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The great surgical processes, which are performed under critical hemodynamic con- ditions involving intense bleeding, principally in patients whose general state is threate- ned by the core disease, represent a considerable challenge for surgeons. In such cases, surgical therapy is often inadvisable. The author's presentation focuses on such situati- ons, giving an insight into the basic foundations for the recommendation
The document presents the objectives of a Sheep Breeding Program and the advances and results of ongoing research projects, using 15,160 sheep designed to fulfill them: evaluation of available germplasm, effects of crossbreeding and selection techniques. ...
The report describes improvement in woody species of fruit-bearing plants through mutagenesis and present prospects; in vito culture and mutagenesis in plants and vegetative multiplication; prospects for exploitation of the vine of an energy plant; radioi...
P. Mannino P. L. Pisani G. Roselli S. Sansavini B. Donini
Like many Norwegian elite, Jacob Aall (1773-1844) lived between two national identities - Norwegian and Danish. On the one hand, he was a subject of the Danish crown, educated in Denmark in the refinements of European knowledge and high culture; on the other he was a loyal provincial son of Norway, engaged in building the political and economic autonomy of
MECHANICAL DAMAGES ASSOCIATED WITH PATHOGENS AND PERFORMANCE OF CORN SEEDS (Zea mays L.) The damages caused to seeds due to mechanized operations performed along the production process can negatively affect the quality of the material obtained. According to specific literature, this qualitative reduction can be aggravated when the injury interacts with the microorganisms found in the seed surface or in
With the objective to know the population fluctuation of Grapholita molesta and to verify the phenological stage that the peach tree is more sensitive to the attack of the insect in two production systems, four peach orchards were selected, two under the conventional production system (CP) and two under the good agricultural practice system (GAP), in 2005\\/06 and 2006\\/07 growing
Alex Sandro Poltronieri; Lino Bittencourt Monteiro; Louise Larissa May-de-Mio
The anti-inflammatory activity of dry-calices from Physalis peruviana is common in folk medicine. Using the ear oedema murine model induced by TPA this was confirmed, and was find that this activity is dose-dependent. By solvent partitions and preparative chromatographic techniques, 38 fractions was isolated, encountered that the Pp-D38-LF one is the more abundant and active against inflammation.
LUIS A. FRANCO; LUIS F. OSPINA; GERMAN E. MATIZ; RICARDO GAITAN
The purpose of the study was to determine the body and fleece growth rate in Corriedale and Junin X Corriedale crossbred lambs from lambing to 18 months old. Logarithmic curvilinear regression equations were used. Heritability estimates for each animal at...
The sensitivity of both genotypes (Oryzica 1 and Strain 30036) to gamma rays and sodium azide is studied. Doses of gamma-rays and concentrations of sodium azide were chosen so as to produce around 20%-25% height reduction in these genotypes. Emergence, su...
FundamentalsMany asthma exacerbations are caused by respiratory viral infections that induce the interplay between Th1 and Th2 immune responses. However, the time trends for Th1 and Th2 immune responses during these phenomena have not been well studied.
BackgroundThe knowledge on the relation between running patterns and Running Related Injuries (RRIs) is sparse. Studies have tried to document a relationship. However, no firm conclusions can be made. Still it is necessary to identify which running exposures increase the risk of injuries and which exposures might be considered safe.ObjectiveThe purpose of this study is to investigate the link between
R Nielsen; D Ramskov; H Sorensen; M Lind; S Rasmussen; I Buist
Trigona spinipes (Fabr.) (Hymenoptera: Apidae) infestation, seasonal fluctuation and flower visitation time were evaluated in the following three-year old passion fruit species: Passiflora coccinea, P. setacea, P. alata, P. edulis f. flavicarpa, P. laurifolia and P. nitida. The trial was conducted in 1.5 m long plots, in which only the top (0.5 m) of both sides of the plant lines
In Wistar female adult rats acute renal failure (ARF) was induced with a single dose of potassium chromate (20 mg\\/kg, subcu- taneous). Four groups, control group and three chromium treated-groups, one of them was received vitamins C (200 mg\\/kg) and vitamin E (alfa-tocopherol, 100 mg\\/kg) and another glutathione (50 mg\\/kg) per os. In urine and blood samples obtained on days
This work aims to describe the computer code EVP2D developed for the elastoviscoplastic-damage analysis of metallic components, with particular emphasis dedicated to the problem of creep damage and rupture. After a brief introduction of the basic concepts...
A new spectrofluorimetric method is described for the determination of trace amounts of heparin (Hep) using terbiumdanofloxacin (Tb3+-Dano) as a fluorescent probe. Hep can enhance the fluorescence intensity of the Tb3+-Dano complex at 545 nm, and the enhanced fluorescence intensity of the Tb3+ ion is proportional to the concentration of Hep. Optimum conditions for the determination of Hep are: pH 7.2, [Tb3+] = 4.0 · 10-5 mol/l, and [Dano] =2.5 · 10-5 mol/l. A dynamic range for the determination of Hep is 0.1-1.5 ?g/ml with a detection limit (S/N = 3) of 24.62 ng/ml. The proposed method is simple, practical, and relatively free from interferences.
Manzoori, Jamshid L.; Jouyban, Abolghasem; Amjadi, Mohammad; Ramezani, Amir M.
Williams syndrome (WS) is the result of a hemideletion of about 17 genes in the q11.22-23 region of chromosome 7. Patients with WS show unique phenotypic features that include elfin face, heart malformations, calcium metabolism problems and learning disorders. The latter consist of mental retardation that is characterised by serious difficulties with processing visuospatial tasks, a striking ability to easily recognise faces, a relatively developed linguistic capacity and sensitiveness to sound, a strong need to establish affective ties with other people and a fondness for music. Anatomical studies show a decrease in the postero-dorsal parts of both hemispheres of the brain, malformation in the central dorsal region and an expansion of the superior temporal gyrus, of the amygdala and of the frontal lobe. These macroscopic anomalies are accompanied by microscopic anomalies, which consist of changes in the number and size of the neurons. Studies on evoked potentials show acoustic hyperexcitability and abnormal waves related to language and to faces. Genetic studies in our laboratories show that the exact size of the deletion can vary, which means partial cases also exist and have partial phenotypes. Combining behavioural, electrophysiological, anatomical and genetic reports suggests a problem with the posterior dorsal region of the brain, possibly resulting from mistakes in establishing the dorsoventral and caudorostral genetico-molecular gradients, which specify the cortical regions during development. PMID:12599114
Galaburda, A M; Holinger, D; Mills, D; Reiss, A; Korenberg, J R; Bellugi, U
German psychiatrists do not have an easy access to Adolf Meyer. The reasons include: his influence on American psychiatry was mainly exercised by his personal influence; he did not have the gift of writing his important and influential ideas in a clear language; these ideas, furthermore, were scattered over great number of papers in a variety of periodicals; there is only one unsatisfactory (from the point of view of edition) collection of Meyers papers; no textbook of Meyerian psychiatry exists. There seems to be no German translation of any of Meyers papers. Meyer, who was always in close contact with German psychiatry and psychiatrists, transmitted their ideas to the American scientific public, although in a critical vein. His own psycho-biological or genetico-psychodynamic theory pointed to the importance of the biological and personality structure and its reactions, of how the patient reacts to which live events and which illness in his or her body contrasts to Kraepelins concept of self-sufficiency of the endogenous psychoses. Whereas DSM I und II had been moulded in Meyers spirit, DSM III led far away from it. PMID:2262195
Objective: Several studies have suggested the existence of thalamic volume reduction in patients with schizophrenia. However, the precise locus of volume reduction within the thalamus has scarcely been investigated. On the other hand, underdevelopment of the adhesio interthalamica [AI; Danos, P., Baumann, B., Kramer, A., Bernstein, H.G., Stauch, R., Krell, D., Falkai, P., Bogerts, B., 2003. Volumes of association thalamic
resumo Introdução: As doenças bucais embora não se apresentem inicialmente como uma ameaça à vida, elas constituem importantes problemas de saúde pública, não somente devido à sua alta prevalência, mas tam- bém em virtude dos danos causados aos indivíduos e à comunidade, em aspectos de dor, desconforto e limitações funcionais e sociais, afetando a qualidade de vida dos mesmos. O
Danofloxacin (DANO) residue in bovine muscle was screened at 200 ng/g by terbium-sensitized luminescence (TSL) directly measured on 10x6 mm C18 sorbent strips. The analyte was first adsorbed on sorbent surface by immersion in defatted homogenates. After reagent application and desiccation, TSL was d...
Alveolar (CA(NO)) and exhaled nitric oxide (FE(NO)) concentrations, mainly regarded as inflammation surrogates, may also be affected by perfusion redistribution changing alveolar transfer factor (DA(NO)). A model of blood redistribution is hypergravity, Karlsson et al. (2009b) found, at 2G, increases of 22% and 70%, for FE(NO), and CA(NO), respectively. The present study aimed at theoretically estimating the amplitude of DA(NO) changes that mimic these experimental data. An equation describing convection, diffusion and NO sources was solved in a 2-trumpet model (parallel dependent and non-dependent lung units). Acinar airways lumen reduction was also simulated. A reduction of 33% of the overall DA(NO) (-51% in the non-dependent unit) along with a 36% reduction of acinar airways lumen reproduced experimental findings. In conclusion, substantial FE(NO) and CA(NO) increases may be accounted for by a decrease of the alveolo-capillaries contact surface, here hypergravity-induced. Acinar airway constriction may also have a part in the overall FE(NO) increase. PMID:20385259
Kerckx, Yannick; Karlsson, Lars L; Linnarsson, Dag; Van Muylem, Alain
Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos por radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formación de fragmentos en el estado electrónico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitación vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifotónicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la técnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser (LIF) para la detección y análisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos láseres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociación mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, así como de la distribución de energía interna con que éstas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociación de, entre otras, las siguientes moléculas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la señal LIF obtenida con determinación de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitación y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formación, variación de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los láseres de disociación y prueba, etc.
Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.
An open-field experiment was conducted to assess the suitability of the South American leaf feeding beetle Gratiana boliviana Spaeth for biological control of Solanum viarum Dunal in the USA. An open-field test with eggplant, Solanum melongena L., was conducted on the campus of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina, and a S. viarum control plot was established 40 km from the campus. One hundred adult beetles were released in each plot at the beginning of the experiment during the vegetative stage of the plants, and forty additional beetles were released in the S. melongena plot at the flowering stage. All the plants in each plot were checked twice a week and the number of adults, immatures, and eggs recorded. Results showed almost a complete rejection of eggplant by G. boliviana. No noticeable feeding damage was ever recorded on eggplant. The experiment was ended when the eggplants started to senesce or were severely damaged by whiteflies and spider mites. The results of this open-field experiment corroborate previous quarantine/laboratory host-specificity tests indicating that a host range expansion of G. boliviana to include eggplant is highly unlikely. Gratiana boliviana was approved for field release in May 2003 in the USA. To date, no non-target effects have been observed either on eggplant or native species of Solanum. (author) [Spanish] Una prueba de campo fue conducida para evaluar la especificidad del escarabajo suramericano defoliador Gratiana boliviana Spaeth para control biologico de Solanum viarum Dunal en los Estados Unidos. La prueba con berenjena se realizo en el campo experimental de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, y una parcela control con S. viarum fue establecida a 40 km. Cien escarabajos adultos fueron liberados en cada parcela al inicio del experimento durante la fase vegetativa, y cuarenta escarabajos adicionales fueron liberados en la parcela de berenjena durante la floracion. Todas las plantas en cada parcela fueron inspeccionadas dos veces a la semana y el numero de adultos, larvas, y posturas fueron registrados. Resultados indicaron un casi completo rechazo de la berenjena por G. boliviana. Ningun dano visible de defoliacion en la berenjena fue detectado. Las pruebas concluyeron cuando las plantas de berenjena alcazaron su madurez o fueron severamente danadas por mosca blanca y acaros. Resultados corroboran previas pruebas de especificidad en laboratorio/cuarentena que indican que la berenjena no es un hospedero de G. boliviana y que la posibilidad de llegar a ser una plaga de este cultivo es muy remota. Gratiana boliviana fue aprobado para ser liberado en el campo en mayo del 2003. Ningun dano ha sido observado hasta la fecha a plantas no blanco. (author)
Gandolfo, D.; McKay, F. [USDA-ARS South American Biological Control Laboratory, Hurlingham (Argentina); Medal, J.C.; Cuda, J.P. [University of Florida, Department of Entomology and Nematology, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)
We investigated the occurrence of the L1014F and L1014S kdr mutations in malaria vector populations in Burkina Faso (West Africa). A cross-sectional survey was conducted at 10 sites all located in cotton cultivation areas which are assumed to be the major insecticide resistance selection foci in Burkina Faso. The hot ligation method was used to detect the two kdr mutations in field collected Anopheles gambiae s.l. samples. For the first time in Burkina Faso the L1014S mutation was identified in both M and S forms of An. gambiae s.s. populations collected from the site of Koupela in the central-eastern region at low frequency. Furthermore, the L1014S mutation was also found in one specimen of An. arabiensis collected from the Dano site. The data generated in this study provides additional evidence of the spread of the L1014S mutation into An. gambiae s.l. populations in West Africa. It is now important to evaluate the role of the L1014S mutation in the pyrethroid resistance phenotype and assess its potential impact on the efficacy of pyrethroid-based control measures in West Africa where several resistance mutations now coexist. PMID:23128044
The evolution of precipitating convective systems in West Africa has been a research topic throughout the past three decades and is considered to be influenced by surface-atmosphere interactions. This study builds on the previous research by examining the sensitivity of a mesoscale convective system (MCS) to a change in the vegetation cover by using a regional atmospheric model with a high horizontal resolution. Vegetation cover values in the region between 10 and 15°N have increased by 10-30% over the last 20 years. The effect of both an increase and a decrease in vegetation cover by 10, 20 and 30% is investigated. The MCS case selected occurred on 11 June 2006 and was observed during the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis field campaign in Dano, Burkina Faso. The model is able to reproduce the most important characteristics of the MCS and the atmospheric environment. For the investigated case, no clear precipitation response of the MCS to the applied vegetation scenarios is found. The vegetation changes do alter the surface fluxes in the days before the MCS arrives, which have a clear effect on the modelled convective available potential energy (CAPE) values. However, a link between CAPE, mesoscale circulation and rainfall amounts could not be demonstrated as a dynamical mechanism is found to counteract the CAPE signal. By using a kilometre-scale model, a change in the cold pool dynamics of the MCS could be detected which results from alterations in boundary layer moisture. The effect of vegetation changes on the MCS is thus not straightforward and a complex interaction between different processes should be taken into account.
Lauwaet, D.; van Lipzig, N. P. M.; Kalthoff, N.; De Ridder, K.
Low-level processes of children's written language production are cognitively more costly than those involved in speaking. This has been shown by French authors who compared oral and written memory span performance. The observed difficulties of children's, but not of adults' low-level processes in writing may stem from graphomotoric as well as from orthographic inadequacies. We report on five experiments designed to replicate and expand the original results. First, the French results were successfully replicated for German third-graders, and for university students. Then, the developmental changes of the cognitive costs of writing were examined during primary school, comparing the performance of second- and fourth-graders. Next, we show that unpractised writing modes, which were experimentally induced, also lead to a decrease of memory performance in adults, which supports the assumption that a lack of graphomotoric automation is responsible for the observed effects in children. However, unpractised handwriting yields clearer results than unpractised typing. Lastly, we try to separate the influences of graphomotoric as opposed to orthographic difficulties by having the words composed through pointing on a "spelling board". This attempt, however, has not been successful, probably because the pointing to letters introduced other low-level costs. In sum, throughout the four years of primary school, German children show worse memory span performance in writing compared to oral recall, with an overall increase in both modalities. Thus, writing had not fully caught up with speaking regarding the implied cognitive costs by the end of primary school. Therefore, conclusions relate to the question of how to assess properly any kind of knowledge and abilities through language production. Los procesos de bajo nivel en la producción de lenguaje escrito en niños son más costosos a nivel cognitivo que los que están implicados en el habla. Esto ha sido demostrado por autores franceses quiénes compararon la ejecución en la capacidad de retención en la memoria oral y escrita. Las dificultades observadas en niños, pero no en adultos, en procesos de bajo nivel en la escritura pueden derivarse de la inadecuación grafomotriz u ortográfica. Informamos sobre cinco experimentos diseñados para replicar y ampliar los resultados originales. Primero, los resultados franceses fueron replicados con éxito para alemanes en tercer curso y para estudiantes universitarios. Después, los cambios evolutivos en costes cognitivos en la escritura fueron estudiados durante la educación primaria, comparando la ejecución de los alumnos del segundo y cuarto curso. Posteriormente, demostramos que las formas de escribir no practicadas, que se han inducido experimentalmente, conducen a la disminución de la ejecución en la memoria también en adultos, lo cual apoya la hipótesis de que la falta de la automatización grafomotriz es la responsable de los efectos encontrados en niños. Sin embargo, la escritura a mano muestra resultados más claros que la escritura a máquina. Por último, hemos intentado separar la influencia de la grafomotricidad frente a las dificultades ortográficas componiendo las palabras señalando en una "pizarra de ortografía". Este intento, sin embargo, no ha tenido éxito, probablemente porque señalar letras ha introducido otros costes de bajo nivel. Resumiendo, a lo largo de los cuatro años de la educación primaria, los niños alemanes muestran peor ejecución en retención en memoria en la escritura, en comparación con el recuerdo oral, con un incremento general en ambas modalidades. Por tanto, al final de la educación primaria, la escritura no ha igualado todavía el habla en cuanto a los costes cognitivos. Por consiguiente, las conclusiones están relacionadas con la cuestión de cómo evaluar cualquier tipo de conocimiento o habilidades mediante la producción de lenguaje. Les processus de bas niveau de la production du langage écrit chez les enfants sont cognitivement plus coûteux que ceux impl
Mycoplasma hyosynoviae is a common agent responsible for polyarthritis leading to decreased production in swine herds worldwide. Antimicrobial agents are used to combat infections; however breakpoints for M. hyosynoviae have not yet been established. A number of methods have previously been utilized to analyze minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for antibiotics against M. hyosynoviae; however these techniques as currently described are not easily standardized between laboratories. A dry microbroth dilution method was conducted to compare the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for 18 antibiotics, representative of different classes, against 24 recent isolates (23 field isolates and the type strain) of M. hyosynoviae. The MICs were determined using standard, commercially available 96-well Sensititre(®) plates containing various freeze-dried antibiotics at a range of concentrations appropriate to their potency. Clindamycin (CLI), a lincosamide antibiotic, showed the highest activity and most consistent inhibition for all isolates with an MIC(50) of ? 0.12 ?g/ml. Tiamulin (TIA), a pleuromutilin derivative, exhibited an MIC(50) of ? 0.25 ?g/ml. The isolates had similar levels of susceptibility to the quinolones, enrofloxacin (ENRO) and danofloxacin (DANO), exhibiting an MIC(50) of 0.25 ?g/ml and 0.5 ?g/ml, respectively. For the macrolides, the MIC(50) for tylosin (TYLT) and tilmicosin (TIL) was ? 0.25 ?g/ml and ? 2 ?g/ml respectively, but was ? 16 ?g/ml for tulathromycin (TUL). For the aminoglycosides, the MIC(50) for gentamicin (GEN) was ? 0.5 ?g/ml, while spectinomycin (SPE) and neomycin (NEO) had an MIC(50) of ? 4 ?g/ml. The tetracyclines, oxytetracycline (OXY) and chlortetracycline (CTET) both had an MIC(50) of ? 2 ?g/ml. Florfenicol (FFN) exhibited a MIC(50) of ? 1 ?g/ml. All isolates were resistant to penicillin (PEN), ampicillin (AMP), ceftiofur (TIO), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT), and sulphadimethoxine (SDM) at all concentrations. Within the isolates tested, there was a range of sensitivity detected, with some isolates being overall more resistant while others appeared more susceptible. Further research is required to demonstrate how this MIC data correlates to clinical efficacy of the various antibiotics in the field. PMID:22397937
The entire DNA genomes of five different human papillomaviruses (HPVs) were cloned into the BamHI site of pBR322 (HPV-1a, HPV-3, HPV-4, and HPV-9) or the EcoRI site of pBR325 (HPV-2), using as starting materials virus preparations isolated from papillomas of individual patients. Under stringent hybridization conditions (Tm-28 degrees), the five cloned HPVs exhibited less than 10% homology with one another. To establish model cell systems that may be useful for the identification of HPV genes and HPV gene products, mouse thymidine kinase negative (tk-) cells were cotransformed to the tk+ phenotype with the herpesvirus thymidine kinase gene and each of the five HPV cloned DNAs (either as intact recombinants or excised HPV DNA without removal of pBR). In most tk+ cell clones, a complex pattern of multiple high molecular weight inserts of HPV DNA were present in high copy number. Most of the HPV DNA sequences in the cotransformed cells were not present as unit-length episomal viral DNA. Analyses of the integration pattern (DNA blot) and RNA expression (RNA blot) of several HPV-1a and HPV-3 transformed cell lines suggest that some copies of the viral genome are integrated in a similar manner in different cell lines leading to the expression of identical viral RNA-containing species. Two of the cell lines transformed by the intact HPV-1a/pBR322 recombinant synthesized substantial amounts of four discrete viral polyadenylated cytoplasmic RNA species of 1.9, 3.2, 3.8, and 4.5 kb. Two cell lines transformed by the intact HPV-3/pBR322 recombinant synthesized 4-5 polyadenylated cytoplasmic viral RNA species ranging from 0.8 to 4.6 kb. The analysis shows that each viral RNA species appears to be a hybrid RNA molecule containing both HPV and pBR322 sequences. Based on these findings and the molecular organization of the HPV-1a genome (O. Danos, M. Katinka, and M. Yaniv (1982). EMBO J. 1, 231-237), it is possible that transcription of each of the HPV-1a RNA species is initiated using the HPV early promoter and terminated in pBR322. PMID:6193636
Brackmann, K H; Green, M; Wold, W S; Rankin, A; Loewenstein, P M; Cartas, M A; Sanders, P R; Olson, K; Orth, G; Jablonska, S; Kremsdorf, D; Favre, M
Microbial ecology in subterranean systems has yet to be fully studied. Cave systems present highly unusual and extreme habitats, where microbial activity can potentially play a major role in nutrient cycling and possibly contribute to the formation of characteristic subaerial structures. How microorganisms actually function in cave systems, and what ecological roles they may perform, has yet to be widely addressed, although recent studies using molecular techniques combined with analytical geochemistry have begun to answer some questions surrounding subterranean microbial ecology (Northup et al., 2003). Moonmilk has a ‘cottage-cheese' like consistency, comprised of fine crystal aggregates of carbonate minerals, commonly calcite, hydromagnesite and gypsum, and is believed to be at least partially precipitated by microbial activity (Baskar et al., 2006). Microbial metabolic processes have been implicated in the formation of moonmilk, probably a result of biochemical corrosion of bedrock under high moisture conditions. Mineral weathering via bacterial activity has become accepted as a major influence on subsurface geochemistry and formation of belowground structures (Summers-Engel et al., 2004). While many studies focus on bacterial communities in subterranean systems, fungal community structure is also likely to be important in cave systems, given the important role fungi play in the transformations of organic and inorganic substrates (Gadd, 2004) and the significant role of fungi in mineral dissolution and secondary mineral formation (Burford et al., 2003). In general, it is agreed that both biotic and abiotic processes influence moonmilk formation, yet the diversity of the microbial community associated with moonmilk formations has not been characterised to date. Ballinamintra Cave (Waterford County, Ireland) is largely protected from human influence due to accessibility difficulties and thereby offers an opportunity to study microbial community structure that has been unaltered by human disturbance or practices. The aim of this study was to examine microbial community diversity associated with moonmilk deposits at Ballynamintra Cave, Ireland using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA). The results revealed considerable bacterial and fungal diversity associated with moonmilk in a karstic cave system, suggesting that the microbial community implicated in moonmilk formation may be more diverse than previously thought. These results suggest that microbes may have important functional roles in subterranean environments. Although the moonmilk in this study was largely comprised of calcite, microbial involvement in calcite precipitation could result in the bioavailability of a range of organic compounds for subsequent microbial metabolism. References: Baskar, S., Baskar, R., Mauclaire, L., and McKenzie, J.A. 2006. Microbially induced calcite precipitation in culture experiments: Possible origin for stalactites in Sahastradhara caves, Dehradun, India. Current Science 90: 58-64. Burford, E.P., Fomina, M., Gadd, G. 2003. Fungal involvement in bioweathering and biotrasformations of rocks and minerals. Min Mag 67(6):1172-1155. Engel, A.S., Stern, L.A., Bennett, P.C. 2004. Microbial contributions to cave formation: new insights into sulfuric acid speleogenesis. Geology 32(5): 369-372. Gadd, G.M. (2004). Mycotransformation of organic and inorganic substrates. Mycologist 18: 60-70. Northup, D., Barns, S.M., Yu, Laura, E., Spilde, M.N., Schelble, R.T., Dano, K.E., Crossey, L.J., Connolly, C.A., Boston, P.J., and Dahm, C.N. 2003. Diverse microbial communities inhabiting ferromanganese deposits in Lechuguilla and Spider Caves. Environmental Microbiology 5(11): 1071-1086.
Rooney, D.; Hutchens, E.; Clipson, Nick; McDermott, Frank