Fomina, M., Gadd, G. 2003. Fungal involvement in bioweathering and biotrasformations of rocks and minerals. Min Mag 67(6):1172-1155. Engel, A.S., Stern, L.A., Bennett, P.C. 2004. Microbial contributions to cave formation: new insights into sulfuric acid speleogenesis. Geology 32(5): 369-372. Gadd, G.M. (2004). Mycotransformation of organic and inorganic substrates. Mycologist 18: 60-70. Northup, D., Barns, S.M., Yu, Laura, E., Spilde, M.N., Schelble, R.T., Dano, K.E., Crossey, L.J., Connolly, C.A., Boston, P.J., and Dahm, C.N. 2003. Diverse microbial communities inhabiting ferromanganese deposits in Lechuguilla and Spider Caves. Environmental Microbiology 5(11): 1071-1086.

Rooney, D.; Hutchens, E.; Clipson, Nick; McDermott, Frank



Improving Short Wave Breaking Behavior In Surfbeat Models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In present surfzone modeling three approaches are widely applied: short-wave resolving models, ‘surfbeat’ models, which resolve wave energy modulations on the time-scale of wave groups and their associated infragravity waves, and wave averaged models. In all three approaches, wave breaking is a process that is highly schematized and governed by several empirical coefficients. In this presentation we will focus on the breaking process in ‘surfbeat’ models, such as XBeach (Roelvink et al, 2009). These models need to describe the short wave dissipation by breaking as a function of the slowly-varying short wave energy or wave height. The model usually applied is that by Roelvink (1993), which combines a probability that waves are breaking as function of wave heigth over water depth ratio H/h with a bore-type dissipation formulation similar to that by Battjes and Janssen (1978). A drawback of such a formulation is that there is no ‘memory’ in the breaking process, and the amount of breaking instantly varies with the water depth (though the wave height itself does have a memory). For cases with bichromatic waves, or for long-period swell, this does not reflect reality enough: waves that start breaking do not instantly stop breaking once the water depth increases, but continue until some lower threshold is reached. This concept was captured in Dally’s (1992) wave-by-wave approach, where individual waves are tracked in a probabilistic setting. We have now implemented a similar formulation in XBeach, where the property that waves are breaking is tracked; it is switched on when H/h exceeds a first criterion; this property is propagated using an advection equation and when H/h gets below a second criterion breaking is switched off. This formulation can do two things the previous one can’t: maintain groupiness inside the surf zone and have a maximum of wave breaking in the trough after a steep bar, as was observed for instance in Arcilla et al’s (1994) test 1C. Obviously this has important consequences for the forcing of both long waves and mean currents. In our presentation we will show results of comparisons of both formulations. References. Arcilla, A.S., Roelvink, J.A., O'Connor, B.A. Reniers, A., and Jimenez. J.A. The Delta Flume '93 Experiment. Coastal Dynamics '94. Arcilla, Stive and Kraus (eds), ASCE, New York, pp. 488-502. Battjes, J.A. and J.P.F.M. Janssen, (1978), Energy loss and set-up due to breaking in random waves, Proc. 16th Int. Coastal Eng. Conf., Hamburg, vol. 1: 569-587. Dally, W.R. (1992) Random breaking waves: Field verification of a wave-by-wave algorithm for engineering application. Coastal Engineering, Volume 16, Issue 4, March 1992, Pages 369-397. Roelvink, Dano, Ad Reniers, Ap van Dongeren, Jaap van Thiel de Vries, Robert McCall, Jamie Lescinski. Modelling storm impacts on beaches, dunes and barrier islands, Coast. Eng. (2009), doi:10.1016/j.coastaleng.2009.08.006 Roelvink, J.A. Dissipation in random wave groups incident on a beach. Coastal Eng., 19 (1993) pp. 127-150.

Roelvink, J.; Daly, C.; Vandongeren, A. R.; van Thiel de Vries, J.; McCall, R.



Validation of the Earthquake Archaeological Effects methodology by studying the San Clemente cemetery damages generated during the Lorca earthquake of 2011  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intensity scales determined the damage caused by an earthquake. However, a new methodology takes into account not only the damage but the type of damage "Earthquake Archaeological Effects", EAE's, and its orientation (e.g. displaced masonry blocks, conjugated fractures, fallen and oriented columns, impact marks, dipping broken corners, etc.) (Rodriguez-Pascua et al., 2011; Giner-Robles et al., 2012). Its main contribution is that it focuses not only on the amount of damage but also in its orientation, giving information about the ground motion during the earthquake. Therefore, this orientations and instrumental data can be correlated with historical earthquakes. In 2011 an earthquake of magnitude Mw 5.2 took place in Lorca (SE Spain) (9 casualties and 460 million Euros in reparations). The study of the EAE's was carried out through the whole city (Giner-Robles et al., 2012). The present study aimed to a.- validate the EAE's methodology using it only in a small place, specifically the cemetery of San Clemente in Lorca, and b.- constraining the range of orientation for each EAE's. This cemetery has been selected because these damage orientation data can be correlated with instrumental information available, and also because this place has: a.- wide variety of architectural styles (neogothic, neobaroque, neoarabian), b.- its Cultural Interest (BIC), and c.- different building materials (brick, limestone, marble). The procedure involved two main phases: a.- inventory and identification of damage (EAE's) by pictures, and b.- analysis of the damage orientations. The orientation was calculated for each EAE's and plotted in maps. Results are NW-SE damage orientation. This orientation is consistent with that recorded in the accelerometer of Lorca (N160°E) and with that obtained from the analysis of EAE's for the whole town of Lorca (N130°E) (Giner-Robles et al., 2012). Due to the existence of an accelerometer, we know the orientation of the peak ground acceleration and we have been able to constrain the ranges of orientation for each EAE's. The orientation of the damage is not usually recorded after an earthquake; however, it can provide information on seismic source in historical earthquakes. References Giner-Robles, J. L., Perez-Lopez, R., Silva Barroso, P., Rodriguez-Pascua, M. A., Martin-Gonzalez, F. and Cabanas, L. 2012. Analisis estructural de danos orientados en el terremoto de Lorca del 11 de mayo de 2011. Aplicaciones en arqueosismologia. Boletín Geológico y Minero, 123 (4): 503-513 Rodriguez-Pascua, M.A., Perez-Lopez, R., Silva, P.G., Giner- Robles, J.L., Garduno-Monroy, V.H. and Reicherter, K. 2011. A Comprehensive Classification of Earthquake Archaeological Effects (EAE) for Archaeoseismology. Quaternary International, 242, 20-30.

Martín-González, Fidel; Martín-Velazquez, Silvia; Rodrigez-Pascua, Miguel Angel; Pérez-López, Raul; Silva, Pablo