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1

Parametrization of Dark Energy Equation of State

A comparative study of various parametrizations of the dark energy equation of state $w(z)$ and its variation with the redshift is made. Astrophysical constraints from 'integrated tracking' are laid down to test the physical viability and cosmological compatibility of these parametrizations. A critical evaluation of the 4-index Hannestad parametrization is done. It is found to be simple and transparent in probing the evolution of the dark energy during the expansion history of the universe but it does not satisfy the BBN constraint on the dark energy density parameter for the best fit values; however it looks more compatible with the observations in the extended parameter space with $w<< -1$.

Vinod B. Johri

2004-09-10

2

Mapping the Dark Energy Equation of State

The acceleration of the expansion of the universe has deep implications for structure formation, the composition of the universe, and its fate. Roughly 70% of the energy density is in a dark energy, whose nature remains unknown. Mapping the expansion history through supernovae, mapping the geometry of the universe and formation of structure through redshift surveys, and mapping the distance to recombination through the cosmic microwave background provide complementary, precise probes of the equation of state of the dark energy. Together these next generation maps of the cosmos can reveal not only the value today, but the redshift variation, of the equation of state, providing a critical clue to the underlying physics.

Eric V. Linder

2003-11-17

3

Dark energy with polytropic equation of state

Equation of state parameter plays a significant role for guessing the real nature of dark energy. In the present paper polytropic equation of state $p=\\omega\\rho^n$ is chosen for some of the kinematical $\\Lambda$-models viz., $\\Lambda \\sim (\\dot a/a)^2$, $\\Lambda \\sim \\ddot a/a$ and $\\Lambda \\sim \\rho$. Although in dust cases ($\\omega=0$) closed form solutions show no dependency on the polytropic index $n$, but in non-dust situations some new possibilities are opened up including phantom energy with supernegative ($\\omega<-1$) equation of state parameter.

Utpal Mukhopadhyay; Saibal Ray

2005-10-19

4

Interacting Dark Energy with Inhomogeneous Equation of State

We have investigated the model of dark energy interacting with dark matter by choosing inhomogeneous equations of state for dark energy and a non-linear interaction term for the underlying interaction. The equation of state have dependencies either on the energy densities, redshift, Hubble parameter and its derivatives or the bulk viscosity. We have considered these possibilities and have derived the effective equations of state for the dark energy in each case.

Mubasher Jamil; Muneer Ahmad Rashid

2008-10-28

5

Effective dark energy equation of state in interacting dark energy models

In models where dark matter and dark energy interact non-minimally, the total amount of matter in a fixed comoving volume may vary from the time of recombination to the present time due to energy transfer between the two components. This implies that, in interacting dark energy models, the fractional matter density estimated using the cosmic microwave background assuming no interaction between dark matter and dark energy will in general be shifted with respect to its true value. This may result in an incorrect determination of the equation of state of dark energy if the interaction between dark matter and dark energy is not properly accounted for, even if the evolution of the Hubble parameter as a function of redshift is known with arbitrary precision. In this paper we find an exact expression, as well as a simple analytical approximation, for the evolution of the effective equation of state of dark energy, assuming that the energy transfer rate between dark matter and dark energy is described by a simple two-parameter model. We also provide analytical examples where non-phantom interacting dark energy models mimic the background evolution and primary cosmic microwave background anisotropies of phantom dark energy models.

P. P. Avelino; H. M. R. da Silva

2012-01-02

6

Entropic dark energy and sourced Friedmann equations

In this paper we show that a recent attempt to derive dark energy as an entropic force suffers from the same problems as earlier attempts motivated by holography. The possible remedy is again the introduction of source terms.

Ulf H. Danielsson

2010-03-03

7

Dark energy models with variable equation of state parameter

The dark energy models with variable equation of state parameter $\\omega$ is investigated by using law of variation of Hubble's parameter that yields the constant value of deceleration parameter. The equation of state parameter $\\omega$ is found to be time dependent and its existing range for this model is consistent with the recent observations of SN Ia data, SN Ia data (with CMBR anisotropy) and galaxy clustering statistics. The physical significance of the dark energy models has also been discussed.

Anil Kumar Yadav; Farook Rahaman; Saibal Ray

2010-09-24

8

Linear Dark Energy Equation of State Revealed by Supernovae?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a test to detect the linearity of the dark energy equation of state, and apply it to the SNLS3 Type Ia Supernova (SN Ia) data set. We find that: (a) current SN Ia data are well described by a dark energy equation of state linear in the cosmic scale factor a, at least up to a redshift z = 1, independent of the pivot points chosen for the linear relation; (b) there is no significant evidence of any deviation from linearity. This apparent linearity may reflect the limit of dark energy information extractable from current SN Ia data.

Salzano, Vincenzo; Wang, Yun; Sendra, Irene; Lazkoz, Ruth

2014-01-01

9

A new equation of state for dark energy

In the contemporary Cosmology, dark energy is modeled as a perfect fluid, having a very simple equation of state: pressure is proportional to dark energy density. As an alternative, I propose a more complex equation of state, with pressure being function of three variables: dark energy density, matter density and the size of the Universe. One consequence of the new equation is that, in the late-time Universe, cosmological scale factor is linear function of time; while the standard cosmology predicts an exponential function.The new equation of state allows attributing a temperature to the physical vacuum, a temperature proportional to the acceleration of the expansion of the Universe. The vacuum temperature decreases with the expansion of the Universe, approaching (but never reaching) the absolute zero.

Dragan Slavkov Hajdukovic

2009-11-04

10

Scaling cosmology with variable dark-energy equation of state

Interactions between dark matter and dark energy which result in a power-law behavior (with respect to the cosmic scale factor) of the ratio between the energy densities of the dark components (thus generalizing the ?CDM model) have been considered as an attempt to alleviate the cosmic coincidence problem phenomenologically. We generalize this approach by allowing for a variable equation of state for the dark energy within the CPL-parametrization. Based on analytic solutions for the Hubble rate and using the Constitution and Union2 SNIa sets, we present a statistical analysis and classify different interacting and non-interacting models according to the Akaike (AIC) and the Bayesian (BIC) information criteria. We do not find noticeable evidence for an alleviation of the coincidence problem with the mentioned type of interaction.

Castro, David R.; Velten, Hermano; Zimdahl, Winfried, E-mail: drodriguez-ufes@hotmail.com, E-mail: velten@physik.uni-bielefeld.de, E-mail: winfried.zimdahl@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Departamento de Física, Av. Fernando Ferrari, 514, Campus de Goiabeiras, CEP 29075-910, Vitória, Espírito Santo (Brazil)

2012-06-01

11

In this paper, we study a cosmological model in general relativity within the framework of spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-time filled with ordinary matter (baryonic), radiation, dark matter and dark energy, where the latter two components are described by Chevallier-Polarski-Linder equation of state parameters. We utilize the observational data sets from SNLS3, BAO and Planck+WMAP9+WiggleZ measurements of matter power spectrum to constrain the model parameters. We find that the current observational data offer tight constraints on the equation of state parameter of dark matter. We consider the perturbations and study the behavior of dark matter by observing its effects on CMB and matter power spectra. We find that the current observational data favor the cold dark matter scenario with the cosmological constant type dark energy at the present epoch.

Suresh Kumar; Lixin Xu

2014-09-03

12

Nonparametric reconstruction of the dark energy equation of state

The major aim of ongoing and upcoming cosmological surveys is to unravel the nature of dark energy. In the absence of a compelling theory to test, a natural approach is to first attempt to characterize the nature of dark energy in detail, the hope being that this will lead to clues about the underlying fundamental theory. A major target in this characterization is the determination of the dynamical properties of the dark energy equation of state w. The discovery of a time variation in w(z) could then lead to insights about the dynamical origin of dark energy. This approach requires a robust and bias-free method for reconstructing w(z) from data, which does not rely on restrictive expansion schemes or assumed functional forms for w(z). We present a new non parametric reconstruction method for the dark energy equation of state based on Gaussian Process models. This method reliably captures nontrivial behavior of w(z) and provides controlled error bounds. We demollstrate the power of the method on different sets of simulated supernova data. The GP model approach is very easily extended to include diverse cosmological probes.

Heitmann, Katrin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Holsclaw, Tracy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Alam, Ujjaini [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Habib, Salman [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Higdon, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sanso, Bruno [UC SANTA CRUZ; Lee, Herbie [UC SANTA CRUZ

2009-01-01

13

The state of the dark energy equation of state

By combining data from seven cosmic microwave background experiments (including the latest WMAP results) with the Hubble parameter measurement from the Hubble space telescope and luminosity measurements of type Ia supernovae, we demonstrate the bounds on the dark energy equation of state wQ to be -1.45

Alessandro Melchiorri; Laura Mersini; Carolina J. Ödman; Mark Trodden

2003-01-01

14

Gravitational Field Equations and Theory of Dark Matter and Dark Energy

The main objective of this article is to derive a new set of gravitational field equations and to establish a new unified theory for dark energy and dark matter. The new gravitational field equations with scalar potential $\\varphi$ are derived using the Einstein-Hilbert functional, and the scalar potential $\\varphi$ is a natural outcome of the divergence-free constraint of the variational elements. Gravitation is now described by the Riemannian metric $g_{ij}$, the scalar potential $\\varphi$ and their interactions, unified by the new gravitational field equations. Associated with the scalar potential $\\varphi$ is the scalar potential energy density $\\frac{c^4}{8\\pi G} \\Phi=\\frac{c^4}{8\\pi G} g^{ij}D_iD_j \\varphi$, which represents a new type of energy caused by the non-uniform distribution of matter in the universe. The negative part of this potential energy density produces attraction, and the positive part produces repelling force. This potential energy density is conserved with mean zero: $\\int_M \\Phi dM=0$. The sum of this new potential energy density $\\frac{c^4}{8\\pi G} \\Phi$ and the coupling energy between the energy-momentum tensor $T_{ij}$ and the scalar potential field $\\varphi$ gives rise to a new unified theory for dark matter and dark energy: The negative part of this sum represents the dark matter, which produces attraction, and the positive part represents the dark energy, which drives the acceleration of expanding galaxies. In addition, the scalar curvature of space-time obeys $R=\\frac{8\\pi G}{c^4} T + \\Phi$. Furthermore, the new field equations resolve a few difficulties encountered by the classical Einstein field equations.

Tian Ma; Shouhong Wang

2012-07-11

15

The Unified Equation of State for Dark Matter and Dark Energy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We assume that dark matter and dark energy satisfy the unified equation of state: p = B(z)?, with p = pdE, ? = ?dm+?dE, where the pressure of dark matter pdm = 0 has been taken into account. A special function B=-(A)/((1+z)? ) is presented, which can well describe the evolution of the universe. In this model, the universe will end up with a Big Rip. By further simple analysis, we know other choices of the function B can also describe the universe but lead to a different doomsday.

Wang, Wei; Gui, Yuanxing; Zhang, Suhong; Guo, Guanghai; Shao, Ying

16

A new equation of state for dark energy model

A new parameterization for the dark energy equation of state(EoS) is proposed and some of its cosmological consequences are also investigated. This new parameterization is the modification of Efstathiou' dark energy EoS parameterization. w(z) is a well behaved function for z >> 1 and has same behavior in z at low redshifts with Efstathiou' parameterization. In this parameterization there are two free parameter w{sub 0} and w{sub a}. We discuss the constraints on this model's parameters from current observational data. The best fit values of the cosmological parameters with 1? confidence-level regions are: ?{sub m} = 0.2735{sup +0.0171}{sub ?0.0163}, w{sub 0} = ?1.0537{sup +0.1432}{sub ?0.1511} and w{sub a} = 0.2738{sup +0.8018}{sub ?0.8288}.

Feng, Lei [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Lu, Tan, E-mail: fenglei@chenwang.nju.edu.cn, E-mail: t.lu@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

2011-11-01

17

Nonparametric reconstruction of the dark energy equation of state

A basic aim of ongoing and upcoming cosmological surveys is to unravel the mystery of dark energy. In the absence of a compelling theory to test, a natural approach is to better characterize the properties of dark energy in search of clues that can lead to a more fundamental understanding. One way to view this characterization is the improved determination of the redshift-dependence of the dark energy equation of state parameter, w(z). To do this requires a robust and bias-free method for reconstructing w(z) from data that does not rely on restrictive expansion schemes or assumed functional forms for w(z). We present a new nonparametric reconstruction method that solves for w(z) as a statistical inverse problem, based on a Gaussian process representation. This method reliably captures nontrivial behavior of w(z) and provides controlled error bounds. We demonstrate the power of the method on different sets of simulated supernova data; the approach can be easily extended to include diverse cosmological probes.

Holsclaw, Tracy; Sanso, Bruno; Lee, Herbert [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States); Alam, Ujjaini; Heitmann, Katrin [ISR-1, Mailstop D466, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Habib, Salman [T-2, Mailstop B285, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Higdon, David [CCS-6, Mailstop F600, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2010-11-15

18

Reconstruction of the dark energy equation of state

One of the main challenges of modern cosmology is to investigate the nature of dark energy in our Universe. The properties of such a component are normally summarised as a perfect fluid with a (potentially) time-dependent equation-of-state parameter w(z). We investigate the evolution of this parameter with redshift by performing a Bayesian analysis of current cosmological observations. We model the temporal evolution as piecewise linear in redshift between 'nodes', whose w-values and redshifts are allowed to vary. The optimal number of nodes is chosen by the Bayesian evidence. In this way, we can both determine the complexity supported by current data and locate any features present in w(z). We compare this node-based reconstruction with some previously well-studied parameterisations: the Chevallier-Polarski-Linder (CPL), the Jassal-Bagla-Padmanabhan (JBP) and the Felice-Nesseris-Tsujikawa (FNT). By comparing the Bayesian evidence for all of these models we find an indication towards possible time-dependence in the dark energy equation-of-state. It is also worth noting that the CPL and JBP models are strongly disfavoured, whilst the FNT is just significantly disfavoured, when compared to a simple cosmological constant w = ?1. We find that our node-based reconstruction model is slightly disfavoured with respect to the ?CDM model.

Vázquez, J. Alberto; Bridges, M.; Lasenby, A.N. [Kavli Institute for Cosmology, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Hobson, M.P., E-mail: jv292@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: mb435@mrao.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: mph@mrao.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: a.n.lasenby@mrao.cam.ac.uk [Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

2012-09-01

19

Time variation of the equation of state for dark energy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The time variation of the equation of state (w_Q) for the dark energy is analyzed by the current values of the parameters ? _Q, w_Q and their time derivatives. In the future, detailed features of the dark energy could be observed, so we have considered the second derivative of w_Q for two types of potential: One is an inverse power-law type (V=M^{4+ ? }/Q^{? }) and the other is an exponential one (V=M^4exp {(? M/Q)}). The first derivative dw_Q/da and the second derivative d^2 w_Q/da^2 for both potentials are derived. The first derivative is estimated by the observed two parameters ? =w_Q+1 and ? _Q, with the tracker approximation for Q. In the limit ? rArr 0, the first derivative is null and, under the tracker approximation, the second derivative also becomes null. The evolution of forward and/or backward time variation could be analyzed from some fixed time point. If the potential is known, the evolution will be estimated from values Q and dot {Q} at this point, because the equation for the scalar field is the second derivative equation. For the inverse power potential, if we do not adopt the tracker approximations, the observed first and second derivatives with ? and ? _Q must be utilized to determine the two parameters of the potential, M and ?. For the exponential potential, the second derivative is estimated by the observed parameters ?, ? _Q, and dw_Q/da, because the parameter for this potential is essentially one, ? . If the parameter number is n for the potential form, it will be necessary for n+2 independent observations to determine the potential, Q and dot {Q}, for the evolution of the scalar field.

Hara, Tetsuya; Sakata, Ryohei; Muromachi, Yusuke; Itoh, Yutaka

2014-11-01

20

Time variation of Equation of State for Dark Energy

The time variation of the equation of state ($w_Q$) for the dark energy are analyzed by the present values of parameters $\\Omega_Q $, $w_Q $ and its time derivatives. In the future the detailed feature of the dark energy could be observed, so we have considered the second derivatives of $w_Q$ for two typical potentials $V=M^{4+\\alpha}/Q^{\\alpha}$ and $V=M^4\\exp{(\\beta M/Q)}$. The first derivative $dw_Q/da$ and the second derivative $d^2 w_Q/da^2$ for both potentials are derived. The first derivative is estimated by the observed two parameters $\\Delta=w_Q+1$ and $\\Omega_Q$, with the assuming for $Q_0$. In the limit $\\Delta \\rightarrow 0$, the first derivative is null and, under the tracker approximation, the second derivative becomes also null. For the inverse power potential $V=M^{4+\\alpha}/Q^{\\alpha}$, the observed first and second derivatives are used to determine the potential parameter $M$ and $\\alpha$. For the potential of $V=M^4\\exp{(\\beta M/Q)}$, the second derivative is estimated by the observed param...

Hara, Tetsuya; Muromachi, Yusuke; Itoh, Yutaka

2014-01-01

21

Transition of the dark energy equation of state in an interacting holographic dark energy model

A model of holographic dark energy with an interaction with matter fields has been investigated. Choosing the future event horizon as an IR cutoff, we have shown that the ratio of energy densities can vary with time. With the interaction between the two different constituents of the universe, we observed the evolution of the universe, from early deceleration to late

Bin Wang; Yungui Gong; Elcio Abdalla

2005-01-01

22

Investigating Possible Inflection in the Dark Energy Equation of State

In this paper we investigate the index of the dark energy equation of state $w$ by using the latest observational data. To explore possible non-linear evolutions in $w$, we adopt a second order $parabolic$ parametrization $w(z)=w_0+w_a(a_0-a)^2$, which has the advantage of describing the possible $inflection$ point in $w$. We use a combined dataset of the SNLS3 supernovae sample, the cosmic microwave background measurements from WMAP9 and Planck, the Hubble parameter measurement from HST, and the baryon acoustic oscillations measurements which includes the most recent results from BOSS DR11 and "improved" WiggleZ. We find that a crossing of $w=-1$ at $z\\sim 0.9-1.5$ is favored at about $1\\ \\sigma$ confidence level (CL), with $w>-1$ at high redshift and $w<-1$ at lower redshift. More interestingly, we find an inflection of $w$ at $z\\sim 0.25-0.4$ is mildly favored at $1\\ \\sigma$ CL, with a phantom behavior at the extreme point $w(z\\sim0.25)<-1$ favored at about $2\\ \\sigma$ CL. Our reconstructed $w$ is in...

Hu, Yazhou; Li, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Zhenhui

2014-01-01

23

Is w{ne}-1 evidence for a dynamical dark energy equation of state?

Current constraints on the dark energy equation of state parameter, w, are expected to be improved by more than 1 order of magnitude in the next decade. If |w-1| > or approx. 0.01 around the present time, but the dark energy dynamics is sufficiently slow, it is possible that future constraints will rule out a cosmological constant while being consistent with a time-independent equation of state parameter. In this paper, we show that although models with such behavior can be constructed, they do require significant fine-tuning. Therefore, if the observed acceleration of the Universe is induced by a dark energy component, then finding w{ne}-1 would, on its own, constitute very strong evidence for a dynamical dark energy equation of state.

Avelino, P. P. [Centro de Fisica do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Fisica da Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Trindade, A. M. M. [Centro de Astrofisica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Viana, P. T. P. [Centro de Astrofisica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Matematica Aplicada da Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

2009-09-15

24

Inference for the dark energy equation of state using Type IA supernova data

The surprising discovery of an accelerating universe led cosmologists to posit the existence of "dark energy"--a mysterious energy field that permeates the universe. Understanding dark energy has become the central problem of modern cosmology. After describing the scientific background in depth, we formulate the task as a nonlinear inverse problem that expresses the comoving distance function in terms of the dark-energy equation of state. We present two classes of methods for making sharp statistical inferences about the equation of state from observations of Type Ia Supernovae (SNe). First, we derive a technique for testing hypotheses about the equation of state that requires no assumptions about its form and can distinguish among competing theories. Second, we present a framework for computing parametric and nonparametric estimators of the equation of state, with an associated assessment of uncertainty. Using our approach, we evaluate the strength of statistical evidence for various competing models of dark energy. Consistent with current studies, we find that with the available Type Ia SNe data, it is not possible to distinguish statistically among popular dark-energy models, and that, in particular, there is no support in the data for rejecting a cosmological constant. With much more supernova data likely to be available in coming years (e.g., from the DOE/NASA Joint Dark Energy Mission), we address the more interesting question of whether future data sets will have sufficient resolution to distinguish among competing theories.

Christopher Genovese; Peter Freeman; Larry Wasserman; Robert Nichol; Christopher Miller

2009-05-18

25

Perceiving the equation of state of Dark Energy while living in a Cold Spot

The Cold Spot could be an adiabatic perturbation on the surface of last scattering, in which case it is an over-density with comoving radius of the order of 1 Gpc. We assess the effect that living in a similar structure, without knowing it, has on our perception of the equation of state of Dark Energy. We find that structures of dimensions such that they could cause the Cold Spot on the CMB, affect the perceived equation of state of Dark Energy possibly up to ten percent.

Valkenburg, Wessel, E-mail: w.valkenburg@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

2012-01-01

26

On the possibility of Dark Energy from corrections to the Wheeler-De Witt equation

We present a method for approximating the effective consequence of generic quantum gravity corrections to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. We show that in many cases these corrections can produce departures from classical physics at large scales and that this behaviour can be interpreted as additional matter components. This opens up the possibility that dark energy (and possible dark matter) could be large scale manifestations of quantum gravity corrections to classical general relativity. As a specific example we examine the first order corrections to the Wheeler-De Witt equation arising from loop quantum cosmology in the absence of lattice refinement and show how the ultimate breakdown in large scale physics occurs.

William Nelson; Mairi Sakellariadou

2008-01-23

27

Dynamical Mutation of Dark Energy

We discuss the intriguing possibility that dark energy may change its equation of state in situations where large dark energy fluctuations are present. We show indications of this dynamical mutation in some generic models of dark energy.

L. R. Abramo; R. C. Batista; L. Liberato; R. Rosenfeld

2008-01-03

28

Observational constraints on dark energy with a fast varying equation of state

We place observational constraints on models with the late-time cosmic acceleration based on a number of parametrizations allowing fast transitions for the equation of state of dark energy. In addition to the model of Linder and Huterer where the dark energy equation of state w monotonically grows or decreases in time, we propose two new parametrizations in which w has an extremum. We carry out the likelihood analysis with the three parametrizations by using the observational data of supernovae type Ia, cosmic microwave background, and baryon acoustic oscillations. Although the transient cosmic acceleration models with fast transitions can give rise to the total chi square smaller than that in the ?-Cold-Dark-Matter (?CDM) model, these models are not favored over ?CDM when one uses the Akaike information criterion which penalizes the extra degrees of freedom present in the parametrizations.

Felice, Antonio De [ThEP's CRL, NEP, The Institute for Fundamental Study, Naresuan University, Phitsanulok 65000 (Thailand); Nesseris, Savvas [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and Instituto de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Tsujikawa, Shinji, E-mail: antoniod@nu.ac.th, E-mail: nesseris@nbi.dk, E-mail: shinji@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3, Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)

2012-05-01

29

Can the dark energy equation-of-state parameter w be less than -1?

Models of dark energy are conveniently characterized by the equation-of-state parameter w=p\\/rho, where rho is the energy density and p is the pressure. Imposing the dominant energy condition, which guarantees stability of the theory, implies that w=>-1. Nevertheless, it is conceivable that a well-defined model could (perhaps temporarily) have w<-1 , and indeed such models have been proposed. We study

Sean M. Carroll; Mark Hoffman; Mark Trodden

2003-01-01

30

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study some aspects of cosmological evolution in a universe described by a viable curvature corrected exponential F (R ) gravity model, in the presence of matter fluids consisting of collisional matter and radiation. Particularly, we express the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker equations of motion in terms of parameters that are appropriate for describing the dark energy oscillations and compare the dark energy density and the dark energy equation of state parameter corresponding to collisional and noncollisional matter. In addition to these, and owing to the fact that the cosmological evolution of collisional and noncollisional matter universes, when quantified in terms of the Hubble parameter and the effective equation of states parameters, is very much alike, we further scrutinize the cosmological evolution study by extending the analysis to the study of matter perturbations in the matter domination era. We quantify this analysis in terms of the growth factor of matter perturbations, in which case the resulting picture of the cosmological evolution is clear, since collisional and noncollisional universes can be clearly distinguished. Interestingly enough, since it is known that the oscillations of the effective equation of state parameter around the phantom divide are undesirable and unwanted in F (R ) gravities, when these are considered for redshifts near the matter domination era and before, in the curvature corrected exponential model with collisional matter that we study here there exist oscillations that never cross the phantom divide. Therefore, this rather unwanted feature of the effective equation of state parameter is also absent in the collisional matter filled universe.

Oikonomou, V. K.; Karagiannakis, N.; Park, Miok

2015-03-01

31

Effect of dark energy sound speed and equation of state on CDM power spectrum

We study the influence of equation of state $w$ and effective sound speed $c_e$ of the dark energy perturbations on the cold dark matter(CDM) power spectrum.We consider different cases of the equation of state and the effective sound speed, the cold dark matter power spectrum is found to be generically suppressed in these cases as compared to the $\\Lambda$CDM model. The suppression at different length scales depends on the value of $w$ and $c_e$, and the effect of different $w$ is profoundly seen at all length scales. The influence of sound speed is significantly seen only at the intermediate length scales and is negligible at scales very much larger and smaller than the Hubble scale.

Rizwan Ul Haq Ansari; Sanil Unnikrishnan

2014-07-15

32

Fables of reconstruction: controlling bias in the dark energy equation of state

We develop an efficient, non-parametric Bayesian method for reconstructing the time evolution of the dark energy equation of state w(z) from observational data. Of particular importance is the choice of prior, which must be chosen carefully to minimise variance and bias in the reconstruction. Using a principal component analysis, we show how a correlated prior can be used to create a smooth reconstruction and also avoid bias in the mean behaviour of w(z). We test our method using Wiener reconstructions based on Fisher matrix projections, and also against more realistic MCMC analyses of simulated data sets for Planck and a future space-based dark energy mission. While the accuracy of our reconstruction depends on the smoothness of the assumed w(z), the relative error for typical dark energy models is ?<10% out to redshift z = 1.5.

Crittenden, Robert G.; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Samushia, Lado [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Pogosian, Levon [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Zhang, Xinmin, E-mail: Robert.Crittenden@port.ac.uk, E-mail: gong-bo.zhao@port.ac.uk, E-mail: levon@sfu.ca, E-mail: lado.samushia@port.ac.uk, E-mail: xmzhang@ihep.ac.cn [Theoretical Physics Division, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O.Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China)

2012-02-01

33

Dark Energy Models With Variable Equation Of State Parameter

Two variable $\\Lambda$ models, viz. $\\Lambda \\sim (\\dot a/a)^2$ and $\\Lambda \\sim \\rho$ have been studied under the assumption that the equation of state parameter $\\omega$ is a function of time. The selected $\\Lambda$ models are found to be equivalent both in four and five dimensions. The possibility of signature flip of the deceleration parameter is also shown.

Utpal Mukhopadhyay; Saibal Ray; Farook Rahaman

2010-01-05

34

Entropy Growth and the Dark Energy Equation of State

We revisit the conjecture of a generalized second law of thermodynamics which states that the combined entropy of matter and horizons must grow. In an expanding universe a generalized second law restricts the equation of state. In particular, it conflicts with long phases of a phantom, wstate.

Wilfried Buchmuller; Joerg Jaeckel

2006-10-27

35

f(R) Gravity and the Equation of State of Geometric Dark Energy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We summarize the cosmological analysis that we have performed recently for several f(R) gravity models, including the comparison of several equations of state (EOS) that have been proposed in the past and which are used to characterize the geometric dark energy. We introduce the corresponding covariant energy-momentum tensors from which the EOS can be obtained and briefly discuss their drawbacks and advantages.

Jaime, Luisa; Salgado, Marcelo; Patiño, Leonardo

2015-01-01

36

Reconstructing equation of state of dark energy with principal component analysis

We represent a method to reconstruct the equation of state for dark energy directly from observational Hubble parameter data in a nonparametric way. We use principal component analysis (PCA) to extract the signal from data with noise. In addition, we modify Akaike information criteria (AIC) to guarantee the quality of reconstruction and avoid over-fitting simultaneously. The results show that our method is robust in reconstruction of dark energy equation of state. Although current observational Hubble parameter data alone can not give a strong constraint yet, future observations with more accurate data can help to improve the quality of reconstruction significantly, which is consistent with the results of H.-R. Yu et al.

Qin, Hao-Feng; Wan, Hao-Yi; Zhang, Tong-Jie

2015-01-01

37

We study the constraints on dark energy equation of state $\\omega^{X}$ and the deceleration parameter $q$ from the recent observational data including Hubble data and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation by using a model-independent deceleration parameter $q(z)=1/2-a/(1+z)^b$ and dark energy equation of state $\\omega^{X}=\\omega_{0}+\\omega_{1}z/(1+z)$ in the scope of anisotropic Bianchi type I space-time. For the cases of Hubble dataset, CMB data, and their combination, our results indicate that the constraints on transition redshift $z_{\\ast}$ are $0.62^{+1.45}_{-0.56}$, $0.34^{+0.13}_{-0.06}$, and $0.60^{+0.20}_{-0.10}$ respectively.

Amirhashchi, Hassan

2015-01-01

38

We study the constraints on dark energy equation of state $\\omega^{X}$ and the deceleration parameter $q$ from the recent observational data including Hubble data and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation by using a model-independent deceleration parameter $q(z)=1/2-a/(1+z)^b$ and dark energy equation of state $\\omega^{X}=\\omega_{0}+\\omega_{1}z/(1+z)$ in the scope of anisotropic Bianchi type I space-time. For the cases of Hubble dataset, CMB data, and their combination, our results indicate that the constraints on transition redshift $z_{\\ast}$ are $0.62^{+1.45}_{-0.56}$, $0.34^{+0.13}_{-0.06}$, and $0.60^{+0.20}_{-0.10}$ respectively.

Hassan Amirhashchi

2015-03-22

39

Observational constraints on scalar field models of dark energy with barotropic equation of state

We constrain the parameters of dynamical dark energy in the form of a classical or tachyonic scalar field with barotropic equation of state jointly with other cosmological parameters using the following datasets: the CMB power spectra from WMAP7, the baryon acoustic oscillations in the space distribution of galaxies from SDSS DR7, the power spectrum of luminous red galaxies from SDSS DR7 and the light curves of SN Ia from 2 different compilations: Union2 (SALT2 light curve fitting) and SDSS (SALT2 and MLCS2k2 light curve fittings). It has been found that the initial value of dark energy equation of state parameter is constrained very weakly by most of the data while the other cosmological parameters are well constrained: their likelihoods and posteriors are similar, their forms are close to Gaussian (or half-Gaussian) and the confidence ranges are narrow. The most reliable determinations of the best-fit value and 1? confidence range for the initial value of the dark energy equation of state parameter are obtained from the combined datasets including SN Ia data from the full SDSS compilation with MLCS2k2 light curve fitting. In all such cases the best-fit value of this parameter is lower than the value of corresponding parameter for current epoch. Such dark energy loses its repulsive properties and in future the expansion of the Universe changes into contraction. We also perform a forecast for the Planck mock data and show that they narrow significantly the confidence ranges of cosmological parameters values, moreover, their combination with SN SDSS compilation with MLCS2k2 light curve fitting may exclude the fields with initial equation of state parameter > ?0.1 at 2? confidence level.

Sergijenko, Olga; Novosyadlyj, Bohdan [Astronomical Observatory of Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, Kyryla i Methodia str. 8, Lviv, 79005 (Ukraine); Durrer, Ruth, E-mail: olka@astro.franko.lviv.ua, E-mail: ruth.durrer@unige.ch, E-mail: novos@astro.franko.lviv.ua [Département de Physique Théorique and CAP, Université de Genève, 24 quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland)

2011-08-01

40

dark matter dark energy inflation

theory dark matter dark energy inflation The National Science Foundation The Kavli Foundation NSF Site Review November 28-29, 2005 #12;dark matter dark energy inflation NSF Site Visit Â November 28 Gravitation initial conditions beyond single-field slow roll #12;dark matter dark energy inflation NSF Site

Hu, Wayne

41

Probing Dark Energy Using Its Density Instead of Its Equation of State

The variation of dark energy density with redshift, $\\rho_X(z)$, provides a critical clue to the nature of dark energy. Since $\\rho_X(z)$ depends on the dark energy equation of state $w_X(z)$ through an integral, $\\rho_X(z)$ can be constrained more tightly than $w_X(z)$ given the same observational data. We demonstrate this explicitly using current type Ia supernova (SN Ia) data [the Tonry/Barris sample], together with the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) shift parameter from CMB data (WMAP, CBI, and ACBAR), and the large scale structure (LSS) growth factor from 2dF galaxy survey data. We assume a flat universe, and use Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique in our analysis. We find that, while $w_X(z)$ extracted from current data is consistent with a cosmological constant at 68% C.L., $\\rho_X(z)$ (which has far smaller uncertainties) is not. Our results clearly show the advantage of using $\\rho_X(z)$, instead of $w_X(z)$, to probe dark energy.

Yun Wang; Katherine Freese

2004-02-09

42

After some remarks about the history and the mystery of the vacuum energy I shall review the current evidence for a cosmologically significant nearly homogeneous exotic energy density with negative pressure (`Dark Energy'). Special emphasis will be put on the recent polarization measurements by WMAP and their implications. I shall conclude by addressing the question: Do the current observations really imply the existence of a dominant dark energy component?

Norbert Straumann

2003-11-26

43

Equation of state of dark energy in f(R) gravity

f(R) gravity is one of the simplest generalizations of general relativity, which may explain accelerated cosmic expansion without introducing a cosmological constant. Transformed into the Einstein frame, a new scalar degree of freedom appears and it couples with matter fields. In order for f(R) theories to pass the local tests of general relativity, it has been known that the chameleon mechanism with a so-called thin-shell solution must operate. If the thin-shell constraint is applied to a cosmological situation, it has been claimed that the equation of state parameter of dark energy w must be extremely close to -1. We argue this is due to incorrect use of the Poisson's equation which is valid only in the static case. By solving the correct Klein-Gordon equation perturbatively, we show that a thin-shell solution exists even if w deviates from -1 appreciably.

Takahashi, Kazufumi

2015-01-01

44

Dark energy perturbations are normally either neglected or else included in a purely numerical way, obscuring their dependence on underlying parameters like the equation of state or the sound speed. However, while many different explanations for the dark energy can have the same equation of state, they usually differ in their perturbations so that these provide a fingerprint for distinguishing between different models with the same equation of state. In this paper we derive simple yet accurate approximations that are able to characterize a specific class of models (encompassing most scalar-field models) which is often generically called 'dark energy'. We then use the approximate solutions to look at the impact of the dark energy perturbations on the dark matter power spectrum and on the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in the cosmic microwave background radiation.

Sapone, Domenico; Kunz, Martin [Departement de Physique Theorique, Universite de Geneve, 24 quai Ernest Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneve 4 (Switzerland); Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

2009-10-15

45

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dark energy models account for the present accelerated expansion of the universe. Many models were suggested and investigated, based on very different physical principles. We will review some representative models emphasizing similarities and differences between these various approaches.

Polarski, David

2015-01-01

46

Beyond the perfect fluid hypothesis for the dark energy equation of state

Abandoning the perfect fluid hypothesis, we investigate here the possibility that the dark energy equation of state (EoS) w is a nonlinear function of the energy density {rho}. To this aim, we consider four different EoS describing classical fluids near thermodynamical critical points and discuss the main features of cosmological models made out of dust matter and a dark energy term with the given EoS. Each model is tested against the data on the dimensionless coordinate distance to Type Ia Supernovae and radio galaxies, the shift and the acoustic peak parameters and the positions of the first three peaks in the anisotropy spectrum of the comic microwave background radiation. We propose a possible interpretation of each model in the framework of scalar field quintessence determining the shape of the self-interaction potential V({phi}) that gives rise to each one of the considered thermodynamical EoS. As a general result, we demonstrate that replacing the perfect fluid EoS with more general expressions gives both the possibility of successfully solving the problem of cosmic acceleration escaping the resort to phantom models.

Cardone, V.F.; Troisi, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Universita di Salerno and INFN, Sez. di Napoli, Gruppo Coll. di Salerno, via S. Allende, 84081--Baronissi (Salerno) (Italy); Tortora, C.; Capozziello, S. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli Federico II and INFN, Sez. di Napoli, Compl. Univ. Monte S. Angelo, Edificio N, Via Cinthia, 80126, Naples (Italy)

2006-02-15

47

Detecting features in the dark energy equation of state: a wavelet approach

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the utility of wavelets for detecting the redshift evolution of the dark energy equation of state w(z) from the combination of supernovae (SNe), CMB and BAO data. We show that local features in w, such as bumps, can be detected efficiently using wavelets. To demonstrate, we first generate a mock supernovae data sample for a SNAP-like survey with a bump feature in w(z) hidden in, then successfully discover it by performing a blind wavelet analysis. We also apply our method to analyze the recently released ``Constitution'' SNe data, combined with WMAP and BAO from SDSS, and find weak hints of dark energy dynamics. Namely, we find that models with w(z) < -1 for 0.2 < z < 0.5, and w(z) > -1 for 0.5 < z < 1, are mildly favored at 95% confidence level. This is in good agreement with several recent studies using other methods, such as redshift binning with principal component analysis (PCA) (e.g. Zhao and Zhang, arXiv: 0908.1568).

Hojjati, Alireza; Pogosian, Levon; Zhao, Gong-Bo

2010-04-01

48

Detecting features in the dark energy equation of state: a wavelet approach

We study the utility of wavelets for detecting the redshift evolution of the dark energy equation of state w(z) from the combination of supernovae (SNe), CMB and BAO data. We show that local features in w, such as bumps, can be detected efficiently using wavelets. To demonstrate, we first generate a mock supernovae data sample for a SNAP-like survey with a bump feature in w(z) hidden in, then successfully discover it by performing a blind wavelet analysis. We also apply our method to analyze the recently released ''Constitution'' SNe data, combined with WMAP and BAO from SDSS, and find weak hints of dark energy dynamics. Namely, we find that models with w(z) < ?1 for 0.2 < z < 0.5, and w(z) > ?1 for 0.5 < z < 1, are mildly favored at 95% confidence level. This is in good agreement with several recent studies using other methods, such as redshift binning with principal component analysis (PCA) (e.g. Zhao and Zhang, arXiv: 0908.1568)

Hojjati, Alireza; Pogosian, Levon; Zhao, Gong-Bo, E-mail: alireza_hojjati@sfu.ca, E-mail: levon@sfu.ca, E-mail: gong-bo.zhao@port.ac.uk [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6 (Canada)

2010-04-01

49

Detecting Features in the Dark Energy Equation of State: A Wavelet Approach

We study the utility of wavelets for detecting the redshift evolution of the dark energy equation of state w(z) from the combination of supernovae, CMB and BAO data. We show that local features in w, such as bumps, can be detected efficiently using wavelets. To demonstrate, we first generate a mock supernovae (SNe) data sample for a SNAP-like survey with a bump feature in w(z) hidden in, then successfully discover it by performing a blind wavelet analysis. We also apply our method to analyze the recently released "Constitution" SNe data, combined with WMAP and BAO from SDSS, and find weak hints of dark energy dynamics. Namely, we find that models with w(z) -1 for 0.5 < z <1, are mildly favored at 95% confidence level. This is in good agreement with several recent studies using other methods, such as redshift binning with principal component analysis (PCA) (e.g. Zhao and Zhang, arXiv:0908.1568)

Alireza Hojjati; Levon Pogosian; Gong-Bo Zhao

2010-04-17

50

Dark-energy thermodynamic models

We study cosmological consequences of dark-energy thermodynamic models. The assumption that dark energy is conformed of quanta, and an extensivity argument generalize its equation of state. This implies that dark energy and another key component exchange energy. The energy densities of dark energy and the other component then tend asymptotically to a constant, thus explaining the coincidence of dark matter and dark energy today. On the other hand, a model of non-relativistic particles in a Bose-Einstein condensate, with a short-range attractive interaction, produces acceleration. It is shown that the phantom-acceleration regime, at the beginning of the universe, solves the horizon problem.

Besprosvany, Jaime [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20-364, Mexico 01000, Distrito Federal (Mexico); Izquierdo, German [Institut de Mathematiques de Bourgogne, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 Av. Alain Savary, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France)

2010-12-07

51

A brief overview of our current understanding of abundance and properties of dark energy and dark matter is presented. A more focused discussion of supersymmetric dark matter follows. Included is a frequentist approach to the supersymmetric parameter space and consequences for the direct detection of dark matter.

Keith A. Olive

2010-01-27

52

We test the robustness and flexibility of the Chevallier-Polarski-Linder (CPL) parametrization of the dark energy equation of state w(z)=w{sub 0}+w{sub a}(z/1+z) in recovering a four-parameter steplike fiducial model. We constrain the parameter space region of the underlying fiducial model where the CPL parametrization offers a reliable reconstruction. It turns out that non-negligible biases leak into the results for recent (z<2.5) rapid transitions, but that CPL yields a good reconstruction in all other cases. The presented analysis is performed with supernova Ia data as forecasted for a space mission like SNAP/JDEM, combined with future expectations for the cosmic microwave background shift parameter R and the baryonic acoustic oscillation parameter A.

Linden, Sebastian; Virey, Jean-Marc [Centre de Physique Theorique, CNRS-Luminy Case 907, F-13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France) and Universite de Provence (France)

2008-07-15

53

Effects of voids on the reconstruction of the equation of state of dark energy

We quantify the effects of the voids known to exist in the Universe upon the reconstruction of the dark energy equation of state w. We show that the effect can start to be comparable with some of the other errors taken into account when analyzing supernova data, depending strongly upon the low redshift cutoff used in the sample. For the supernova data alone, the error induced in the reconstruction of w is much larger than the percent level. When the Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations and the Cosmic Microwave Background data are included in the fit, the effect of the voids upon the determination of w is much lessened but is not much smaller than some of the other errors taken into consideration when performing such fits. We also look at the effect of voids upon the estimation of the equation of state when we allow w to vary over time and show that even when supernova, Cosmic Microwave Background, and Baryonic Acoustic Oscillations data are used to constrain the equation of state, the best fit points in parameter space can change at the 10% level due to the presence of voids, and error-bars increase significantly.

Lavallaz, Arnaud de; Fairbairn, Malcolm [Department of Physics, King's College London, Strand, London, WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)

2011-10-15

54

Based on the analogy with superconductor physics we consider a scalar-vector-tensor gravitational model, in which the dark energy action is described by a gauge invariant electromagnetic type functional. By assuming that the ground state of the dark energy is in a form of a condensate with the U(1) symmetry spontaneously broken, the gauge invariant electromagnetic dark energy can be described in terms of the combination of a vector and of a scalar field (corresponding to the Goldstone boson), respectively. The gravitational field equations are obtained by also assuming the possibility of a non-minimal coupling between the cosmological mass current and the superconducting dark energy. The cosmological implications of the dark energy model are investigated for a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker homogeneous and isotropic geometry for two particular choices of the electromagnetic type potential, corresponding to a pure electric type field, and to a pure magnetic field, respectively. The time evolution of the scale fact...

Liang, Shi-Dong

2015-01-01

55

Cosmo-dynamics and dark energy with non-linear equation of state: a quadratic model

We investigate the general relativistic dynamics of Robertson-Walker models with a non-linear equation of state (EoS), focusing on the quadratic case P = P_0 + \\alpha \\rho + \\beta \\rho^2. This may be taken to represent the Taylor expansion of any arbitrary barotropic EoS, P(\\rho). With the right combination of P_0, \\alpha and \\beta, it serves as a simple phenomenological model for dark energy, or even unified dark matter. Indeed we show that this simple model for the EoS can produce a large variety of qualitatively different dynamical behaviors that we classify using dynamical systems theory. An almost universal feature is that accelerated expansion phases are mostly natural for these non-linear EoS's. These are often asymptotically de Sitter thanks to the appearance of an effective cosmological constant. Other interesting possibilities that arise from the quadratic EoS are closed models that can oscillate with no singularity, models that bounce between infinite contraction/expansion and models which evolve from a phantom phase, asymptotically approaching a de Sitter phase instead of evolving to a "Big Rip". In a second paper we investigate the effects of the quadratic EoS in inhomogeneous and anisotropic models, focusing in particular on singularities.

Kishore N. Ananda; Marco Bruni

2005-12-08

56

We describe the Dark Energy Survey (DES), a proposed optical-near infrared survey of 5000 sq. deg of the South Galactic Cap to ~24th magnitude in SDSS griz, that would use a new 3 sq. deg CCD camera to be mounted on the Blanco 4-m telescope at Cerro Telolo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). The survey data will allow us to measure the dark energy and dark matter densities and the dark energy equation of state through four independent methods: galaxy clusters, weak gravitational lensing tomography, galaxy angular clustering, and supernova distances. These methods are doubly complementary: they constrain different combinations of cosmological model parameters and are subject to different systematic errors. By deriving the four sets of measurements from the same data set with a common analysis framework, we will obtain important cross checks of the systematic errors and thereby make a substantial and robust advance in the precision of dark energy measurements.

The Dark Energy Survey Collaboration

2005-10-12

57

Exploring the diversity of dark energy dynamics, we discover a calibration relation, a uniform stretching of the amplitude of the equation of state time variation with scale factor. This defines homogeneous families of dark energy physics. The calibration factor has a close relation to the standard time variation parameter w_a, and we show that the new, calibrated w_a describes observables, i.e. distance and Hubble parameter as a function of redshift, typically to an accuracy level of 10^{-3}. We discuss implications for figures of merit for dark energy science programs.

Roland de Putter; Eric V. Linder

2008-08-01

58

We investigate the effect of the bulk contents in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) braneworld on the evolution of the universe. We find that, although the pure DGP model cannot accommodate the transition of the effective equation of state of dark energy, once the bulk matter T{sub 5}{sup 5} is considered, the modified model can realize the w{sub eff} crossing -1. However, this transition of the equation of state cannot be realized by just considering bulk-brane energy exchange or the Gauss-Bonnet effect while the bulk matter contribution is not included. T{sub 5}{sup 5} plays the major role in the modified DGP model to have the w{sub eff} crossing -1 behavior. We show that our model can describe the superacceleration of our universe with the equation of state of the effective dark energy and the Hubble parameter in agreement with observations.

Yin Shaoyu; Wang Bin [Department of Physics, Fudan University, 200433 Shanghai (China); Abdalla, Elcio [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 66.318, CEP 05315-970, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lin Chiyong [Department of Physics, National Dong Hwa University, Shoufeng, 974 Hualien (China)

2007-12-15

59

Nonparametric reconstruction of the dark energy equation of state from diverse data sets

The cause of the accelerated expansion of the Universe poses one of the most fundamental questions in physics today. In the absence of a compelling theory to explain the observations, a first task is to develop a robust phenomenological approach: If the acceleration is driven by some form of dark energy, then the phenomenology is determined by the form of the dark energy equation of state w(z) as a function of redshift. A major aim of ongoing and upcoming cosmological surveys is to measure w and its evolution at high accuracy. Since w(z) is not directly accessible to measurement, powerful reconstruction methods are needed to extract it reliably from observations. We have recently introduced a new reconstruction method for w(z) based on Gaussian process modeling. This method can capture nontrivial w(z) dependences and, most importantly, it yields controlled and unbiased error estimates. In this paper we extend the method to include a diverse set of measurements: baryon acoustic oscillations, cosmic microwave background measurements, and supernova data. We analyze currently available data sets and present the resulting constraints on w(z), finding that current observations are in very good agreement with a cosmological constant. In addition, we explore how well our method captures nontrivial behavior of w(z) by analyzing simulated data assuming high-quality observations from future surveys. We find that the baryon acoustic oscillation measurements by themselves already lead to remarkably good reconstruction results and that the combination of different high-quality probes allows us to reconstruct w(z) very reliably with small error bounds.

Holsclaw, Tracy; Sanso, Bruno; Lee, Herbie [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States); Alam, Ujjaini [ISR-1, MS D466, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Heitmann, Katrin [ISR-1, MS D466, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); High Energy Physics Division and Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, 60439 (United States); Habib, Salman [T-2, MS B285, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); High Energy Physics Division and Mathematics and Computer Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois, 60439 (United States); Higdon, David [CCS-6, MS F600, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2011-10-15

60

Cosmic chronometers: constraining the equation of state of dark energy. I: H(z) measurements

We present new determinations of the cosmic expansion history from red-envelope galaxies. We have obtained for this purpose high-quality spectra with the Keck-LRIS spectrograph of red-envelope galaxies in 24 galaxy clusters in the redshift range 0.2 < z < 1.0. We complement these Keck spectra with high-quality, publicly available archival spectra from the SPICES and VVDS surveys. We improve over our previous expansion history measurements in Simon et al. (2005) by providing two new determinations of the expansion history: H(z) = 97±62 km sec{sup ?1} Mpc{sup ?1} at z ? 0.5 and H(z) = 90±40 km sec{sup ?1} Mpc{sup ?1} at z ? 0.9. We discuss the uncertainty in the expansion history determination that arises from uncertainties in the synthetic stellar-population models. We then use these new measurements in concert with cosmic-microwave-background (CMB) measurements to constrain cosmological parameters, with a special emphasis on dark-energy parameters and constraints to the curvature. In particular, we demonstrate the usefulness of direct H(z) measurements by constraining the dark-energy equation of state parameterized by w{sub 0} and w{sub a} and allowing for arbitrary curvature. Further, we also constrain, using only CMB and H(z) data, the number of relativistic degrees of freedom to be 4±0.5 and their total mass to be < 0.2 eV, both at 1?.

Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Mail Stop 169-506, Pasadena CA-91109 (United States); Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia [ICREA and Institute of Sciences of the Cosmos (ICC), University of Barcelona, Barcelona 08028 (Spain); Kamionkowski, Marc [California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 350-17, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Stanford, S. Adam, E-mail: stern@thisvi.jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: raul@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: licia@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: kamion@tapir.caltech.edu, E-mail: stanford@physics.ucdavis.edu [University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

2010-02-01

61

Unified Description of Dark Energy and Dark Matter

Dark energy in the universe is assumed to be vacuum energy. The energy-momentum of vacuum is described by a scale-dependent cosmological constant. The equations of motion imply for the density of matter (dust) the sum of the usual matter density (luminous matter) and an additional matter density (dark matter) similar to the dark energy. The scale-dependent cosmological constant is given up to an exponent which is approximated by the experimentally decided density parameters of dark matter and dark energy. This yields that dark matter is one third of dark energy for all times implying an explanation of the coincidence of dark matter and dark energy. In the final state, the universe becomes dark, consisting of dark matter and dark energy.

Walter Petry

2008-11-09

62

Interacting Agegraphic Dark Energy

A new dark energy model, named "agegraphic dark energy", has been proposed recently, based on the so-called K\\'{a}rolyh\\'{a}zy uncertainty relation, which arises from quantum mechanics together with general relativity. In this note, we extend the original agegraphic dark energy model by including the interaction between agegraphic dark energy and pressureless (dark) matter. In the interacting agegraphic dark energy model, there are many interesting features different from the original agegraphic dark energy model and holographic dark energy model. The similarity and difference between agegraphic dark energy and holographic dark energy are also discussed.

Hao Wei; Rong-Gen Cai

2009-01-10

63

Dark energy without dark energy

It is proposed that the current acceleration of the universe is not originated by the existence of a mysterious dark energy fluid nor by the action of extra terms in the gravity Lagrangian, but just from the sub-quantum potential associated with the CMB particles. The resulting cosmic scenario corresponds to a benigner phantom model which is free from the main problems of the current phantom approaches.

Pedro F. Gonzalez-Diaz

2006-08-29

64

Dark energy and dark matter from cosmological observations

The present status of our knowledge about the dark matter and dark energy is reviewed. Bounds on the content of cold and hot dark matter from cosmological observations are discussed in some detail. I also review current bounds on the physical properties of dark energy, mainly its equation of state and effective speed of sound.

Steen Hannestad

2005-09-14

65

Spherical collapse with dark energy

I discuss the work of Maor and Lahav [1], in which the inclusion of dark energy into the spherical collapse formalism is reviewed. Adopting a phenomenological approach, I consider the consequences of - a) allowing the dark energy to cluster, and, b) including the dark energy in the virialization process. Both of these issues affect the final state of the system in a fundamental way. The results suggest a potentially differentiating signature between a true cosmological constant and a dynamic form of dark energy. This signature is unique in the sense that it does not depend on a measurement of the value of the equation of state of dark energy.

Irit Maor

2006-02-20

66

On dark energy isocurvature perturbation

Determining the equation of state of dark energy with astronomical observations is crucially important to understand the nature of dark energy. In performing a likelihood analysis of the data, especially of the cosmic microwave background and large scale structure data the dark energy perturbations have to be taken into account both for theoretical consistency and for numerical accuracy. Usually, one assumes in the global fitting analysis that the dark energy perturbations are adiabatic. In this paper, we study the dark energy isocurvature perturbation analytically and discuss its implications for the cosmic microwave background radiation and large scale structure. Furthermore, with the current astronomical observational data and by employing Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, we perform a global analysis of cosmological parameters assuming general initial conditions for the dark energy perturbations. The results show that the dark energy isocurvature perturbations are very weakly constrained and that purely adiabatic initial conditions are consistent with the data.

Liu, Jie; Zhang, Xinmin [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Mingzhe, E-mail: liujie@ihep.ac.cn, E-mail: limz@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: xmzhang@ihep.ac.cn [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

2011-06-01

67

Tachyonic Teleparallel Dark Energy

Teleparallel gravity is an equivalent formulation of general relativity in which instead of the Ricci scalar $R$, one uses the torsion scalar $T$ for the Lagrangian density. Recently teleparallel dark energy has been proposed by Geng et al. in (Geng et al., 2011). They have added quintessence scalar field, allowing also a non-minimal coupling with gravity in the Lagrangian of teleparallel gravity and found that such a non-minimally coupled quintessence theory has a richer structure than the same one in the frame work of general relativity. In the present work we are interested in tachyonic teleparallel dark energy in which scalar field is responsible for dark energy in the frame work of torsion gravity. We find that such a non-minimally coupled tachyon gravity can realize the crossing of the phantom divide line for the effective equation of state. Using the numerical calculations we display such a behavior of the model explicitly.

A. Banijamali; B. Fazlpour

2012-06-13

68

Thermodynamical properties of dark energy

We have investigated the thermodynamical properties of dark energy. Assuming that the dark energy temperature T{approx}a{sup -n} and considering that the volume of the Universe enveloped by the apparent horizon relates to the temperature, we have derived the dark energy entropy. For dark energy with constant equation of state w>-1 and the generalized Chaplygin gas, the derived entropy can be positive and satisfy the entropy bound. The total entropy, including those of dark energy, the thermal radiation, and the apparent horizon, satisfies the generalized second law of thermodynamics. However, for the phantom with constant equation of state, the positivity of entropy, the entropy bound, and the generalized second law cannot be satisfied simultaneously.

Gong Yungui; Wang Bin; Wang Anzhong [School of Physical Science and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China) and CASPER, Department of Physics, Baylor University, Waco, Texas 76798 (United States); Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); CASPER, Department of Physics, Baylor University, Waco, Texas 76798 (United States)

2007-06-15

69

Reconstructing and deconstructing dark energy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The acceleration of the expansion of the Universe, ascribed to a dark energy, is one of the most intriguing discoveries in science. In addition to precise, systematics controlled data, clear, robust interpretation of the observations is required to reveal the nature of dark energy. Even for the simplest question: is the data consistent with the cosmological constant? there are important subtleties in the reconstruction of the dark energy properties. We discuss the roles of analysis both in terms of the Hubble expansion rate or dark energy density ?DE(z) and in terms of the dark energy equation of state w(z), arguing that each has its carefully defined place. Fitting the density is best for learning about the density, but using it to probe the equation of state can lead to instability and bias.

Linder, Eric V.

2004-09-01

70

Reconstructing and Deconstructing Dark Energy

The acceleration of the expansion of the universe, ascribed to a dark energy, is one of the most intriguing discoveries in science. In addition to precise, systematics controlled data, clear, robust interpretation of the observations is required to reveal the nature of dark energy. Even for the simplest question: is the data consistent with the cosmological constant? there are important subtleties in the reconstruction of the dark energy properties. We discuss the roles of analysis both in terms of the Hubble expansion rate or dark energy density \\rho_{DE}(z) and in terms of the dark energy equation of state w(z), arguing that each has its carefully defined place. Fitting the density is best for learning about the density, but using it to probe the equation of state can lead to instability and bias.

Eric V. Linder

2004-06-07

71

Reconstructing and deconstructing dark energy

The acceleration of the expansion of the universe, ascribed to a dark energy, is one of the most intriguing discoveries in science. In addition to precise, systematics controlled data, clear, robust interpretation of the observations is required to reveal the nature of dark energy. Even for the simplest question: is the data consistent with the cosmological constant? there are important subtleties in the reconstruction of the dark energy properties. We discuss the roles of analysis both in terms of the Hubble expansion rate or dark energy density {rho}DE(z) and in terms of the dark energy equation of state w(z), arguing that each has its carefully defined place. Fitting the density is best for learning about the density, but using it to probe the equation of state can lead to instability and bias.

Linder, Eric V.

2004-06-07

72

Beyond two dark energy parameters.

Our ignorance of dark energy is generally described by a two-parameter equation of state. In these approaches, a particular ad hoc functional form is assumed, and only two independent parameters are incorporated. We propose a model-independent, multiparameter approach to fitting dark energy and show that next-generation surveys will constrain the equation of state in three or more independent redshift bins to better than 10%. Future knowledge of dark energy will surpass two numbers (e.g., [w{0},w{1}] or [w{0},w{a}]), and we propose a more flexible approach to the analysis of present and future data. PMID:18643568

Sarkar, Devdeep; Sullivan, Scott; Joudaki, Shahab; Amblard, Alexandre; Holz, Daniel E; Cooray, Asantha

2008-06-20

73

Cosmological Consequences of a Dark Energy Component with Super-Negative Equation of State

It is extraordinary that a number of observations indicate that we live in a spatially flat, low matter density Universe, which is currently undergoing a period of accelerating expansion. The effort to explain this current state has focused attention on cosmological models in which the dominant component of the cosmic energy density has negative pressure, with an equation of state

R. R. Caldwell

74

Distance-redshift data can impose strong constraints on dark energy models even when the equation of state is oscillatory. Despite the double integral dependence of the distance on the equation of state, precision measurement of the distance-redshift relation for z=0-2 is more incisive than the linear growth factor, CMB last scattering surface distance, and the age of the universe in distinguishing oscillatory behavior from an average behavior. While oscillating models might help solve the coincidence problem (since acceleration occurs periodically), next generation observations will strongly constrain such possibilities.

Eric V. Linder

2005-11-15

75

Perturbation of a planetary orbit by the Lambda-term (dark energy) in Einstein equations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of cosmological influences at small (e.g. interplanetary) scales is discussed for a few decades, starting from the early 1930's, but still remains unsolved definitively by now [1]. This subject became especially topical in the context of the dark-energy-dominated cosmology, because the commonly-used arguments against the local Hubble expansion (such as Einstein-Straus theorem [2]) are inapplicable when the most contribution to the energy density of the Universe comes from the perfectly-uniform dark energy (Lambda-term). Moreover, there are some empirical evidences in favor of the local cosmological influences. For example, inclusion of the local Hubble expansion into dynamics of the Earth-Moon system enables us to resolve a long-standing discrepancy in the rates of secular increase of the lunar semi-major axis (a) mea-sured by the lunar laser ranging and (b) derived from the astrometric observations of the Earth's rotation deceleration [3, 4]. The aim of the present report is to provide a detailed mathematical treatment of the respective two-body problem in the framework of General Relativity, which is based on the Kottler metric reduced to the Robertson-Walker cosmological asymptotics, as outlined in our earlier work [5]. References: 1. W.B. Bonnor. Gen. Rel. Grav., v.32, p.1005 (2000). 2. A. Einstein and E.G. Straus. Rev. Mod. Phys., v.17, p.120 (1945). 3. Yu.V. Dumin. Adv. Space Res., v.31, p.2461 (2003). 4. Yu.V. Dumin. In Proc. 11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on General Relativity, World Sci., Singapore, p.1752 (2008). 5. Yu.V. Dumin. Phys. Rev. Lett., v.98, p.059001 (2007).

Dumin, Yurii

76

The model-independent piecewise parametrizations (0-spline, linear-spline and cubic-spline) are used to estimate constraints of equation of state of dark energy ($w_{de}$) from current observational data (including SNIa, BAO and Hubble parameter) and the simulated future data. A combination of fitting results of $w_{de}$ from these three spline methods reveal essential properties of real equation of state $w_{de}$. It is shown that $w_{de}$ beyond redshift $z\\sim0.5$ is poorly constrained from current data, and the mock future $\\sim2300$ supernovae data give poor constraints of $w_{de}$ beyond $z\\sim1$. The fitting results also indicate that there might exist a rapid transition of $w_{de}$ around $z\\sim0.5$. The difference between three spline methods in reconstructing and constraining $w_{de}$ has also been discussed.

Qiping Su; Xi He; Rong-Gen Cai

2012-04-10

77

Tommaso Treu, UC Santa Barbara What is the nature of dark energy and dark matter?

Tommaso Treu, UC Santa Barbara What is the nature of dark energy and dark matter? I will describe on the equation of state of dark energy and flatness comparable to those obtained with the best probes. The second

Glashausser, Charles

78

Correspondence between Ricci and other dark energies

Purpose of the present paper is to view the correspondence between Ricci and other dark energies. We have considered the Ricci dark energy in presence of dark matter in non-interacting situation. Subsequently, we have derived the pressure and energy density for Ricci dark energy. The equation of state parameter has been generated from these pressure and energy density. Next, we have considered the correspondence between Ricci and other dark energy models, namely tachyonic field, DBI-essence and new agegraphic dark energy without any interaction and investigated possible cosmological consequences.

Surajit Chattopadhyay; Ujjal Debnath

2010-09-26

79

Though the concept of a dark energy driven accelerating universe was introduced by the author in 1997, to date dark energy itself, as described below has remained a paradigm. A model for the cosmological constant is suggested.

Burra G. Sidharth

2014-12-30

80

Measuring the speed of dark: Detecting dark energy perturbations

The nature of dark energy can be probed not only through its equation of state but also through its microphysics, characterized by the sound speed of perturbations to the dark energy density and pressure. As the sound speed drops below the speed of light, dark energy inhomogeneities increase, affecting both cosmic microwave background and matter power spectra. We show that current data can put no significant constraints on the value of the sound speed when dark energy is purely a recent phenomenon, but can begin to show more interesting results for early dark energy models. For example, the best fit model for current data has a slight preference for dynamics [w(a){ne}-1], degrees of freedom distinct from quintessence (c{sub s{ne}}1), and early presence of dark energy [{Omega}{sub de}(a<<1){ne}0]. Future data may open a new window on dark energy by measuring its spatial as well as time variation.

Putter, Roland de [Berkeley Lab and University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Huterer, Dragan [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 48109 (United States); Linder, Eric V. [Berkeley Lab and University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Institute for the Early Universe, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2010-05-15

81

Weak lensing and dark energy: The impact of dark energy on nonlinear dark matter clustering

We examine the influence of percent-level dark energy corrections to the nonlinear matter power spectrum on constraints of the dark energy equation of state from future weak lensing probes. We explicitly show that a poor approximation (off by > or approx.10%) to the nonlinear corrections causes a > or approx. 1{sigma} bias on the determination of the dark energy equation of state. Future weak lensing surveys must therefore incorporate dark energy modifications to the nonlinear matter power spectrum accurate to the percent-level, to avoid introducing significant bias in their measurements. For the WMAP5 cosmology, the more accurate power spectrum is more sensitive to dark energy properties, resulting in a factor of 2 improvement in dark energy equation of state constraints. We explore the complementary constraints on dark energy from future weak lensing and supernova surveys. A space-based, Joint Dark Energy Mission-like survey measures the equation of state in five independent redshift bins to {approx}10%, while this improves to {approx}5% for a wide-field ground-based survey like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. These constraints are contingent upon our ability to control weak lensing systematic uncertainties to the sub-percent level.

Joudaki, Shahab; Cooray, Asantha; Holz, Daniel E. [Center for Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

2009-07-15

82

Entropy bounds and dark energy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Entropy bounds render quantum corrections to the cosmological constant ? finite. Under certain assumptions, the natural value of ? is of order the observed dark energy density ~10-10 eV4, thereby resolving the cosmological constant problem. We note that the dark energy equation of state in these scenarios is w?p/?=0 over cosmological distances, and is strongly disfavored by observational data. Alternatively, ? in these scenarios might account for the diffuse dark matter component of the cosmological energy density. Permanent address: Institute of Theoretical Science and Department of Physics, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403.

Hsu, Stephen D. H.

2004-07-01

83

Entropy bounds and dark energy

Entropy bounds render quantum corrections to the cosmological constant ? finite. Under certain assumptions, the natural value of ? is of order the observed dark energy density ?10?10 eV4, thereby resolving the cosmological constant problem. We note that the dark energy equation of state in these scenarios is w?p\\/?=0 over cosmological distances, and is strongly disfavored by observational data. Alternatively, ?

Stephen D. H. Hsu

2004-01-01

84

Dark Energy From Fifth Dimension

Observational evidence for the existence of dark energy is strong. Here we suggest a model which is based on a modified gravitational theory in 5D and interpret the 5th dimension as a manifestation of dark energy in the 4D observable universe. We also obtain an equation of state parameter which varies with time. Finally, we match our model with observations by choosing the free parameters of the model.

H. Alavirad; N. Riazi

2008-01-21

85

Observations provide increasingly strong evidence that the universe is accelerating. This revolutionary advance in cosmological observations confronts theoretical cosmology with a tremendous challenge, which it has so far failed to meet. Explanations of cosmic acceleration within the framework of general relativity are plagued by difficulties. General relativistic models are nearly all based on a dark energy field with fine-tuned, unnatural properties. There is a great variety of models, but all share one feature in common -- an inability to account for the gravitational properties of the vacuum energy. Speculative ideas from string theory may hold some promise, but it is fair to say that no convincing model has yet been proposed. An alternative to dark energy is that gravity itself may behave differently from general relativity on the largest scales, in such a way as to produce acceleration. The alternative approach of modified gravity (or dark gravity) provides a new angle on the problem, but also faces serious difficulties, including in all known cases severe fine-tuning and the problem of explaining why the vacuum energy does not gravitate. The lack of an adequate theoretical framework for the late-time acceleration of the universe represents a deep crisis for theory -- but also an exciting challenge for theorists. It seems likely that an entirely new paradigm is required to resolve this crisis.

Ruth Durrer; Roy Maartens

2007-12-05

86

We present a model in which the equation of state parameter w approaches -1 near a particular value of z, and has significant negative values in a restricted range of z. For example, one can have w ~ -1 near z = 1, and w > -0.2 from z = 0 to z = 0.3, and for z > 9. The ingredients of the model are neutral fermions (which may be neutrinos, neutralinos, etc) which are very weakly coupled to a light scalar field. This model emphasises the importance of the proposed studies of the properties of dark energy into the region z > 1.

B. H. J. McKellar; T. Goldman; G. J. Stephenson, Jr.; P. M. Alsing

2009-08-06

87

How many dark energy parameters?

For exploring the physics behind the accelerating universe a crucial question is how much we can learn about the dynamics through next generation cosmological experiments. For example, in defining the dark energy behavior through an effective equation of state, how many parameters can we realistically expect to tightly constrain? Through both general and specific examples (including new parametrizations and principal component analysis) we argue that the answer is 42 - no, wait, two. Cosmological parameter analyses involving a measure of the equation of state value at some epoch (e.g., w_0) and a measure of the change in equation of state (e.g., w') are therefore realistic in projecting dark energy parameter constraints. More elaborate parametrizations could have some uses (e.g., testing for bias or comparison with model features), but do not lead to accurately measured dark energy parameters.

Linder, Eric V.; Huterer, Dragan

2005-05-16

88

Dark Energy in Global Brane Universe

We discuss the exact solutions of brane universes and the results indicate the Friedmann equations on the branes are modified with a new density term. Then, we assume the new term as the density of dark energy. Using Wetterich's parametrization equation of state (EOS) of dark energy, we obtain the new term varies with the red-shift z. Finally, the evolutions of the mass density parameter $\\Omega_2$, dark energy density parameter $\\Omega_x$ and deceleration parameter q_2 are studied.

Yongli Ping; Lixin Xu; Chengwu Zhang; Hongya Liu

2007-12-20

89

Matter Field, Dark Matter and Dark Energy

A model concerning particle theory and cosmology is proposed. Matter field, dark matter and dark energy are created by an energy flow from space to primordial matter fields at the phase transition in the early universe.

Masayasu Tsuge

2009-03-24

90

Breaking parameter degeneracy in interacting dark energy models from observations

We study the interacting dark energy model with time varying dark energy equation of state. We examine the stability in the perturbation formalism and the degeneracy among the coupling between dark sectors, the time-dependent dark energy equation of state and dark matter abundance in the cosmic microwave background radiation. Further we discuss the possible ways to break such degeneracy by doing global fitting using the latest observational data and we get a tight constraint on the interaction between dark sectors.

Xu, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Bin

2011-01-01

91

Instability of agegraphic dark energy models

We investigate the agegraphic dark energy models which were recently proposed to explain the dark energy-dominated universe. For this purpose, we calculate their equation of states and squared speeds of sound. We find that the squared speed for agegraphic dark energy is always negative. This means that the perfect fluid for agegraphic dark energy is classically unstable. Furthermore, it is shown that the new agegraphic dark energy model could describe the matter (radiation)-dominated universe in the far past only when the parameter $n$ is chosen to be $n>n_c$, where the critical values are determined to be $n_c=2.6878(2.5137752)$ numerically. It seems that the new agegraphic dark energy model is no better than the holographic dark energy model for the description of the dark energy-dominated universe, even though it resolves the causality problem.

Kyoung Yee Kim; Hyung Won Lee; Yun Soo Myung

2007-09-18

92

It is now well accepted that both Dark Matter and Dark Energy are required in any successful cosmological model. Although there is ample evidence that both Dark components are necessary, the conventional theories make no prediction for the contributions from each of them. Moreover, there is usually no intrinsic relationship between the two components, and no understanding of the nature

Douglas Scott; Ali Frolop

2007-01-01

93

Direct Reconstruction of Dark Energy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important issue in cosmology is reconstructing the effective dark energy equation of state directly from observations. With so few physically motivated models, future dark energy studies cannot only be based on constraining a dark energy parameter space. We present a new nonparametric method which can accurately reconstruct a wide variety of dark energy behavior with no prior assumptions about it. It is simple, quick and relatively accurate, and involves no expensive explorations of parameter space. The technique uses principal component analysis and a combination of information criteria to identify real features in the data, and tailors the fitting functions to pick up trends and smooth over noise. We find that we can constrain a large variety of w(z) models to within 10%-20% at redshifts z?1 using just SNAP-quality data.

Clarkson, Chris; Zunckel, Caroline

2010-05-01

94

Direct reconstruction of dark energy.

An important issue in cosmology is reconstructing the effective dark energy equation of state directly from observations. With so few physically motivated models, future dark energy studies cannot only be based on constraining a dark energy parameter space. We present a new nonparametric method which can accurately reconstruct a wide variety of dark energy behavior with no prior assumptions about it. It is simple, quick and relatively accurate, and involves no expensive explorations of parameter space. The technique uses principal component analysis and a combination of information criteria to identify real features in the data, and tailors the fitting functions to pick up trends and smooth over noise. We find that we can constrain a large variety of w(z) models to within 10%-20% at redshifts z?1 using just SNAP-quality data. PMID:20867085

Clarkson, Chris; Zunckel, Caroline

2010-05-28

95

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In standard general-relativistic cosmology, for fluids with a linear equation of state (EoS) P=w? or scalar fields, the high isotropy of the universe requires special initial conditions: singularities are velocity dominated and anisotropic in general. In brane world effective 4-dimensional cosmological models an effective term, quadratic in the energy density, appears in the evolution equations, which has been shown to be responsible for the suppression of anisotropy and inhomogeneities at the singularity under reasonable assumptions. Thus in the brane world isotropy is generically built in, and singularities are matter dominated. There is no reason why the effective EoS of matter should be linear at the highest energies, and an effective nonlinear EoS may describe dark energy or unified dark matter (Paper I [K. Ananda and M. Bruni, preceding article, Phys. Rev. D 74, 023523 (2006).PRVDAQ0556-2821]). In view of this, here we investigate the effects of a quadratic EoS in homogenous and inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmological models in general relativity, in order to understand if in this standard context the quadratic EoS can isotropize the universe at early times. With respect to Paper I [K. Ananda and M. Bruni, preceding article, Phys. Rev. D 74, 023523 (2006).PRVDAQ0556-2821], here we use the simplified EoS P=??+?2/?c, which still allows for an effective cosmological constant and phantom behavior, and is general enough to analyze the dynamics at high energies. We first study homogenous and anisotropic Bianchi I and V models, focusing on singularities. Using dynamical systems methods, we find the fixed points of the system and study their stability. We find that models with standard nonphantom behavior are in general asymptotic in the past to an isotropic fixed point IS, i.e. in these models even an arbitrarily large anisotropy is suppressed in the past: the singularity is matter dominated. Using covariant and gauge-invariant variables, we then study linear anisotropic and inhomogeneous perturbations about the homogenous and isotropic spatially flat models with a quadratic EoS. We find that, in the large-scale limit, all perturbations decay asymptotically in the past, indicating that the isotropic fixed point IS is the general asymptotic past attractor for nonphantom inhomogeneous models with a quadratic EoS.

Ananda, Kishore N.; Bruni, Marco

2006-07-01

96

It is now well accepted that both Dark Matter and Dark Energy are required in any successful cosmological model. Although there is ample evidence that both Dark components are necessary, the conventional theories make no prediction for the contributions from each of them. Moreover, there is usually no intrinsic relationship between the two components, and no understanding of the nature of the mysteries of the Dark Sector. Here we suggest that if the Dark Side is so seductive then we should not be restricted to just 2 components. We further suggest that the most natural model has 5 distinct forms of Dark Energy in addition to the usual Dark Matter, each contributing precisely equally to the cosmic energy density budget.

Douglas Scott; Ali Frolop

2007-03-30

97

It is now well accepted that both Dark Matter and Dark Energy are required in any successful cosmological model. Although there is ample evidence that both Dark components are necessary, the conventional theories make no prediction for the contributions from each of them. Moreover, there is usually no intrinsic relationship between the two components, and no understanding of the nature of the mysteries of the Dark Sector. Here we suggest that if the Dark Side is so seductive then we should not be restricted to just 2 components. We further suggest that the most natural model has 5 distinct forms of Dark Energy in addition to the usual Dark Matter, each contributing precisely equally to the cosmic energy density budget.

Scott, Douglas

2007-01-01

98

Holographic dark energy reexamined

We have reexamined the holographic dark energy model by considering the spatial curvature. We have refined the model parameter and observed that the holographic dark energy model does not behave as phantom model. Comparing the holographic dark energy model to the supernova observation alone, we found that the closed Universe is favored. Combining with the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) data, we obtained the reasonable value of the spatial curvature of our Universe.

Gong Yungui; Wang Bin; Zhang Yuanzhong [College of Electronic Engineering, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); CCAST (World Laboratory), P.O. Box 8730, Beijing 100080, China and Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2735, Beijing 100080 (China)

2005-08-15

99

Thermodynamic properties of dark energy are discussed assuming that dark energy is described in terms of a selfinteracting complex scalar. We first show that, under certain assumptions, selfinteracting complex scalar field theories are equivalent to purely kinetic k-essence models. Then we analyze the themal properties of k-essence and in particular we show that dark-energy in the phantom regime does not necessarily yield negative entropy.

Neven Bilic

2010-09-27

100

Introduction to Dark Energy and Dark Matter

In an introductory manner, the nature of dark energy is addressed, how it is observed and what further tests are needed to reconstruct its properties. Several theoretical approaches to dark energy will be discussed. Finally, the dark matter, especially WIMPs, is introduced.

Paul H. Frampton

2005-06-28

101

Can Dark Matter Decay in Dark Energy?

We analyze the interaction between Dark Energy and Dark Matter from a thermodynamical perspective. By assuming they have different temperatures, we study the possibility of occurring a decay from Dark Matter into Dark Energy, characterized by a negative parameter $Q$. We find that, if at least one of the fluids has non vanishing chemical potential, for instance $\\mu_x0$, the decay is possible, where $\\mu_x$ and $\\mu_{dm}$ are the chemical potentials of Dark Energy and Dark Matter, respectively. Using recent cosmological data, we find that, for a fairly simple interaction, the Dark Matter decay is favored with a probability of $\\sim 93%$ over the Dark Energy decay. This result comes from a likelihood analysis where only background evolution has been considered.

S. H. Pereira; J. F. Jesus

2009-02-26

102

I briefly review our current understanding of dark matter and dark energy. The first part of this review focusses on issues pertaining to dark matter including observational evidence for its existence, current constraints and the a...\\/a H3 = 1\\\\stackrel{...}{a}\\/a H^3 = 1 for LCDM, which is helpful for differentiating between LCDM and rival dark energy models. The review ends with

Varun Sahni

2005-01-01

103

The Fully Quantized Axion and Dark Energy

This letter reviews the exact evolution equation for the axion effective potential with the axion scale factor f and phenomenological consequences of the flat effective potential solution are discussed. It is shown that the corresponding vacuum energy can be consistent with Dark Energy, and we compare this result to other studies relating the axion and Dark Energy.

Dylan Tanner

2012-12-17

104

Scattering of dark matter and dark energy

We demonstrate how the two dominant constituents of the Universe, dark energy and dark matter, could possess a large scattering cross section without considerably impacting observations. Unlike interacting models which invoke energy exchange between the two fluids, the background cosmology remains unaltered, leaving fewer observational signatures. Following a brief review of the scattering cross sections between cosmologically significant particles, we explore the implications of an elastic interaction between dark matter and dark energy. The growth of large scale structure is suppressed, yet this effect is found to be weak due to the persistently low dark energy density. Thus we conclude that the dark matter-dark energy cross section may exceed the Thomson cross section by several orders of magnitude.

Simpson, Fergus [SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)

2010-10-15

105

The Phase Transition of Dark Energy

Considering that the universe is filled with the nonrelativistic matter and dark energy and each component is respectively satisfied with its conservation condition in the absence of their interaction, we give the change rate of the fractional density and the density of dark energy from the conservation condition. It is clear that the fractional density of dark energy will monotonously increase and gradually become the dominating contribution to the universe as the redshift becomes low. Combining the evolutional trend of the state equation of dark energy and the change rate of the density of dark energy we find that the density of dark energy will decrease up to a minimum and whereafter it will increase again as the redshift becomes low. This can be regarded as the phase transition of dark energy from the quintessence phase to the phantom phase.

Wei Wang; Yuanxing Gui; Ying Shao

2006-12-05

106

A model of holographic dark energy

A model for holographic dark energy is proposed, following the idea that the short distance cut-off is related to the infrared cut-off. We assume that the infrared cut-off relevant to the dark energy is the size of the event horizon. With the input ??=0.73, we predict the equation of state of the dark energy at the present time be characterized

Miao Li

2004-01-01

107

Possible equilibria of interacting dark energy models

Interacting dark energy and the holographic principle offer a possible way of addressing the cosmic coincidence problem as well as accounting for the size of the dark energy component. The equilibrium points of the Friedmann equations which govern the evolution behavior of dark energy, matter, and curvature components can determine the qualitative behavior of the cosmological models. These possible equilibria and their behavior are examined in a general framework, and some illustrative examples are presented.

Berger, Micheal S.; Shojaei, Hamed [Physics Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana 47405 (United States)

2008-06-15

108

Dark Energy Coupled with Dark Matter in Viscous Fluid Cosmology

We investigate cosmological models with two interacting fluids: dark energy and dark matter in flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. The interaction between dark energy and dark matter is described in terms of the parameters present in the inhomogeneous equation of state when allowance is made for bulk viscosity, for the Little Rip, the Pseudo Rip, and the bounce universes. We obtain analytic representation for characteristic properties in these cosmological models, in particular the bulk viscosity $\\zeta=\\zeta(H,t)$ as function of Hubble parameter and time. We discuss the corrections of thermodynamical parameters in the equations of state due coupling between the viscous fluid and dark matter. Some common properties of these corrections are elucidated.

I. Brevik; V. V. Obukhov; A. V. Timoshkin

2014-10-10

109

Anisotropic charged dark energy star

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A model for charged dark energy star is investigated in this paper. This model is free from singularity. We have considered Krori-Barua space time with Einstein-Maxwell field equations in presence of charged fluids with anisotropic pressures. The radial pressure due to existence of dark energy is assumed to be proportional to the isotropic perfect fluid matter density and the difference between tangential and radial pressure is assumed to be proportional to the square of the electric field intensity. The physical conditions inside the star are examined in detail.

Das, Kanika; Ali, Nawsad

2015-03-01

110

We review in detail a number of approaches that have been adopted to try and explain the remarkable observation of our accelerating universe. In particular we discuss the arguments for and recent progress made towards understanding the nature of dark energy. We review the observational evidence for the current accelerated expansion of the universe and present a number of dark

Edmund J. Copeland; M. Sami; Shinji Tsujikawa

2006-01-01

111

General relativity is inconsistent with cosmological observations unless we invoke components of dark matter and dark energy that dominate the universe. While it seems likely that these exotic substances really do exist, the alternative is worth considering: that Einstein's general relativity breaks down on cosmological scales. I will discuss models of modified gravity, tests in the solar system and elsewhere, and consequences for cosmology.

Professor Sean Carroll

2006-11-13

112

General relativity is inconsistent with cosmological observations unless we invoke components of dark matter and dark energy that dominate the universe. While it seems likely that these exotic substances really do exist, the alternative is worth considering: that Einstein's general relativity breaks down on cosmological scales. I will discuss models of modified gravity, tests in the solar system and elsewhere, and consequences for cosmology.

Professor Sean Carroll

2010-01-08

113

Dark Energy: Taking SidesDark Energy: Taking SidesDark Energy: Taking Sides Rocky Kolb Barocky The University of Chicago #12;#12; Cold Dark Matter: (CDM) 25% Dark Energy (): 70% Stars: 0.5% H & He: gas 4 For Dark EnergyEvidence For Dark EnergyEvidence For Dark Energy 3) Baryon acoustic oscillations 4) Weak

Yamamoto, Hirosuke

114

The Quintom Model of Dark Energy

In this paper I give a brief review on the recently proposed new scenario of dark energy model dubbed $Quintom$. Quintom describes the dynamical dark energy models where the equation of state getting across the cosmological constant boundary during evolutions. I discuss some aspects on the quintom model buildings and the observational consequences.

Bo Feng

2006-02-07

115

Supernova Constraints on Braneworld Dark Energy

Braneworld models of dark energy are examined in the light of observations of high redshift type Ia supernovae. Braneworld models admit several novel and even exotic possibilities which include: (i) The effective equation of state of dark energy can be more negative than in LCDM: $w \\\\leq -1$; (ii) A class of braneworld models can encounter a `quiescent' future singularity

Ujjaini Alam; Varun Sahni

2002-01-01

116

Post-Planck dark energy constraints

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We constrain plausible dark energy models using the recently published cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropy data from Planck together with WMAP9 low-? polarization data and the data from low redshift surveys. To circumvent the limitations of any particular equation of state toward describing all existing dark energy models, we work with three different equations of state covering a wider class of dark energy models and hence provide more robust and generic constraints on the dark energy behavior. We show that a possible tension exists between constraints from CMB and non-CMB observations when one allows for both phantom and nonphantom behavior for the dark energy. Further, we reconstruct the equation of state of dark energy as a function of redshift using the combined CMB and non-CMB data and show that cosmological constant behavior is disallowed at the 68.3% confidence level. A fully nonphantom history is also disallowed at the 68.3% confidence level, and a considerable fine-tuning is also needed to keep it inside the 95.5% confidence limit. This result might motivate one to construct phantom models for dark energy, which may be achievable in the presence of higher derivative operators as in string theory. However, for a theoretical model that allows only nonphantom behavior, both CMB and non-CMB data sets agree on the dark energy constraint with the mean equation of state being very close to the cosmological constant.

Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Majumdar, Subhabrata; Pal, Supratik; Panda, Sudhakar; Sen, Anjan A.

2015-04-01

117

Brane-Bulk energy exchange and agegraphic dark energy

We consider the agegraphic models of dark energy in a braneworld scenario with brane-bulk energy exchange. We assume that the adiabatic equation for the dark matter is satisfied while it is violated for the agegraphic dark energy due to the energy exchange between the brane and the bulk. Our study shows that with the brane-bulk interaction, the equation of state parameter of agegraphic dark energy on the brane, $w_D$, can have a transition from normal state where $w_D >-1 $ to the phantom regime where $w_D energy always satisfies $w^{\\mathrm{eff}}_D\\geq-1$.

Ahmad Sheykhi

2010-02-06

118

Some seventy five years ago, the concept of dark matter was introduced by Zwicky to explain the anomaly of galactic rotation curves, though there is no clue to its identity or existence to date. In 1997, the author had introduced a model of the universe which went diametrically opposite to the existing paradigm which was a dark matter assisted decelarating universe. The new model introduces a dark energy driven accelarating universe though with a small cosmological constant. The very next year this new picture was confirmed by the Supernova observations of Perlmutter, Riess and Schmidt. These astronomers got the 2011 Nobel Prize for this dramatic observation. All this is discussed briefly, including the fact that dark energy may obviate the need for dark matter.

Burra G. Sidharth

2015-01-12

119

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we briefly discuss the Galileon gravity theory and modified Friedmann equations. By considering new holographic dark energy (NHDE) in the framework of Galileon gravity, we found the energy density, pressure, equation of state and the deceleration parameter in terms of the scale factor. Subsequently, we study the correspondence between the NHDE in the framework of Galileon gravity with other dark energies like quintessence, k-essence, tachyon, dilaton, hessence and DBI-essence dark energies and construct the scalar field and corresponding scalar potentials which describe the dynamics of the scalar fields graphically. All the dark energy models, the scalar field and the potential decrease due to the evolution of the universe.

Debnath, Ujjal

2014-12-01

120

Constraining dark energy fluctuations with supernova correlations

We investigate constraints on dark energy fluctuations using type Ia supernovae. If dark energy is not in the form of a cosmological constant, that is if the equation of state w??1, we expect not only temporal, but also spatial variations in the energy density. Such fluctuations would cause local variations in the universal expansion rate and directional dependences in the redshift-distance relation. We present a scheme for relating a power spectrum of dark energy fluctuations to an angular covariance function of standard candle magnitude fluctuations. The predictions for a phenomenological model of dark energy fluctuations are compared to observational data in the form of the measured angular covariance of Hubble diagram magnitude residuals for type Ia supernovae in the Union2 compilation. The observational result is consistent with zero dark energy fluctuations. However, due to the limitations in statistics, current data still allow for quite general dark energy fluctuations as long as they are in the linear regime.

Blomqvist, Michael [The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, SE–106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Enander, Jonas; Mörtsell, Edvard, E-mail: michaelb@astro.su.se, E-mail: enander@fysik.su.se, E-mail: edvard@fysik.su.se [The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, SE–106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

2010-10-01

121

The dark energy problem may have a simple solution in the model of cosmology based on the space-time interaction hypothesis. The hypothesis throws light on the nature of time (see Time-Transcendence-Truth, to be published).

S. C. Tiwari

2005-02-08

122

Dark energy dynamics in the recent universe is influenced by its evolution through the long, matter-dominated expansion history. A particular dynamical property, the flow variable, remains constant in several classes of scalar field models as long as matter dominates; the dark energy is only free to change this behavior at recent times. This gives natural initial conditions for Monte Carlo studies of dark energy dynamics. We propose a parametrization for the later evolution that covers a wide range of possible behaviors, is tractable in making predictions, and can be constrained by observations. We compare the approach to directly parametrizing the potential, which does not take into account the history of the dark energy dynamics.

Cortes, Marina [Berkeley Lab, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Linder, Eric V. [Berkeley Lab, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Institute for the Early Universe, Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2010-03-15

123

We look for evidence for the evolution in dark energy density by employing Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Distance redshift data from supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) along with WMAP7 distance priors are used to put constraints on curvature parameter ?{sub k} and dark energy parameters. The data sets are consistent with a flat Universe. The constraints on the dark energy evolution parameters obtained from supernovae (including CMB distance priors) are consistent with a flat ?CDM Universe. On the other hand, in the parameter estimates obtained from the addition of BAO data the second principal component, which characterize a non-constant contribution from dark energy, is non-zero at 1?. This could be a systematic effect and future BAO data holds key to making more robust claims.

Nair, Remya; Jhingan, Sanjay, E-mail: remya_phy@yahoo.com, E-mail: sanjay.jhingan@gmail.com [Centre for Theoretical Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India)

2013-02-01

124

Dark Energy and Dark Matter in Stars Physic

We present the basic equations and relations for the relativistic static spherically symmetric stars (SSSS) in the model of minimal dilatonic gravity (MDG) which is {\\em locally} equivalent to the f(R) theories of gravity and gives an alternative description of the effects of dark matter and dark energy. The results for the simplest form of the relativistic equation of state (EOS) of neutron matter are represented. Our approach overcomes the well-known difficulties of the physics of SSSS in the f(R) theories of gravity introducing two novel EOS for cosmological energy-pressure densities and dilaton energy-pressure densities, as well as proper boundary conditions.

Plamen Fiziev

2014-11-02

125

Statefinder Diagnostic for Dilaton Dark Energy

Statefinder diagnostic is a useful method which can differ one dark energy model from the others. The Statefinder pair $\\{r, s\\}$ is algebraically related to the equation of state of dark energy and its first time derivative. We apply in this paper this method to the dilaton dark energy model based on Weyl-Scaled induced gravitational theory. We investigate the effect of the coupling between matter and dilaton when the potential of dilaton field is taken as the Mexican hat form. We find that the evolving trajectory of our model in the $r-s$ diagram is quite different from those of other dark energy models.

Z. G. Huang; X. M. Song; H. Q. Lu; W. Fang

2008-05-07

126

Interacting holographic dark energy with logarithmic correction

The holographic dark energy (HDE) is considered to be the most promising candidate of dark energy. Its definition is motivated from the entropy-area relation which depends on the theory of gravity under consideration. Recently a new definition of HDE is proposed with the help of quantum corrections to the entropy-area relation in the setup of loop quantum cosmology. Employing this new definition, we investigate the model of interacting dark energy and derive its effective equation of state. Finally we establish a correspondence between generalized Chaplygin gas and entropy-corrected holographic dark energy.

Jamil, Mubasher; Farooq, M. Umar, E-mail: mjamil@camp.nust.edu.pk, E-mail: mufarooq@yahoo.com [Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, Rawalpindi, 46000 (Pakistan)

2010-03-01

127

Interacting holographic dark energy with logarithmic correction

The holographic dark energy (HDE) is considered to be the most promising candidate of dark energy. Its definition is originally motivated from the entropy-area relation which depends on the theory of gravity under consideration. Recently a new definition of HDE is proposed with the help of quantum corrections to the entropy-area relation in the setup of loop quantum cosmology. Using this new definition, we investigate the model of interacting dark energy and derive its effective equation of state. Finally we establish a correspondence between generalized Chaplygin gas and entropy-corrected holographic dark energy.

Mubasher Jamil; M. Umar Farooq

2010-03-01

128

Non-negligible dark energy density at high redshifts would indicate dark energy physics distinct from a cosmological constant or ``reasonable'' canonical scalar fields. Such dark energy can be constrained tightly through investigation of the growth of structure, with limits of \\la2% of total energy density at z\\gg1 for many models. Intermediate dark energy can have effects distinct from its energy density; the dark ages acceleration can be constrained to last less than 5% of a Hubble e-fold time, exacerbating the coincidence problem. Both the total linear growth, or equivalently \\sigma_8, and the shape and evolution of the nonlinear mass power spectrum for zenergy behavior over the entire range z=0-1100.

Eric V. Linder

2006-04-11

129

I review the problem of dark energy focussing on cosmological constant as the candidate and discuss what it tells us regarding\\u000a the nature of gravity. Section 1 briefly overviews the currently popular “concordance cosmology” and summarizes the evidence\\u000a for dark energy. It also provides the observational and theoretical arguments in favour of the cosmological constant as a\\u000a candidate and emphasizes

T. Padmanabhan

2008-01-01

130

Field theory model for dark matter and dark energy in interaction

We propose a field theory model for dark energy and dark matter in interaction. Comparing the classical solutions of the field equations with the observations of the CMB shift parameter, baryonic acoustic oscillations, lookback time, and the Gold supernovae sample, we observe a possible interaction between dark sectors with energy decay from dark energy into dark matter. The observed interaction provides an alleviation to the coincidence problem.

Micheletti, Sandro; Abdalla, Elcio [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 66318, 05315-970, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Wang Bin [Department of Physics, Fudan University, 200433 Shanghai (China)

2009-06-15

131

The distance-redshift relation observed for supernovae has led to the discovery that the expansion of the universe is accelerating. A next generation experiment, the Supernova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP), can investigate the nature of the dark energy responsible, determining its energy density contribution and equation of state. In addition, indications of time variation in the equation of state could provide critical clues to the underlying fundamental physics; we show how SNAP can achieve 3 sigma detection of such time variation in some cases.

Eric V. Linder

2002-10-09

132

Effects of the interaction between dark energy and dark matter on cosmological parameters

We examine the effects of possible phenomenological interactions between dark energy and dark matter on cosmological parameters and their efficiency in solving the coincidence problem. We work with two simple parameterizations of the dynamical dark energy equation of state and the constant dark energy equation of state. Using observational data coming from the new 182 Gold type Ia supernova samples, the shift parameter of the Cosmic Microwave Background given by the three-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe observations and the baryon acoustic oscillation measurement from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we perform a statistical joint analysis of different forms of phenomenological interaction between dark energy and dark matter.

He, Jian-Hua; Wang, Bin, E-mail: 062019010@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: wangb@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)] [Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

2008-06-15

133

Interacting Dark Matter and Dark Energy

We discuss models for the cosmological dark sector in which the energy\\u000adensity of a scalar field approximates Einstein's cosmological constant and the\\u000ascalar field value determines the dark matter particle mass by a Yukawa\\u000acoupling. A model with one dark matter family can be adjusted so the\\u000aobservational constraints on the cosmological parameters are close to but\\u000adifferent from

Glennys R. Farrar; P. J. E. Peebles

2003-01-01

134

Probing dark energy with future surveys

I review the observational prospects to constrain the equation of state parameter of dark energy and I discuss the potential of future imaging and redshift surveys. Bayesian model selection is used to address the question of the level of accuracy on the equation of state parameter that is required before explanations alternative to a cosmological constant become very implausible. I discuss results in the prediction space of dark energy models. If no significant departure from w=-1 is detected, a precision on w of order 1% will translate into strong evidence against fluid-like dark energy, while decisive evidence will require a precision of order 10^-3.

Roberto Trotta

2006-07-21

135

Dark energy: The observational challenge

Nearly all proposed tests for the nature of dark energy measure some combination of four fundamental observables: the Hubble parameter H(z), the distance-redshift relation d(z), the age-redshift relation t(z), or the linear growth factor D1(z). I discuss the sensitivity of these observables to the value and redshift history of the equation of state parameter w, emphasizing where these different observables

David H. Weinberg

2005-01-01

136

Interacting agegraphic dark energy models in non-flat universe

A so-called "agegraphic dark energy" was recently proposed to explain the dark energy-dominated universe. In this Letter, we generalize the agegraphic dark energy models to the universe with spatial curvature in the presence of interaction between dark matter and dark energy. We show that these models can accommodate $w_D = -1 $ crossing for the equation of state of dark energy. In the limiting case of a flat universe, i.e. $k = 0$, all previous results of agegraphic dark energy in flat universe are restored.

Ahmad Sheykhi

2009-09-12

137

Irreversible thermodynamic description of interacting dark energy-dark matter cosmological models

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the interaction between dark energy and dark matter in the framework of irreversible thermodynamics of open systems with matter creation/annihilation. We consider dark energy and dark matter as an interacting two-component (scalar field and “ordinary” dark matter) cosmological fluid in a homogeneous spatially flat and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe. The thermodynamics of open systems as applied together with the gravitational field equations to the two-component cosmological fluid leads to a generalization of the elementary dark energy-dark matter interaction theory, in which the decay (creation) pressures are explicitly considered as parts of the cosmological fluid stress-energy tensor. Specific models describing coherently oscillating scalar waves, leading to a high particle production at the beginning of the oscillatory period, and models with a constant potential energy scalar field are considered. Furthermore, exact and numerical solutions of the gravitational field equations with dark energy-dark matter interactions are also obtained.

Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

2013-02-01

138

Interacting dark energy: the role of microscopic feedback in the dark sector

We investigate the impact on the classical dynamics of dark matter particles and dark energy of a non-minimal coupling in the dark sector, assuming that the mass of the dark matter particles is coupled to a dark energy scalar field. We show that standard results can only be recovered if the space-time variation of the dark energy scalar field is sufficiently smooth on the characteristic length scale of the dark matter particles, and we determine the associated constraint dependent on both the mass and radius of the dark matter particles and the coupling to the dark energy scalar field. We further show, using field theory numerical simulations, that a violation of such constraint results in a microscopic feedback effect strongly affecting the dynamics of dark matter particles, with a potential impact on structure formation and on the space-time evolution of the dark energy equation of state.

Avelino, P P

2015-01-01

139

Interacting dark energy: The role of microscopic feedback in the dark sector

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the impact on the classical dynamics of dark matter particles and dark energy of a nonminimal coupling in the dark sector, assuming that the mass of the dark matter particles is coupled to a dark energy scalar field. We show that standard results can be recovered only if the space-time variation of the dark energy scalar field is sufficiently smooth on the characteristic length scale of the dark matter particles, and we determine the associated constraint dependent on both the mass and radius of the dark matter particles and the coupling to the dark energy scalar field. We further show, using field theory numerical simulations, that a violation of such constraint results in a microscopic feedback effect strongly affecting the dynamics of dark matter particles, with a potential impact on structure formation and on the space-time evolution of the dark energy equation of state.

Avelino, P. P.

2015-04-01

140

Unravelling the Dark Matter - Dark Energy Paradigm

The standard LambdaCDM model of cosmology is usually understood to arise from demanding that the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metric satisfy the General Relativity dynamics for spacetime metrics. The FLRW data-based dominant parameter values, Omega_Lambda=0.73 and Omega_m=0.27 for the dark energy and dark matter+matter, respectively, are then determined by fitting the supernova red-shift data. However in the pressure-less flat-space case the LambdaCDM model is most easily derived from Newtonian gravity, and which was based on the special case of planetary motion in the solar system. Not surprisingly when extended to galactic rotations and cosmology Newtonian dynamics is found to be wanting, and the fix-up involves introducing dark matter and dark energy, as shown herein. However a different theory of gravity leads to a different account of galactic rotations and cosmology, and does not require dark matter nor dark energy to fit the supernova data. It is shown that fitting the LambdaCDM model to this new model, and so independently of the actual supernova data, requires the LambdaCDM model parameters to be those given above. Hence we conclude that dark energy and dark matter are no more than mathematical artifacts to fix-up limitations of Newtonian gravity. Various other data are also briefly reviewed to illustrate other successful tests of this new theory of gravity.

Reginald T Cahill

2009-01-26

141

Generalized Model for $?$-Dark Energy

Einstein field equations under spherically symmetric space-times are considered here in connection to dark energy investigation. A set of solutions are obtained for a kinematical $\\Lambda$ model, viz., $\\Lambda \\sim (\\dot a/a)^2$ without assuming any {\\it a priori} value for the curvature constant and the equation of state parameter $\\omega$. Some interesting results, such as the nature of cosmic density $\\Omega$ and deceleration parameter $q$, have been obtained with the consideration of two-fluid structure instead of usual uni-fluid cosmological model.

Utpal Mukhopadhyay; P. C. Ray; Saibal Ray; S. B. Datta Choudhury

2008-02-07

142

Material models of dark energy

We review and develop a new class of "dark energy" models, in which the relativistic theory of solids is used to construct material models of dark energy. These are models which include the effects of a continuous medium with well defined physical properties at the level of linearized perturbations. The formalism is constructed for a medium with arbitrary symmetry, and then specialised to isotropic media (which will be the case of interest for the majority of cosmological applications). We develop the theory of relativistic isotropic viscoelastic media whilst keeping in mind that we ultimately want to observationally constrain the allowed properties of the material model. We do this by obtaining the viscoelastic equations of state for perturbations (the entropy and anisotropic stress), as well as identifying the consistent corner of the theory which has constant equation of state parameter $\\dot{w}=0$. We also connect to the non-relativistic theory of solids, by identifying the two quadratic invariants that are needed to construct the energy-momentum tensor, namely the Rayleigh dissipation function and Lagrangian for perturbations. Finally, we develop the notion that the viscoelastic behavior of the medium can be thought of as a non-minimally coupled massive gravity theory. This also provides a tool-kit for constructing consistent generalizations of coupled dark energy theories.

Jonathan A. Pearson

2014-09-16

143

The concept of an all pervading Aether is age old, and contrary to popular belief, it survived the twentieth century too though with different nuances. Using this concept of a background Quantum Vacuum, the author in 1997 proposed a cosmological model with some resemblance to the Dirac cosmology, which correctly predicted a dark energy driven accelerating universer with a small cosmological constant, as was subsequently confirmed by observation in 1998. Moreover the so called Large Number coincidences including the mysterious Weinberg formula are deduced in this theory, rather than being ad hoc. We examine the concept of Aether in this context and indicate how this dark energy may be harnessed.

Burra G. Sidharth

2004-11-24

144

Scientists were shocked in 1998 when the expansion of the universe wasn't slowing down as expected by our best understanding of gravity at the time; the expansion was speeding up! That observation is just mind blowing, and yet it is true. In order to explain the data, physicists had to resurrect an abandoned idea of Einstein's now called dark energy. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln tells us a little about the observations that led to the hypothesis of dark energy and what is the status of current research on the subject.

Lincoln, Don

2014-08-07

145

Scientists were shocked in 1998 when the expansion of the universe wasn't slowing down as expected by our best understanding of gravity at the time; the expansion was speeding up! That observation is just mind blowing, and yet it is true. In order to explain the data, physicists had to resurrect an abandoned idea of Einstein's now called dark energy. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln tells us a little about the observations that led to the hypothesis of dark energy and what is the status of current research on the subject.

Lincoln, Don

2014-04-15

146

Schwarzschild black hole in dark energy background

In this paper we present an exact solution of Einstein's field equations describing the Schwarzschild black hole in dark energy background. It is also regarded as an embedded solution that the Schwarzschild black hole is embedded into the dark energy space producing Schwarzschild-dark energy black hole. It is found that the space-time geometry of Schwarzschild-dark energy solution is non-vacuum Petrov type $D$ in the classification of space-times. We study the energy conditions (like weak, strong and dominant conditions) for the energy-momentum tensor of the Schwarzschild-dark energy solution. We also find that the energy-momentum tensor of the Schwarzschild-dark energy solution violates the strong energy condition due to the negative pressure leading to a repulsive gravitational force of the matter field in the space-time. It is shown that the time-like vector field for an observer in the Schwarzschild-dark energy space is expanding, accelerating, shearing and non-rotating. We investigate the surface gravity and the area of the horizons for the Schwarzschild-dark energy black hole.

Ngangbam Ishwarchandra; Ng. Ibohal; K. Yugindro Singh

2014-09-27

147

How clustering dark energy affects matter perturbations

The rate of structure formation in the Universe is different in homogeneous and clustered dark energy models. The degree of dark energy clustering depends on the magnitude of its effective sound speed $c^{2}_{\\rm eff}$ and for $c_{\\rm eff}=0$ dark energy clusters in a similar fashion to dark matter while for $c_{\\rm eff}=1$ it stays (approximately) homogeneous. In this paper we consider two distinct equations of state for the dark energy component, $w_{\\rm d}=const$ and $w_{\\rm d}=w_0+w_1\\left(\\frac{z}{1+z}\\right)$ with $c_{\\rm eff}$ as a free parameter and we try to constrain the dark energy effective sound speed using current available data including SnIa, Baryon Acoustic Oscillation, CMB shift parameter ({\\em Planck} and {\\em WMAP}), Hubble parameter, Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and the growth rate of structures $f\\sigma_{8}(z)$. At first we derive the most general form of the equations governing dark matter and dark energy clustering under the assumption that $c_{\\rm eff}=const$. Finally we constrain the mod...

Mehrabi, A; Pace, F

2015-01-01

148

Cosmic steps in modeling dark energy

Past and recent data analyses gave some hints of steps in dark energy. Considering dark energy as a dynamical scalar field, we investigate several models with various steps: a step in the scalar potential, a step in the kinetic term, a step in the energy density, and a step in the equation-of-state parameter w. These toy models provide a workable mechanism to generate steps and features of dark energy. Remarkably, a single real scalar can cross w=-1 dynamically with a step in the kinetic term.

Wang Tower [Center for High-Energy Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2009-11-15

149

CAPUT DARK ENERGY TOPICS, 2013 1. The Cosmological Constant

CAPUT DARK ENERGY TOPICS, 2013 1 #12;1. The Cosmological Constant - The acceleration as curvature term in the Einstein field equation and not a form of dark energy. Provide a critical discussion., Rovelli C., 2010 Is dark energy really a mystery ? Nature, 466, 321 (July 2010) - Padmanabhan T., 2003

Weijgaert, Rien van de

150

Dark energy and dark matter perturbations in singular universes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss the evolution of density perturbations of dark matter and dark energy in cosmological models which admit future singularities in a finite time. Up to now geometrical tests of the evolution of the universe do not differentiate between singular universes and ?CDM scenario. We solve perturbation equations using the gauge invariant formalism. The analysis shows that the detailed reconstruction of the evolution of perturbations within singular cosmologies, in the dark sector, can exhibit important differences between the singular universes models and the ?CDM cosmology. This is encouraging for further examination and gives hope for discriminating between those models with future galaxy weak lensing experiments like the Dark Energy Survey (DES) and Euclid or CMB observations like PRISM and CoRE.

Denkiewicz, Tomasz

2015-03-01

151

A new type of dark energy model

In this paper, we propose a general form of the equation of state (EoS) which is the function of the fractional dark energy density ?{sub d}. At least, five related models, the cosmological constant model, the holographic dark energy model, the agegraphic dark energy model, the modified holographic dark energy model and the Ricci scalar holographic dark energy model are included in this form. Furthermore, if we consider proper interactions, the interactive variants of those models can be included as well. The phase-space analysis shows that the scaling solutions may exist both in the non-interacting and interacting cases. And the stability analysis of the system could give out the attractor solution which could alleviate the coincidence problem.

Zhang, Yi [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Li, Hui, E-mail: zhangyia@cqupt.edu.cn, E-mail: lihui@ytu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Yantai University, Yantai 264005 (China)

2010-06-01

152

Dark energy from entanglement entropy

We show that quantum decoherence, in the context of observational cosmology, can be connected to the cosmic dark energy. The decoherence signature could be characterized by the existence of quantum entanglement between cosmological eras. As a consequence, the Von Neumann entropy related to the entanglement process, can be compared to the thermodynamical entropy in a homogeneous and isotropic universe. The corresponding cosmological models are compatible with the current observational bounds being able to reproduce viable equations of state without introducing {\\it a priori} any cosmological constant. In doing so, we investigate two cases, corresponding to two suitable cosmic volumes, $V\\propto a^3$ and $V\\propto H^{-3}$, and find two models which fairly well approximate the current cosmic speed up. The existence of dark energy can be therefore reinterpreted as a quantum signature of entanglement, showing that the cosmological constant represents a limiting case of a more complicated model derived from the quantum decoherence.

Salvatore Capozziello; Orlando Luongo

2013-03-06

153

In the light of recent developments in Dark Energy, we consider the electron in a such a background field and show that at the Compton wavelength the electron is stable, in that the Cassini inward pressure exactly counterbalances the outward Coulomb repulsive pressure thus answering a problem of the earlier electron theory.

Burra G. Sidharth

2008-08-05

154

This review summarizes recent attempts to reconstruct the expansion history of the universe and to probe the nature of dark energy. Reconstruction methods can be broadly classified into parametric and non-parametric approaches. It is encouraging that, even with the limited observational data currently available, different approaches give consistent results for the reconstruction of the Hubble parameter H(z) and the effective

Varun Sahni; Alexei Starobinsky

2006-01-01

155

Roles of dark energy perturbations in dynamical dark energy models: can we ignore them?

We show the importance of properly including the perturbations of the dark energy component in the dynamical dark energy models based on a scalar field and modified gravity theories in order to meet with present and future observational precisions. Based on a simple scaling scalar field dark energy model, we show that observationally distinguishable substantial differences appear by ignoring the dark energy perturbation. By ignoring it the perturbed system of equations becomes inconsistent and deviations in (gauge-invariant) power spectra depend on the gauge choice. PMID:19905618

Park, Chan-Gyung; Hwang, Jai-chan; Lee, Jae-heon; Noh, Hyerim

2009-10-01

156

It is extraordinary that a number of observations indicate that we live in a spatially flat, low matter density Universe, which is currently undergoing a period of accelerating expansion. The effort to explain this current state has focused attention on cosmological models in which the dominant component of the cosmic energy density has negative pressure, with an equation of state

R. R. Caldwell

2002-01-01

157

Investigating Dark Energy with Black Hole Binaries

The accelerated expansion of the universe is ascribed to the existence of dark energy. Black holes accretion of dark energy induces a mass change proportional to the energy density and pressure of the background dark energy fluid. The time scale during which the mass of black holes changes considerably is too long relative to the age of the universe, thus beyond detection possibilities. We propose to take advantage of the modified black hole masses for exploring the equation of state $w[z]$ of dark energy, by investigating the evolution of supermassive black hole binaries on a dark energy background. Deriving the signatures of dark energy accretion on the evolution of binaries, we find that dark energy imprints on the emitted gravitational radiation and on the changes in the orbital radius of the binary can be within detection limits for certain supermassive black hole binaries. In this talk I describe how binaries can provide a useful tool in obtaining complementary information on the nature of dark energy, based on the work done with A.Kelleher.

Laura Mersini-Houghton; Adam Kelleher

2009-06-08

158

Early dark energy and its interaction with dark matter

We study a class of early dark energy models which has substantial amount of dark energy in the early epoch of the universe. We examine the impact of the early dark energy fluctuations on the growth of structure and the CMB power spectrum in the linear approximation. Furthermore we investigate the influence of the interaction between the early dark energy and the dark matter and its effect on the structure growth and CMB. We finally constrain the early dark energy model parameters and the coupling between dark sectors by confronting to different observations and conclude that the early dark energy interacting with dark matter can contribute to alleviate the coincidence problem.

Pu, Bo-Yu; Wang, Bin; Abdalla, Elcio

2014-01-01

159

What is the Universe made of? This question has been asked as long as humans have been questioning, and astronomers and physicists are finally converging on an answer. The picture which has emerged from numerous complementary observations over the past decade is a surprising one: most of the matter in the Universe isn't visible, and most of the Universe isn't even made of matter. In this talk, I will explain what the rest of this stuff, known as 'Dark Energy' is, how it is related to the so-called 'Dark Matter', how it impacts the evolution of the Universe, and how we can study the dark universe using observations of light from current and future telescopes.

Wechsler, Risa

2007-10-30

160

Dark energy: myths and reality

We discuss the questions related to dark energy in the Universe. We note that in spite of the effect of dark energy, large-scale structure is still being generated in the Universe and this will continue for about ten billion years. We also comment on some statements in the paper ``Dark energy and universal antigravitation'' by A.D. Chernin [4].

Lukash, V N

2008-01-01

161

Dark energy: myths and reality

We discuss the questions related to dark energy in the Universe. We note that in spite of the effect of dark energy, large-scale structure is still being generated in the Universe and this will continue for about ten billion years. We also comment on some statements in the paper ``Dark energy and universal antigravitation'' by A.D. Chernin [4].

V. N. Lukash; V. A. Rubakov

2008-07-10

162

We study the power of upcoming weak lensing surveys to probe dark energy. Dark energy modifies the distance-redshift relation as well as the matter power spectrum, both of which affect the weak lensing convergence power spectrum. Some dark-energy models predict additional clustering on very large scales, but this probably cannot be detected by weak lensing alone due to cosmic variance.

Dragan Huterer

2002-01-01

163

Probing the time dependence of dark energy

A new method to investigate a possible time-dependence of the dark energy equation of state w is proposed. We apply this methodology to a combination of data involving one of the most recent type Ia supernova sample (SNLS3) along with the current baryon acoustic oscillation and H(z) measurements. We show that current observations cannot rule out a non-evolving dark energy component (dw/dz = 0). The approach developed here reduces considerably the so-called smearing effect on w determinations and may be useful to probe a possible evolving dark energy component when applied to upcoming observational data.

Barboza Edésio Jr, M. [Departamento de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Rua Professor Antônio Campos s/n, Mossoró (Brazil); Alcaniz, J.S., E-mail: edesiobarboza@uern.br, E-mail: alcaniz@on.br [Departamento de Astronomia, Observatório Nacional, Rua General José Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

2012-02-01

164

Universal Forces and the Dark Energy Problem

The Dark Energy problem is forcing us to re-examine our models and our understanding of relativity and space-time. Here a novel idea of Fundamental Forces is introduced. This allows us to perceive the General Theory of Relativity and Einstein's Equation from a new pesrpective. In addition to providing us with an improved understanding of space and time, it will be shown how it leads to a resolution of the Dark Energy problem.

Afsar Abbas

2007-04-01

165

Can dark energy evolve to the phantom?

Dark energy with the equation of state w(z) rapidly evolving from the dustlike (w~=0 at z˜1) to the phantomlike (-1.2≲w≲-1 at z~=0) has been recently proposed as the best fit for the supernovae Ia data. Assuming that a dark energy component with an arbitrary scalar-field Lagrangian p(phi,?muphi) dominates in the flat Friedmann universe, we analyze the possibility of a dynamical

Alexander Vikman

2005-01-01

166

Dark Energy: The Observational Challenge

Nearly all proposed tests for the nature of dark energy measure some combination of four fundamental observables: the Hubble parameter H(z), the distance-redshift relation d(z), the age-redshift relation t(z), or the linear growth factor D_1(z). I discuss the sensitivity of these observables to the value and redshift history of the equation of state parameter w, emphasizing where these different observables are and are not complementary. Demonstrating time-variability of w is difficult in most cases because dark energy is dynamically insignificant at high redshift. Time-variability in which dark energy tracks the matter density at high redshift and changes to a cosmological constant at low redshift is {\\it relatively} easy to detect. However, even a sharp transition of this sort at z_c=1 produces only percent-level differences in d(z) or D_1(z) over the redshift range 0.4 energy observables are space-based studies of Type Ia supernovae, which measure d(z) directly, and of weak gravitational lensing, which is sensitive to d(z), D_1(z), and H(z).

David H. Weinberg

2005-10-06

167

The dark side of cosmology: dark matter and dark energy.

A simple model with only six parameters (the age of the universe, the density of atoms, the density of matter, the amplitude of the initial fluctuations, the scale dependence of this amplitude, and the epoch of first star formation) fits all of our cosmological data . Although simple, this standard model is strange. The model implies that most of the matter in our Galaxy is in the form of "dark matter," a new type of particle not yet detected in the laboratory, and most of the energy in the universe is in the form of "dark energy," energy associated with empty space. Both dark matter and dark energy require extensions to our current understanding of particle physics or point toward a breakdown of general relativity on cosmological scales. PMID:25745164

Spergel, David N

2015-03-01

168

Black hole and holographic dark energy

We discuss the connection between black hole and holographic dark energy. We examine the issue of the equation of state (EOS) for holographic energy density as a candidate for the dark energy carefully. This is closely related to the EOS for black hole, because the holographic dark energy comes from the black hole energy density. In order to derive the EOS of a black hole, we may use its dual (quantum) systems. Finally, a regular black hole without the singularity is introduced to describe an accelerating universe inside the cosmological horizon. Inspired by this, we show that the holographic energy density with the cosmological horizon as the IR cutoff leads to the dark energy-dominated universe with $\\omega_{\\rm \\Lambda}=-1$.

Yun Soo Myung

2007-04-11

169

We examine a dark energy model where a scalar unparticle degree of freedom plays the role of quintessence. In particular, we study a model where the unparticle degree of freedom has a standard kinetic term and a simple mass potential, the evolution is slowly rolling and the field value is of the order of the unparticle energy scale ({lambda}{sub u}). We study how the evolution of w depends on the parameters B (a function of unparticle scaling dimension d{sub u}), the initial value of the field {phi}{sub i} (or equivalently, {lambda}{sub u}) and the present matter density {omega}{sub m0}. We use observational data from type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations and the cosmic microwave background to constrain the model parameters and find that these models are not ruled out by the observational data. From a theoretical point of view, unparticle dark energy model is very attractive, since unparticles (being bound states of fundamental fermions) are protected from radiative corrections. Further, coupling of unparticles to the standard model fields can be arbitrarily suppressed by raising the fundamental energy scale M{sub F}, making the unparticle dark energy model free of most of the problems that plague conventional scalar field quintessence models.

Dai, D.-C.; Stojkovic, Dejan [HEPCOS, Department of Physics, SUNY at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14260-1500 (United States); Dutta, Sourish [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

2009-09-15

170

Cosmological Evolution of Pilgrim Dark Energy

We study pilgrim dark energy model by taking IR cut-offs as particle and event horizons as well as conformal age of the universe. We derive evolution equations for fractional energy density and equation of state parameters for pilgrim dark energy. The phantom cosmic evolution is established in these scenarios which is well supported by the cosmological parameters such as deceleration parameter, statefinder parameters and phase space of $\\omega_\\vartheta$ and $\\omega'_\\vartheta$. We conclude that the consistent value of parameter $\\mu$ is $\\mu<0$ in accordance with the current Planck and WMAP$9$ results.

Sharif, M

2015-01-01

171

Cosmological Evolution of Pilgrim Dark Energy

We study pilgrim dark energy model by taking IR cut-offs as particle and event horizons as well as conformal age of the universe. We derive evolution equations for fractional energy density and equation of state parameters for pilgrim dark energy. The phantom cosmic evolution is established in these scenarios which is well supported by the cosmological parameters such as deceleration parameter, statefinder parameters and phase space of $\\omega_\\vartheta$ and $\\omega'_\\vartheta$. We conclude that the consistent value of parameter $\\mu$ is $\\mu<0$ in accordance with the current Planck and WMAP$9$ results.

M. Sharif; M. Zubair

2014-09-26

172

Holographic dark-energy models

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different holographic dark-energy models are studied from a unifying point of view. We compare models for which the Hubble scale, the future event horizon or a quantity proportional to the Ricci scale are taken as the infrared cutoff length. We demonstrate that the mere definition of the holographic dark-energy density generally implies an interaction with the dark-matter component. We discuss the relation between the equation-of-state parameter and the energy density ratio of both components for each of the choices, as well as the possibility of noninteracting and scaling solutions. Parameter estimations for all three cutoff options are performed with the help of a Bayesian statistical analysis, using data from supernovae type Ia and the history of the Hubble parameter. The ?CDM model is the clear winner of the analysis. According to the Bayesian information criterion (BIC), all holographic models should be considered as ruled out, since the difference ?BIC to the corresponding ?CDM value is >10. According to the Akaike information criterion (AIC), however, we find ?AIC<2 for models with Hubble-scale and Ricci-scale cutoffs, indicating, that they may still be competitive. As we show for the example of the Ricci-scale case, also the use of certain priors, reducing the number of free parameters to that of the ?CDM model, may result in a competitive holographic model.

Del Campo, Sergio; Fabris, Júlio. C.; Herrera, Ramón; Zimdahl, Winfried

2011-06-01

173

Nonlocal gravity and dark energy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss a nonlocal modification of gravity obtained adding a term m2R?-2R to the Einstein-Hilbert action. We find that the mass parameter m only affects the nonradiative sector of the theory, while the graviton remains massless, there is no propagating ghostlike degree of freedom, no vDVZ discontinuity, and no Vainshtein radius below which the theory becomes strongly coupled. For m =O(H0) the theory therefore recovers all successes of GR at solar system and lab scales, and only deviates from it at cosmological scales. We examine the cosmological consequences of the model and we find that it automatically generates a dynamical dark energy and a self-accelerating evolution. After fixing our only free parameter m so to reproduce the observed value of the dark energy density today, we get a pure prediction for the dark energy equation of state, wDE?-1.14. This value is consistent with the existing data, and could also resolve the possible tension between the Planck data and local measurements of the Hubble parameter.

Maggiore, Michele; Mancarella, Michele

2014-07-01

174

Is this the end of dark energy?

In this paper we investigate the limits imposed by thermodynamics to a dark energy fluid. We obtain the heat capacities and the compressibilities for a dark energy fluid. These thermodynamical variables are easily accessible experimentally for any terrestrial fluid. The thermal and mechanical stabilities require these quantities to be positive. We show that such requirements forbid the existence of a cosmic fluid with negative constant EoS parameter which excludes vacuum energy as a candidate to explain the cosmic acceleration. We also show that the current observational data from SN Ia, BAO and $H(z)$ are in conflict with the physical constraints that a general dark energy fluid with a time-dependent EoS parameter must obey which can be interpreted as an evidence against the dark energy hypothesis. Although our result excludes the vacuum energy, a geometrical cosmological term as originally introduced by Einstein in the field equations remains untouched.

Edésio M. Barboza Jr.; Rafael C. Nunes; Éverton M. C. Abreu; Jorge Ananias Neto

2015-01-13

175

Dark Energy, Inflation and Extra Dimensions

We consider how accelerated expansion, whether due to inflation or dark energy, imposes strong constraints on fundamental theories obtained by compactification from higher dimensions. For theories that obey the null energy condition (NEC), we find that inflationary cosmology is impossible for a wide range of compactifications; and a dark energy phase consistent with observations is only possible if both Newton's gravitational constant and the dark energy equation-of-state vary with time. If the theory violates the NEC, inflation and dark energy are only possible if the NEC-violating elements are inhomogeneously distributed in thecompact dimensions and vary with time in precise synchrony with the matter and energy density in the non-compact dimensions. Although our proofs are derived assuming general relativity applies in both four and higher dimensions and certain forms of metrics, we argue that similar constraints must apply for more general compactifications.

Paul J. Steinhardt; Daniel Wesley

2008-12-07

176

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DES Collaboration has completed construction of the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), a 3 square degree, 570 Megapixel CCD camera which is now mounted at the prime focus of the Blanco 4-meter telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. DECam is comprised of 74 250 micron thick fully depleted CCDs: 62 2k x 4k CCDs for imaging and 12 2k x 2k CCDs for guiding and focus. A filter set of u,g,r,i,z, and Y, a hexapod for focus and lateral alignment as well as thermal management of the cage temperature. DECam will be used to perform the Dark Energy Survey with 30% of the telescope time over a 5 year period. During the remainder of the time, and after the survey, DECam will be available as a community instrument. An overview of the DECam design, construction and initial on-sky performance information will be presented.

Flaugher, Brenna; DES Collaboration

2013-01-01

177

The Dark Side: from Dark Energy & Dark Matter to Washington and Science Policy

The Dark Side: from Dark Energy & Dark Matter to Washington and Science Policy Presenter: Michael: The Map Room (www.maproom.com )1949 N. Hoyne #12;The Dark Side: from Dark Energy and Dark Matter questions --- what is the dark matter that holds our galaxy and every structure in the Universe together

Collar, Juan I.

178

Generalized Holographic Dark Energy

In the original holographic dark energy (HDE) model, the dark energy density is proposed to be $\\rho_{de} = 3c^2M^2_{pl}L^{-2}$, with $c$ is a dimensionless constant characterizing the properties of the HDE. In this work, we propose the generalized holographic dark energy (GHDE) model by considering the parameter $c$ as a redshift-dependent function $c(z)$. We derive all the physical quantities of the GHDE model analytically, and fit the $c(z)$ by trying four kinds of parametrizations. The cosmological constraints of the $c(z)$ are obtained from the joint analysis of the present SNLS3+BAO+CMB+$H_0$ data. We find that, compared with the original HDE model, the GHDE models can provide a better fit to the data. For example, the GHDE model with JBP-type $c(z)$ can reduce the $\\chi^2_{min}$ of the HDE model by 2.16. We also find that, unlike the original HDE model with a phantom-like behavior in the future, the GHDE models can present many more different possibilities, i.e., it allows the GHDE in the future to be ...

Zhang, Zhenhui; Li, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Wen-Shuai

2012-01-01

179

Statefinder Diagnostic for Dark Energy Models in Bianchi I Universe

In this paper, we investigate the statefinder, the deceleration and equation of state parameters when universe is composed of generalized holographic dark energy or generalized Ricci dark energy for Bianchi I universe model. These parameters are found for both interacting as well as non-interacting scenarios of generalized holographic or generalized Ricci dark energy with dark matter and generalized Chaplygin gas. We explore these parameters graphically for different situations. It is concluded that these models represent accelerated expansion of the universe.

M. Sharif; Rabia Saleem

2013-08-29

180

Effective Theory of Interacting Dark Energy

We present a unifying treatment of dark energy and modified gravity that allows distinct conformal-disformal couplings of matter species to the gravitational sector. In this very general approach, we derive the conditions to avoid ghost and gradient instabilities. We compute the equations of motion for background quantities and linear perturbations. We illustrate our formalism with two simple scenarios, where either cold dark matter or a relativistic fluid is nonminimally coupled. This extends previous studies of coupled dark energy to a much broader spectrum of gravitational theories.

Gleyzes, Jérôme; Mancarella, Michele; Vernizzi, Filippo

2015-01-01

181

Prospect of probing dark energy using stochastic gravitational waves

We study the possibility of probing dark energy behaviour using gravitational wave experiments like LISA and Advanced LIGO. Using two popular parameterizations for dark energy equation of state, we show that with current sensitivities of LISA and Advanced LIGO to detect the stochastic gravitational waves, it is possible to probe a large section of parameter space for the dark energy equation of state which is allowed by present cosmological observations.

Bikash R. Dinda; Anjan A. Sen

2015-04-15

182

Prospect of probing dark energy using stochastic gravitational waves

We study the possibility of probing dark energy behaviour using gravitational wave experiments like LISA and Advanced LIGO. Using two popular parameterizations for dark energy equation of state, we show that with current sensitivities of LISA and Advanced LIGO to detect the stochastic gravitational waves, it is possible to probe a large section of parameter space for the dark energy equation of state which is allowed by present cosmological observations.

Dinda, Bikash R

2015-01-01

183

We consider a cosmological model of the late universe constituted by standard cold dark matter plus a dark energy component with constant equation of state w and constant effective speed of sound. Neglecting fluctuations in the dark energy component we obtain an equation describing the evolution of sub-horizon cold dark matter perturbations through the epoch of dark matter-dark energy equality. We explore its analytic solutions and calculate an exact w-dependent correction for the dark matter growth function, logarithmic growth function and growth index parameter through the epoch considered. We test our analytic approximation with the numerical solution and find that the discrepancy is less than 1% for k =0 in the epoch of interest.

O. F. Piattella; D. L. A. Martins; L. Casarini

2014-07-17

184

Conformal Higgs model: predicted dark energy density

Postulated universal Weyl conformal scaling symmetry provides an alternative to the $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm for cosmology. Recent applications to galactic rotation velocities, Hubble expansion, and a model of dark galactic halos explain qualitative phenomena and fit observed data without invoking dark matter. Significant revision of theory relevant to galactic collisions and clusters is implied, but not yet tested. Dark energy is found to be a consequence of conformal symmetry for the Higgs scalar field of electroweak physics. The present paper tests this implication. The conformal Higgs model acquires a gravitational effect described by a modified Friedmann cosmic evolution equation, shown to fit cosmological data going back to the cosmic microwave background epoch. The tachyonic mass parameter of the Higgs model becomes dark energy in the Friedmann equation. A dynamical model of this parameter, analogous to the Higgs mechanism for gauge boson mass, is derived and tested here. An approximate calculation yields a result consistent with the empirical magnitude inferred from Hubble expansion.

R. K. Nesbet

2014-11-03

185

Dark energy and extended dark matter halos

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The cosmological mean matter (dark and baryonic) density measured in the units of the critical density is ?m = 0.27. Independently, the local mean density is estimated to be ?loc = 0.08-0.23 from recent data on galaxy groups at redshifts up to z = 0.01-0.03 (as published by Crook et al. 2007, ApJ, 655, 790 and Makarov & Karachentsev 2011, MNRAS, 412, 2498). If the lower values of ?loc are reliable, as Makarov & Karachentsev and some other observers prefer, does this mean that the Local Universe of 100-300 Mpc across is an underdensity in the cosmic matter distribution? Or could it nevertheless be representative of the mean cosmic density or even be an overdensity due to the Local Supercluster therein. We focus on dark matter halos of groups of galaxies and check how much dark mass the invisible outer layers of the halos are able to host. The outer layers are usually devoid of bright galaxies and cannot be seen at large distances. The key factor which bounds the size of an isolated halo is the local antigravity produced by the omnipresent background of dark energy. A gravitationally bound halo does not extend beyond the zero-gravity surface where the gravity of matter and the antigravity of dark energy balance, thus defining a natural upper size of a system. We use our theory of local dynamical effects of dark energy to estimate the maximal sizes and masses of the extended dark halos. Using data from three recent catalogs of galaxy groups, we show that the calculated mass bounds conform with the assumption that a significant amount of dark matter is located in the invisible outer parts of the extended halos, sufficient to fill the gap between the observed and expected local matter density. Nearby groups of galaxies and the Virgo cluster have dark halos which seem to extend up to their zero-gravity surfaces. If the extended halo is a common feature of gravitationally bound systems on scales of galaxy groups and clusters, the Local Universe could be typical or even an overdense region, with a low density contrast ~1.

Chernin, A. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M. J.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.; Byrd, G. G.

2012-03-01

186

Dark Energy and Neutrino Model in SUSY

We discuss the effect of the supersymmetry breaking on the Mass Varying Neutrinos(MaVaNs) scenario. Especially, the effect mediated by the gravitational interaction between the hidden sector and the dark energy sector is studied. A model including a chiral superfield in the dark sector and the right-handed neutrino superfield is proposed. Evolutions of the neutrino mass and the equation of state parameter are presented in the model.

Ryo Takahashi; Morimitsu Tanimoto

2006-10-30

187

Interacting Dark Energy: Decay into Fermions

A dark energy component is responsible for the present stage of acceleration of our universe. If no fine tuning is assumed on the dark energy potential then it will end up dominating the universe at late times and the universe will not stop this stage of acceleration. On the other hand, the equation of state of dark energy seems to be smaller than -1 as suggested by the cosmological data. We take this as an indication that dark energy does indeed interact with another fluid (we consider fermion fields) and we determine the interaction through the cosmological data and extrapolate it into the future. We study the conditions under which a dark energy can dilute faster or decay into the fermion fields. We show that it is possible to live now in an accelerating epoch dominated by the dark energy and without introducing any fine tuning parameters the dark energy can either dilute faster or decaying into fermions in the future. The acceleration of the universe will then cease.

A. de la Macorra

2007-02-08

188

Weak Lensing: Dark Matter, Dark Energy

The light rays from distant galaxies are deflected by massive structures along the line of sight, causing the galaxy images to be distorted.Measurements of these distortions, known as weak lensing, provide a way of measuring the distribution of dark matter as well as the spatial geometry of the universe. I will describe the ideas underlying this approach to cosmology. With planned large imaging surveys, weak lensing is a powerful probe of dark energy. I will discuss the observational challenges ahead and recent progress in developing multiple, complementary approaches to lensing measurements.

Bhuvnesh Jain

2006-02-27

189

Dark matter, dark energy and gravity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Within the framework of the Generation Model (GM) of particle physics, gravity is identified with the very weak, universal and attractive residual color interactions acting between the colorless particles of ordinary matter (electrons, neutrons and protons), which are composite structures. This gravitational interaction is mediated by massless vector bosons (hypergluons), which self-interact so that the interaction has two additional features not present in Newtonian gravitation: (i) asymptotic freedom and (ii) color confinement. These two additional properties of the gravitational interaction negate the need for the notions of both dark matter and dark energy.

Robson, B. A.

2015-02-01

190

Can holographic dark energy increase the mass of the wormhole?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by the quantum essence of wormholes, in this work, we have studied accretion of dark energy (DE) onto Morris-Thorne wormhole with three different forms, namely, holographic dark energy, holographic Ricci dark energy and modified holographic Ricci dark energy. Considering the scale factor in power-law form we have observed that as the holographic dark energy accretes onto wormhole, the mass of the wormhole is decreasing. In the next phase we considered three parameterization schemes that are able to get hold of quintessence as well as phantom phases. Without any choice of scale factor we reconstructed Hubble parameter from conservation equation and dark energy densities and subsequently got the mass of the wormhole separately for accretion of the three dark energy candidates. It was observed that if these dark energies accrete onto the wormhole, then for quintessence stage, wormhole mass decreases up to a certain finite value and then again increases to aggressively during phantom phase of the universe.

Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Momeni, Davood; Altaibayeva, Aziza; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

2015-03-01

191

Can Holographic dark energy increase the mass of the wormhole?

In this work, we have studied accretion of dark energy (DE) onto Morris- Thorne wormhole with three different forms, namely, holographic dark energy, holographic Ricci dark energy and modified holographic Ricci dark energy . Considering the scale factor in power-law form we have observed that as the holographic dark energy accretes onto wormhole, the mass of the wormhole is decreasing. In the next phase we considered three parameterization schemes that are able to get hold of quintessence as well as phantom phases. Without any choice of scale factor we reconstructed Hubble parameter from conservation equation and dark energy densities and subsequently got the mass of the wormhole separately for accretion of the three dark energy candidates. It was observed that if these dark energies accrete onto the wormhole, then for quintessence stage, wormhole mass decreases up to a certain finite value and then again increases to aggressively during phantom phase of the universe.

Surajit Chattopadhyay; Davood Momeni; Aziza Altaibayeva; Ratbay Myrzakulov

2014-11-26

192

Can holographic dark energy increase the mass of the wormhole?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Motivated by the quantum essence of wormholes, in this work, we have studied accretion of dark energy (DE) onto Morris-Thorne wormhole with three different forms, namely, holographic dark energy, holographic Ricci dark energy and modified holographic Ricci dark energy. Considering the scale factor in power-law form we have observed that as the holographic dark energy accretes onto wormhole, the mass of the wormhole is decreasing. In the next phase we considered three parameterization schemes that are able to get hold of quintessence as well as phantom phases. Without any choice of scale factor we reconstructed Hubble parameter from conservation equation and dark energy densities and subsequently got the mass of the wormhole separately for accretion of the three dark energy candidates. It was observed that if these dark energies accrete onto the wormhole, then for quintessence stage, wormhole mass decreases up to a certain finite value and then again increases to aggressively during phantom phase of the universe.

Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Momeni, Davood; Altaibayeva, Aziza; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

2014-12-01

193

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students simulate an experiment in which the discovery of dark energy can be made by plotting modern supernova distances on a Hubble Diagram. Data is provided in an Excel spreadsheet (see related resources). In order to complete this activity, students should be familiar with Hubble's Law and the concepts of absolute luminosity, apparent luminosity, and Doppler shift (particularly redshift). This activity can be done using either a computer graphing program or manually with graph paper. This lesson is part of the "Cosmic Times" teacher's guide and is intended to be used in conjunction with the 2006 Cosmic Times Poster.

194

Dark energy and particle mixing

We show that the vacuum condensate due to particle mixing is responsible of a dynamically evolving dark energy. In particular, we show that values of the adiabatic index close to -1 for vacuum condensates of neutrinos and quarks imply, at the present epoch, contributions to the vacuum energy compatible with the estimated upper bound on the dark energy.

A. Capolupo; S. Capozziello; G. Vitiello

2008-08-30

195

The Dark Energy Camera is a new imager with a 2.2-degree diameter field of view mounted at the prime focus of the Victor M. Blanco 4-meter telescope on Cerro Tololo near La Serena, Chile. The camera was designed and constructed by the Dark Energy Survey Collaboration, and meets or exceeds the stringent requirements designed for the wide-field and supernova surveys for which the collaboration uses it. The camera consists of a five element optical corrector, seven filters, a shutter with a 60 cm aperture, and a CCD focal plane of 250 micron thick fully-depleted CCDs cooled inside a vacuum Dewar. The 570 Mpixel focal plane comprises 62 2kx4k CCDs for imaging and 12 2kx2k CCDs for guiding and focus. The CCDs have 15 microns x15 microns pixels with a plate scale of 0.263 arc sec per pixel. A hexapod system provides state-of-the-art focus and alignment capability. The camera is read out in 20 seconds with 6-9 electrons readout noise. This paper provides a technical description of the camera's engineering, construct...

Flaugher, B; Honscheid, K; Abbott, T M C; Alvarez, O; Angstadt, R; Annis, J T; Antonik, M; Ballester, O; Beaufore, L; Bernstein, G M; Bernstein, R A; Bigelow, B; Bonati, M; Boprie, D; Brooks, D; Buckley-Geer, E J; Campa, J; Cardiel-Sas, L; Castander, F J; Castilla, J; Cease, H; Cela-Ruiz, J M; Chappa, S; Chi, E; Cooper, C; da Costa, L N; Dede, E; Derylo, G; DePoy, D L; de Vicente, J; Doel, P; Drlica-Wagner, A; Eiting, J; Elliott, A E; Emes, J; Estrada, J; Neto, A Fausti; Finley, D A; Flores, R; Frieman, J; Gerdes, D; Gladders, M D; Gregory, B; Gutierrez, G R; Hao, J; Holland, S E; Holm, S; Huffman, D; Jackson, C; James, D J; Jonas, M; Karcher, A; Karliner, I; Kent, S; Kessler, R; Kozlovsky, M; Kron, R G; Kubik, D; Kuehn, K; Kuhlmann, S; Kuk, K; Lahav, O; Lathrop, A; Lee, J; Levi, M E; Lewis, P; Li, T S; Mandrichenko, I; Marshall, J L; Martinez, G; Merritt, K W; Miquel, R; Munoz, F; Neilsen, E H; Nichol, R C; Nord, B; Ogando, R; Olsen, J; Palio, N; Patton, K; Peoples, J; Plazas, A A; Rauch, J; Reil, K; Rheault, J -P; Roe, N A; Rogers, H; Roodman, A; Sanchez, E; Scarpine, V; Schindler, R H; Schmidt, R; Schmitt, R; Schubnell, M; Schultz, K; Schurter, P; Scott, L; Serrano, S; Shaw, T M; Smith, R C; Soares-Santos, M; Stefanik, A; Stuermer, W; Suchyta, E; Sypniewski, A; Tarle, G; Thaler, J; Tighe, R; Tran, C; Tucker, D; Walker, A R; Wang, G; Watson, M; Weaverdyck, C; Wester, W; Woods, R; Yanny, B

2015-01-01

196

From Dark Energy and Dark Matter to Dark Metric

It is nowadays clear that General Relativity cannot be the definitive theory of Gravitation due to several shortcomings that come out both from theoretical and experimental viewpoints. At large scales (astrophysical and cosmological) the attempts to match it with the latest observational data lead to invoke Dark Energy and Dark Matter as the bulk components of the cosmic fluid. Since no final evidence, at fundamental level, exists for such ingredients, it is clear that General Relativity presents shortcomings at infrared scales. On the other hand, the attempts to formulate more general theories than Einstein's one give rise to mathematical difficulties that need workarounds that, in turn, generate problems from the interpretative viewpoint. We present here a completely new approach to the mathematical objects in terms of which a theory of Gravitation may be written in a first-order (a' la Palatini) formalism, and introduce the concept of Dark Metric which could completely bypass the introduction of disturbing concepts as Dark Energy and Dark Matter.

S. Capozziello; M. De Laurentis; M. Francaviglia; S. Mercadante

2008-08-04

197

On cosmic acceleration without dark energy

We elaborate on the proposal that the observed acceleration of the Universe is the result of the backreaction of cosmological perturbations, rather than the effect of a negative-pressure dark-energy fluid or a modification of general relativity. Through the effective Friedmann equations describing an inhomogeneous Universe after smoothing, we demonstrate that acceleration in our local Hubble patch is possible even if

Edward W. Kolb; Sabino Matarrese; Antonio Riotto

2006-01-01

198

On the similarity of Information Energy to Dark Energy

Information energy is shown here to have properties similar to those of dark energy. The energy associated with each information bit of the universe is found to be defined identically to the characteristic energy of a cosmological constant. Two independent methods are used to estimate the universe information content of ~10^91 bits, a value that provides an information energy total comparable to that of the dark energy. Information energy is also found to have a significantly negative equation of state parameter, w energy.

M. P. Gough; T. D. Carozzi; A. M. Buckley

2006-06-19

199

Generalized ghost dark energy in Brans-Dicke theory

It was argued that the vacuum energy of the Veneziano ghost field of QCD, in a time-dependent background, can be written in the general form, $H + O(H^2)$, where $H$ is the Hubble parameter. Based on this, a phenomenological dark energy model whose energy density is of the form $\\rho=\\alpha H+\\beta H^{2}$ was recently proposed to explain the dark energy dominated universe. In this paper, we investigate this generalized ghost dark energy model in the setup of Brans-Dicke cosmology. We study the cosmological implications of this model. In particular, we obtain the equation of state and the deceleration parameters and a differential equation governing the evolution of this dark energy model. It is shown that the equation of state parameter of the generalized ghost dark energy can cross the phantom line ($w_D=-1$) in some range of the parameters spaces.

A. Sheykhi; E. Ebrahimi; Y. Yosefi

2013-07-23

200

Correspondence between Generalized Dark Energy and Scalar Field Dark Energies

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we have considered non-flat FRW universe filled with dark matter (with non-zero pressure) and generalized dark energy (GDE) as motivated by the work of Sharif et al. (Mod. Phys. Lett. A 28, 1350180, 2013). Also the dark matter and the dark energy are considered to be interacting. The energy density, pressure and the EoS of the GDE have been calculated for the interacting scenario. For stability analysis of this model, we have also analyzed the sign of square speed of sound. Next we investigate the correspondence between GDE and different other candidates of dark energies such as DBI-essence, tachyonic field, hessenc and electromagnetic field. Also we have reconstructed the potential functions and the scalar fields in this scenario.

Maity, Sayani; Debnath, Ujjal

2015-02-01

201

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review the tension between the observational evidence for dark energy and various theoretical considerations. This tension has motivated a reconsideration of the issue of naturalness, and spawned various exotic approaches toward an acceptable solution. We discuss attempts to realize dark energy in string theory, and the perspective on the string landscape that these results have suggested.

Greene, Brian; Shiu, Gary

2014-12-01

202

Cosmology with dark energy decaying through its chemical-potential contribution

The consideration of dark energy's quanta, required also by thermodynamics, introduces its chemical potential into the cosmological equations. Isolating its main contribution, we obtain solutions with dark energy decaying to matter or radiation. When dominant, their energy densities tend asymptotically to a constant ratio, explaining today's dark energy-dark matter coincidence, and in agreement with supernova redshift data.

J. Besprosvany

2007-12-29

203

Dark Matter and Dark Energy: Summary and Future Directions

This paper reviews the progress reported at this Royal Society Discussion Meeting and advertizes some possible future directions in our drive to understand dark matter and dark energy. Additionally, a first attempt is made to place in context the exciting new results from the WMAP satellite, which were published shortly after this Meeting. In the first part of this review, pieces of observational evidence shown here that bear on the amounts of dark matter and dark energy are reviewed. Subsequently, particle candidates for dark matter are mentioned, and detection strategies are discussed. Finally, ideas are presented for calculating the amounts of dark matter and dark energy, and possibly relating them to laboratory data.

John Ellis

2003-04-10

204

Dark Energy and Dark Matter in a Superfluid Universe

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vacuum is filled with complex scalar fields, such as the Higgs field. These fields serve as order parameters for superfluidity (quantum phase coherence over macroscopic distances), making the entire universe a superfluid. We review a mathematical model consisting of two aspects: (a) emergence of the superfluid during the big bang; (b) observable manifestations of superfluidity in the present universe. The creation aspect requires a self-interacting scalar field that is asymptotically free, i.e. the interaction must grow from zero during the big bang, and this singles out the Halpern-Huang potential, which has exponential behavior for large fields. It leads to an equivalent cosmological constant that decays like a power law, and this gives dark energy without "fine-tuning." Quantum turbulence (chaotic vorticity) in the early universe was able to create all the matter in the universe, fulfilling the inflation scenario. In the present universe, the superfluid can be phenomenologically described by a nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation. It predicts halos around galaxies with higher superfluid density, which is perceived as dark matter through gravitational lensing. In short, dark energy is the energy density of the cosmic superfluid, and dark matter arises from local fluctuations of the superfluid density.

Huang, Kerson

2013-11-01

205

Dark Energy - Dark Matter Unification: Generalized Chaplygin Gas Model

We review the main features of the generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) proposal for unification of dark energy and dark matter and discuss how it admits an unique decomposition into dark energy and dark matter components once phantom-like dark energy is excluded. In the context of this approach we consider structure formation and show that unphysical oscillations or blow-up in the matter power spectrum are not present. Moreover, we demonstrate that the dominance of dark energy occurs about the time when energy density fluctuations start evolving away from the linear regime.

Orfeu Bertolami

2005-04-14

206

Holographic Dark Energy Like in $f(R)$ Gravity

We investigate the corresponding relation between $f(R)$ gravity and holographic dark energy. We introduce a kind of energy density from $f(R)$ which has role of the same as holographic dark energy. We obtain the differential equation that specify the evolution of the introduced energy density parameter based on varying gravitational constant. We find out a relation for the equation of state parameter to low redshifts which containing varying $G$ correction.

Kh. Saaidi; A. Aghamohammadi

2010-10-12

207

Non-linear dark energy clustering

We consider a dark energy fluid with arbitrary sound speed and equation of state and discuss the effect of its clustering on the cold dark matter distribution at the non-linear level. We write the continuity, Euler and Poisson equations for the system in the Newtonian approximation. Then, using the time renormalization group method to resum perturbative corrections at all orders, we compute the total clustering power spectrum and matter power spectrum. At the linear level, a sound speed of dark energy different from that of light modifies the power spectrum on observationally interesting scales, such as those relevant for baryonic acoustic oscillations. We show that the effect of varying the sound speed of dark energy on the non-linear corrections to the matter power spectrum is below the per cent level, and therefore these corrections can be well modelled by their counterpart in cosmological scenarios with smooth dark energy. We also show that the non-linear effects on the matter growth index can be as large as 10–15 per cent for small scales.

Anselmi, Stefano; Ballesteros, Guillermo [Dipartimento di Fisica ''G. Galilei'', Università degli Studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy); Pietroni, Massimo, E-mail: anselmi@pd.infn.it, E-mail: ballesteros@pd.infn.it, E-mail: pietroni@pd.infn.it [INFN — Sezione di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy)

2011-11-01

208

Optimizing New Dark Energy Experiments

Next generation “Stage IV” dark energy experiments under design during this grant, and now under construction, will enable the determination of the properties of dark energy and dark matter to unprecedented precision using multiple complementary probes. The most pressing challenge in these experiments is the characterization and understanding of the systematic errors present within any given experimental configuration and the resulting impact on the accuracy of our constraints on dark energy physics. The DETF and the P5 panel in their reports recommended “Expanded support for ancillary measurements required for the long-term program and for projects that will improve our understanding and reduction of the dominant systematic measurement errors.” Looking forward to the next generation Stage IV experiments we have developed a program to address the most important potential systematic errors within these experiments. Using data from current facilities it has been feasible and timely to undertake a detailed investigation of the systematic errors. In this DOE grant we studied of the source and impact of the dominant systematic effects in dark energy measurements, and developed new analysis tools and techniques to minimize their impact. Progress under this grant is briefly reviewed in this technical report. This work was a necessary precursor to the coming generations of wide-deep probes of the nature of dark energy and dark matter. The research has already had an impact on improving the efficiencies of all Stage III and IV dark energy experiments.

Tyson, J. Anthony [University of California, Davis

2013-08-26

209

Fingerprinting dark energy. II. Weak lensing and galaxy clustering tests

The characterization of dark energy is a central task of cosmology. To go beyond a cosmological constant, we need to introduce at least an equation of state and a sound speed and consider observational tests that involve perturbations. If dark energy is not completely homogeneous on observable scales, then the Poisson equation is modified and dark matter clustering is directly affected. One can then search for observational effects of dark energy clustering using dark matter as a probe. In this paper we exploit an analytical approximate solution of the perturbation equations in a general dark energy cosmology to analyze the performance of next-decade large-scale surveys in constraining equation of state and sound speed. We find that tomographic weak lensing and galaxy redshift surveys can constrain the sound speed of the dark energy only if the latter is small, of the order of c{sub s} < or approx. 0.01 (in units of c). For larger sound speeds the error grows to 100% and more. We conclude that large-scale structure observations contain very little information about the perturbations in canonical scalar field models with a sound speed of unity. Nevertheless, they are able to detect the presence of cold dark energy, i.e. a dark energy with nonrelativistic speed of sound.

Sapone, Domenico [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid IFT-UAM/CSIC, Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Kunz, Martin [Departement de Physique Theorique, Universite de Geneve, 24 quai Ernest Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneve 4 (Switzerland); Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, Universite Paris-Sud XI, Orsay 91405 (France); Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Amendola, Luca [University of Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); INAF/Rome (Italy)

2010-11-15

210

Ricci Dark Energy in Brans-Dicke theory

A holographic dark energy from Ricci scalar curvature called Ricci dark energy was proposed recently. In this model the future event horizon area is replaced by the inverse of the Ricci scalar curvature. We study the evolution of equation of state of the Ricci dark energy and the transition from decelerated to accelerated expansion of the universe in the Brans-Dicke theory, which is a natural extension of general relativity. We find that the current acceleration of our universe is well explained.

Chao-Jun Feng

2008-06-04

211

Dark energy models through nonextensive Tsallis' statistics

The accelerated expansion of the Universe is one of the greatest challenges of modern physics. One candidate to explain this phenomenon is a new field called dark energy. In this work we have used the Tsallis nonextensive statistical formulation of the Friedmann equation to explore the Barboza-Alcaniz and Chevalier-Polarski-Linder parametric dark energy models and the Wang-Meng and Dalal vacuum decay models. After that, we have discussed the observational tests and the constraints concerning the Tsallis nonextensive parameter.

Rafael da C. Nunes; Edésio M. Barboza Jr.; Everton M. C. Abreu; Jorge Ananias Neto

2014-03-22

212

Dark Matter and Dark Energy huncheng@math.mit.edu

Dark Matter and Dark Energy Hung Cheng huncheng@math.mit.edu January 17, 2008 Abstract We suggest that a candidate for dark matter is a meson with spin one the existence of which is dictated by local scale invariance pro- posed by Herman Weyl.. Dark Matter and Scale Invariance Hung Cheng Department of Mathematics

Cheng, Hung

213

Gravitational Origin of Phantom Dark Energy and Late Cosmic Acceleration

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, dark energy is obtained using dual roles of the Ricci scalar (as a physical field as well as geometry). Dark energy density, obtained in this model, mimics phantom and the derived Friedmann equation contains a term ? de2/{2? } with ?de being the dark energy density and ?, called as cosmic tension. It is like brane-gravity inspired Friedmann equation, which arises here without using the brane-gravity theory. It is found that acceleration is a transient phenomenon for ?< 0, but for ?> 0 accelerated expansion is found to encounter the big-rip problem. It is shown that this problem can be avoided if the dark energy behaves as barotropic fluid and generalized Chaplygin gas simultaneously. Moreover, time for transition (from deceleration to acceleration of the universe) is derived as a function of equation of state parameter wde = pde/?de with pde being the pressure for dark energy fluid.

Srivastava, S. K.

214

Interacting holographic dark energy in Brans-Dicke theory

We study cosmological application of interacting holographic energy density in the framework of Brans-Dicke cosmology. We obtain the equation of state and the deceleration parameter of the holographic dark energy in a non-flat universe. As system's IR cutoff we choose the radius of the event horizon measured on the sphere of the horizon, defined as $L=ar(t)$. We find that the combination of Brans-Dicke field and holographic dark energy can accommodate $w_D = -1 $ crossing for the equation of state of \\textit{noninteracting} holographic dark energy. When an interaction between dark energy and dark matter is taken into account, the transition of $w_D$ to phantom regime can be more easily accounted for than when resort to the Einstein field equations is made.

Ahmad Sheykhi

2009-10-03

215

The Localized Energy Distribution of Dark Energy Star Solutions

We examine the question of energy localization for an exact solution of Einstein's equations with a scalar field corresponding to the phantom energy interpretation of dark energy. We apply three different energy-momentum complexes, the Einstein, Papapetrou and M{\\o}ller prescriptions, to the exterior metric and determine the energy distribution for each. Comparing the results, we find that the three prescriptions yield identical energy distributions.

Paul Halpern; Michael Pecorino

2013-03-05

216

Dark goo: bulk viscosity as an alternative to dark energy

We present a simple (microscopic) model in which bulk viscosity plays a role in explaining the present acceleration of the universe. The effect of bulk viscosity on the Friedmann equations is to turn the pressure into an 'effective' pressure containing the bulk viscosity. For a sufficiently large bulk viscosity, the effective pressure becomes negative and could mimic a dark energy equation of state. Our microscopic model includes self-interacting spin-zero particles (for which the bulk viscosity is known) that are added to the usual energy content of the universe. We study both background equations and linear perturbations in this model. We show that a dark energy behavior is obtained for reasonable values of the two parameters of the model (i.e. the mass and coupling of the spin-zero particles) and that linear perturbations are well-behaved. There is no apparent fine tuning involved. We also discuss the conditions under which hydrodynamics holds, in particular that the spin-zero particles must be in local equilibrium today for viscous effects to be important.

Gagnon, Jean-Sebastien [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 2, 64289, Darmstadt (Germany); Lesgourgues, Julien, E-mail: jean-sebastien.gagnon@physik.tu-darmstadt.de, E-mail: julien.lesgourgues@cern.ch [École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland)

2011-09-01

217

Holographic Dark Energy with Time Varying n^2 Parameter in Non-Flat Universe

We consider a holographic dark energy model, with a varying parameter, n, which evolves slowly with time. We obtain the differential equation describing evolution of the dark energy density parameter, $\\Omega_d$, for the flat and non-flat FRW universes. The equation of state parameter in this generalized version of holographic dark energy depends on n.

Bushra Majeed; Mubasher Jamil; Azad A. Siddiqui

2014-11-01

218

Quantum Informational Dark Energy: Dark energy from forgetting

We suggest that dark energy has a quantum informational origin. Landauer's principle associated with the erasure of quantum information at a cosmic horizon implies the non-zero vacuum energy having effective negative pressure. Assuming the holographic principle, the minimum free energy condition, and the Gibbons-Hawking temperature for the cosmic event horizon we obtain the holographic dark energy with the parameter $d\\simeq 1$, which is consistent with the current observational data. It is also shown that both the entanglement energy and the horizon energy can be related to Landauer's principle.

Jae-Weon Lee; Jungjai Lee; Hyeong-Chan Kim

2008-04-06

219

Future supernovae observations as a probe of dark energy

We study the potential impact of improved future supernovae data on our understanding of the dark energy problem. We carefully examine the relative utility of different fitting functions that can be used to parametrize the dark energy models, and provide concrete reasons why a particular choice (based on a parametrization of the equation of state) is better in almost all

Jochen Weller; Andreas Albrecht

2002-01-01

220

Properties of singularities in the (phantom) dark energy universe

The properties of future singularities are investigated in the universe dominated by dark energy including the phantom-type fluid. We classify the finite-time singularities into four classes and explicitly present the models which give rise to these singularities by assuming the form of the equation of state of dark energy. We show the existence of a stable fixed point with an

Shinichi Nojiri; Sergei D. Odintsov; Shinji Tsujikawa

2005-01-01

221

Constraints on Dark Energy from the ESSENCE Supernova Survey

The nature of dark energy is a key question in modern cosmology, with current efforts focused on measuring its equation of state parameter, w, as a means to discriminate between the cosmological constant and other possible models for dark energy. The ESSENCE survey is an ongoing six year effort to use high-redshift (0.2 < z < 0.8) supernovae to probe

Gajus A. Miknaitis; W. Wood-Vasey

2006-01-01

222

Dark matter equation of state from rotational curves of galaxies

In this work we model galactic halos describing the dark matter as a non zero pressure fluid and derive, not impose, a dark matter equation of state by using observational data of the rotation curves of galaxies. In order to reach hydrostatic equilibrium, as expected for the halo, it is mandatory that dark fluid's pressure should not be zero. The equation of state is obtained by solving the matter-geometry system of equations assuming different dark matter density or rotational velocity profiles. The resulting equations of state are, in general, different to a barotropic equation of state. The free parameters of the equation of state are fixed by fitting the observed rotational velocities of a set of galaxies.

Juan Barranco; Argelia Bernal; Dario Nunez

2015-02-12

223

Dark Energy Scaling from Dark Matter to Acceleration

The dark sector of the Universe need not be completely separable into distinct dark matter and dark energy components. We consider a model of early dark energy in which the dark energy mimics a dark matter component in both evolution and perturbations at early times. Barotropic aether dark energy scales as a fixed fraction, possibly greater than one, of the dark matter density and has vanishing sound speed at early times before undergoing a transition. This gives signatures not only in cosmic expansion but in sound speed and inhomogeneities, and in number of effective neutrino species. Model parameters describe the timing, sharpness of the transition, and the relative abundance at early times. Upon comparison with current data, we find viable regimes in which the dark energy behaves like dark matter at early times: for transitions well before recombination the dark energy to dark matter fraction can equal or exceed unity, while for transitions near recombination the ratio can only be a few percent. After the transition, dark energy goes its separate way, ultimately driving cosmic acceleration and approaching a cosmological constant in this scenario.

Jannis Bielefeld; Robert R. Caldwell; Eric V. Linder

2014-09-04

224

In this paper, we give a conceptual explanation of dark energy as a small negative residual scalar curvature present even in empty spacetime. This curvature ultimately results from postulating a discrete spacetime geometry, very closely related to that used in the dynamical triangulations approach to quantum gravity. In this model, there are no states which have total scalar curvature exactly zero. Moreover, numerical evidence in dimension three suggests that, at a fixed volume, the number of discrete-spacetime microstates strongly increases with decreasing curvature. Because of the resulting entropic force, any dynamics which push empty spacetime strongly toward zero scalar curvature would instead produce typically observed states with a small negative curvature. This provides a natural explanation for the empirically observed small positive value for the cosmological constant (Lambda is about 10^(-121) in Planck units.) In fact, we derive the very rough estimate Lambda=10^(-187) from a simple model containing only the two (highly-degenerate) quantum states with total scalar-curvature closest to zero.

Aaron Trout

2012-08-15

225

Dark energy observations may be explained within general relativity using an inhomogeneous Hubble-scale depression in the matter density and accompanying curvature, which evolves naturally out of an Einstein-de Sitter model. We present a simple parameterization of a void which can reproduce concordance model distances to arbitrary accuracy, but can parameterize away from this to give a smooth density profile everywhere. We show how the Hubble constant isn't just a nuisance parameter in inhomogeneous models because it affects the shape of the distance-redshift relation. Independent Hubble-rate data from age estimates can in principle serve to break the degeneracy between concordance and void models, but the data is not yet able to achieve this. Using the latest Constitution supernova dataset we show that robust limits can be placed on the size of a void which is roughly independent of its shape. However, the sharpness of the profile at the origin cannot be well constrained due to supernova being dominated by p...

February, Sean; Smith, Mathew; Clarkson, Chris

2009-01-01

226

Probing dark energy: Methods and strategies

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of dark energy in the Universe is inferred directly from the accelerated expansion of the Universe, and, indirectly, from measurements of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy. Dark energy contributes about two-thirds of the critical density, is smoothly distributed, has large negative pressure, and is very mysterious. For now, all of its discernible cosmological consequences follow from its effect on the expansion rate of the Universe. Absent a compelling theoretical model (or even a class of models), we describe the dark energy by its equation of state w=pX/?X which is allowed to vary with time. We describe and compare different approaches for determining w(t), including a magnitude-redshift (Hubble) diagram, number counts of galaxies and clusters, and CMB anisotropy. We focus particular attention on the use of a sample of several thousand type Ia supernova with redshifts z<~1.7, as might be gathered by the proposed SNAP satellite. Among other things, we derive optimal strategies for constraining cosmological parameters using type Ia supernovae. The redshift range z~=0.2-2 has the most leverage for probing wX; supernovae and number counts appear to have the most potential to probe dark energy. Because the expansion rate depends upon both w(t) and ?M, an independent measurement of the matter density is critical for obtaining the most information about dark energy from cosmological observations.

Huterer, Dragan; Turner, Michael S.

2001-12-01

227

Numerical study of halo concentrations in dark-energy cosmologies

We study the concentration parameters, their mass dependence and redshift evolution, of dark-matter halos in different dark-energy cosmologies with constant and time-variable equation of state, and compare them with ``standard'' LambdaCDM and OCDM models. We find that previously proposed algorithms for predicting halo concentrations can be well adapted to dark-energy models. When centred on the analytically expected values, halo concentrations

Klaus Dolag; Matthias Bartelmann; Francesca Perrotta; Carlo Baccigalupi; Lauro Moscardini; Massimo Meneghetti; Giuseppe Tormen

2004-01-01

228

Dynamics of interacting dark energy

Dark energy and dark matter are only indirectly measured via their gravitational effects. It is possible that there is an exchange of energy within the dark sector, and this offers an interesting alternative approach to the coincidence problem. We consider two broad classes of interacting models where the energy exchange is a linear combination of the dark sector densities. The first class has been previously investigated, but we define new variables and find a new exact solution, which allows for a more direct, transparent and comprehensive analysis. The second class has not been investigated in general form before. We give general conditions on the parameters in both classes to avoid unphysical behavior (such as negative energy densities).

Gabriela Caldera-Cabral; Roy Maartens; L. Arturo Urena-Lopez

2009-03-20

229

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Supernova observations show that the expansion of the universe has been speeding up. This unexpected acceleration is ascribed to a dark energy that pervades space. Supernova data, combined with other observations, indicate that the universe is about 14 billion years old and is composed of about 30% matter and 70% dark energy. New observational programs can trace the history of cosmic expansion more precisely and over a larger span of time than has been done to date to learn whether the dark energy is a modern version of Einstein's cosmological constant or another form of dark energy that changes with time. Either conclusion is an enigma that points to gaps in our fundamental understanding of gravity.

Kirshner, Robert P.

2003-06-01

230

Dark Energy Rules the Universe

Berkeley Lab theoretical physicist Eric Linder previews his Nov. 24, 2008 talk on the mystery of dark energy. Catch his full lecture here: http://www.osti.gov/sciencecinema/servlets/purl/1007511?format=mp4

Linder, Eric

2008-01-01

231

Supernova constraints on models of neutrino dark energy

In this paper we use the recently released Type Ia Supernova (SNIa) data to constrain the interactions between the neutrinos and the dark energy scalar fields. In the analysis we take the dark energy scalars to be either quintessencelike or phantomlike. Our results show the data mildly favor a model where the neutrinos couple to a phantomlike dark energy scalar, which implies the equation of state of the coupled system behaves like Quintom scenario in the sense of parameter degeneracy. We find future observations like SNAP are potentially promising to measure the couplings between neutrino and dark energy.

Li Hong; Xia Junqing; Zhang Xinmin [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China); Feng Bo [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 20A Datun Road, Beijing 100012 (China)

2006-05-15

232

Dark energy, dark matter and the Chaplygin gas

The possibility that the dark energy may be described by the Chaplygin gas is discussed. Some observational constraints are established. These observational constraints indicate that a unified model for dark energy and dark matter through the employement of the Chaplygin gas is favored.

R. Colistete Jr.; J. C. Fabris; S. V. B. Goncalves; P. E. de Souza

2002-10-23

233

Leptogenesis, Dark Energy, Dark Matter and the neutrinos

In this review we discuss how the models of neutrino masses can accommodate solutions to the problem of matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe, dark energy or cosmological constant problem and dark matter candidates. The matter-antimatter asymmetry is explained by leptogenesis, originating from the lepton number violation associated with the neutrino masses. The dark energy problem is correlated with a mass

Utpal Sarkar; Utpal

2007-01-01

234

New Agegraphic Dark Energy in $f(R)$ Gravity

In this paper we study cosmological application of new agegraphic dark energy density in the $f(R)$ gravity framework. We employ the new agegraphic model of dark energy to obtain the equation of state for the new agegraphic energy density in spatially flat universe. Our calculation show, taking $n<0$, it is possible to have $w_{\\rm \\Lambda}$ crossing -1. This implies that one can generate phantom-like equation of state from a new agegraphic dark energy model in flat universe in the modified gravity cosmology framework. Also we develop a reconstruction scheme for the modified gravity with $f(R)$ action.

M. R. Setare

2009-08-03

235

Anisotropic charged dark energy star

As the stars carry electrical charges, we present in this paper a model for charged dark energy star which is singularity free. We take Krori-Barua space time. We assume that the radial pressure exerted on the system due to the presence of dark energy is proportional to the isotropic perfect fluid matter density and the difference between tangential and radial pressure is proportional to the square of the electric field intensity. The solution satisfies the physical conditions inside the star

Kanika Das; Nawsad Ali

2014-02-02

236

Dark energy from gravitoelectromagnetic inflation?

Gravitoectromagnetic Inflation (GI) was introduced to describe in an unified manner, electromagnetic, gravitatory and inflaton fields from a 5D vacuum state. On the other hand, the primordial origin and evolution of dark energy is today unknown. In this letter we show using GI that the zero modes of some redefined vector fields $B_i=A_i/a$ produced during inflation, could be the source of dark energy in the universe.

Federico Agustin Membiela; Mauricio Bellini

2008-07-29

237

Planck priors for dark energy surveys

Although cosmic microwave background anisotropy data alone cannot constrain simultaneously the spatial curvature and the equation of state of dark energy, CMB data provide a valuable addition to other experimental results. However computing a full CMB power spectrum with a Boltzmann code is quite slow; for instance if we want to work with many dark energy and/or modified gravity models, or would like to optimize experiments where many different configurations need to be tested, it is possible to adopt a quicker and more efficient approach. In this paper we consider the compression of the projected Planck cosmic microwave background data into four parameters, R (scaled distance to last scattering surface), l{sub a} (angular scale of sound horizon at last scattering), {omega}{sub b}h{sup 2} (baryon density fraction) and n{sub s} (powerlaw index of primordial matter power spectrum), all of which can be computed quickly. We show that, although this compression loses information compared to the full likelihood, such information loss becomes negligible when more data is added. We also demonstrate that the method can be used for canonical scalar-field dark energy independently of the parametrization of the equation of state, and discuss how this method should be used for other kinds of dark energy models.

Mukherjee, Pia; Parkinson, David [Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Kunz, Martin [Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Geneva, 24 Quai E. Ansermet, 1211 Geneve 4 (Switzerland); Wang Yun [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W Brooks Street, Norman, Oklahoma (United States)

2008-10-15

238

REPORT OF THE DARK ENERGY TASK FORCE

REPORT OF THE DARK ENERGY TASK FORCE (DETF) Dark energy appears to be the dominant component. These circumstances demand an ambitious observational program to determine the dark energy properties as well postulating that 70% of the universe is composed of mysterious "dark energy" that drives the acceleration

Baumgardt, Holger

239

Stable dark energy stars: An alternative to black holes?

In this work, a generalization of the Mazur-Mottola gravastar model is explored, by considering a matching of an interior solution governed by the dark energy equation of state, $\\omega\\equiv p/ \\rhoenergy is a possible candidate.

Francisco S. N. Lobo

2006-12-05

240

Dark Energy and Dark Matter as Inertial Effects

A globally rotating model of the universe is postulated. It is shown that dark energy and dark matter are cosmic inertial effects resulting from such a cosmic rotation, corresponding to centrifugal and a combination of centrifugal and the Coriolis forces, respectively. The physics and the cosmological and galactic parameters obtained from the model closely match those attributed to dark energy and dark matter in the standard {\\Lambda}-CDM model.

Serkan Zorba

2012-10-20

241

Phase-space analysis of teleparallel dark energy

We perform a detailed dynamical analysis of the teleparallel dark energy scenario, which is based on the teleparallel equivalent of General Relativity, in which one adds a canonical scalar field, allowing also for a nonminimal coupling with gravity. We find that the universe can result in the quintessence-like, dark-energy-dominated solution, or to the stiff dark-energy late-time attractor, similarly to standard quintessence. However, teleparallel dark energy possesses an additional late-time solution, in which dark energy behaves like a cosmological constant, independently of the specific values of the model parameters. Finally, during the evolution the dark energy equation-of-state parameter can be either above or below -1, offering a good description for its observed dynamical behavior and its stabilization close to the cosmological-constant value.

Xu, Chen [College of Mathematics and Physics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing 400065 (China); Saridakis, Emmanuel N. [Physics Division, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Zografou Campus, Athens (Greece); Leon, Genly, E-mail: xuc1990@126.com, E-mail: Emmanuel_Saridakis@baylor.edu, E-mail: genly@uclv.edu.cu [Department of Mathematics, Universidad Central de Las Villas, Santa Clara, CP 54830 (Cuba)

2012-07-01

242

Distribution of dark energy in the vicinity of compact objects

The distribution of dark energy density in the vicinity of compact static objects is analyzed. Dark energy is assumed to be in the form of a scalar field with three parameters: the background density, the equation of state parameter and the effective sound speed. Compact object is assumed to be a homogeneous spherical object of constant radius. We use the solutions of the hydrodynamical equations for dark energy in the gravitational fields of such objects for cases of static distribution of dark energy in the vicinity of star and stationary accretion onto black hole in order to analyze the possibility of constraining of the parameters of dark energy from astrophysical data. We show that dependence of density of dark energy in the vicinity of such object on the effective sound speed, background density and equation of state parameter of dark energy makes it possible to try such tests. Here we exploit the accuracy of determination of masses of Sun and black hole in the center of Milky Way to obtain the lower limit on the effective sound speed of dark energy.

M. Tsizh; B. Novosyadlyj; Yu. Kulinich

2014-12-23

243

Interacting Ricci Dark Energy Models with an Effective ?-term in Lyra Manifold

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we consider a universe filled with barotropic dark matter and Ricci dark energy in Lyras geometry with varying ?. We assume two different kinds of interactions between dark matter and dark energy. Then, by using numerical analysis, we investigate some cosmological parameters of the models such as equation of state, Hubble and deceleration parameters.

Khurshudyan, M.; Sadeghi, J.; Pasqua, A.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Myrzakulov, R.; Farahani, H.

2015-03-01

244

Non-adiabatic perturbations in Ricci dark energy model

We show that the non-adiabatic perturbations between Ricci dark energy and matter can grow both on superhorizon and subhorizon scales, and these non-adiabatic perturbations on subhorizon scales can lead to instability in this dark energy model. The rapidly growing non-adiabatic modes on subhorizon scales always occur when the equation of state parameter of dark energy starts to drop towards -1 near the end of matter era, except that the parameter ? of Ricci dark energy equals to 1/2. In the case where ? = 1/2, the rapidly growing non-adiabatic modes disappear when the perturbations in dark energy and matter are adiabatic initially. However, an adiabaticity between dark energy and matter perturbations at early time implies a non-adiabaticity between matter and radiation, this can influence the ordinary Sachs-Wolfe (OSW) effect. Since the amount of Ricci dark energy is not small during matter domination, the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect is greatly modified by density perturbations of dark energy, leading to a wrong shape of CMB power spectrum. The instability in Ricci dark energy is difficult to be alleviated if the effects of coupling between baryon and photon on dark energy perturbations are included.

Karwan, Khamphee; Thitapura, Thiti, E-mail: pk_karwan@yahoo.com, E-mail: nanodsci2523@hotmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

2012-01-01

245

Reissner-Nordstrom black hole in dark energy background

In this paper we propose a stationary solution of Einstein's field equations describing Reissner-Nordstrom black hole in dark energy background. It is to be regarded as the Reissner-Nordstrom black hole is embedded into the dark energy solution producing Reissner-Nordstrom-dark energy black hole. We find that the space-time geometry of Reissner-Nordstrom-dark energy solution is Petrov type $D$ in the classification of space-times. It is also shown that the embedded space-time possesses an energy-momentum tensor of the electromagnetic field interacting with the dark energy having negative pressure. We find the energy-momentum tensor for dark energy violates the the strong energy condition due to the negative pressure, whereas that of the electromagnetic field obeys the strong energy condition. It is shown that the time-like vector field for an observer in the Reissner-Nordstrom-dark energy space is expanding, accelerating, shearing and non-rotating. We investigate the surface gravity of the horizons for the embedded dark energy black hole. The characteristic properties of relativistic dark energy based on the de Sitter solution is discussed in an appendix.

Ngangbam Ishwarchandra; Ng. Ibohal; K. Yugindro Singh

2014-11-29

246

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By careful analysis of the data from the WMAP satellite, scientists were surprised to determine that about 70% of the matter in our universe is in some unknown form, and labeled it Dark Energy. Earlier, in 1998, two separate international groups of astronomers studying Ia supernovae were even more surprised to be forced to conclude that an amazing smooth transition occurred, from the expected slowing down of the expansion of our universe (due to normal positive gravitation) to an accelerating expansion of the universe that began at at a big bang age of the universe of about nine billion years. In 1918 Albert Einstein stated that his Lambda term in his theory of general relativity was ees,``the energy of empty space,'' and represented a negative pressure and thus a negative gravity force. However my 2004 ``Strong'' Magnetic Field model (SMF) for the origin of magnetic fields at Combination Time (Astro-ph0509223 and 0509222) in our big bang universe produces a unique topology for Superclusters, having almost all the mass, visible and invisible, i.e. from clusters of galaxies down to particles with mass, on the surface of an ellipsoid surrounding a growing very high vacuum. If I hypothesize, with Einstein, that there exists a constant ees force per unit volume, then, gradually, as the universe expands from Combination Time, two effects occur (a) the volume of the central high vacuum region increases, and (b) the density of positive gravity particles in the central region of each Supercluster in our universe decreases dramatically. Thus eventually Einstein's general relativity theory's repulsive gravity of the central very high vacuum region becomes larger than the positive gravitational attraction of all the clusters of galaxies, galaxies, quasars, stars and plasma on the Supercluster shell, and the observed accelerating expansion of our universe occurs. This assumes that our universe is made up mostly of such Superclusters. It is conceivable that the high vacuum region between Superclusters also plays a role in adding extra repulsive gravity force. Note that cosmologist Stephen Hawking comments on his website that ``There is no reason to rule out negative pressure. This is just tension.''

Greyber, Howard

2009-11-01

247

Dark energy and formation of classical scalar fields

We present a quintessence model for the dark energy in which the quintessence scalar field is produced by the decay of a super heavy dark matter and gradually condensate to a classical scalar field. This model can explain both the smallness and the latest observations by WMAP for the equation of state of the dark energy which has $w \\sim -1.06$. We review both classical and field theoretical treatment of this model and briefly explain the most important parameters for obtaining the observed characteristic of the dark energy.

Houri Ziaeepour

2006-04-03

248

Interaction between DBI-essence and other Dark Energies

The present work considers interaction between DBI-essence and other candidates of dark energies like modified Chaplygin gas, hessence, tachyonic field, and new agegraphic dark energy. The potentials of the fields have been reconstructed under interaction and their evolutions have been viewed against cosmic time $t$ and scalar field $\\phi$. Equation of state parameters have also been obtained. The nature of potentials and the equation of state parameters of the dark energies have been found graphically in presence of interaction (both small and large interaction).

Surajit Chattopadhyay; Ujjal Debnath

2010-06-11

249

Cosmological dark energy effects from entanglement

The thorny issue of relating information theory to cosmology is here addressed by assuming a possible connection between quantum entanglement measures and observable universe. In particular, we propose a cosmological toy model, where the equation of state of the cosmological fluid, which drives the today observed cosmic acceleration, can be inferred from quantum entanglement between different cosmological epochs. In such a way the dynamical dark energy results as byproduct of quantum entanglement.

S. Capozziello; O. Luongo; S. Mancini

2013-02-24

250

In this present work, we try to build up a cosmological model using a non-canonical scalar field within the framework of a spatially flat FRW space-time. In this context, we have considered four different parametrizations of the equation of state parameter of the non- canonical scalar field. Under this scenario, an analytical solution for the various cosmological parameters have been found out. It has been found that the deceleration parameter shows a smooth transition from a positive value to some negative value which indicates that the universe was undergoing an early deceleration followed by late time acceleration which is essential for the structure formation of the universe. With these four parametrizations, the future evolution of the models are also discussed. We have also shown that the two models mimic as the concordance $\\Lambda$CDM in the near future, whereas the other two models diverge due to the future singularity. Finally, we have studied these theoretical models with the Union2.1 SN Ia dataset...

Mamon, Abdulla Al

2015-01-01

251

Anisotropic Dark Energy and the Generalized Second Law of Thermodynamics

We consider a Bianchi type $I$ model in which anisotropic dark energy is interacting with dark matter and anisotropic radiation. With this scenario, we investigate the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics. It is concluded that the validity of this law depends on different parameters like shear, skewness and equation of state.

M. Sharif; Farida Khanum

2011-11-12

252

Dark Energy vs. Dark Matter: Towards a Unifying Scalar Field?

The standard model of cosmology suggests the existence of two components, "dark matter" and "dark energy", which determine the fate of the Universe. Their nature is still under investigation, and no direct proof of their existences has emerged yet. There exist alternative models which reinterpret the cosmological observations, for example by replacing the dark energy/dark matter hypothesis by the existence of a unique dark component, the dark fluid, which is able to mimic the behaviour of both components. After a quick review of the cosmological constraints on this unifying dark fluid, we will present a model of dark fluid based on a complex scalar field and discuss the problem of the choice of the potential.

A. Arbey

2008-12-18

253

Dark matter, dark energy, and dark radiation coupled with a transversal interaction

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate a cosmological scenario with three interacting components that includes dark matter, dark energy, and radiation in the spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. We introduce a 3-dimensional internal space, the interaction vector Q=(Qx,Qm,Qr) satisfying the constraint plane Qx+Qm+Qr=0, the barotropic index vector ?=(?x,?m,?r) and select a transversal interaction vector Qt in a sense that Qt·?=0. We exactly solve the source equation for a linear Qt, that depends on the total energy density and its derivatives up to third order, and find all the component energy densities. We obtain a large set of interactions for which the source equation admits a power law solution and show its asymptotic stability by constructing the Lyapunov function. We apply the ?2 method to the observational Hubble data for constraining the cosmic parameters, and analyze the amount of dark energy in the radiation era for the above linear Qt. It turns to be that our model fulfills the severe bound of ?x(z?1100)<0.1 and is consistent with the future constraints achievable by Planck and CMBPol experiments.

Chimento, Luis P.; Richarte, Martín G.

2012-11-01

254

Structure formation in inhomogeneous Early Dark Energy models

We study the impact of Early Dark Energy fluctuations in the linear and non-linear regimes of structure formation. In these models the energy density of dark energy is non-negligible at high redshifts and the fluctuations in the dark energy component can have the same order of magnitude of dark matter fluctuations. Since two basic approximations usually taken in the standard scenario of quintessence models, that both dark energy density during the matter dominated period and dark energy fluctuations on small scales are negligible, are not valid in such models, we first study approximate analytical solutions for dark matter and dark energy perturbations in the linear regime. This study is helpful to find consistent initial conditions for the system of equations and to analytically understand the effects of Early Dark Energy and its fluctuations, which are also verified numerically. In the linear regime we compute the matter growth and variation of the gravitational potential associated with the Integrated Sachs-Wolf effect, showing that these observables present important modifications due to Early Dark Energy fluctuations, though making them more similar to the ?CDM model. We also make use of the Spherical Collapse model to study the influence of Early Dark Energy fluctuations in the nonlinear regime of structure formation, especially on ?{sub c} parameter, and their contribution to the halo mass, which we show can be of the order of 10%. We finally compute how the number density of halos is modified in comparison to the ?CDM model and address the problem of how to correct the mass function in order to take into account the contribution of clustered dark energy. We conclude that the inhomogeneous Early Dark Energy models are more similar to the ?CDM model than its homogeneous counterparts.

Batista, R.C. [Escola de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Caixa Postal 1524, 59072-970, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil); Pace, F., E-mail: rbatista@ect.ufrn.br, E-mail: francesco.pace@port.ac.uk [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)

2013-06-01

255

Probing dark energy with cosmology

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dark energy accounts for two-thirds of the matter/energy in the Universe, determines its fate, and is possibly the biggest mystery in all of science. Because it is diffusely distributed, cosmological observations offer the only clear means of learning about it. Its primary effecting is in determining the expansion rate of the Universe; in turn this affects cosmological distances and the growth of structure in the Universe. I discuss various cosmological measurements that can get at dark energy and their efficacies.

Turner, Michael S.

2003-04-01

256

Dark matter and energy of universe

We describe the different components of the present energy of the universe starting from the well established radiation and luminous matter, following with the dark baryonic matter determined by primordial nucleosynthesis, the likely cold dark matter with its theoretical candidates, the sure but not yet defined hot dark matter represented by neutrinos and the evidence of dark energy given by

Luis Masperi

2001-01-01

257

Spherical Collapse Model And Dark Energy(I)

In existing literatures about the top-hat spherical collapse model of galaxy clusters formation in cosmology containing dark energies, dark energies are usually assumed not to cluster on this scale. But all these literatures ignored the current describing the flowing of dark energies outside the clusters which should exist under this assumption, so the conclusions of these literatures are worth further explorations. In this paper we study this model in QCDM or Phantom-CDM cosmologies(flat) by assuming that dark energies will cluster synchronously with ordinary matters on the scale of galaxy clusters so the dark energy current flowing outside the clusters does not exist at all and find that in this case, the key parameters of the model exhibit rather non-trivial and remarkable dependence on the equation of state coefficients of dark energies. We then apply the results in Press-Scheter theory and calculate the number density of galaxy clusters and its evolutions. We find that this two quantities are both affected exponentially by the equation of state coefficients of dark energies. We leave the study of this model with the assumption that dark energies do not cluster on the scale of galaxy clusters at all as the topic of another paper where similar conclusions will be obtained also.

Ding-fang Zeng; Yi-hong Gao

2005-05-09

258

Dynamical dark energy: Current constraints and forecasts

We consider how well the dark energy equation of state $w$ as a function of red shift $z$ will be measured using current and anticipated experiments. We use a procedure which takes fair account of the uncertainties in the functional dependence of $w$ on $z$, as well as the parameter degeneracies, and avoids the use of strong prior constraints. We apply the procedure to current data from WMAP, SDSS, and the supernova searches, and obtain results that are consistent with other analyses using different combinations of data sets. The effects of systematic experimental errors and variations in the analysis technique are discussed. Next, we use the same procedure to forecast the dark energy constraints achieveable by the end of the decade, assuming 8 years of WMAP data and realistic projections for ground-based measurements of supernovae and weak lensing. We find the $2 \\sigma$ constraints on the current value of $w$ to be $\\Delta w_0 (2 \\sigma) = 0.20$, and on $dw/dz$ (between $z=0$ and $z=1$) to be $\\Delta w_1 (2 \\sigma)=0.37$. Finally, we compare these limits to other projections in the literature. Most show only a modest improvement; others show a more substantial improvement, but there are serious concerns about systematics. The remaining uncertainty still allows a significant span of competing dark energy models. Most likely, new kinds of measurements, or experiments more sophisticated than those currently planned, are needed to reveal the true nature of dark energy.

Amol Upadhye; Mustapha Ishak; Paul J. Steinhardt

2005-03-11

259

On the determination of dark energy

I consider some of the issues we face in trying to understand dark energy. Huge fluctuations in the unknown dark energy equation of state can be hidden in distance data, so I argue that model-independent tests which signal if the cosmological constant is wrong are valuable. These can be constructed to remove degeneracies with the cosmological parameters. Gravitational effects can play an important role. Even small inhomogeneity clouds our ability to say something definite about dark energy. I discuss how the averaging problem confuses our potential understanding of dark energy by considering the backreaction from density perturbations to second-order in the concordance model: this effect leads to at least a 10% increase in the dynamical value of the deceleration parameter, and could be significantly higher. Large Hubble-scale inhomogeneity has not been investigated in detail, and could conceivably be the cause of apparent cosmic acceleration. I discuss void models which defy the Copernican principle in our Hubble patch, and describe how we can potentially rule out these models.This article is a summary of two talks given at the Invisible Universe Conference, Paris, 2009.

Clarkson, Chris [Cosmology and Gravity Group, Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

2010-06-23

260

Unified dark energy-dark matter model with inverse quintessence

We consider a model where both dark energy and dark matter originate from the coupling of a scalar field with a non-canonical kinetic term to, both, a metric measure and a non-metric measure. An interacting dark energy/dark matter scenario can be obtained by introducing an additional scalar that can produce non constant vacuum energy and associated variations in dark matter. The phenomenology is most interesting when the kinetic term of the additional scalar field is ghost-type, since in this case the dark energy vanishes in the early universe and then grows with time. This constitutes an ''inverse quintessence scenario'', where the universe starts from a zero vacuum energy density state, instead of approaching it in the future.

Ansoldi, Stefano [ICRA — International Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, INFN — Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, and Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Università degli Studi di Udine, via delle Scienze 206, I-33100 Udine (UD) (Italy); Guendelman, Eduardo I., E-mail: ansoldi@fulbrightmail.org, E-mail: guendel@bgu.ac.il [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negeev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

2013-05-01

261

Dark matter, dark energy and gravitational proprieties of antimatter

We suggest that the eventual gravitational repulsion between matter and antimatter may be a key for understanding of the nature of dark matter and dark energy. If there is gravitational repulsion, virtual particle-antiparticle pairs in the vacuum, may be considered as gravitational dipoles. We use a simple toy model to reveal a first indication that the gravitational polarization of such a vacuum, caused by baryonic matter in a Galaxy, may produce the same effect as supposed existence of dark matter. In addition, we argue that cancellation of gravitational charges in virtual particle-antiparticle pairs, may be a basis for a solution of the cosmological constant problem and identification of dark energy with vacuum energy. Hence, it may be that dark matter and dark energy are not new, unknown forms of matter-energy but an effect of complex interaction between quantum vacuum and known baryonic matter.

Dragan Slavkov Hajdukovic

2009-10-21

262

Complementarity of future dark energy probes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years a plethora of future surveys has been suggested to constrain the nature of dark energy. In this paper we adapt a binning approach to the equation of state factor 'w' and discuss how future weak lensing, galaxy cluster counts, supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillation surveys constrain the equation of state at different redshifts. We analyse a few representative future surveys, namely Dark Energy Survey (DES), Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS1), Wide Field MultiObject Spectrograph (WFMOS), Pan-STARRS4, EUCLID, SuperNovae Acceleration Probe (SNAP) and Square Kilometer Array (SKA), and perform a principal component analysis for the 'w' bins. We also employ a prior from Planck cosmic microwave background measurements on the remaining cosmological parameters. We study at which redshifts a particular survey constrains the equation of state best and how many principal components are significantly determined. We then point out which surveys would be sufficiently complementary. We find that weak lensing surveys, like EUCLID, would constrain the equation of state best and would be able to constrain the order of three significant modes. Baryon acoustic oscillation surveys on the other hand provide a unique opportunity to probe the equation of state at relatively high redshifts.

Tang, Jiayu; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Weller, Jochen

2011-09-01

263

Dark energy interacting with neutrinos and dark matter: a phenomenological theory

A model for a flat homogeneous and isotropic Universe composed of dark energy, dark matter, neutrinos, radiation and baryons is analyzed. The fields of dark matter and neutrinos are supposed to interact with the dark energy. The dark energy is considered to obey either the van der Waals or the Chaplygin equations of state. The ratio between the pressure and the energy density of the neutrinos varies with the red-shift simulating massive and non-relativistic neutrinos at small red-shifts and non-massive relativistic neutrinos at high red-shifts. The model can reproduce the expected red-shift behaviors of the deceleration parameter and of the density parameters of each constituent.

G. M. Kremer

2007-04-03

264

Cosmology with Coupled Gravity and Dark Energy

Dark energy is a fundamental constituent of our universe, its status in the cosmological field equation should be equivalent to that of gravity. Here we construct a dark energy and matter gravity coupling (DEMC) model of cosmology in a way that dark energy and gravity are introduced into the cosmological field equation in parallel with each other from the beginning. The DEMC universe possesses a composite symmetry from global Galileo invariance and local Lorentz invariance. The observed evolution of the universe expansion rate at redshift z>1 is in tension with the standard LCDM model, but can be well predicted by the DEMC model from measurements of only nearby epochs. The so far most precise measured expansion rate at high z is quite a bit slower than the expectations from LCDM, but remarkably consistent with that from DEMC. It is hoped that the DEMC scenario can also help to solve other existing challenges to cosmology: large scale anomalies in CMB maps and large structures up to about 10^3 Mpc of a quasar group. The DEMC universe is a well defined mechanical system. From measurements we can quantitatively evaluate its total rest energy, present absolute radius and expanding speed.

Ti-Pei Li

2015-01-13

265

The Hubble constant and dark energy from cosmological distance measures

We study how the determination of the Hubble constant from cosmological distance measures is affected by models of dark energy and vice versa. For this purpose, constraints on the Hubble constant and dark energy are investigated using the cosmological observations of cosmic microwave background, baryon acoustic oscillations and type Ia supernovae. When one investigates dark energy, the Hubble constant is often a nuisance parameter; thus it is usually marginalized over. On the other hand, when one focuses on the Hubble constant, simple dark energy models such as a cosmological constant and a constant equation of state are usually assumed. Since we do not know the nature of dark energy yet, it is interesting to investigate the Hubble constant assuming some types of dark energy and see to what extent the constraint on the Hubble constant is affected by the assumption concerning dark energy. We show that the constraint on the Hubble constant is not affected much by the assumption for dark energy. We furthermore show that this holds true even if we remove the assumption that the universe is flat. We also discuss how the prior on the Hubble constant affects the constraints on dark energy and/or the curvature of the universe.

Ichikawa, Kazuhide [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8582 (Japan); Takahashi, Tomo, E-mail: kazuhide@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: tomot@cc.saga-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Saga University, Saga 840-8502 (Japan)

2008-04-15

266

Observing dark energy with SNAP

The nature of dark energy is of such fundamental importance -- yet such a mystery -- that a dedicated dark energy experiment should be as comprehensive and powerfully incisive as possible. The Supernova/Acceleration Probe robustly controls for a wide variety of systematic uncertainties, employing the Type Ia supernova distance method, with high signal to noise light curves and spectra over the full redshift range from z=0.1-1.7, and the weak gravitational lensing method with an accurate and stable point spread function.

Linder, Eric V.; SNAP Collaboration

2004-06-07

267

Dark Energy from Quantum Matter

We study the backreaction of free quantum fields on a flat Robertson-Walker spacetime. Apart from renormalization freedom, the vacuum energy receives contributions from both the trace anomaly and the thermal nature of the quantum state. The former represents a dynamical realisation of dark energy, while the latter mimics an effective dark matter component. The semiclassical dynamics yield two classes of asymptotically stable solutions. The first reproduces the concordance model in a suitable regime. The second lacks a classical counterpart, but is in excellent agreement with recent observations.

Claudio Dappiaggi; Thomas-Paul Hack; Jan Möller; Nicola Pinamonti

2010-07-28

268

Complementarity of Future Dark Energy Probes

In recent years a plethora of future surveys have been suggested to constrain the nature of dark energy. In this paper we adapt a binning approach to the equation of state factor ``w'' and discuss how future weak lensing, galaxy cluster counts, Supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillation surveys constrain the equation of state at different redshifts. We analyse a few representative future surveys, namely DES, PS1, WFMOS, PS4, EUCLID, SNAP and SKA, and perform a principal component analysis for the ``w'' bins. We also employ a prior from Planck cosmic microwave background measurements on the remaining cosmological parameters. We study at which redshifts a particular survey constrains the equation of state best and how many principal components are significantly determined. We then point out which surveys would be sufficiently complementary. We find that weak lensing surveys, like EUCLID, would constrain the equation of state best and would be able to constrain of the order of three significant modes. Baryon aco...

Tang, Jiayu; Weller, Jochen

2008-01-01

269

Dark energy rest frame and the CMB dipole

If dark energy can be described as a perfect fluid, then, apart from its equation of state relating energy density and pressure, we should also especify the corresponding rest frame. Since dark energy is typically decoupled from the rest of components of the universe, in principle such a frame could be different from that of matter and radiation. In this work we consider the potential observable effects of the motion of dark energy and the possibility to measure the dark energy velocity relative to matter. In particular we consider the modification of the usual interpretation of the CMB dipole and its implications for the determination of matter bulk flows on very large scales. We also comment on the possible origin of a dark energy flow and its evolution in different models.

Antonio L. Maroto

2006-09-08

270

Constraining Dark Energy with the Dark Energy Survey: Theoretical Challenges

The Dark Energy Survey (DES) will use a new imaging camera on the Blanco 4-m telescope at CTIO to image 5000 square degrees of sky in the South Galactic Cap in four optical bands, and to carry out repeat imaging over a smaller area to identify and measure lightcurves of Type Ia supernovae. The main imaging area overlaps the planned

James Annis; Sarah Bridle; Francisco J. Castander; August E. Evrard; Pablo Fosalba; Joshua A. Frieman; Enrique Gaztanaga; Bhuvnesh Jain; Andrey V. Kravtsov; Ofer Lahav; Huan Lin; Joseph Mohr; Albert Stebbins; Terence P. Walker; Risa H. Wechsler; David H. Weinberg; Jochen Weller

2005-01-01

271

Event horizons and closed time-like curves cannot exist in the real world for the simple reason that they are inconsistent with quantum mechanics. Following ideas originated by Robert Laughlin, Pawel Mazur, Emil Mottola, David Santiago, and the speaker it is now possible to describe in some detail what happens physically when one approaches and crosses a region of space-time where classical general relativity predicts there should be an infinite red shift surface. This quantum critical physics provides a new perspective on a variety of enigmatic astrophysical phenomena, including supernovae explosions, gamma ray bursts, positron emission, and dark matter.

G. Chapline

2005-04-13

272

w and w' of Scalar Field Models of Dark Energy

Important observables to reveal the nature of dark energy are the equation of state $w$ and its time derivative in units of the Hubble time $w'$. Recently, it is shown that the simplest scalar field models of dark energy (quintessence) occupy rather narrow regions in the $w-w'$ plane. We extend the $w-w'$ plane to $wdark energy. We also derive bounds on tracker k-essence.

Takeshi Chiba

2009-11-06

273

It is proposed that after the macroscopic fluctuation of energy density that is responsible for inflation dies away, a class of microscopic fluctuations, always present, survives to give the present day dark energy. This latter is simply a reinterpretation of the causet mechanism of Ahmed, Dodelson, Green and Sorkin, wherein the emergence of space is dropped but only energy considerations are maintained. At postinflation times, energy is exchanged between the "cisplanckian" cosmos and an unknown foam-like transplanckian reservoir. Whereas during inflation, the energy flows only from the latter to the former after inflation it fluctuates in sign thereby accounting for the tiny effective cosmological constant that seems to account for dark energy.

Robert Brout

2005-08-04

274

Cosmological anisotropy from non-comoving dark matter and dark energy

We consider a cosmological model in which the two major fluid components of the Universe, dark energy and dark matter, flow with distinct four-velocities. This cosmological configuration is equivalent to a single anisotropic fluid, expanding with a four-velocity that is an appropriate combination of the two fluid four-velocities. The energy density of the single cosmological fluid is larger than the sum of the energy densities of the two perfect fluids, i.e., dark energy and dark matter, respectively, and contains a correction term due to the anisotropy generated by the differences in the four-velocities. Furthermore, the gravitational field equations of the two-fluid anisotropic cosmological model are obtained for a Bianchi type I geometry. By assuming that the non-comoving motion of the dark energy and dark matter induces small perturbations in the homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker type cosmological background, and that the anisotropy parameter is small, the equations of the cosmological perturbations due to the non-comoving nature of the two major components are obtained. The time evolution of the metric perturbations is explicitly obtained for the cases of the exponential and power law background cosmological expansion. The imprints of a non-comoving dark energy - dark matter on the Cosmic Microwave Background and on the luminosity distance are briefly discussed, and the temperature anisotropies and the quadrupole are explicitly obtained in terms of the metric perturbations of the flat background metric. Therefore, if there is a slight difference between the four-velocities of the dark energy and dark matter, the Universe would acquire some anisotropic characteristics, and its geometry will deviate from the standard FLRW one. In fact, the recent Planck results show that the presence of an intrinsic large scale anisotropy in the Universe cannot be excluded a priori, so that the model presented in this work can be considered as a plausible and viable working hypothesis.

Harko, Tiberiu [Department of Mathematics, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Lobo, Francisco S. N., E-mail: t.harko@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: flobo@cii.fc.ul.pt [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofísica da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, Edificio C8 1749-016 Lisboa (Portugal)

2013-07-01

275

Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam Probes of Dark Energy

Astrophysikalisches Institut Potsdam Probes of Dark Energy using Cosmological Simulations Nonlinear component, called dark energy. This unknown energy causes the expansion of the universe to accelerate theoretical model of dark energy has been developed. Instead a number of models have been proposed that range

276

Agegraphic Chaplygin gas model of dark energy

We establish a connection between the agegraphic models of dark energy and Chaplygin gas energy density in non-flat universe. We reconstruct the potential of the agegraphic scalar field as well as the dynamics of the scalar field according to the evolution of the agegraphic dark energy. We also extend our study to the interacting agegraphic generalized Chaplygin gas dark energy model.

Ahmad Sheykhi

2010-02-07

277

The cosmological constant and dark energy

Physics welcomes the idea that space contains energy whose gravitational effect approximates that of Einstein's cosmological constant, Lambda; today the concept is termed dark energy or quintessence. Physics also suggests that dark energy could be dynamical, allowing for the arguably appealing picture of an evolving dark-energy density approaching its natural value, zero, and small now because the expanding universe is

P. J. Peebles; Bharat Ratra

2003-01-01

278

Dark energy and 3-manifold topology

We show that the differential-geometric description of matter by differential structures of spacetime leads to a unifying model of the three types of energy in the cosmos: matter, dark matter and dark energy. Using this model we are able to calculate the ratio of dark energy to the total energy of the cosmos.

Torsten Asselmeyer-Maluga; Helge Rose

2007-11-21

279

In order to clarify why the zero-point energy associated with the vacuum fluctuations cannot be a candidate for the dark energy in the universe, a comparison with the Casimir effect is analyzed in some detail. A principle of epistemology is stressed that it is meaningless to talk about an absolute (isolated) thing. A relative thing can only be observed when it is changing with respect to other things. Then a new conjecture of antigravity --the repulsive force between matter and antimatter derived from the modified Einstein field equation in general relativity-- is proposed. this is due to the particle-antiparticle symmetry based on a new understanding about the essence of special relativity. Its possible consequences in the theory of cosmology are discussed briefly, including a new explanation for the accelerating universe and gamma-ray-bursts.

Ni, G

2005-01-01

280

In order to clarify why the zero-point energy associated with the vacuum fluctuations cannot be a candidate for the dark energy in the universe, a comparison with the Casimir effect is analyzed in some detail. A principle of epistemology is stressed that it is meaningless to talk about an absolute (isolated) thing. A relative thing can only be observed when it is changing with respect to other things. Then a new conjecture of antigravity --the repulsive force between matter and antimatter derived from the modified Einstein field equation in general relativity-- is proposed. this is due to the particle-antiparticle symmetry based on a new understanding about the essence of special relativity. Its possible consequences in the theory of cosmology are discussed briefly, including a new explanation for the accelerating universe and gamma-ray-bursts.

Guang-jiong Ni

2005-06-02

281

The South Pole Telescope: A white paper for the Dark Energy Task Force

The South Pole Telescope: A white paper for the Dark Energy Task Force J. E. Carlstrom, C. Chang, T constraints on the nature of dark energy by measuring its impact on the growth of structure, specifically redshifts, the statistical power of the survey yields are sufficient to measure the dark energy equation

Collar, Juan I.

282

Analysis of Generalized Ghost Version of Pilgrim Dark Energy

The proposal of pilgrim dark energy is based on the speculation that phantom-like dark energy possesses enough resistive force to preclude the black hole formation in the later universe. We explore this phenomenon by assuming the generalized ghost version of pilgrim dark energy. We find that most of the values of the interacting ($\\xi^2$) as well as pilgrim dark energy ($u$) parameters push the equation of state parameter towards phantom region. The squared speed of sound shows that this model remains stable in most of the cases of $\\xi^2$ and $u$. We also develop $\\omega_\\Lambda-\\omega'_\\Lambda$ plane and observe that this model corresponds to thawing as well as freezing regions. Finally, it is shown that the non-interacting and interacting generalized ghost versions of pilgrim dark energy correspond to $\\Lambda$CDM limit on the statefinder plane.

M. Sharif; Abdul Jawad

2014-08-18

283

Constraints on the sound speed of dark energy

We have studied constraints on the equation of state, $w$, and speed of sound, c_s, of the dark energy from a joint analysis of data from the cosmic microwave background, large scale structure and type-Ia supernovae. We find that current observations have no significant sensitivity to c_s. However, there is a slight difference between models in which there are no dark energy perturbations and models in which dark energy behaves as a fluid. Assuming that there are no dark energy perturbations shifts the allowed region for $w$ to slightly higher values. At present models with and without dark energy perturbations provide roughly equally good fits to observations, but the difference is potentially important for future parameter estimations. Finally, we have also performed error forecasts for future measurements of c_s.

Steen Hannestad

2005-04-01

284

Two Component Model of Dark Energy

We consider the possibility that the dark energy is made up of two or more independent components, each having a different equation of state. We fit the model with supernova and gamma-ray burst (GRB) data from resent observations, and use the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique to estimate the allowed parameter regions. We also use various model selection criteria to compare the two component model with the LCDM, one component dark energy model with static or variable w(XCDM), and with other multi-component models. We find that the two component models can give reasonably good fit to the current data. For some data sets, and depending somewhat on the model selection criteria, the two component model can give better fit to the data than XCDM with static w and XCDM with variable w parameterized by w = w_0 + w_az/(1+z).

Yan Gong; Xuelei Chen

2007-10-18

285

Scale Dependence of Dark Energy Antigravity

We investigate the effects of negative pressure induced by dark energy (cosmological constant or quintessence) on the dynamics at various astrophysical scales. Negative pressure induces a repulsive term (antigravity) in Newton's law which dominates on large scales. Assuming a value of the cosmological constant consistent with the recent SnIa data we determine the critical scale $r_c$ beyond which antigravity dominates the dynamics ($r_c \\sim 1Mpc $) and discuss some of the dynamical effects implied. We show that dynamically induced mass estimates on the scale of the Local Group and beyond are significantly modified due to negative pressure. We also briefly discuss possible dynamical tests (eg effects on local Hubble flow) that can be applied on relatively small scales (a few $Mpc$) to determine the density and equation of state of dark energy.

L. Perivolaropoulos

2001-06-25

286

Scale Dependence of Dark Energy Antigravity

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the effects of negative pressure induced by dark energy (cosmological constant or quintessence) on the dynamics at various astrophysical scales. Negative pressure induces a repulsive term (antigravity) in Newton's law which dominates on large scales. Assuming a value of the cosmological constant consistent with the recent SnIa data we determine the critical scale $r_c$ beyond which antigravity dominates the dynamics ($r_c \\sim 1Mpc $) and discuss some of the dynamical effects implied. We show that dynamically induced mass estimates on the scale of the Local Group and beyond are significantly modified due to negative pressure. We also briefly discuss possible dynamical tests (eg effects on local Hubble flow) that can be applied on relatively small scales (a few $Mpc$) to determine the density and equation of state of dark energy.

Perivolaropoulos, L.

2002-09-01

287

Scale Dependence of Dark Energy Antigravity

We investigate the effects of negative pressure induced by dark energy (cosmological constant or quintessence) on the dynamics at various astrophysical scales. Negative pressure induces a repulsive term (antigravity) in Newton's law which dominates on large scales. Assuming a value of the cosmological constant consistent with the recent SnIa data we determine the critical scale $r_c$ beyond which antigravity dominates the dynamics ($r_c \\sim 1Mpc $) and discuss some of the dynamical effects implied. We show that dynamically induced mass estimates on the scale of the Local Group and beyond are significantly modified due to negative pressure. We also briefly discuss possible dynamical tests (eg effects on local Hubble flow) that can be applied on relatively small scales (a few $Mpc$) to determine the density and equation of state of dark energy.

Perivolaropoulos, L

2001-01-01

288

Dark Energy: Is It of Torsion Origin?

{\\it "Dark Energy"} is a term recently used to interpret supernovae type Ia observation. In the present work we give two arguments on a possible relation between dark energy and torsion of space-time.

M. I. Wanas

2010-06-10

289

It is argued that dark energy -or something dynamically equivalent at the background level- is necessary if the expanding universe is to behave as an ordinary macroscopic system; that is, if it is to tend to some thermodynamic equilibrium state in the long run.

Diego Pavón; Ninfa Radicella

2012-12-31

290

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is argued that dark energy -or something dynamically equivalent at the background level- is necessary if the expanding universe is to behave as an ordinary oscopic system; that is, if it is to tend to some thermodynamic equilibrium state in the long run.

Pavón, D.; Radicella, N.

2015-01-01

291

Interacting agegraphic tachyon model of dark energy

Scalar-field dark energy models like tachyon are often regarded as an effective description of an underlying theory of dark energy. In this Letter, we implement the interacting agegraphic dark energy models with tachyon field. We demonstrate that the interacting agegraphic evolution of the universe can be described completely by a single tachyon scalar field. We thus reconstruct the potential as well as the dynamics of the tachyon field according to the evolutionary behavior of interacting agegraphic dark energy.

A. Sheykhi

2009-11-16

292

The Dark Force: Astrophysical Repulsion from Dark Energy

Dark energy (i.e., a cosmological constant) leads, in the Newtonian approximation, to a repulsive force which grows linearly with distance. We discuss possible astrophysical effects of this "dark" force. For example, the dark force overcomes the gravitational attraction from an object (e.g., dwarf galaxy) of mass $10^7 M_\\odot$ at a distance of $~ 23$ kpc. It seems possible that observable velocities of bound satellites (rotation curves) could be significantly affected, and therefore used to measure the dark energy density.

Chiu Man Ho; Stephen D. H. Hsu

2015-01-23

293

The Dark Force: Astrophysical Repulsion from Dark Energy

Dark energy (i.e., a cosmological constant) leads, in the Newtonian approximation, to a repulsive force which grows linearly with distance. We discuss possible astrophysical effects of this "dark" force. For example, the dark force overcomes the gravitational attraction from an object (e.g., dwarf galaxy) of mass $10^7 M_\\odot$ at a distance of $~ 23$ kpc. It seems possible that observable velocities of bound satellites (rotation curves) could be significantly affected, and therefore used to measure the dark energy density.

Ho, Chiu Man

2015-01-01

294

Dark energy and dark matter as curvature effects

Astrophysical observations are pointing out huge amounts of dark matter and dark energy needed to explain the observed large scale structures and cosmic accelerating expansion. Up to now, no experimental evidence has been found, at fundamental level, to explain such mysterious components. The problem could be completely reversed considering dark matter and dark energy as shortcomings of General Relativity and claiming for the correct theory of gravity as that derived by matching the largest number of observational data. As a result, accelerating behavior of cosmic fluid and rotation curves of spiral galaxies are reproduced by means of curvature effects.

S. Capozziello; V. F. Cardone; A. Troisi

2006-03-20

295

LSST: a complementary probe of dark energy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The number of mass clusters and their distribution in redshift are very sensitive to the density of matter ?m and the equation of state of dark energy w. Using weak lens gravitational tomography one can detect clusters of dark matter, weigh them, image their projected mass distribution, and determine their 3-D location. The degeneracy curve in the ?m - w plane is nearly orthogonal to that from CMB or SN measurements. Thus, a combination of CMB data with weak lens tomography of clusters can yield precision measurements of ?m and w, independently of the SN observations. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will repeatedly survey 30,000 square degrees of the sky in multiple wavelengths. LSST will create a 3-D tomography assay of mass overdensities back to half the age of the universe by measuring the shear and color-redshift of billions of high redshift galaxies. By simultaneously measuring several functions of cosmic shear and mass cluster abundance, LSST will provide a number of independent constraints on the dark energy density and the equation of state.

Tyson, J. A.; Wittman, D. M.; Hennawi, J. F.; Spergel, D. N.

2003-07-01

296

Some studies on dark energy related problems

In this work we perform some studies related to dark energy. Firstly, we propose a dynamical approach to explain the dark energy content of the universe. We assume that a massless scalar field couples to the Hubble parameter with some Planck-mass suppressed interactions. This scalar field developes a Hubble parameter-dependent (thus time-dependent) vacum expectation value, which renders a time-independent relative density for dark energy and thus can explain the coincidence of the dark energy density of the universe. Secondly, we assume the dark matter particle is meta-stable and decays very lately into the dark energy scalar field. Such a conversion of matter to dark energy can give an explanation for the starting time of the accelerating expansion of the universe. Thirdly, we introduce multiple Affleck-Dine fields to the landscape scenario of dark energy in order to have the required baryon-asymmetry universe.

Wang, F; Wang, Fei; Yang, Jin Min

2006-01-01

297

Some studies on dark energy related problems

In this work we perform some studies related to dark energy. Firstly, we propose a dynamical approach to explain the dark energy content of the universe. We assume that a massless scalar field couples to the Hubble parameter with some Planck-mass suppressed interactions. This scalar field developes a Hubble parameter-dependent (thus time-dependent) vacum expectation value, which renders a time-independent relative density for dark energy and thus can explain the coincidence of the dark energy density of the universe. Secondly, we assume the dark matter particle is meta-stable and decays very lately into the dark energy scalar field. Such a conversion of matter to dark energy can give an explanation for the starting time of the accelerating expansion of the universe. Thirdly, we introduce multiple Affleck-Dine fields to the landscape scenario of dark energy in order to have the required baryon-asymmetry universe.

Fei Wang; Jin Min Yang

2005-04-06

298

REPORT OF THE DARK ENERGY TASK FORCE

REPORT OF THE DARK ENERGY TASK FORCE Andreas Albrecht, University of California, Davis Gary. Suntzeff, Texas A&M University Dark energy appears to be the dominant component of the physical Universe a full understanding of the cosmic acceleration. For these reasons, the nature of dark energy ranks among

Hu, Wayne

299

Cosmic structure growth and dark energy

Dark energy has a dramatic effect on the dynamics of the Universe, causing the recently discovered acceleration of the expansion. The dynamics are also central to the behaviour of the growth of large-scale structure, offering the possibility that observations of structure formation provide a sensitive probe of the cosmology and dark energy characteristics. In particular, dark energy with a time-varying

Eric V. Linder; Adrian Jenkins

2003-01-01

300

On the Ricci dark energy model

We study the Ricci dark energy model (RDE) which was introduced as an alternative to the holographic dark energy model. We point out that an accelerating phase of the RDE is that of a constant dark energy model. This implies that the RDE may not be a new model of explaining the present accelerating universe.

Kyoung Yee Kim; Hyung Won Lee; Yun Soo Myung

2008-12-22

301

Energy Conservation (Bernoulli's Equation)

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Chiang Shih's Thermal-Fluids I course at the FAMU-FSU College of Engineering combines "the traditional thermal disciplines in Thermodynamics, heat transfer and fluid mechanics." This PowerPoint presentation, from Shih's lecture notes, illustrates Benoulli's Equation and energy conservation. Along with mathematical equations, there are also a number of illustrations and examples which show the concepts discussed.

Shih, Chiang

302

New holographic dark energy model with non-linear interaction

In this paper the cosmological evolution of a holographic dark energy model with a non-linear interaction between the dark energy and dark matter components in a FRW type flat universe is analysed. In this context, the deceleration parameter $q$ and the equation state $w_{\\Lambda}$ are obtained. We found that, as the square of the speed of sound remains positive, the model is stable under perturbations since early times; it also shows that the evolution of the matter and dark energy densities are of the same order for a long period of time, avoiding the so--called coincidence problem. We have also made the correspondence of the model with the dark energy densities and pressures for the quintessence and tachyon fields. From this correspondence we have reconstructed the potential of scalar fields and their dynamics.

A. Oliveros; Mario A. Acero

2014-12-23

303

Figures of merit for present and future dark energy probes

We compare current and forecasted constraints on dynamical dark energy models from Type Ia supernovae and the cosmic microwave background using figures of merit based on the volume of the allowed dark energy parameter space. For a two-parameter dark energy equation of state that varies linearly with the scale factor, and assuming a flat universe, the area of the error ellipse can be reduced by a factor of {approx}10 relative to current constraints by future space-based supernova data and CMB measurements from the Planck satellite. If the dark energy equation of state is described by a more general basis of principal components, the expected improvement in volume-based figures of merit is much greater. While the forecasted precision for any single parameter is only a factor of 2-5 smaller than current uncertainties, the constraints on dark energy models bounded by -1{<=}w{<=}1 improve for approximately 6 independent dark energy parameters resulting in a reduction of the total allowed volume of principal component parameter space by a factor of {approx}100. Typical quintessence models can be adequately described by just 2-3 of these parameters even given the precision of future data, leading to a more modest but still significant improvement. In addition to advances in supernova and CMB data, percent-level measurement of absolute distance and/or the expansion rate is required to ensure that dark energy constraints remain robust to variations in spatial curvature.

Mortonson, Michael J. [Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Huterer, Dragan [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1040 (United States); Hu, Wayne [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, and Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2010-09-15

304

Studies of dark energy with X-ray observatories.

I review the contribution of Chandra X-ray Observatory to studies of dark energy. There are two broad classes of observable effects of dark energy: evolution of the expansion rate of the Universe, and slow down in the rate of growth of cosmic structures. Chandra has detected and measured both of these effects through observations of galaxy clusters. A combination of the Chandra results with other cosmological datasets leads to 5% constraints on the dark energy equation-of-state parameter, and limits possible deviations of gravity on large scales from general relativity. PMID:20404207

Vikhlinin, Alexey

2010-04-20

305

Studies of dark energy with x-ray observatories

I review the contribution of Chandra X-ray Observatory to studies of dark energy. There are two broad classes of observable effects of dark energy: evolution of the expansion rate of the Universe, and slow down in the rate of growth of cosmic structures. Chandra has detected and measured both of these effects through observations of galaxy clusters. A combination of the Chandra results with other cosmological datasets leads to 5% constraints on the dark energy equation-of-state parameter, and limits possible deviations of gravity on large scales from general relativity. PMID:20404207

Vikhlinin, Alexey

2010-01-01

306

Holographic Dark Energy with Generalized Chaplygin Gas in Higher Dimensions

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate holographic dark energy (HDE) correspondence of interacting Generalized Chaplygin Gas (GCG) in the framework of compact Kaluza-Klein (KK) cosmology. The evolution of the modified HDE with corresponding equation of state is obtained here. Considering the present value of the density parameter a stable configuration is found which accommodates Dark Energy (DE). We note a connection between DE and Phantom fields. It reveals that the DE might have evolved from a Phantom state in the past.

Ghose, S.; Saha, A.; Paul, B. C.

2014-11-01

307

Unified dark energy and dark matter from a scalar field different from quintessence

We explore unification of dark matter and dark energy in a theory containing a scalar field of non-Lagrangian type, obtained by direct insertion of a kinetic term into the energy-momentum tensor. This scalar is different from quintessence, having an equation of state between -1 and 0 and a zero sound speed in its rest frame. We solve the equations of motion for an exponential potential via a rewriting as an autonomous system, and demonstrate the observational viability of the scenario, for sufficiently small exponential potential parameter {lambda}, by comparison to a compilation of kinematical cosmological data.

Gao Changjun [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 (China); Kunz, Martin [Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Departement de Physique Theorique, Universite de Geneve, 24 quai Ernest Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneve 4 (Switzerland); Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David [Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

2010-02-15

308

Cosmological evolution of a quintom model of dark energy

We investigate in this Letter the cosmological evolution of a dark energy model with two scalar fields where one of the scalar has canonical kinetic energy and another scalar has negative kinetic energy term. For such a system with exponential potentials we find that during the evolution of the universe the equation of state w changes from w??1 to w?1,

Zong-Kuan Guo; Yun-Song Piao; Xinmin Zhang; Yuan-Zhong Zhang

2005-01-01

309

Wiggly Cosmic Strings Accrete Dark Energy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with a study of the cylindrically symmetric accretion of dark energy with equation of state p = w? onto wiggly straight cosmic strings, interpreting that the accreted energy only contributes the extent of the wiggliness, but consistently leaves invariant the unperturbed line density ?0. We have obtained that when w > -1, the perturbed linear energy density in the string core gradually increases tending to a finite maximum value as time increases, for all considered dark energy models. Where the dominant energy condition is violated, all such models predict a steady decreasing of the perturbed linear energy density ? of the cosmic strings as phantom energy is being accreted. The final state of the string after such an accretion process is a wiggleless defect. It is argued however, that if accreation of phantom energy would proceed by successive quantum steps, then the defect would continue losing perturbed linear energy density beyond ?0, until a minimum nonzero value which can be smaller than that corresponding to the unperturbed string.

González-Díaz, Pedro F.; Jiménez Madrid, José A.

310

Dark energy from discrete spacetime.

Dark energy accounts for most of the matter-energy content of our universe, yet current theories of its origin rely on radical physical assumptions such as the holographic principle or controversial anthropic arguments. We give a better motivated explanation for dark energy, claiming that it arises from a small negative scalar-curvature present even in empty spacetime. The vacuum has this curvature because spacetime is fundamentally discrete and there are more ways for a discrete geometry to have negative curvature than positive. We explicitly compute this effect using a variant of the well known dynamical-triangulations (DT) model for quantum gravity. Our model predicts a time-varying non-zero cosmological constant with a current value, [Formula: see text] in natural units, in agreement with observation. This calculation is made possible by a novel characterization of the possible DT action values combined with numerical evidence concerning their degeneracies. PMID:24312502

Trout, Aaron D

2013-01-01

311

From confinement to dark energy

The infrared divergence of the self-energy of a color charge is due to an enhancement of the long wavelength modes of the color Coulomb potential field. There are also long wavelength contributions to the QCD vacuum energy that are similarly enhanced. Vacuum modes of Hubble scale wavelengths may be affected in a cosmological setting and this can lead to a residual positive energy density of the form $H^d\\Lambda_{\\rm QCD}^{4-d}$. Lattice studies constrain $d$. If the dark energy takes this form then the universe is driven towards de Sitter expansion, and we briefly study this cosmology when $d$ is just slightly above unity.

B. Holdom

2011-02-24

312

Dark energy and the quietness of the local Hubble flow

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The linearity and quietness of the local (<10 Mpc) Hubble flow (LHF) in view of the very clumpy local universe is a long standing puzzle in standard and in open CDM (cold dark matter) cosmogony. The question addressed in this paper is whether the antigravity component of the recently discovered dark energy can cool the velocity flow enough to provide a solution to this puzzle. We calculate the growth of matter fluctuations in a flat universe containing a fraction ?X(t0) of dark energy obeying the time independent equation of state pX=w?X. We find that dark energy can indeed cool the LHF. However the dark energy parameter values required to make the predicted velocity dispersion consistent with the observed value vrms~=40 km/s have been ruled out by other observational tests constraining the dark energy parameters w and ?X. Therefore despite the claims of recent qualitative studies, dark energy with time independent equation of state cannot by itself explain the quietness and linearity of the local Hubble flow.

Axenides, M.; Perivolaropoulos, L.

2002-06-01

313

One of the most pressing, modern cosmological mysteries is the cause of the accelerated expansion of the universe. The energy density required to cause this large scale opposition to gravity is known to be both far in ...

Jackson, Brendan Marc

2011-11-23

314

Reconstructing Quintom from Ricci Dark Energy

The holographic dark energy with Ricci scalar as IR cutoff called Ricci dark energy(RDE) probes the nature of dark energy with respect to the holographic principle of quantum gravity theory. The scalar field dark energy models like quintom are often viewed as effective description of the underlying field theory of dark energy. In this letter, we assume RDE model as the underlying field theory to find how the generalized ghost condensate model(GGC) that can easily realize quintom behavior can be used to effectively describe it and reconstruct the function $h(\\phi)$ of the generalized ghost condensate model.

Chao-Jun Feng

2009-02-11

315

Tachyon dark energy models: Dynamics and constraints

We explore the dynamics of dark energy models based on a Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) tachyonic action, studying a range of potentials. We numerically investigate the existence of tracking behavior and determine the present-day value of the equation of state parameter and its running, which are compared with observational bounds. We find that tachyon models have quite similar phenomenology to canonical quintessence models. While some potentials can be selected amongst many possibilities and fine-tuned to give viable scenarios, there is no apparent advantage in choosing a DBI scalar field instead of a Klein-Gordon one.

Calcagni, Gianluca; Liddle, Andrew R. [Astronomy Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

2006-08-15

316

Designing dark energy afterglow experiments

Chameleon fields, which are scalar field dark energy candidates, can evade fifth force constraints by becoming massive in high-density regions. However, this property allows chameleon particles to be trapped inside a vacuum chamber with dense walls. Afterglow experiments constrain photon-coupled chameleon fields by attempting to produce and trap chameleon particles inside such a vacuum chamber, from which they will emit an afterglow as they regenerate photons. Here we discuss several theoretical and systematic effects underlying the design and analysis of the GammeV and CHASE afterglow experiments. We consider chameleon particle interactions with photons, Fermions, and other chameleon particles, as well as with macroscopic magnetic fields and matter. The afterglow signal in each experiment is predicted, and its sensitivity to various properties of the experimental apparatus is studied. Finally, we use CHASE data to exclude a wide range of photon-coupled chameleon dark energy models.

Amol Upadhye; Jason H. Steffen; Aaron S. Chou

2012-04-24

317

Dark energy versus modified gravity.

There is now strong observational evidence that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating. The standard explanation invokes an unknown "dark energy" component. But such scenarios are faced with serious theoretical problems, which has led to increased interest in models where instead general relativity is modified in a way that leads to the observed accelerated expansion. The question then arises whether the two scenarios can be distinguished. Here we show that this may not be so easy, demonstrating explicitly that a generalized dark energy model can match the growth rate of the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model and reproduce the 3+1 dimensional metric perturbations. Cosmological observations are then unable to distinguish the two cases. PMID:17501110

Kunz, Martin; Sapone, Domenico

2007-03-23

318

Radiative inflation and dark energy

We propose a model based on radiative symmetry breaking that combines inflation with dark energy and is consistent with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7-year regions. The radiative inflationary potential leads to the prediction of a spectral index 0.955 < or approx. n{sub S} < or approx. 0.967 and a tensor to scalar ratio 0.142 < or approx. r < or approx. 0.186, both consistent with current data but testable by the Planck experiment. The radiative symmetry breaking close to the Planck scale gives rise to a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson with a gravitationally suppressed mass which can naturally play the role of a quintessence field responsible for dark energy. Finally, we present a possible extra dimensional scenario in which our model could be realized.

Di Bari, Pasquale; King, Stephen F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Luhn, Christoph [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Ogden Centre for Fundamental Physics, Department of Physics, University of Durham, Science Laboratories, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Merle, Alexander [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Postfach 10 39 80, 69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Theoretical Physics, School of Engineering Sciences, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) - AlbaNova University Centre, Roslagstullsbacken 21, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Schmidt-May, Angnis [Department of Physics and Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Centre, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

2011-10-15

319

Fingerprinting Dark Energy III: distinctive marks of viscosity

The characterisation of dark energy is one of the primary goals in cosmology especially now that many new experiments are being planned with the aim of reaching a high sensitivity on cosmological parameters. It is known that if we move away from the simple cosmological constant model then we need to consider perturbations in the dark energy fluid. This means that dark energy has two extra degrees of freedom: the sound speed $\\cs$ and the anisotropic stress $\\sigma$. If dark energy is inhomogenous at the scales of interest then the gravitational potentials are modified and the evolution of the dark matter perturbations is also directly affected. In this paper we add an anisotropic component to the dark energy perturbations. Following the idea introduced in \\cite{Sapone:2009mb}, we solve analytically the equations of perturbations in the dark sector, finding simple and accurate approximated solutions. We also find that the evolution of the density perturbations is governed by an effective sound speed which depends on both the sound speed and the anisotropic stress parameter. We then use these solutions to look at the impact of the dark energy perturbations on the matter power spectrum and on the Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in the Cosmic Microwave Background.

Domenico Sapone; Elisabetta Majerotto

2012-03-09

320

Genesis of Dark Energy: Dark Energy as a Consequence of Cosmological Nuclear Energy

Recent observations on Type-Ia supernovae and low density measurement of matter (including dark matter) suggest that the present day universe consists mainly of repulsive-gravity type exotic-matter with negative-pressure often referred as dark-energy. But the mystery is about the nature of dark-energy and its puzzling questions such as why, how, where & when about the dark- energy are intriguing. In the present paper the author attempts to answer these questions while making an effort to reveal the genesis of dark-energy, and suggests that the cosmological nuclear-binding-energy liberated during primordial nucleo-synthesis remains trapped for long time and then is released free which manifests itself as dark-energy in the universe. It is also explained why for dark energy the parameter w = -2/3. Noting that w=+1for stiff matter and w=+1/3 for radiation; w = - 2/3 is for dark energy, because -1 is due to deficiency of stiff-nuclear-matter and that this binding energy is ultimately released as radiation contributing +1/3, making w = -1 + 1/3 = -2/3. This thus almost solves the dark-energy mystery of negative-pressure & repulsive-gravity. It is concluded that dark-energy is a consequence of released-free nuclear-energy of cosmos. The proposed theory makes several estimates / predictions, which agree reasonably well with the astrophysical constraints & observations.

R. C. Gupta

2004-12-07

321

Dark Energy, Gravitation and Electromagnetism

In the context of the fact that the existence of dark energy causing the accelerated expansion of the universe has been confirmed by the WMAP and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we re-examine gravitation itself, starting with the formulation of Sakharov and show that it is possible to obtain gravitation in terms of the electromagnetic charge of elementary particles, once the ZPF and its effects at the Compton scale are taken into account.

B. G. Sidharth

2004-01-08

322

Inhomogeneous alternative to dark energy?

Recently, there have been suggestions that the apparent accelerated expansion of the universe is not caused by repulsive gravitation due to dark energy, but is rather a result of inhomogeneities in the distribution of matter. In this work, we investigate the behavior of a dust-dominated inhomogeneous Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi universe model, and confront it with various astrophysical observations. We find that such

Håvard Alnes; Morad Amarzguioui; Øyvind Grøn

2006-01-01

323

Effective field theory of modified gravity with two scalar fields: dark energy and dark matter

We present a framework for discussing the cosmology of dark energy and dark matter based on two scalar degrees of freedom. An effective field theory of cosmological perturbations is employed. A unitary gauge choice renders the dark energy field into the gravitational sector, for which we adopt a generic Lagrangian depending on three-dimensional geometrical scalar quantities arising in the ADM decomposition. We add to this dark-energy associated gravitational sector a scalar field $\\phi$ and its kinetic energy $X$ as dark matter variables. Compared to the single-field case, we find that there are additional conditions to obey in order to keep the equations of motion for linear cosmological perturbations at second order. For such a second-order multi-field theory we derive conditions under which ghosts and Laplacian instabilities of the scalar and tensor perturbations are absent. We apply our general results to models with dark energy emerging in the framework of the Horndeski theory and dark matter described b...

Gergely, László Á

2014-01-01

324

Correspondence of pilgrim dark energy with scalar field models

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we consider interacting pilgrim dark energy (Hubble horizon as an infrared cutoff) with cold dark matter in flat universe. We develop the equation of state parameter in this scenario which shows the consistency with pilgrim dark energy phenomenon. In this framework, we analyze the behavior of scalar field and corresponding scalar potentials (which describe the dynamics of the scalar fields) of various scalar field models, graphically. The dynamics of scalar fields and potentials indicate accelerated expansion of the universe which is consistent with the current observations.

Jawad, Abdul; Majeed, Asim

2015-04-01

325

Can the clustered dark matter and the smooth dark energy arise from the same scalar field ?

Cosmological observations suggest the existence of two different kinds of energy densities dominating at small ($ \\lesssim 500$ Mpc) and large ($\\gtrsim 1000 $ Mpc) scales. The dark matter component, which dominates at small scales, contributes $\\Omega_m \\approx 0.35$ and has an equation of state $p=0$ while the dark energy component, which dominates at large scales, contributes $\\Omega_V \\approx 0.65$ and has an equation of state $p\\simeq -\\rho$. It is usual to postulate wimps for the first component and some form of scalar field or cosmological constant for the second component. We explore the possibility of a scalar field with a Lagrangian $L =- V(\\phi) \\sqrt{1 - \\del^i \\phi \\del_i \\phi}$ acting as {\\it both} clustered dark matter and smoother dark energy and having a scale dependent equation of state. This model predicts a relation between the ratio $ r = \\rho_V/\\rho_{\\rm DM}$ of the energy densities of the two dark components and expansion rate $n$ of the universe (with $a(t) \\propto t^n$) in the form $n = (2/3) (1+r) $. For $r \\approx 2$, we get $n \\approx 2$ which is consistent with observations.

T. Padmanabhan; T. Roy Choudhury

2002-11-06

326

Bulk-Brane Interaction and Holographic Dark Energy

In this paper we consider the bulk-brane interaction to obtain the equation of state for the holographic energy density in non-flat universe enclosed by the event horizon measured from the sphere of horizon named $L$. We assumes that the cold dark matter energy density on the brane is conserved, but the holographic dark energy density on the brane is not conserved due to brane-bulk energy exchange. Our calculation show, taking $\\Omega_{\\Lambda}=0.73$ for the present time, the lower bound of $w_{\\rm \\Lambda}^{eff}$ is -0.9. This implies that one can not generate phantom-like equation of state from an interacting holographic dark energy model in non-flat universe.

M R Setare

2006-12-14

327

Spherical collapse of dark energy with an arbitrary sound speed

We consider a generic type of dark energy fluid, characterised by a constant equation of state parameter w and sound speed c{sub s}, and investigate the impact of dark energy clustering on cosmic structure formation using the spherical collapse model. Along the way, we also discuss in detail the evolution of dark energy perturbations in the linear regime. We find that the introduction of a finite sound speed into the picture necessarily induces a scale-dependence in the dark energy clustering, which in turn affects the dynamics of the spherical collapse in a scale-dependent way. As with other, more conventional fluids, we can define a Jeans scale for the dark energy clustering, and hence a Jeans mass M{sub J} for the dark matter which feels the effect of dark energy clustering via gravitational interactions. For bound objects (halos) with masses M >> M{sub J}, the effect of dark energy clustering is maximal. For those with M << M{sub J}, the dark energy component is effectively homogeneous, and its role in the formation of these structures is reduced to its effects on the Hubble expansion rate. To compute quantitatively the virial density and the linearly extrapolated threshold density, we use a quasi-linear approach which is expected to be valid up to around the Jeans mass. We find an interesting dependence of these quantities on the halo mass M, given some w and c{sub s}. The dependence is the strongest for masses lying in the vicinity of M ? M{sub J}. Observing this M-dependence will be a tell-tale sign that dark energy is dynamic, and a great leap towards pinning down its clustering properties.

Basse, Tobias; Bjælde, Ole Eggers [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Wong, Yvonne Y.Y., E-mail: tb06@phys.au.dk, E-mail: oeb@phys.au.dk, E-mail: yvonne.wong@physik.rwth-aachen.de [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

2011-10-01

328

Spacetime Foam and Dark Energy

Due to quantum fluctuations, spacetime is foamy on small scales. The degree of foaminess is found to be consistent with the holographic principle. One way to detect spacetime foam is to look for halos in the images of distant quasars. Applying the holographic foam model to cosmology we "predict" that the cosmic energy density takes on the critical value; and basing only on existing archived data on active galactic nuclei from the Hubble Space Telescope, we also "predict" the existence of dark energy which, we argue, is composed of an enormous number of inert "particles" of extremely long wavelength. We speculate that these "particles" obey infinite statistics.

Y. Jack Ng

2008-08-08

329

Interacting Modified Holographic Dark Energy in Kaluza-Klein Universe

The interaction of modified holographic dark energy and dark matter with varying $G$ in flat Kaluza Klein universe is considered. Further, we take infrared cutoff scale $L$ as future event horizon. In this scenario, equations of state parameter as well as evolution are explored. We also check the validity of the generalized second law of thermodynamics. It is interesting to mention here that our results show consistency with the present observations.

M. Sharif; Abdul Jawad

2011-11-11

330

A new class of parametrization for dark energy without divergence

A new class of parametrization of the equation of state of dark energy is proposed in this paper. In contrast with the famous CPL parametrization, the equation of state with this new kind of parametrization does not divergent during the evolution of the Universe even in the future. By using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, we perform an observational constraint on two simplest dark energy models belonging to this new class of parametrization with the combined latest observational data from the type Ia supernova compilations including Union2(557), cosmic microwave background, and baryon acoustic oscillation.

Feng, Chao-Jun; Shen, Xian-Yong; Li, Ping; Li, Xin-Zhou, E-mail: fengcj@shnu.edu.cn, E-mail: 1000304237@smail.shnu.edu.cn, E-mail: li57120@126.com, E-mail: kychz@shnu.edu.cn [Shanghai United Center for Astrophysics (SUCA), Shanghai Normal University, 100 Guilin Road, Shanghai 200234, P.R.China (China)

2012-09-01

331

A Kinematical Approach to Dark Energy Studies

We present and employ a new kinematical approach to cosmological ''dark energy'' studies. We construct models in terms of the dimensionless second and third derivatives of the scale factor a(t) with respect to cosmic time t, namely the present-day value of the deceleration parameter q{sub 0} and the cosmic jerk parameter, j(t). An elegant feature of this parameterization is that all {Lambda}CDM models have j(t) = 1 (constant), which facilitates simple tests for departures from the {Lambda}CDM paradigm. Applying our model to the three best available sets of redshift-independent distance measurements, from type Ia supernovae and X-ray cluster gas mass fraction measurements, we obtain clear statistical evidence for a late time transition from a decelerating to an accelerating phase. For a flat model with constant jerk, j(t) = j, we measure q{sub 0} = -0.81 {+-} 0.14 and j = 2.16{sub -0.75}{sup +0.81}, results that are consistent with {Lambda}CDM at about the 1{sigma} confidence level. A standard ''dynamical'' analysis of the same data, employing the Friedmann equations and modeling the dark energy as a fluid with an equation of state parameter, w (constant), gives {Omega}{sub m} = 0.306{sub -0.040}{sup +0.042} and w = -1.15{sub -0.18}{sup +0.14}, also consistent with {Lambda}CDM at about the 1{sigma} level. In comparison to dynamical analyses, the kinematical approach uses a different model set and employs a minimum of prior information, being independent of any particular gravity theory. The results obtained with this new approach therefore provide important additional information and we argue that both kinematical and dynamical techniques should be employed in future dark energy studies, where possible. Our results provide further interesting support for the concordance {Lambda}CDM paradigm.

Rapetti, David; Allen, Steven W.; Amin, Mustafa A.; Blandford, Roger D.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

2006-06-06

332

Dark Energy Constraints from Galaxy Cluster Peculiar Velocities

Future multifrequency microwave background experiments with arcminute resolution and micro-Kelvin temperature sensitivity will be able to detect the kinetic Sunyaev-Zeldovich (kSZ) effect, providing a way to measure radial peculiar velocities of massive galaxy clusters. We show that cluster peculiar velocities have the potential to constrain several dark energy parameters. We compare three velocity statistics (the distribution of radial velocities, the mean pairwise streaming velocity, and the velocity correlation function) and analyze the relative merits of these statistics in constraining dark energy parameters. Of the three statistics, mean pairwise streaming velocity provides constraints that are least sensitive to velocity errors: the constraints on parameters degrades only by a factor of two when the random error is increased from 100 to 500 km/s. We also compare cluster velocities with other dark energy probes proposed in the Dark Energy Task Force report. For cluster velocity measurements with realistic priors, the eventual constraints on the dark energy density, the dark energy equation of state and its evolution are comparable to constraints from supernovae measurements, and better than cluster counts and baryon acoustic oscillations; adding velocity to other dark energy probes improves constraints on the figure of merit by more than a factor of two. For upcoming Sunyaev-Zeldovich galaxy cluster surveys, even velocity measurements with errors as large as 1000 km/s will substantially improve the cosmological constraints compared to using the cluster number density alone.

Suman Bhattacharya; Arthur Kosowsky

2008-04-25

333

Constraining dark energy with clusters: Complementarity with other probes

The Figure of Merit Science Working Group recently forecast the constraints on dark energy that will be achieved prior to the Joint Dark Energy Mission by ground-based experiments that exploit baryon acoustic oscillations, type Ia supernovae, and weak gravitational lensing. We show that cluster counts from ongoing and near-future surveys should provide robust, complementary dark energy constraints. In particular, we find that optimally combined optical and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect cluster surveys should improve the Dark Energy Task Force figure of merit for pre-Joint Dark Energy Mission projects by a factor of 2 even without prior knowledge of the nuisance parameters in the cluster mass-observable relation. Comparable improvements are achieved in the forecast precision of parameters specifying the principal component description of the dark energy equation of state parameter, as well as in the growth index {gamma}. These results indicate that cluster counts can play an important complementary role in constraining dark energy and modified gravity even if the associated systematic errors are not strongly controlled.

Cunha, Carlos; Huterer, Dragan [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-1040 (United States); Frieman, Joshua A. [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, The University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)

2009-09-15

334

New agegraphic dark energy in Ho?ava-Lifshitz cosmology

We investigate the new agegraphic dark energy scenario in a universe governed by Ho?ava-Lifshitz gravity. We consider both the detailed and non-detailed balanced version of the theory, we impose an arbitrary curvature, and we allow for an interaction between the matter and dark energy sectors. Extracting the differential equation for the evolution of the dark energy density parameter and performing an expansion of the dark energy equation-of-state parameter, we calculate its present and its low-redshift value as functions of the dark energy and curvature density parameters at present, of the Ho?ava-Lifshitz running parameter ?, of the new agegraphic dark energy parameter n, and of the interaction coupling b. We find that w{sub 0} = ?0.82{sup +0.08}{sub ?0.08} and w{sub 1} = 0.08{sup +0.09}{sub ?0.07}. Although this analysis indicates that the scenario can be compatible with observations, it does not enlighten the discussion about the possible conceptual and theoretical problems of Ho?ava-Lifshitz gravity.

Jamil, Mubasher [Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, National University of Sciences and Technology, H-12, Islamabad (Pakistan); Saridakis, Emmanuel N., E-mail: mjamil@camp.edu.pk, E-mail: msaridak@phys.uoa.gr [College of Mathematics and Physics, Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing, 400065 (China)

2010-07-01

335

Reconstruction of dark energy and expansion dynamics using Gaussian processes

An important issue in cosmology is reconstructing the effective dark energy equation of state directly from observations. With few physically motivated models, future dark energy studies cannot only be based on constraining a dark energy parameter space, as the errors found depend strongly on the parametrisation considered. We present a new non-parametric approach to reconstructing the history of the expansion rate and dark energy using Gaussian Processes, which is a fully Bayesian approach for smoothing data. We present a pedagogical introduction to Gaussian Processes, and discuss how it can be used to robustly differentiate data in a suitable way. Using this method we show that the Dark Energy Survey - Supernova Survey (DES) can accurately recover a slowly evolving equation of state to ?{sub w} = ±0.05 (95% CL) at z = 0 and ±0.25 at z = 0.7, with a minimum error of ±0.025 at the sweet-spot at z ? 0.16, provided the other parameters of the model are known. Errors on the expansion history are an order of magnitude smaller, yet make no assumptions about dark energy whatsoever. A code for calculating functions and their first three derivatives using Gaussian processes has been developed and is available for download.

Seikel, Marina; Clarkson, Chris; Smith, Mathew, E-mail: marina.seikel@uct.ac.za, E-mail: chris.clarkson@uct.ac.za, E-mail: mathew.smith@uct.ac.za [Astrophysics, Cosmology and Gravity Centre (ACGC), and Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, 7701 (South Africa)

2012-06-01

336

Reconstruction of dark energy and expansion dynamics using Gaussian processes

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important issue in cosmology is reconstructing the effective dark energy equation of state directly from observations. With few physically motivated models, future dark energy studies cannot only be based on constraining a dark energy parameter space, as the errors found depend strongly on the parametrisation considered. We present a new non-parametric approach to reconstructing the history of the expansion rate and dark energy using Gaussian Processes, which is a fully Bayesian approach for smoothing data. We present a pedagogical introduction to Gaussian Processes, and discuss how it can be used to robustly differentiate data in a suitable way. Using this method we show that the Dark Energy Survey - Supernova Survey (DES) can accurately recover a slowly evolving equation of state to ?w = ±0.05 (95% CL) at z = 0 and ±0.25 at z = 0.7, with a minimum error of ±0.025 at the sweet-spot at z ~ 0.16, provided the other parameters of the model are known. Errors on the expansion history are an order of magnitude smaller, yet make no assumptions about dark energy whatsoever. A code for calculating functions and their first three derivatives using Gaussian processes has been developed and is available for download.

Seikel, Marina; Clarkson, Chris; Smith, Mathew

2012-06-01

337

Dark Energy and the quietness of the Local Hubble Flow

The linearity and quietness of the Local ($Hubble Flow (LHF) in view of the very clumpy local universe is a long standing puzzle in standard and in open CDM cosmogony. The question addressed in this paper is whether the antigravity component of the recently discovered dark energy can cool the velocity flow enough to provide a solution to this puzzle. We calculate the growth of matter fluctuations in a flat universe containing a fraction $\\Omega_X(t_0)$ of dark energy obeying the time independent equation of state $p_X = w \\rho_X$. We find that dark energy can indeed cool the LHF. However the dark energy parameter values required to make the predicted velocity dispersion consistent with the observed value $v_{rms}\\simeq 40km/sec$ have been ruled out by other observational tests constraining the dark energy parameters $w$ and $\\Omega_X$. Therefore despite the claims of recent qualitative studies dark energy with time independent equation of state can not by itself explain the quietness and linearity of the Local Hubble Flow.

M. Axenides; L. Perivolaropoulos

2002-03-28

338

No evidence for dark energy metamorphosis?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent attempts to fit type Ia supernova data by modelling the dark energy density as a truncated Taylor series have suggested the possibility of metamorphosis, i.e., a rapidly evolving equation of state parameter, wDE(z). However, we show that fits using that parametrization have significant problems. Evolution of wDE(z) is both favoured and in some sense forced, and the equation of state parameter blows up or diverges in large regions of the parameter space. To further elucidate these problems we have simulated sets of supernova data in a Lgr-universe to show that the suggested 'evidence' for metamorphosis is also common for wDE = -1.

Jönsson, J.; Goobar, A.; Amanullah, R.; Bergström, L.

2004-09-01

339

A unifying description of dark energy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review and extend a novel approach that we recently introduced, to describe general dark energy or scalar-tensor models. Our approach relies on an Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) formulation based on the hypersurfaces where the underlying scalar field is uniform. The advantage of this approach is that it can describe in the same language and in a minimal way a vast number of existing models, such as quintessence, F(R) theories, scalar tensor theories, their Horndeski extensions and beyond. It also naturally includes Horava-Lifshitz theories. As summarized in this review, our approach provides a unified treatment of the linear cosmological perturbations about a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe, obtained by a systematic expansion of our general action up to quadratic order. This shows that the behavior of these linear perturbations is generically characterized by five time-dependent functions. We derive the full equations of motion in the Newtonian gauge. In the Horndeski case, we obtain the equation of state for dark energy perturbations in terms of these functions. Our unifying description thus provides the simplest and most systematic way to confront theoretical models with current and future cosmological observations.

Gleyzes, Jérôme; Langlois, David; Vernizzi, Filippo

2014-01-01

340

Counting voids to probe dark energy

We show that the number of observed voids in galaxy redshift surveys is a sensitive function of the equation of state of dark energy. Using the Fisher matrix formalism we find the error ellipses in the $w_0-w_a$ plane when the equation of state of dark energy is assumed to be of the form $w_{CPL}(z)=w_0 +w_a z/(1+z)$. We forecast the number of voids to be observed with the ESA Euclid satellite and the NASA WFIRST mission, taking into account updated details of the surveys to reach accurate estimates of their power. The theoretical model for the forecast of the number of voids is based on matches between abundances in simulations and the analytical prediction. To take into account the uncertainties within the model, we marginalize over its free parameters when calculating the Fisher matrices. The addition of the void abundance constraints to the data from Planck, HST and supernova survey data noticeably tighten the $w_0-w_a$ parameter space. We thus quantify the improvement in the constraints due to the use of...

Pisani, Alice; Hamaus, Nico; Alizadeh, Esfandiar; Biswas, Rahul; Wandelt, Benjamin D; Hirata, Christopher M

2015-01-01

341

Dark energy in some integrable and nonintegrable FRW cosmological models

One of the greatest challenges in cosmology today is to determine the nature of dark energy, the sourse of the observed present acceleration of the Universe. Besides the vacuum energy, various dark energy models have been suggested. The Friedmann - Robertson - Walker (FRW) spacetime plays an important role in modern cosmology. In particular, the most popular models of dark energy work in the FRW spacetime. In this work, a new class of integrable FRW cosmological models is presented. These models induced by the well-known Painlev$\\acute{e}$ equations. Some nonintegrable FRW models are also considered. These last models are constructed with the help of Pinney, Schr$\\ddot{o}$dinger and hypergeometric equations. Scalar field description and two-dimensional generalizations of some cosmological models are presented. Finally some integrable and nonintegrable $F(R)$ and $F(G)$ gravity models are constructed.

Kuralay Esmakhanova; Nurgissa Myrzakulov; Gulgasyl Nugmanova; Yerlan Myrzakulov; Leonid Chechin; Ratbay Myrzakulov

2011-09-14

342

Complementarity of Future Dark Energy Probes

In recent years a plethora of future surveys have been suggested to constrain the nature of dark energy. In this paper we adapt a binning approach to the equation of state factor ``w'' and discuss how future weak lensing, galaxy cluster counts, Supernovae and baryon acoustic oscillation surveys constrain the equation of state at different redshifts. We analyse a few representative future surveys, namely DES, PS1, WFMOS, PS4, EUCLID, SNAP and SKA, and perform a principal component analysis for the ``w'' bins. We also employ a prior from Planck cosmic microwave background measurements on the remaining cosmological parameters. We study at which redshifts a particular survey constrains the equation of state best and how many principal components are significantly determined. We then point out which surveys would be sufficiently complementary. We find that weak lensing surveys, like EUCLID, would constrain the equation of state best and would be able to constrain of the order of three significant modes. Baryon acoustic oscillation surveys on the other hand provide a unique opportunity to probe the equation of state at relatively high redshifts.

Jiayu Tang; Filipe B. Abdalla; Jochen Weller

2008-07-20

343

Spiral Galaxies from a ``Dark Matter'' Solution of Einstein's Equations

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We will describe how the structure of all the Hubble classes of spiral galaxies, comprising 75 percent of all observed galaxies, derives from a new geometry related to Big-Bang cosmology. The geometry is an exact 5-D solution of Einstein's equations that induces Dark Matter in a 4-D Poincare`-Schwarzschild ``bubble'' metric. The most visible effect of Dark Matter is the control of structure in the universe. The theory explains unique galactic features including polar rings around galaxies, ``integral'' and ``banana'' warped polar rings, ``reverse rotating'' galaxies, warped galaxies and the scaling of galactic evolution. The presentation will focus on solutions for the structures fitted to observed galaxies.

Ringermacher, Harry; Mead, Lawrence

2005-04-01

344

Interacting generalized ghost dark energy in non-flat universe

We investigate the generalized Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) ghost model of dark energy in the framework of Einstein gravity. First, we study the non-interacting generalized ghost dark energy in a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) background. We obtain the equation of state parameter, $w_D=p/\\rho$, the deceleration parameter, and the evolution equation of the generalized ghost dark energy. We find that, in this case, $w_D$ cannot cross the phantom line ($w_D>-1$) and eventually the universe approaches a de-Sitter phase of expansion $(w_D\\rightarrow-1)$. Then, we extend the study to the interacting ghost dark energy in both a flat and non-flat FRW universe. We find that the equation of state parameter of the interacting generalized ghost dark energy can cross the phantom line ($w_D<-1$) provided the parameters of the model are chosen suitably. Finally, we constrain the model parameters by using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method and a combined dataset of SNIa, CMB, BAO and X-ray gas mass fraction.

Esmaeil Ebrahimi; Ahmad Sheykhi; Hamzeh Alavirad

2013-06-27

345

Galaxy clusters in presence of dark energy: a kinetic approach

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The external regions of galaxy clusters may be under strong influence of the dark energy, which was discovered by observations of supernovae Ia at redshift z< 1. The presence of the dark energy in the gravitational equilibrium equation, with the Einstein ? term, balances the gravity, and extends the equilibrium configuration more in radius. Aims: We investigate the features of the equilibrium configurations to analyse how the presence of the dark energy affects the density profiles and radial extension by specifying the conditions for which the gravitational equilibrium begins. Methods: We derived the kinetic equation for an equilibrium configuration in presence of dark energy and solved the gravitational equilibrium equation by considering a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function with a cut-off in the framework of the Newtonian regime, because the observed velocities of galaxies inside a cluster are much lower than the velocity of light. Results: The prevalence of dark energy effects on the gravity shows a wide region in the W0-?? diagram where equilibrium solutions are not possible. In these particular conditions, the galaxies located in the external regions of a cluster can flow out, following the accelerating expansion of the Universe.

Merafina, M.; Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S.; Donnari, M.

2014-08-01

346

Leptogenesis, Dark Energy, Dark Matter and the neutrinos

In this review we discuss how the models of neutrino masses can accommodate solutions to the problem of matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe, dark energy or cosmological constant problem and dark matter candidates. The matter-antimatter asymmetry is explained by leptogenesis, originating from the lepton number violation associated with the neutrino masses. The dark energy problem is correlated with a mass varying neutrinos, which could originate from a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson. In some radiative models of neutrino masses, there exists a Higgs doublet that does not acquire any vacuum expectation value. This field could be inert and the lightest inert particle could then be a dark matter candidate. We reviewed these scenarios in connection with models of neutrino masses with right-handed neutrinos and with triplet Higgs scalars.

Utpal Sarkar

2007-12-17

347

A two measure model of dark energy and dark matter

In this work we construct a unified model of dark energy and dark matter. This is done with the following three elements: a gravitating scalar field, ? with a non-conventional kinetic term, as in the string theory tachyon; an arbitrary potential, V(?); two measures — a metric measure ((?g){sup 1/2}) and a non-metric measure (?). The model has two interesting features: (i) For potentials which are unstable and would give rise to tachyonic scalar field, this model can stabilize the scalar field. (ii) The form of the dark energy and dark matter that results from this model is fairly insensitive to the exact form of the scalar field potential.

Guendelman, Eduardo [Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Singleton, Douglas; Yongram, N., E-mail: guendel@bgu.ac.il, E-mail: dougs@csufresno.edu, E-mail: nattapongy@nu.ac.th [Physics Department, California State University Fresno, Fresno, CA 93740 (United States)

2012-11-01

348

The idea that we live near the center of a large, nonlinear void has attracted attention recently as an alternative to dark energy or modified gravity. We show that an appropriate void profile can fit both the latest cosmic microwave background and supernova data. However, this requires either a fine-tuned primordial spectrum or a Hubble rate so low as to rule these models out. We also show that measurements of the radial baryon acoustic scale can provide very strong constraints. Our results present a serious challenge to void models of acceleration. PMID:19113691

Zibin, James P; Moss, Adam; Scott, Douglas

2008-12-19

349

Statefinder Parameters for Tachyon Dark Energy Model

In this paper we study the statefinder parameters for the tachyon dark energy model. There are two kinds of stable attractor solutions in this model. The statefinder diagrams characterize the properties of the tachyon dark energy model. Our results show that the evolving trajectories of the attractor solutions lie in the total region and pass through the LCDM fixed point, which is different from other dark energy model.

Ying Shao; Yuanxing Gui

2007-03-22

350

On the Chemical Potential of Dark Energy

It is widely assumed that the observed universe is accelerating due to the existence of a new fluid component called dark energy. In this article, the thermodynamics consequences of a nonzero chemical potential on the dark energy component is discussed with special emphasis to the phantom fluid case. It is found that if the dark energy fluid is endowed with a negative chemical potential, the phantom field hypothesis becomes thermodynamically consistent with no need of negative temperatures as recently assumed in the literature.

S. H. Pereira

2008-06-23

351

Dark matter and dark energy from quark bag model

We calculate the present expansion of our Universe endowed with relict colored objects — quarks and gluons — that survived hadronization either as isolated islands of quark-gluon ''nuggets'' or spread uniformly in the Universe. In the first scenario, the QNs can play the role of dark matter. In the second scenario, we demonstrate that uniform colored objects can play the role of dark energy providing the late-time accelerating expansion of the Universe.

Brilenkov, Maxim [Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa National University, Dvoryanskaya st. 2, Odessa 65082 (Ukraine); Eingorn, Maxim [Physics Department, North Carolina Central University, Fayetteville st. 1801, Durham, North Carolina 27707 (United States); Jenkovszky, Laszlo [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev 03680 (Ukraine); Zhuk, Alexander, E-mail: maxim.brilenkov@gmail.com, E-mail: maxim.eingorn@gmail.com, E-mail: jenk@bitp.kiev.ua, E-mail: ai.zhuk2@gmail.com [Astronomical Observatory, Odessa National University, Dvoryanskaya st. 2, Odessa 65082 (Ukraine)

2013-08-01

352

Dark energy interacting with dark matter and unparticle

We study dynamical behaviors of the dark energy models interacting with dark matter and unparticle in the standard flat FRW cosmology. We considered four different interacting models and examined the stability of the critical points. We find that there exist late-time scaling attractors corresponding to an accelerating Universe and the alleviation of the coincidence problem depends on the choice of parameters in the models.

Songbai Chen; Jiliang Jing

2009-07-16

353

Dark Energy and Neutrino CPT Violation

In this paper we study the dynamical CPT violation in the neutrino sector induced by the dark energy of the Universe. Specifically we consider a dark energy model where the dark energy scalar derivatively interacts with the right-handed neutrinos. This type of derivative coupling leads to a cosmological CPT violation during the evolution of the background field of the dark energy. We calculate the induced CPT violation of left-handed neutrinos and find the CPT violation produced in this way is consistent with the present experimental limit and sensitive to the future neutrino oscillation experiments, such as the neutrino factory.

Pei-Hong Gu; Xiao-Jun Bi; Xinmin Zhang

2007-02-05

354

Isotropic turbulence in the dark fluid universe with inhomogeneous equation of state

We investigate the turbulence effect in dark fluid universe with linear inhomogeneous equation of state. Attention is attached to two physical situations. First, we perform the perturbative analysis of turbulence and check its effects around the Big Rip. Later, treating the turbulence energy density as a part of total dark fluid, we study the stability of the system. The result shows that the stability is achieving as the energy density of turbulence decreases, changing into heat (the radiation), in perfect agreement with the avoidance of the Big Rip.

R. D. Boko; M. E. Rodrigues; M. J. S. Houndjo; J. B. Chabi-Orou; R. Myrzakulov

2015-03-26

355

$?$CDM coupled to radiation. Dark energy and Universe acceleration

Recently the Chiral Cosmological Model (CCM) coupled to cold dark matter (CDM) has been investigated as $\\sigma$CDM model to study the observed accelerated expansion of the Universe. Dark sector fields (as Dark Energy content) coupled to cosmic dust were considered as the source of Einstein gravity in Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology. Such model had a beginning at the matter-dominated era. The purposes of our present investigation are two folds: to extend > of the $\\sigma$CDM for earlier times to radiation-dominated era and to take into account variation of the exponential potential via variation of the interaction parameter $\\lambda $. We use Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) procedure to investigate possible values of initial conditions constrained by the measured amount of the dark matter, dark energy and radiation component today. Our analysis includes dark energy contribution to critical density, the ratio of the kinetic and potential energies, deceleration parameter, effective equation of state and evolution of DE equation of state with variation of coupling constant $\\lambda $. A comparison with the $\\Lambda$CDM model was performed. A new feature of the model is the existence of some values of potential coupling constant, leading to a $\\sigma$CDM solution without transit into accelerated expansion epoch.

Renat R. Abbyazov; Sergey V. Chervon; Volker Müller

2014-09-02

356

Bistable dark solitons of a cubic-quintic Helmholtz equation

We provide a report on exact analytical bistable dark spatial solitons of a nonlinear Helmholtz equation with a cubic-quintic refractive-index model. Our analysis begins with an investigation of the modulational instability characteristics of Helmholtz plane waves. We then derive a dark soliton by mapping the desired asymptotic form onto a uniform background field and obtain a more general solution by deploying rotational invariance laws in the laboratory frame. The geometry of the new soliton is explored in detail, and a range of new physical predictions is uncovered. Particular attention is paid to the unified phenomena of arbitrary-angle off-axis propagation and nondegenerate bistability. Crucially, the corresponding solution of paraxial theory emerges in a simultaneous multiple limit. We conclude with a set of computer simulations that examine the role of Helmholtz dark solitons as robust attractors.

Christian, J. M.; McDonald, G. S.; Chamorro-Posada, P. [Joule Physics Laboratory, School of Computing, Science and Engineering, Materials and Physics Research Centre, University of Salford, Salford M5 4WT (United Kingdom); Departamento de Teoria de la Senal y Comunicaciones e Ingenieria Telematica, Universidad de Valladolid, ETSI Telecomunicacion, Campus Miguel Delibes s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

2010-05-15

357

Generalized Chaplygin Gas Model: Dark Energy - Dark Matter Unification and CMBR Constraints

The generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) model allows for an unified description of the recent accelerated expansion of the Universe and the evolution of energy density perturbations. This dark energy - dark matter unification is achieved through an exotic background fluid whose equation of state is given by $p = - A/\\rho^{\\alpha}$, where $A$ is a positive constant and $0 < \\alpha \\le 1$. Stringent constraints on the model parameters can be obtained from recent WMAP and BOOMERanG bounds on the locations of the first few peaks and troughs of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) power spectrum as well as SNe Ia data.

M. C. Bento; O. Bertolami; A. A. Sen

2003-05-22

358

Unification of Gravitation, Gauge Field and Dark Energy

This paper is composed of two correlated topics: 1. unification of gravitation with gauge fields; 2. the coupling between the daor field and other fields and the origin of dark energy. After introducing the concept of ``daor field" and discussing the daor geometry, we indicate that the complex daor field has two kinds of symmetry transformations. Hence the gravitation and SU(1,3) gauge field are unified under the framework of the complex connection. We propose a first-order nonlinear coupling equation of the daor field, which includes the coupling between the daor field and SU(1,3) gauge field and the coupling between the daor field and the curvature, and from which Einstein's gravitational equation can be deduced. The cosmological observations imply that dark energy cannot be zero, and which will dominate the doom of our Universe. The real part of the daor field self-coupling equation can be regarded as Einstein's equation endowed with the cosmological constant. It shows that dark energy originates from the self-coupling of the space-time curvature, and the energy-momentum tensor is proportional to the square of coupling constant \\lambda. The dark energy density given by our scenario is in agreement with astronomical observations. Furthermore, the Newtonian gravitational constant G and the coupling constant \\epsilon of gauge field satisfy G= \\lambda^{2}\\epsilon^{2}.

Xin-Bing Huang

2005-08-26

359

Gravity Resonance Spectroscopy Constrains Dark Energy and Dark Matter Scenarios T. Jenke,1,*

Gravity Resonance Spectroscopy Constrains Dark Energy and Dark Matter Scenarios T. Jenke,1,* G constraints on any possible gravitylike interaction. In particular, a dark energy chameleon field is excluded this work, we link these new measurements to dark matter and dark energy searches. Observational cosmology

Rotter, Stefan

360

Nonparametric dark energy reconstruction from supernova data.

Understanding the origin of the accelerated expansion of the Universe poses one of the greatest challenges in physics today. Lacking a compelling fundamental theory to test, observational efforts are targeted at a better characterization of the underlying cause. If a new form of mass-energy, dark energy, is driving the acceleration, the redshift evolution of the equation of state parameter w(z) will hold essential clues as to its origin. To best exploit data from observations it is necessary to develop a robust and accurate reconstruction approach, with controlled errors, for w(z). We introduce a new, nonparametric method for solving the associated statistical inverse problem based on Gaussian process modeling and Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling. Applying this method to recent supernova measurements, we reconstruct the continuous history of w out to redshift z=1.5. PMID:21231517

Holsclaw, Tracy; Alam, Ujjaini; Sansó, Bruno; Lee, Herbert; Heitmann, Katrin; Habib, Salman; Higdon, David

2010-12-10

361

The Dark Energy Camera (DECam)

In this paper we describe the Dark Energy Camera (DECam), which will be the primary instrument used in the Dark Energy Survey. DECam will be a 3 sq. deg. mosaic camera mounted at the prime focus of the Blanco 4m telescope at the Cerro-Tololo International Observatory (CTIO). It consists of a large mosaic CCD focal plane, a five element optical corrector, five filters (g,r,i,z,Y), a modern data acquisition and control system and the associated infrastructure for operation in the prime focus cage. The focal plane includes of 62 2K x 4K CCD modules (0.27"/pixel) arranged in a hexagon inscribed within the roughly 2.2 degree diameter field of view and 12 smaller 2K x 2K CCDs for guiding, focus and alignment. The CCDs will be 250 micron thick fully-depleted CCDs that have been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Production of the CCDs and fabrication of the optics, mechanical structure, mechanisms, and control system for DECam are underway; delivery of the instrument to CTIO is scheduled for 2010.

K. Honscheid; D. L. DePoy; for the DES Collaboration

2008-10-20

362

Topology and dark energy: testing gravity in voids.

Modified gravity has garnered interest as a backstop against dark matter and dark energy (DE). As one possible modification, the graviton can become massive, which introduces a new scalar field--here with a Galileon-type symmetry. The field can lead to a nontrivial equation of state of DE which is density and scale dependent. Tension between type Ia supernovae and Planck could be reduced. In voids, the scalar field dramatically alters the equation of state of DE, induces a soon-observable gravitational slip between the two metric potentials, and develops a topological defect (domain wall) due to a nontrivial vacuum structure for the field. PMID:24483641

Spolyar, Douglas; Sahlén, Martin; Silk, Joe

2013-12-13

363

Parameterizing dark sector perturbations via equations of state

The evolution of perturbations is a crucial part of the phenomenology of the dark sector cosmology. We advocate parameterizing these perturbations using equations of state for the entropy perturbation and the anisotropic stress. For small perturbations, these equations of state will be linear in the density, velocity and metric perturbations, and in principle these can be related back to the field content of the underlying model allowing for confrontation with observations. We illustrate our point by constructing gauge invariant entropy perturbations for theories where the dark sector Lagrangian is a general function of a scalar field, its first and second derivatives, and the metric and its first derivative, ${\\cal L}={\\cal L}(\\phi,\\partial_\\mu\\phi,\\partial_\\mu\\partial_\

Richard A. Battye; Jonathan A. Pearson

2014-04-15

364

Holographic Dark Energy Model: State Finder Parameters

In this work, we have studied interacting holographic dark energy model in the background of FRW model of the universe. The interaction is chosen either in linear combination or in product form of the matter densities for dark matter and dark energy. The IR cut off for holographic dark energy is chosen as Ricci's length scale or radius of the future event horizon. The analysis is done using the state finder parameter and coincidence problem has been graphically presented. Finally, universal thermodynamics has been studied using state finder parameters.

Nairwita Mazumder; Ritabrata Biswas; Subenoy Chakraborty

2011-10-30

365

A Quantum Cosmology: No Dark Matter, Dark Energy nor Accelerating Universe

We show that modelling the universe as a pre-geometric system with emergent quantum modes, and then constructing the classical limit, we obtain a new account of space and gravity that goes beyond Newtonian gravity even in the non-relativistic limit. This account does not require dark matter to explain the spiral galaxy rotation curves, and explains as well the observed systematics of black hole masses in spherical star systems, the bore hole $g$ anomalies, gravitational lensing and so on. As well the dynamics has a Hubble expanding universe solution that gives an excellent parameter-free account of the supernovae and gamma-ray-burst red-shift data, without dark energy or dark matter. The Friedmann-Lema\\^{i}tre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) metric is derived from this dynamics, but is shown not satisfy the General Relativity based Friedmann equations. It is noted that General Relativity dynamics only permits an expanding flat 3-space solution if the energy density in the pressure-less dust approximation is non-zero. As a consequence dark energy and dark matter are required in this cosmological model, and as well the prediction of a future exponential accelerating Hubble expansion. The FLRW $\\Lambda$CDM model data-based parameter values, $\\Omega_\\Lambda=0.73$, $\\Omega_{DM}=0.27$, are derived within the quantum cosmology model, but are shown to be merely artifacts of using the Friedmann equations in fitting the red-shift data.

Reginald T Cahill

2007-09-18

366

Dark Energy and Modified Gravity

Explanations of the late-time cosmic acceleration within the framework of general relativity are plagued by difficulties. General relativistic models are mostly based on a dark energy field with fine-tuned, unnatural properties. There is a great variety of models, but all share one feature in common -- an inability to account for the gravitational properties of the vacuum energy, and a failure to solve the so-called coincidence problem. Two broad alternatives to dark energy have emerged as candidate models: these typically address only the coincidence problem and not the vacuum energy problem. The first is based on general relativity and attempts to describe the acceleration as an effect of inhomogeneity in the universe. If this alternative could be shown to work, then it would provide a dramatic resolution of the coincidence problem; however, a convincing demonstration of viability has not yet emerged. The second alternative is based on infra-red modifications to general relativity, leading to a weakening of gravity on the largest scales and thus to acceleration. Most examples investigated so far are scalar-tensor or brane-world models, and we focus on the simplest candidates of each type: $f(R)$ models and DGP models respectively. Both of these provide a new angle on the problem, but they also face serious difficulties. However, investigation of these models does lead to valuable insights into the properties of gravity and structure formation, and it also leads to new strategies for testing the validity of General Relativity itself on cosmological scales.

Ruth Durrer; Roy Maartens

2008-11-25

367

Kantowski-Sachs cosmological models with anisotropic dark energy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exact solutions of the Einstein field equations for dark energy in Kantowski-Sachs metric under the assumption on the anisotropy of the fluid are obtained for exponential and power-law volumetric expansions. The isotropy of the fluid, space and expansion are examined.

Adhav, Kishor S.; Bansod, Abhijit S.; Wankhade, Rajesh P.; Ajmire, Hanumant G.

2011-08-01

368

Cosmological Surprises from Braneworld models of Dark Energy

Properties of Braneworld models of dark energy are reviewed. Braneworld models admit the following interesting possibilities: (i) The effective equation of state can be w -1. In the former case the expansion of the universe is well behaved at all times and the universe does not run into a future `Big Rip' singularity which is usually encountered by Phantom models.

Varun Sahni

2005-01-01

369

Hessence: a new view of quintom dark energy

Recently a lot of attention has been given to building a dark energy model in which the equation-of-state parameter w can cross the phantom divide w = -1. One of the models to realize crossing the phantom divide is called the quintom model, in which two real scalar fields appear, one is a normal scalar field and the other is

Hao Wei; Rong-Gen Cai; Ding-Fang Zeng

2005-01-01

370

Dark energy: Vacuum fluctuations, the effective phantom phase, and holography

We aim at the construction of dark energy models without exotic matter but with a phantomlike equation of state (an effective phantom phase). The first model we consider is decaying vacuum cosmology where the fluctuations of the vacuum are taken into account. In this case, the phantom cosmology (with an effective, observational omega being less than -1 ) emerges even

Emilio Elizalde; Shin'ichi Nojiri; S. D. Odintsov; Peng Wang

2005-01-01

371

Dark Energy and the Cosmological Constant: A Brief Introduction

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The recently observed acceleration of the expansion of the universe is a topic of intense interest. The favoured causes are the "cosmological constant" or "dark energy". The former, which appears in the Einstein equations as the term [lambda]g[subscript [mu]v], provides an extremely simple, well-defined mechanism for the acceleration. However,…

Harvey, Alex

2009-01-01

372

Nonlocal String Tachyon as a Model for Cosmological Dark Energy

There are many different phenomenological models describing the cosmological dark energy and accelerating Universe by choosing adjustable functions. In this paper we consider a specific model of scalar tachyon field which is derived from the NSR string field theory and study its cosmological applications. We find that in the effective field theory approximation the equation of state parameter w <

I. Ya

373

The "Big Wave" theory for Dark Energy Blake Temple

The "Big Wave" theory for Dark Energy Blake Temple (Joint work with Joel Smoller) Abstract. We to the displacement of nearby galaxies by a wave that propagated during the radiation phase of the Big Bang equations of General Relativity (GR) that contain the standard model during the radiation phase of the Big

Temple, Blake

374

MOND, dark matter, and conservation of energy

The MOND equation $m \\vec a \\mu(a) = \\vec F$ could be transformed to the equivalent form $m \\vec a = \\vec{F'}$, where $\\Vec{F'}$ is a transformed force. Using this transformation we argue that MOND could not avoid introducing dark matter, and introduces nonconservative terms to the equations of motion.

Ahmad Shariati; Nosratollah Jafari

2007-10-07

375

GALAXY CLUSTERS AS A PROBE OF EARLY DARK ENERGY

We study a class of early dark energy (EDE) models, in which, unlike in standard dark energy models, a substantial amount of dark energy exists in the matter-dominated era. We self-consistently include dark energy perturbations, and show that these models may be successfully constrained using future observations of galaxy clusters, in particular the redshift abundance, and the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) power spectrum. We make predictions for EDE models, as well as {Lambda}CDM for incoming X-ray (eROSITA) and microwave (South Pole Telescope) observations. We show that galaxy clusters' mass function and the SZ power spectrum will put strong constraints both on the equation of state of dark energy today and the redshift at which EDE transits to present-day {Lambda}CDM-like behavior for these models, thus providing complementary information to the geometric probes of dark energy. Not including perturbations in EDE models leads to those models being practically indistinguishable from {Lambda}CDM. An MCMC analysis of future galaxy cluster surveys provides constraints for EDE parameters that are competitive with and complementary to background expansion observations such as supernovae.

Alam, Ujjaini [ISR-1, ISR Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Lukic, Zarija; Bhattacharya, Suman, E-mail: ujjaini@lanl.gov, E-mail: zarija@lanl.gov, E-mail: sumanb@lanl.gov [T-2, T Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

2011-02-01

376

Is there supernova evidence for dark energy metamorphosis?

We reconstruct the equation of state w(z) of dark energy (DE) using a recently released data set containing 172 Type Ia supernovae (SNe) without assuming the prior w(z) >=-1 (in contrast to previous studies). We find that DE evolves rapidly and metamorphoses from dust-like behaviour at high z (w~= 0 at z~ 1) to a strongly negative equation of state

Ujjaini Alam; Varun Sahni; Tarun Deep Saini; A. A. Starobinsky

2004-01-01

377

Computing model independent perturbations in dark energy and modified gravity

We present a methodology for computing model independent perturbations in dark energy and modified gravity. This is done from the Lagrangian for perturbations, by showing how field content, symmetries, and physical principles are often sufficient ingredients for closing the set of perturbed fluid equations. The fluid equations close once "equations of state for perturbations" are identified: these are linear combinations of fluid and metric perturbations which construct gauge invariant entropy and anisotropic stress perturbations for broad classes of theories. Our main results are the proof of the equation of state for perturbations presented in a previous paper, and the development of the required calculational tools.

Richard A. Battye; Jonathan A. Pearson

2014-04-15

378

Dynamical dark energy: Current constraints and forecasts

We consider how well the dark energy equation of state $w$ as a function of red shift $z$ will be measured using current and anticipated experiments. We use a procedure which takes fair account of the uncertainties in the functional dependence of $w$ on $z$, as well as the parameter degeneracies, and avoids the use of strong prior constraints. We apply the procedure to current data from WMAP, SDSS, and the supernova searches, and obtain results that are consistent with other analyses using different combinations of data sets. The effects of systematic experimental errors and variations in the analysis technique are discussed. Next, we use the same procedure to forecast the dark energy constraints achieveable by the end of the decade, assuming 8 years of WMAP data and realistic projections for ground-based measurements of supernovae and weak lensing. We find the $2 \\sigma$ constraints on the current value of $w$ to be $\\Delta w_0 (2 \\sigma) = 0.12$, and on $dw/dz$ (between $z=0$ and $z=1$) to be $\\Delta w_1 (2...

Upadhye, A; Steinhardt, P J; Upadhye, Amol; Ishak, Mustapha; Steinhardt, Paul J.

2004-01-01

379

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, it has been shown that the inclusion of higher signal harmonics in the inspiral signals of binary supermassive black holes (SMBH) leads to dramatic improvements in the parameter estimation with Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). In particular, the angular resolution becomes good enough to identify the host galaxy or galaxy cluster, in which case the redshift can be determined by electromagnetic means. The gravitational wave signal also provides the luminosity distance with high accuracy, and the relationship between this and the redshift depends sensitively on the cosmological parameters, such as the equation-of-state parameter w = pDE/?DE of dark energy. Using binary SMBH events at z < 1 with appropriate masses and orientations, one would be able to constrain w to within a few per cent. We show that, if the measured sky location is folded into the error analysis, the uncertainty on w goes down by an additional factor of 2-3, leaving weak lensing as the only limiting factor in using LISA as a dark energy probe.

Arun, K. G.; Mishra, Chandra Kant; Van Den Broeck, Chris; Iyer, B. R.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Sinha, Siddhartha

2009-05-01

380

Examining the evidence for dynamical dark energy.

We apply a new nonparametric Bayesian method for reconstructing the evolution history of the equation of state w of dark energy, based on applying a correlated prior for w(z), to a collection of cosmological data. We combine the latest supernova (SNLS 3 year or Union 2.1), cosmic microwave background, redshift space distortion, and the baryonic acoustic oscillation measurements (including BOSS, WiggleZ, and 6dF) and find that the cosmological constant appears consistent with current data, but that a dynamical dark energy model which evolves from w<-1 at z~0.25 to w>-1 at higher redshift is mildly favored. Estimates of the Bayesian evidence show little preference between the cosmological constant model and the dynamical model for a range of correlated prior choices. Looking towards future data, we find that the best fit models for current data could be well distinguished from the ?CDM model by observations such as Planck and Euclid-like surveys. PMID:23215174

Zhao, Gong-Bo; Crittenden, Robert G; Pogosian, Levon; Zhang, Xinmin

2012-10-26

381

Stable gravastars of anisotropic dark energy

Dynamical models of prototype gravastars made of anisotropic dark energy fluid are constructed, in which an infinitely thin spherical shell of a perfect fluid with the equation of state p = (1-{gamma}){sigma} divides the whole spacetime into two regions, the internal region is filled with an anisotropic dark energy fluid, and the external region is the Schwarzschild. It is found that in some cases the models represent the ''bounded excursion'' stable gravastars, where the thin shell is oscillating between two finite radii, while in other cases they collapse until the formation of black holes or normal stars. In the phase space, the region for the ''bounded excursion'' gravastars is very small in comparison to that of black holes, but not empty, as found in our previous papers. Therefore, although the existence of gravastars can not be completely excluded from current analysis, the opposite is not possible either, that is, even if gravastars exist, they do not exclude the existence of black holes.

Chan, R. [Coordenacao de Astronomia e Astrofisica, Observatorio Nacional, Rua General Jose Cristino 77, Sao Cristovao 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)] [Coordenacao de Astronomia e Astrofisica, Observatorio Nacional, Rua General Jose Cristino 77, Sao Cristovao 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, M.F.A. da; Rocha, P. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, Maracana 20550-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)] [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, Maracana 20550-900, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wang, Anzhong, E-mail: chan@on.br, E-mail: mfasnic@gmail.com, E-mail: pedrosennarocha@gmail.com, E-mail: anzhong_wang@baylor.edu [GCAP-CASPER, Department of Physics, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798 (United States)] [GCAP-CASPER, Department of Physics, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798 (United States)

2009-03-15

382

The Dark Energy Survey instrument design

We describe a new project, the Dark Energy Survey (DES), aimed at measuring the dark energy equation of state parameter, w, to a statistical precision of {approx}5%, with four complementary techniques. The survey will use a new 3 sq. deg. mosaic camera (DECam) mounted at the prime focus of the Blanco 4m telescope at the Cerro-Tololo International Observatory (CTIO). DECam includes a large mosaic camera, a five element optical corrector, four filters (g,r,i,z), and the associated infrastructure for operation in the prime focus cage. The focal plane consists of 62 2K x 4K CCD modules (0.27''/pixel) arranged in a hexagon inscribed within the 2.2 deg. diameter field of view. We plan to use the 250 micron thick fully-depleted CCDs that have been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). At Fermilab, we will establish a packaging factory to produce four-side buttable modules for the LBNL devices, as well as to test and grade the CCDs. R&D is underway and delivery of DECam to CTIO is scheduled for 2009.

Flaugher, B.; /Fermilab

2006-05-01

383

Singularity-free dark energy star

We propose a model for an anisotropic dark energy star where we assume that the radial pressure exerted on the system due to the presence of dark energy is proportional to the isotropic perfect fluid matter density. We discuss various physical features of our model and show that the model satisfies all the regularity conditions and stable as well as singularity-free.

Farook Rahaman; Anil Kumar Yadav; Saibal Ray; Raju Maulick; Ranjan Sharma

2011-08-25

384

Probing dark energy: Methods and strategies

The presence of dark energy in the Universe is inferred directly from the accelerated expansion of the Universe, and, indirectly, from measurements of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy. Dark energy contributes about two-thirds of the critical density, is smoothly distributed, has large negative pressure, and is very mysterious. For now, all of its discernible cosmological consequences follow from its effect

Dragan Huterer; Michael S. Turner

2001-01-01

385

The case for dynamical dark energy revisited

We investigate the behaviour of dark energy using the recently released supernova data of Riess et al 2004 and a model independent parametrization for dark energy (DE). We find that, if no priors are imposed on Omega0m and h, DE which evolves with time provides a better fit to the SNe data than LambdaCDM. This is also true if we

Ujjaini Alam; Varun Sahni; A. A. Starobinsky

2004-01-01

386

Dark Energy, Expansion History of the Universe, and SNAP

This talk presents a pedagogical discussion of how precision distance-redshift observations can map out the recent expansion history of the universe, including the present acceleration and the transition to matter dominated deceleration. The proposed Supernova/Acceleration Probe (SNAP) will carry out observations determining the components and equations of state of the energy density, providing insights into the cosmological model, the nature of the accelerating dark energy, and potentially clues to fundamental high energy physics theories and gravitation. This includes the ability to distinguish between various dynamical scalar field models for the dark energy, as well as higher dimension and alternate gravity theories. A new, advantageous parametrization for the study of dark energy to high redshift is also presented.

Eric V. Linder

2003-02-03

387

Interacting polytropic gas model of phantom dark energy in non-flat universe

By introducing the polytropic gas model of interacting dark energy, we obtain the equation of state for the polytropic gas energy density in a non-flat universe. We show that for even polytropic index by choosing $K>Ba^{\\frac{3}{n}}$, one can obtain $\\omega^{\\rm eff}_{\\Lambda}universe dominated by phantom dark energy.

K. Karami; S. Ghaffari; J. Fehri

2009-11-25

388

A Dust Universe Solution to the Dark Energy Problem

Astronomical measurements of the Omegas for mass density, cosmological constant lambda and curvature k are shown to be sufficient to produce a unique and detailed cosmological model describing dark energy influences based on the Friedman equations. The equation of state Pressure turns out to be identically zero at all epochs as a result of the theory. The partial omega, for dark energy, has the exact value, minus unity, as a result of the theory and is in exact agreement with the astronomer's measured value. Thus this measurement is redundant as it does not contribute to the construction of the theory for this model. Rather, the value of this omega is predicted from the theory. The model has the characteristic of changing from deceleration to acceleration at exactly half the epoch time at which the input measurements are taken. This is a mysterious feature of the model for which no explanation has so far been found. An attractive feature of the model is that the acceleration change time occurs at a red shift of approximately 0.8 as predicted by the dark energy workers. Using a new definition of dark energy density it is shown that the contribution of this density to the acceleration process is via a negative value for the gravitational constant, -G, exactly on a par with gravitational mass which occurs via the usual positive value for G. This paper also contains an appendix on dark energy dynamics with its own abstract.

James G. Gilson

2010-01-14

389

CMB lensing constraints on neutrinos and dark energy

Signatures of lensing of the cosmic microwave background radiation by gravitational potentials along the line of sight carry with them information on the matter distribution, neutrino masses, and dark energy properties. We examine the constraints that Planck, PolarBear, and CMBpol future data, including from the B-mode polarization or the lensing potential, will be able to place on these quantities. We simultaneously fit for neutrino mass and dark energy equation of state including time variation and early dark energy density, and compare the use of polarization power spectra with an optimal quadratic estimator of the lensing. Results are given as a function of systematics level from residual foreground contamination. A realistic CMBpol experiment can effectively constrain the sum of neutrino masses to within 0.05 eV and the fraction of early dark energy to 0.002. We also present a surprisingly simple prescription for calculating dark energy equation of state constraints in combination with supernova distances from JDEM.

Putter, Roland de; Zahn, Oliver; Linder, Eric V. [Berkeley Lab and Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2009-03-15

390

[Dark matter and dark energy of the universe].

At the turn of the 20th Century, the Universe was thought to consist of our solar system, the Sun, planets, satellites and comets, floating under the Milky Way. The astronomers were ignorant of the existence of galaxies, clusters, quasars and black holes. Over the last ten years the Cosmology has made remarkable progress in our understanding of the composition of the Universe: 23 per cent is in an unknown form called dark matter; 73 per cent in another form called dark energy; 3 per cent is made of free hydrogen and helium atoms; 0.5 per cent makes up all the light we see in the night including the stars, clusters and superclusters; 0.3 per cent is in free neutrino particles; and finally, 0.03 per cent is in the heavier nuclei of which the Sun, the Earth and ourselves are made. In this work we study specially the dark matter and the dark energy. The first one appears to be attached to galaxies, and astronomers agree that it is cold, meaning that the particles that make up that matter are not moving fast. Very recently astronomers discovered that a tremendous amount of the so-cahled dark energy exists and that it is pushing and accelerating the expansion of the Universe. Should this expansion continue for another 14,000 million years, the sky will darken with only a handful of galaxies remaining visible. PMID:16463572

Aguilar Peris, José

2005-01-01

391

Interacting new agegraphic dark energy in non-flat Brans-Dicke cosmology

We construct a cosmological model of late acceleration based on the new agegraphic dark energy model in the framework of Brans-Dicke cosmology where the new agegraphic energy density $\\rho_{D}= 3n^2 m^2_p /\\eta^{2}$ is replaced with $\\rho_{D}= {3n^2\\phi^2}/({4\\omega \\eta^2}$). We show that the combination of Brans-Dicke field and agegraphic dark energy can accommodate $w_D = -1 $ crossing for the equation of state of \\textit{noninteracting} dark energy. When an interaction between dark energy and dark matter is taken into account, the transition of $w_D $ to phantom regime can be more easily accounted for than when resort to the Einstein field equations is made. In the limiting case $\\alpha = 0$ $(\\omega\\to \\infty)$, all previous results of the new agegraphic dark energy in Einstein gravity are restored.

Ahmad Sheykhi

2009-12-19

392

Possible dark energy imprints in the gravitational wave spectrum of mixed neutron-dark-energy stars

In the present paper we study the oscillation spectrum of neutron stars containing both ordinary matter and dark energy in different proportions. Within the model we consider, the equilibrium configurations are numerically constructed and the results show that the properties of the mixed neuron-dark-energy star can differ significantly when the amount of dark energy in the stars is varied. The oscillations of the mixed neuron-dark-energy stars are studied in the Cowling approximation. As a result we find that the frequencies of the fundamental mode and the higher overtones are strongly affected by the dark energy content. This can be used in the future to detect the presence of dark energy in the neutron stars and to constrain the dark-energy models.

Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, St. Kliment Ohridski University of Sofia, James Bourchier Blvd. 5, 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Doneva, Daniela D., E-mail: yazad@phys.uni-sofia.bg, E-mail: daniela.doneva@uni-tuebingen.de [Theoretical Astrophysics, IAAT, Eberhard-Karls University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, 72076 Tübingen (Germany)

2012-03-01

393

Physical evidence for dark energy

The authors present measurements of the angular cross-correlation between luminous red galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the cosmic microwave background temperature maps from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. They find a statistically significant achromatic positive correlation between these two data sets, which is consistent with the expected signal from the late Integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect. they do not detect any anti-correlation on small angular scales as would be produced from a large Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, although they do see evidence for some SZ effect for their highest redshift samples. Assuming a flat universe, their preliminary detection of the ISW effect provides independent physical evidence for the existence of dark energy.

Scranton, Ryan; Connolly, Andrew J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Stebbins, Albert; Szapudi, Istvan; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Afshordi, Niayesh; Budavari, Tamas; Csabai, Istvan; Frieman, Joshua A.; Gunn, James E.; Johnston, David; Loh, Yeong-Shang; Lupton, Robert H.; Miller, Christopher J.; Sheldon, Erin Scott; Sheth, Ravi K.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Tegmark, Max; Xu, Yongzhong; Anderson, Scott F.; /Pittsburgh U. /Carnegie Mellon U. /Fermilab /Inst. Astron., Honolulu /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /Princeton U.

2003-07-01

394

Vacuum quantum fluctuation energy in expanding universe and dark energy

This article is based on the Planckon densely piled vacuum model and the principle of cosmology. With the Planck era as initial conditions and including the early inflation, we have solved the Einstein-Friedmann equations to describe the evolution of the universe. The results are: 1) the ratio of the dark energy density to the vacuum quantum fluctuation energy density is $\\frac{{{\\rho }_{de}}}{{{\\rho }_{vac}}}\\sim{{(\\frac{{{t}_{P}}}{{{T}_{0}}})}^{2}}\\sim{{10}^{-122}} $; 2) at the inflation time ${{t}_{\\inf }}={{10}^{-35}}s$, the calculated universe radiation energy density is $\\rho ({{t}_{\\inf }})\\sim{{10}^{-16}}{{\\rho }_{vac}}$ and the corresponding temperature is ${{E}_{c}}\\sim{{10}^{15}}GeV$ consistent with the GUT phase transition temperature; 3) the expanding universe with vacuum as its environment is a non-equilibrium open system constantly exchanging energy with vacuum; during its expansion, the Planckons in the universe lose quantum fluctuation energy and create the cosmic expansion quanta-cosmons, the energy of cosmons is the lost part of the vacuum quantum fluctuation energy and contributes to the universe energy with the calculated value ${{E}_{\\cos mos}}={{10}^{22}}{{M}_{\\otimes }}{{c}^{2}}$ (where ${{M}_{\\otimes }}$ is solar mass); 4) the total energy of the universe, namely the negative gravity energy plus the positive universe energy is zero; 5) the negative gravity potential and the gravity acceleration related to the creation of cosmons are derived with the nature of outward repulsive force, indicating that the cosmon may be the candidate of the dark energy quantum; 6) both the initial Planck era solution and the infinite asymptotic solution of the Einstein-Friedman equations are unstable: the former tends to expand and the latter tends to shrink, so that the Einstein-Friedman universe will undergo a cyclic evolution of successive expansion and shrinking.

Shun-Jin Wang

2014-10-27

395

Holographic tachyon model of dark energy

In this paper we consider a correspondence between the holographic dark energy density and tachyon energy density in FRW universe. Then we reconstruct the potential and the dynamics of the tachyon field which describe tachyon cosmology.

M R Setare

2007-09-11

396

Testing the Dark-Energy Cosmology by the Solar-System Experiments

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the recent astronomical data, the most part of energy in the Universe is in the 'dark' form, which is effectively described by ?-term in Einstein equations. All arguments in favor of the dark energy were obtained so far from the observational data related to very large (intergalactic) scales. Is it possible to find a manifestation of the dark energy at much less scales (e.g. inside the Solar system)?... Note from Publisher: This article contains the abstract and references only.

Dumin, Yurii V.

2008-09-01

397

Cosmological neutrino mass limit and the dynamics of dark energy

We investigate the correlation between the neutrino mass limit and dark energy with the time evolving equation of state. Parametrizing dark energy as w=w{sub 0}+w{sub 1}*z/(1+z), we make a global fit using Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique to determine w{sub 0}, w{sub 1}, neutrino mass as well as other cosmological parameters simultaneously. We pay particular attention to the correlation between neutrino mass {sigma}m{sub {nu}} and w{sub 1} using current cosmological observations as well as the future simulated data sets such as PLANCK, SNAP, and LAMOST.

Xia Junqing; Zhao Gongbo; Zhang Xinmin [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China)

2007-05-15

398

Can we test Dark Energy with Running Fundamental Constants ?

We investigate a link between the running of the fine structure constant $\\alpha$ and a time evolving scalar dark energy field. Employing a versatile parameterization for the equation of state, we exhaustively cover the space of dark energy models. Under the assumption that the change in $\\alpha$ is to first order given by the evolution of the Quintessence field, we show that current Oklo, Quasi Stellar Objects and Equivalence Principle observations restrict the model parameters considerably stronger than observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background, Large Scale Structure and Supernovae Ia combined.

Michael Doran

2005-04-26

399

Viscous Dark Energy in $f(T)$ Gravity

We study the bulk viscosity taking dust matter in the generalized teleparallel gravity. We consider different dark energy models in this scenario along with a time dependent viscous model to construct the viscous equation of state parameter for these dark energy models. We discuss the graphical representation of this parameter to investigate the viscosity effects on the accelerating expansion of the universe. It is mentioned here that the behavior of the universe depends upon the viscous coefficients showing the transition from decelerating to accelerating phase. It leads to the crossing of phantom divide line and becomes phantom dominated for specific ranges of these coefficients.

M. Sharif; Shamaila Rani

2014-05-18

400

A quantum model of dark energy

We propose a quantum model of dark energy. The proposed candidate for dark energy is gluon field, as is well-known, gluons are the elementary particles. We assume that gluons may not be completely massless but have tiny masses, thus the gluon field can provide a non-zero energy-momentum tensor. This model corresponds to Einstein's cosmological constant which is one of the generally accepted models for dark energy. Besides the gluon field, we also discuss the properties of electroweak boson field and compare our results with previous known results.

Chang-Yu Zhu; Heng Fan

2009-11-20

401

Constraints on coupling constant between dark energy and dark matter

We have investigated constraints on the coupling between dark matter and the interacting Chaplygin gas. Our results indicate that the coupling constant $c$ between these two entities can take arbitrary values, which can be either positive or negative, thus giving arbitrary freedom to the inter-conversion between Chaplygin gas and dark matter. Thus our results indicate that the restriction $0

Mubasher Jamil; Muneer Ahmad Rashid

2009-02-28

402

From the Dark Matter Universe to the Dark Energy Universe

Till the late nineties the accepted cosmological model was that of a Universe that had originated in the Big Bang and was now decelerating under the influence of as yet undetected dark matter, so that it would come to a halt and eventually collapse. In 1997 however, the author had put forward a contra model wherein the Universe was driven by dark energy, essentially the quantum zero point field, and was accelerating with a small cosmological constant. There were other deductions too, all in total agreement with observation. All this got confirmation in 1998 and subsequent observations have reconfirmed the findings.

Burra G. Sidharth

2008-03-30

403

Dark matter and dark energy from Bose-Einstein condensate

We show that Dark Matter consisting of bosons of mass of about 1eV or less has critical temperature exceeding the temperature of the universe at all times, and hence would have formed a Bose-Einstein condensate at very early epochs. We also show that the wavefunction of this condensate, via the quantum potential it produces, gives rise to a cosmological constant which may account for the correct dark energy content of our universe. We argue that massive gravitons or axions are viable candidates for these constituents. In the far future this condensate is all that remains of our universe.

Saurya Das; Rajat K. Bhaduri

2014-11-18

404

The origin of the observed dark energy could be explained entirely within the standard model, with no new fields required. We show how the low-energy sector of the chiral QCD Lagrangian, once embedded in a non-trivial spacetime, gives rise to a cosmological vacuum energy density which can be can be presented entirely in terms of QCD parameters and the Hubble constant $H$ as $\\rho_\\Lambda \\simeq H \\cdot m_q\\la\\bar{q}q\\ra /m_{\\eta'} \\sim (4.3\\cdot 10^{-3} \\text{eV})^4$. In this work we focus on the dynamics of the ghost fields that are essential ingredients of the aforementioned Lagrangian. In particular, we argue that the Veneziano ghost, being unphysical in the usual Minkowski QFT, becomes a physical degree of freedom if the universe is expanding. As an immediate consequence, all relevant effects are naturally very small as they are proportional to the rate of expansion $H/ \\Lqcd \\sim 10^{-41}$. The co-existence of these two drastically different scales ($\\Lqcd \\sim 100 $ MeV and $H \\sim 10^{-33}$ eV) is a direct consequence of the auxiliary conditions on the physical Hilbert space that are necessary to keep the theory unitary. The exact cancellation taking place in Minkowski space due to this auxiliary condition is slightly violated when the system is upgraded to an expanding background. Nevertheless, this "tiny" effect is in fact the driving force accelerating the universe today. We also derive the time dependent equation of state $w(t)$ for the dark energy component which tracks the dynamics of the Veneziano ghost in a FLRW universe. Finally, we comment on how the same physical phenomena can be recovered in Witten's approach to the U(1) problem when the ghost degree of freedom is not even present in the system.

Federico R. Urban; Ariel R. Zhitnitsky

2010-03-12

405

Dark Matter and Dark Energy - Fact or Fantasy?

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that the origin of the dark matter and dark energy problems originates in the assumption of standard Einstein gravity that Newton's constant is fundamental. We discuss an alternate, conformal invariant, metric theory of gravity in which Newton's constant is induced dynamically, with the global induced one which is effective for cosmology being altogether weaker than the local induced one needed for the solar system. We find that in the theory dark matter is no longer needed, and that the accelerating universe data can be fitted without fine-tuning using a cosmological constant as large as particle physics suggests. In the conformal theory then it is not the cosmological constant which is quenched but rather the amount of gravity that it produces.

Mannheim, Philip

406

Fluid Mechanics Explains Cosmology, Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and Life

Observations of the interstellar medium by the Herschel, Planck etc. infrared satellites throw doubt on standard {\\Lambda}CDMHC cosmological processes to form gravitational structures. According to the Hydro-Gravitational-Dynamics (HGD) cosmology of Gibson (1996), and the quasar microlensing observations of Schild (1996), the dark matter of galaxies consists of Proto-Globular-star-Cluster (PGC) clumps of Earth-mass primordial gas planets in metastable equilibrium since PGCs began star production at 0.3 Myr by planet mergers. Dark energy and the accelerating expansion of the universe inferred from SuperNovae Ia are systematic dimming errors produced as frozen gas dark matter planets evaporate to form stars. Collisionless cold dark matter that clumps and hierarchically clusters does not exist. Clumps of PGCs began diffusion from the Milky Way Proto-Galaxy upon freezing at 14 Myr to give the Magellanic Clouds and the faint dwarf galaxies of the 10^22 m diameter baryonic dark matter Galaxy halo. The first stars persist as old globular star clusters (OGCs). Water oceans and the biological big bang occurred at 2-8 Myr. Life inevitably formed and evolved in the cosmological primordial organic soup provided by 10^80 big bang planets and their hot oceans as they gently merged to form larger binary planets and small binary stars.

Carl H. Gibson

2012-11-02

407

Dark Energy: Observational Evidence and Theoretical Models

The book elucidates the current state of the dark energy problem and presents the results of the authors, who work in this area. It describes the observational evidence for the existence of dark energy, the methods and results of constraining of its parameters, modeling of dark energy by scalar fields, the space-times with extra spatial dimensions, especially Kaluza---Klein models, the braneworld models with a single extra dimension as well as the problems of positive definition of gravitational energy in General Relativity, energy conditions and consequences of their violation in the presence of dark energy. This monograph is intended for science professionals, educators and graduate students, specializing in general relativity, cosmology, field theory and particle physics.

Novosyadlyj, B; Shtanov, Yu; Zhuk, A

2015-01-01

408

Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe

For the first time, we have a plausible and complete accounting of matter and energy in the Universe. Expressed a fraction of the critical density it goes like this: neutrinos, between 0.3% and 15%; stars, between 0.3% and 0.6%; baryons (total), 5% ± 0.5%; matter (total), 40% ± 10%; smooth, dark energy, 80% ± 20%; totaling to the critical density

Michael S. Turner

2000-01-01

409

Tachyon as a Dark Energy Source

It is demonstrated that dark energy, driven by tachyons having non-minimal coupling with curvature and self-interacting inverse cubic potential, decays to cold dark matter in the late universe. It is found that this penomenon yields a solution to `` cosmic coincidence problem''.

S. K. Srivastava

2005-03-10

410

Report of the Dark Energy Task Force

Dark energy appears to be the dominant component of the physical Universe, yet there is no persuasive theoretical explanation for its existence or magnitude. The acceleration of the Universe is, along with dark matter, the observed phenomenon that most directly demonstrates that our theories of fundamental particles and gravity are either incorrect or incomplete. Most experts believe that nothing short

Andreas Albrecht; Gary Bernstein; Robert Cahn; Wendy L. Freedman; Jacqueline Hewitt; Wayne Hu; John Huth; Marc Kamionkowski; Edward W. Kolb; Lloyd Knox; John C. Mather; Suzanne Staggs; Nicholas B. Suntzeff

2006-01-01

411

Dark Energy, A Cosmological Constant, and Type Ia Supernovae

We focus on uncertainties in supernova measurements, in particular of individual magnitudes and redshifts, to review to what extent supernovae measurements of the expansion history of the universe are likely to allow us to constrain a possibly redshift-dependent equation of state of dark energy, $w(z)$. focus in particular on the central question of how well one might rule out the possibility of a cosmological constant $w=-1$. We argue that it is unlikely that we will be able to significantly reduce the uncertainty in the determination of $w$ beyond its present bounds, without significant improvements in our ability to measure the cosmic distance scale as a function of redshift. Thus, unless the dark energy significantly deviates from $w(z)=-1$ at some redshift, very stringent control of the statistical and systematic errors will be necessary to have a realistic hope of empirically distinguishing exotic dark energy from a cosmological constant.

Lawrence M. Krauss; Katherine Jones-Smith; Dragan Huterer

2007-01-24

412

What We Know About Dark Energy From Supernovae

The measured distances of type Ia (white dwarf) supernovae as a function of redshift (z) have shown that the expansion of the Universe is currently accelerating, probably due to the presence of dark energy (X) having a negative pressure. Combining all of the data with existing results from large-scale structure surveys, we find a best fit for Omega M and Omega X of 0.28 and 0.72 (respectively), in excellent agreement with the values derived independently from WMAP measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation. Thus far, the best-fit value for the dark energy equation-of-state parameter is -1, and its first derivative is consistent with zero, suggesting that the dark energy may indeed be Einstein's cosmological constant.

Alex Filippenko

2010-01-08

413

What We Know About Dark Energy From Supernovae

The measured distances of type Ia (white dwarf) supernovae as a function of redshift (z) have shown that the expansion of the Universe is currently accelerating, probably due to the presence of dark energy (X) having a negative pressure. Combining all of the data with existing results from large-scale structure surveys, we find a best fit for Omega M and Omega X of 0.28 and 0.72 (respectively), in excellent agreement with the values derived independently from WMAP measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation. Thus far, the best-fit value for the dark energy equation-of-state parameter is -1, and its first derivative is consistent with zero, suggesting that the dark energy may indeed be Einstein's cosmological constant.

Alex Filippenko

2008-05-21

414

Interacting entropy-corrected new agegraphic dark energy in Brans-Dicke cosmology

Motivated by a recent work of one of us [1], we extend it by using quantum (or entropy) corrected new agegraphic dark energy in the Brans-Dicke cosmology. The correction terms are motivated from the loop quantum gravity which is one of the competitive theories of quantum gravity. Taking the non-flat background spacetime along with the conformal age of the universe as the length scale, we derive the dynamical equation of state of dark energy and the deceleration parameter. An important consequence of this study is the phantom divide scenario with entropy-corrected new agegraphic dark energy. Moreover, we assume a system of dark matter, radiation and dark energy, while the later interacts only with dark matter. We obtain some essential expressions related with dark energy dynamics. The cosmic coincidence problem is also resolved in our model.

Kayoomars Karami; Ahmad Sheykhi; Mubasher Jamil; Z. Azarmi; M. M. Soltanzadeh

2010-07-19

415

Dark Energy and Tachyon Field in Bianchi Type-V Space-time

In this paper, we consider Bianchi type-V space-time and study a cosmological model of dark energy based on Tachyon scalar field. We assumed three different kinds of matter without possibility of interaction with scalar dark energy. Assuming power law Hubble parameter in terms of scale factor we obtain evolution of scalar field, scalar potential and equation of state parameter.

Sadeghi, J

2014-01-01

416

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the authors have investigated the Kaluza Klein universe with magnetized anisotropic dark energy in the context of Lyra manifold. Exponential and power law volumetric expansion is assumed to obtain the solution of the field equations. It is observed that magnetic field plays significant role in isotropization of the dark energy. The physical parameters of the models have been discussed in detail.

Katore, S. D.; Hatkar, S. P.

2015-01-01

417

Photo Credit: Peter GinterSLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Dark Energy

Photo Credit: Peter GinterSLAC National Accelerator Laboratory #12;Dark Energy 70% Dark Matter 26 and Advanced Camera for Surveys #12;Dark Energy 70% Dark Matter 26% Ordinary Matter 4% #12;Dark Energy 70% Dark Matter 26% Ordinary Matter 4% #12;Dark Energy 70% Dark Matter 26% Ordinary Matter 4% #12;Dark Energy 70

Osheroff, Douglas D.

418

On the Triple Interacting Dark Energy Model

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three aspects of the triple interacting dark energy model are studied. The relation between two types of the triple interacting dark energy models is investigated first. Then, the concrete forms of the interacting terms are given by supposing ratios between different energy components is stationary. Furthermore, the stability of the triple interacting dark energy model with different transfer terms is studied in detail, and the complete table of relations between the stability and the transfer terms is given, we find that only models with transformation between matter and dark energy proportional to ?c or ?DE, while the transformation between radiation and matter is not proportional to ?R, are stable against perturbation, which give strong restriction on the model building of the triple interacting.

Huang, Peng; Huang, Yong-Chang

2013-07-01

419

G-corrected holographic dark energy model

Here we investigate the holographic dark energy model in the framework of FRW cosmology where the Newtonian gravitational constant,$G$, is varying with cosmic time. Using the complementary astronomical data which support the time dependency of $G$, the evolutionary treatment of EoS parameter and energy density of dark energy model are calculated in the presence of time variation of $G$. It has been shown that in this case, the phantom regime can be achieved at the present time. We also calculate the evolution of $G$- corrected deceleration parameter for holographic dark energy model and show that the dependency of $G$ on the comic time can influence on the transition epoch from decelerated expansion to the accelerated phase. Finally we perform the statefinder analysis for $G$- corrected holographic model and show that this model has a shorter distance from the observational point in $s-r$ plane compare with original holographic dark energy model.

Malekjani, M

2013-01-01

420

G-corrected holographic dark energy model

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we investigate the holographic dark energy model in the framework of FRW cosmology where the Newtonian gravitational constant, G, is varying with cosmic time. Using the complementary astronomical data which support the time dependency of G, the evolutionary treatment of EoS parameter and energy density of dark energy model are calculated in the presence of time variation of G. It has been shown that in this case, the phantom regime can be achieved at the present time. We also calculate the evolution of G-corrected deceleration parameter for holographic dark energy model and show that the dependency of G on the comic time can influence on the transition epoch from decelerated expansion to the accelerated phase. Finally we perform the statefinder analysis for G-corrected holographic model and show that this model has a shorter distance from the observational point in s- r plane compare with original holographic dark energy model.

Malekjani, M.; Honari-Jafarpour, M.

2013-08-01

421

Ghost dark energy in $f(R)$ model of gravity

We study a correspondence between $f(R)$ model of gravity and a phenomenological kind of dark energy (DE), which is known as QCD ghost dark energy. Since this kind of dark energy is not stable in the context of Einsteinian theory of gravity and Brans-Dicke model of gravity, we consider two kinds of correspondence between modified gravity and DE. By studding the dynamical evolution of model and finding relevant quantities such as, equation of state parameter, deceleration parameter, dimensionless density parameter, we show that the model can describe the present Universe and also the EoS parameter can cross the phantom divide line without needs to any kinetic energy with negative sign. Furthermore, by obtaining the adiabatic squared sound speed of the model for different cases of interaction, we show that this model is stable. Finally, we fit this model with supernova observational data in a non interaction case and we find the best values of parameter at $1\\sigma$ confidence interval as; $f_0=0.958^{+0.07}_{-0.25}$, $\\beta=-0,256^{+0.2}_{-0.1}$, and $\\Om_{m_0} = 0.23^{+0.3}_{-0.15}$. These best-fit values show that dark energy equation of state parameter, $\\om_{d_0}$, can cross the phantom divide line at the present time.

Kh. Saaidi; Ali. Aghamohammadi; B. Sabet; O. Farooq

2014-01-18

422

In this work, we consider the cosmological constraints on the holographic Ricci dark energy proposed by Gao et al.[Phys. Rev. D 79, 043511 (2009)], by using the observational data currently available. The main characteristic of holographic Ricci dark energy is governed by a positive numerical parameter {alpha} in the model. When {alpha}<1/2, the holographic Ricci dark energy will exhibit a quintomlike behavior; i.e., its equation of state will evolve across the cosmological-constant boundary w=-1. The parameter {alpha} can be determined only by observations. Thus, in order to characterize the evolving feature of dark energy and to predict the fate of the Universe, it is of extraordinary importance to constrain the parameter {alpha} by using the observational data. In this paper, we derive constraints on the holographic Ricci dark energy model from the latest observational data including the Union sample of 307 type Ia supernovae, the shift parameter of the cosmic microwave background given by the five-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe observations, and the baryon acoustic oscillation measurement from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The joint analysis gives the best-fit results (with 1{sigma} uncertainty): {alpha}=0.359{sub -0.025}{sup +0.024} and {omega}{sub m0}=0.318{sub -0.024}{sup +0.026}. That is to say, according to the observations, the holographic Ricci dark energy takes on the quintom feature. Finally, in light of the results of the cosmological constraints, we discuss the issue of the scalar-field dark energy reconstruction, based on the scenario of the holographic Ricci vacuum energy.

Zhang Xin [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)

2009-05-15

423

A solution to Einstein's field equations via the Friedman equations is shown to produce a cosmological model that is in exact agreement with the measurements made by the dark energy astronomers. All the essential physical parameters are obtained as epoch dependent functions all in closed form. The equations of state are obtained for total density, non-dark energy density and dark energy density. An interpretation of the structure involving a dark energy mass distribution that is twice the usual value is shown to clarify greatly the physical significance of the mathematics. It is asserted that the astronomer's measurements together with the mathematical model proves that the universe is permeated uniformly with a positive mass density that caries a negative gravitational constant, -G, characteristic. This mass component is identified with the dark energy content of the universe that has been postulated to explain the observed acceleration. Another result implied by the model is that there is twice the amount of dark energy that is usually considered to be present. This last point is analysed in more detail in appendix 1 using Einstein's field equations. Five additional appendices, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 in which isothermal gravitational dark matter equilibrium and the galactic rotations curve flatness problem are examined in detail. Appendix 5 is concerned with mass clumping and expressing gravitational isothermal equilibrium constraints using a cosmological Schr\\"odinger equation to demonstrate the existence of a new quantum force involved with galactic stability. Appendix 6 is concerned with gravitational quantization. Each appendix has its own abstract.

James G. Gilson

2012-06-23

424

Hessence: a new view of quintom dark energy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently a lot of attention has been given to building a dark energy model in which the equation-of-state parameter w can cross the phantom divide w = -1. One of the models to realize crossing the phantom divide is called the quintom model, in which two real scalar fields appear, one is a normal scalar field and the other is a phantom-type scalar field. In this paper we propose a non-canonical complex scalar field as the dark energy, which we dub 'hessence', to implement crossing the phantom divide, in a similar sense as the quintom dark energy model. In the hessence model, the dark energy is described by a single field with an internal degree of freedom rather than two independent real scalar fields. However, the hessence is different from an ordinary complex scalar field, we show that the hessence can avoid the difficulty of the Q-ball formation which gives trouble to the spintessence model (an ordinary complex scalar field acts as the dark energy). Furthermore, we find that, by choosing a proper potential, the hessence could correspond to a Chaplygin gas at late times.

Wei, Hao; Cai, Rong-Gen; Zeng, Ding-Fang

2005-08-01

425

Holographic Dark Energy in Brans-Dicke Theory

In this paper, the holographic dark energy model is considered in Brans-Dicke theory where the holographic dark energy density $\\rho_{\\Lambda} =3c^2 M^{2}_{pl} L^{-2}$ is replaced with $\\rho_{h}=3c^2 \\Phi(t)L^{-2}$. Here $\\Phi(t)=\\frac{1}{8\\pi G}$ is a time variable Newton constant. With this replacement, it is found that no accelerated expansion universe will be achieved when the Hubble horizon is taken as the role of IR cut-off. When the event horizon is adopted as the IR cut-off, an accelerated expansion universe is obtained. In this case, the equation of state of holographic dark energy $w_h$ takes a modified form $w_h=-{1/3}(1+\\alpha+\\frac{2}{c}\\sqrt{\\Omega_{h}})$. In the limit $\\alpha\\to 0$, the 'standard' holographic dark energy is recovered. In the holographic dark energy dominated epoch, power-law and de Sitter time-space solutions are obtained.

Lixin Xu; Wenbo Li; Jianbo Lu

2009-04-14

426

Unknowns and unknown unknowns: from dark sky to dark matter and dark energy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Answering well-known fundamental questions is usually regarded as the major goal of science. Discovery of other unknown and fundamental questions is, however, even more important. Recognition that "we didn't know anything" is the basic scientific driver for the next generation. Cosmology indeed enjoys such an exciting epoch. What is the composition of our universe ? This is one of the well-known fundamental questions that philosophers, astronomers and physicists have tried to answer for centuries. Around the end of the last century, cosmologists finally recognized that "We didn't know anything". Except for atoms that comprise slightly less than 5% of the universe, our universe is apparently dominated by unknown components; 23% is the known unknown (dark matter), and 72% is the unknown unknown (dark energy). In the course of answering a known fundamental question, we have discovered an unknown, even more fundamental, question: "What is dark matter? What is dark energy?" There are a variety of realistic particle physics models for dark matter, and its experimental detection may be within reach. On the other hand, it is fair to say that there is no widely accepted theoretical framework to describe the nature of dark energy. This is exactly why astronomical observations will play a key role in unveiling its nature. I will review our current understanding of the "dark sky", and then present on-going Japanese project, SuMIRe, to discover even more unexpected questions.

Suto, Yasushi

2010-07-01

427

On dark energy models of single scalar field

In this paper we revisit the dynamical dark energy model building based on single scalar field involving higher derivative terms. By imposing a degenerate condition on the higher derivatives in curved spacetime, one can select the models which are free from the ghost mode and the equation of state is able to cross the cosmological constant boundary smoothly, dynamically violate the null energy condition. Generally the Lagrangian of this type of dark energy models depends on the second derivatives linearly. It behaves like an imperfect fluid, thus its cosmological perturbation theory needs to be generalized. We also study such a model with explicit form of degenerate Lagrangian and show that its equation of state may cross -1 without any instability.

Li, Mingzhe [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Qiu, Taotao [Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Sciences, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Cai, Yifu [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Zhang, Xinmin, E-mail: limz@nju.edu.cn, E-mail: xsjqiu@gmail.com, E-mail: ycai21@asu.edu, E-mail: xmzhang@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China)

2012-04-01

428

Essential building blocks of dark energy

We propose a minimal description of single field dark energy/modified gravity within the effective field theory formalism for cosmological perturbations, which encompasses most existing models. We start from a generic Lagrangian given as an arbitrary function of the lapse and of the extrinsic and intrinsic curvature tensors of the time hypersurfaces in unitary gauge, i.e. choosing as time slicing the uniform scalar field hypersurfaces. Focusing on linear perturbations, we identify seven Lagrangian operators that lead to equations of motion containing at most two (space or time) derivatives, the background evolution being determined by the time-dependent coefficients of only three of these operators. We then establish a dictionary that translates any existing or future model whose Lagrangian can be written in the above form into our parametrized framework. As an illustration, we study Horndeski's — or generalized Galileon — theories and show that they can be described, up to linear order, by only six of the seven operators mentioned above. This implies, remarkably, that the dynamics of linear perturbations can be more general than that of Horndeski while remaining second order. Finally, in order to make the link with observations, we provide the entire set of linear perturbation equations in Newtonian gauge, the effective Newton constant in the quasi-static approximation and the ratio of the two gravitational potentials, in terms of the time-dependent coefficients of our Lagrangian.

Gleyzes, Jerome; Vernizzi, Filippo [CEA, IPhT, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cédex, France CNRS, URA-2306, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cédex (France); Langlois, David; Piazza, Federico, E-mail: jerome.gleyzes@cea.fr, E-mail: langlois@apc.univ-paris7.fr, E-mail: fpiazza@apc.univ-paris7.fr, E-mail: filippo.vernizzi@cea.fr [APC, (CNRS-Université Paris 7), 10 rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, 75205 Paris (France)

2013-08-01

429

Neutrino mixing, flavor states and dark energy

We shortly summarize the quantum field theory formalism for the neutrino mixing and report on recent results showing that the vacuum condensate induced by neutrino mixing can be interpreted as a dark energy component of the Universe.

M. Blasone; A. Capolupo; S. Capozziello; G. Vitiello

2007-11-06

430

Holographic dark energy in the DGP model

The braneworld model proposed by Dvali, Gabadadze and Porrati leads to an accelerated universe without cosmological constant or other form of dark energy. Nevertheless, we have investigated the consequences of this model when an holo- graphic dark energy is included, taken the Hubble scale as IR cutoff. We have found that the holographic dark energy leads to an accelerated universe flat (de Sitter like expansion) for the two branch: {\\ko} = \\pm1 of the DGP model. Nevertheless, in universes with no null curvature the dark energy presents an EoS corresponding to a phantom fluid during the present era and evolving to a de Sitter like phase for future cosmic time. In the special case in which the holographic parameter c is equal to one we have found a sudden singularity in closed universes. In this case the expansion is decelerating. Manuscript

Norman Cruz; Samuel Lepe; Francisco Peña

2011-09-09

431

Particle mixing, flavor condensate and dark energy

The mixing of neutrinos and quarks generate a vacuum condensate that, at the present epoch, behaves as a cosmological constant. The value of the dark energy is constrained today by the very small breaking of the Lorentz invariance.

Massimo Blasone; Antonio Capolupo; Giuseppe Vitiello

2009-12-08

432

Reconstruction of Hessence Dark Energy and the Latest Type Ia Supernovae Gold Dataset

Recently, many efforts have been made to build dark energy models whose equation-of-state parameter can cross the so-called phantom divide $w_{de}=-1$. One of them is the so-called hessence dark energy model in which the role of dark energy is played by a non-canonical complex scalar field. In this work, we develop a simple method based on Hubble parameter $H(z)$ to reconstruct the hessence dark energy. As examples, we use two familiar parameterizations for $H(z)$ and fit them to the latest 182 type Ia supernovae Gold dataset. In the reconstruction, measurement errors are fully considered.

Hao Wei; Ningning Tang; Shuang Nan Zhang

2007-02-28

433

Collapsing Inhomogeneous Dust Fluid in the Background of Dark Energy

In the present work, gravitational collapse of an inhomogeneous spherical star model, consisting of inhomogeneous dust fluid (dark matter) in the background of dark energy is considered. The collapsing process is examined first separately for both dark matter and dark energy and then under the combined effect of dark matter and dark energy with or without interaction. The dark energy is considered in the form of perfect fluid and both marginally and non-marginally bound cases are considered for the collapsing model. Finally dark energy in the form of anisotropic fluid is investigated and it is found to be similar to ref. [12

Tanwi Bandyopadhyay; Subenoy Chakraborty

2006-05-11

434

Interacting dark energy collapse with matter components separation

We use the spherical collapse model of structure formation to investigate the separation in the collapse of uncoupled matter (essentially baryons) and coupled dark matter in an interacting dark energy scenario. Following the usual assumption of a single radius of collapse for all species, we show that we only need to evolve the uncoupled matter sector to obtain the evolution for all matter components. This gives us more information on the collapse with a simplified set of evolution equations compared with the usual approaches. We then apply these results to four quintessence potentials and show how we can discriminate between different quintessence models.

Delliou, M. Le [Departamento de Física Matemática, Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, CP 66.318 — 05314-970, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Barreiro, T., E-mail: delliou@cii.fc.ul.pt, E-mail: tmbarreiro@ulusofona.pt [Departamento de Matemática da FFMCC, Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Campo Grande, 376 — 1749-024 Lisboa (Portugal)

2013-02-01

435

Evolution of perturbations in distinct classes of canonical scalar field models of dark energy

Dark energy must cluster in order to be consistent with the equivalence principle. The background evolution can be effectively modeled by either a scalar field or by a barotropic fluid. The fluid model can be used to emulate perturbations in a scalar field model of dark energy, though this model breaks down at large scales. In this paper we study evolution of dark energy perturbations in canonical scalar field models: the classes of thawing and freezing models. The dark energy equation of state evolves differently in these classes. In freezing models, the equation of state deviates from that of a cosmological constant at early times. For thawing models, the dark energy equation of state remains near that of the cosmological constant at early times and begins to deviate from it only at late times. Since the dark energy equation of state evolves differently in these classes, the dark energy perturbations too evolve differently. In freezing models, since the equation of state deviates from that of a cosmological constant at early times, there is a significant difference in evolution of matter perturbations from those in the cosmological constant model. In comparison, matter perturbations in thawing models differ from the cosmological constant only at late times. This difference provides an additional handle to distinguish between these classes of models and this difference should manifest itself in the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect.

Jassal, H. K. [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211 019 (India)

2010-04-15

436

Towards Dark Energy from String-Theory

We discuss vacuum energy in string and M-theory with a focus on heterotic M-theory. In the latter theory a mechanism is described for maintaining zero vacuum energy after supersymmetry breaking. Higher-order corrections can be expected to give a sufficiently small amount of vacuum energy to possibly account for dark energy.

Axel Krause

2008-03-12

437

Gravity resonance spectroscopy constrains dark energy and dark matter scenarios.

We report on precision resonance spectroscopy measurements of quantum states of ultracold neutrons confined above the surface of a horizontal mirror by the gravity potential of Earth. Resonant transitions between several of the lowest quantum states are observed for the first time. These measurements demonstrate that Newton's inverse square law of gravity is understood at micron distances on an energy scale of 10-14??eV. At this level of precision, we are able to provide constraints on any possible gravitylike interaction. In particular, a dark energy chameleon field is excluded for values of the coupling constant ?>5.8×108 at 95% confidence level (C.L.), and an attractive (repulsive) dark matter axionlike spin-mass coupling is excluded for the coupling strength gsgp>3.7×10-16 (5.3×10-16) at a Yukawa length of ?=20???m (95% C.L.). PMID:24785025

Jenke, T; Cronenberg, G; Burgdörfer, J; Chizhova, L A; Geltenbort, P; Ivanov, A N; Lauer, T; Lins, T; Rotter, S; Saul, H; Schmidt, U; Abele, H

2014-04-18

438

We study the holographic dark energy on the subject of Ho$\\check{r}$ava-Lifshitz gravity with a time dependent gravitational constant (G(t)), in the non-flat space-time. We obtain the differential equation that specify the evolution of the dark energy density parameter based on varying gravitational constant. we find out a relation for the state parameter of the dark energy equation to low redshifts which containing varying $G$ correction.

Kh. Saaidi; A. Aghamohammadi; M. R. Setare

2010-10-25

439

Cosmological Analysis of Pilgrim Dark Energy in Loop Quantum Cosmology

The proposal of pilgrim dark energy is based on speculation that phantom-like dark energy (with strong enough resistive force) can prevent black hole formation in the universe. We explore this phenomenon in loop quantum cosmology framework by taking Hubble horizon as an infra-red cutoff in pilgrim dark energy. We evaluate the cosmological parameters such as Hubble, equation of state parameter, squared speed of sound and also cosmological planes like $\\omega_{\\vartheta}-\\omega'_{\\vartheta}$ and $r-s$ on the basis of pilgrim dark energy parameter ($u$) and interacting parameter ($d^2$). It is found that values of Hubble parameter lies in the range $74^{+0.005}_{-0.005}$. It is mentioned here that equation state parameter lies within the ranges $-1\\mp0.00005$ for $u=2, 1$ and $(-1.12,-1), (-5,-1)$ for $u=-1,-2$, respectively. Also, $\\omega_{\\vartheta}-\\omega'_{\\vartheta}$ planes provide $\\Lambda$CDM limit, freezing and thawing regions for all cases of $u$. It is also interesting to mention here that $\\omega_{\\va...

Jawad, Abdul

2015-01-01

440

Thermodynamics of viscous dark energy in an RSII braneworld

We show that for an RSII braneworld filled with interacting viscous dark energy and dark matter, one can always rewrite the Friedmann equation in the form of the first law of thermodynamics, $dE=T_hdS_h+WdV$, at apparent horizon. In addition, the generalized second law of thermodynamics can fulfilled in a region enclosed by the apparent horizon on the brane for both constant and time variable 5-dynamical Newton's constant $G_5$. These results hold regardless of the specific form of the dark energy. Our study further support that in an accelerating universe with spatial curvature, the apparent horizon is a physical boundary from the thermodynamical point of view.

M. R. Setare; A. Sheykhi

2011-03-05

441

How early is early dark energy?

We investigate constraints on early dark energy (EDE) from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy, taking into account data from WMAP9 combined with latest small scale measurements from the South Pole Telescope (SPT). For a constant EDE fraction we propose a new parametrization with one less parameter but still enough to provide similar results to the ones previously studied in literature. The main emphasis of our analysis, however, compares a new set of different EDE parametrizations that reveal how CMB constraints depend on the redshift epoch at which Dark Energy was non negligible. We find that bounds on EDE get substantially weaker if dark energy starts to be non-negligible later, with early dark energy fraction Omega_e free to go up to about 5% at 2 sigma if the onset of EDE happens at z dark energy is present at last scattering, even if its effects switch off afterwards. We show that the CMB mainly constrains the presence of Dark Energy at the time of its emission, while EDE-modifications of the subsequent growth of structure are less important.

Valeria Pettorino; Luca Amendola; Christof Wetterich

2013-01-22

442

DARK MATTER AND DARK ENERGY AS EFFECTS OF QUANTUM GRAVITY Max I. Fomitchev1

DARK MATTER AND DARK ENERGY AS EFFECTS OF QUANTUM GRAVITY Max I. Fomitchev1 Submitted March 12th of high matter density expected in the early Universe I show that primordial inflation and dark energy (i. Subject headings: cosmology: dark matter galaxies: kinematics and dynamics X-rays: galaxies: clusters

Giles, C. Lee

443

Dark Energy-Dark Matter Interaction from the Abell Cluster A586

We find that deviation from the virial equilibrium of the Abell Cluster A586 yields evidence of the interaction between dark matter and dark energy. We argue that this interaction might imply a violation of the Equivalence Principle. Our analysis show that evidence is found in the context of two different models of dark energy-dark matter interaction.

Orfeu Bertolami; Francisco Gil Pedro; Morgan Le Delliou

2007-12-31

444

Dark Energy Found Stifling Growth in Universe

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WASHINGTON -- For the first time, astronomers have clearly seen the effects of "dark energy" on the most massive collapsed objects in the universe using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. By tracking how dark energy has stifled the growth of galaxy clusters and combining this with previous studies, scientists have obtained the best clues yet about what dark energy is and what the destiny of the universe could be. This work, which took years to complete, is separate from other methods of dark energy research such as supernovas. These new X-ray results provide a crucial independent test of dark energy, long sought by scientists, which depends on how gravity competes with accelerated expansion in the growth of cosmic structures. Techniques based on distance measurements, such as supernova work, do not have this special sensitivity. Scientists think dark energy is a form of repulsive gravity that now dominates the universe, although they have no clear picture of what it actually is. Understanding the nature of dark energy is one of the biggest problems in science. Possibilities include the cosmological constant, which is equivalent to the energy of empty space. Other possibilities include a modification in general relativity on the largest scales, or a more general physical field. People Who Read This Also Read... Chandra Data Reveal Rapidly Whirling Black Holes Ghostly Glow Reveals a Hidden Class of Long-Wavelength Radio Emitters Powerful Nearby Supernova Caught By Web Cassiopeia A Comes Alive Across Time and Space To help decide between these options, a new way of looking at dark energy is required. It is accomplished by observing how cosmic acceleration affects the growth of galaxy clusters over time. "This result could be described as 'arrested development of the universe'," said Alexey Vikhlinin of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Mass., who led the research. "Whatever is forcing the expansion of the universe to speed up is also forcing its development to slow down." Vikhlinin and his colleagues used Chandra to observe the hot gas in dozens of galaxy clusters, which are the largest collapsed objects in the universe. Some of these clusters are relatively close and others are more than halfway across the universe. The results show the increase in mass of the galaxy clusters over time aligns with a universe dominated by dark energy. It is more difficult for objects like galaxy clusters to grow when space is stretched, as caused by dark energy. Vikhlinin and his team see this effect clearly in their data. The results are remarkably consistent with those from the distance measurements, revealing general relativity applies, as expected, on large scales. "For years, scientists have wanted to start testing how gravity works on large scales and now, we finally have," said William Forman, a co-author of the study from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. "This is a test that general relativity could have failed." When combined with other clues -- supernovas, the study of the cosmic microwave background, and the distribution of galaxies -- this new X-ray result gives scientists the best insight to date on the properties of dark energy. The study strengthens the evidence that dark energy is the cosmological constant. Although it is the leading candidate to explain dark energy, theoretical work suggests it should be about 10 raised to the power of 120 times larger than observed. Therefore, alternatives to general relativity, such as theories involving hidden dimensions, are being explored. "Putting all of this data together gives us the strongest evidence yet that dark energy is the cosmological constant, or in other words, that 'nothing weighs something'," said Vikhlinin. "A lot more testing is needed, but so far Einstein's theory is looking as good as ever." These results have consequences for predicting the ultimate fate of the universe. If dark energy is explained by the cosmological constant, the expansion of the universe will cont

2008-12-01

445

Dark Energy, Dark Matter and Science with Constellation-X

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Constellation-X, with more than 100 times the collecting area of any previous spectroscopic mission operating in the 0.25-40 keV bandpass, will enable highthroughput, high spectral resolution studies of sources ranging from the most luminous accreting supermassive black holes in the Universe to the disks around young stars where planets form. This talk will review the updated Constellation-X science case, released in booklet form during summer 2005. The science areas where Constellation-X will have major impact include the exploration of the space-time geometry of black holes spanning nine orders of magnitude in mass and the nature of the dark energy and dark matter which govern the expansion and ultimate fate of the Universe. Constellation-X will also explore processes referred to as "cosmic feedback" whereby mechanical energy, radiation, and chemical elements from star formation and black holes are returned to interstellar and intergalactic medium, profoundly affecting the development of structure in the Universe, and will also probe all the important life cycles of matter, from stellar and planetary birth to stellar death via supernova to stellar endpoints in the form of accreting binaries and supernova remnants. This talk will touch upon all these areas, with particular emphasis on Constellation-X's role in the study of Dark Energy.

Cardiff, Ann Hornschemeier

2005-01-01

446

Joint Galaxy-Lensing Observables and the Dark Energy

Deep multi-color galaxy surveys with photometric redshifts will provide a large number of two-point correlation observables: galaxy-galaxy angular correlations, galaxy-shear cross correlations, and shear-shear correlations between all redshifts. These observables can potentially enable a joint determination of the dark energy dependent evolution of the dark matter and distances as well as the relationship between galaxies and dark matter halos. With recent CMB determinations of the initial power spectrum, a measurement of the mass clustering at even a_single_ redshift will constrain a well-specified combination of dark energy parameters in a flat universe; we provide convenient fitting formulae for such studies. The combination of galaxy-shear and galaxy-galaxy correlations can determine this amplitude at_multiple_ redshifts. We illustrate this ability in a description of the galaxy clustering with 5 free functions of redshift which can be fitted from the data. The galaxy modeling is based on a mapping onto halos of the same abundance that models a flux-limited selection. In this context, a 4000 deg2 galaxy-lensing survey can achieve a_statistical_ precision of sigma(Omega_DE)=0.005 for the dark energy density, sigma(w_DE)=0.02 and sigma(w_a)=0.17 for its equation of state and evolution, evaluated at dark energy matter equality z~0.4, as well as constraints on the 5 halo functions out to z=1. More importantly, a joint analysis can make dark energy constraints robust against systematic errors in the shear-shear correlation and halo modeling.

Wayne Hu; Bhuvnesh Jain

2005-01-27

447

Coupling dark energy with Standard Model states

In this contribution one examines the coupling of dark energy to the gauge fields, to neutrinos, and to the Higgs field. In the first case, one shows how a putative evolution of the fundamental couplings of strong and weak interactions via coupling to dark energy through a generalized Bekenstein-type model may cause deviations on the statistical nuclear decay Rutherford-Soddy law. Existing bounds for the weak interaction exclude any significant deviation. For neutrinos, a perturbative approach is developed which allows for considering viable varying mass neutrino models coupled to any quintessence-type field. The generalized Chaplygin model is considered as an example. For the coupling with the Higgs field one obtains an interesting cosmological solution which includes the unification of dark energy and dark matter.

M. C. Bento; A. E. Bernardini; O. Bertolami

2009-04-13

448

We present constraints on the dark energy equation-of-state parameter, w=P\\/(rhoc2), using 60 SNe Ia from the ESSENCE supernova survey. We derive a set of constraints on the nature of the dark energy assuming a flat universe. By including constraints on (OmegaM, w) from baryon acoustic oscillations, we obtain a value for a static equation-of-state parameter w=-1.05+0.13-0.12 (stat 1 sigma)+\\/-0.13 (sys)

W. Michael Wood-Vasey; G. Miknaitis; C. W. Stubbs; S. Jha; A. G. Riess; P. M. Garnavich; R. P. Kirshner; C. Aguilera; A. C. Becker; J. W. Blackman; S. Blondin; P. Challis; A. Clocchiatti; A. Conley; R. Covarrubias; T. M. Davis; A. V. Filippenko; R. J. Foley; A. Garg; M. Hicken; K. Krisciunas; B. Leibundgut; W. Li; T. Matheson; A. Miceli; G. Narayan; G. Pignata; J. L. Prieto; A. Rest; M. E. Salvo; B. P. Schmidt; R. C. Smith; J. Sollerman; J. Spyromilio; J. L. Tonry; N. B. Suntzeff; A. Zenteno

2007-01-01

449

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, we perform a global analysis constraining the dynamics of dark energy in light of the supernova (Riess "gold" samples), galaxy clustering (SDSS 3D power spectra and SDSS Lyman-? forest) and the latest three-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) observations. We have allowed the dark energy equation of state to get across -1 and pay particular attention to the effects when incorrectly neglecting dark energy perturbations. We find the parameter space of dynamical dark energy is now well-constrained with w(z = 0.3) = -1.046-0.086-0.196+0.096+0.226 (1,2? ). Neglecting dark energy perturbations will make the parameter space of dark energy non-trivially smaller. The dynamical dark energy model where the equation of state crosses -1 is mildly favored and the standard ?CDM model is still a good fit to the current data.

Zhao, Gong-Bo; Xia, Jun-Qing; Zhang, Xin-Min; Feng, Bo

450

Cosmic Acceleration, Dark Energy and Fundamental Physics

A web of interlocking observations has established that the expansion of the Universe is speeding up and not slowing, revealing the presence of some form of repulsive gravity. Within the context of general relativity the cause of cosmic acceleration is a highly elastic (p\\sim -rho), very smooth form of energy called ``dark energy'' accounting for about 75% of the Universe. The ``simplest'' explanation for dark energy is the zero-point energy density associated with the quantum vacuum; however, all estimates for its value are many orders-of-magnitude too large. Other ideas for dark energy include a very light scalar field or a tangled network of topological defects. An alternate explanation invokes gravitational physics beyond general relativity. Observations and experiments underway and more precise cosmological measurements and laboratory experiments planned for the next decade will test whether or not dark energy is the quantum energy of the vacuum or something more exotic, and whether or not general relativity can self consistently explain cosmic acceleration. Dark energy is the most conspicuous example of physics beyond the standard model and perhaps the most profound mystery in all of science.

Michael S. Turner; Dragan Huterer

2007-06-26

451

Clarifying spherical collapse in coupled dark energy cosmologies

The spherical collapse model is often used to follow the evolution of overdensities into the nonlinear regime. We describe the correct approach to be used in coupled dark energy cosmologies, where a fifth force, different from gravity and mediated by the dark energy scalar field, influences the collapse. We reformulate the spherical collapse description by deriving it directly from the set of nonlinear hydrodynamical Navier-Stokes equations. By comparing with the corresponding relativistic equations, we show how the fifth force should be taken into account within the spherical collapse picture and clarify the problems arising when an inhomogeneous scalar field is considered within a spherical collapse picture. We then apply our method to the case of coupled quintessence, where the fifth force acts among cold dark matter particles, and to growing neutrino quintessence, where the fifth force acts between neutrinos. Furthermore, we review this method within standard cosmologies and apply our analysis to minimally coupled quintessence. We also check past results for early dark energy parametrizations.

Wintergerst, Nico [Arnold-Sommerfeld-Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Theresienstrasse 37, D-80333 Muenchen (Germany); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Pettorino, Valeria [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2010-11-15

452

Measuring neutrino masses and dark energy with weak lensing tomography

Surveys of weak gravitational lensing of distant galaxies will be one of the key cosmological probes in the future. We study the ability of such surveys to constrain neutrino masses and the equation of state parameter of the dark energy, focussing on how tomographic information can improve the sensitivity to these parameters. We also provide a detailed discussion of systematic effects pertinent to weak lensing surveys, and the possible degradation of sensitivity to cosmological parameters due to these effects. For future probes such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope survey, we find that, when combined with cosmic microwave background data from the Planck satellite, a sensitivity to neutrino masses of sigma(sum m_nu) the running of the scalar spectral index, the time-dependence of dark energy equation of state, and/or the number of relativistic degrees of freedom.

Steen Hannestad; Huitzu Tu; Yvonne Y. Y. Wong

2006-06-28

453

Covariant extrinsic gravity and the geometric origin of dark energy

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we construct the covariant or model independent induced Einstein-Yang-Mills field equations on a four-dimensional brane embedded isometrically in an D-dimensional bulk space, assuming the matter fields are confined to the brane. Applying this formalism to cosmology, we derive the generalized Friedmann equations. We derive the density parameter of dark energy in terms of width of the brane, normal curvature radii and the number of extra large dimensions. We show that dark energy could actually be the manifestation of the local extrinsic shape of the brane. It is shown that the predictions of this model are in good agreement with observation if we consider an 11-dimensional bulk space.

Jalalzadeh, S.; Rostami, T.

2015-01-01

454

Dark MaGICC: the effect of dark energy on disc galaxy formation. Cosmology does matter

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the Dark MaGICC (Making Galaxies in a Cosmological Context) project, which aims to investigate the effect of dark energy (DE) modelling on disc galaxy formation via hydrodynamical cosmological simulations. Dark MaGICC includes four dynamical DE scenarios with time varying equations of state, one with a self-interacting Ratra-Peebles model. In each scenario, we simulate three disc galaxies with high resolution using smoothed particle hydrodynamics. The baryonic physics model is the same used in the MaGICC project, and we varied only the background cosmology. We find that the DE parametrization has a surprisingly important impact on galaxy evolution and on structural properties of galaxies at z = 0, in striking contrast with predictions from pure N-body simulations. The different background evolutions can (depending on the behaviour of the DE equation of state) either enhance or quench star formation with respect to a ? cold dark matter model, at a level similar to the variation of the stellar feedback parametrization, with strong effects on the final galaxy rotation curves. While overall stellar feedback is still the driving force in shaping galaxies, we show that the effect of the DE parametrization plays a larger role than previously thought, especially at lower redshifts. For this reason, the influence of DE parametrization on galaxy formation must be taken into account, especially in the era of precision cosmology.

Penzo, C.; Macciò, A. V.; Casarini, L.; Stinson, G. S.; Wadsley, J.

2014-07-01

455

A Casimir approach to dark energy

We calculate the gravitational self-energy of vacuum quantum field fluctuations using a Casimir approach. We find that the Casimir gravitational self-energy density can account for the measured dark energy density when the SUSY-breaking energy is approximately 5 TeV, in good agreement with current estimates. Furthermore, the Casimir gravitational self-energy appears to provide a quantum mechanism for the well-know geometric relation between the Planck, SUSY and cosmological constant energy scales.

Allan Rosencwaig

2006-06-26

456

Entropic-force dark energy reconsidered

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We reconsider the entropic-force model in which both kinds of Hubble terms, H? and H2, appear in the effective dark energy (DE) density affecting the evolution of the main cosmological functions, namely, the scale factor, deceleration parameter, matter density, and growth of linear matter perturbations. However, we find that the entropic-force model is not viable at the background and perturbation levels due to the fact that the entropic formulation does not add a constant term in the Friedmann equations. On the other hand, if on mere phenomenological grounds we replace the H ? dependence of the effective DE density with a linear term H without including a constant additive term, we find that the transition from deceleration to acceleration becomes possible, but the recent structure formation data strongly disfavor this cosmological scenario. Finally, we briefly compare the entropic-force models with some related DE models (based on dynamical vacuum energy) which overcome these difficulties and are compatible with the present observations.

Basilakos, Spyros; Solà, Joan

2014-07-01

457

Transient and late time attractor tachyon dark energy: Can we distinguish it from quintessence?

The string inspired tachyon field can serve as a candidate of dark energy. Its equation of state parameter w varies from 0 to -1. In the case of tachyon field potential V({phi}){yields}0 slower (faster) than 1/{phi}{sup 2} at infinity, dark energy (dark matter) is a late time attractor. We investigate the tachyon dark energy models under the assumption that w is close to -1. We find that all the models exhibit unique behavior around the present epoch which is exactly the same as that of the thawing quintessence.

Ali, Amna; Sami, M.; Sen, A. A. [Centre of Theoretical Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-110025 (India)

2009-06-15

458

Fermion field as inflaton, dark energy and dark matter

The search for constituents that can explain the periods of accelerating expansion of the Universe is a fundamental topic in cosmology. In this context, we investigate how fermionic fields minimally and non-minimally coupled with the gravitational field may be responsible for accelerated regimes during the evolution of the Universe. The forms of the potential and coupling of the model are determined through the technique of the Noether symmetry for two cases. The first case comprises a Universe filled only with the fermion field. Cosmological solutions are straightforwardly obtained for this case and an exponential inflation mediated by the fermion field is possible with a non-minimal coupling. The second case takes account of the contributions of radiation and baryonic matter in the presence of the fermion field. In this case the fermion field plays the role of dark energy and dark matter, and when a non-minimal coupling is allowed, it mediates a power-law inflation.

Guilherme Grams; Rudinei C. de Souza; Gilberto M. Kremer

2014-07-21

459

Coupled dark energy with perturbed Hubble expansion rate

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coupling between dark sectors provides a possible approach to mitigate the coincidence problem of the cosmological standard model. In this paper, dark energy is treated as a fluid with a constant equation of state, whose coupling with dark matter is proportional the Hubble parameter and energy density of dark energy, that is, Q ¯ =3 ?xH ¯ ?¯ x . In particular, we consider the Hubble expansion rate to be perturbed in the perturbation evolutions of dark sectors. Using joint data sets which include cosmic microwave background radiation, baryon acoustic oscillation, type Ia supernovae, and redshift-space distortions, we perform a full Markov chain Monte Carlo likelihood analysis for the coupled model. The results show that the mean value with errors of the interaction rate is ?x=0.0030 5-0.00305-0.00305 -0.00305 +0.000645 +0.00511 +0.00854 for QA??uc? and ?x=0.0031 7-0.00317-0.00317 -0.00317 +0.000628 +0.00547 +0.00929 for QA??ux?, which means that the recent cosmic observations favor a small interaction rate which is up to the order of 10-3. Moreover, in contrast to the coupled model with an unperturbed expansion rate, we find the perturbed Hubble expansion rate can bring about a negligible impact on the model parameter space.

Yang, Weiqiang; Xu, Lixin

2014-10-01

460

"Dark energy" in the Local Void

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The unexpected discovery of the accelerated cosmic expansion in 1998 has filled the Universe with the embarrassing presence of an unidentified "dark energy", or cosmological constant, devoid of any physical meaning. While this standard cosmology seems to work well at the global level, improved knowledge of the kinematics and other properties of our extragalactic neighborhood indicates the need for a better theory. We investigate whether the recently suggested repulsive-gravity scenario can account for some of the features that are unexplained by the standard model. Through simple dynamical considerations, we find that the Local Void could host an amount of antimatter (˜5×1015 M ?) roughly equivalent to the mass of a typical supercluster, thus restoring the matter-antimatter symmetry. The antigravity field produced by this "dark repulsor" can explain the anomalous motion of the Local Sheet away from the Local Void, as well as several other properties of nearby galaxies that seem to require void evacuation and structure formation much faster than expected from the standard model. At the global cosmological level, gravitational repulsion from antimatter hidden in voids can provide more than enough potential energy to drive both the cosmic expansion and its acceleration, with no need for an initial "explosion"