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Sample records for dark field far-infrared

  1. FAR-INFRARED EXTINCTION MAPPING OF INFRARED DARK CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Wanggi; Tan, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-10

    Progress in understanding star formation requires detailed observational constraints on the initial conditions, i.e., dense clumps and cores in giant molecular clouds that are on the verge of gravitational instability. Such structures have been studied by their extinction of near-infrared and, more recently, mid-infrared (MIR) background light. It has been somewhat more of a surprise to find that there are regions that appear as dark shadows at far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths as long as ∼100 μm! Here we develop analysis methods of FIR images from Spitzer-MIPS and Herschel-PACS that allow quantitative measurements of cloud mass surface density, Σ. The method builds on that developed for MIR extinction mapping by Butler and Tan, in particular involving a search for independently saturated, i.e., very opaque, regions that allow measurement of the foreground intensity. We focus on three massive starless core/clumps in the Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) G028.37+00.07, deriving mass surface density maps from 3.5 to 70 μm. A by-product of this analysis is the measurement of the spectral energy distribution of the diffuse foreground emission. The lower opacity at 70 μm allows us to probe to higher Σ values, up to ∼1 g cm{sup –2} in the densest parts of the core/clumps. Comparison of the Σ maps at different wavelengths constrains the shape of the MIR-FIR dust opacity law in IRDCs. We find that it is most consistent with the thick ice mantle models of Ossenkopf and Henning. There is tentative evidence for grain ice mantle growth as one goes from lower to higher Σ regions.

  2. Far-infrared Extinction Mapping of Infrared Dark Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Wanggi; Tan, Jonathan C.

    2014-01-01

    Progress in understanding star formation requires detailed observational constraints on the initial conditions, i.e., dense clumps and cores in giant molecular clouds that are on the verge of gravitational instability. Such structures have been studied by their extinction of near-infrared and, more recently, mid-infrared (MIR) background light. It has been somewhat more of a surprise to find that there are regions that appear as dark shadows at far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths as long as ~100 μm! Here we develop analysis methods of FIR images from Spitzer-MIPS and Herschel-PACS that allow quantitative measurements of cloud mass surface density, Σ. The method builds on that developed for MIR extinction mapping by Butler & Tan, in particular involving a search for independently saturated, i.e., very opaque, regions that allow measurement of the foreground intensity. We focus on three massive starless core/clumps in the Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) G028.37+00.07, deriving mass surface density maps from 3.5 to 70 μm. A by-product of this analysis is the measurement of the spectral energy distribution of the diffuse foreground emission. The lower opacity at 70 μm allows us to probe to higher Σ values, up to ~1 g cm-2 in the densest parts of the core/clumps. Comparison of the Σ maps at different wavelengths constrains the shape of the MIR-FIR dust opacity law in IRDCs. We find that it is most consistent with the thick ice mantle models of Ossenkopf & Henning. There is tentative evidence for grain ice mantle growth as one goes from lower to higher Σ regions.

  3. Far-infrared observations of young clusters embedded in the R Coronae Austrinae and RHO Ophiuchi dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilking, B. A.; Harvey, P. M.; Joy, M.; Hyland, A. R.; Jones, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    Multicolor far infrared maps in two nearby dark clouds, R Coronae Austrinae and rho Ophiuchi, were made in order to investigate the individual contribution of low mass stars to the energetics and dynamics of the surrounding gas and dust. Emission from cool dust associated with five low mass stars in Cr A and four in rho Oph was detected; their far infrared luminosities range from 2 far infrared luminosities L. up to 40 far infrared luminosities. When an estimate of the bolometric luminosity was possible, it was found that typically more than 50% of the star's energy was radiated longward of 20 micrometers. meaningful limits to the far infrared luminosities of an additional eleven association members in Cr A and two in rho Oph were also obtained. The dust optical depth surrounding the star R Cr A appears to be asymmetric and may control the dynamics of the surrounding molecular gas. The implications of the results for the cloud energetics and star formation efficiency in these two clouds are discussed.

  4. Near-field microscope probe for far infrared time domain measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrofanov, O.; Brener, I.; Wanke, M. C.; Ruel, R. R.; Wynn, J. D.; Bruce, A. J.; Federici, J.

    2000-07-01

    A near-field probe fabrication technique for far-infrared frequencies based on photoconducting antennas is developed. A subwavelength-size field source is accomplished by means of an aperture and protruding high refractive index tip. The near-field probe is tested by using free space traveling electromagnetic pulses with a broadband spectrum in the range of 0.3-1.5 THz. A spatial resolution of 60 μm is achieved for a 50 μm aperture. The described probe may be used for near-field transmission microscopy in illumination and collection modes. Resolution may be further improved by means of a smaller aperture.

  5. Far-infrared observations of young clusters embedded in the R Coronae Australis and Rho Ophiuchi dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilking, B. A.; Harvey, P. M.; Joy, M.; Hyland, A. R.; Jones, T. J.

    1985-01-01

    Multicolor far-infrared maps in two nearby dark clouds, R Coronae Australis and Rho Ophiuchi, have been made in order to investigate the individual contribution of low-mass stars to the energetics and dynamics of the surrounding gas and dust. Emission from cool dust associated with five low-mass stars has been detected in CrA and four in Rho Oph; their far-infrared luminosities range from 2 solar luminosities to 40 solar luminosities. When an estimate of the bolometric luminosity was possible, it was found that typically more than 50 percent of the star's energy was radiated longward of 20 microns. Meaningful limits to the far-infrared luminosities of an additional 11 association members in CrA and two in Rho Oph were also obtained. The dust optical depth surrounding the star R CrA appears to be asymmetric and may control the dynamics of the surrounding molecular gas. The implications of these results for the cloud energetics and star formation efficiency in these two clouds are discussed.

  6. Magnetic Field Dependent Far-infrared Studies of Manganese-based Single-molecule Magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Jiufeng; Suzuki, Yoko; Mihaly, L.; Carr, G. L.; Chakov, N. E.

    2005-03-01

    Far-infrared transmission studies of Mn12 single crystals (both aligned crystal assemblies and randomly oriented samples) have been carried out as a function of magnetic field below and above the blocking temperature. In these measurements the complete field-frequency map of the allowed magnetic dipole transitions can be determined as opposed to fixed-frequency cuts generated by standard EPR studies. The ms=10 to 9 absorption lines (10 cm-1) for the randomly oriented powder-like Mn12-acetate and Mn12-bromoacetate samples have similar line-widths at 0T, indicating that the disorder associated with the acetic acid crystallization does not dominate the line-width at zero field. Various contributions to the line-width will be discussed, such as: the spin-phonon interaction, dipolar fields, hyper-fine fields, and distributions in the anisotropy field. Interestingly, the 10 to 9 absorption line for the aligned crystal assemblies depends strongly on the magnetic history of the sample below the blocking temperature. The simple matrix element analysis is not adequate to explain this phenomenon, suggesting that it is due to some non-linear optical effects.

  7. Prospects for Studying Interstellar Magnetic Fields with a Far-Infrared Polarimeter for SAFIR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowell, C. Darren; Chuss, D. T.; Dotson, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    Polarimetry at mid-infrared through millimeter wavelengths using airborne and ground-based telescopes has revealed magnetic structures in dense molecular clouds in the interstellar medium, primarily in regions of star formation. Furthermore, spectropolarimetry has offered clues about the composition of the dust grains and the mechanism by which they are aligned with respect to the local magnetic field. The sensitivity of the observations to date has been limited by the emission from the atmosphere and warm telescopes. A factor of 1000 in sensitivity can be gained by using instead a cold space telescope. With 5 arcminute resolution, Planck will make the first submillimeter polarization survey of the full Galaxy early in the next decade. We discuss the science case for and basic design of a far-infrared polarimeter on the SAFIR space telescope, which offers resolution in the few arcsecond range and wavelength selection of cold and warm dust components. Key science themes include the formation and evolution of molecular clouds in nearby spiral galaxies, the magnetic structure of the Galactic center, and interstellar turbulence.

  8. Far-infrared observations of a star-forming region in the Corona Australis dark cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz-Gonzalez, I.; Mcbreen, B.; Fazio, G. G.

    1984-01-01

    A high-resolution far-IR (40-250-micron) survey of a 0.9-sq-deg section of the core region of the Corona Australis dark cloud (containing very young stellar objects such as T Tauri stars, Herbig Ae and Be stars, Herbig-Haro objects, and compact H II regions) is presented. Two extended far-IR sources were found, one associated with the Herbig emission-line star R CrA and the other with the irregular emission-line variable star TY CrA. The two sources have substantially more far-IR radiation than could be expected from a blackbody extrapolation of their near-IR fluxes. The total luminosities of these sources are 145 and 58 solar luminosity, respectively, implying that the embedded objects are of intermediate or low mass. The infrared observations of the sources associated with R CrA and TY CrA are consistent with models of the evolution of protostellar envelopes of intermediate mass. However, the TY CrA source appears to have passed the evolutionary stage of expelling most of the hot dust near the central source, yielding an age of about 1 Myr.

  9. Far-infrared polarimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, Roger H.; Dotson, Jesse L.; Dowell, C. Darren; Platt, S. R.; Schleuning, David; Davidson, J. A.; Novak, Giles

    1995-01-01

    Airborne observations with the The University of Chicago polarimeter, Stokes (Platt et al. 1991), have produced maps of far infrared polarization over large areas in molecular clouds. Subsequent papers will discuss the implications of the results concerning the magnetic fields of individual objects. Our purpose here is to show a broad sample of the results and to point out certain general characteristics of the polarized emission.

  10. Wide-field spatio-spectral interferometry for far-infrared space applications: A progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisawitz, David; Armstrong, J. T.; Bolcar, M. R.; Lyon, R.; Maher, S. F.; Memarsadeghi, N.; Rinehart, S.; Sinukoff, E.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Roadmap Committee adopted the far-IR community’s vision and recommended far-IR interferometry as a needed capability in the 15 - 30 year time frame. The three major enabling technologies for such a mission are low-noise, high-speed detectors in small arrays; a demonstrated capability to cool optical system components to 4 K and focal planes to tens of mK with cryo-coolers; and the spatio-spectral interferometry (“double Fourier”) technique through which wide-field integral field spectroscopic data are derived from interferometric measurements. This paper reports on the current status of wide-field spatio-spectral interferometry and plans for maturation of the technique to space-flight readiness. Relatively simple spatial-spectral test patterns have been observed with the Wide-Field Imaging Interferometry Testbed at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, and data cubes representing the observed scenes have been constructed based on the measured interferograms. A critical future milestone is the construction of an astronomically relevant, spatially and spectrally complex scene.

  11. Developing Wide-Field Spatio-Spectral Interferometry for Far-Infrared Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisawitz, David; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Lyon, Richard G.; Maher, Stephen F.; Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Rinehart, Stephen A.; Sinukoff, Evan J.

    2012-01-01

    Interferometry is an affordable way to bring the benefits of high resolution to space far-IR astrophysics. We summarize an ongoing effort to develop and learn the practical limitations of an interferometric technique that will enable the acquisition of high-resolution far-IR integral field spectroscopic data with a single instrument in a future space-based interferometer. This technique was central to the Space Infrared Interferometric Telescope (SPIRIT) and Submillimeter Probe of the Evolution of Cosmic Structure (SPECS) space mission design concepts, and it will first be used on the Balloon Experimental Twin Telescope for Infrared Interferometry (BETTII). Our experimental approach combines data from a laboratory optical interferometer (the Wide-field Imaging Interferometry Testbed, WIIT), computational optical system modeling, and spatio-spectral synthesis algorithm development. We summarize recent experimental results and future plans.

  12. Far-infrared polarimetry/interferometry for poloidal magnetic field measurement on ZT-40M

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, R.M.

    1986-06-01

    The measurement of internal magnetic field profiles may be a very important step in the understanding of magnetic confinement physics issues. The measurement of plasma-induced Faraday rotation is one of the more promising internal magnetic field diagnostics. This thesis describes the development of a heterodyne polarimeter/interferometer for internal poloidal magnetic field measurement on ZT-40M. Heterodyne techniques were employed because of the insensitivity to spurious signal amplitude changes that cause errors in other methods. Initial problems in polarimetric sensitivity were observed that were ultimately found to be related to discharge-induced motions of the constrained diagnostic access on ZT-40M. Grazing incidence motions of the constrained diagnostic access on ZT-40M. Grazing incidence reflections on metallic surfaces of the diagnostic ports caused polarization changes that affected the measurement accuracy. Installation of internally threaded sleeves to baffle the reflections eliminated the sensitivity problem, and allowed useful Faraday rotation measurements to be made. Simultaneous polarimetric and interferometric measurements have also been demonstrated. The ability to assemble a working heterodyne polarimeter/interferometer is no longer in question. The extension of the present system to multichord operation requires increased laser power and efficiency.

  13. Fast water channeling across carbon nanotubes in far infrared terahertz electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi-Lin; Yang, Rong-Yao; Jiang, Wei-Zhou; Huang, Zi-Qian

    2016-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate systematically the water permeation properties across single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) in the presence of the terahertz electric field (TEF). With the TEF normal to the nanotube, the fracture of the hydrogen bonds results in the giant peak of net fluxes across the SWCNT with a three-fold enhancement centered around 14 THz. The phenomenon is attributed to the resonant mechanisms, characterized by librational, rotational, and rotation-induced responses of in-tube polar water molecules to the TEF. For the TEF along the symmetry axis of the nanotube, the vortical modes for resonances and consequently the enhancement of net fluxes are greatly suppressed by the alignment of polar water along the symmetry axis, which characterizes the quasi one-dimensional feature of the SWCNT nicely. The resonances of water molecules in the TEF can have potential applications in the high-flux device designs used for various purposes.Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate systematically the water permeation properties across single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) in the presence of the terahertz electric field (TEF). With the TEF normal to the nanotube, the fracture of the hydrogen bonds results in the giant peak of net fluxes across the SWCNT with a three-fold enhancement centered around 14 THz. The phenomenon is attributed to the resonant mechanisms, characterized by librational, rotational, and rotation-induced responses of in-tube polar water molecules to the TEF. For the TEF along the symmetry axis of the nanotube, the vortical modes for resonances and consequently the enhancement of net fluxes are greatly suppressed by the alignment of polar water along the symmetry axis, which characterizes the quasi one-dimensional feature of the SWCNT nicely. The resonances of water molecules in the TEF can have potential applications in the high-flux device designs used for various purposes. Electronic supplementary

  14. A morphological filter for removing 'Cirrus-like' emission from far-infrared extragalactic IRAS fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleton, P. N.; Siqueira, P. R.; Basart, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    The presence of diffuse extended IR emission from the Galaxy in the form of the so called 'Galactic Cirrus' emission has hampered the exploration of the extragalactic sky at long IR wavelengths. We describe the development of a filter based on mathematical morphology which appears to be a promising approach to the problem of cirrus removal. The method of Greyscale Morphology was applied to a 100 micron IRAS image of the M81 group of galaxies. This is an extragalactic field which suffers from serious contamination from foreground Galactic 'cirrus'. Using a technique called 'sieving', it was found that the cirrus emission has a characteristic behavior which can be quantified in terms of an average spatial structure spectrum or growth function. This function was then used to attempt to remove 'cirrus' from the entire image. The result was a significant reduction of cirrus emission by an intensity factor of 15 compared with the original input image. The method appears to preserve extended emission in the spatially extended IR disks of M81 and M82 as well as distinguishing fainter galaxies within bright regions of galactic cirrus. The techniques may also be applicable to IR databases obtained with the Cosmic Background Explorer.

  15. Enhanced thermal radiation in terahertz and far-infrared regime by hot phonon excitation in a field effect transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Pei-Kang; Yen, Shun-Tung

    2014-11-14

    We demonstrate the hot phonon effect on thermal radiation in the terahertz and far-infrared regime. A pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor is used for efficiently exciting hot phonons. Boosting the hot phonon population can enhance the efficiency of thermal radiation. The transistor can yield at least a radiation power of 13 μW and a power conversion efficiency higher than a resistor by more than 20%.

  16. NO EVIDENCE FOR EVOLUTION IN THE FAR-INFRARED-RADIO CORRELATION OUT TO z {approx} 2 IN THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Minnie Y.; Huynh, Minh T.; Helou, George; Norris, Ray P.; Dickinson, Mark; Frayer, Dave; Monkiewicz, Jacqueline A.

    2011-04-20

    We investigate the 70 {mu}m far-infrared-radio correlation (FRC) of star-forming galaxies in the Extended Chandra Deep Field South (ECDFS) out to z > 2. We use 70 {mu}m data from the Far-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (FIDEL), which comprises the most sensitive ({approx}0.8 mJy rms) and extensive far-infrared deep field observations using MIPS on the Spitzer Space Telescope, and 1.4 GHz radio data ({approx}8 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1} rms) from the Very Large Array. In order to quantify the evolution of the FRC, we use both survival analysis and stacking techniques, which we find give similar results. We also calculate the FRC using total infrared luminosity and rest-frame radio luminosity, q{sub TIR}, and find that q{sub TIR} is constant (within 0.22) over the redshift range 0-2. We see no evidence for evolution in the FRC at 70 {mu}m, which is surprising given the many factors that are expected to change this ratio at high redshifts.

  17. The Far Infrared Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, John; Carli, Bruno; Rizzi, Rolando; Serio, Carmine; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Palchetti, Luca; Maestri, T.; Brindley, H.; Masiello, Guido

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents a review of the far infrared (FIR) properties of the Earth's atmosphere, and the role of these properties in climate. These properties have been relatively poorly understood, and it is one of the purposes of this review to demonstrate that, in recent years, we have made great strides in improving this understanding. Seen from space, the Earth is a cool object, with an effective emitting temperature of about 255 K. This contrasts with a global mean surface temperature of 288 K, and is due primarily to strong absorption of outgoing longwave energy by water vapour, carbon dioxide and clouds (especially ice). A large fraction of this absorption occurs in the FIR, and so the Earth is effectively a FIR planet. The FIR is important in a number of key climate processes, for example the water vapour and cloud feedbacks (especially ice clouds). The FIR is also a spectral region which can be used to remotely sense and retrieve atmospheric composition in the presence of ice clouds. Recent developments in instrumentation have allowed progress in each of these areas, which are described, and proposals for a spaceborne FIR instrument are being formulated. It is timely to review the FIR properties of the clear and cloudy atmosphere, the role of FIR processes in climate, and its use in observing our planet from space.

  18. INSTRUMENTATION FOR FAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY.

    SciTech Connect

    GRIFFITHS, P.R.; HOMES, C.

    2001-05-04

    Fourier transform spectrometers developed in three distinct spectral regions in the early 1960s. Pierre Connes and his coworkers in France developed remarkably sophisticated step-scan interferometers that permitted near-infrared spectra to be measured with a resolution of better than 0.0 1 cm{sup {minus}1}. These instruments may be considered the forerunners of the step-scan interferometers made by Bruker, Bio-Rad (Cambridge, MA, USA) and Nicolet although their principal application was in the field of astronomy. Low-resolution rapid-scanning interferometers were developed by Larry Mertz and his colleagues at Block Engineering (Cambridge, MA, USA) for remote sensing. Nonetheless, the FT-IR spectrometers that are so prevalent in chemical laboratories today are direct descendants of these instruments. The interferometers that were developed for far-infrared spectrometry in Gebbie's laboratory ,have had no commercial counterparts for at least 15 years. However, it could be argued that these instruments did as much to demonstrate the power of Fourier transform spectroscopy to the chemical community as any of the instruments developed for mid- and near-infrared spectrometry. Their performance was every bit as good as today's rapid-scanning interferometers. However, the market for these instruments is so small today that it has proved more lucrative to modify rapid-scanning interferometers that were originally designed for mid-infrared spectrometry than to compete with these instruments with slow continuous scan or step-scan interferometers.

  19. Dynamic quasi-energy-band modulation and exciton effects in biased superlattices driven by a two-color far-infrared field: Disappearance of dynamic localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashima, Kenta; Hino, Ken-Ichi; Toshima, Nobuyuki

    2003-12-01

    A theoretical study of the optical and electronic properties of semiconductor superlattices in ac-dc fields, termed the dynamic Wannier-Stark ladder (DWSL), is done. The biased superlattices are driven by two far-infrared fields with different frequencies and relative phase of δ. Here, the frequency of the first laser is equal to the Bloch frequency ωB of the system under study, while that of the second laser is equal to 2ωB. Quasienergies of the DWSL are calculated based on the Floquet theorem, and the associated linear photoabsorption spectra are evaluated. For δ=0, a gourd-shaped quasi-energy structure characteristic of both dynamic localization (DL) and delocalization (DDL), similar to the usual DWSL driven by a single laser, appears. By changing the ratio of the two laser strengths, however, the width of the quasi-energy band and the locations of both DL and DDL vary noticeably. As for δ≠0, on the other hand, band collapse and the associated DL do not necessarily follow. In fact, DL vanishes and the quasi-energy degeneracy is lifted in a certain range of δ. Just DDL remains over the entire range of the laser strength, eventually resulting in a plateaulike band structure in the linear absorption spectra. The basic physics underlying this phenomenon, which can be readily interpreted in terms of a closed analytical expression, is that all quasi-energies for given crystal momenta are out of phase with each other as a function of laser strength without converging to a single point of energy. This is a feature of this DWSL which sharply distinguishes it from a conventional DWSL generated using a single laser to drive it. Furthermore, an exciton effect is incorporated with the above noninteracting problem, so that exciton dressed states are formed. It is found that this effect gives rise to more involved quasi-energy structures and a more pronounced release of the energy degeneracy of DL, leading again to the formation of a band structure in the absorption

  20. Far-infrared emission from dusty ellipticals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Duncan; Knapp, Jill

    1990-01-01

    The incidence of dust lanes in elliptical galaxies has been estimated at approx. 40 percent by Sadler and Gerhard (1985), although the observed fraction is lower because of inclination effects. A similar percentage of ellipticals has been detected by the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) at 100 microns (Knapp et al. 1989); these have far-infrared colors expected for emission from cool dust (S sub 60 micron/S sub 100 micron approx. 1/3). For the far-infrared detected galaxies, neither L sub 100 microns/L sub B nor L sub 60 microns/L sub 100 microns are very dependent on dust content, suggesting that the source of the infrared luminosity is the same in both cases; and hence that dust is responsible even when not detected optically. Despite this indication, L sub 100 microns does not prove to be a good indicator of the quantity of cool interstellar matter in elliptical galaxies, as measured by the mass of neutral hydrogen. There even exist several examples of ellipticals with dust, strong 100 micron flux density and sensitive limits on HI mass (Walsh et al. in preparation). Chief reasons for the lack of correlation include the existence of other important sources of far-IR power in ellipticals, such as nonthermal continuum emission extending from longer wavelengths in flat spectrum radio sources (Golombek, Miley and Neugebauer 1988); and the fact that far-infrared luminosity per unit dust mass is extremely sensitive to the temperature of the ambient radiation field, which is not accurately known. In addition to having their appearance distorted by dust, several ellipticals also show such features as shells, box-shaped isophotes or inner disks. These may be signatures of past mergers, which could also add to the ISM content of the system.

  1. Generating Tunable Far-Infrared Laser Sidebands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, H. M.; Farhoomand, J.

    1986-01-01

    New tunable source extends infrared spectroscopy into far infrared wavelengths. Frequency-Tunable far-infrared radiation produced by mixing of fixed-frequency far-infrared laser beam with output of frequency-tunable klystron. By sweeping klystron frequency in synchronism with video display of detector output, one obtains direct presentation of absorption-cell spectrum. Immediate applications are local oscillator for heterodyne systems and tunable source for spectroscopy.

  2. Tunable Far Infrared Studies in Support of Stratospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance Kelly; Park, K.; Nolt, I. G.; Evenson, K. M.

    1998-01-01

    The research performed during this reporting period has been a collaboration between institutions including the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the University of Oregon, and the NASA Langley Research Center. The program has included fully line-resolved measurements of submillimeter and far infrared spectroscopic line parameters (pressure broadening coefficients and their temperature dependences, and fine positions) for the analysis of field measurements of stratospheric constituents, far infrared database improvements, and studies for improved satellite measurements of the Earth's atmosphere. This research program is designed to enable the full utilization of spectra obtained in far infrared/submillimeter field measurements, such as FIRS-2, FILOS, IBEX, SLS, EosMLS, and proposed NASA and European Space Agency measurements of ClO and OH (e.g., PIRAMHYD) for the retrieval of accurate stratospheric altitude profiles of key trace gases involved in ozone layer photochemistry.

  3. Electric field-assisted metal insulator transition in vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films: optical switching behavior and anomalous far-infrared emissivity variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crunteanu, Aurelian; Fabert, Marc; Cornette, Julie; Colas, Maggy; Orlianges, Jean-Christophe; Bessaudou, Annie; Cosset, Françoise

    2014-03-01

    We present the vanadium dioxide (VO2) thin films deposition using e-beam evaporation of a vanadium target under oxygen atmosphere on different substrates (sapphire, Si, SiO2/Si…) and we focus on their electrical and optical properties variations as the material undergoes a metal-insulator transition under thermal and electrical stimuli. The phase transition induces extremely abrupt changes in the electronic and optical properties of the material: the electrical resistivity increases up to 5 orders of magnitude while the optical properties (transmission, reflection, refractive index) are drastically modified. We present the integration of these films in simple planar optical devices and we demonstrate electrical-activated optical modulators for visible-infrared signals with high discrimination between the two states. We will highlight a peculiar behavior of the VO2 material in the infrared and far infrared regions (2- 20 μm), namely its anomalous emissivity change under thermal- end electrical activation (negative differential emittance phenomenon) with potential applications in active coatings for thermal regulation, optical limiting or camouflage coatings.

  4. Stokes, the Chicago far-infrared polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, S. R.; Dotson, J. L.; Dowell, C. Darren; Hildebrand, Roger H.; Schleuning, D.; Novak, Giles

    1995-01-01

    The far-infrared polarimeter, Stokes, has produced hundreds of measurements of the polarized emission from Galactic clouds. This paper gives examples of the results and describes the design and performance of the instrument.

  5. Atmospheric and spectroscopic research in the far infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Kwangjai; Radostitz, James V.

    1992-01-01

    The University of Oregon (UO) has been a major participant in the development of far infrared spectroscopic research of the stratosphere for the purpose of understanding the ozone layer processes. The UO has had a 15-year collaboration with the Italian group of B. Carli, and have participated in the 1978/79 Sub-millimeter Infrared Balloon Experiment (SIBEX), in the Balloon Intercomparison Campaign, (BIC), in the Infrared Balloon Experiment (IBEX), and in the recently concluded Far Infrared Experiment for UARS Correlative Measurements (FIREX). Both IBEX and FIREX programs were conducted in collaboration with NASA Langley, and were designed as validation flights in support of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) Program. The technique of atmospheric far infrared spectroscopy offers two important advantages. First, many chemically important species can be measured simultaneously and co-spatially in the atmosphere. Second, far infrared atmospheric spectra can be obtained in thermal emission without reference to the sun's position, enabling full diurnal and global coverage. Recent improvements in instrumentation, field measurements, and molecular concentration retrieval techniques are now making the far infrared a mature measurement technology. This work to date has largely focused on balloon-based studies, but the future efforts will focus also on satellite-based experiments. A program of research in the following general areas was proposed: Laboratory Pressure broadening coefficient studies; specialized detector system assembly and testing; and consultation and assistance with instrument and field support. The proposal was approved and a three-year research grant titled 'Atmospheric and Spectroscopic Research in the Far Infrared' was awarded. A summary of technical accomplishments attained during the grant period are presented.

  6. Far infrared supplement: Catalog of infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, D. Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Far Infrared Supplement: catalog of infrared observations summarizes all infrared astronomical observations at far infrared wavelengths published in the scientific literature between 1965 and 1982. The Supplement list contains 25% of the observations in the full catalog of infrared observations (C10), and essentially eliminates most visible stars from the listings. The Supplement is more compact than the main Catalog (it does not contain the bibliography and position index of the C10), and is intended for easy reference during astronomical observations.

  7. Far-infrared cameras for automotive safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonnoy, Jacques; Le Guilloux, Yann; Moreira, Raphael

    2005-02-01

    Far Infrared cameras used initially for the driving of military vehicles are slowly coming into the area of commercial (luxury) cars while providing with the FIR imagery a useful assistance for driving at night or in adverse conditions (fog, smoke, ...). However this imagery needs a minimum driver effort as the image understanding is not so natural as the visible or near IR one. A developing field of FIR cameras is ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) where FIR processed imagery fused with other sensors data (radar, ...) is providing a driver warning when dangerous situations are occurring. The communication will concentrate on FIR processed imagery for object or obstacles detection on the road or near the road. FIR imagery highlighting hot spots is a powerful detection tool as it provides a good contrast on some of the most common elements of the road scenery (engines, wheels, gas exhaust pipes, pedestrians, 2 wheelers, animals,...). Moreover FIR algorithms are much more robust than visible ones as there is less variability in image contrast with time (day/night, shadows, ...). We based our detection algorithm on one side on the peculiar aspect of vehicles, pedestrians in FIR images and on the other side on the analysis of motion along time, that allows anticipation of future motion. We will show results obtained with FIR processed imagery within the PAROTO project, supported by the French Ministry of Research, that ended in spring 04.

  8. Far-infrared embedding impedance measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neikirk, D. P.; Rutledge, D. B.

    1984-01-01

    A technique which allows the measurement of detector embedding impedance has been developed. By using a bismuth microbolometer as a variable resistance load the impedance of one element in a bow-tie antenna array operating at 94 GHz was inferred. The technique is frequency insensitive, and could be used throughout the far-infrared.

  9. Far-infrared imaging antenna arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neikirk, D. P.; Rutledge, D. B.; Muha, M. S.; Park, H.; Yu, C.-X.

    1982-01-01

    A far-infrared monolithic imaging antenna array with diffraction-limited resolution has been demonstrated. The optical system is similar to an oil-immersion microscope, except that the position of the object and the image are interchanged. The array is a series of evaporated silver bow-tie antennas of 75 nm thick, spaced at 310 microns, on a fused-quartz substrate; the bow angle of 60 deg gives an impedance of 150 ohm to match to bismuth microbolometers. The measured responsivity of the array elements is 1-2 V/W at the relatively low bias of 1 mA. Previous measurements have shown that the bolometers are 1/f noise limited up to 100 kHz and that they have a frequency response of 5 MHz. The antenna array should be adequate for far-infrared plasma interferometer measurements.

  10. Far-infrared activity and starburst galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belfort, P.; Mochkovitch, R.; Dennefeld, M.

    1987-01-01

    After the IRAS discovery of galaxies with large far-infrared to blue luminosity ratio, it has been proposed that an enhanced star formation could be the origin of the far-infrared emission through dust heating. Whether a simple photometric model is able to account for the FIR and optical properties of IRAS galaxies was investigated. The L sub IR/L sub B ratio, (B-V) color and H sub alpha equivalent width of normal spirals are well reproduced with smooth star formation histories. In the case of starburst galaxies, several theoretical diagrams allow us to estimate the burst strength and extinction. L sub IR/L sub B ratio up to 100 can be rather easily reached, whereas extreme values probably require IMF truncated at the low end.

  11. The Berkeley tunable far infrared laser spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, G. A.; Laughlin, K. B.; Cohen, R. C.; Busarow, K. L.; Gwo, D.-H.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed description is presented for a tunable far infrared laser spectrometer based on frequency mixing of an optically pumped molecular gas laser with tunable microwave radiation in a Schottky point contact diode. The system has been operated on over 30 laser lines in the range 10-100/cm and exhibits a maximum absorption sensitivity near one part in a million. Each laser line can be tuned by + or - 110 GHz with first-order sidebands.

  12. Far infrared all-sky survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Paul L.

    1991-01-01

    An all-sky survey at submillimeter waves is examined. Far-infrared all-sky surveys were performed using high-thoroughput bolometric detectors from a one-meter balloon telescope. Based on the large-bodied experience obtained with the original all-sky survey telescope, a number of radically different approaches were implemented. Continued balloon measurements of the spectrum of the cosmic microwave background were performed.

  13. Atmospheric and Spectroscopic Research in the Far Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Kwangjai

    2001-01-01

    The University of Oregon (UO) was a participant in a number of far infrared spectroscopic projects over the past three decades. These include Sub-millimeter Infrared Balloon Experiment (SIBEX), the Balloon Intercomparison Campaign (BIC), and the Infrared Balloon Experiment (IBEX). In addition to these field studies, the UO program contained a detector research component and a laboratory spectroscopy element. Through a productive collaboration with Dr. Carli's group in Italy, with Prof. Ade's group in England and with Dr. Chance of Harvard-Smithsonian, we have made substantial contributions to the development of far infrared spectroscopy as a mature measurement technology for the atmospheric science. This report summarizes the activities during the latest grant period, covering the span from February 22, 1998 to February 21, 2002.

  14. Optical-faint, Far-infrared-bright Herschel Sources in the CANDELS Fields: Ultra-luminous Infrared Galaxies at z > 1 and the Effect of Source Blending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Haojing; Stefanon, Mauro; Ma, Zhiyuan; Willner, S. P.; Somerville, Rachel; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Davé, Romeel; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Cava, Antonio; Wiklind, Tommy; Kocevski, Dale; Rafelski, Marc; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Cooray, Asantha; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman A.

    2014-07-01

    The Herschel very wide field surveys have charted hundreds of square degrees in multiple far-IR (FIR) bands. While the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is currently the best resource for optical counterpart identifications over such wide areas, it does not detect a large number of Herschel FIR sources and leaves their nature undetermined. As a test case, we studied seven "SDSS-invisible," very bright 250 μm sources (S 250 > 55 mJy) in the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey fields where we have a rich multi-wavelength data set. We took a new approach to decompose the FIR sources, using the near-IR or the optical images directly for position priors. This is an improvement over the previous decomposition efforts where the priors are from mid-IR data that still suffer from the problem of source blending. We found that in most cases the single Herschel sources are made of multiple components that are not necessarily at the same redshifts. Our decomposition succeeded in identifying and extracting their major contributors. We show that these are all ultra-luminous infrared galaxies at z ~ 1-2 whose high L IR is mainly due to dust-obscured star formation. Most of them would not be selected as submillimeter galaxies. They all have complicated morphologies indicative of mergers or violent instability, and their stellar populations are heterogeneous in terms of stellar masses, ages, and formation histories. Their current ultra-luminous infrared galaxy phases are of various degrees of importance in their stellar mass assembly. Our practice provides a promising starting point for developing an automatic routine to reliably study bright Herschel sources.

  15. OPTICAL-FAINT, FAR-INFRARED-BRIGHT HERSCHEL SOURCES IN THE CANDELS FIELDS: ULTRA-LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES AT z > 1 AND THE EFFECT OF SOURCE BLENDING

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Haojing; Stefanon, Mauro; Ma, Zhiyuan; Willner, S. P.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Somerville, Rachel; Davé, Romeel; Pérez-González, Pablo G.; Cava, Antonio; Wiklind, Tommy; Kocevski, Dale; Rafelski, Marc; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Cooray, Asantha; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman A.

    2014-07-01

    The Herschel very wide field surveys have charted hundreds of square degrees in multiple far-IR (FIR) bands. While the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is currently the best resource for optical counterpart identifications over such wide areas, it does not detect a large number of Herschel FIR sources and leaves their nature undetermined. As a test case, we studied seven ''SDSS-invisible'', very bright 250 μm sources (S {sub 250} > 55 mJy) in the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey fields where we have a rich multi-wavelength data set. We took a new approach to decompose the FIR sources, using the near-IR or the optical images directly for position priors. This is an improvement over the previous decomposition efforts where the priors are from mid-IR data that still suffer from the problem of source blending. We found that in most cases the single Herschel sources are made of multiple components that are not necessarily at the same redshifts. Our decomposition succeeded in identifying and extracting their major contributors. We show that these are all ultra-luminous infrared galaxies at z ∼ 1-2 whose high L {sub IR} is mainly due to dust-obscured star formation. Most of them would not be selected as submillimeter galaxies. They all have complicated morphologies indicative of mergers or violent instability, and their stellar populations are heterogeneous in terms of stellar masses, ages, and formation histories. Their current ultra-luminous infrared galaxy phases are of various degrees of importance in their stellar mass assembly. Our practice provides a promising starting point for developing an automatic routine to reliably study bright Herschel sources.

  16. The composite nature of Dust-Obscured Galaxies (DOGs) at z ˜ 2-3 in the COSMOS field - I. A far-infrared view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riguccini, L.; Le Floc'h, E.; Mullaney, J. R.; Menéndez-Delmestre, K.; Aussel, H.; Berta, S.; Calanog, J.; Capak, P.; Cooray, A.; Ilbert, O.; Kartaltepe, J.; Koekemoer, A.; Lutz, D.; Magnelli, B.; McCracken, H.; Oliver, S.; Roseboom, I.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D.; Scoville, N.; Taniguchi, Y.; Treister, E.

    2015-09-01

    Dust-Obscured Galaxies (DOGs) are bright 24 μm-selected sources with extreme obscuration at optical wavelengths. They are typically characterized by a rising power-law continuum of hot dust (TD ˜ 200-1000 K) in the near-IR indicating that their mid-IR luminosity is dominated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). DOGs with a fainter 24 μm flux display a stellar bump in the near-IR and their mid-IR luminosity appears to be mainly powered by dusty star formation. Alternatively, it may be that the mid-IR emission arising from AGN activity is dominant but the torus is sufficiently opaque to make the near-IR emission from the AGN negligible with respect to the emission from the host component. In an effort to characterize the astrophysical nature of the processes responsible for the IR emission in DOGs, this paper exploits Herschel data (PACS + SPIRE) on a sample of 95 DOGs within the COSMOS field. We derive a wealth of far-IR properties (e.g. total IR luminosities; mid-to-far-IR colours; dust temperatures and masses) based on spectral energy distribution fitting. Of particular interest are the 24 μm-bright DOGs (F24 μm > 1 mJy). They present bluer far-IR/mid-IR colours than the rest of the sample, unveiling the potential presence of an AGN. The AGN contribution to the total 8-1000 μm flux increases as a function of the rest-frame 8 μm-luminosity irrespective of the redshift. This confirms that faint DOGs (L8 μm < 1012 L⊙) are dominated by star formation while brighter DOGs show a larger contribution from an AGN.

  17. Far-infrared spectra of acetanilide revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spire, A.; Barthes, M.; Kellouai, H.; De Nunzio, G.

    2000-03-01

    A new investigation of the temperature dependence of the far-infrared spectra of acetanilide and some isotopomers is presented. Four absorption bands are considered at 31, 42, 64, and 80 cm-1, and no significant change of their integrated intensity is observed when reducing the temperature. The temperature induced frequency shift values and other properties of these bands are consistent with an assignment as anharmonic lattice phonons. These results rule out the assignment of the 64, 80, and 106 cm-1 bands as normal modes of the polaronic excitation, as previously suggested.

  18. Far-infrared kinetic-inductance detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, E.N.; McDonald, D.G.; Sauvageau, J.E. )

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports on extremely sensitive far-infrared detectors suitable for both direct detection and heterodyn applications based upon {mu}m-sized thin films with thickness less than a superconducting penetration depth. The penetration depth of such a film, and therefore its inductance, varies with temperature and with quasiparticle population (described by an effective temperature T*), resulting in both bolometric and non-equilibrium Photoinductive responses. Incident radiation is coupled into the small-area kinetic inductor by a lithographic antenna, and the resulting inductance changes are amplified and converted to a voltage signal by an integrated microstrip DC SQUID.

  19. New techniques for far-infrared filters.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, K. R.; Low, F. J.

    1973-01-01

    The techniques considered make it possible to construct high performance low-pass wide-band, and medium-band filters at wavelengths in the range from 25 to 300 micrometers. Short wavelength rejection without appreciable loss at long wavelengths is achieved by means of small particle scattering. Spectral definition in the far infrared is obtained by cooling one or more crystalline materials to liquid-He or liquid-nitrogen temperatures. The problem of reflection losses at the various surfaces is solved by a new antireflection coating technique.

  20. Extremely Luminous Far-infrared Sources (ELFS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwit, Martin; Houck, James R.; Soifer, B. Thomas; Palumbo, Giorgio G. C.

    1987-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) survey uncovered a class of Extremely Luminous Far Infrared Sources (ELFS), exhibiting luminosities up to and occasionally exceeding 10 to the 12th power L sub 0. Arguments are presented to show that sources with luminosities L equal to or greater than 3 x 10 to the 10th power L sub 0 may represent gas rich galaxies in collision. The more conventional explanation of these sources as sites of extremely active star formation fails to explain the observed low optical luminosities of ELFS as well as their high infrared excess. In contrast, a collisional model heats gas to a temperature of approx. 10 to the 6th power K where cooling takes place in the extreme ultraviolet. The UV is absorbed by dust and converted into far infrared radiation (FIR) without generation of appreciable optical luminosity. Gas recombination as it cools generates a Lyman alpha photon only once for every two extreme ultraviolet approx. 50eV photons emitted by the 10 to the 6th power gas. That accounts for the high infrared excess. Finally, the model also is able to explain the observed luminosity distribution of ELFS as well as many other traits.

  1. The far-infrared polarization of the Orion nebula

    SciTech Connect

    Gonatas, D.P.; Engargiola, G.A.; Hildebrand, R.H.; Platt, S.R.; Wu, X.D.; Davidson, J.A. NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA )

    1990-07-01

    Polarization of the 100 micron thermal emission from 10 points in the Orion nebula has been measured. At one of the positions the degree, 5.7 percent, is the largest far-infrared polarization yet discovered. Except at a position in the barlike structure to the south, the position angles of the polarization vectors are well-ordered, suggesting that a uniform magnetic field threads the cloud. The magnetic field strength is estimated to be between 0.7 and 4 mG. The relationship of the degrees of polarization to the physical conditions in the cloud is discussed. 34 refs.

  2. The far-infrared polarization of the Orion nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonatas, D. P.; Engargiola, G. A.; Hildebrand, R. H.; Platt, S. R.; Wu, X. D.; Davidson, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    Polarization of the 100 micron thermal emission from 10 points in the Orion nebula has been measured. At one of the positions the degree, 5.7 percent, is the largest far-infrared polarization yet discovered. Except at a position in the barlike structure to the south, the position angles of the polarization vectors are well-ordered, suggesting that a uniform magnetic field threads the cloud. The magnetic field strength is estimated to be between 0.7 and 4 mG. The relationship of the degrees of polarization to the physical conditions in the cloud is discussed.

  3. Generating Far-Infrared Radiation By Two-Wave Mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borenstain, Shmuel

    1992-01-01

    Far-infrared radiation 1 to 6 GHz generated by two-wave mixing in asymmetrically grown GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs multiple-quantum-well devices. Two near-infrared semiconductor diode lasers phase-locked. Outputs amplified, then combined in semiconductor nonlinear multiple-quantum-well planar waveguide. Necessary to optimize design of device with respect to three factors: high degree of confinement of electromagnetic field in nonlinear medium to maximize power density, phase matching to extend length of zone of interaction between laser beams in non-linear medium, and nonlinear susceptibility. Devices used as tunable local oscillators in heterodyne-detection radiometers.

  4. Two color far infrared laser interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahata, K.; Akiyama, T.; Pavlichenko, R.; Tanaka, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Ito, Y.; Okajima, S.; Nakayama, K.; Wood, K.

    2006-10-15

    Two color interferometer using a short wavelength far infrared laser has been developed for high performance plasmas on large helical device and for future fusion devices such as ITER. High power laser lines simultaneously oscillating at 57.2 and 47.6 {mu}m were achieved in a CO{sub 2}-laser-pumped CH{sub 3}OD laser. By introducing Ge:Ga photoconductive detectors operating at liquid He temperature, we have successfully detected two color beat signals (0.55 and 1.2 MHz) with excellent signal-to-noise ratio ({approx}40 dB). These beat signals were fed into phase comparators for phase measurement after passing through intermediate frequency bandpass filters. Two color far infraned laser interferometer work was successful in the demonstration of mechanical vibration compensation.

  5. Far-Infrared Heterodyne Spectrometer for SOFIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, A. L.; Boreiko, R. T.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes work done under NASA Grant NAG2-1062 awarded to the University of Colorado. The project goal was to evaluate the scientific capabilities and technical requirements for a far-infrared heterodyne spectrometer suitable for the SOFIA Airborne Observatory, which is now being developed by NASA under contract to the Universities Space Research Association (USRA). The conclusions detailed below include our specific recommendations for astronomical observations, as well as our intended technical approach for reaching these scientific goals. These conclusions were presented to USRA in the form of a proposal to build this instrument. USRA subsequently awarded the University of Colorado a 3-year grant (USRA 8500-98-010) to develop the proposed Hot-Electron micro-Bolometer (HEB) mixer concept for high frequencies above 3 THz, as well as other semiconductor mixer technologies suitable for high sensitivity receivers in the 2-6 THz frequency band.

  6. Far-Infrared Heterodyne Spectrometer for Sofia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Betz, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    The project goal was to evaluate the scientific capabilities and technical requirements for a far-infrared heterodyne spectrometer suitable for the SOFIA Airborne Observatory, which is now being developed by NASA under contract to the Universities Space Research Association (USRA). The conclusions detailed below include our specific recommendations for astronomical observations, as well as our intended technical approach for reaching these scientific goals. These conclusions were presented to USRA in the form of a proposal to build this instrument. USRA subsequently awarded the University of Colorado a 3-year grant to develop the proposed Hot-Electron micro-Bolometer (HEB) mixer concept for high frequencies above 3 THz, as well as other semiconductor mixer technologies suitable for high sensitivity receivers in the 2-6 THz frequency band.

  7. NGC 2024: Far-infrared and radio molecular observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, H. A., Jr.; Lada, C. J.; Schwartz, P. R.; Smith, H. A.; Smith, J.; Glaccum, W.; Harper, D. A.; Loewenstein, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    Far infrared continuum and millimeter wave molecular observations are presented for the infrared and radio source NGC 2024. The measurements are obtained at relatively high angular resolution, enabling a description of the source energetics and mass distribution in greater detail than previously reported. The object appears to be dominated by a dense ridge of material, extended in the north/south direction and centered on the dark lane that is seen in visual photographs. Maps of the source using the high density molecules CS and HCN confirm this picture and allow a description of the core structure and molecular abundances. The radio molecular and infrared observations support the idea that an important exciting star in NGC 2024 has yet to be identified and is centered on the dense ridge about 1' south of the bright mid infrared source IRS 2. The data presented here allows a presentation of a model for the source.

  8. Far-infrared detection of low-luminosity star formation in the Bok globule B335

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, J. A.; Harper, D. A.; Pernic, R.; Jaffe, D. T.; Low, F. J.; Keene, J.; Hildebrand, R. H.; Loewenstein, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of far-infrared intensities in the Bok globule B335, made with higher spatial and spectral resolution than two earlier studies, are described. The NASA 3-m Infrared Telescope Facility was used in February 1981 and the Kuiper Airborne Observatory 0.9-m telescope was used in October 1981 and August 1982 for the observations. The far-infrared source in B335 was revealed to be more compact than previously assumed, ruling out the interstellar radiation field as the dominant heat source. The new far-infrared size, luminosity, and temperature derived suggest that these may be the first observations of low-mass star formation embedded deeply within a Bok globule. The far-infrared source does not have a near-infrared or radio continuum counterpart. High angular resolution at submillimeter wavelengths will be critical in further studies of low-mass star formation.

  9. Tunable Far Infrared Studies in Support of Stratospheric Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, Kelly V.; Park, K.; Nolt, I. G.; Evenson, K. M.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes research done under NASA Grant NAG5-4653. The research performed under this grant has been a collaboration between institutions including the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the University of Oregon, and the NASA Langley Research Center. The program has included fully line-resolved measurements of submillimeter and far infrared spectroscopic line parameters (pressure broadening coefficients and their temperature dependences, and line positions) for the analysis of field measurements of stratospheric constituents, far infrared database improvements, and studies for improved satellite measurements of the Earth's atmosphere. This research program is designed to enable the full utilization of spectra obtained in far infrared/submillimeter field measurements, such as FIRS-2, FILOS, IBEX, SLS, EosMLS, and proposed European Space Agency measurements of OH (e.g., PIRAMHYD and SFINX) for the retrieval of accurate stratospheric altitude profiles of key trace gases involved in ozone layer photochemistry. For the analysis of the spectra obtained in the stratosphere from far infrared measurements it is necessary to have accurate values of the molecular parameters (line positions, strengths, and pressure broadening coefficients) for the measured molecules and for possible interfering species. Knowledge of line positions is in increasingly good shape, with some notable exceptions. The increase in position information includes research that has been performed in the present program of research on HO2, H2O, H2O2, O3, HCl, HF, HBr, HI, CO, OH, and ClO. Examples where further line position studies are necessary include hot band and minor isotopomer lines of some of the major trace species (H2O, O3) and normal lines of some triatomic and larger molecules (NO2). Knowledge of strengths is in generally good shape, since most of the lines are from electric dipole transitions whose intensities are well

  10. Two instruments for far-infrared astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Bonomo, J.L.

    1983-05-01

    Two instruments for far-infrared astrophysics are described. The first is a broad-band photometer used on White Mountain for astronomical observations from 10 to 30 cm/sup -1/ (300 GHz to 1 THz; lambda, 1 mm to 330 ..mu..). The optical system of the telescope includes a light-weight, high-speed, chopping secondary. The L /sup 4/He-cooled photometer uses low-pass filters and a L/sup 3/He-cooled, composite bolometer. The system performance is evaluated, and the site is compared to other possible platforms. The second project is a balloon-borne spectroradiometer to measure the cosmic background radiation from 3 to 10 cm/sup -1/ (100 GHz to 300 GHz; lambda, 3 mm to 1 mm). The apparatus has five band-pass filters with excellent rejection at higher frequencies, a low-noise chopper, and an internal calibrator. We describe the design and use of calibrators for such an experiment and develop a model of calibration procedures. The calibrations of several reported measurements are analyzed with this model, and flaws are found in one procedure. Finally, the system performance is used to estimate the accuracy this experiment can achieve.

  11. The AKARI Far-Infrared Surveyor young stellar object catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, L. Viktor; Marton, Gábor; Zahorecz, Sarolta; Balázs, Lajos G.; Ueno, Munetaka; Tamura, Motohide; Kawamura, Akiko; Kiss, Zoltán T.; Kitamura, Yoshimi

    2014-02-01

    We demonstrate the use of the AKARI all-sky survey photometric data in the study of galactic star formation. Our aim was to select young stellar objects (YSOs) in the AKARI Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS) Bright Source Catalogue. We used AKARI/FIS and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data to derive mid- and far-infrared colors of YSOs. Classification schemes based on quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) have been given for YSOs and the training catalog for QDA was the whole-sky selection of previously known YSOs (i.e., listed in the SIMBAD database). A new catalog of AKARI FIS YSO candidates including 44001 sources has been prepared; the reliability of the classification is over 90%, as tested in comparison to known YSOs. As much as 76% of our YSO candidates are from previously uncatalogued types. The vast majority of these sources are Class I and II types according to the Lada classification. The distribution of AKARI FIS YSOs is well correlated with that of the galactic ISM; local over-densities were found on infrared loops and towards the cold clumps detected by Planck.

  12. Measurements of neutral constituents using far infrared remote sensing techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carli, B.; Harries, J. E.

    1985-06-01

    Since 1977 much progress has occured both in the direction of improvements in experimental measurement from balloons and in the area of theoretical studies of the far infrared spectrum. Recent experimental results of balloon measurements are discussed as is theoretical calculations and spectroscopic data of the far infrared spectrum. A dictorial representation of the far infrared spectrum of a selection of stratospheric constituents is presented and analyzed.

  13. Far infrared supplement: Catalog of infrared observations, second edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, Daniel Y.; Schmitz, Marion; Mead, Jaylee M.

    1988-01-01

    The Far Infrared Supplement: Catalog of Infrared Observations summarizes all infrared astronomical observations at far infrared wavelengths (5 to 1000 microns) published in the scientific literature from 1965 through 1986. The Supplement list contain 25 percent of the observations in the full Catalog of Infrared Observations (CIO), and essentially eliminates most visible stars from the listings. The Supplement is thus more compact than the main catalog, and is intended for easy reference during astronomical observations. The Far Infrared Supplement (2nd Edition) includes the Index of Infrared Source Positions and the Bibliography of Infrared Astronomy for the subset of far infrared observations listed.

  14. Nebular properties from far-infrared spectrosopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Robert H.; Simpson, Janet P.; Lord, Steven D.; Colgan, Sean W. J.; Erickson, Edwin F.; Haas, Michael R.

    1994-01-01

    We describe a semiempirical methodology-based on measurements of far-infrared (FIR) lines-that yields information on electron densities in regions where various ionic species exist, effective temperatures (T(sub eff)) for stars ionizing H II regions, and gas-phase heavy element abundances. Although this capability has long been available via optical data, the special features of FIR lines-relative insensitivity to extinction and electron temperature variations-extend the analysis ability. Several line ratios serve as diagnostics of electron density, N(sub e), probing different ionization conditions and different density regimes. The more N(sub e)-diagnostic observations made, the more reliable will be the deciphering of the actual variation in density throughout a nebula. A method to estimate T(sub eff) from the FIR (N III)/(N II) line ratio requires that the nebula be ionization bounded and that substantially all of the flux from the revevant lines be observed. However, to estimate T(sub eff) by a second method that uses the ratio of FIR (S III)/(O III) lines, an ionization-bounded nebula is a sufficient, but not necessary, condition. These restrictions are unnecessary for estimating densities and heavy element abundances. We show that a fairly general determination of metallicity, via the S/H ratio, may be made for H II regions with observations of just two lines-(S III) 19 micron and a hydrogen recombination line (or appropriate substitute). These techniques are applied to recent FIR data for the G333.6-0.2 H II region, including application to the recently measured (N II) 122 and 205 micron lines.

  15. Development of far infrared detection techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, George

    1993-01-01

    This grant supports the development of a variety of advanced far infrared detection techniques that will be used in future NASA missions such as the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). These studies span the wavelength region of 30-200 microns and include development of focal planes and electronics that would utilize them. Efforts reported here represent collaborations among the University of Arizona's Steward Observatory; Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories (LBL); and the University of California at Berkeley. The overall goal of this program is to demonstrate extremely high performance detectors for low background applications between 30-200 microns. For the 40-120 micron region, the program is developing a 32x32 filled detector array. Previous work has demonstrated the required performance with a Z-Plane array architecture; we are now upgrading construction facilities and techniques to increase yields and reliability. We have completed the initial tradeoff analysis for the interconnects between the detectors and and readouts. We found satisfactory performance for both Flex-Cable and Tape Automated Bonding (TAB) devices, but analysis showed that an all-sapphire device would not meet our requirements. In addition, the effort continued to develop readouts that can operate close to the detector element temperature; success would substantially improve the manufacturability of the arrays. For the 100-200 micron range, previous work has demonstrated good performance with individual detector elements of stressed Ge:Ga; current efforts are to increase the quantum efficiency of these devices. Work continues to discover how to construct an alternate type of long wave detector, Ge:B Blocked Impurity Band devices. Following descoping of SIRTF, we are closing out the bolometer and refrigerator development. We documented the optical designs and approaches developed previously to meet the specific requirements of these detector types in terms of modulation of the signals for

  16. Manifestation of the Hofstadter butterfly in far-infrared absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Gudmundsson, V.; Gerhardts, R.R.

    1996-08-01

    The far-infrared absorption of a two-dimensional electron gas with a square-lattice modulation in a perpendicular constant magnetic field is calculated self-consistently within the Hartree approximation. For strong modulation and short period we obtain intrasubband and intersubband magnetoplasmon modes reflecting the subbands of the Hofstadter butterfly in two or more Landau bands. The character of the absorption and the correlation of the peaks to the number of flux quanta through each unit cell of the periodic potential depends strongly on the location of the chemical potential with respect to the subbands, or equivalently, on the density of electrons in the system. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  17. The far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere (FIRST) project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynczak, M. G.; Johnson, D. G.; Bingham, G. E.; Jucks, K. W.; Traub, W. A.; Gordley, L.; Yang, P.

    2005-01-01

    The far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere (FIRST) project is under development by NASA through its Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) administered by the Earth Science Technology Office. The objective of the FIRST project is to develop and demonstrate the technology needed to routinely observe from space the far-infrared spectrum between 15 and 100 micrometers in wavelength. This spectral region contains about half of the outgoing longwave radiation from the Earth and its atmosphere and is responsible for about half of the natural greenhouse effect. Radiative cooling of the free troposphere occurs almost exclusively in the far-infrared. The far-infrared emission is modulated almost entirely by water vapor, the main greenhouse gas. Cirrus clouds exhibit significant climate forcing in the far-infrared. Despite this fundamental science, the far-infrared has remained almost unobserved directly, primarily due to technological limitations. The FIRST project is advancing technology in the areas of high throughput interferometers, broad bandpass beamsplitters, and detector focal planes to enable routine measurement of the far-infrared from space. FIRST will conduct a technology demonstration on a high altitude balloon platform in Spring 2005.

  18. Far-infrared spectroscopy of neutral interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    A summary is presented of airborne observations of the far-infrared fine structure lines of neutral atomic oxygen and singly-ionized carbon, and of the far-infrared rotational lines of CO, OH, NH3 and HD, together with a brief description of the analysis and interpretation of the spectra. The 'state of the art' in instrument performance and the prospects for improved sensitivity and resolution are also surveyed.

  19. Novel far-infrared detectors for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, A. G. Unil; Shen, W. Z.; Liu, Hui C.; Buchanan, Margaret; Schaff, William J.

    1999-04-01

    The recent development of p-GaAs homojunction interfacial workfunction internal photoemission (HIWIP) far-infrared (> 40 micrometers ) detectors for space application is reported. The emphasis is placed on the detector performance, which includes responsivity, quantum efficiency, bias effects, cutoff wavelength, uniformity, crosstalk, and noise. The results are promising and show that p-GaAs HIWIP detectors have high potential to become a strong competitor in far- infrared space applications.

  20. Polarization of far-infrared radiation from molecular clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, G.; Gonatas, D.P.; Hildebrand, R.H.; Platt, S.R.; Dragovan, M. AT T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ )

    1989-10-01

    The paper reports measurements of the polarization of far-infrared emission from dust in nine molecular clouds. Detections were obtained in Mon R2, in the Kleinmann-Low (KL) nebula in Orion, and in Sgr A. Upper limits were set for six other clouds. A comparison of the 100 micron polarization of KL with that previously measured at 270 microns provides new evidence that the polarization is due to emission from magnetically aligned dust grains. Comparing the results for Orion with measurements at optical wavelengths, it is inferred that the magnetic field direction in the outer parts of the Orion cloud is the same as that in the dense core. This direction is nearly perpendicular to the ridge of molecular emission and is parallel to both the molecular outflow in KL and the axis of rotation of the cloud core. In Mon R2, the field direction which the measurements imply does not agree withthat derived from 0.9-2.2 micron polarimetry. The discrepancy is attributed to scattering in the near-infrared. In Orion and Sgr A, where comparisons are possible, the measurements are in good agreement with 10 micron polarization measurements. 55 refs.

  1. Polarization of far-infrared radiation from molecular clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novak, G.; Gonatas, D. P.; Hildebrand, R. H.; Platt, S. R.; Dragovan, M.

    1989-01-01

    The paper reports measurements of the polarization of far-infrared emission from dust in nine molecular clouds. Detections were obtained in Mon R2, in the Kleinmann-Low (KL) nebula in Orion, and in Sgr A. Upper limits were set for six other clouds. A comparison of the 100 micron polarization of KL with that previously measured at 270 microns provides new evidence that the polarization is due to emission from magnetically aligned dust grains. Comparing the results for Orion with measurements at optical wavelengths, it is inferred that the magnetic field direction in the outer parts of the Orion cloud is the same as that in the dense core. This direction is nearly perpendicular to the ridge of molecular emission and is parallel to both the molecular outflow in KL and the axis of rotation of the cloud core. In Mon R2, the field direction which the measurements imply does not agree withthat derived from 0.9-2.2 micron polarimetry. The discrepancy is attributed to scattering in the near-infrared. In Orion and Sgr A, where comparisons are possible, the measurements are in good agreement with 10 micron polarization measurements.

  2. Field Flows of Dark Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Cahn, Robert N.; de Putter, Roland; Linder, Eric V.

    2008-07-08

    Scalar field dark energy evolving from a long radiation- or matter-dominated epoch has characteristic dynamics. While slow-roll approximations are invalid, a well defined field expansion captures the key aspects of the dark energy evolution during much of the matter-dominated epoch. Since this behavior is determined, it is not faithfully represented if priors for dynamical quantities are chosen at random. We demonstrate these features for both thawing and freezing fields, and for some modified gravity models, and unify several special cases in the literature.

  3. Serendipity Observations of Far Infrared Cirrus Emission in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey: Analysis of Far-Infrared Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bot, Caroline; Helou, George; Boulanger, François; Lagache, Guilaine; Miville-Deschenes, Marc-Antoine; Draine, Bruce; Martin, Peter

    2009-04-01

    We present an analysis of far-infrared (FIR) dust emission from diffuse cirrus clouds. This study is based on serendipitous observations at 160 μm at high-galactic latitude with the Multiband Imaging Photometer onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope by the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey. These observations are complemented with IRIS data at 100 and 60 μm and constitute one of the most sensitive and unbiased samples of FIR observations at a small scale of diffuse interstellar clouds. Outside regions dominated by the cosmic infrared background fluctuations, we observe a substantial scatter in the 160/100 colors from cirrus emission. We compared the 160/100 color variations to 60/100 colors in the same fields and find a trend of decreasing 60/100 with increasing 160/100. This trend cannot be accounted for by current dust models by changing solely the interstellar radiation field. It requires a significant change of dust properties such as grain size distribution or emissivity or a mixing of clouds in different physical conditions along the line of sight. These variations are important as a potential confusing foreground for extragalactic studies. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA.

  4. Far infrared emission and portable testing device of fine powders.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinsheng; Meng, Junping; Ding, Yan; Wang, Peipeng; Gan, Kun

    2011-11-01

    In order for industrial and mining enterprises to fast detect the quality of fine mineral powders with far infrared emission, a simple testing model was set up according to the relationship between the emission intensity of powders and their surface temperature. The corresponding testing device was designed and assembled into three parts containing Constant Temperature Heating Part, Temperature Measuring Part and Sample Loading Part. By using the tourmaline mineral powders with far infrared emission as the research object and combining Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the calibration for the testing device was carried out. The results showed that the far infrared emission intensity of the tourmaline powders with different mining area and particle size could be judged. The testing results exhibited correct values when compared with those from FTIR measurements. PMID:22413325

  5. Far-infrared spectra of mesoporous ZnS nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajić, J.; Romčević, M.; Romčević, N.; Babić, B.; Matović, B.; Baláž, P.

    2016-07-01

    ZnS nanoparticles were synthesized mechanochemically by high-energy milling, with three different milling times (5 min, 10 min and 20 min). Nitrogen adsorption method was used for examining specific surface area and texture of obtained powders. It was found that all samples are completely mesoporous. The optical properties were studied by far-infrared spectroscopy at room temperature in spectral region of 50-600 cm-1. The analysis of the far-infrared reflectivity spectra was made by the fitting procedure. The dielectric function of ZnS nanoparticles is modeled as a mixture of homogenous spherical inclusions in air by the Maxwell-Garnet formula. In the analysis of the far-infrared reflection spectra, appearance of combined plasmon-LO phonon modes (CPPMs) with high phonon damping are observed, which causes decrease of coupled plasmon-phonon frequencies.

  6. How WISE Points to Future Far-Infrared Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Wright, E. L.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the tantalizing science that is emerging from the first WISE discoveries, we consider the impact that the future will bring to far-infrared mission concepts. What we've learned from WISE gives us new investigations for missions like SPICA and SPIRIT. We highlight the new results from WISE and incorporate that into the context of the Far-Infrared Community Plan and the recent New Worlds, New Horizons documents. Plain-Language Abstract: Based on tantalizing science emerging from the first WISE discoveries, what we've learned gives us new investigations for missions like SPICA and SPIRIT. We highlight the new results from WISE and incorporate that into the context of the Far-Infrared Community Plan and the recent New Worlds, New Horizons documents.

  7. HERSCHEL FAR-INFRARED AND SUBMILLIMETER PHOTOMETRY FOR THE KINGFISH SAMPLE OF NEARBY GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, D. A.; Aniano, G.; Draine, B. T.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Hinz, J. L.; Montiel, E. J.; Krause, O.; Groves, B. A.; Roussel, H.; Appleton, P. N.; Armus, L.; Beirao, P.; Bolatto, A. D.; Brandl, B. R.; Calzetti, D.; Crocker, A. F.; Croxall, K. V.; Galametz, M.; Gordon, K. D.; Hao, C.-N.; and others

    2012-01-20

    New far-infrared and submillimeter photometry from the Herschel Space Observatory is presented for 61 nearby galaxies from the Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: A Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel (KINGFISH) sample. The spatially integrated fluxes are largely consistent with expectations based on Spitzer far-infrared photometry and extrapolations to longer wavelengths using popular dust emission models. Dwarf irregular galaxies are notable exceptions, as already noted by other authors, as their 500 {mu}m emission shows evidence for a submillimeter excess. In addition, the fraction of dust heating attributed to intense radiation fields associated with photodissociation regions is found to be (21 {+-} 4)% larger when Herschel data are included in the analysis. Dust masses obtained from the dust emission models of Draine and Li are found to be on average nearly a factor of two higher than those based on single-temperature modified blackbodies, as single blackbody curves do not capture the full range of dust temperatures inherent to any galaxy. The discrepancy is largest for galaxies exhibiting the coolest far-infrared colors.

  8. New Concepts for Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Space Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J. (Editor); Leisawitz, David T. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The Second Workshop on New Concepts for Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Space Astronomy aimed to highlight the groundbreaking opportunities available for astronomical investigations in the far-infrared to submillimeter using advanced, space-based telescopes. Held at the University of Maryland on March 7-8, 2002, the Workshop was attended by 130 participants from 50 institutions, and represented scientists and engineers from many countries and with a wide variety of experience. The technical content featured 17 invited talks and 44 contributed posters, complemented by two sixperson panels to address questions of astronomy and technology.

  9. High pressure far infrared spectroscopy of ionic solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowndes, R. P.

    1974-01-01

    A high-pressure far-infrared cell operating at up to truly hydrostatic pressures of 8 kbar is described and used to determine the anharmonic self-energies associated with the transverse optic modes of ionic solids in which q approximately equals zero. The cell allows far-infrared studies in the spectral range below 120 reciprocal cm. The transverse optic modes were investigated to determine their mode Gruneisen constants and the pressure dependence of their inverse lifetimes in RbI, CsI, and TlCl.

  10. Synchrotron-based far-infrared spectroscopy of nickel tungstate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinko, A.; Kuzmin, A.; Roy, P.; Evarestov, R. A.

    2016-07-01

    Monoclinic antiferromagnetic NiWO4 was studied by far-infrared (30-600 cm-1) absorption spectroscopy in the temperature range of 5-300 K using the synchrotron radiation from SOLEIL source. Two isomorphous CoWO4 and ZnWO4 tungstates were investigated for comparison. The phonon contributions in the far-infrared range of tungstates were interpreted using the first-principles spin-polarized linear combination of atomic orbital calculations. No contributions from magnetic excitations were found in NiWO4 and CoWO4 below their Neel temperatures down to 5 K.

  11. Evidence against a simple two-component model for the far-infrared emission from galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eales, Stephen A.; Devereux, Nicholas A.

    1990-01-01

    Two of the first Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) results were that galaxies have a wide range of values for the ratio of 60 micron to 100 micron flux density (0.2 less than or equal to S sub 60/S sub 100 less than or equal to 1.0) and that this ratio is correlated with L sub fir, L sub b, L sub fir being the total far-infrared luminosity and L sub b being the luminosity at visible wavelengths (de Jong et al. 1984; Soifer et al. 1984). From these results arose the following simple model for the far-infrared emission from galaxies (de Jong et al. 1984), which has remained the standard model ever since. In this model, the far-infrared emission comes from two dust components: warm dust (T approx. equals 50 K) intermingled with, and heated by, young massive OB stars in molecular clouds and HII regions, and colder dust (T approx. equals 20 K) associated with the diffuse atomic hydrogen in the interstellar medium and heated by the general interstellar radiation field. As the number of young stars in a galaxy increases, S sub 60/S sub 100 increases, because there is a greater proportion of warm dust, and so does L sub fir/L sub b, because most of the radiation from the young stars is absorbed by the dust, leading to a swifter increase in far-infrared emission than in visible light. Although this model explains the basic IRAS results, it is inelegant. It uses two free parameters to fit two data (the 60 and 100 micron flux densities)-and there are now several observations that contradict it. Despite these major problems with the two-component model, it is not clear what should be put in its place. When considering possible models for the far-infrared emission from galaxies, the observational evidence for our own galaxy must be considered. Researchers suspect that the study by Boulanger and Perault (1988) of the far-infrared properties of the local interstellar medium may be particularly relevant. They showed that molecular clouds are leaky - that most of the light from

  12. Evidence against a simple two-component model for the far-infrared emission from galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eales, Stephen A.; Devereux, Nicholas A.

    1990-07-01

    Two of the first Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) results were that galaxies have a wide range of values for the ratio of 60 micron to 100 micron flux density (0.2 less than or equal to S60/S sub 100 less than or equal to 1.0) and that this ratio is correlated with Lfir, Lb, Lfir being the total far-infrared luminosity and Lb being the luminosity at visible wavelengths (de Jong et al. 1984; Soifer et al. 1984). From these results arose the following simple model for the far-infrared emission from galaxies (de Jong et al. 1984), which has remained the standard model ever since. In this model, the far-infrared emission comes from two dust components: warm dust (T approx. equals 50 K) intermingled with, and heated by, young massive OB stars in molecular clouds and HII regions, and colder dust (T approx. equals 20 K) associated with the diffuse atomic hydrogen in the interstellar medium and heated by the general interstellar radiation field. As the number of young stars in a galaxy increases, S60/S sub 100 increases, because there is a greater proportion of warm dust, and so does Lfir/L sub b, because most of the radiation from the young stars is absorbed by the dust, leading to a swifter increase in far-infrared emission than in visible light. Although this model explains the basic IRAS results, it is inelegant. It uses two free parameters to fit two data (the 60 and 100 micron flux densities)-and there are now several observations that contradict it. Despite these major problems with the two-component model, it is not clear what should be put in its place. When considering possible models for the far-infrared emission from galaxies, the observational evidence for our own galaxy must be considered. Researchers suspect that the study by Boulanger and Perault (1988) of the far-infrared properties of the local interstellar medium may be particularly relevant. They showed that molecular clouds are leaky - that most of the light from OB stars in molecular clouds does

  13. FIRST - The Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratz, D. P.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Johnson, D. G.; Bingham, G. P.; Traub, W. A.; Jucks, K.; Hyde, C. R.; Wellard, S.

    2004-12-01

    FIRST, The Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere project is being developed under NASA's Instrument Incubator Program (IIP). The far-infrared encompasses the relatively unobserved portion of the Earth's emission spectrum between 15 and 100 micrometers in wavelength that controls much of the natural greenhouse effect, water vapor feedback, and cirrus radiative forcing. The objective of FIRST is to develop and demonstrate in a space-like environment the technology necessary to measure the far-infrared portion of the Earth's emission spectrum from an orbiting satellite daily and globally. To achieve this, FIRST is developing a high throughput Fourier Transform Spectrometer and broad bandpass beamsplitters. The FIRST instrument is now built and is undergoing radiometric calibration and characterization in thermal vacuum chambers at the Space Dynamics Laboratory in Logan, Utah. We will present an overview of the science afforded by far-infrared observations, a description of the FIRST instrument, and preliminary results from the FIRST radiometric testing program. The FIRST instrument and associated technologies will be demonstrated in a space-like environment from a high-altitude balloon platform in Spring, 2005, from Ft. Sumner, New Mexico.

  14. Progress in far-infrared spectroscopy: Approximately 1890 to 1970

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuishi, Akiyoshi

    2014-03-01

    The history of far-infrared spectroscopy from its beginning to around 1970 is reviewed. Before World War II, the size of the community investigating this topic was limited. During this period, in particular before 1925, about 90% of the papers were published by H. Rubens and his co-workers in Germany. One or two researchers from the US joined the Rubens group per year from 1890 to the beginning of 1910. During the next year or two, some researchers joined M. Czerny, who is seen as the successor of Rubens. After World War II, far-infrared techniques progressed further in the US, which did not suffer damage during the war. The advanced techniques of far-infrared grating spectroscopy were transferred from the US (R. A. Oetjen) to Japan (H. Yoshinaga). Yoshinaga and his co-workers expanded the techniques by themselves. This paper describes the historical development of far-infrared spectroscopy before Fourier transform spectroscopy became popular around 1970.

  15. Anomalous dispersion and the pumping of far infrared (FIR) lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawandy, N. M.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that the anomalous dispersion at the pump transition in molecular far-infrared lasers (FIR) can lead to sizable focusing and defocusing effects. Criteria for beam spreading and trapping are considered with CH2F as an example.

  16. Cation Far Infrared Vibrational Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, W.; Zhang, J.; Han, F.

    2009-06-01

    The far infrared (FIR) region is crucial for spectroscopic investigations because of the existence of skeletal modes of moderately sized molecules. However, our knowledge of FIR modes is significantly lacking, largely due to the limited availability of light sources and detectors in this spectral region. The technique "pulsed field ionization zero kinetic energy electron spectroscopy" (PFI-ZEKE) is ideal for studies of FIR spectroscopy. This is because the low internal energy of the cation associated with the skeletal modes is particularly beneficial for the stability of the corresponding Rydberg states. In this work, we report our effort in studies of FIR spectroscopy of cationic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Using laser desorption, we can vaporize the non-volatile PAH for gas phase spectroscopy. To ensure the particle density and therefore the critical ion density in prolonging the lifetime of Rydberg electrons, we have used a "chamber-in-a-chamber" design and significantly shortened the distance between the desorption region and the detection region. From our studies of catacondensed PAHs, we have observed the emergence of the flexible waving modes with the increasing length of the molecular ribbon. Pericondensed PAHs, on the other hand, have shown significant out of plane IR active transitions. The planarity of the molecular frame is therefore a question of debate. The FIR modes are also interesting for another reason: they are also telltales of the precision of modern computational packages. The combination of experimental and theoretical studies will help with the identification of the chemical composition of the interstellar medium. This effort therefore directly serves the missions of the Spitzer Space Observatory and more importantly, the missions of the Herschel Space Observatory.

  17. Astronomical polarization studies at radio and infrared wavelengths. Part 2: Far infrared polarization of dust clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennison, B. K.

    1976-01-01

    Far infrared polarization of dust clouds is examined. The recently observed 10 micron polarization of the Orion Nebula and the Galactic Center suggests that far infrared polarization may be found in these objects. Estimates are made of the degree of far infrared polarization that may exist in the Orion Nebula. An attempt to observe far infrared polarization from the Orion Nebula was carried out.

  18. Impurity effects on energy levels and far-infrared spectra of nanorings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Pan; Jia-Lin, Zhu

    2003-11-01

    The effects of a positively charged impurity on the energy levels and far-infrared spectra of one and two electrons in semiconductor nanorings under magnetic fields are studied. The effects of the nanoring size and the impurity position are also discussed. It is shown that the electron-electron interaction and electron-impurity one in nanorings are strongly dependent on the nanoring size and the impurity position. Based on the studies of the impurity and field effects, the impurity-induced Aharonov-Bohm oscillations of the far-infrared spectra are found. The results predict a possibility of observing phenomena related to electron-impurity interaction in a nanoring in the future.

  19. Variable-delay Polarization Modulators (VPMs) for Far-infrared through Millimeter Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, David T.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of Variable-delay Polarization Modulators (VPMs) for Far-infrared through Millimeter Astronomy. The two science goals are to use polarized emission from the partially-aligned dust that provides a probe of the role of magnetic fields in star formation and to use the polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation CMB to test theories of the very early universe and provide a probe of fundamental physics.

  20. Development of Kinetic Inductance Detectors for Far-Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlis, Alyssa; Aguirre, James E.; Stevenson, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    An instrument with high sensitivity and spectral resolution at far-infrared wavelengths could contribute significantly to several currently unanswered questions in astrophysics. Here, we describe a detector system suitable for a spectroscopic experiment at far-infrared wavelengths using kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs). KIDs have the potential to achieve high sensitivity and low noise levels. Specifically, the approach we take uses lumped-element KIDs, which consist of separate capacitive and inductive elements combined to form a microresonator. The inductive element serves as a direct radiation absorber. We describe the design considerations, fabrication process, and readout scheme for a prototype LEKID array of 1600 pixels, along with results from a prototype detector array.

  1. Smithsonian stratospheric far-infrared spectrometer and data reduction system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. G.; Jucks, K. W.; Traub, W. A.; Chance, K. V.

    1995-01-01

    The Smithsonian far-infrared spectrometer (FIRS) is a remote sensing Fourier transform spectrometer that measures the mid- and far-infrared thermal emission spectrum of the stratosphere from balloon and aircraft platforms. The spectrometer has had nine successful balloon flights from 1987 to 1994, flying at float altitudes of 36 - 39 km and collecting 131 hours of midlatitude stratospheric limb spectra. The spectrometer also flew on a NASA CD-8 aircraft, as part of the second Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition (AASE-2), collecting 140 hours of overhead spectra at latitudes ranging from the equator to the north pole. We present here a brief description of the instrument, a discussion of data reduction procedures, an estimation of both random and systematic errors, an outline of the procedure for retrieving mixing ratio profiles, and an explanation of the method of deriving temperature and pressure from the far- and mid-infrared spectra.

  2. HTS Fabry-Perot resonators for the far infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, P.; Prenninger, M.; Pechen, E.V.; Renk, K.F.

    1996-12-31

    The authors report on far infrared (FIR) Fabry-Perot resonators (FPR) with high temperature superconductor (HTS) thin films as mirrors. For the fabrication of FPR they use two parallel MgO plates covered with YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7{minus}{delta}} thin films on adjacent sides. They have measured the far-infrared transmissivity at 10 K with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Very sharp resonances can be observed for frequencies below 6 THz where the MgO is transparent. The finesse (width of the first order resonance) is comparable to the FPR with metallic meshes as reflectors that are applied in the FIR spectroscopy and astronomy. They have also shown that thin films of gold are not an adequate substitute to HTS thin films and not suitable for the fabrication of high-quality FPR due to the ohmic losses.

  3. Science with High Spatial Resolution Far-Infrared Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terebey, Susan (Editor); Mazzarella, Joseph M. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this workshop was to discuss new science and techniques relevant to high spatial resolution processing of far-infrared data, with particular focus on high resolution processing of IRAS data. Users of the maximum correlation method, maximum entropy, and other resolution enhancement algorithms applicable to far-infrared data gathered at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) for two days in June 1993 to compare techniques and discuss new results. During a special session on the third day, interested astronomers were introduced to IRAS HIRES processing, which is IPAC's implementation of the maximum correlation method to the IRAS data. Topics discussed during the workshop included: (1) image reconstruction; (2) random noise; (3) imagery; (4) interacting galaxies; (5) spiral galaxies; (6) galactic dust and elliptical galaxies; (7) star formation in Seyfert galaxies; (8) wavelet analysis; and (9) supernova remnants.

  4. Far-Infrared Beamline at the Canadian Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billinghurst, Brant E.; May, Tim E.

    2014-06-01

    The far-infrared beamline at the Canadian Light Source is a state of the art user facility, which offers significantly more far-infrared brightness than conventional globar sources. The infrared radiation is collected from a bending magnet through a 55 X 37 mrad2 port to a Bruker IFS 125 HR spectrometer, which is equipped with a nine compartment scanning arm, allowing it to achieve spectral resolution better than 0.001 cm-1. Currently the beamline can achieve signal to noise ratios up to 8 times that which can be achieved using a traditional thermal source. This talk will provide an overview of the the beamline, and the capabilities available to users, recent and planned improvements including the addition of a Glow Discharge cell and advances in Coherent Synchrotron Radiation. Furthermore, the process of acquiring access to the facility will be covered.

  5. The Far-Infrared Beamline at the Canadian Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billinghurst, Brant; May, Tim

    2009-06-01

    The far-infrared beamline at the Canadian Light Source. is a state of the art facility, which offers significantly more far-infrared brightness than conventional globar sources. While there is the potential to direct this advantage to many research areas, to date most of the effort has been directed toward high-resolution gas phase studies. The infrared radiation is collected from a bending magnet through a 55 X 37 mrad^{2} port to a Bruker IFS 125 HR spectrometer, which is equipped with a nine compartment scanning arm, allowing it to achieve spectral resolution better than 0.001 cm^{-1}. Currently the beamline can achieve signal to noise ratios up to 8 times that which can be achieved using a traditional thermal source. Data from the recently completed commissioning experiments will be presented along with a general overview of the beamline.

  6. Kinetic inductance detectors for far-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlis, A.; Aguirre, J.; Stevenson, T.

    2016-07-01

    The star formation mechanisms at work in the early universe remain one of the major unsolved problems of modern astrophysics. Many of the luminous galaxies present during the period of peak star formation (at redshift of about 2.5) were heavily enshrouded in dust, which makes observing their properties difficult at optical wavelengths. However, many spectral lines exist at far-infrared wavelengths that serve as tracers of star formation. Here, we describe a detector system suitable for a balloon-borne spectroscopic intensity mapping experiment at far-infrared wavelengths. The system uses lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs), which have the potential to achieve high sensitivity and low noise levels. KIDs consist of separate capacitive and inductive elements, and use the inductive element as the radiation absorber. We describe the design considerations, fabrication process, and readout scheme for a prototype LEKID array of 1600 pixels.

  7. A balloon-borne 102-cm telescope for far-infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fazio, Giovanni G.

    1990-01-01

    In the early 1970's, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and the University of Arizona engaged in a cooperative program to develop a balloon-borne 102-cm telescope capable of carrying out far infrared (40 to 250 micron) observations of astronomical interest above the earth's atmosphere. Since 1972, the telescope has flown and successfully recovered a total of nineteen times. Thirteen of the flights produced high-quality astronomical data, resulting in more than 92.5 hours of photometric and spectroscopic observations of numerous objects, such as H 2 regions, dark clouds, molecular clouds, a planetary nebula, a galaxy, the galactic center, the planets, and an asteroid. From the launch site in Palestine, Texas, sources as far south as -50 degrees declination were observed. The balloon-borne telescope was one of the most sensitive instruments ever used for observation in the far infrared region of the spectrum. It was most productive in producing high resolution maps of large areas (typically square degrees) centered on known H 2 regions, molecular clouds, and dark cloud complexes. In many cases, these scans produced the first far infrared maps of these regions, and many new sources were discovered. The results have led to a better understanding of the distribution of gas and dust in these regions, the evolution of H 2 regions, and the processes of star formation in giant molecular clouds. The following topics are presented: (1) the focal plane instrumentation; (2) the history and flight record; (3) scientific results and publications; (4) eduational aspects; and (5) future planes.

  8. Continued development and application of far-infrared detection techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, F. J.

    1974-01-01

    The development of a balloon gondola and pointing system are discussed which can be used with the low background far infrared telescope. Flight test progress of the new gondola is reported using a 3-axis system which would provide much greater capabilities. In this design both a polar and declination axis are use and are maintained in the proper orientation by a free handing (vertical) azimuth shaft.

  9. Arrays of Bolometers for Far-infrared and Submillimeter Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuss, D. T.; Allen, C. A.; Babu, S.; Casey, S.; Dotson, J. L.; Dowell, C. D.; Jhabvala, M.; Harper, D. A.; Moseley, S. H.; Silverberg, R. F.

    2004-01-01

    We describe 12 x 32 arrays of semiconducting cryogenic bolometers designed for use in far-infrared and submillimeter cameras. These 12 x 32 arrays are constructed from 1 x 32 monolithic pop-up detectors developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The pop-up technology allows the construction of large arrays with high filling factors that provide efficient use of space in the focal planes of far-infrared and submillimeter astronomical instruments. This directly leads to a significant decrease in observing time. The prototype array is currently operating in SHARC II, a facility instrument in use at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). The elements of this array employ a bismuth absorber coating and quarter wave backshort to optimize the bolometer absorption for a passband centered at 350 microns. However, this resonant structure also provides good bolometer performance at 450 and 850 microns, the two additional SHARC II passbands. A second array is to be installed in the High-resolution Airborne Widebandwidth Camera (HAWC), a far-infrared imaging camera for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). This array is currently in the final stage of construction, and its completion is expected in early 2004. HAWC is scheduled for commissioning in 2005. The HAWC array employs titanium-gold absorbers and is optimized for uniform absorption from 40 to 300 microns to accommodate all four of its far-infrared passbands. We describe the details of the array construction including the mechanical design and electrical characterization of the constituent linear arrays, comparing the SHARC II and HAWC cases. We also summarize the overall characteristics of the final two-dimensional arrays. Finally, we show examples of array performance in the form of images obtained with SHARC II.

  10. Stacked Metal Silicide/Silicon Far-Infrared Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maserjian, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    Selective doping of silicon in proposed metal silicide/silicon Schottky-barrier infrared photodetector increases maximum detectable wavelength. Stacking layers to form multiple Schottky barriers increases quantum efficiency of detector. Detectors of new type enhance capabilities of far-infrared imaging arrays. Grows by molecular-beam epitaxy on silicon waferscontaining very-large-scale integrated circuits. Imaging arrays of detectors made in monolithic units with image-preprocessing circuitry.

  11. Efficient far-infrared thermal bremsstrahlung radiation from a heterojunction bipolar transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Pei-Kang; Yen, Shun-Tung

    2015-08-28

    We investigate the far-infrared thermal radiation properties of a heterojunction bipolar transistor. The device conveniently provides a high electric field for electrons to heat the lattice and the electron gas in a background with ions embedded. Because of very high effective temperature of the electron gas in the collector, the electron-ion bremsstrahlung makes efficient the thermal radiation in the far-infrared region. The transistor can yield a radiation power of 0.1 mW with the spectral region between 2 and 75 THz and a power conversion efficiency of 6 × 10{sup −4}. Such output contains a power of 20 μW in the low-frequency part (2–20 THz) of the spectrum.

  12. The microwave and far-infrared spectra of the O-(18)H radical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comben, E. R.; Brown, J. M.; Steimle, T. C.; Leopold, K. R.; Evenson, K. M.

    1986-01-01

    Far-infrared laser magnetic resonance (LMR) spectroscopy was used to calculate the frequencies, wavelengths, and line strengths for transitions of O-(18)H molecules at microwave and far-infrared frequencies. In this experiment, a molecular transition frequency is tuned into coincidence with that of a fixed frequency laser by the application of a variable magnetic field. The O-(18)H radicals, detected in natural abundance (0.20 percent), were produced by the reaction of hydrogen atoms with nitrogen dioxide. These data together with microwave frequencies ascertained by Gottlieb, Redford, and Smith (1974) were used to determine the parameters of an effective Hamiltonian. Rotational levels up to J = 5.5 were involved. Results are indicated schematically and the low-lying energy levels of O-(18)H are shown. It is concluded that the frequencies of transitions between levels studied directly in the LMR experiment are reliable.

  13. Far-Infrared Water Line Emissions from Circumstellar Outflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Wesley; Neufeld, David A.

    1995-01-01

    We have modeled the far-infrared water line emission expected from circumstellar outflows from oxygen-rich late-type stars, as a function of the mass-loss rate and the terminal outflow velocity. For each mass-loss rate and terminal outflow velocity considered, we computed self-consistently the gas density, temperature, outflow velocity, and water abundance as a function of distance from the star. We then used an escape probability method to solve for the equilibrium level populations of 80 rotational states of water and thereby obtained predictions for the luminosity of a large number of far-infrared rotational transitions of water. In common with previous models, our model predicts that water will be copiously produced in the warm circumstellar gas and that water rotational emission will dominate the radiative cooling. However, our use of a realistic radiative cooling function for water leads to a lower gas temperature than that predicted in previous models. Our predictions for the far-infrared water line luminosities are consequently significantly smaller than those obtained in previous studies. Observations to be carried out by the Infrared Space Observatory will provide a crucial test of the models presented here.

  14. Community Plan for Far-Infrared/Submillimeter Space Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ade, Peter; Akeson, Rachel; Ali, Shafinaz; Amato, Michael; Arendt, Richard; Baker, Charles; Benford, Dominic; Blain, Andrew; Bock, James; Borne, Kirk

    2004-01-01

    This paper represents the consensus view of the 124 participants in the Second Workshop on New Concepts for Far-Infrared/Submillimeter Space Astronomy.We recommend that NASA pursue the vision for far-IR astronomy outlined in the NAS Decadal Survey, which said: A rational coordinated program for space optical and infrared astronomy would build on the experience gained with NGST1 to construct [a JWST-scale filled-aperture far-IR telescope SAFIR, and then ultimately, in the decade 2010 to 2020, build on the SAFIR, TPF, and SIM experience to assemble a space-based, far-infrared interferometer. SAFIR will study star formation in the young universe, the buildup of elements heavier than hydrogen over cosmic history, the process of galaxy formation, and the early phases of star formation, which occur behind a veil of dust that precludes detection at mid IR and shorter wavelengths. The far-infrared interferometer will resolve distant galaxies to study protogalaxy interactions and mergers and the processes that led to enhanced star formation activity and the formation of Active Galactic Nuclei, and will resolve protostars and debris disks in our Galaxy to study how stars and planetary systems form.

  15. Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of Planetary Nebulae with the KAO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Robert H.; Colgan, S.; Haas, M. R.; Lord, S. D.; Simpson, Janet P.

    1996-01-01

    We present new far-infrared line observations of the planetary nebulae (PNs) NGC 7027, NGC 7009, and NGC 6210 obtained with the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). The bulk of our data are for NGC 7027 and NGC 7009, including [Ne(V)] 24 micrometers, [O(IV)] 26 micrometers, [O(III)] (52, 88) micrometers, and [N(III)] 57 micrometers. Our data for [O(III)] (52, 88) and [N(III)] 57 in NGC 7027 represent the first measurements of these lines in this source. The large [O(III)] 52/88-micrometer flux ratio implies an electron density (cubic cm) of log N(sub e)[O(III)] = 4.19, the largest Ne ever inferred from these lines. We derive N(++)/O(++) = 0.394 +/- 0.062 for NGC 7027 and 0.179 +/- 0.043 for NGC 6210. We are able to infer the O(+3)/O(++) ionic ratio from our data. As gauged by this ionic ratio, NGC 7027 is substantially higher ionization than is NGC 7009 - consistent with our observation that the former produces copious [Ne(V)] emission while the latter does not. These data help characterize the stellar ionizing radiation field. From our [O(IV)] and [O(III)] fluxes, we are able to show that O(++) is by far the dominant oxygen ion in NGC 7009. As a result, the O/H abundance inferred using these data tends to corroborate the value found from UV/optical, collisionally excited lines. We determined accurate rest wavelengths for the [Ne(V)] 2s(2)2p(2)P(sub 1) to 2s(2)2p(2)3P(sub 0) (lambda(sub rest) = 24.316 +/- 0.008 micrometers) and [O(IV)] 2s(2)2p(2)P(sup 0, sub 3/2) to 2s(2)2p(2)P(sup 0, sub 1/2) (lambda(sub rest) = 25.887 +/- 0.007 micrometers) transitions from observations of one or both of the bright PNs NGC 7027 and NGC 7009. Our [O(IV)] value, to the best of our knowledge, is the most accurate direct determination of this lambda(sub rest). These new KAO data will be beneficial for comparison with ISO observations of these PNs.

  16. Large Format Arrays for Far Infrared and Millimeter Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, Harvey

    2004-01-01

    Some of the most compelling questions in modem astronomy are best addressed with submillimeter and millimeter observations. The question of the role of inflation in the early evolution of the universe is best addressed with large sensitive arrays of millimeter polarimeters. The study of the first generations of galaxies requires sensitive submillimeter imaging, which can help us to understand the history of energy release and nucleosynthesis in the universe. Our ability to address these questions is dramatically increasing, driven by dramatic steps in the sensitivity and size of available detector arrays. While the MIPS instrument on the SIRTF mission will revolutionize far infrared astronomy with its 1024 element array of photoconductors, thermal detectors remain the dominant technology for submillimeter and millimeter imaging and polarimetry. The last decade has seen the deployment of increasingly large arrays of bolometers, ranging from the 48 element arrays deployed on the KAO in the late 198Os, to the SHARC and SCUBA arrays in the 1990s. The past years have seen the deployment of a new generation of larger detector arrays in SHARC II (384 channels) and Bolocam (144 channels). These detectors are in operation and are beginning to make significant impacts on the field. Arrays of sensitive submillimeter bolometers on the SPIRE instrument on Herschel will allow the first large areas surveys of the sky, providing important insight into the evolution of galaxies. The next generation of detectors, led by SCUBA II, will increase the focal scale of these instruments by an order of magnitude. Two major missions are being planned by NASA for which further development of long wavelength detectors is essential, The SAFlR mission, a 10-m class telescope with large arrays of background limited detectors, will extend our reach into the epoch of initial galaxy formation. A major goal of modem cosmology is to test the inflationary paradigm in the early evolution of the universe

  17. Mapping metals at high redshift with far-infrared lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallottini, A.; Gallerani, S.; Ferrara, A.; Yue, B.; Vallini, L.; Maiolino, R.; Feruglio, C.

    2015-10-01

    Cosmic metal enrichment is one of the key physical processes regulating galaxy formation and the evolution of the intergalactic medium (IGM). However, determining the metal content of the most distant galaxies has proven so far almost impossible; also, absorption line experiments at z ≳ 6 become increasingly difficult because of instrumental limitations and the paucity of background quasars. With the advent of Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), far-infrared emission lines provide a novel tool to study early metal enrichment. Among these, the [C II] line at 157.74 μm is the most luminous line emitted by the interstellar medium of galaxies. It can also resonant scatter comic microwave background (CMB) photons inducing characteristic intensity fluctuations (ΔI/ICMB) near the peak of the CMB spectrum, thus allowing to probe the low-density IGM. We compute both [C II] galaxy emission and metal-induced CMB fluctuations at z ˜ 6 by using adaptive mesh refinement cosmological hydrodynamical simulations and produce mock observations to be directly compared with ALMA Band 6 data (νobs ˜ 272 GHz). The [C II] line flux is correlated with MUV as log (F_peak/μ Jy)= -27.205 -2.253 M_UV -0.038 M_UV^2. Such relation is in very good agreement with recent ALMA observations of MUV < -20 galaxies by e.g. Maiolino et al. and Capak et al. We predict that a MUV = -19 (MUV = -18) galaxy can be detected at 4σ in ≃40 (2000) h, respectively. CMB resonant scattering can produce ≃ ± 0.1 μJy/beam emission/absorptions features that are very challenging to be detected with current facilities. The best strategy to detect these signals consists in the stacking of deep ALMA observations pointing fields with known MUV ≃ -19 galaxies. This would allow to simultaneously detect both [C II] emission from galactic reionization sources and CMB fluctuations produced by z ˜ 6 metals.

  18. Investigation of jewelry powders radiating far-infrared rays and the biological effects on human skin.

    PubMed

    Yoo, B H; Park, C M; Oh, T J; Han, S H; Kang, H H; Chang, I S

    2002-01-01

    Far-infrared rays have certain kinds of effects on the human body, especially on skin, blood circulation, and skin cell vitalizing. Some jewelry powders radiate far-infrared rays. Jade has powerful far-infrared ray radiation, and tourmaline has pyroelectric and piezoelectric properties and radiated far-infrared rays. The jewelry powders (fine powdered jade and tourmaline powders) were screened by far-infrared rays for radiation properties and tested for the effects of far-infrared rays on the human skin by temperature observation using an infrared thermal analyzer. PMID:12053208

  19. Correspondence between Generalized Dark Energy and Scalar Field Dark Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Sayani; Debnath, Ujjal

    2015-07-01

    In this work, we have considered non-flat FRW universe filled with dark matter (with non-zero pressure) and generalized dark energy (GDE) as motivated by the work of Sharif et al. (Mod. Phys. Lett. A 28, 1350180, 2013). Also the dark matter and the dark energy are considered to be interacting. The energy density, pressure and the EoS of the GDE have been calculated for the interacting scenario. For stability analysis of this model, we have also analyzed the sign of square speed of sound. Next we investigate the correspondence between GDE and different other candidates of dark energies such as DBI-essence, tachyonic field, hessenc and electromagnetic field. Also we have reconstructed the potential functions and the scalar fields in this scenario.

  20. a Far Infrared Synchrotron-Based Investigation of 3-OXETANONE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ziqiu; Wijngaarden, Jennifer Van

    2011-06-01

    The four membered ester ring 3-oxetanone is a precursor for adding oxetane subunits into pharmaceuticals which then block metabolically exposed sites in the bioactive molecule without increasing its lipophilicity. The high resolution (0.00096 cmCm-1) rovibrational spectrum of 3-oxetanone was recorded for the first time using far infrared radiation from the Canadian Light Source (CLS) synchrotron facility coupled to a Bruker IFS125HR FTIR spectrometer. A total of six rotationally-resolved vibrational bands were observed between 360 and 1150 cmCm-1 at room temperature. The assignment of the dense spectrum is currently underway and the progress will be discussed in this talk.

  1. Upgrade of the JET far infrared interferometer diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Boboc, A.; Edlington, T.; Dorling, S.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2012-10-15

    In recent years there has been a major upgrade of the JET far infrared diagnostic system consisting of a new laser system with the wavelength at 118.8 {mu}m at and more advanced processing electronics for phase counting. This provides a second colour measurement of the electron plasma density on the vertical system. Due to the shorter wavelength, the plasma induced laser beam refraction is reduced by a factor of three alleviating density errors caused by loss of signal (so-called 'fringe jumps'[A. Murari et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77, 073505 (2006)]), in particular during high performance plasmas experiments in JET.

  2. Far-infrared terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of flames.

    PubMed

    Cheville, R A; Grischkowsky, D

    1995-08-01

    We present what is to our knowledge the first comprehensive far-infrared absorption measurement of flames. These measurements, covering the region of 7-88 wave numbers (0.2-2.65 THz) are only now made possible by the technique of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. We observe a large number of absorption lines-including those of water, CH, and NH(3)-in a stationary, premixed, propane-air flame. The absorption strength permits the determination of species concentration along the beam path. The f lame temperature is determined by comparison of the relative strengths of the water vapor lines. PMID:19862111

  3. A broadband micro-machined far-infrared absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollack, E. J.; Datesman, A. M.; Jhabvala, C. A.; Miller, K. H.; Quijada, M. A.

    2016-05-01

    The experimental investigation of a broadband far-infrared meta-material absorber is described. The observed absorptance is >0.95 from 1 to 20 THz (300-15 μm) over a temperature range spanning 5-300 K. The meta-material, realized from an array of tapers ≈100 μm in length, is largely insensitive to the detailed geometry of these elements and is cryogenically compatible with silicon-based micro-machined technologies. The electromagnetic response is in general agreement with a physically motivated transmission line model.

  4. Technology Needs for Far-Infrared, Submillimeter, and Millimeter Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moseley, S. Harvey

    2004-01-01

    SAFIR will: Study the important and relatively unexplored region of the spectrum between 30 and 300 m; Enable the study of galaxy formation and the earliest stage of star formation by revealing regions too enshrouded by dust to be studied by NGST; Be more than 100 times as sensitive as SIRTF or the European [Herschel] mission.SAFIR is projected to cost around $600M total. The decadal review committee recommends that $100M be allocated in this decade to start the SAFIR project, and that additional technology developments be funded separately: Far-Infrared Array Development ($10M ) Refrigerators ($50M ) Large, Lightweight Optics ($80M ). Current developments are also described.

  5. Transmission measurements of selected liquids in the far infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, M. A.; Richards, R. K.; Hutchinson, D. P.

    1985-11-01

    Measurements were taken of the transmission of 0.119 mm radiation through 22 liquids using a variable length absorption cell. Seven of these liquids were then selected to be tested at wavelengths of 0.185 mm, 0.307 mm, and 0.447 mm. It was found that a light grade of mineral oil proved to have excellent transmission in the far-infrared (FIR) spectrum. We were able, from the data collected, to estimate the index of refraction of these liquids at wavelengths longer than 0.3 mm.

  6. A broadband micro-machined far-infrared absorber.

    PubMed

    Wollack, E J; Datesman, A M; Jhabvala, C A; Miller, K H; Quijada, M A

    2016-05-01

    The experimental investigation of a broadband far-infrared meta-material absorber is described. The observed absorptance is >0.95 from 1 to 20 THz (300-15 μm) over a temperature range spanning 5-300 K. The meta-material, realized from an array of tapers ≈100 μm in length, is largely insensitive to the detailed geometry of these elements and is cryogenically compatible with silicon-based micro-machined technologies. The electromagnetic response is in general agreement with a physically motivated transmission line model. PMID:27250445

  7. Astronomical imaging Fourier spectroscopy at far-infrared wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naylor, David A.; Gom, Brad G.; van der Wiel, Matthijs H. D.; Makiwa, Gibion

    2013-11-01

    The principles and practice of astronomical imaging Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS) at far-infrared wavelengths are described. The Mach–Zehnder (MZ) interferometer design has been widely adopted for current and future imaging FTS instruments; we compare this design with two other common interferometer formats. Examples of three instruments based on the MZ design are presented. The techniques for retrieving astrophysical parameters from the measured spectra are discussed using calibration data obtained with the Herschel–SPIRE instrument. The paper concludes with an example of imaging spectroscopy obtained with the SPIRE FTS instrument.

  8. A Broadband Micro-Machined Far-Infrared Absorber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Datesman, A. M.; Jhabvala, C. A.; Miller, K. H.; Wollack, E. J.; Quijada, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The experimental investigation of a broadband far-infrared meta-material absorber is described. The observed absorptance is greater than 0.95 from 1 to 20 terahertz (300-15 microns) over a temperature range spanning 5-300 degrees Kelvin. The meta-material, realized from an array of tapers approximately 100 microns in length, is largely insensitive to the detailed geometry of these elements and is cryogenically compatible with silicon-based micro-machined technologies. The electromagnetic response is in general agreement with a physically motivated transmission line model.

  9. W3 North: Far-infrared and radio molecular observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, H. A., Jr.; Schwartz, P. R.; Smith, H. A.; Lada, C. J.; Glaccum, W.; Harper, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The W3 North (G133.8 + 1.4) source is the northernmost member of a string of active star forming regions that marks the western boundary of the giant HII region W4. Far infrared and radio observations of molecular CO were made of the W3 star forming region. The W3 North object shows extended dust and gas emission which suggests a fairly advanced disruption of a molecular cloud. An estimate of the age of the embedded HII region is given, and emission maps of the W3 object are presented. The W3 North source may be the oldest object among the W3 complex of sources.

  10. Far-Infrared Line Emission from High Redshift Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, D. J.; Cox, P.; Hunter, T. R.; Malhotra, S.; Phillips, T. G.; Yun, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    Recent millimeter and submillimeter detections of line emission in high redshift objects have yielded new information and constraints on star formation at early epochs. Only CO transitions and atomic carbon transitions have been detected from these objects, yet bright far-infrared lines such as C+ at 158 microns and N+ at 205 microns should be fairly readily detectable when redshifted into a submillimeter atmospheric window. We have obtained upper limits for C+ emission &om two high redshift quasars, BR1202-0725 at z=4.69 and BRI1335-0415 at z=4.41. These limits show that the ratio of the C+ line luminosity to the total far-infrared luminosity is less than 0.0l%, ten times smaller than has been observed locally. Additionally, we have searched for emission in the N+ 205 micron line from the Cloverleaf quasar, H1413+117, and detected emission in CO J=7-6. The N+ emission is found to be below the amount predicted based on comparison to the only previous detection of this line, in the starburst galaxy M82.

  11. Atmospheric and Spectroscopic Research in the Far Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Kwangjai

    1998-01-01

    The spectroscopic measurements of molecular parameters constitute one of the major areas of our research program. This part of our program has been conducted in close collaboration with Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The references on HO2, OH, and O2 that appear on the publication list are examples of this type of work completed during the grant period. These pressure-broadening studies have provided the kind of improvements needed in the database for retrieving atmospheric profiles from far infrared limb sensing data. Authors summarized the laboratory spectroscopic studies conducted during the grant period. We attempted to measure the pressure broadening coefficients of the O2 lines in the 50 and 117/ cm regions. An accurate characterization of these lines using the IBEX detector system was needed to analyze the flight data. These are difficult lines to measure because they arise from weak magnetic dipole transitions. We used a 4-meter absorption cell to obtain the pressure broadening coefficients for the 50 and 83 /cm lines. We also completed the pressure broadening studies including the temperature dependence of two lines of OH at 83 and 118 /cm. These two lines are important not only for the balloon data retrieval work but also for the future project proposals.Another area of focus in our program is the far infrared detector research. The third area of focus deals with data distribution and dissemination.

  12. The ground state far infrared spectrum of NH3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poynter, R. L.; Margolis, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    The NH3 far infrared spectrum is particularly useful for the study of planetary composition and atmospheric dynamics. Studies of this spectrum were conducted by Dowling (1969), Helminger et al. (1971), and Urban et al. (1981). Sattler et al. (1981) have reported measurements of a few nu2 lines with tunable diode lasers. By using simple sum rules, these lines and accurate ground state inversion lines considered by Poynter and Kakar (1975) have been employed in the present investigation to deduce a few of the far infrared ground state transitions. An extensive set of high signal/noise, high resolution (0.0048 per cm) scans of the nu2 bands of NH3 from about 600 per cm through about 1300 per cm ait a series of low pressures have been made in order to accurately determine both the line positions and strengths. The obtained data provide line positions with an absolute accuracy of about 0.0001 per cm in the more favorable cases.

  13. Far-Infrared Interferometric Telescope Experiment : I. Interferometer Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Eri; Shibai, Hiroshi; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Narita, Masanao; Matsuo, Taro; Ohkubo, Atsushi; Suzuki, Miki; Kanoh, Tetsuo; Yamamoto, Koudai; Fite Team

    We have developed a far-infrared interferometer (Far-Infrared Interferometric Telescope Experiment: FITE). It will be the first astronomical infrared interferometer working in space. FITE is a balloon-borne telescope, and operated in the stratosphere (the altitude of 35 km). The aim of the FITE project is to achieve a high spatial resolution of 1 arcsecond at the wavelength of 100 micrometers. FITE is a Michelson stellar interferometer, and is able to realize a long base line beyond the size of the collecting mirror by using four plane mirrors. The first flight is scheduled for November 2008 in Brazil, and the aim is to measure the interference fringes with a spatial resolution of 2.5 arcseconds. In order to achieve this, the two beams must be focused within 2.5 arcsecond accuracy in the imaging quality, within 10 arcsecond accuracy in the beam alignment and within 30 micrometers accuracy in the optical path length between the two beams. In order to archive these accuracies, the structural parts of the telescope were made of carbon-fiber reinforced plastics, which have very low thermal expansion coefficient and large Young's modulus. During observation of a target, the optical alignment is actively adjusted and the orientation of the telescope is stabilized by the three-axis control.

  14. Tunable far infrared studies of molecular parameters in support of stratospheric measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, K. V.; Nolt, Ira G.; Radostitz, J. V.; Park, K.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to make precise, fully line-resolved measurements of molecular parameters that are necessary for the analysis of spectra obtained in far infrared field measurement programs. These measurements make it possible to accurately analyze the data from field measurements to obtain atmospheric concentration profiles of key trace gases involved in the ozone chemistry. The research objectives include: measurements of pressure broadening of molecular lines of OH, O2, O3, HCl, and H2O, their temperature dependence, and, when possible, the pressure-induced frequency shifts of the lines; measurements of line positions of radical species, such as HO2.

  15. Superconducting Microwave Resonator Arrays for Submillimeter/Far-Infrared Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noroozian, Omid

    Superconducting microwave resonators have the potential to revolutionize submillimeter and far-infrared astronomy, and with it our understanding of the universe. The field of low-temperature detector technology has reached a point where extremely sensitive devices like transition-edge sensors are now capable of detecting radiation limited by the background noise of the universe. However, the size of these detector arrays are limited to only a few thousand pixels. This is because of the cost and complexity of fabricating large-scale arrays of these detectors that can reach up to 10 lithographic levels on chip, and the complicated SQUID-based multiplexing circuitry and wiring for readout of each detector. In order to make substantial progress, next-generation ground-based telescopes such as CCAT or future space telescopes require focal planes with large-scale detector arrays of 104--10 6 pixels. Arrays using microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKID) are a potential solution. These arrays can be easily made with a single layer of superconducting metal film deposited on a silicon substrate and pattered using conventional optical lithography. Furthermore, MKIDs are inherently multiplexable in the frequency domain, allowing ˜ 10 3 detectors to be read out using a single coaxial transmission line and cryogenic amplifier, drastically reducing cost and complexity. An MKID uses the change in the microwave surface impedance of a superconducting thin-film microresonator to detect photons. Absorption of photons in the superconductor breaks Cooper pairs into quasiparticles, changing the complex surface impedance, which results in a perturbation of resonator frequency and quality factor. For excitation and readout, the resonator is weakly coupled to a transmission line. The complex amplitude of a microwave probe signal tuned on-resonance and transmitted on the feedline past the resonator is perturbed as photons are absorbed in the superconductor. The perturbation can be

  16. Invited Article: An integrated mid-infrared, far-infrared, and terahertz optical Hall effect instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Kühne, P. Schubert, M. Hofmann, T.; Herzinger, C. M. Woollam, J. A.

    2014-07-15

    We report on the development of the first integrated mid-infrared, far-infrared, and terahertz optical Hall effect instrument, covering an ultra wide spectral range from 3 cm{sup −1} to 7000 cm{sup −1} (0.1–210 THz or 0.4–870 meV). The instrument comprises four sub-systems, where the magneto-cryostat-transfer sub-system enables the usage of the magneto-cryostat sub-system with the mid-infrared ellipsometer sub-system, and the far-infrared/terahertz ellipsometer sub-system. Both ellipsometer sub-systems can be used as variable angle-of-incidence spectroscopic ellipsometers in reflection or transmission mode, and are equipped with multiple light sources and detectors. The ellipsometer sub-systems are operated in polarizer-sample-rotating-analyzer configuration granting access to the upper left 3 × 3 block of the normalized 4 × 4 Mueller matrix. The closed cycle magneto-cryostat sub-system provides sample temperatures between room temperature and 1.4 K and magnetic fields up to 8 T, enabling the detection of transverse and longitudinal magnetic field-induced birefringence. We discuss theoretical background and practical realization of the integrated mid-infrared, far-infrared, and terahertz optical Hall effect instrument, as well as acquisition of optical Hall effect data and the corresponding model analysis procedures. Exemplarily, epitaxial graphene grown on 6H-SiC, a tellurium doped bulk GaAs sample and an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor structure are investigated. The selected experimental datasets display the full spectral, magnetic field and temperature range of the instrument and demonstrate data analysis strategies. Effects from free charge carriers in two dimensional confinement and in a volume material, as well as quantum mechanical effects (inter-Landau-level transitions) are observed and discussed exemplarily.

  17. FIFI-LS: the facility far-infrared spectrometer for SOFIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Randolf; Beckmann, Simon; Bryant, Aaron; Colditz, Sebastian; Fischer, Christian; Fumi, Fabio; Geis, Norbert; Hönle, Rainer; Krabbe, Alfred; Looney, Leslie; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Raab, Walfried; Rebell, Felix; Savage, Maureen

    2014-07-01

    FIFI-LS is the German far-infrared integral field spectrometer for the SOFIA airborne observatory. The instrument offers medium resolution spectroscopy (R ~ a few 1000) in the far-infrared with two independent spectrometers covering 50-110 and 100-200 μm. The integral field units of the two spectrometers obtain spectra covering concentric square fields-of-views sized 3000and 6000, respectively. Both spectrometers can observe simultaneously at any wavelength in their ranges making efficient mapping of far-infrared lines possible. FIFI-LS has been commissioned at the airborne observatory SOFIA as a PI instrument in spring 2014. During 2015, the commissioning as facility instrument will be complete and the SOFIA observatory will take over the operation of FIFI-LS. The instrument can already be used by the community. Primary science cases are the study of the galactic and extra-galactic interstellar medium and its processes. In this presentation, the capabilities of FIFI-LS on the SOFIA telescope will be explained and how they are used by the offered observing modes. The remaining atmosphere and the warm telescope create a high background situation, which requires a differential measurement technique. This is achieved by SOFIA's chopping secondary mirror and nodding the telescope. Depending on the source size, different observing modes may be used to observe a source. All modes use spatial and spectral dithering. The resulting data products will be 3D-data cubes. The observing parameters will be specified using AOTs, like the other SOFIA instruments, and created via the tool SSPOT which is similar to the Spitzer Space Telescope SPOT tool. The observations will be done in service mode, but SOFIA invites a few investigators to fly onboard SOFIA during (part of) their observations.

  18. FIFI-LS - The Facility Far-Infrared Spectrometer for SOFIA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Randolf; Beckmann, Simon; Bryant, Aaron; Colditz, Sebastian; Fischer, Christian; Fumi, Fabio; Geis, Norbert; Hönle, Rainer; Krabbe, Alfred; Looney, Leslie; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Raab, Walfried; Rebell, Felix; Savage, Maureen L.

    2014-06-01

    FIFI-LS is the German far-infrared integral field spectrometer for the SOFIA airborne observatory. The instrument offers medium resolution spectroscopy (R ~ a few 1000) in the far-infrared with two independent spectrometers covering 45-110um and 100-210um. The integral field units of the two spectrometers obtain spectra covering concentric square fields-of-views sized 30" and 60", respectively. Both spectrometers can observe simultaneously at any wavelength in their ranges making efficient mapping of far-infrared lines possible.FIFI-LS is being commissioned at the airborne observatory SOFIA first as a PI instrument in spring 2014. During 2015, the commissioning as facility instrument will be complete and the SOFIA observatory will take over the operation of FIFI-LS. The instrument can already be used by the community. Primary science cases are the study of the galactic and extra-galactic interstellar medium and star formation.The capabilities of FIFI-LS on the SOFIA telescope and observing modes will be explained. FIFI-LS offers observing modes for compact sources, extended sources, and mapping. All modes use spatial and spectral dithering. The resulting data products will be 3D-data cubes. The spectral extent will vary between 500km/s and 2500km/s depending on the observing wavelength.The observing parameters will be specified using AOTs, like the other SOFIA instruments, and created via the tool SSPOT which is similar to the Spitzer Space Telescope SPOT tool. The observations will be done in service mode, but SOFIA invites a few investigators to fly onboard SOFIA during (part of) their observations. After a flight, the data get pipeline reduced, quality checked by the SOFIA science staff, and provided to the investigator via the SOFIA data archive.

  19. Description of dark energy and dark matter by vector fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meierovich, Boris E.

    A simple Lagrangian (with squared covariant divergence of a vector field as a kinetic term) turned out an adequate tool for oscopic description of dark sector. The zero-mass field acts as the dark energy. Its energy-momentum tensor is a simple additive to the cosmological constant. Space-like and time-like massive vector fields describe two different forms of dark matter. The space-like field is attractive. It is responsible for the observed plateau in galaxy rotation curves. The time-like massive field displays repulsive elasticity. In balance with dark energy and ordinary matter it provides a four-parametric diversity of regular solutions of the Einstein equations describing different possible cosmological and oscillating non-singular scenarios of evolution of the Universe. In particular, the singular "big bang" turns into a regular inflation-like transition from contraction to expansion with accelerated expansion at late times. The fine-tuned Friedman-Robertson-Walker singular solution is a particular limiting case at the boundary of existence of regular oscillating solutions (in the absence of vector fields). The simplicity of the general covariant expression for the energy-momentum tensor allows analyzing the main properties of the dark sector analytically, avoiding unnecessary model assumptions.

  20. A cryogenically-cooled, balloon-borne far infrared survey telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, M. F.

    1979-01-01

    The design and performance of the Arizona cryogenically-cooled, balloon-borne, multiband far infrared survey telescope are described. The 40 cm Cassegrain telescope is completely contained in a liquid helium dewar. The focal plane array consists of Fabry optics and four detectors which each have a 12 arc minute field of view. Both photoconductive and bolometer detectors are utilized at effective wavelengths of 20, 80, 100 and 150 microns. In 1977 the telescope was used to make multicolor large scale maps of 70 square degrees in the Cygnus X region and the W3 region.

  1. Rotational frequencies of transition metal hydrides for astrophysical searches in the far-infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, John M.; Beaton, Stuart P.; Evenson, Kenneth M.

    1993-01-01

    Accurate frequencies for the lowest rotational transitions of five transition metal hydrides (CrH, FeH, CoH, NiH, and CuH) in their ground electronic states are reported to help the identification of these species in astrophysical sources from their far-infrared spectra. Accurate frequencies are determined in two ways: for CuH, by calculation from rotational constants determined from higher J transitions with an accuracy of 190 kHz; for the other species, by extrapolation to zero magnetic field from laser magnetic resonance spectra with an accuracy of 0.7 MHz.

  2. Far infrared radiation (FIR): its biological effects and medical applications

    PubMed Central

    Vatansever, Fatma; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Far infrared (FIR) radiation (λ = 3–100 μm) is a subdivision of the electromagnetic spectrum that has been investigated for biological effects. The goal of this review is to cover the use of a further sub-division (3– 12 μm) of this waveband, that has been observed in both in vitro and in vivo studies, to stimulate cells and tissue, and is considered a promising treatment modality for certain medical conditions. Technological advances have provided new techniques for delivering FIR radiation to the human body. Specialty lamps and saunas, delivering pure FIR radiation (eliminating completely the near and mid infrared bands), have became safe, effective, and widely used sources to generate therapeutic effects. Fibers impregnated with FIR emitting ceramic nanoparticles and woven into fabrics, are being used as garments and wraps to generate FIR radiation, and attain health benefits from its effects. PMID:23833705

  3. SAFIRE: Far-Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy with SOFIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic; Moseley, Harvey; Chervenak, Jay; Irwin, Kent; Pajot, Francois; Shafer, Rick; Staguhn, Johannes; Stacey, Gorden; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The SOFIA airborne observatory will provide a high spatial resolution, low background telescope for far-infrared astrophysical investigations. Selected as a PI instrument for SOFIA, SAFIRE is an imaging Fabry-Perot spectrograph covering 145 microns-655microns, with spectral resolving power of approx. 1500 (200 kilometers per second). This resolution is well matched to extragalactic emission lines and yields the greatest sensitivity for line detection. SAFIRE will make important scientific contributions to the study of the powering of ULIRGs and AGN, the role of CII cooling in extragalactic star formation, the evolution of matter in the early Universe, and the energetics of the Galactic center. SAFIRE will employ a two-dimensional pop-up bolometer array to provide background limited imaging spectrometry. Superconducting transition edge bolometers and SQUID amplifiers have been developed for these detectors.

  4. Far-Infrared Imaging Spectroscopy with SAFIRE on SOFIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Richard A.; Benford, D. J.; Irwin, K. D.; Moseley, S. H.; Pajot, F.; Stacey, G. J.; Staguhn, J. G.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The SOFIA airborne observatory will provide a high spatial resolution, low background telescope for far-infrared astrophysical investigations. Selected as a PI instrument for SOFIA, SAFIRE is an imaging Fabry-Perot spectrograph covering 100 micrometers - 655 micrometers, with spectral resolving power of approx. 1500 (200 kilometers per second). This resolution is well matched to extragalactic emission lines and yields the greatest sensitivity for line detection. SAFIRE will make important scientific contributions to the study of the powering of ULIRGs and AGN, the role of CII cooling in extragalactic star formation, the evolution of matter in the early Universe, and the energetics of the Galactic center. SAFIRE will employ a two-dimensional pop-up barometer array in a 16 x 32 format to provide background-limited imaging spectrometry. Superconducting transition edge barometers and SQUID amplifiers have been developed for these detectors.

  5. Far-Infrared Blocked Impurity Band Detector Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogue, H. H.; Guptill, M. T.; Monson, J. C.; Stewart, J. W.; Huffman, J. E.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Abedin, M. N.

    2007-01-01

    DRS Sensors & Targeting Systems, supported by detector materials supplier Lawrence Semiconductor Research Laboratory, is developing far-infrared detectors jointly with NASA Langley under the Far-IR Detector Technology Advancement Partnership (FIDTAP). The detectors are intended for spectral characterization of the Earth's energy budget from space. During the first year of this effort we have designed, fabricated, and evaluated pilot Blocked Impurity Band (BIB) detectors in both silicon and germanium, utilizing pre-existing customized detector materials and photolithographic masks. A second-year effort has prepared improved silicon materials, fabricated custom photolithographic masks for detector process, and begun detector processing. We report the characterization results from the pilot detectors and other progress.

  6. Far-infrared emissivity measurements of reflective surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, J.; Lange, A. E.; Bock, J. J.

    1996-01-01

    An instrument developed to measure the emissivity of reflective surfaces by comparing the thermal emission of a test sample to that of a reference surface is reported. The instrument can accurately measure the emissivity of mirrors made from lightweight thermally insulating materials such as glass and metallized carbon fiber reinforced plastics. Far infrared measurements at a wavelength of 165 micrometers are reported. The instrument has an absolute accuracy of Delta epsilon = 9 x 10(exp -4) and can reproducibly measure an emissivity of as small as 2 x 10(exp -4) between flat reflective surfaces. The instrument was used to measure mirror samples for balloon-borne and spaceborne experiments. An emissivity of (6.05 +/- 1.24) x 10(exp -3) was measured for gold evaporated on glass, and (6.75 +/- 1.17) x 10(exp -3) for aluminum evaporated on glass.

  7. The far-infrared spectrum of hypochlorous acid, HOCl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlotti, M.; Di Lonardo, G.; Fusina, L.; Trombetti, A.; Carli, B.

    1990-05-01

    Spectra of hypochlorous acid, HOCl, have been measured in the 30-210 cm -1 interval with a practical resolution of 0.002 cm -1. The spectroscopic analysis led to the assignment of 868 ground state rotational transitions (up to J = 54 and Ka = 6) for HO 35Cl, and 775 transitions (up to J = 49 and Ka = 6) for HO 37Cl. Moreover, 327 pure rotational transitions (up to J = 5) within the v3 = 1 vibrational state of HO 35Cl were also assigned. Improved sets of molecular constants were obtained for the ground states of both isotopic species from the simultaneous analysis of our far-infrared measurements and the microwave and millimeter-wave data presently available. On the other hand, the parameters derived for the v3 = 1 state are very similar to those reported in the literature.

  8. Far-infrared observations of Circinus and NGC 4945 galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bisht, R. S.; Ghosh, S. K.; Iyengar, K. V. K.; Rengarajan, T. N.; Tandon, S. N.; Verma, R. P.

    1990-01-01

    Circinus and NGC 4945 are two galaxies luminous in the infrared and are characterized by compact non thermal radio nuclei, deep silicate absorption features and unusually strong water vapor maser luminosities. Moorwood and Glass (1984) have observed these galaxies extensively in the 1 to 20 micron range. In the far-infrared, observations up to 100 microns are available from the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS). In order to study the cool dust component of these galaxies, researchers observed them at 150 microns using the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) 100 cm balloon-borne telescope. Here, they report observations along with deconvolved maps at 50 and 100 microns obtained from the Chopped Photometric Channel (CPC) on board IRAS.

  9. Far-infrared reflectance spectra of optical black coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.

    1983-01-01

    Far-infrared specular reflectance spectra of six optically black coatings near normal incidence are presented. The spectra were obtained using nine bandpass transmission filters in the wavelength range between 12 and 300 microns. Data on the construction, thickness, and rms surface roughness of the coatings are also presented. The chemical composition of two coatings can be distinguished from that of the others by a strong absorption feature between 20 and 40 microns which is attributed to amorphous silicate material. Inverse relationships between these spectra and coating roughness and thickness are noted and lead to development of a reflecting-layer model for the measured reflectance. The model is applied to the spectra of several coatings whose construction falls within its constraints.

  10. Active Control of Nitride Plasmonic Dispersion in the Far Infrared.

    SciTech Connect

    Shaner, Eric A.; Dyer, Gregory Conrad; Seng, William Francis; Bethke, Donald Thomas; Grine, Albert Dario,; Baca, Albert G.; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2014-11-01

    We investigate plasmonic structures in nitride-based materials for far-infrared (IR) applications. The two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the GaN/AlGaN material system, much like metal- dielectric structures, is a patternable plasmonic medium. However, it also permits for direct tunability via an applied voltage. While there have been proof-of-principle demonstrations of plasma excitations in nitride 2DEGs, exploration of the potential of this material system has thus far been limited. We recently demonstrated coherent phenomena such as the formation of plasmonic crystals, strong coupling of tunable crystal defects to a plasmonic crystal, and electromagnetically induced transparency in GaAs/AlGaAs 2DEGs at sub-THz frequencies. In this project, we explore whether these effects can be realized in nitride 2DEG materials above 1 THz and at temperatures exceeding 77 K.

  11. Photo-induced reflectivity in the mid and far infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Haar, P.; Harrington, K.J.; Schwettman, H.A.

    1995-12-31

    Interest in switching FEL beams has motivated studies of photo-induced reflectivity in the mid and far infrared. We are particularly interested in Ge{sup 4}, GaAs, and Si{sup 5}, materials that can be pumped with a visible or near-IR conventional laser and which together cover the wavelengths from 3-100{mu}m. We have made quantitative measurements to determine the induced reflectivity, carrier lifetime, and transient absorption of these materials at several wavelengths across this range using a variety of pump laser wavelengths and pulse lengths. These measurements allow us to determine the feasibility of single pulse selection and cavity dumping with our FELs at high repetition rates.

  12. Analysis of the far infrared H2-He spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, E. R.; Birnbaum, G.; Frommhold, L.

    1982-01-01

    Previous measurements of the far infrared absorption due to H2-He collisions at the temperatures of 77, 195, and 292 K are analyzed. The spectra are fitted by a semiempirical line shape representing the isotropic induced overlap component and combined anisotropic quadrupolar and overlap components. The experimental spectral moments are evaluated and compared with theory for several induced-dipole and potential models. From the isotropic contribution, the range and strength of the induced dipole is evaluated and compared with the results of ab initio calculations. Fitting parameters are obtained with physically plausible temperature dependences which allow simple and accurate representation of the spectra and of their moments at temperatures different from those of the measurements.

  13. The Far-Infrared Properties of the Most Isolated Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenfeld, U.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Sulentic, J.; Leon, S.; Espada, D.; Bergond, G.; García, E.; Sabater, J.; Santander-Vela, J. D.; Verley, S.

    2007-05-01

    A long-standing question in galaxy evolution involves the role of nature (self-regulation) vs. nurture (environment) on the observed properties (and evolution) of galaxies. A collaboration centreed at the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (Granada, Spain) is trying to address this question by producing a observational database for a sample of 1050 isolated galaxies from the catalogue of Karachentseva (1973) with the overarching goal being the generation of a "zero-point" sample against which effects of environment on galaxies can be assessed. The AMIGA (Analysis of the Interstellar Medium of Isolated Galaxies) database (see www.iaa.es/AMIGA.html) will include optical, IR and radio line and continuum measures. The galaxies in the sample represent the most isolated galaxies in the local universe. In the present contribution, we will present the project, as well as the results of an analysis of the far-infrared (FIR) and molecular gas properties of this sample.

  14. Far-infrared Imaging Observations of the Chamaeleon Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Norio; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Takita, Satoshi; Ueno, Munetaka; Suzuki, Toyoaki; Kawamura, Akiko; Kaneda, Hidehiro

    2012-01-01

    We have carried out far-infrared imaging observations toward the Chamaeleon star-forming region by the Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS) on board the AKARI satellite. The AKARI images cover a total area of 33.79 deg2, corresponding to 210 pc2 at the distance to the source. Using the FIS bands of 65-160 μm and the COBE/DIRBE bands of 60-240 μm, we constructed column density maps of cold (11.7 K) and warm (22.1 K) dust components with a linear resolution of 0.04 pc. On the basis of their spatial distributions and physical properties, we interpret that the cold component corresponds to the molecular clouds and the warm one the cold H I clouds, which are thought to be in a transient phase between atomic and molecular media. The warm component is shown to be uniformly distributed at a large spatial scale of ~50 pc, while a several pc-scale gradient along the east-west direction is found in the distribution of the cold component. The former is consistent with a formation scenario of the cold H I clouds through the thermal instability in the warm neutral medium triggered by a 100 pc scale supernova explosion. This scenario, however, cannot produce the latter, several pc-scale gradient in molecular cloud mass. We conclude that the gravitational fragmentation of the cold H I cloud likely created the molecular clouds with spatial scale as small as several pc.

  15. Analysis of cirrus cloud spectral signatures in the far infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maestri, T.; Rizzi, R.; Tosi, E.; Veglio, P.; Palchetti, L.; Bianchini, G.; Di Girolamo, P.; Masiello, G.; Serio, C.; Summa, D.

    2014-07-01

    This paper analyses high spectral resolution downwelling radiance measurements in the far infrared in the presence of cirrus clouds taken by the REFIR-PAD interferometer, deployed at 3500 m above the sea level at the Testa Grigia station (Italy), during the Earth COoling by WAter vapouR emission (ECOWAR) campaign. Atmospheric state and cloud geometry are characterised by the co-located millimeter-wave spectrometer GBMS and by radiosonde profile data, an interferometer (I-BEST) and a Raman lidar system deployed at a nearby location (Cervinia). Cloud optical depth and effective diameter are retrieved from REFIR-PAD data using a limited number of channels in the 820-960 cm-1 interval. The retrieved cloud parameters are the input data for simulations covering the 250-1100 cm-1 band in order to test our ability to reproduce the REFIR-PAD spectra in the presence of ice clouds. Inverse and forward simulations are based on the same radiative transfer code. A priori information concerning cloud ice vertical distribution is used to better constrain the simulation scheme and an analysis of the degree of approximation of the phase function within the radiative transfer codes is performed to define the accuracy of computations. Simulation-data residuals over the REFIR-PAD spectral interval show an excellent agreement in the window region, but values are larger than total measurement uncertainties in the far infrared. Possible causes are investigated. It is shown that the uncertainties related to the water vapour and temperature profiles are of the same order as the sensitivity to the a priori assumption on particle habits for an up-looking configuration. In case of a down-looking configuration, errors due to possible incorrect description of the water vapour profile would be drastically reduced.

  16. FAR-INFRARED IMAGING OBSERVATIONS OF THE CHAMAELEON REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Norio; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Takita, Satoshi; Ueno, Munetaka; Suzuki, Toyoaki

    2012-01-20

    We have carried out far-infrared imaging observations toward the Chamaeleon star-forming region by the Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS) on board the AKARI satellite. The AKARI images cover a total area of 33.79 deg{sup 2}, corresponding to 210 pc{sup 2} at the distance to the source. Using the FIS bands of 65-160 {mu}m and the COBE/DIRBE bands of 60-240 {mu}m, we constructed column density maps of cold (11.7 K) and warm (22.1 K) dust components with a linear resolution of 0.04 pc. On the basis of their spatial distributions and physical properties, we interpret that the cold component corresponds to the molecular clouds and the warm one the cold H I clouds, which are thought to be in a transient phase between atomic and molecular media. The warm component is shown to be uniformly distributed at a large spatial scale of {approx}50 pc, while a several pc-scale gradient along the east-west direction is found in the distribution of the cold component. The former is consistent with a formation scenario of the cold H I clouds through the thermal instability in the warm neutral medium triggered by a 100 pc scale supernova explosion. This scenario, however, cannot produce the latter, several pc-scale gradient in molecular cloud mass. We conclude that the gravitational fragmentation of the cold H I cloud likely created the molecular clouds with spatial scale as small as several pc.

  17. Halos of unified dark matter scalar field

    SciTech Connect

    Bertacca, Daniele; Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino E-mail: nicola.bartolo@pd.infn.it

    2008-05-15

    We investigate the static and spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein's equations for a scalar field with a non-canonical kinetic term, assumed to provide both the dark matter and dark energy components of the Universe. In particular, we give a prescription to obtain solutions (dark halos) whose rotation curve v{sub c}(r) is in good agreement with observational data. We show that there exist suitable scalar field Lagrangians that allow us to describe the cosmological background evolution and the static solutions with a single dark fluid.

  18. Far-infrared colours of nearby late-type galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boselli, A.; Ciesla, L.; Cortese, L.; Buat, V.; Boquien, M.; Bendo, G. J.; Boissier, S.; Eales, S.; Gavazzi, G.; Hughes, T. M.; Pohlen, M.; Smith, M. W. L.; Baes, M.; Bianchi, S.; Clements, D. L.; Cooray, A.; Davies, J.; Gear, W.; Madden, S.; Magrini, L.; Panuzzo, P.; Remy, A.; Spinoglio, L.; Zibetti, S.

    2012-04-01

    We study the far infrared (60-500 μm) colours of late-type galaxies in the Herschel Reference Survey, a K-band selected, volume limited sample of nearby galaxies. The far infrared colours are correlated with each other, with tighter correlations for the indices that are closer in wavelength. We also compare the different colour indices to various tracers of the physical properties of the target galaxies, such as the surface brightness of the ionising and non-ionising stellar radiation, the dust attenuation and the metallicity. The emission properties of the cold dust dominating the far infrared spectral domain are regulated by the properties of the interstellar radiation field. Consistent with that observed in nearby, resolved galaxies, our analysis shows that the ionising and the non-ionising stellar radiation, including that emitted by the most evolved, cold stars, both contribute to the heating of the cold dust component. This work also shows that metallicity is another key parameter characterising the cold dust emission of normal, late-type galaxies. A single modified black body with a grain emissivity index β = 1.5 better fits the observed SPIRE flux density ratios S250/S350 vs. S350/S500 than β = 2, although values of β ≃ 2 are possible in metal rich, high surface brightness galaxies. Values of β ≲ 1.5 better represent metal poor, lowsurface brightness objects. This observational evidence provides strong constraints for dust emission models of normal, late type galaxies. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  19. Effect of the Dosage of Tourmaline on Far Infrared Emission Properties of Tourmaline/Glass Composite Materials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongchen; Meng, Junping; Liang, Jinsheng; Liu, Jie; Zeng, Zhaoyang

    2016-04-01

    Tourmaline/glass composite materials were prepared by sintering at 600 °C using micron-size tourmaline mineral and glass powders as raw materials. The glass has lower melting point than the transition temperature of tourmaline. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the far infrared emissivity of composite was significantly higher than that of either tourmaline or glass powders. A highest far infrared emissivity of 0.925 was obtained when the dosage of tourmaline was 10 wt%. The effects of the amount of tourmaline on the far infrared emission properties of composite was also systematically studied by field emission scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. The tourmaline phase was observed in the composite, showing a particle size of about 70 nm. This meant that the tourmaline particles showed nanocrystallization. They distributed homogenous in the glass matrix when the dosage of tourmaline was not more than 20 wt%. Two reasons were attributed to the improved far infrared emission properties of composite: the particle size of tourmaline-doped was nanocrystallized and the oxidation of Fe2+ (0.076 nm in radius) to Fe3+ (0.064 nm in radius) took place inside the tourmaline-doped. This resulted in the shrinkage of unit cell of the tourmaline in the composite. PMID:27451734

  20. Dark field electron holography for strain measurement.

    PubMed

    Béché, A; Rouvière, J L; Barnes, J P; Cooper, D

    2011-02-01

    Dark field electron holography is a new TEM-based technique for measuring strain with nanometer scale resolution. Here we present the procedure to align a transmission electron microscope and obtain dark field holograms as well as the theoretical background necessary to reconstruct strain maps from holograms. A series of experimental parameters such as biprism voltage, sample thickness, exposure time, tilt angle and choice of diffracted beam are then investigated on a silicon-germanium layer epitaxially embedded in a silicon matrix in order to obtain optimal dark field holograms over a large field of view with good spatial resolution and strain sensitivity. PMID:21333860

  1. Quasi-optical analysis of a far-infrared spatio-spectral space interferometer concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, C.; O'Sullivan, C.; Murphy, J. A.; Donohoe, A.; Savini, G.; Lightfoot, J.; Juanola-Parramon, R.

    2016-07-01

    FISICA (Far-Infrared Space Interferometer Critical Assessment) was a three year study of a far-infrared spatio-spectral double-Fourier interferometer concept. One of the aims of the FISICA study was to set-out a baseline optical design for such a system, and to use a model of the system to simulate realistic telescope beams for use with an end-to-end instrument simulator. This paper describes a two-telescope (and hub) baseline optical design that fulfils the requirements of the FISICA science case, while minimising the optical mass of the system. A number of different modelling techniques were required for the analysis: fast approximate simulation tools such as ray tracing and Gaussian beam methods were employed for initial analysis, with GRASP physical optics used for higher accuracy in the final analysis. Results are shown for the predicted far-field patterns of the telescope primary mirrors under illumination by smooth walled rectangular feed horns. Far-field patterns for both on-axis and off-axis detectors are presented and discussed.

  2. A broadband silicon quarter-wave retarder for far-infrared spectroscopic circular dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Xiaoxiang; Smith, R. J.; Stanislavchuk, T. N.; Sirenko, A. A.; Gilbert, S. N.; Tu, J. J.; Carr, G. L.

    2014-11-01

    The high brightness, broad spectral coverage and pulsed characteristics of infrared synchrotron radiation enable time-resolved spectroscopy under throughput-limited optical systems, as can occur with the high-field magnet cryostat systems used to study electron dynamics and cyclotron resonance by far-infrared techniques. A natural extension for magnetospectroscopy is to sense circular dichroism, i.e. the difference in a material's optical response for left and right circularly polarized light. A key component for spectroscopic circular dichroism is an achromatic 1 4 wave retarder functioning over the spectral range of interest. We report here the development of an in-line retarder using total internal reflection in high-resistivity silicon. We demonstrate its performance by distinguishing electronic excitations of differing handedness for GaAs in a magnetic field. This 1 4 wave retarder is expected to be useful for far-infrared spectroscopy of circular dichroism in many materials.

  3. The Far-Infrared Spectrum of Arp 220

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez-Alfonso, Eduardo; Smith, Howard A.; Fischer, Jacqueline; Cernicharo, Jose

    2005-01-01

    ISO/LWS grating observations of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy Arp 220 shows absorption in molecular lines of OH, H(sub 2)O, CH, NH, and NH(sub 3), as well as in the [O I] 63 micron line and emission in the [C II] 158 micron line. We have modeled the continuum and the emission/absorption of all observed features by means of a non-local radiative transfer code. The continuum from 25 to 1300 microns is modeled as a warm (106 K) nuclear region that is optically thick in the far-infrared, attenuated by an extended region (size 2") that is heated mainly through absorption of nuclear infrared radiation. The molecular absorption in the nuclear region is characterized by high excitation due to the high infrared radiation density. The OH column densities are high toward the nucleus (2 - 6 x 10(exp 17) cm(exp -2)) and the extended region (approximately 2 x 10(exp 17) cm(exp -2)). The H(sub 2)O column density is also high toward the nucleus (2 - 10 x 10(exp 17) cm(exp -2)) and lower in the extended region. The column densities in a halo that accounts for the absorption by the lowest lying levels are similar to what are found in the diffuse clouds toward the star forming regions in the Sgr B2 molecular cloud complex near the Galactic Center. Most notable are the high column densities found for NH and NH(sub 3) toward the nucleus, with values of approximately 1.5 x 10(exp 16) cm(exp -2) and approximately 3 x 10(exp 16) cm(exp -2), respectively, whereas the NH(sub 2) column density is lower than approximately 2 x 10(exp 15) cm(exp -2). A combination of PDRs in the extended region and hot cores with enhanced H(sub 2)O photodissociation and a possible shock contribution in the nuclei may explain the relative column densities of OH and H(sub 2)O, whereas the nitrogen chemistry may be strongly affected by cosmic ray ionization. The [C II] 158 micron line is well reproduced by our models and its deficit relative to the CII/FIR ratio in normal and starburst galaxies is suggested to

  4. The Far-Infrared Spectrum of Arp 220

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez-Alfonso, Eduardo; Smith, Howard A.; Fischer, Jacqueline; Cernicharo, Jose

    2004-01-01

    ISO/LWS grating observations of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy Arp 220 shows absorption in molecular lines of OH, H 2 0 , CH, NH, and "3, well as in the [0 I] 63 pm line and emission in the [C 111 158 pm line. We have modeled the continuum and the emission/absorption of all observed features by means of a non-local radiative transfer code. The continuum from 25 to 1300 pm is modeled AS A WARM (106 K) NUCLEAR REGION THAT IS OPTICALLY THICK IN THE FAR-INFRARED, attenuated by an extended region (size 2") that is heated mainly through absorption of nuclear infrared radiation. The molecular absorption in the nuclear region is characterized by high excitation due to the high infrared radiation density. The OH column densities are high toward the nucleus and the extended region (about 2 x 10 sup 17 cm sup-2). The H2O column density is also high toward the nucleus (2 - 10 x 1017 cm-2) and lower in the extended region. The column densities in a halo that accounts for the absorption by the lowest lying levels are similar to what are found in the diffuse clouds toward the star forming regions in the Sgr B2 molecular cloud complex near the Galactic Center. Most notable are the high column densities found for NH and NH3 toward the nucleus, with values of about 1.5 x 10supl6 cmsup-2 and about 3 x 10supl6 cmsup-2, respectively, whereas the NH2 column density is lower than about 2 x 10sup15 cmsup-2. A combination of PDRs in the extended region and hot cores with enhanced H20 photodissociation and a possible shock contribution in the nuclei may explain the relative column densities of OH and H20, whereas the nitrogen chemistry may be strongly affected by cosmic ray ionization. The [C II] 158 pm line is well reproduced by our models and its "deficit" relative to the CII/FIR ratio in normal and starburst galaxies is suggested to be mainly a consequence of the dominant non-PDR component of far- infrared radiation, ALTHOUGH OUR MODELS ALONE CANNOT RULE OUT EXTINCTION EFFECTS IN THE

  5. Far-Infrared Abundance Measurements in the Outer Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, Alexander L.; Simpson, Janet P.; Haas, Michael R.; Erickson, Edwin F.; Fich, Michel

    1997-11-01

    Five H II regions at large distances from the center of the Galaxy (R = 13-17 kpc) have been observed in the far-IR emission lines of [O III] (52 and 88 μm), [N III] (57 μm), and [S III] (19 μm) using the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. These observations have been combined with Very Large Array radio continuum observations of these sources to determine the abundances of O++, N++, and S++ relative to hydrogen. A simple ionization correction scheme has been used to determine the total abundances of nitrogen and sulfur relative to hydrogen, as well as the relative abundance N/O. For the two sources in common with previous optical studies (S127 and S128), we find good agreement between the far-infrared and optical determinations of N/H, S/H, and N/O. Our results from the outer Galaxy have been combined with previous far-infrared results to determine the abundance gradient of these elements in the Milky Way over a range of Galactocentric radii from R = 0 to R = 17 kpc. Our results are consistent with a gradient of log N/H = -0.111 +/- 0.012 dex kpc-1 and a gradient of log S/H = -0.079 +/- 0.009 dex kpc-1. Our method is not able to determine independently the abundances of both S and O, although other evidence suggests that the O/S ratio is approximately constant. While these results differ from recent optical studies, which suggest that these abundance gradients flatten in the outer Galaxy, we do not yet have sufficient data to rule out such a change in the gradient. The log N/O data are better fitted by a two-step function with a value of -0.50 +/- 0.02 for R < 6.2 kpc and -0.83 +/- 0.04 for R > 6.2 kpc. Both of these values are consistent with secondary production of nitrogen. However, the outer Galaxy oxygen abundances are in the low abundance regime where nitrogen is expected to be produced by primary processes.

  6. THE GALACTIC CENTER IN THE FAR-INFRARED

    SciTech Connect

    Etxaluze, M.; Smith, Howard A.; Tolls, V.; Stark, A. A.; Gonzalez-Alfonso, E.

    2011-10-15

    We analyze the far-infrared dust emission from the Galactic center region, including the circumnuclear disk (CND) and other structures, using Herschel PACS and SPIRE photometric observations. These Herschel data are complemented by unpublished observations by the Infrared Space Observatory Long Wavelength Spectrometer (ISO-LWS), which used parallel mode scans to obtain photometric images of the region with a larger beam than Herschel but with a complementary wavelength coverage and more frequent sampling with 10 detectors observing at 10 different wavelengths in the range from 46 {mu}m to 180 {mu}m, where the emission peaks. We also include data from the Midcourse Space Experiment at 21.3 {mu}m for completeness. We model the combined ISO-LWS continuum plus Herschel PACS and SPIRE photometric data toward the central 2 pc in Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), a region that includes the CND. We find that the far-infrared spectral energy distribution is best represented by a continuum that is the sum of three gray body curves from dust at temperatures of 90, 44.5, and 23 K. We obtain temperature and molecular hydrogen column density maps of the region. We estimate the mass of the inner part of the CND to be {approx}5.0 x 10{sup 4} M{sub sun}, with luminosities: L{sub cavity} {approx} 2.2 x 10{sup 6} L{sub sun} and L{sub CND} {approx} 1.5 x 10{sup 6} L{sub sun} in the central 2 pc radius around Sgr A*. We find from the Herschel and ISO data that the cold component of the dust dominates the total dust mass, with a contribution of {approx}3.2 x 10{sup 4} M{sub sun}; this important cold material had escaped the notice of earlier studies that relied on shorter wavelength observations. The hotter component disagrees with some earlier estimates, but is consistent with measured gas temperatures and with models that imply shock heating or turbulent effects are at work. We find that the dust grain sizes apparently change widely across the region, perhaps in response to the temperature

  7. Scalar-field theory of dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kerson; Xiong, Chi; Zhao, Xiaofei

    2014-05-01

    We develop a theory of dark matter based on a previously proposed picture, in which a complex vacuum scalar field makes the universe a superfluid, with the energy density of the superfluid giving rise to dark energy, and variations from vacuum density giving rise to dark matter. We formulate a nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation to describe the superfluid, treating galaxies as external sources. We study the response of the superfluid to the galaxies, in particular, the emergence of the dark-matter galactic halo, contortions during galaxy collisions and the creation of vortices due to galactic rotation.

  8. The Herschel Space Observatory, Opening the Far Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, John C.

    2009-06-01

    The Herschel Space Observatory (Herschel) is a multi user observatory operated by the European Space Agency with a significant NASA contribution. Herschel features a passively cooled 3.5 meter telescope expected to operate near 78 Kelvin and three cryogenic instruments covering the 670 to 57 μm spectral region. The mission life time, determined by the consumption of 2500 liters of liquid helium, is expected to be at least 3.5 years with at least 3 years of operational lifetime in an L2 orbit. The three payload instruments are the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE), Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS), and the Heterodyne Instrument for Far Infrared (HIFI). SPIRE covers 200-670 μm and is a three band bolometer based photometer and a two band imaging Martin-Puplett FTS with a spectral resolution of up to 600. PACS covers 57-200 μm and is a three band bolometer based photometer and a grating slit spectrometer illuminating photoconductor arrays in two bands with a resolution of up to 5000. HIFI covers 480-1272 GHz and 1440-1910 GHz and is a series of seven dual polarization heterodyne receivers with a spectral resolution up to 5×10^6. The observatory performance, selected science program and upcoming opportunities will be discussed.

  9. The Far-Infrared Spectral Energy Distributions of Quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Belinda J.; West, Donald K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The origin of the infrared emission in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), whose strength is comparable to the optical/ultraviolet (OUV) emission, is generally thought to be a combination of thermal emission from dust and non-thermal, synchrotron emission. Although data are sparse, particularly in the far-infrared, the broad wavelength range of this emission suggests a wide range of temperatures and a combination of AGN and starburst heating mechanisms. The strength of the non-thermal emission is expected to be related to the radio emission. While this scenario is well-established, basic questions, such as the spatial and temperature distribution of the dust, the relative importance of AGN and starburst heating, and the significance of the non-thermal contribution remain largely undetermined. The wide wavelength range of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) combined with its arcmin spatial resolution and increased sensitivity facilitated the observation of a larger subset of the AGN population than previously covered, allowing these questions to be investigated in more detail. This paper will review the spectral energy distributions (SED) of AGN with particular emphasis on the infrared emission and on ISO's contributions to our knowledge. Preliminary results from ISO observations of X-ray selected and high-redshift AGN will be described.

  10. SAFIRE: A Far-Infrared Imaging Spectrometer for SOFIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shafer, Richard A.; Benford, D. J.; Moseley, S. H.; Pajot, F.; Stacey, G. J.; Staguhn, J. G.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The SOFIA airborne observatory will provide a high spatial resolution, low background telescope for far-infrared astrophysical investigations. Selected as a PI instrument for SOFIA, SAFIRE is an imaging Fabry-Perot spectrograph covering 145 micrometers-655 micrometers with spectral resolving power of approx. 1500 (200km/s). This resolution is well matched to extragalactic emission lines and yields the greatest sensitivity for line detection. SAFIRE will make important scientific contributions to the study of the powering of ULIRGs and AGN, the role of CII cooling in extragalactic star formation, the evolution of matter in the early Universe, and the energetics of the Galactic center. SAFIRE will employ a two-dimensional pop-up bolometer array to provide background-limited imaging spectrometry. Superconducting transition edge bolometers and SQUID amplifiers have been developed for these detectors. An engineering prototype of SAFIRE with a small but cutting edge detector array will be available for use during the initial SOFIA operations; further expansion to larger format arrays will be incorporated during SAFIRE's lifetime.

  11. Far-Infrared sources and diffuse emission in M31

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Cong; Helou, George

    1994-01-01

    A study on the far-infrared (FIR) emission of M31 has been carried out with the High Resolution (HiRes) maps (approx. 1 min) derived from IRAS data. Sixty-eight FIR sources are detected in M31, which in general coincide with optical HII regions, and contribute 15, 23, 29, and 23 percent to the fluxes in 12, 25, 60, and 100 micron bands, respectively. The remaining diffuse emission, which dominates the FIR emission of M31, is studied using a dust heating model which utilizes the UV and optical photometry maps and the HI maps available in the literature. It is found that the global dust-to-gas ratio in M31 disk is 6.5 10(exp -3), very close to the dust-to-gas ratio in the solar neighborhood. There is a significant galactocentric gradient of the dust-to-HI-gas ratio, with an e-folding scale length of 9 kpc. The diffuse dust correlates tightly with the HI gas. The model indicates that the non-ionizing UV (913-4000A) radiation from massive and intermediate massive stars contributes only about 30 percent of the heating of the diffuse dust, while the optical-NIR (4000-9000A) radiation from the old stellar population is responsible for the most of the heating.

  12. Ecological Niches for Space Missions in the Far-Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Moseley, S. H.; Shafer, R. A.; Staguhn, J. G.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The far-infrared and submillimeter region (30 micrometers-750 micrometers) has perhaps the greatest potential of all wavelengths for advancement in astronomy. When viewed in terms of the cosmic backgrounds, the fares is extremely important: half of the total luminosity in the Universe is emitted at rest wavelengths approximately 80 - 100 micrometers. At the highest known galaxy redshifts (z approximately equal to 6) this energy is redshifted to approximately 600 micrometers. Existing and planned survey missions have a broad range of capabilities, defined in terms of their spectral coverage, spectral resolution, survey area, and sensitivity. In this 4-dimensional parameter space, the flares is found to be substantially behind most other wavelength bands. The opportunity for future missions with great discovery potential is evident. Such missions will be wellsuited to answering fundamental questions about the history of energy release in the Universe, the formation and evolution of galaxies, and formation of stellar and protoplanetary systems. We discuss the parameter space that can be filled by a few well-chosen space missions, specifically a submillimeter all-sky survey and a far-IR to submillimeter observatory.

  13. Ecological Niches for Space Missions in the Far-Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, D. J.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The far-infrared and submillimeter region (30 micron-750 micron) has perhaps the greatest potential of all wavelengths for advancement in astronomy. When viewed in terms of the cosmic backgrounds, the far-IR is extremely important: half of the total luminosity in the Universe is emitted at rest wavelengths approximately 80-100 microns. At the highest known galaxy redshifts, this energy is redshifted to approximately 600 microns. Existing and planned missions have a broad range of capabilities defined in terms of their spectral coverage, spectral resolution, angular resolution, survey speed, and sensitivity. In this parameter space, the opportunity for future far-IR and submillimeter missions with great discovery potential is evident. Such missions will answer fundamental questions about the history of energy release in the Universe, the formation and evolution of galaxies, and formation of stellar and protoplanetary systems. We discuss the parameter space that can be filled by a few well-chosen space missions, specifically a submillimeter all-sky survey and a far-IR to submillimeter observatory.

  14. The Far-Infrared Polarization Spectrum: First Results and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, R. H.; Dotson, J. L.; Dowell, C. D.; Schleuning, D. A.; Vaillancourt, J. E.

    1999-01-01

    We present data on the polarization of the thermal emission from Galactic Clouds at 60 micrometers, 100 micrometers, and 350 micrometers. There are examples of rising polarization spectra in dense cloud cores [P(350 micrometers/P(100 micrometers) approximately equal to 2], and falling spectra in cloud envelopes [P(350)/P(100 micrometers) approximately equal to 0.6]. We also present data showing that the relationship, P(tau), between polarization and optical depth in cloud cores is different from that in cloud envelopes. We review the principles governing the far-infrared polarization spectrum and discuss applications to the data on P(lambda) and P(tau). We conclude that the cloud envelopes we have observed must contain two populations of grains that differ in their polarization efficiencies and in their emission spectra. We propose a model for cloud envelopes in which the contrasting populations reside in domains of different mean temperatures where the warmer domains contain the aligned grains.

  15. Maximizing Science Capability for Far-Infrared Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic; Leisawitz, Dave; Moseley, Harvey; Staguhn, Johannes; Voellmer, George

    2004-01-01

    The far-infrared and submillimeter region (20 microns-800 microns) has perhaps the greatest potential of all wavelengths for advancement in astronomy. When viewed in terms of the cosmic backgrounds, the far-IR is extremely important: half of the total luminosity in the Universe is emitted at rest wavelengths approximately 80-100 microns. At the highest known galaxy redshifts (z approximately equal to 6) this energy is redshifted to approximately 600 microns. Existing and planned missions have a broad range of capabilities, defined in terms of their spectral coverage, spectral resolution, angular resolution, mapping speed, and sensitivity. In this 5-dimensional parameter space, the far-IR is substantially be-hind most other wavelength bands. The opportunity for future missions with great discovery potential is evident. Such missions will be well-suited to answering fundamental questions about the history of energy release in the Universe, the formation and evolution of galaxies, and formation of stellar and protoplanetary systems. We discuss the parameter space that can be filled by a few well-chosen space missions, specifically a submillimeter all-sky survey and a far-IR to submillimeter observatory. Ultimately, a long baseline submillimeter interferometer is necessary to provide sensitivity and angular resolution.

  16. Far infrared microbolometers for radiometric measurements of ice cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo Phong, Linh; Proulx, Christian; Oulachgar, Hassane; Châteauneuf, François

    2015-02-01

    Focal planes of 80x60 VOx microbolometers with pixel pitch of 104 μm were developed in support of the remote sensing of ice clouds in the spectral range from 7.9 to 50 μm. A new design that relies on the use of central posts to support the microbolometer platform was shown effective in minimizing the structural deformation usually occurred in platforms of large area. A process for goldblack coating and patterning of the focal plane arrays was established. It was found that the goldblack absorbs more than 98 % and 92 % of incident light respectively at wavelengths shorter and longer than 20 μm. Moreover, a spectral uniformity of better than 96 % was achieved in all spectral channels required for the measurements. The noise figures derived from the data acquired over short periods of acquisition time showed the evidence of a correlation with the format of the addressed sub-arrays. This correlation was not observed in the data acquired over long periods of time, suggesting the presence of low frequency effects. Regardless of the length of acquisition time, an improvement of noise level could be confirmed when the operating temperature was increased. The dependence of responsivity on sub-array format and operating temperature was investigated. The noise equivalent power derived from this study was found to be in the range from 45 to 80 pW, showing that the far infrared focal plane arrays are suited for use in the intended application.

  17. Far Infrared and Submillimeter Observations of the Giant Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenstein, R. F.; Harper, D. A.; Hildebrand, R. H.; Keene, J.; Orton, G. S.; Whitcomb, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    Far infrared measurements of the effective temperatures of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune were made. The measurements presented here cover the range from 35-1000 micrometers in relatively narrow bands. The observations at lambda 350 micrometers were made at the 3m NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) of the Mauna Kea Observatory; those at lambda 350 micrometer were made on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). All observations of Saturn were made when the ring inclination to Earth was 1.7 deg assuring an unambiguous measurement of the flux from the disk itself. Mars was used as the calibration reference. The results represent a consistent set of calibration standards. In these measurements, it is assumed that sub b(lambda = 350 micrometers) = T sub (lambda 350 micrometers). Measurements have been made of roughly 50% of the total flux emitted by Jupiter, 65% by Saturn, and 92% by Uranus and Neptune. These measurements therefore permit a considerable reduction in the uncertainties associated with the bolometric thermal outputs of the planets. The effective temperatures (T sub e) and the ratios of emitted to absorbed solar radiation were calculated.

  18. Large-area cryocooling for far-infrared telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Triem T.; O'Connell, Tamara A.; Ku, Jentung; Butler, C. D.; Swanson, Theodore D.

    2003-10-01

    Requirements for cryocooling of large-area heat sources begin to appear in studies of future space missions. Examples are the cooling of (i) the entire structure/mirror of large Far Infrared space telescopes to 4-40K and (ii) cryogenic thermal bus to maintain High Temperature Superconductor electronics to below 75K. The cryocooling system must provide robust/reliable operation and not cause significant vibration to the optical components. But perhaps the most challenging aspect of the system design is the removal of waste heat over a very large area. A cryogenic Loop Heat Pipe (C-LHP)/ cryocooler cooling system was developed with the ultimate goal of meeting the aforementioned requirements. In the proposed cooling concept, the C-LHP collected waste heat from a large-area heat source and then transported it to the cryocooler coldfinger for rejection. A proof-of-concept C-LHP test loop was constructed and performance tested in a vacuum chamber to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed C-LHP to distribute the cryocooler cooling power over a large area. The test loop was designed to operate with any cryogenic working fluid such as Oxygen/Nitrogen (60-120K), Neon (28-40K), Hydrogen (18-30K), and Helium (2.5-4.5K). Preliminary test results indicated that the test loop had a cooling capacity of 4.2W in the 30-40K temperature range with Neon as the working fluid.

  19. Seasonal Disappearance of Far-Infrared Haze in Titan's Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Anderson, C. M.; Flasar, F. M.; Nixon, C. A.; Kunde, V. G.; Achterberg, R. K.; Cottini, V.; deKok, R.; Coustenis, A.; Vinatier, S.; Calcutt, S. B.

    2012-01-01

    A far-infrared emission band attributed to volatile or refractory haze in Titan's stratosphere has been decreasing in intensity since Cassini's arrival in 2004. The 220 cm(sup -1) feature, first seen by the Voyager Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer, has only been found in Titan's winter polar region. The emission peaks at about 140 km altitude near the winter stratospheric temperature minimum. Observations recorded over the period 2004-2012 by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer on Cassini show a decrease in the intensity of this feature by about a factor of four. Possible seasonal causes of this decline are an increase in photolytic destruction of source chemicals at high altitude, a lessening of condensation as solar heating increased, or a weakening of downwelling of vapors. As of early 2012, the 220 cm(sup -1) haze has not yet been detected in the south. The haze composition is unknown, but its decrease is similar to that of HC3N gas in Titan's polar stratosphere, pointing to a nitrile origin.

  20. SEASONAL DISAPPEARANCE OF FAR-INFRARED HAZE IN TITAN'S STRATOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, Donald E.; Anderson, C. M.; Flasar, F. M.; Cottini, V.; Samuelson, R. E.; Nixon, C. A.; Kunde, V. G.; Achterberg, R. K.; De Kok, R.; Coustenis, A.; Vinatier, S.; Calcutt, S. B.

    2012-07-20

    A far-infrared emission band attributed to volatile or refractory haze in Titan's stratosphere has been decreasing in intensity since Cassini's arrival in 2004. The 220 cm{sup -1} feature, first seen by the Voyager Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer, has only been found in Titan's winter polar region. The emission peaks at about 140 km altitude near the winter stratospheric temperature minimum. Observations recorded over the period 2004-2012 by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer on Cassini show a decrease in the intensity of this feature by about a factor of four. Possible seasonal causes of this decline are an increase in photolytic destruction of source chemicals at high altitude, a lessening of condensation as solar heating increased, or a weakening of downwelling of vapors. As of early 2012, the 220 cm{sup -1} haze has not yet been detected in the south. The haze composition is unknown, but its decrease is similar to that of HC{sub 3}N gas in Titan's polar stratosphere, pointing to a nitrile origin.

  1. Far-Infrared Signatures of Hydrogen Bonding in Phenol Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Daniël J; Peters, Atze; Yatsyna, Vasyl; Zhaunerchyk, Vitali; Rijs, Anouk M

    2016-04-01

    One of the most direct ways to study the intrinsic properties of the hydrogen-bond interaction is by gas-phase far-infrared (far-IR) spectroscopy because the modes involving hydrogen-bond deformation are excited in this spectral region; however, the far-IR regime is often ignored in molecular structure identification due to the absence of strong far-IR light sources and difficulty in assigning the observed modes by quantum chemical calculations. Far-IR/UV ion-dip spectroscopy using the free electron laser FELIX was applied to directly probe the intramolecular hydrogen-bond interaction in a family of phenol derivatives. Three vibrational modes have been identified, which are expected to be diagnostic for the hydrogen-bond strength: hydrogen-bond stretching and hydrogen-bond-donating and -accepting OH torsion vibrations. Their position is evaluated with respect to the hydrogen bond strength, that is, the length of the hydrogen-bonded OH length. This shows that the hydrogen bond stretching frequency is diagnostic for the size of the ring that is closed by the hydrogen bond, while the strength of the hydrogen bond can be determined from the hydrogen-bond-donating OH torsion frequency. The combination of these two normal modes allows the direct probing of intramolecular hydrogen-bond characteristics using conformation-selective far-IR vibrational spectroscopy. PMID:26982390

  2. Far-infrared Hall Effect in YBCO films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayson, M.; Rigal, L.; Cerne, J.; Schmadel, D. C.; Drew, H. D.; Kung, P.-J.

    2001-03-01

    In order to gain insight into the so-called "anomalous Hall effect" in Hi Tc superconductors(T.R. Chien, D.A. Brawner, Z.Z. Wang, and N.P. Ong, PRB 43, 6242(1991).) we explore Hall measurements at far-infrared (FIR) frequencies and study the temperature dependence. We separately measure the real and imaginary parts of the magneto-optical response of YBCO thin films to polarized FIR light (15-250 cm-1). The induced rotation of linearly polarized light tells us the real part of the Faraday angle, Re[θ_F(ω)], and the induced dichroism of circularly polarized light tells us Im[θ_F(ω)]. We can then deduce the complex Hall angle without resorting to Kramers-Kronig (K-K) analysis. Since both the Hall angle and the Faraday angle obey sum rules, we can compare to higher frequencies(Cerne, et al., invited talk) and determine additional information about the spectral response at intermediate frequencies. The consistency of these results is verified with K-K analysis.

  3. Design of a far-infrared CHI wiggler free-electron laser

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.H.; Blank, M.; Freund, H.P.

    1995-12-31

    The preliminary design of a far-infrared free-electron laser with a Coaxial Hybrid Iron (CHI) wiggler is presented. The CHI wiggler consists of a central rod and outer ring of alternating ferrite and dielectric spacers. A periodic wiggler field is produced when the CHI structure is immersed in an axial magnetic field. The design under investigation makes use of 1A, 1MV annular electron beam interacting with the TE{sub 01} coaxial waveguide mode at approximately 1 THz ({lambda} = 300 {mu}m). The nominal wiggler period is 0.5 cm and the inner and outer waveguide radii are 0.4 and 0.8 cm, respectively. An axial guide field of 5-10 kG is used. The device performance is modeled with slow-time-scale nonlinear code. Self fields and axial velocity spread are included in the model. Theoretical results will be presented.

  4. A hybrid type undulator for far-infrared FELs at FELI

    SciTech Connect

    Zako, A.; Miyauchi, Y.; Koga, A.

    1995-12-31

    Two FEL facilities of the FELI are now operating in the wavelength range of 1-20 {mu}m. A 3.2-m hybrid type undulator ({lambda}{sub u}=80mm, N=40) has been designed for far-infrared FELs and will be installed in December. It can cover the wavelength of 20-60 {mu}m by changing K-value from 1 to 2.7 for a 28.0-MeV electron beam. It is composed of ferrite magnetic poles and Sm-Co permanent magnets. Commonly wound coils induce alternating magnetic field in ferrite poles. Combination of the induced field and the permanent magnet field can controls the magnetic field between the undulator gap.

  5. A single-photon detector in the far-infrared range

    PubMed

    Komiyama; Astafiev; Antonov; Kutsuwa; Hirai

    2000-01-27

    The far-infrared region (wavelengths in the range 10 microm-1 mm) is one of the richest areas of spectroscopic research, encompassing the rotational spectra of molecules and vibrational spectra of solids, liquids and gases. But studies in this spectral region are hampered by the absence of sensitive detectors--despite recent efforts to improve superconducting bolometers, attainable sensitivities are currently far below the level of single-photon detection. This is in marked contrast to the visible and near-infrared regions (wavelengths shorter than about 1.5 microm), in which single-photon counting is possible using photomultiplier tubes. Here we report the detection of single far-infrared photons in the wavelength range 175-210 microm (6.0-7.1 meV), using a single-electron transistor consisting of a semiconductor quantum dot in high magnetic field. We detect, with a time resolution of a millisecond, an incident flux of 0.1 photons per second on an effective detector area of 0.1 mm2--a sensitivity that exceeds previously reported values by a factor of more than 10(4). The sensitivity is a consequence of the unconventional detection mechanism, in which one absorbed photon leads to a current of 10(6)-10(12) electrons through the quantum dot. By contrast, mechanisms of conventional detectors or photon assisted tunnelling in single-electron transistors produce only a few electrons per incident photon. PMID:10667787

  6. The radio emission from the ultraluminous far-infrared galaxy NGC 6240

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colbert, Edward J. M.; Wilson, Andrew S.; Bland-Hawthorn, Jonathan

    1994-01-01

    We present new radio observations of the 'prototypical' ultraluminous far-infrared galaxy NGC 6240, obtained using the Very Large Array (VLA) at lambda = 20 cm in B-configuration and at lambda = 3.6 cm in A-configuration. These data, along with those from four previous VLA observations, are used to perform a comprehensive study of the radio emission from NGC 6240. Approximately 70% (approximately 3 x 10(exp 23) W/Hz) of the total radio power at 20 cm originates from the nuclear region (approximately less than 1.5 kpc), of which half is emitted by two unresolved (R approximately less than 36 pc) cores and half by a diffuse component. The radio spectrum of the nuclear emission is relatively flat (alpha approximately equals 0.6; S(sub nu) proportional to nu(exp -alpha). The supernova rate required to power the diffuse component is consistent with that predicted by the stellar evolution models of Rieke et al. (1985). If the radio emission from the two compact cores is powered by supernova remnants, then either the remnants overlap and form hot bubbles in the cores, or they are very young (approximately less than 100 yr.) Nearly all of the remaining 30% of the total radio power comes from an 'armlike' region extending westward from the nuclear region. The western arm emission has a steep spectrum (alpha approximately equals 1.0), suggestive of aging effects from synchrotron or inverse-Compton losses, and is not correlated with starlight; we suggest that it is synchrotron emission from a shell of material driven by a galactic superwind. Inverse Compton scattering of far-infrared photons in the radio sources is expected to produce an X-ray flux of approximately 2 - 6 x 10(exp -14) ergs/s/sq cm in the 2 - 10 keV band. No significant radio emission is detected from or near the possible ultramassive 'dark core'.

  7. Far-Infrared Water Emissions from Magnetohydrodynamic Shock Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Michael J.; Neufeld, David A.

    1996-01-01

    Nondissociative, magnetohydrodynamic, C-type shock waves are expected to be a prodigious source of far-infrared water emissions in dense interstellar regions. We have constructed a model to calculate the farinfrared H20 line spectra that emerge from such shocks. Using the best estimates currently available for the radiative cooling rate and the degree of ion-neutral coupling within the shocked gas, we modeled the temperature structure of MHD shocks using standard methods in which the charged and neutral particles are treated separately as two weakly coupled, interpenetrating fluids. Then we solved the equations of statistical equilibrium to find the populations of the lowest 179 and 170 rotational states of ortho- and para-H2O We have completed an extensive parameter study to determine the emergent H2O line luminosities as a function of preshock density in the range n(H2) equals 10(exp 4) - 10(sup 6.5)/cc and shock velocity in the range upsilon(sub s) = 5 - 40 km/ s. We find that numerous rotational transitions of water are potentially observable using the Infrared Space Observatory and the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite and may be used as diagnostics of the shocked gas. We have also computed the rotational and ro-vibrational emissions expected from H2, CO, and OH, and we discuss how complementary observations of such emissions may be used to further constrain the shock conditions. In common with previous studies, we come close to matching the observed H2, and high-J CO emissions from the Orion-KL star-forming region on the basis of a single shock model. We present our predictions for the strengths of H2O line emission from the Orion shock, and we show how our results may be scaled to other regions where molecular shocks are likely to be present.

  8. A Hot-Electron Far-Infrared Direct Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karasik, B. S.; McGrath, W. R.; LeDuc, H. G.

    2000-01-01

    A new approach is proposed to improve the sensitivity of direct-detection bolometers at millimeter, submillimeter and far-infrared wavelengths. The idea is to adjust a speed of the thermal relaxation of hot-electrons in a nanometer size normal metal or super-conductive transition edge bolometer by controlling the elastic electron mean free path. If the bolometer contacts are made of a superconductor with high critical temperature (Nb, Pb etc.) then the thermal diffusion into the contacts is absent because of the Andreev's reflection and the electron-phonon relaxation is the only mechanism for heat removal. The relaxation rate should behave as T(sup 4)l at subkelvin temperatures (l is the electron elastic mean free path) and can be reduced by factor of 10-100 by decreasing l. Then an antenna- or waveguide-coupled bolometer with a time constant about 10(exp -3) to 10(exp -5) s at T approximately equals 0.1-0.3 K will exhibit photon-noise limited performance in millimeter and submillimeter range. The choice of the bolometer material is a tradeoff between a low electron heat capacity and fabrication. A state-of-the-art bolometer currently offers NEP = 10(exp -17) W(Square root of (Hz)) at 100 mK along with a approximately equals 2 msec time constant. The bolometer we propose will have a figure-of-merit, NEP(square root (r)), which is 10(exp 3) times smaller. This will allow for a tremendous increase in speed which will have a significant impact for observational mapping applications. Alternatively, the bolometer could operate at higher temperature with still superior sensitivity. This device can significantly increase a science return and reduce the cost for future observational missions. This research was performed by the Center for Space Microelectronics Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, and was sponsored by NASA, Office of Space Science.

  9. AKARI far-infrared maps of the zodiacal dust bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ootsubo, Takafumi; Doi, Yasuo; Takita, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Takao; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Matsuura, Shuji; Usui, Fumihiko; Arimatsu, Ko

    2016-04-01

    Zodiacal emission is thermal emission from interplanetary dust. Its contribution to the sky brightness is non-negligible in the region near the ecliptic plane, even in the far-infrared (far-IR) wavelength regime. We analyze zodiacal emission observed by the AKARI far-IR all-sky survey, which covers 97% of the entire sky at arcminute-scale resolution in four photometric bands, with central wavelengths of 65, 90, 140, and 160 μm. AKARI detected small-scale structures in the zodiacal dust cloud, including the asteroidal dust bands and the circumsolar ring, at far-IR wavelengths. Although the smooth component of the zodiacal emission structure in the far-IR sky can be reproduced well by models based on existing far-IR observations, previous zodiacal emission models have discrepancies in the small-scale structures compared with observations. We investigate the geometry of the small-scale dust-band structures in the AKARI far-IR all-sky maps and construct template maps of the asteroidal dust bands and the circumsolar ring components based on the AKARI far-IR maps. In the maps, ± 1.4°, ± 2.1°, and ± 10° asteroidal dust-band structures are detected in the 65 μm and 90 μm bands. A possible ± 17° band may also have been detected. No evident dust-band structures are identified in either the 140 μm or the 160 μm bands. By subtracting the dust-band templates constructed in this paper, we can achieve a similar level of flux calibration of the AKARI far-IR all-sky maps in the |β| < 40° region to that in the region for |β| > 40°.

  10. AKARI far-infrared maps of the zodiacal dust bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ootsubo, Takafumi; Doi, Yasuo; Takita, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Takao; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Matsuura, Shuji; Usui, Fumihiko; Arimatsu, Ko

    2016-06-01

    Zodiacal emission is thermal emission from interplanetary dust. Its contribution to the sky brightness is non-negligible in the region near the ecliptic plane, even in the far-infrared (far-IR) wavelength regime. We analyze zodiacal emission observed by the AKARI far-IR all-sky survey, which covers 97% of the entire sky at arcminute-scale resolution in four photometric bands, with central wavelengths of 65, 90, 140, and 160 μm. AKARI detected small-scale structures in the zodiacal dust cloud, including the asteroidal dust bands and the circumsolar ring, at far-IR wavelengths. Although the smooth component of the zodiacal emission structure in the far-IR sky can be reproduced well by models based on existing far-IR observations, previous zodiacal emission models have discrepancies in the small-scale structures compared with observations. We investigate the geometry of the small-scale dust-band structures in the AKARI far-IR all-sky maps and construct template maps of the asteroidal dust bands and the circumsolar ring components based on the AKARI far-IR maps. In the maps, ± 1.4°, ± 2.1°, and ± 10° asteroidal dust-band structures are detected in the 65 μm and 90 μm bands. A possible ± 17° band may also have been detected. No evident dust-band structures are identified in either the 140 μm or the 160 μm bands. By subtracting the dust-band templates constructed in this paper, we can achieve a similar level of flux calibration of the AKARI far-IR all-sky maps in the |β| < 40° region to that in the region for |β| > 40°.

  11. Far-Infrared Studies of Strongly Correlated Electron Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Anita

    1995-01-01

    Results of far-infrared and IR reflection measurements of Y_{1-x}Pr_ {x}Ba_2Cu _3O_{7-delta} , U_{1-x}Th _{x}NiSn and FeSi are presented. The experiments were performed over a spectral range of 10 -3000 cm^{-1} and a temperature range of 10-300 K using the technique of fast Fourier transform spectroscopy. The films of the Y_{1 -x}Pr_{x}Ba _2Cu_3O _{7-delta} series were grown using a laser ablation technique and included both superconducting and insulating samples. A number of phonon modes were identified in the reflectance spectrum of these compounds. The optical measurements did not show evidence of a BCS gap in the superconducting compounds but were consistent with the resistivity behavior of the samples. The results of the reflectance measurements on U_{1-x}Th_ {x}NiSn alloys are consistent with the semiconducting-to-metallic transition observed in these materials. Four phonon lines were observed in the reflectance spectra at all temperatures. In addition, a temperature and frequency dependent mode was observed at low frequencies. From the conductivity calculations a decrease in the oscillator strength was observed at low temperatures suggesting a partial destruction of the semiconducting gap. The reflectance measurements of FeSi were performed over the spectral range of 10-700 cm^{ -1}. The reflectance shows an unusual temperature dependence between 129 and 95 K, a range where the resistivity shows very little change. This suggests that a new phenomenon might be occurring in this temperature range. Two phonon modes were identified in the conductivity spectra at 200 and 325 cm^{-1}.

  12. DARK-FIELD ILLUMINATION SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Norgren, D.U.

    1962-07-24

    A means was developed for viewing objects against a dark background from a viewing point close to the light which illuminates the objects and under conditions where the back scattering of light by the objects is minimal. A broad light retro-directing member on the opposite side of the objects from the light returns direct light back towards the source while directing other light away from the viewing point. The viewing point is offset from the light and thus receives only light which is forwardly scattered by an object while returning towards the source. The object is seen, at its true location, against a dark background. The invention is particularly adapted for illuminating and viewing nuclear particle tracks in a liquid hydrogen bubble chamber through a single chamber window. (AEC)

  13. Recent developments of the JET far-infrared interferometer-polarimeter diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Boboc, A.; Murari, A.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2010-10-15

    The far-infrared diagnostic provides essential internal measurements of the plasma density and magnetic field topology (q-profile via Faraday rotation angle) in real-time. The diagnostic capabilities have recently been extended in a number of key areas. Fast interferometer data, with 10 {mu}s time resolution, and a new MATLAB code have allowed improved analysis of the evolution of density profiles during fast events such as vertical plasma displacements, edge localized mode, pellet fuelling, and disruptions. Using the polarimeter measurements in real-time, a new calibration procedure has been developed based on a propagation code using the Mueller matrix formalism. A further major upgrade of the system is presently underway: adding a second color laser to the vertical channels and implementing a new phase counter based on analog zero crossing and field-programmable gate array boards.

  14. The polarization of the far-infrared radiation from the Galactic center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, M. W.; Davidson, J. A.; Morris, M.; Novak, G.; Platt, S. R.

    1988-01-01

    The first detection of linear polarization of the far-infrared (100-micron) radiation from the about 3-pc-diameter dust ring surrounding the galactic nucleus is reported. The percentage of polarization is between 1 and 2 percent at the three measured positions. It is argued that the polarized radiation is produced by thermal emission from elongated interstellar grains oriented by the local magnetic field. The dust ring is optically thin at 100 microns; therefore the observations sample dust through the entire depth of the cloud and are free of confusing effects due to embedded sources, scattering, or selective absorption. These data provide the first information about the configuration of the magnetic field in the dust ring.

  15. Testing Models of Low-Excitation Photodissociation Regions with Far-Infrared Observations of Reflection Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young Owl, Rolaine C.; Meixner, Margaret M.; Fong, David; Haas, Michael R.; Rudolph, Alexander L.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents Kuiper Airborne Observatory observations of the photodissociation regions (PDRs) in nine reflection nebulae. These observations include the far-infrared atomic fine-structure lines of [O I] 63 and 145 μm, [C II] 158 μm, and [Si II] 35 μm and the adjacent far-infrared continuum to these lines. Our analysis of these far-infrared observations provides estimates of the physical conditions in each reflection nebula. In our sample of reflection nebulae, the stellar effective temperatures are 10,000-30,000 K, the gas densities are 4×102-2×104 cm-3, the gas temperatures are 200-690 K, and the incident far-ultraviolet intensities are 300-8100 times the ambient interstellar radiation field strength (1.2×10-4 ergs cm-2 s-1 sr-1). Our observations are compared with current theory for low-excitation PDRs. The [C II] 158 μm to [O I] 63 μm line ratio decreases with increasing incident far-ultraviolet intensity. This trend is due in part to a positive correlation of gas density with incident far-ultraviolet intensity. We show that this correlation arises from a balance of pressure between the H II region and the surrounding PDR. The [O I] 145 to 63 μm line ratio is higher (greater than 0.1) than predicted and is insensitive to variations in incident far-ultraviolet intensity and gas density. The stellar temperature has little effect on the heating efficiency that primarily had the value 3×10-3, within a factor of 2. This result agrees with a model that modifies the photoelectric heating theory to account for color temperature effects and predicts that the heating efficiencies would vary by less than a factor of 3 with the color temperature of the illuminating field. In addition to the single-pointing observations, an [O I] 63 μm scan was done across the molecular ridge of one of our sample reflection nebulae, NGC 1977. The result appears to support previous suggestions that the ionization front of this well-studied PDR is not purely edge-on.

  16. Measurement of acousto-optic interaction in germanium in the far infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Duerr, W.; Schmidt, W.

    1985-10-01

    Acoustooptic interaction in a germanium Bragg cell, which was operated as an acoustic resonator, was measured at 119 microns relative to 10.6 microns. The figure of merit of the material was found to be approximately 20 percent higher in the far infrared. The performance of various acoustooptic materials in the far infrared is briefly discussed. 5 references.

  17. Constraining the Lyα escape fraction with far-infrared observations of Lyα emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Wardlow, Julie L.; Calanog, J.; Cooray, A.; Malhotra, S.; Zheng, Z.; Rhoads, J.; Finkelstein, S.; Bock, J.; Bridge, C.; Ciardullo, R.; Gronwall, C.; Conley, A.; Farrah, D.; Gawiser, E.; Heinis, S.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Marsden, G.; Oliver, S. J.; Riechers, D.; and others

    2014-05-20

    We study the far-infrared properties of 498 Lyα emitters (LAEs) at z = 2.8, 3.1, and 4.5 in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South, using 250, 350, and 500 μm data from the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey and 870 μm data from the LABOCA ECDFS Submillimeter Survey. None of the 126, 280, or 92 LAEs at z = 2.8, 3.1, and 4.5, respectively, are individually detected in the far-infrared data. We use stacking to probe the average emission to deeper flux limits, reaching 1σ depths of ∼0.1 to 0.4 mJy. The LAEs are also undetected at ≥3σ in the stacks, although a 2.5σ signal is observed at 870 μm for the z = 2.8 sources. We consider a wide range of far-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs), including an M82 and an Sd galaxy template, to determine upper limits on the far-infrared luminosities and far-infrared-derived star formation rates of the LAEs. These star formation rates are then combined with those inferred from the Lyα and UV emission to determine lower limits on the LAEs' Lyα escape fraction (f {sub esc}(Lyα)). For the Sd SED template, the inferred LAEs f {sub esc}(Lyα) are ≳ 30% (1σ) at z = 2.8, 3.1, and 4.5, which are all significantly higher than the global f {sub esc}(Lyα) at these redshifts. Thus, if the LAEs f {sub esc}(Lyα) follows the global evolution, then they have warmer far-infrared SEDs than the Sd galaxy template. The average and M82 SEDs produce lower limits on the LAE f {sub esc}(Lyα) of ∼10%-20% (1σ), all of which are slightly higher than the global evolution of f {sub esc}(Lyα), but consistent with it at the 2σ-3σ level.

  18. Seeing through smoke and flames: a challenge for imaging capabilities, met thanks to digital holography at far infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locatelli, Massimiliano; Pugliese, Eugenio; Paturzo, Melania; Bianco, Vittorio; Finizio, Andrea; Pelagotti, Anna; Poggi, Pasquale; Miccio, Lisa; Meucci, Riccardo; Ferraro, Pietro

    2013-04-01

    We show that imaging alive people through smoke and flames is possible by Digital Holography at far infrared. This capability is of crucial importance in the security field to provide a new tool for firefighters and first responders in fire accidents. So far, the existing thermographic infrared cameras allows to see people through dense smoke, sensing the radiation emitted by human body. However, these devices are often blinded due to the flame emission, which is collected by the zoom lenses employed for the scope, and the information of the targets beyond the flames is unavoidably lost. On the contrary, lensless Digital Holography at far infrared avoids the typical saturation of the camera detectors returning clear images of targets seen behind veils of smoke and curtains of flames. Moreover, we demonstrate that human-size holograms can be recorded, allowing to move this promising technology outside the lab for safety applications.

  19. The Orion Nebula in the Far-Infrared: FIFI-LS/SOFIA Mapped the PDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Randolf

    2016-01-01

    The Orion Nebula is the closest massive star forming region allowing us to study the physical conditions in such a region with high spatial resolution. We used the far infrared integral-field spectrometer, FIFI-LS, on-board the airborne observatory SOFIA to study the atomic and molecular gas in the Orion Nebula at medium spectral resolution. The large maps in several fine structure lines obtained with FIFI-LS cover the nebula from the BN/KL-object in the west to the bar in the south-east and gull feature in north-east. The fine structure lines can be used as a diagnostic for the physical conditions of the photon-dominated region (PDR), the interface between the HII-region and the molecular cloud.

  20. The fine-structure intervals of (N-14)+ by far-infrared laser magnetic resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, John M.; Varberg, Thomas D.; Evenson, Kenneth M.; Cooksy, Andrew L.

    1994-01-01

    The far-infrared laser magnetic resonance spectra associated with both fine-structure transitions in (N-14)+ in its ground P-3 state have been recorded. This is the first laboratory observation of the J = 1 left arrow 0 transition and its frequency has been determined two orders of magnitude more accurately than previously. The remeasurement of the J = 2 left arrow 1 spectrum revealed a small error in the previous laboratory measurements. The fine-structure splittings (free of hyperfine interactions) determined in this work are (delta)E(sub 10) = 1461.13190 (61) GHz, (delta)E(sub 21) = 2459.38006 (37) GHz. Zero-field transition frequencies which include the effects of hyperfine structure have also been calculated. Refined values for the hyperfine constants and the g(sub J) factors have been obtained.

  1. The Interferometer As An Optical Mixer: A Novel Approach To Far Infrared Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Zerbini, M.; Franconi, E

    2008-03-12

    In Tokamaks, the Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) radiation frequency spans from 80 GHz up to 1 THz for high magnetic field (Bt>5 T) and higher harmonics (n>2). This frequency ranges between Microwaves and Far Infrared (FIR), moulding an intrinsically hybrid nature for ECE diagnostics{sup (1)}. Signal detection is carried out in two surprisingly different ways: electronics and optics. The two detection methods, beyond the chief external differences, are conceptually the same. The dualism often reflects the mindset of the laboratory performing the measurement. In this paper we discuss a different approach to an integrated instrument. A traditional quasi-optical interferometer is the first down-conversion stage with intrinsic broad band capability. Its output signal can then be analysed with a radio-style detection, in the amenable kHz frequency range.

  2. The Interferometer As An Optical Mixer: A Novel Approach To Far Infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerbini, M.; Franconi, E.

    2008-03-01

    In Tokamaks, the Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) radiation frequency spans from 80 GHz up to 1 THz for high magnetic field (Bt>5 T) and higher harmonics (n>2). This frequency ranges between Microwaves and Far Infrared (FIR), moulding an intrinsically hybrid nature for ECE diagnostics(1). Signal detection is carried out in two surprisingly different ways: electronics and optics. The two detection methods, beyond the chief external differences, are conceptually the same. The dualism often reflects the mindset of the laboratory performing the measurement. In this paper we discuss a different approach to an integrated instrument. A traditional quasi-optical interferometer is the first down-conversion stage with intrinsic broad band capability. Its output signal can then be analysed with a radio-style detection, in the amenable kHz frequency range.

  3. Can dark matter be a scalar field?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesus, J. F.; Pereira, S. H.; Malatrasi, J. L. G.; Andrade-Oliveira, F.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we study a real scalar field as a possible candidate to explain the dark matter in the universe. In the context of a free scalar field with quadratic potential, we have used Union 2.1 SN Ia observational data jointly with a Planck prior over the dark matter density parameter to set a lower limit on the dark matter mass as m>=0.12H0‑1 eV (c=hbar=1). For the recent value of the Hubble constant indicated by the Hubble Space Telescope, namely H0=73±1.8 km s‑1Mpc‑1, this leads to m>=1.56×10‑33 eV at 99.7% c.l. Such value is much smaller than m~ 10‑22 eV previously estimated for some models. Nevertheless, it is still in agreement with them once we have not found evidences for a upper limit on the scalar field dark matter mass from SN Ia analysis. In practice, it confirms free real scalar field as a viable candidate for dark matter in agreement with previous studies in the context of density perturbations, which include scalar field self interaction.

  4. Far-infrared observations of an unbiased sample of gamma-ray burst host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohn, S. A.; Michałowski, M. J.; Bourne, N.; Baes, M.; Fritz, J.; Cooray, A.; De Looze, I.; De Zotti, G.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Furlanetto, C.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Maddox, S. J.; Scott, D.; Smith, D. J. B.; Smith, M. W. L.; Symeonidis, M.; Valiante, E.

    2015-04-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most energetic phenomena in the Universe; believed to result from the collapse and subsequent explosion of massive stars. Even though it has profound consequences for our understanding of their nature and selection biases, little is known about the dust properties of the galaxies hosting GRBs. We present analysis of the far-infrared properties of an unbiased sample of 20 BeppoSAX and Swift GRB host galaxies (at an average redshift of z = 3.1) located in the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey, the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey, the Herschel Fornax Cluster Survey, the Herschel Stripe 82 Survey and the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey, totalling 880 deg2, or ˜3 per cent of the sky in total. Our sample selection is serendipitous, based only on whether the X-ray position of a GRB lies within a large-scale Herschel survey - therefore our sample can be considered completely unbiased. Using deep data at wavelengths of 100-500 μm, we tentatively detected 1 out of 20 GRB hosts located in these fields. We constrain their dust masses and star formation rates (SFRs), and discuss these in the context of recent measurements of submillimetre galaxies and ultraluminous infrared galaxies. The average far-infrared flux of our sample gives an upper limit on SFR of <114 M⊙ yr-1. The detection rate of GRB hosts is consistent with that predicted assuming that GRBs trace the cosmic SFR density in an unbiased way, i.e. that the fraction of GRB hosts with SFR > 500 M⊙ yr-1 is consistent with the contribution of such luminous galaxies to the cosmic star formation density.

  5. Observations of downwelling far-infrared emission at Table Mountain California made by the FIRST instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Cageao, Richard P.; Mast, Jeffrey C.; Kratz, David P.; Latvakoski, Harri; Johnson, David G.

    2016-02-01

    The Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) instrument measured downwelling far-infrared (far-IR) and mid-infrared (mid-IR) atmospheric spectra from 200 to 800 cm-1 at Table Mountain, California (elevation 2285 m). Spectra were recorded during a field campaign conducted in early autumn 2012, subsequent to a detailed laboratory calibration of the instrument. Radiosondes launched coincident with the FIRST observations provide temperature and water vapor profiles for model simulation of the measured spectra. Results from the driest day of the campaign (October 19, with less than 3 mm precipitable water) are presented here. Considerable spectral development is observed between 400 and 600 cm-1. Over 90% of the measured radiance in this interval originates within 2.8 km of the surface. The existence of temperature inversions close to the surface necessitates atmospheric layer thicknesses as fine as 10 m in the radiative transfer model calculations. A detailed assessment of the uncertainties in the FIRST measurements and in the model calculations shows that the measured radiances agree with the model radiance calculations to within their combined uncertainties. The uncertainties in modeled radiance are shown to be larger than the measurement uncertainties. Overall, the largest source of uncertainty is in the water vapor concentration used in the radiative transfer calculations. Proposed new instruments with markedly higher measurement accuracy than FIRST will be able to measure the far-IR spectrum to much greater accuracy than it can be computed. As such, accurate direct measurements of the far-IR, and not solely calculations, are essential to the assessment of climate change.

  6. Exploring the early dust-obscured phase of galaxy formation with blind mid-/far-infrared spectroscopic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonato, M.; Negrello, M.; Cai, Z.-Y.; De Zotti, G.; Bressan, A.; Lapi, A.; Gruppioni, C.; Spinoglio, L.; Danese, L.

    2014-03-01

    While continuum imaging data at far-infrared to submillimetre wavelengths have provided tight constraints on the population properties of dusty star-forming galaxies up to high redshifts, future space missions like the Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) and ground-based facilities like the Cerro Chajnantor Atacama Telescope (CCAT) will allow detailed investigations of their physical properties via their mid-/far-infrared line emission. We present updated predictions for the number counts and the redshift distributions of star-forming galaxies spectroscopically detectable by these future missions. These predictions exploit a recent upgrade of evolutionary models, that include the effect of strong gravitational lensing, in the light of the most recent Herschel and South Pole Telescope data. Moreover the relations between line and continuum infrared luminosity are re-assessed, considering also differences among source populations, with the support of extensive simulations that take into account dust obscuration. The derived line luminosity functions are found to be highly sensitive to the spread of the line to continuum luminosity ratios. Estimates of the expected numbers of detections per spectral line by SPICA/SpicA FAR-infrared Instrument (SAFARI) and by CCAT surveys for different integration times per field of view at fixed total observing time are presented. Comparing with the earlier estimates by Spinoglio et al. we find, in the case of SPICA/SAFARI, differences within a factor of 2 in most cases, but occasionally much larger. More substantial differences are found for CCAT.

  7. High resolution far-infrared observations of the evolved H II region M16

    SciTech Connect

    McBreen, B.; Fazio, G.G.; Jaffe, D.T.

    1982-03-01

    M16 is an evolved, extremely density bounded H II region, which now consists only of a series of ionization fronts at molecular cloud boundaries. The source of ionization is the OB star cluster (NGC 6611) which is about 5 x 10/sup 6/ years old. We used the CFA/UA 102 cm balloon-borne telescope to map this region and detected three far-infrared (far-IR) sources embedded in an extended ridge of emission. Source I is an unresolved far-IR source embedded in a molecular cloud near a sharp ionization front. An H/sub 2/O maser is associated with this source, but no radio continuum emission has been observed. The other two far-IR sources (II and III) are associated with ionized gas-molecular cloud interfaces, with the far-IR radiation arising from dust at the boundary heated by the OB cluster. Source II is located at the southern prominent neutral intrusion with its associated bright rims and dark ''elephant trunk'' globules that delineate the current progress of the ionization front into the neutral material, and Source III arises at the interface of the northern molecular cloud fragment.

  8. GaAs Blocked-Impurity-Band Detectors for Far-Infrared Astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Cardozo, Benjamin Lewin

    2004-12-21

    High-purity and doped GaAs films have been grown by Liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) for development of a blocked impurity band (BIB) detector for far-infrared radiation. The film growth process developed has resulted in the capability to grow GaAs with a net active impurity concentration below 1 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}, ideal for the blocking layer of the BIB detector. The growth of n-type LPE GaAs films with donor concentrations below the metal-insulator transition, as required for the absorbing layer of a BIB detector, has been achieved. The control of the donor concentration, however, was found to be insufficient for detector production. The growth by LPE of a high-purity film onto a commercially grown vapor-phase epitaxial (VPE) n-type GaAs doped absorbing layer resulted in a BIB device that showed a significant reduction in the low-temperature dark current compared to the absorbing layer only. Extended optical response was not detected, most likely due to the high compensation of the commercially grown GaAs absorbing layer, which restricts the depletion width of the device.

  9. Far-infrared pedestrian detection for advanced driver assistance systems using scene context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guohua; Liu, Qiong; Wu, Qingyao

    2016-04-01

    Pedestrian detection is one of the most critical but challenging components in advanced driver assistance systems. Far-infrared (FIR) images are well-suited for pedestrian detection even in a dark environment. However, most current detection approaches just focus on pedestrian patterns themselves, where robust and real-time detection cannot be well achieved. We propose a fast FIR pedestrian detection approach, called MAP-HOGLBP-T, to explicitly exploit the scene context for the driver assistance system. In MAP-HOGLBP-T, three algorithms are developed to exploit the scene contextual information from roads, vehicles, and background objects of high homogeneity, and we employ the Bayesian approach to build a classifier learner which respects the scene contextual information. We also develop a multiframe approval scheme to enhance the detection performance based on spatiotemporal continuity of pedestrians. Our empirical study on real-world datasets has demonstrated the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method. The performance is shown to be better than that of state-of-the-art low-level feature-based approaches.

  10. A staggered-array wiggler for far-infrared, free-electron laser operation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.C.; Wang, H.C.; Pantell, R.H.; Feinstein, J.; Lewellen, J.W. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1994-05-01

    A staggered-array wiggler for a far-infrared free-electron laser (FEL) has been built at Stanford, and its magnetic properties have been tested. This type of wiggler has several desirable features: high wiggler field at short wiggler periods, wavelength tuning by a solenoid current, electron beam confinement by a solenoid field, and looser machining tolerances. A 10.8-kilogauss peak wiggler field has been measured at a 7.0-kilogauss solenoid field for a 1.0-cm wiggler period and a 2.0-mm gap. The small-signal gain has been calculated analytically and by computer simulation for a 0.5-m long wiggler. For an 8-A, 9-ps current pulse and a 3.3-MeV electron beam, 5-dB gain is predicted. Twenty- to thirty-percent wavelength tuning can be achieved by adjusting the solenoid field and still maintain reasonable small-signal gain. The pulsed-wire technique was employed to test the field uniformity of this novel wiggler, and the measured field variation was about 1%.

  11. Dark Field Microscopy for Analytical Laboratory Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augspurger, Ashley E.; Stender, Anthony S.; Marchuk, Kyle; Greenbowe, Thomas J.; Fang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    An innovative and inexpensive optical microscopy experiment for a quantitative analysis or an instrumental analysis chemistry course is described. The students have hands-on experience with a dark field microscope and investigate the wavelength dependence of localized surface plasmon resonance in gold and silver nanoparticles. Students also…

  12. Dark-field third-harmonic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doronina-Amitonova, L. V.; Lanin, A. A.; Fedotov, I. V.; Ivashkina, O. I.; Zots, M. A.; Fedotov, A. B.; Anokhin, K. V.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2013-08-01

    Coherent cancellation of third-harmonic generation (THG) in a tightly focused laser beam is shown to enable a label-free imaging of individual neurons in representative brain tissues. The intrinsic coherence of third-harmonic buildup and cancellation combined with the nonlinear nature of the process enhances the locality of the dark signal in THG, translating into a remarkable sharpness of dark-field THG images. Unique advantages of this technique for high-contrast subcellular-resolution neuroimaging are demonstrated by comparing THG images of hippocampus and somatosensory cortex in a mouse brain with images visualizing fluorescent protein biomarkers.

  13. The Influence of Chain Dynamics on theFar-Infrared Spectrum of Liquid Methanol

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, K.N.; Wiedemann, H.; ,

    2005-07-11

    Far-infrared absorption spectroscopy is used to investigate the low frequency ({center_dot} 100 cm{sup -1}) intermolecular interactions in liquid methanol. Using an intense source of far-infrared radiation, modes are elucidated at approximately 30 cm{sup -1} and 70 cm{sup -1} in the absorption spectrum. These modes are believed to arise from intermolecular bending and librational motions respectively and are successfully reproduced in an ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of methanol.

  14. Dark-field differential dynamic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Bayles, Alexandra V; Squires, Todd M; Helgeson, Matthew E

    2016-02-28

    Differential dynamic microscopy (DDM) is an emerging technique to measure the ensemble dynamics of colloidal and complex fluid motion using optical microscopy in systems that would otherwise be difficult to measure using other methods. To date, DDM has successfully been applied to linear space invariant imaging modes including bright-field, fluorescence, confocal, polarised, and phase-contrast microscopy to study diverse dynamic phenomena. In this work, we show for the first time how DDM analysis can be extended to dark-field imaging, i.e. a linear space variant (LSV) imaging mode. Specifically, we present a particle-based framework for describing dynamic image correlations in DDM, and use it to derive a correction to the image structure function obtained by DDM that accounts for scatterers with non-homogeneous intensity distributions as they move within the imaging plane. To validate the analysis, we study the Brownian motion of gold nanoparticles, whose plasmonic structure allows for nanometer-scale particles to be imaged under dark-field illumination, in Newtonian liquids. We find that diffusion coefficients of the nanoparticles can be reliably measured by dark-field DDM, even under optically dense concentrations where analysis via multiple-particle tracking microrheology fails. These results demonstrate the potential for DDM analysis to be applied to linear space variant forms of microscopy, providing access to experimental systems unavailable to other imaging modes. PMID:26822331

  15. Dark Field Microscopy for Analytical Laboratory Courses

    SciTech Connect

    Augspurger, Ashley E; Stender, Anthony S; Marchuk, Kyle; Greenbowe, Thomas J; Fang, Ning

    2014-06-10

    An innovative and inexpensive optical microscopy experiment for a quantitative analysis or an instrumental analysis chemistry course is described. The students have hands-on experience with a dark field microscope and investigate the wavelength dependence of localized surface plasmon resonance in gold and silver nanoparticles. Students also observe and measure individual crystal growth during a replacement reaction between copper and silver nitrate. The experiment allows for quantitative, qualitative, and image data analyses for undergraduate students.

  16. Determining soil water content of salt-affected soil using far-infrared spectra: laboratory experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lu; Wang, Zhichun; Nyongesah, Maina John; Liu, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Rapid determination of soil water content is urgently needed for monitoring and modeling ecosystem processes and improving agricultural practices, especially in arid landscapes. Far-infrared band application in soil water measurement is still limited. Various samples were arranged to simulate complex field condition and emissivity was obtained from a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Four spectral forms (including raw spectra, logarithm of reciprocal spectra, first-order derivate, and second-order derivate) were employed to develop a partial least squares regression model. The results indicate that the model with first-order derivate spectral form was identified with the highest performance (R2=0.87 and root mean square error=1.88%) at the range of 8.309 to 10.771 μm. Judging from the contribution of the bands to each principal component, the band region from 8.27 to 9.112 μm holds a great promise for soil water content estimation. Several channels of ASTER and MODIS correspond to the involved band domain, which show the potential of predicting and mapping soil water content on large scales. However, there are still constraints due to the differences in spectral resolution between instrument and sensors and the influence of complex factors under field conditions, which are still challenges for forthcoming studies.

  17. FAR-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES FROM COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Cen Renyue

    2011-12-15

    Utilizing state-of-the-art adaptive mesh refinement cosmological hydrodynamic simulations with ultra-high resolution (114 h{sup -1} pc) and a large sample size ({>=}3300 galaxies of stellar mass {>=}10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }), we show how the stellar light of Lyman break galaxies at z = 2 is distributed between optical/ultraviolet (UV) and far-infrared (FIR) bands. With a single scalar parameter for dust obscuration we can simultaneously reproduce the observed UV luminosity function for the entire range (3-100 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}) and extant FIR luminosity function at the bright end ({>=}20 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}). We quantify that galaxies more massive or having higher star formation rate (SFR) tend to have larger amounts of dust obscuration mostly due to a trend in column density and in a minor part due to a mass (or SFR)-metallicity relation. It is predicted that the FIR luminosity function in the range SFR = 1-100 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} is a power law with a slope of about -1.7. We further predict that there is a 'galaxy desert' at SFR{sub FIR} < 0.02(SFR{sub UV}/10 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}){sup 2.1} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} in the SFR{sub UV} - SFR{sub FIR} plane. Detailed distributions of SFR{sub FIR} at a fixed SFR{sub UV} are presented. Upcoming observations by the Atacama Large Millimeter Array should test this model. If confirmed, it validates the predictions of the standard cold dark matter model and has important implications on the intrinsic SFR function of galaxies at high redshift.

  18. Characterizing Far-infrared Laser Emissions and the Measurement of Their Frequencies.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Michael; Zink, Lyndon R

    2015-01-01

    The generation and subsequent measurement of far-infrared radiation has found numerous applications in high-resolution spectroscopy, radio astronomy, and Terahertz imaging. For about 45 years, the generation of coherent, far-infrared radiation has been accomplished using the optically pumped molecular laser. Once far-infrared laser radiation is detected, the frequencies of these laser emissions are measured using a three-laser heterodyne technique. With this technique, the unknown frequency from the optically pumped molecular laser is mixed with the difference frequency between two stabilized, infrared reference frequencies. These reference frequencies are generated by independent carbon dioxide lasers, each stabilized using the fluorescence signal from an external, low pressure reference cell. The resulting beat between the known and unknown laser frequencies is monitored by a metal-insulator-metal point contact diode detector whose output is observed on a spectrum analyzer. The beat frequency between these laser emissions is subsequently measured and combined with the known reference frequencies to extrapolate the unknown far-infrared laser frequency. The resulting one-sigma fractional uncertainty for laser frequencies measured with this technique is ± 5 parts in 10(7). Accurately determining the frequency of far-infrared laser emissions is critical as they are often used as a reference for other measurements, as in the high-resolution spectroscopic investigations of free radicals using laser magnetic resonance. As part of this investigation, difluoromethane, CH2F2, was used as the far-infrared laser medium. In all, eight far-infrared laser frequencies were measured for the first time with frequencies ranging from 0.359 to 1.273 THz. Three of these laser emissions were discovered during this investigation and are reported with their optimal operating pressure, polarization with respect to the CO2 pump laser, and strength. PMID:26709957

  19. Scalar field dark matter and the Higgs field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertolami, O.; Cosme, Catarina; Rosa, João G.

    2016-08-01

    We discuss the possibility that dark matter corresponds to an oscillating scalar field coupled to the Higgs boson. We argue that the initial field amplitude should generically be of the order of the Hubble parameter during inflation, as a result of its quasi-de Sitter fluctuations. This implies that such a field may account for the present dark matter abundance for masses in the range 10-6-10-4eV, if the tensor-to-scalar ratio is within the range of planned CMB experiments. We show that such mass values can naturally be obtained through either Planck-suppressed non-renormalizable interactions with the Higgs boson or, alternatively, through renormalizable interactions within the Randall-Sundrum scenario, where the dark matter scalar resides in the bulk of the warped extra-dimension and the Higgs is confined to the infrared brane.

  20. Germanium:gallium photoconductors for far infrared heterodyne detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, I. S.; Haller, E. E.; Grossman, E. N.; Watson, Dan M.

    1988-01-01

    Highly compensated Ge:Ga photoconductors for high bandwidth heterodyne detection have been fabricated and evaluated. Bandwidths up to 60 MHz have been achieved with a corresponding current responsivity of 0.01 A/W. The expected dependence of bandwidth on bias field is obtained. It is noted that increased bandwidth is obtained at the price of greater required local oscillator power.

  1. Focal plane optics in far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The construction of airborne observatories, high mountain-top observatories, and space observatories designed especially for infrared and submillimeter astronomy has opened fields of research requiring new optical techniques. A typical far-IR photometric study involves measurement of a continuum spectrum in several passbands between approx 30 microns and 1000 microns and diffraction-limited mapping of the source. At these wavelengths, diffraction effects strongly influence the design of the field optics systems which couple the incoming flux to the radiation sensors (cold bolometers). The Airy diffraction disk for a typical telescope at submillimeter wavelengths approx 100 microns-1000 microns is many millimeters in diameter; the size of the field stop must be comparable. The dilute radiation at the stop is fed through a Winston nonimaging concentrator to a small cavity containing the bolometer. The purpose of this paper is to review the principles and techniques of infrared field optics systems, including spectral filters, concentrators, cavities, and bolometers (as optical elements), with emphasis on photometric systems for wavelengths longer than 60 microns.

  2. Focal plane optics in far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    The construction of airborne observatories, high mountain-top observatories, and space observatories designed especially for infrared and submillimeter astronomy has opened fields of research requiring new optical techniques. A typical far-IR photometric study involves measurement of a continuum spectrum in several passbands between approx 30 microns and 1000 microns and diffraction-limited mapping of the source. At these wavelengths, diffraction effects strongly influence the design of the field optics systems which couple the incoming flux to the radiation sensors (cold bolometers). The Airy diffraction disk for a typical telescope at submillimeter wavelengths approx 100 microns-1000 microns is many millimeters in diameter; the size of the field stop must be comparable. The dilute radiation at the stop is fed through a Winston nonimaging concentrator to a small cavity containing the bolometer. The purpose of this paper is to review the principles and techniques of infrared field optics systems, including spectral filters, concentrators, cavities, and bolometers (as optical elements), with emphasis on photometric systems for wavelengths longer than 60 microns.

  3. Far-infrared Spectral Radiance Observations and Modeling of Arctic Cirrus: Preliminary Results From RHUBC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humpage, Neil; Green, Paul D.; Harries, John E.

    2009-03-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the important contribution of the far-infrared (electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths greater than 12 μm) to the Earth's radiative energy budget. In a cloud-free atmosphere, a significant fraction of the Earth's cooling to space from the mid- and upper troposphere takes place via the water vapor pure rotational band between 17 and 33 μm. Cirrus clouds also play an important role in the Earth's outgoing longwave radiation. The effect of cirrus on far-infrared radiation is of particular interest, since the refractive index of ice depends strongly on wavelength in this spectral region. The scattering properties of ice crystals are directly related to the refractive index, so consequently the spectral signature of cirrus measured in the FIR is sensitive to the cloud microphysical properties [1, 2]. By examining radiances measured at wavelengths between the strong water vapor absorption lines in the FIR, the understanding of the relationship between cirrus microphysics and the radiative transfer of thermal energy through cirrus may be improved. Until recently, very few observations of FIR spectral radiances had been made. The Tropospheric Airborne Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TAFTS) was developed by Imperial College to address this lack of observational data. TAFTS observes both zenith and nadir radiances at 0.1 cm-1 resolution, between 80 and 600 cm-1. During February and March 2007, TAFTS was involved in RHUBC (the Radiative Heating in Under-explored Bands Campaign), an ARM funded field campaign based at the ACRF-North Slope of Alaska site near Barrow, situated at 71° latitude. Infrared zenith spectral observations were taken by both TAFTS and the AERI-ER (spectral range 400-3300 cm-1) from the ground during both cloud-free and cirrus conditions. A wide range of other instrumentation was also available at the site, including a micropulse lidar, 35 GHz radar and the University of Colorado/NOAA Ground-based Scanning Radiometer

  4. Development of a gallium-doped germanium far-infrared photoconductor direct hybrid two-dimensional array.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Mikio; Hirao, Takanori; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Shibai, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Shuji; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Patrashin, Mikhail; Nakagawa, Takao

    2003-04-20

    To our knowledge, we are the first to successfully report a direct hybrid two-dimensional (2D) detector array in the far-infrared region. Gallium-doped germanium (Ge:Ga) has been used extensively to produce sensitive far-infrared detectors with a cutoff wavelength of approximately equal to 110 microm (2.7 THz). It is widely used in the fields of astronomy and molecular and solid spectroscopy. However, Ge:Ga photoconductors must be cooled below 4.2 K to reduce thermal noise, and this operating condition makes it difficult to develop a large format array because of the need for a warm amplifier. Development of Ge:Ga photoconductor arrays to take 2D terahertz images is now an important target in such research fields as space astronomy. We present the design of a 20 x 3 Ge:Ga far-infrared photoconductor array directly hybridized to a Si p-type metal-oxide-semiconductor readout integrated circuit using indium-bump technology. The main obstacles in creating this 2D array were (1) fabricating a monolithic Ge:Ga 2D array with a longitudinal configuration, (2) developing a cryogenic capacitive transimpedance amplifer, and (3) developing a technology for connecting the detector to the electronics. With this technology, a prototype Ge:Ga photoconductor with a direct hybrid structure has shown a responsivity as high as 14.6 A/W and a minimum detectable power of 5.6 x 10(-17) W for an integration time of 0.14 s when it was cooled to 2.1 K. Its noise is limited by the readout circuit with 20 microV/Hz(1/2) at 1 Hz. Vibration and cooling tests demonstrated that this direct hybrid structure is strong enough for spaceborne instruments. This detector array will be installed on the Japanese infrared satellite ASTRO-F. PMID:12716158

  5. Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Spectroscopy of Low to Moderate Redshift Normal and Active Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    Broadband surveys with planned observatories such as SIRTF, ASTRO-F, NGST, Herschel, SMA, and ALMA will provide large samples of dust-enshrouded galaxies undergoing varying proportions of star formation and accretion onto supermassive black holes. Recent evidence suggests that the mass of supermassive central black holes are proportional to central velocity dispersions of their host galaxy bulges, but it is not yet known how these properties are evolutionarily connected. To trace the evolution of these components during the important luminous, dusty merger episodes as a function of redshift, sensitive mid- to far-infrared spectroscopic diagnostic observations from space will be necessary. The high sensitivity and spatial resolution of a large aperture, natural background limited far-infrared/submillimeter telescope such as SAFAIR will allow detection and identification of the far-infrared/submillimeter components of galaxies and of a multitude of rest-frame mid- to far-infrared recombination, fine-structure, and molecular lines toward dusty galactic nuclei. The line diagnostics beginning to be developed from ISO work will help determine important parameters such as the intrinsic spectral energy distribution, ionization parameters, metallicities, densities, extinction to the embedded energy sources, and ultimately the star-formation and accretion rates in these galaxies. Ultimately, the higher spatial resolution provided by a cold, far-infrared submillimeter interferometer is needed to view the distribution of structure in galaxies in order to unravel the as yet untold story of the evolution of galaxies over the lifetime of the Universe.

  6. The Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere Instrument: Description, Performance, and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynczak, M. G.; Johnson, D. G.; Latvakoski, H.; Jucks, K.; Watson, M.; Bingham, G.; Traub, W. A.; Wellard, S.; Hyde, C. R.

    2005-12-01

    The Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) instrument successfully completed its technology demonstration flight on June 7 2005 on a high altitude balloon launched from Ft. Sumner, N. M. FIRST is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) designed to measure the "far-infrared" portion of the emission from the Earth and its atmosphere at wavelengths longer than 15 um. Developed under NASA's Instrument Incubator Program (IIP) FIRST demonstrated the interferometer, beamsplitter, and focal plane technology necessary to make daily global measurements of the far-infrared in a space-like environment. The FIRST instrument operated from a float altitude of 27 km for over five hours and recorded about 15,000 spectra. The instrument exceeded design specifications and observed essentially the entire infrared spectrum between 6 and 120 um. The AQUA satellite flew directly over FIRST, offering a unique opportunity for validation of the FIRST measurements. We will discuss the science motivating the measurement of the far-infrared, the instrument design and performance, comparisons with AQUA, and the future of far-infrared measurements.

  7. FAR-INFRARED IMAGING OF POST-ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH STARS AND (PROTO)-PLANETARY NEBULAE WITH THE AKARI FAR-INFRARED SURVEYOR

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, N. L. J.; Garcia-Hernandez, D. A.; Manchado, A.

    2011-04-15

    By tracing the distribution of cool dust in the extended envelopes of post-asymptotic giant branch stars and (proto)-planetary nebulae ((P)PNe), we aim to recover, or constrain, the mass-loss history experienced by these stars in their recent past. The Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS) instrument on board the AKARI satellite was used to obtain far-infrared maps for a selected sample of post-AGB stars and (P)PNe. We derived flux densities (aperture photometry) for 13 post-AGB stars and (P)PNe at four far-infrared wavelengths (65, 90, 140, and 160 {mu}m). Radial (azimuthally averaged) profiles are used to investigate the presence of extended emission from cool dust. No (detached) extended emission is detected for any target in our sample at levels significant with respect to background and cirrus emission. Only IRAS 21046+4739 reveals tentative excess emission between 30'' and 130''. Estimates of the total dust and gas mass from the obtained maps indicate that the envelope masses of these stars should be large in order to be detected with the AKARI FIS. Imaging with higher sensitivity and higher spatial resolution is needed to detect and resolve, if present, any cool compact or extended emission associated with these evolved stars.

  8. Recent advances in measurement of the water vapour continuum in the far-infrared spectral region.

    PubMed

    Green, Paul D; Newman, Stuart M; Beeby, Ralph J; Murray, Jonathan E; Pickering, Juliet C; Harries, John E

    2012-06-13

    We present a new derivation of the foreign-broadened water vapour continuum in the far-infrared (far-IR) pure rotation band between 24 μm and 120 μm (85-420 cm(-1)) from field data collected in flight campaigns of the Continuum Absorption by Visible and IR radiation and Atmospheric Relevance (CAVIAR) project with Imperial College's Tropospheric Airborne Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TAFTS) far-IR spectro-radiometer instrument onboard the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-146 research aircraft; and compare this new derivation with those recently published in the literature in this spectral band. This new dataset validates the current Mlawer-Tobin-Clough-Kneizys-Davies (MT-CKD) 2.5 model parametrization above 300 cm(-1), but indicates the need to strengthen the parametrization below 300 cm(-1), by up to 50 per cent at 100 cm(-1). Data recorded at a number of flight altitudes have allowed measurements within a wide range of column water vapour environments, greatly increasing the sensitivity of this analysis to the continuum strength. PMID:22547236

  9. Herschel Far-infrared Photometric Monitoring of Protostars in the Orion Nebula Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billot, N.; Morales-Calderón, M.; Stauffer, J. R.; Megeath, S. T.; Whitney, B.

    2012-07-01

    We have obtained time series observations of the Orion Nebula Cluster at 70 μm and 160 μm from the Herschel/PACS Photometer. This represents the first wide-field far-infrared photometric monitoring of a young star-forming region. The acquired 35' × 35' maps show complex extended structures, with unprecedented detail, that trace the interaction between the molecular gas and the young hot stars. We detect 43 protostars, most of which are situated along the integral-shaped filament extending from the Orion nebula, through OMC 2 and OMC 3. We present high-reliability light curves for some of these objects using the first six epochs of our observing program spread over 6 weeks. We find amplitude variations in excess of 20% for a fraction of the detected protostars over periods as short as a few weeks. This is inconsistent with the dynamical timescales of cool far-IR emitting material that orbits at hundreds of AU from the protostar, and it suggests that the mechanism(s) responsible for the observed variability originates from the inner region of the protostars, likely driven by variable mass accretion.

  10. Far infrared spectrum of Methanol-D2 in the lowest torsional state (e0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Indra

    2016-03-01

    The infrared (IR) and far infrared (FIR) absorption spectra have been measured for the Methanol-D1 and D2 species in the wave number range of 20-1200 cm-1 at the Justus Liebig Universität in Giessen, Germany using a Brüker Fourier Transform spectrometer at a resolution of 0.002 cm-1. The spectra looked very complicated but analyses were possible for the lower lying states. At higher wave number regions spectra of few vibrational fundamental modes were visible. In this communication, the details of the assignments and analyses of the lowest lying internal rotational state (e0) for Methanol-D2 are reported. A catalog of about 900 assigned spectral lines has been prepared and is made available from the author to conserve space. As application of this work, it was possible to assign some optically pumped FIR laser lines to quantum states. The results should be useful for "radio astronomers" and in the field of optically pumped FIR and Sub-millimeter Wave (SMMW) lasers which are used in Tokamaks for plasma diagnostics and as local oscillators in radio detection from space.

  11. MID- AND FAR-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF LOCAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Ichikawa, Kohei; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Terashima, Yuichi; Oyabu, Shinki; Gandhi, Poshak; Nakagawa, Takao; Matsuta, Keiko

    2012-07-20

    We investigate the mid- (MIR) to far-infrared (FIR) properties of a nearly complete sample of local active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected in the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) all-sky hard X-ray (14-195 keV) survey, based on the cross correlation with the AKARI infrared survey catalogs complemented by those with Infrared Astronomical Satellite and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. Out of 135 non-blazer AGNs in the Swift/BAT nine-month catalog, we obtain the MIR photometric data for 128 sources either in the 9, 12, 18, 22, and/or 25 {mu}m band. We find good correlation between their hard X-ray and MIR luminosities over three orders of magnitude (42 < log {lambda}L{sub {lambda}}(9, 18 {mu}m) < 45), which is tighter than that with the FIR luminosities at 90 {mu}m. This suggests that thermal emission from hot dusts irradiated by the AGN emission dominate the MIR fluxes. Both X-ray unabsorbed and absorbed AGNs follow the same correlation, implying isotropic infrared emission, as expected in clumpy dust tori rather than homogeneous ones. We find excess signals around 9 {mu}m in the averaged infrared spectral energy distribution from heavy obscured 'new type' AGNs with small scattering fractions in the X-ray spectra. This could be attributed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission feature, suggesting that their host galaxies have strong starburst activities.

  12. HERSCHEL FAR-INFRARED PHOTOMETRIC MONITORING OF PROTOSTARS IN THE ORION NEBULA CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Billot, N.; Morales-Calderon, M.; Stauffer, J. R.; Megeath, S. T.; Whitney, B.

    2012-07-10

    We have obtained time series observations of the Orion Nebula Cluster at 70 {mu}m and 160 {mu}m from the Herschel/PACS Photometer. This represents the first wide-field far-infrared photometric monitoring of a young star-forming region. The acquired 35' Multiplication-Sign 35' maps show complex extended structures, with unprecedented detail, that trace the interaction between the molecular gas and the young hot stars. We detect 43 protostars, most of which are situated along the integral-shaped filament extending from the Orion nebula, through OMC 2 and OMC 3. We present high-reliability light curves for some of these objects using the first six epochs of our observing program spread over 6 weeks. We find amplitude variations in excess of 20% for a fraction of the detected protostars over periods as short as a few weeks. This is inconsistent with the dynamical timescales of cool far-IR emitting material that orbits at hundreds of AU from the protostar, and it suggests that the mechanism(s) responsible for the observed variability originates from the inner region of the protostars, likely driven by variable mass accretion.

  13. The far-infrared properties of broad absorption line quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Xingting

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of a study which uses a sample of 320 Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars with 1.68≤ z≤2.28 inside the Herschel Stripe 82 Survey (HerS) region to compare the mid-infrared (MIR) and far-infrared (FIR) properties of broad absorption line (BAL) and non-BAL quasars. The BAL quasar sample comprises 56 high-ionization BAL (HiBAL) quasars and two low-ionization BAL (LoBAL) quasars. The BAL and non-BAL samples have similar intrinsic absolute i magnitude. When combined with Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) MIR photometry, the BAL quasars are found to have MIR luminosities and MIR-to-optical luminosity ratios consistent with those of the non-BALs, in good agreement with the results of Gallagher et al. The FIR detection rates of BAL and non-BAL quasars are found to be consistent with each other. The BAL quasars are found to have FIR fluxes indistinguishable from that of non-BAL quasars using survival analysis methods. No evidence is found for a correlation between FIR flux and BAL strength, consistent with the recent results of Cao Orjales et al. The FIR properties of this sample appear to be at odds with the evolutionary model in which BALs are an early phase in the lives of quasars.

  14. Generation of tunable coherent far-infrared radiation using atomic Rydberg states

    SciTech Connect

    Bookless, W.

    1980-12-01

    A source of tunable far-infrared radiation has been constructed. The system has been operated at 91.6 cm/sup -1/ with a demonstrated tunability of .63 cm/sup -1/. The system is based on a Rydberg state transition in optically pumped potassium vapor. The transition energy is tuned by the application of an electric field to the excited vapor. The transition wavelength and the shifted wavelength were detected and measured by the use of a Michelson interferometer and a liquid helium cooled Ga:Ge bolometer and the data was reduced using Fast Fourier transform techniques. Extensive spectroscopy was done on the potassium vapor to elucidate the depopulation paths and rates of the excited levels. Both theoretical and experimental results are presented to support the conclusions of the research effort. Additionally, possible alternative approaches to the population of the excited state are explored and recommendations are made for the future development of this source as well as the potential uses of it in molecular spectroscopy.

  15. SAFARI: A Far Infrared Imaging FTS-Spectrometer for SPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goicoechea, J. R.; Roelfsema, P. R.; Jellema, W.; Swinyard, B. M.

    2011-05-01

    The far-IR spectral window plays host to a critical range of both spectroscopic and photometric diagnostics with which to study our Galaxy and beyond, at wavelengths completely blocked by the Earth’s atmosphere. The proposed Japanese-led IR space telescope SPICA, with its cryogenically cooled ~3.2m telescope (<6 K) will be the next step in sensitivity after Herschel. SPICA is a "mission of opportunity" in ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 Program. SPICA will be the only space observatory of its era to bridge the far-IR wavelength gap between JWST and ALMA, and carry out unique science not achievable at visible or submm wavelengths. This contribution summarizes the design concept behind SAFARI: a far-IR imaging FTS-spectrometer covering the ~34-210 μm waveband that is one of a suite of instruments for SPICA. SAFARI is proposed by a consortium of European and Canadian institutions led by SRON. We also highlight some of the science questions that it will be possible to address in the field of Astrochemistry.

  16. Far-infrared observations of Sagittarius B2: Reconsideration of source structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, H. A., Jr.; Harper, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    New moderate-angular-resolution far-infrared observations of the Sagittarius B2 star-forming region are presented, discussed, and compared with recent radio molecular and continuum observations of this source. In contrast to previous analyses, its far-infrared spectrum is interpreted as the result of a massive frigid cloud overlying a more-or-less normal infrared source, a natural explanation for the object's previously-noted pecularities. The characteristics derived for the obscuring cloud are similar to those found for the W51 MAIN object. Both sources have high sub-millimeter surface brightness, a high ratio of sub-millimeter to far-infrared flux, and numerous regions of molecular maser emission.

  17. Charting the Winds that Change the Universe, II: The Single Aperture Far Infrared Observatory (SAFIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieke, G. H.; Benford, D. J.; Harvey, P. M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leisawitz, D. T.; Lester, D. F.; Mather, J. C.; Stacey, G. J.; Werner, M. W.; Yorke, H. W.

    2004-01-01

    SAFIR will study the birth and evolution of stars and planetary systems so young that they are invisible to optical and near-infrared telescopes such as NGST. Not only does the far-infrared radiation penetrate the obscuring dust clouds that surround these systems, but the protoplanetary disks also emit much of their radiation in the far infrared. Furthermore, the dust reprocesses much of the optical emission from the newly forming stars into this wavelength band. Similarly, the obscured central regions of galaxies, which harbor massive black holes and huge bursts of star formation, can be seen and analyzed in the far infrared. SAFIR will have the sensitivity to see the first dusty galaxies in the universe. For studies of both star-forming regions in our galaxy and dusty galaxies at high redshifts, SAFIR will be essential in tying together information that NGST will obtain on these systems at shorter wavelengths and that ALMA will obtain at longer wavelengths.

  18. A high-resolution far-infrared survey of the W31 region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, E. L.; Fazio, G. G.; Low, F. J.

    1977-01-01

    A 1-m balloon-borne telescope was used to conduct a far-infrared survey of the W31 region at an effective wavelength of 69 microns with a resolution of 1 arcmin. Within this region seven far-infrared sources were observed. Five of these sources were associated with thermal radio emission. For each of these sources the infrared luminosity is much greater than the Ly-alpha luminosity, a situation requiring either dust absorption of Lyman-continuum photons or a large nonionizing stellar luminosity. Two faint infrared sources had no radio counterparts. Far-infrared radiation was not detected from two known radio sources and from one midinfrared source in this region.

  19. Method for generation of tunable far infrared radiation from two-dimensional plasmons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, Joseph (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Tunable far infrared radiation is produced from two-dimensional plasmons in a heterostructure, which provides large inversion-layer electron densities at the heterointerface, without the need for a metallic grating to couple out the radiation. Instead, a light interference pattern is produced on the planar surface of the heterostructure using two coherent laser beams of a wavelength selected to be strongly absorbed by the heterostructure in order to penetrate through the inversion layer. The wavelength of the far infrared radiation coupled out can then be readily tuned by varying the angle between the coherent beams, or varying the wavelength of the two interfering coherent beams, thus varying the periodicity of the photoconductivity grating to vary the wavelength of the far infrared radiation being coupled out.

  20. Two views of the Andromeda Galaxy H-alpha and far infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Devereux, Nicholas A.; Price, Rob; Wells, Lisa A.; Duric, Neb

    1994-01-01

    A complete H-alpha image of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) is presented allowing the first direct measurement of the total H-alpha luminosity which is (7.3 +/- 2.4) x 10(exp 6) solar luminosity. The H-alpha emission is associated with three morphologically distinct components; a large scale star-forming ring, approximately 1.65 deg in diameter, contributing 66% of the total H-alpha emission, a bright nucleus contributing 6% of the total H-alpha emission with the remaining 28% contributed by a previously unidentified component of extended and filamentary H-alpha emission interior to the star forming ring. The correspondence between the H-alpha image and the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) far-infrared high resolution image is striking when both are convolved to a common resolution of 105 arcsec. The close correspondence between the far-infrared and H-alpha images suggests a common origin for the two emissions. The star-forming ring contributes 70% of the far-infrared luminosity of M31. Evidence that the ring emission is energized by high mass stars includes the fact that peaks in the far-infrared emission coincide identically with H II regions in the H-alpha image. In addition, the far-infrared to H-alpha luminosity ratio within the star-forming ring is similar to what one would expect for H II regions powered by stars of spectral types ranging between O9 and B0. The origin of the filamentary H-alpha and far-infrared luminosity interior to the star-forming ring is less clear, but it is almost certainly not produced by high mass stars.

  1. Heterodyne Receiver Requirements for the Single Aperture Far-Infrared (SAFIR) Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Kooi, Jacob; Oegerle, William (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    In the next few years, work will commence in earnest on the development of technology for the next generation large cryogenic far-infrared telescope: the Single Aperture Far- Infrared (SAFIR) Observatory. SAFIR's science goals are driven by the fact that youngest stages of almost all phenomena in the universe are shrouded in absorption by cool dust, resulting in the energy being emitted primarily in the far-infrared. The earliest stages of star formation, when gas and dust clouds are collapsing and planets forming, can only be observed in the far-infrared. Spectral diagnostics in the far-infrared are typically quite narrow (approx. 1 km/s) and require high sensitivity to detect them. SAFIR is a 10 m-class telescope designed for cryogenic operation at L2, removing all sources of thermal emission from the telescope and atmosphere. Despite its limited collecting area and angular resolution as compared to the ALMA interferometer, its potential for covering the entire far-infrared band cannot be matched by any ground-based or airborne observatory. This places a new challenge on heterodyne receivers: broad frequency coverage. The ideal mixer would be able to detect frequencies over several octaves (e.g., 0.6 THz - 12 THz) with near quantum-limited performance at all frequencies. In contrast to ground-based observatories, it may not be necessary to strive for high instantaneous bandwidth, as direct detection spectroscopy is preferable for bandwidths of Delta v/ v greater than or equal to 10(exp -4) (e.g., 1 GHz at 10 THz). We consider likely directions for technology development for heterodyne receivers for SAFIR.

  2. The effective field theory of dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubitosi, Giulia; Piazza, Federico; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2013-02-01

    We propose a universal description of dark energy and modified gravity that includes all single-field models. By extending a formalism previously applied to inflation, we consider the metric universally coupled to matter fields and we write in terms of it the most general unitary gauge action consistent with the residual unbroken symmetries of spatial diffeomorphisms. Our action is particularly suited for cosmological perturbation theory: the background evolution depends on only three operators. All other operators start at least at quadratic order in the perturbations and their effects can be studied independently and systematically. In particular, we focus on the properties of a few operators which appear in non-minimally coupled scalar-tensor gravity and galileon theories. In this context, we study the mixing between gravity and the scalar degree of freedom. We assess the quantum and classical stability, derive the speed of sound of fluctuations and the renormalization of the Newton constant. The scalar can always be de-mixed from gravity at quadratic order in the perturbations, but not necessarily through a conformal rescaling of the metric. We show how to express covariant field-operators in our formalism and give several explicit examples of dark energy and modified gravity models in our language. Finally, we discuss the relation with the covariant EFT methods recently appeared in the literature.

  3. Doping of germanium and silicon crystals with non-hydrogenic acceptors for far infrared lasers

    DOEpatents

    Haller, Eugene E.; Brundermann, Erik

    2000-01-01

    A method for doping semiconductors used for far infrared lasers with non-hydrogenic acceptors having binding energies larger than the energy of the laser photons. Doping of germanium or silicon crystals with beryllium, zinc or copper. A far infrared laser comprising germanium crystals doped with double or triple acceptor dopants permitting the doped laser to be tuned continuously from 1 to 4 terahertz and to operate in continuous mode. A method for operating semiconductor hole population inversion lasers with a closed cycle refrigerator.

  4. Fine-scale structure in the far-infrared Milky-Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, William H.; Wall, William F.; Reach, William T.; Varosi, Frank; Ebert, Rick; Laughlin, Gaylin; Boulanger, Francois

    1995-01-01

    This final report summarizes the work performed and which falls into five broad categories: (1) generation of a new data product (mosaics of the far-infrared emission in the Milky Way); (2) acquisition of associated data products at other wavelengths; (3) spatial filtering of the far-infrared mosaics and resulting images of the FIR fine-scale structure; (4) evaluation of the spatially filtered data; (5) characterization of the FIR fine-scale structure in terms of its spatial statistics; and (6) identification of interstellar counterparts to the FIR fine-scale structure.

  5. Far-infrared photometry of compact extragalactic sources: OJ 187 and BL Lac

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, P. M.; Joy, M.; Lester, D. F.; Wilking, B. A.

    1984-01-01

    The 50 and 100 micron emissions of OJ 287 were detected and upper limits for BL Lac were obtained. These first measurements of two BL Lac objects in the far-infrared show them to be similar to the few quasars previously observed in the far-infrared. In particular, there is no evidence for significant dust emission, and the lambda approximately 100 micron flux density fits on a smooth line joining the near-infrared and millimeter continuum fluxes. The implications of the results for models of the sources are discussed briefly.

  6. Dark-field optical coherence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pache, C.; Villiger, M. L.; Lasser, T.

    2010-02-01

    Many solutions have been proposed to produce phase quantitative images of biological cell samples. Among these, Spectral Domain Phase Microscopy combines the fast imaging speed and high sensitivity of Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM) in the Fourier domain with the high phase stability of common-path interferometry. We report on a new illumination scheme for OCM that enhances the sensitivity for backscattered light and detects the weak sample signal, otherwise buried by the signal from specular reflection. With the use of a Bessel-like beam, a dark-field configuration was realized. Sensitivity measurements for three different illumination configurations were performed to compare our method to standard OCM and extended focus OCM. Using a well-defined scattering and reflecting object, we demonstrated an attenuation of -40 dB of the DC-component and a relative gain of 30 dB for scattered light, compared to standard OCM. In a second step, we applied this technique, referred to as dark-field Optical Coherence Microscopy (dfOCM), to living cells. Chinese hamster ovarian cells were applied in a drop of medium on a coverslide. The cells of ~15 μm in diameter and even internal cell structures were visualized in the acquired tomograms.

  7. The continuous tower of scalar fields as a system of interacting dark matter-dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Paulo

    2015-10-01

    This paper aims to introduce a new parameterisation for the coupling Q in interacting dark matter and dark energy models by connecting said models with the Continuous Tower of Scalar Fields model. Based upon the existence of a dark matter and a dark energy sectors in the Continuous Tower of Scalar Fields, a simplification is considered for the evolution of a single scalar field from the tower, validated in this paper. This allows for the results obtained with the Continuous Tower of Scalar Fields model to match those of an interacting dark matter-dark energy system, considering that the energy transferred from one fluid to the other is given by the energy of the scalar fields that start oscillating at a given time, rather than considering that the energy transference depends on properties of the whole fluids that are interacting.

  8. THE PHYSICS OF THE FAR-INFRARED-RADIO CORRELATION. I. CALORIMETRY, CONSPIRACY, AND IMPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Lacki, Brian C.; Thompson, Todd A.; Quataert, Eliot

    2010-07-01

    The far-infrared (FIR) and radio luminosities of star-forming galaxies are linearly correlated over a very wide range in star formation rate, from normal spirals like the Milky Way to the most intense starbursts. Using one-zone models of cosmic ray (CR) injection, cooling, and escape in star-forming galaxies, we attempt to reproduce the observed FIR-radio correlation (FRC) over its entire span. The normalization and linearity of the FRC, together with constraints on the CR population in the Milky Way, have strong implications for the CR and magnetic energy densities in star-forming galaxies. We show that for consistency with the FRC, {approx}2% of the kinetic energy from supernova explosions must go into high-energy primary CR electrons and that {approx}10%-20% must go into high-energy primary CR protons. Secondary electrons and positrons are likely comparable to or dominate primary electrons in dense starburst galaxies. We discuss the implications of our models for the magnetic field strengths of starbursts, the detectability of starbursts by Fermi, and CR feedback. Overall, our models indicate that both CR protons and electrons escape from low surface density galaxies, but lose most of their energy before escaping dense starbursts. The FRC is caused by a combination of the efficient cooling of CR electrons (calorimetry) in starbursts and a conspiracy of several factors. For lower surface density galaxies, the decreasing radio emission caused by CR escape is balanced by the decreasing FIR emission caused by the low effective UV dust opacity. In starbursts, bremsstrahlung, ionization, and inverse Compton cooling decrease the radio emission, but they are countered by secondary electrons/positrons and the dependence of synchrotron frequency on energy, both of which increase the radio emission. Our conclusions hold for a broad range of variations in our fiducial model, such as those including winds, different magnetic field strengths, and different diffusive escape

  9. Energy levels and far-infrared spectra of oval-shaped nanorings

    SciTech Connect

    Gutiérrez, W.; García, L. F.; Mikhailov, I. D.

    2014-05-15

    The evolution of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillation of low-lying states and far infrared spectrum associated to variation of the path curvature for electron motion along nanorings with centerlines in a form of a set of Cassini ovals, whose shape is changed continuously from a single elongated loop to two separated loops is theoretically investigated.

  10. Energy levels and far-infrared spectra of oval-shaped nanorings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, W.; García, L. F.; Mikhailov, I. D.

    2014-05-01

    The evolution of the Aharonov-Bohm oscillation of low-lying states and far infrared spectrum associated to variation of the path curvature for electron motion along nanorings with centerlines in a form of a set of Cassini ovals, whose shape is changed continuously from a single elongated loop to two separated loops is theoretically investigated.

  11. Charting the Winds that Change the Universe, II The Single Aperture Far Infrared Observatory (SAFIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leisawitz, David

    2003-01-01

    The Single Aperture Far Infrared Observatory (SAFIR) will study the birth and evolution of stars and planetary systems so young that they are invisible to optical and near-infrared telescopes such as NGST. Not only does the far-infrared radiation penetrate the obscuring dust clouds that surround these systems, but the protoplanetary disks also emit much of their radiation in the far infrared. Furthermore, the dust reprocesses much of the optical emission from the newly forming stars into this wavelength band. Similarly, the obscured central regions of galaxies, which harbor massive black holes and huge bursts of star formation, can be seen and analyzed in the far infrared. SAFIR will have the sensitivity to see the first dusty galaxies in the universe. For studies of both star-forming regions in our galaxy and dusty galaxies at high redshifts, SAFIR will be essential in tying together information that NGST will obtain on these systems at shorter wavelengths and that ALMA will obtain at longer wavelengths.

  12. AKARI All-Sky Far-Infrared Survey: Where to Look for AGB Stars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybka, P.; Pollo, A.; Takeuchi, T. T.

    2011-09-01

    We selected a sample of 5,176 far-infrared sources from the FIS AKARI All-Sky Survey. Searching public databases, we identified their counterparts observed at other wavelengths and derived a method to separate stars from galaxies. The sample of stars is dominated by AGB-related objects.

  13. Far-infrared observations of optical emission-line stars - Evidence for extensive cool dust clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, P. M.; Thronson, H. A., Jr.; Gatley, I.

    1979-01-01

    Far-infrared observations (40-160 microns) of eight optical emission-line stars are presented. Six of these stars, LkH-alpha 198, T Tau, LkH-alpha 101, V380 Ori, R Mon, and MWC 1080, show substantially more far-infrared emission than would be expected on the basis of a blackbody extrapolation of their 10-20-micron fluxes. Additionally, in three cases, the far-infrared emission is shown to be spatially extended (greater than 40 arcsec). A simple model of the thermal emission from cool circumstellar dust (30-70 K) shows that these stars are surrounded by material left over from the star formation process; this result confirms the extreme youth of these stars. MWC 349 was detected at a level consistent with the expected free-free flux from its surrounding H II region, and RY Tau was not detected in the far-infrared; there is little circumstellar dust with temperatures of 20-100 K in these objects.

  14. Design of high-T[sub c] superconducting bolometers for a far infrared imaging array

    SciTech Connect

    Verghese, S.; Richards, P.L. ); Fork, D.K. ); Char, K. ); Geballe, T.H. . Dept. of Applied Physics)

    1992-08-01

    The design of high-[Tc] superconducting bolometers for use in a far infrared imaging array from wavelengths 30--100[mu]m is discussed. Measurements of the voltage noise in thin films of YBa[sub 2]CU[sub 3]O[sub 7-[var sigma

  15. Effect of rare earth Ce on the far infrared radiation property of iron ore tailings ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jie; Meng, Junping; Liang, Jinsheng; Duan, Xinhui; Huo, Xiaoli; Tang, Qingguo

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Detailed process proposed for preparation of iron ore tailings ceramics. • Replace natural minerals with iron ore tailings as raw materials for preparing functional ceramics. • Impact mechanism of Ce on far infrared ceramics, as well as its optimum addition amounts can be obtained. • Propose a new perspective on considering the mechanism of far infrared radiation. - Abstract: A kind of far infrared radiation ceramics was prepared by using iron ore tailings, CaCO{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} as main raw materials, and Ce as additive. The result of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the sample exhibits excellent radiation value of 0.914 when doping 7 wt.% Ce. Ce{sup 4+} dissolved into iron diopside and formed interstitial solid solution with it sintered at 1150 °C. The oxidation of Fe{sup 2+} to Fe{sup 3+} caused by Ce{sup 4+} led to a decrease of crystallite sizes and enhancement of Mg–O and Fe–O vibration in iron diopside, which consequently improved the far infrared radiation properties of iron ore tailings ceramics.

  16. The microwave and far-infrared spectra of the CH radical

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. M.; Evenson, K. M.

    1983-01-01

    The frequencies, wavelengths, and line strengths for transitions of the CH molecule at microwave and far-infrared wavelengths have been calculated from an analysis of the laser magnetic resonance spectrum. The low-frequency transitions are between lambda-type doublets, while the higher frequency transitions are between different spin-rotation levels.

  17. Isotopic labelling studies on far-infrared spectra of nickel-histamine complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drożdżewski, Piotr; Kordon, Ewa

    2000-11-01

    Nickel-histamine (hm) complexes type [Ni(hm)Cl 2] and [Ni(hm) 3] X2 (Where X=Cl, Br, I, ClO 4) were investigated in the far-infrared region. Metal isotope labelling and deuteration effects were employed for observed band assignments. Metal-ligand vibrations were discussed and correlated with the structures of the complexes.

  18. An ISO far-infrared survey of line and continuum emission for 227 galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brauher, J. R.

    2002-01-01

    Far-infrared line and continuum fluxes are presented for a sample of 227 galaxies observed with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer on the Infrared Space Observatory, selected from the ISO Data Archive and having an IRAS 60/100 mu m color ration of 0.2-1.4 and IRAS 60 mu m flux density between 0.1 Jy and 1300 Jy.

  19. The far-infrared behaviour of Herbig Ae/Be discs: Herschel PACS photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual, N.; Montesinos, B.; Meeus, G.; Marshall, J. P.; Mendigutía, I.; Sandell, G.

    2016-02-01

    Herbig Ae/Be objects are pre-main sequence stars surrounded by gas- and dust-rich circumstellar discs. These objects are in the throes of star and planet formation, and their characterisation informs us of the processes and outcomes of planet formation processes around intermediate mass stars. Here we analyse the spectral energy distributions of disc host stars observed by the Herschel open time key programme "Gas in Protoplanetary Systems". We present Herschel/PACS far-infrared imaging observations of 22 Herbig Ae/Bes and 5 debris discs, combined with ancillary photometry spanning ultraviolet to sub-millimetre wavelengths. From these measurements we determine the diagnostics of disc evolution, along with the total excess, in three regimes spanning near-, mid-, and far-infrared wavelengths. Using appropriate statistical tests, these diagnostics are examined for correlations. We find that the far-infrared flux, where the disc becomes optically thin, is correlated with the millimetre flux, which provides a measure of the total dust mass. The ratio of far-infrared to sub-millimetre flux is found to be greater for targets with discs that are brighter at millimetre wavelengths and that have steeper sub-millimetre slopes. Furthermore, discs with flared geometry have, on average, larger excesses than flat geometry discs. Finally, we estimate the extents of these discs (or provide upper limits) from the observations. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  20. Physical and chemical structure of the IC 63 nebula. 1: Millimeter and far-infrared observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, David J.; Van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Black, John H.

    1994-01-01

    We present results of a (sub)millimeter and far-infrared study of the reflection/emission nebula IC 63, located close to the BO.5p star gamma Cas. The source has been mapped in the (12)CO 2 - 1 and 3 - 2, (13)CO 2 - 1, and CS 2 - 1 lines and shows a small molecular cloud less than 1'x 2' in extent, which coincides with the brightest optical nebulosity and IRAS 100 micrometer emission. IC 63 is therefore an excellent example of a nearby (d approximately = 230 pc), edge-on photon-dominated region (PDR). Various other molecules have been observed at the peak position through their rotational transitions, in order to probe the physical parameters and to derive abundances. The measured CO, HCO(+) HCN, CS and H2CO line ratios suggest that the cloud is warm, T approximately = 50 K, and dense, n (H2) approximately = 5 x 10(exp 4)/cu cm. Excitation of molecules by electrons may play a significant role in this PDR. On the basis of these physical conditions, column densities have been determined from the observed line strengths. Several different methods are discussed to constrain the H2 column density, including the use of measured submillimeter continuum fluxes. The resulting abundances of species such as CN and CS are similar to those found in cold, dark clouds like TMC-1 and L134N. However, the abundances of other simple molecules such as HNC, HCO(+) and possibly C2H are lower by factors of at least three, probably because of the enhanced photodissociation rates at a distance of 1.3 pc from a B star. Surprisingly, only the abundance of the H2S molecule appears enhanced. More complex, volatile molecules such as CH3OH CH3CN and HNCO, and the sulfur-oxides SO and SO2 have not been found in this cloud. Limited observations of molecules in the reflection nebulea NGC 2023 are presented as well, and the resulting molecular abundances are compared with those found for IC 63.

  1. Drying characteristics and quality of red ginseng using far-infrared rays

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Xiaofeng; Lee, Junsoo; Han, Chungsu

    2015-01-01

    Background The current typical drying methods for red ginseng are sun drying and hot-air drying. The purpose of this study was to investigate drying characteristics of red ginseng by using far-infrared drying. Methods The far-infrared drying tests on red ginseng were conducted at two drying stages: (1) high temperature for 24 h drying and (2) low temperature drying until the final moisture content was 13 ± 0.5% (wet basis). The high temperature drying stage included three drying chamber temperature conditions of 60°C, 65°C, and 70°C. The low temperature drying stage was conducted at temperatures of 45°C and 50°C. Drying characteristics were analyzed based on factors such as drying rate, color changes, energy consumption, and saponin content. The results were compared with those of the hot-air and sun drying methods. Results The results revealed that increases in drying temperature caused a decrease in drying time and energy consumption for far-infrared drying. The saponin content decreased under all drying conditions after drying, the highest value (11.34 mg/g) was observed at drying conditions of 60∼50°C. The sun drying condition showed the lowest color difference value when compared with far-infrared and hot-air drying. Conclusion The far-infrared drying showed a faster drying rate, higher saponin content, lower color difference value, and a decrease in energy consumption than seen in hot-air drying. PMID:26869830

  2. Observations of CO isotopic emission and the far-infrared continuum of Centaurus A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckart, A.; Cameron, M.; Rothermel, H.; Wild, W.; Zinnecker, H.; Olberg, M.; Rydbeck, G.; Wiklind, T.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers present maps of the CO-12(1=0) line and the 100 micron and 50 micron far-infrared emission of Centaurus A, as well as measurements of the CO-12(2-1), CO-13(1-0), and the C-18O(1-0) lines at selected positions. The observations were taken with the Swedish-ESO Submillimeter Telescope (SEST) and the CPC instrument on board the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS). The millimeter data show that the bulk molecular material is closely associated with the dust lane and contained in a disk of about 180 seconds diameter and a total molecular mass of about 2 x 10 to the 8th power solar mass. The total molecular mass of the disk and bulge is of the order of 3 x 10 to the 8th power solar mass. The molecular gas in the nucleus is warm with a kinetic temperature of the order of 15 K and a number density of 10 to the 3rd power to 3 x 10 to the 4th power cm(-3). Absorption features in the CO-12 and CO-13 lines against the nuclear continuum emission indicate that the properties of giant molecular clouds are comparable to those of the Galaxy. The far-infrared data show that to a good approximation the dust temperature is constant across the dust lane at a value of about 42 K. The ratio between the far-infrared luminosity and the total molecular mass is 18 solar luminosity/solar mass and close to the mean value obtained for isolated galaxies. A comparison of the CO-12(1-0) and the far-infrared data indicates that a considerable amount of the far-infrared emission is not intimately associated with massive star formation.

  3. ATR and transmission analysis of pigments by means of far infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kendix, Elsebeth L; Prati, Silvia; Joseph, Edith; Sciutto, Giorgia; Mazzeo, Rocco

    2009-06-01

    In the field of FTIR spectroscopy, the far infrared (FIR) spectral region has been so far less investigated than the mid-infrared (MIR), even though it presents great advantages in the characterization of those inorganic compounds, which are inactive in the MIR, such as some art pigments, corrosion products, etc. Furthermore, FIR spectroscopy is complementary to Raman spectroscopy if the fluorescence effects caused by the latter analytical technique are considered. In this paper, ATR in the FIR region is proposed as an alternative method to transmission for the analyses of pigments. This methodology was selected in order to reduce the sample amount needed for analysis, which is a must when examining cultural heritage materials. A selection of pigments have been analyzed in both ATR and transmission mode, and the resulting spectra were compared with each other. To better perform this comparison, an evaluation of the possible effect induced by the thermal treatment needed for the preparation of the polyethylene pellets on the transmission spectra of the samples has been carried out. Therefore, pigments have been analyzed in ATR mode before and after heating them at the same temperature employed for the polyethylene pellet preparation. The results showed that while the heating treatment causes only small changes in the intensity of some bands, the ATR spectra were characterized by differences in both intensity and band shifts towards lower frequencies if compared with those recorded in transmission mode. All pigments' transmission and ATR spectra are presented and discussed, and the ATR method was validated on a real case study. PMID:19266186

  4. A microbolometer-based far infrared radiometer to study thin ice clouds in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libois, Quentin; Proulx, Christian; Ivanescu, Liviu; Coursol, Laurence; Pelletier, Ludovick S.; Bouzid, Yacine; Barbero, Francesco; Girard, Éric; Blanchet, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    A far infrared radiometer (FIRR) dedicated to measuring radiation emitted by clear and cloudy atmospheres was developed in the framework of the Thin Ice Clouds in Far InfraRed Experiment (TICFIRE) technology demonstration satellite project. The FIRR detector is an array of 80 × 60 uncooled microbolometers coated with gold black to enhance the absorptivity and responsivity. A filter wheel is used to select atmospheric radiation in nine spectral bands ranging from 8 to 50 µm. Calibrated radiances are obtained using two well-calibrated blackbodies. Images are acquired at a frame rate of 120 Hz, and temporally averaged to reduce electronic noise. A complete measurement sequence takes about 120 s. With a field of view of 6°, the FIRR is not intended to be an imager. Hence spatial average is computed over 193 illuminated pixels to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and consequently the detector resolution. This results in an improvement by a factor of 5 compared to individual pixel measurements. Another threefold increase in resolution is obtained using 193 non-illuminated pixels to remove correlated electronic noise, leading an overall resolution of approximately 0.015 W m-2 sr-1. Laboratory measurements performed on well-known targets suggest an absolute accuracy close to 0.02 W m-2 sr-1, which ensures atmospheric radiance is retrieved with an accuracy better than 1 %. Preliminary in situ experiments performed from the ground in winter and in summer on clear and cloudy atmospheres are compared to radiative transfer simulations. They point out the FIRR ability to detect clouds and changes in relative humidity of a few percent in various atmospheric conditions, paving the way for the development of new algorithms dedicated to ice cloud characterization and water vapor retrieval.

  5. Electronics and signal processing for the multichord far-infrared polarimeter of the RFX experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zilli, E.; Milani, F.; O'Gorman, M.; Giudicotti, L.; Prunty, S. L.

    2001-11-01

    This article describes the realization and testing of the electronic system which forms part of the multichannel far-infrared (FIR) polarimeter for the RFX machine, a plasma confinement experiment with Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) configuration. The electronic system, which comprises the detectors, the signal-processing electronics, and the motion electronics for the half-wave plate movement, is described. Emphasis is placed in the analysis of the polarimeter signals, which permits an in-depth understanding of the performance of the data processing electronics and the role of the various sources of noise in the system. After a brief outline of the basic principle of the measurement, the choice of detectors and their characteristics are described in order to achieve the best performances at the FIR wavelength (λ=118.8 μm) of interest. Various tests, which are described, confirmed the need for a specifically designed pyroelectric detector capable of operating in the hostile magnetic environment near the machine. The processing of the raw polarimeter signals to produce the required sum and difference signals and to convert them into dc signals with 3 ms time constant is presented. These signals are synchronous with a chopper signal on the FIR beam and are subsequently fed to a lock-in amplifier. An accurate analysis of the data processing procedure is described, which helps to clarify the understanding of the output signals that are eventually recorded in the data acquisition system. In particular, various sources of noise, such as thermal noise of the detectors, laser fluctuations, spurious signals at harmonics of the chopper frequency, and phase jitter of the chopper, are evaluated, discussed, and compared with the observed signals. Finally, the control circuitry for the movement of the half-wave plates, both for manual control and for the programmed sequences of zero-search and calibration performed by a PLC control system, is described. Calibration curves obtained

  6. A far-infrared radiative closure study in the Arctic: Application to water vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delamere, J. S.; Clough, S. A.; Payne, V. H.; Mlawer, E. J.; Turner, D. D.; Gamache, R. R.

    2010-09-01

    Far-infrared (λ > 15.0 μm) (far-IR) radiative processes provide a large fraction of Earth's outgoing longwave radiation and influence upper tropospheric vertical motion. Water vapor, because of its abundance and strong absorption properties over an extended spectral range, is the primary source of these radiative processes. Historically, the lack of spectrally resolved radiometric instruments and the opacity of the lower atmosphere have precluded extensive studies of far-IR water vapor absorption properties. The U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has organized a series of field experiments, the Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaigns (RHUBC), to address this deficiency. The first phase of RHUBC took place in 2007 at the ARM North Slope of Alaska Climate Research Facility. Measurements taken before and during this campaign have provided the basis for a clear-sky radiative closure study aimed at reducing key uncertainties associated with far-IR radiative transfer models. Extended-range Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer infrared radiance observations taken in clear sky conditions were compared against calculations from the Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer Model. The water vapor column amounts used in these calculations were retrieved from 183 GHz radiometer measurements. The uncertainty in these integrated water vapor retrievals is approximately 2%, a notable improvement over past studies. This far-IR radiative closure study resulted in an improvement to the Mlawer-Tobin Clough-Kneiyzs-Davies (MT_CKD) water vapor foreign continuum model and updates to numerous, far-IR water vapor line parameters from their values in the circa 2006 version of the HITRAN molecular line parameter database.

  7. Far-Infrared and Optical Studies of Gallium Arsenide and Aluminum Gallium Arsenide Semiconductor Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanaway, Mark Brian

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis reports far-infrared (FIR) and photoluminescence studies, performed at low temperatures (4.2K) and at magnetic fields up to 25T, of selectively and inadvertently doped bulk and low dimensional gallium arsenide (GaAs) and aluminium gallium arsenide (AlGaAs) semiconductor structures grown by molecular beam epitaxy. High-resolution FIR magnetospectroscopy of ultra -high mobility n-GaAs reveals a variety of shallow donor intra-impurity transitions plus spin-split higher Landau level transitions in the photoconductive response. The first observation of polarons bound to D^ - ions in bulk n-GaAs is reported. The excited state spectrum of the confined silicon donor in GaAs/AlGaAs multi-quantum wells (MQWs) has been examined. Narrower linewidths and more higher excited state donor transitions are noted in the present photoconductive investigation compared with previous reports. The electron recombination dynamics has been examined in silicon-doped GaAs/AlGaAs MQWs and homogeneous and sheet -doped bulk n-GaAs samples using time-resolved FIR photoconductivity. The extrinsic response of doped MQW structures suggests a potential use as a fast, sensitive detectors of FIR. FIR transmission measurements are reported for GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells (QWs) of various widths in magnetic fields of up to 20T, tilted away from the normal to the QW plane by angles up to theta = 50^circ. Deviation of the cyclotron resonance field from a costheta law are interpreted using theoretical models describing Landau level/electric subband coupling. The in-plane magnetic field and excitation power dependence of the photoluminescence intensity of a GaAs/AlGaAs QW spectral feature is interpreted in terms of charge transfer in the QW, using a coupled oscillator model, and the efficiency of nonradiative electronic traps. In-plane magnetic field studies of the photoluminescence from a superlattice structure

  8. Far-infrared electroluminescence characteristics of an InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell under forward DC bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenbo, Xiao; Xingdao, He; Yiqing, Gao; Zhimin, Zhang; Jiangtao, Liu

    2012-06-01

    The far-infrared electroluminescence characteristics of an InGaP/InGaAs/Ge solar cell are investigated under forward DC bias at room temperature in dark conditions. An electroluminescence viewgraph shows the clear device structures, and the electroluminescence intensity is shown to increases exponentially with bias voltage and linearly with bias current. The results can be interpreted using an equivalent circuit of a single ideal diode model for triple-junction solar cells. The good fit between the measured and calculated data proves the above conclusions. This work is of guiding significance for current solar cell testing and research.

  9. Far-infrared spectroscopy of NGC 6946, IC 342, and Arp 299

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, Steven D.; Hollenbach, David J.; Colgan, Sean W. J.; Haas, Michael R.; Rubin, Robert H.; Erickson, Edwin F.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers investigated the physical conditions in the infrared bright galaxies NGC 6946, IC 342, and Arp 299 through measurements of far-infrared emission lines from Si II, O I, C II, and O III using the facility Cooled Grating Spectrometer on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. These data are interpreted using our theoretical models for photodissociation regions and H II regions. For the central 45 inches of these galaxies, researchers determined that the dominant excitation mechanism for the far infrared radiation (FIR) lines is far ultraviolet radiation (FUR) radiation from young stars, and the authors derived the total mass, density, and temperature of the warm atomic gas and the typical sizes, number densities, and filling factors for the interstellar clouds.

  10. Feasibility of far-infrared radiation modulators using high-{Tc} superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.M.

    1996-12-31

    The potential of using high-{Tc} superconductors as intensity modulators for far-infrared radiation is investigated in this work. Reflectance and transmittance for several design structures are computed using the published optical constants of the superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} and substrate materials. Notable differences in the reflectance and transmittance between the superconducting state and the normal state are illustrated. The best results are obtained based on the reflectance of thin films (10 nm--50 nm thick) on thin substrates (less than 100 {micro}m thick) and for radiation incident on the substrate. This study demonstrates that high-{Tc} superconductive thin films can be used to build far-infrared radiation modulators. Future experimental study is recommended in order to materialize this promising thermooptical device.

  11. Design of a Far-Infrared Spectrometer for Atmospheric Thermal Emission Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, David G.

    2004-01-01

    Global measurements of far infrared emission from the upper troposphere are required to test models of cloud radiative forcing, water vapor continuum emission, and cooling rates. Spectra with adequate resolution can also be used for retrieving atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles, and yet there are few spectrally resolved measurements of outgoing longwave flux at wavelengths longer than 16 m. It has been difficult to make measurements in the far infrared due to the need for liquid-helium cooled detectors and large optics to achieve adequate sensitivity and bandwidth. We review design considerations for infrared Fourier transform spectrometers, including the dependence of system performance on basic system parameters, and discuss the prospects for achieving useful sensitivity from a satellite platform with a lightweight spectrometer using uncooled detectors.

  12. Clustering of far-infrared galaxies in the AKARI All-Sky Survey North

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollo, A.; Takeuchi, T. T.; Solarz, A.; Rybka, P.; Suzuki, T. L.; Pȩpiak, A.; Oyabu, S.

    2013-10-01

    We present the measurements of the angular two-point correlation function for AKARI 90-μm point sources, detected outside the Milky Way plane and other regions characterized by high Galactic extinction in the northern Galactic hemisphere, and categorized as extragalactic sources according to our far-infrared-color based criterion. Together with our previous work (Pollo et al., 2013) this is the first measurement of the large-scale angular clustering of galaxies selected in the far-infrared after IRAS. We present the first attempt to estimate the spatial clustering properties of AKARI All-Sky galaxies and we conclude that they are mostly a very nearby ( z ≤ 0.1) population of moderately clustered galaxies. We measure their correlation length r 0 ~ 4.5 h -1 Mpc, which is consistent with the assumption that the FIS AKARI All-Sky surveys observes mostly a nearby star-forming population of galaxies.

  13. Simultaneous far-infrared, near-infrared, and radio observations of OH/IR stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werner, M. W.; Beckwith, S.; Gatley, I.; Sellgren, K.; Whiting, D. L.; Berriman, G.

    1980-01-01

    Simultaneous far-infrared, near-infrared, and radio observations have been made of five infrared stars which show OH maser emission at 1612 MHz. These stars have very thick circumstellar dust shells and are not seen optically. The data permit a direct comparison of the far-infrared and maser emission from these sources, which strongly supports the hypothesis that the maser emission is pumped by 35 micron photons. A comparison with data obtained at earlier epochs suggests that the maser emission is saturated. The infrared and radio data are used together with estimates of the source distances to determine the luminosities and mass loss rates for these objects. The luminosities lie in the range 2000-30,000 solar luminosities and are consistent with either Mira variable or M supergiant classifications for the underlying stars. The estimated mass loss rates lie between 0.000005-0.00007 solar mass/year.

  14. Far-infrared spectroscopy of CdTe1-xSex(In): Phonon properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, M.; Romčević, N.; Trajić, J.; Dobrowolski, W. D.; Romčević, M.; Hadžić, B.; Gilić, M.; Mycielski, A.

    2014-11-01

    The far-infrared reflectivity spectra of CdTe0.97Se0.03 and CdTe0.97Se0.03(In) single crystals were measured at different temperatures. The analysis of the far-infrared spectra was carried out by a fitting procedure based on the dielectric function which includes spatial distribution of free carriers as well as their influence on the plasmon-phonon interaction. We found that the long wavelength optical phonon modes of CdTe1-xSex mixed crystals exhibit a two-mode behavior. The local In mode at about 160 cm-1 is observed. In both sample, a surface layer with a low concentration of free carriers (depleted region) are formed.

  15. Analysis of far-infrared spectral radiance observations of the water vapor continuum in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Cathryn; Green, Paul D.; Pickering, Juliet C.; Humpage, Neil

    2015-04-01

    The Radiative Heating in Underexplored Bands Campaign (RHUBC) took place in Barrow, Alaska, in February and March 2007. During RHUBC, high resolution far-infrared spectra were measured simultaneously and independently by two different spectrometers - the Imperial College Tropospheric Airborne Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TAFTS) and the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer - Extended Range (AERI-ER). Co-incidental far-infrared downwelling radiance measurements from the two instruments show good agreement within their overlapping wavenumber measurement range (400-550 cm-1). Radiance measurements taken using the TAFTS instrument are compared to the current Mlawer-Tobin-Clough-Kneizys-Davies (MT-CKD) version 2.5 water vapor continuum parameterization for the spectral range 350-500 cm-1 (20-29 μm). Simulated values agree with the TAFTS observations within uncertainties, enhancing confidence that MT-CKD 2.5 accurately represents the foreign-broadened water vapor continuum in this crucial spectral region.

  16. Collision-induced absorption in the far infrared spectrum of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, J. L.; Poll, J. D.; Goorvitch, D.; Tipping, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of collision-induced absorption on the far infrared spectrum of Titan have been investigated. After a review of the procedure for the theoretical calculation of the N2 translation-rotational spectrum, new results for the temperature range o 70 to 120 K are reported. These are used as input data for a simple atmospheric model in order to compute the far infrared radiance, brightness temperature, and specral limb function. This source of opacity alone is not capable of explaining the Voyager results. When the collision-induced methane is included, the results are in closer agreement in the range between 200 and 300/cm, suggesting that a more complete treatment of collision-induced absorption including particularly CH4-N2, N2-H2, and H2-H2 results, may provide sufficient opacity to reduce or obviate the need for opacities due to clouds or aerosols in order to explain the observed spectra.

  17. Far-infrared line observations of planetary nebulae. 1: The O 3 spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinerstein, H. L.; Lester, D. F.; Werner, M. W.

    1985-01-01

    Observations of the far-infrared fine structure lines of O III have been obtained for six planetary nebulae. The infrared measurements are combined with optical O III line fluxes to probe physical conditions in the gas. From the observed line intensity ratios, a simultaneous solution was obtained for electron temperature and density, as well as means of evaluating the importance of inhomogeneities. Densities determined from the far-infrared O III lines agree well density diagnostics from other ions, indicating a fairly homogeneous density in the emitting gas. Temperatures are determined separately from the O III 4363/5007 A and 5007 A/52 micron intensity ratios and compared. Systematically higher values are derived from the former ratio, which is expected from a nebula which is not isothermal. Allowance for the presence of temperature variations within these nebulae raises their derived oxygen abundances, determinations to be reconciled with the solar value.

  18. Architecture and performance of the space-based Far-Infrared Interferometer Instrument Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juanola-Parramon, R.; Fenech, D. M.; Savini, G.

    2016-04-01

    FIRI (Far Infra-Red Interferometer) is a spatial and spectral space interferometer with an operating wavelength range of 25-400 μm and sub-arcsecond angular resolution. It is based on the combination of stellar interferometry and Fourier transform spectroscopy to perform spectroscopy at high angular resolution in the far-infrared. The resulting technique is referred to as double Fourier spatio-spectral interferometry. With increased spatial and spectral resolution come a number of interesting science cases such as the formation and evolution of AGN and the characterization of gas, ice and dust in discs undergoing planetary formation, among others. To study the feasibility of a FIRI system, the Far-Infrared Interferometer Instrument Simulator (FIInS) has been developed. With FIInS, once a set of modelled scientific data is available, one can compare an input sky map with the synthesized one after data reduction algorithms have been applied.

  19. Far-infrared line observations of planetary nebulae. I - The forbidden O III spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinerstein, H. L.; Lester, D. F.; Werner, M. W.

    1985-04-01

    Observations of the far-infrared fine structure lines of O III have been obtained for six planetary nebulae. The infrared measurements are combined with optical O III line fluxes to probe physical conditions in the gas. From the observed line intensity ratios, a simultaneous solution was obtained for electron temperature and density, as well as means of evaluating the importance of inhomogeneities. Densities determined from the far-infrared O III lines agree well with density diagnostics from other ions, indicating a fairly homogeneous density in the emitting gas. Temperatures are determined separately from the O III 4363/5007 A and 5007 A/52 micron intensity ratios and compared. Systematically higher values are derived from the former ratio, which is expected from a nebula which is not isothermal. Allowance for the presence of temperature variations within these nebulae raises their derived oxygen abundances, determinations to be reconciled with the solar value.

  20. Conceptual thermal design and analysis of a far-infrared/mid-infrared remote sensing instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roettker, William A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the conceptual thermal design and analysis results for the Spectroscopy of the Atmosphere using Far-Infrared Emission (SAFIRE) instrument. SAFIRE has been proposed for Mission to Planet Earth to study ozone chemistry in the middle atmosphere using remote sensing of the atmosphere in the far-infrared (21-87 microns) and mid-infrared (9-16 microns) spectra. SAFIRE requires that far-IR detectors be cooled to 3-4 K and mid-IR detectors to 80 K for the expected mission lifetime of five years. A superfluid helium dewar and Stirling-cycle cryocoolers provide the cryogenic temperatures required by the infrared detectors. The proposed instrument thermal design uses passive thermal control techniques to reject 465 watts of waste heat from the instrument.

  1. Far-infrared contraband-detection-system development for personnel-search applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schellenbaum, R. L.

    1982-09-01

    Experiments have been conducted toward the development of an active near-millimeter-wave, far infrared, personnel search system for the detection of contraband. These experiments employed a microwave hybrid tee interferometer/radiometer scanning system and quasi-optical techniques at 3.3-mm wavelength to illuminate and detect the reflection from target objects against a human body background. Clothing and other common concealing materials are transport at this wavelength. Retroreflector arrays, in conjunction with a Gunn diode radiation source, were investigated to provide all-angle illumination and detection of specular reflections from unaligned and irregular-shaped objects. Results indicate that, under highly controlled search conditions, metal objects greater than or equal to 25 cm/sup 2/ can be detected in an enclosure lined with retroreflectors. Further development is required to produce a practical personnel search system. The investigation and feasibility of alternate far infrared search techniques are presented. 23 figures, 2 tables.

  2. A high resolution far-infrared survey of a section of the galactic plane. I - The nature of the sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, D. T.; Stier, M. T.; Fazio, G. G.

    1982-01-01

    Far-infrared, radio continuum and (C-12)O and (C-13)O line observations are presented of 42 far-infrared sources. The sources range in luminosity from 4000 to 3,000,000 solar luminosities. Most of them are associated with (C-12)O peaks. More than half the sources have associated H2O maser emission, and half possess associated radio continuum emission at a limit of 100 mJy. Eight have radio emission at weaker levels. In many cases, the far-infrared source is smaller than its associated radio source. The difference can be explained in the context of the 'blister' picture of H II regions. One group of sources emits many fewer Lyman continuum photons than expected, considering the far-infrared luminosities. A number of possible reasons for this are examined; the explanation holding that clusters of early type stars rather than single stars excite the far-infrared sources is considered the most reasonable.

  3. A high resolution far-infrared survey of a section of the galactic plane. II - Far-infrared, CO, and radio continuum results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stier, M. T.; Fazio, G. G.; Roberge, W. G.; Thum, C.; Wilson, T. L.; Jaffe, D. T.

    1982-01-01

    An area of 7.5 sq deg of the galactic plane at 70 microns have been surveyed with a 1-arcmin beam. The region lies between lII equals 10 deg and lII equals 16 deg and includes the M17 and W33 complexes. The weakest of the 42 sources detected had a flux density of 350 Jy at 70 microns. Detailed far-infrared, (C-12)O, (C-13)O, and radio continuum observations of the sources are presented. The derivation of the important physical parameters of the sources and their surrounding molecular clouds are discussed. The properties of the individual regions are also discussed and maps of selected sources are presented.

  4. High resolution far-infrared survey of a section of the galactic plane. II. Far-infrared, CO, and radio continuum results

    SciTech Connect

    Stier, M.T.; Jaffe, D.T.; Fazio, G.G.; Roberge, W.G.; Thum, C.; Wilson, T.L.

    1982-01-01

    We have surveyed 7.5 deg/sup 2/ of the galactic plane at 70 ..mu..m with a approx.1' beam (Jaffe, Stier, and Fazio). The region lies between l/sup i/I = 10/sup 0/ and l/sup i/I = 16/sup 0/ and includes the M17 and W33 complexes. The weakest of the 42 sources detected had a flux density of 350 Jy at 70 ..mu..m. We present detailed far-infrared, /sup 12/CO, /sup 13/CO, and radio continuum observations of these sources. We discuss the derivation of the important physical parameters of the sources and their surrounding molecular clouds. We also discuss the properties of the individual regions and present maps of selected sources.

  5. Atomic oxygen fine-structure splittings with tunable far-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zink, Lyndon R.; Evenson, Kenneth M.; Matsushima, Fusakazu; Nelis, Thomas; Robinson, Ruth L.

    1991-01-01

    Fine-structure splittings of atomic oxygen (O-16) in the ground state have been accurately measured using a tunable far-infrared spectrometer. The 3P0-3pl splitting is 2,060,069.09 (10) MHz, and the 3Pl-3P2 splitting is 4,744,777.49 (16) MHz. These frequencies are important for measuring atomic oxygen concentration in earth's atmosphere and the interstellar medium.

  6. Pixon deconvolution of far-infrared images from the UT multichannel photometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koresko, Chris D.; Harvey, Paul M.; Curran, Dian; Puetter, Rick

    1995-01-01

    Experiments with Pixon-based image deconvolution demonstrate that this technique can significantly enhance the spatial resolution of two-dimensional images acquired by the UT multichannel far-infrared photometer. A deconvolved 100 micron image of the giant HII region NGC 3603 reveals a bright, asymmetrical central peak some 40 x 55 arcsec in size, possibly surrounded by several secondary peaks. The results using the pixon technique are compared with those obtained using the standard Maximum Entropy and Richardson-Lucy methods.

  7. A far-infrared spectral sequence of galaxies: trends and models

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Jacqueline; Abel, N. P.; González-Alfonso, E.; Dudley, C. C.; Satyapal, S.; Van Hoof, P. A. M.

    2014-11-10

    We present a framework for the interpretation of the far-infrared spectra of galaxies in which we have expanded the model parameters compared with previous work by varying the ionization parameter U, column density N(H), and gas density at the cloud face n(H{sup +}) for a central starburst or active galactic nucleus (AGN). We compare these models carried out with the Cloudy spectral synthesis code to trends in line-to-total far-infrared luminosity ratios, far-infrared fine-structure line ratios, IRAS colors, and OH and H{sub 2}O column densities found in the well-studied sample of 10 nearby galaxies from the IRAS Bright Galaxy Sample with infrared luminosities greater than 10{sup 10} L {sub ☉} and IRAS 60 μm fluxes equal to or greater than that of the nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Arp 220. We find that the spectral sequence extending from normal starburst-type emission-line-dominated spectra to ULIRG-type absorption-dominated spectra with significant absorption from excited levels can be best explained by simultaneously increasing the hydrogen column density, from as low as 10{sup 21} cm{sup –2} to as high as 10{sup 24.8} cm{sup –2} or greater, and the ionization parameter, from as low as 10{sup –4} to as high as 1. The starburst models best reproduce most of the sequence, while AGN models are somewhat better able to produce the high OH and H{sub 2}O column densities in Arp 220. Our results suggest that the molecular interstellar medium in ULIRG-like, molecular-absorption-dominated systems is located close to and at least partially obscures the source of power throughout much of the far-infrared, which must be taken into account in order to properly interpret diagnostics of both their sources of power and of feedback.

  8. Plans for a far-infrared free-electron laser in India

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnagopal, S.; Kumar, V.; Ramamurthi, S.S.

    1995-12-31

    The Centre for Advanced Technology is building the INDUS complex of synchrotron radiation sources. As part of this programme it is also proposed to build a far-infrared free-electron laser oscillator. This will use a microtron injector and a 40 period undulator made of NdFeB permanent magnets, and is designed to law around 200 microns. We discuss details of the FEL design and the present status of experimental activities on this front.

  9. Tunable far infrared studies of molecular parameters in support of stratospheric measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, Kelly V.; Evenson, K. M.; Park, K.; Radostitz, J. V.; Jennings, D. A.; Nolt, I. G.; Vanek, M. D.

    1991-01-01

    Lab studies were made in support of far infrared spectroscopy of the stratosphere using the Tunable Far InfraRed (TuFIR) method of ultrahigh resolution spectroscopy and, more recently, spectroscopic and retrieval calculations performed in support of satellite-based atmospheric measurement programs: the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME), and the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY).

  10. Mission Concept for the Single Aperture Far-Infrared (SAFIR) Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Amato, Michael J.; Mather, John C.; Moseley, S. Harvey; Leisawitz, David T.

    2004-12-01

    The Single Aperture Far-InfraRed (SAFIR) Observatory’s science goals are driven by the fact that the earliest stages of almost all phenomena in the universe are shrouded in absorption by and emission from cool dust and gas that emits strongly in the far-infrared (40μ 200μ) and submillimeter (200μ 1 mm). In the very early universe, the warm gas of newly collapsing, unenriched galaxies will be revealed by molecular hydrogen emission lines at these long wavelengths. High redshift quasars are found to have substantial reservoirs of cool gas and dust, indicative of substantial metal enrichment early in the history of the universe. As a result, even early stages of galaxy formation will show powerful far-infrared emission. The combination of strong dust emission and large redshift (1 < z < 7) of these galaxies means that they can only be studied in the far-infrared and submillimeter. For nearby galaxies, many of the most active galaxies in the universe appear to be those whose gaseous disks are interacting in violent collisions. The details of these galaxies, including the effect of the central black holes that probably exist in most of them, are obscured to shorter wavelength optical and ultraviolet observatories by the large amounts of dust in their interstellar media. Within our own galaxy, the earliest stages of star formation, when gas and dust clouds are collapsing and the beginnings of a central star are taking shape, can only be observed in the far-infrared and submillimeter. The cold dust that ultimately forms the planetary systems, as well as the cool “debris” dust clouds that indicate the likelihood of planetary sized bodies around more developed stars, can only be observed at wavelengths longward of 20μ.

  11. The improved pyroelectric detectors for far-infrared laser interferometer measuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Gao

    1990-05-01

    In this paper, the application of the pyroelectric detectors for Far-Infrared laser diagnostics on TOKAMAK plasma is described. We discovered experimentally that the Fabry-Perot interference could affect the performance of the pyroelectric detectors (PED). The improved pyroelectric detector (IPD) was developed for FIR laser coheront measuring. Some designing considerations about the pyroelectric detectors used in high temperature plasma conditions are mentioned.

  12. Development of far infrared attenuation to measure electron densities in cw pin discharge lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babcock, R. V.

    1977-01-01

    A two beam attenuation technique was devised to measure electron densities 10 to the 9th power to 10 to the 11th power cm/3 resolved to 1 cm, in a near atmospheric COFFEE laser discharge, using 496 micrometer and 1,220 micrometer radiations from CH3F, optically pumped by a CO2 laser. A far infrared generator was developed which was suitable except for a periodic intensity variation in FIR output deriving from frequency variation of the pump radiation.

  13. A new software tool for computing Earth's atmospheric transmission of near- and far-infrared radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, Steven D.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a new software tool, ATRAN, which computes the transmittance of Earth's atmosphere at near- and far-infrared wavelengths. We compare the capabilities of this program with others currently available and demonstrate its utility for observational data calibration and reduction. The program employs current water-vapor and ozone models to produce fast and accurate transmittance spectra for wavelengths ranging from 0.8 microns to 10 mm.

  14. Mode structure in an optically pumped D sub 2 O far-infrared ring laser

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, D.C. ); Soumagne, G.; Siegrist, M.R. )

    1990-02-01

    The mode structures in an optically pumped D {sub 2} O far-infrared ring laser and a corresponding linear resonator are compared in this paper. While single-mode operation can be obtained over the whole useful pressure range in the ring structure, this is only possible at pressures greater than 8 torr in the linear resonator case. A numerical model predicts quite well the pulse shape, pressure dependence, and influence of the resonator quality in the ring cavity.

  15. Radio continuum and far-infrared emission of spiral galaxies: Implications of correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rengarajan, T. N.; Iyengar, K. V. K.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers present a study extending the correlation seen between radio continuum and far-infrared emissions from spiral galaxies to a lower frequency of 408 MHz and also as a function of radio spectral index. The tight correlation seen between the two luminosities is then used to constrain several parameters governing the emissions such as the changes in star formation rate and mass function, frequency of supernovae that are parents of the interstellar electrons and factors governing synchrotron radio emission.

  16. A study of the far-infrared optical properties of rexolite™

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giles, R. H.; Gatesman, A. J.; Waldman, J.

    1990-11-01

    The far-infrared optical properties of Rexolite™ 1422 were characterized at the University of Lowell Research Foundation using Fourier transform spectroscopy. The spectroscopic transmission measurements were performed on a 0.0236″ thick sample of material over the submillimeter wavelength region from 10 cm-1 to 360 cm-1. Using multiple reflection theory for transmission through an etalon, the frequency dependent complex refractive index of Rexolite™ is reported.

  17. Far-Infrared Polarimetry of Galactic Clouds from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dotson, Jessie L.; Davidson, Jacqueline; Dowell, C. Darren; Schleuning, David A.; Hildebrand, Roger H.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we present a complete summary of the data obtained with the far-infrared polarimeter, Stokes, in flights of the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. We have observed 12 Galactic clouds and have made over 1100 individual measurements at 100 micrometer and 60 micrometer. The median P for all of the 60 micrometer and 100 micrometer measurements is 3.6% and 2.6% respectively. We also present flux maps obtained simultaneously with the polarimetry.

  18. CALISTO - A Novel Architecture for the Single Aperture Far Infrared Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lester, Daniel F.; Goldsmith, P.; Benford, D.

    2007-12-01

    Following the success of Spitzer, and in expectation of success with JWST and Herschel, the astronomical community is looking ahead to a large aperture far infrared mission that can build on the scientific results of these missions. This expectation was formalized by the 2000 Decadal recommendation for design studies on a SAFIR - a single aperture far infrared observatory. A JWST-inspired architecture for SAFIR was considered in a Vision Mission study several years ago. We present here a exciting new architecture for this important mission that offers several advantages. This CALISTO (Cryogenic Far-Infrared/Submillimeter Observatory) architecture, originally developed by JPL, builds on the thermally optimized passive cooling design of the Vision Mission version of SAFIR, and focal plane instrument strategies as well, but is based on a 4x6m ellipsoidal primary that greatly simplifies deployment out of an ELV launch shroud. Used off-axis, this design is much less affected by scattered (e.g. galactic plane and ZODI) emission than previous architectures, providing astronomical background-limited facility over much of the sky. Technologies for such a large mirror, diffraction-limited at 20µm, are now becoming credible. Using the large focal plane to host envisioned large format sensor arrays operating with high spatial resolution, CALISTO will resolve the far infrared extragalactic background, and trace the chemical evolution of galaxies. Simple models suggest that detection of the first structure in the universe, marked by cooling primordial clouds of molecular hydrogen at high z, may be achievable with such a telescope. Further building on the work of Spitzer, CALISTO will trace the development of planetary systems, probing the inner structure of star forming disks, and reveal the structure of nearby solar systems using the structure of debris disks that surround them. We review in this paper the science goals and engineering challenges for this mission.

  19. Far-infrared filters utilizing small particle scattering and antireflection coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, K. R.; Low, F. J.

    1974-01-01

    High-transmission, low-pass scatter filters for blocking at wavelengths from 3.5 to 50 microns and single-layer antireflection coatings for optical materials used in the 25- to 300-micron region of the spectrum are described. The application of both techniques to liquid-He-cooled filters permits the construction of efficient low-pass and medium-width bandpass filters for use throughout the far infrared.

  20. Far infrared frequency response of a Josephson junction in a self-pumped mixer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henaux, J.-C.; Vernet, G.; Adde, R.

    1983-12-01

    A continuous measurement of the far-infrared frequency response of a point contact Josephson junction is performed between 0.7 and 2 THz. The response at increasing frequencies present three characteristic regions with variations proportional to f-2, f-4, f-6. They illustrate the losses introduced successively at increasing frequencies by the resistively shunted junction model, the junction RC time constant and the attenuation of the Josephson current above the gap frequency.

  1. Time-resolved far-infrared experiments at the National Synchrotron Light Source. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tanner, D.B.; Reitze, D.H.; Carr, G.L.

    1999-10-12

    A facility for time-resolved infrared and far-infrared spectroscopy has been built and commissioned at the National Synchrotron Light Source. This facility permits the study of time dependent phenomena over a frequency range from 2-8000cm{sup {minus}1} (0.25 meV-1 eV). Temporal resolution is approximately 200 psec and time dependent phenomena in the time range out to 100 nsec can be investigated.

  2. The Case for Space-Borne Far-Infrared Line Surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bock, J. J.; Bradford, C. M.; Dragovan, M.; Earle, L.; Glenn, J.; Naylor, B.; Nguyen, H. T.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2004-01-01

    The combination of sensitive direct detectors and a cooled aperture promises orders of magnitude improvement in the sensitivity and survey time for far-infrared and submillimeter spectroscopy compared to existing or planned capabilities. Continuing advances in direct detector technology enable spectroscopy that approaches the background limit available only from space at these wavelengths. Because the spectral confusion limit is significantly lower than the more familiar spatial confusion limit encountered in imaging applications, spectroscopy can be carried out to comparable depth with a significantly smaller aperture. We are developing a novel waveguide-coupled grating spectrometer that disperses radiation into a wide instantaneous bandwidth with moderate resolution (R 1000) in a compact 2-dimensional format. A line survey instrument coupled to a modest cooled single aperture provides an attractive scientific application for spectroscopy with direct detectors. Using a suite of waveguide spectrometers, we can obtain complete coverage over the entire far-infrared and sub-millimeter. This concept requires no moving parts to modulate the optical signal. Such an instrument would be able to conduct a far-infrared line survey 10 6 times faster than planned capabilities, assuming existing detector technology. However, if historical improvements in bolometer sensitivity continue, so that photon-limited sensitivity is obtained, the integration time can be further reduced by 2 to 4 orders of magnitude, depending on wavelength. The line flux sensitivity would be comparable to ALMA, but at shorter wavelengths and with the continuous coverage needed to extract line fluxes for sources at unknown redshifts. For example, this capability would break the current spectroscopic bottleneck in the study of far-infrared galaxies, the recently discovered, rapidly evolving objects abundant at cosmological distances.

  3. Non-destructively reading out information embedded inside real objects by using far-infrared light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Ayumi; Silapasuphakornwong, Piyarat; Suzuki, Masahiro; Torii, Hideyuki; Takashima, Youichi; Uehira, Kazutake

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a technique that can non-destructively read out information embedded inside real objects by using far-infrared-light. We propose a technique that can protect the copyrights of digital content for homemade products using digital fabrication technologies such as those used in 3D printers. It embeds information on copyrights inside real objects produced by 3D printers by forming fine structures inside the objects as a watermark that cannot be observed from the outside. Fine structures are formed near the surface inside real objects when they are being fabricated. Information embedded inside real objects needs to be read out non-destructively. We used a technique that could non-destructively read out information from inside real objects by using far-infrared light. We conducted experiments where we structured fine cavities inside objects. The disposition of the fine domain contained valuable information. We used the flat and curved surfaces of the objects to identify them. The results obtained from the experiments demonstrated that the disposition patterns of the fine structures appeared on the surface of objects as a temperature profile when far-infrared light was irradiated on their surface. Embedded information could be read out successfully by analyzing the temperature profile images of the surface of the objects that were captured with thermography and these results demonstrated the feasibility of the technique we propose.

  4. Application of far infrared rare earth mineral composite materials to liquefied petroleum gas.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dongbin; Liang, Jinsheng; Ding, Yan; Xu, Anping

    2010-03-01

    Far infrared rare earth mineral composite materials were prepared by the coprecipitation method using tourmaline, cerium acetate, and lanthanum acetate as raw materials. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy show that tourmaline modified with the rare earths La and Ce has a better far infrared emitting performance. Through XRD analysis, we attribute the improved far infrared emission properties of the tourmaline to the unit cell shrinkage of the tourmaline arising from La enhancing the redox properties of nano-CeO2. The effect of the composite materials on the combustion of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) was studied by the flue gas analysis and water boiling test. Based on the results, it was found that the composite materials could accelerate the combustion of LPG, and that the higher the emissivity of the rare earth mineral composite materials, the better the effects on combustion of LPG. In all activation styles, both air and LPG to be activated has a best effect, indicating the activations having a cumulative effect. PMID:20355556

  5. Effect of Tourmaline-Doped on the Far Infrared Emission of Iron Ore Tailings Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Meng, Junping; Liang, Jinsheng; Zhang, Hongchen; Gu, Xiaoyang

    2016-04-01

    Iron ore tailings as secondary resources have been of great importance to many countries in the world. Their compositions are similar to that of infrared emission ceramics, but there are few reports about it. In addition, tourmaline has high infrared emission properties due to its unique structure. With the purpose of expanding functional utilization of iron ore tailings, as well as reducing the production cost of far infrared ceramics, a new kind of far infrared emission ceramics was prepared by using iron ore tailings, calcium carbonate, silica, and natural tourmaline. The ceramics powders were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscope, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The results show that after being sintered at 1065 °C, the percentage of pseudobrookite and lattice strain of samples increased with increasing the elbaite content. Furthermore, the added tourmaline was conducive to the densification sintering of ceramics. The appearance of Li-O vibration at 734.73 cm-1, as well as the strengthened Fe-O vibration at 987.68 cm-1 were attributed to the formation of Li0.375Fe1.23Ti1.4O5 solid solution, which led the average far infrared emissivity of ceramics increase from 0.861 to 0.906 within 8-14 µm. PMID:27451708

  6. Far-Infrared Surface Emissivity Impacts on Climate and the Potential for a Positive Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, D.; Collins, W.; Huang, X.; Chen, X.; Walden, V. P.

    2014-12-01

    There are few observational constraints on surface emissivity at wavelengths longer than 15 μm, a spectral region commonly referred to as the far-infrared. Nevertheless, where the precipitable water vapor (PWV) is less than 1 mm, which is common at high latitudes and high altitudes, the infrared energy budget is directly impacted by this emissivity. Calculations based on published indices of refraction of ice, water, and common surficial minerals, and observations based on a limited set of spectroscopic measurements, find that non-frozen ocean and desert scenes will exhibit lower far-infrared surface emissivity than frozen scenes by between 0.1 and 0.2. The representation of surface emissivity in climate models is highly simplified, based on ideal black-body emission, and systematically higher than emissivity of real surfaces. Therefore, we performed sensitivity studies using the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and found that Arctic surface temperatures warm by 2 °K and frozen surface extent decreases by 5-10% when the model is subjected to realistic values of far-infrared surface emissivity. This finding may help explain the cold-pole bias, and also suggests the potential for a positive feedback whereby the loss of snow or ice leads to the exposure of surfaces that reduce surface infrared cooling, thus warming the surface further.

  7. THE EXTRAORDINARY FAR-INFRARED VARIATION OF A PROTOSTAR: HERSCHEL/PACS OBSERVATIONS OF LRLL54361

    SciTech Connect

    Balog, Zoltan; Detre, Örs H.; Bouwmann, Jeroen; Nielbock, Markus; Klaas, Ulrich; Krause, Oliver; Henning, Thomas; Muzerolle, James; Flaherty, Kevin; Furlan, Elise; Gutermuth, Rob; Juhasz, Attila; Bally, John; Marton, Gabor

    2014-07-10

    We report Herschel/Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) photometric observations at 70 μm and 160 μm of LRLL54361—a suspected binary protostar that exhibits periodic (P = 25.34 days) flux variations at shorter wavelengths (3.6 μm and 4.5 μm) thought to be due to pulsed accretion caused by binary motion. The PACS observations show unprecedented flux variation at these far-infrared wavelengths that are well correlated with the variations at shorter wavelengths. At 70 μm the object increases its flux by a factor of six while at 160 μm the change is about a factor of two, consistent with the wavelength dependence seen in the far-infrared spectra. The source is marginally resolved at 70 μm with varying FWHM. Deconvolved images of the sources show elongations exactly matching the outflow cavities traced by the scattered light observations. The spatial variations are anti-correlated with the flux variation, indicating that a light echo is responsible for the changes in FWHM. The observed far-infrared flux variability indicates that the disk and envelope of this source is periodically heated by the accretion pulses of the central source, and suggests that such long wavelength variability in general may provide a reasonable proxy for accretion variations in protostars.

  8. First Light from the Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Johnson, David G.; Latvakoski, Harri; Jucks, Kenneth; Watson, Mike; Bingham, Gail; Kratz, David P.; Traub, Wesley A.; Wellard, Stanley J.; Hyde, Charles R.; Liu, Xu

    2005-01-01

    We present first light spectra from the new Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) instrument. FIRST is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer developed to measure accurately the far-infrared (15 to 100 micrometers; 650 to 100 wavenumbers) emission spectrum of the Earth and its atmosphere. The observations presented here were obtained during a high altitude balloon flight from Ft. Sumner, New Mexico on 7 June 2005. The flight data demonstrate the instrument's ability to observe the entire energetically significant infrared emission spectrum (50 to 2000 wavenumbers) at high spectral and spatial resolution on a single focal plane in an instrument with one broad spectral bandpass beamsplitter. Comparisons with radiative transfer calculations demonstrate that FIRST accurately observes the very fine spectral structure in the far-infrared. Comparisons of the atmospheric window radiances measured by FIRST and by instruments on the NASA Aqua satellite that overflew FIRST are in excellent agreement. FIRST opens a new window on the spectrum that can be used for studying atmospheric radiation and climate, cirrus clouds, and water vapor in the upper troposphere.

  9. Probing the Multiphase Interstellar Medium and Star Formation in Nearby Galaxies through Far Infrared Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera-Camus, Rodrigo; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Wolfire, Mark G.; Smith, John-David T.; Kennicutt, Robert; Calzetti, Daniela; Croxall, Kevin V.; Fisher, David B.; Kingfish, Beyond The Peak

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the complex interplay between physical processes that play a crucial role in galaxy formation and evolution, in particular star formation and the thermal balance in the neutral and molecular interstellar medium. This work was based on far-infrared photometry and spectroscopy of nearby galaxies using Spitzer and Herschel space observatories. In our first project, we study the dust properties of one of the the most metal poor systems known in the local Universe, I Zw 18. We measured a dust-to-gas ratio in the range 3.2-13×10-6, which suggest that low metallicity galaxies, like I Zw 18, do not follow the same linear relationship between metallicity and dust-to-gas ratio as typical local spirals. In our second project, we studied the reliability of the [CII] 158 µm emission as a star formation tracer. The [CII] line is the major coolant for the neutral atomic gas and it can be observed by ALMA in normal, star forming galaxies at z > 2. Based on resolved observations of 46 nearby galaxies from the KINGFISH sample, we conclude that [CII] emission can be used for measurements of star formation rates (SFR) on both, global and kiloparsec scales, in normal star-forming galaxies in the absence of strong active galactic nuclei. The main source of scatter in the correlation is associated with regions that exhibit warm IR colors, and we provide an adjustment based on IR color that reduces the scatter. We show that the color-adjusted ∑[CII] - ∑SFR correlation is valid over almost 5 orders of magnitude in ∑SFR, holding for both normal star-forming galaxies and non-AGN luminous infrared galaxies. Using [CII] luminosity instead of surface brightness to estimate SFR suffers from worse systematics, frequently underpredicting SFR in luminous infrared galaxies. We suspect that surface brightness relations are better behaved than the luminosity relations because the former are more closely related to the local far-UV field, most likely the main parameter

  10. Near- and far-infrared intersubband transitions in polar and non-polar III-nitrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmunds, Colin

    III-nitrides are promising materials for intersubband devices operating in the near- and far-infrared due to the large conduction band offset (> 1 eV), longitudinal-optical phonon energy (~ 90 meV), and fast intersubband relaxation time (~ 80 fs). However, several challenges impede progress towards the realization of high performance III-nitride optoelectronic devices. To address these challenges, this thesis investigates the optical properties of intersubband transitions in the III-nitrides. The studies were carried out across several III-nitride material combinations, including the relatively well developed c-axis AlGaN/GaN material system, the lattice-matched AlInN/GaN system, and the non-polar m-axis AlGaN/GaN system. The latter systems are relatively unexplored, and promise to alleviate specific material challenges, namely the lattice-mismatch and internal polarization fields associated with the well developed c-axis AlGaN/GaN material system. In the c-axis AlGaN/GaN material system, we study the impact of doping profile on the transition energy, linewidth and magnitude. An optimal doping profile is determined and the results are understood through band structure calculations that consider the influence of many-body effects, interface roughness, and the transition lifetime. We also demonstrate quantum well infrared photodetectors and electromodulators on low-defect GaN-on-sapphire and free-standing GaN substrates, proving the suitability of low-defect substrates for III-nitride devices. The optimization and theoretical understanding of the optical properties, along with the successful demonstration of intersubband devices, is an important contribution to the future design of III-nitride devices. For the lattice-matched AlInN/GaN system, we demonstrate direct intersubband absorption for the first time. However, we find the strength of the intersubband absorption to be much smaller than expected. The poor performance of AlInN/GaN superlattices is attributed to

  11. Indium Hybridization of Large Format TES Bolometer Arrays to Readout Multiplexers for Far-Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Costen, Nick; Allen, Christine

    2007-01-01

    The advance of new detector technologies combined with enhanced fabrication methods has resulted in an increase in development of large format arrays. The next generation of scientific instruments will utilize detectors containing hundreds to thousands of elements providing a more efficient means to conduct large area sky surveys. Some notable detectors include a 32x32 x-ray microcalorimeter for Constellation-X, an infrared bolometer called SAFIRE to fly on the airborne observatory SOFIA, and the sub-millimeter bolometer SCUBA-2 to be deployed at the JCMT which will use more than 10,000 elements for two colors, each color using four 32x40 arrays. Of these detectors, SCUBA-2 is farthest along in development and uses indium hybridization to multiplexers for readout of the large number of elements, a technology that will be required to enable the next generation of large format arrays. Our current efforts in working toward large format arrays have produced GISMO, the Goddard IRAM Superconducting 2-Millimeter observer. GISMO is a far infrared instrument to be field tested later this year at the IRAM 30 meter telescope in Spain. GISMO utilizes transition edge sensor (TES) technology in an 8x16 filled array format that allows for typical fan-out wiring and wire-bonding to four 1x32 NIST multiplexers. GISMO'S electrical wiring is routed along the tops of 30 micron walls which also serve as the mechanical framework for the array. This architecture works well for the 128 element array, but is approaching the limit for routing the necessary wires along the surface while maintaining a high fill factor. Larger format arrays will benefit greatly from making electrical connections through the wafer to the backside, where they can be hybridized to a read-out substrate tailored to handling the wiring scheme. The next generation array we are developing is a 32x40 element array on a pitch of 1135 microns that conforms to the NIST multiplexer, already developed for the SCUBA-2

  12. Note: Raman microspectroscopy integrated with fluorescence and dark field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haibo; Wang, Hailong; Huang, Dianshuai; Liang, Lijia; Gu, Yuejiao; Liang, Chongyang; Xu, Shuping; Xu, Weiqing

    2014-05-01

    A Raman detection platform integrated with both fluorescence and dark field microscopes was built for in situ Raman detection with the assistance of fluorescence and dark field imaging to locate the target micro regions. Cells and organelles can be easily found via fluorescence imaging with labeling techniques. Besides, nano-sized particles could be observed and located by dark field microscopes. Therefore, comparing with the commercial Raman spectrometers, much more researches based on Raman spectroscopy could be carried out on this integrated Raman platform, especially in the fields of analyzing biological tissues and subwavelength samples.

  13. Dust models post-Planck: constraining the far-infrared opacity of dust in the diffuse interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanciullo, L.; Guillet, V.; Aniano, G.; Jones, A. P.; Ysard, N.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Boulanger, F.; Köhler, M.

    2015-08-01

    Aims: We compare the performance of several dust models in reproducing the dust spectral energy distribution (SED) per unit extinction in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM). We use our results to constrain the variability of the optical properties of big grains in the diffuse ISM, as published by the Planck collaboration. Methods: We use two different techniques to compare the predictions of dust models to data from the Planck HFI, IRAS, and SDSS surveys. First, we fit the far-infrared emission spectrum to recover the dust extinction and the intensity of the interstellar radiation field (ISRF). Second, we infer the ISRF intensity from the total power emitted by dust per unit extinction, and then predict the emission spectrum. In both cases, we test the ability of the models to reproduce dust emission and extinction at the same time. Results: We identify two issues. Not all models can reproduce the average dust emission per unit extinction: there are differences of up to a factor ~2 between models, and the best accord between model and observation is obtained with the more emissive grains derived from recent laboratory data on silicates and amorphous carbons. All models fail to reproduce the variations in the emission per unit extinction if the only variable parameter is the ISRF intensity: this confirms that the optical properties of dust are indeed variable in the diffuse ISM. Conclusions: Diffuse ISM observations are consistent with a scenario where both ISRF intensity and dust optical properties vary. The ratio of the far-infrared opacity to the V band extinction cross-section presents variations of the order of ~20% (40-50% in extreme cases), while ISRF intensity varies by ~30% (~60% in extreme cases). This must be accounted for in future modelling. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  14. Intersubband Rabi oscillations in asymmetric nanoheterostructures: implications for a tunable continuous-wave source of a far-infrared and THz radiation.

    PubMed

    Kukushkin, V A

    2012-06-01

    A tunable continuous-wave source of a far-infrared and THz radiation based on a semiconductor nanoheterostructure with asymmetric quantum wells is suggested. It utilizes Rabi oscillations at a transition between quantum well subbands excited by external femtosecond pulses of a mid-infrared electromagnetic field. Due to quantum well broken inversion symmetry the subbands possess different average dipole moments, which enables the creation of polarization at the Rabi frequency as the subband populations change. It is shown that if this polarization is excited so that it is periodic in space, then, though being pulsed, it can produce continuous-wave output radiation. Changing the polarization space period and the time intervals between the exciting pulses, one can tune the frequency of this radiation throughout the far-infrared and THz range. In the present work a concrete multiple quantum well heterostructure design and a scheme of its space-periodic polarization are suggested. It is shown that for existing sources of mid-infrared femtosecond pulses the proposed scheme can provide a continuous-wave output power of order the power of far-infrared and THz quantum cascade lasers. Being added to the possibility of its output frequency tuning, this can make the suggested device attractive for fundamental research and various applications. PMID:22905512

  15. Vector field models of modified gravity and the dark sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuntz, J.; Zlosnik, T. G.; Bourliot, F.; Ferreira, P. G.; Starkman, G. D.

    2010-05-01

    We present a comprehensive investigation of cosmological constraints on the class of vector field formulations of modified gravity called generalized Einstein-aether models. Using linear perturbation theory we generate cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure spectra for general parameters of the theory, and then constrain them in various ways. We investigate two parameter regimes: a dark matter candidate where the vector field sources structure formation, and a dark energy candidate where it causes late-time acceleration. We find that the dark matter candidate does not fit the data, and identify five physical problems that can restrict this and other theories of dark matter. The dark energy candidate does fit the data, and we constrain its fundamental parameters; most notably we find that the theory’s kinetic index parameter nae can differ significantly from its ΛCDM value.

  16. Vector field models of modified gravity and the dark sector

    SciTech Connect

    Zuntz, J.; Ferreira, P. G.; Zlosnik, T. G; Bourliot, F.; Starkman, G. D.

    2010-05-15

    We present a comprehensive investigation of cosmological constraints on the class of vector field formulations of modified gravity called generalized Einstein-aether models. Using linear perturbation theory we generate cosmic microwave background and large-scale structure spectra for general parameters of the theory, and then constrain them in various ways. We investigate two parameter regimes: a dark matter candidate where the vector field sources structure formation, and a dark energy candidate where it causes late-time acceleration. We find that the dark matter candidate does not fit the data, and identify five physical problems that can restrict this and other theories of dark matter. The dark energy candidate does fit the data, and we constrain its fundamental parameters; most notably we find that the theory's kinetic index parameter n{sub ae} can differ significantly from its {Lambda}CDM value.

  17. Electromagnetic modelling of a space-borne far-infrared interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donohoe, Anthony; O'Sullivan, Créidhe; Murphy, J. Anthony; Bracken, Colm; Savini, Giorgio; Pascale, Enzo; Ade, Peter; Sudiwala, Rashmi; Hornsby, Amber

    2016-02-01

    In this paper I will describe work done as part of an EU-funded project `Far-infrared space interferometer critical assessment' (FISICA). The aim of the project is to investigate science objectives and technology development required for the next generation THz space interferometer. The THz/FIR is precisely the spectral region where most of the energy from stars, exo-planetary systems and galaxy clusters deep in space is emitted. The atmosphere is almost completely opaque in the wave-band of interest so any observation that requires high quality data must be performed with a space-born instrument. A space-borne far infrared interferometer will be able to answer a variety of crucial astrophysical questions such as how do planets and stars form, what is the energy engine of most galaxies and how common are the molecule building blocks of life. The FISICA team have proposed a novel instrument based on a double Fourier interferometer that is designed to resolve the light from an extended scene, spectrally and spatially. A laboratory prototype spectral-spatial interferometer has been constructed to demonstrate the feasibility of the double-Fourier technique at far infrared wavelengths (0.15 - 1 THz). This demonstrator is being used to investigate and validate important design features and data-processing methods for future instruments. Using electromagnetic modelling techniques several issues related to its operation at long baselines and wavelengths, such as diffraction, have been investigated. These are critical to the design of the concept instrument and the laboratory testbed.

  18. Temperature effect on the far infrared absorption features of aromatic-based Titan aerosol analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautier, T.; Trainer, M. G.; Loeffler, M. J.; Sebree, J.; Anderson, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    The detection of benzene at ppm levels in Titan's atmosphere[1] by Cassini's Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) has enforced the idea that aromatic and heteroaromatic reaction pathways may play an important role in Titan's atmospheric chemistry, especially in the formation of aerosols. Indeed, Trainer et al.[2] showed that aromatic molecules are easily dissociated by ultraviolet radiation and can therefore contribute significantly to aerosol formation. Sebree et al. [3] used such a mixture of low concentration aromatic and/or heteroaromatic molecules (benzene, naphthalene, pyridine, quinoline and isoquinoline) to produce aerosol analogs and then analyzed their far infrared absorption spectra. Their study shows that such aerosols can reproduce some spectral features observed by Cassini's Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) in the far infrared below 500cm-1 [4]. Aerosols absorption at such a low wavenumbers most likely results from lattice resonances within their structure[4,5], and this might be influenced by the temperature of the sample. In this work we investigated the influence of temperature on the absorption spectra of the aerosol samples studied in Sebree et al.[4]. We recorded spectra at 100K and 300K and this revealed variations in the total absorption with temperature, but no new absorption features were observed. Through this investigation we have also found an unexpected strong absorption band of cooled Silicon in the far infrared, which has never been reported in the literature. [1] Waite et al. Science 316 (5826) : 870-875 [2] Trainer et al. ApJL 766: L4, 2013 [3] Sebree et al. Icarus 236: 146-152, 2014 [4] Anderson et al. Icarus 212: 762-778, 2011 [5] Gautier et al. Icarus 221: 320-327, 2012

  19. Retrieval of atmospheric parameters and radiative properties using Far-Infrared remote sensing measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamali, Maryam; Milz, Mathias; Martín-Torres, Javier; Palchetti, Luca

    2016-04-01

    The far-infrared (FIR) spectral region, covering wavelengths between 15 μm (667 cm‑1) and about 1 μm (10,000 cm‑1) plays a critical role in the climate system. A good knowledge of the radiation processes in this spectral region is of high interest for observations and understanding of heating and cooling rates, and global energy balance. Even though approximately 50% of terrestrial radiation occurs in the FIR and despite the critical FIR contribution to the Earth's energy balance, this spectral region has been only studied by a few number of instruments. Also the full FIR spectral region has not ever been directly observed from space. High spectral resolution observations in this region can help to enlighten its role for the global energy budget and atmospheric radiation processes. Among others, the reasons for this lack of measurements are: (i) the decreasing intensity of the radiation towards longer wavelengths; and, then (ii) the high sensitivity and cooling of the detectors requirements. These requirements are now overcome and future space missions will have the capability to measure the full FIR and then open fully one-half of the Earth's spectrum, and accordingly improve our ability to model and assess climate processes. The aim of the study is to assess the use of FIR remote sensing instruments for retrievals of atmospheric parameters and radiative properties such as heating and cooling rates. Case studies with simulated spectra, together with ground based measurements in the FIR at Dome C over the Antarctic Plateau at 3,230 m a.s.l. (above sea level) in clear-sky conditions, which been observed almost continuously since 2012, are used to assess the potential of remote sensing instruments in the far-infrared region. Appropriate selection of spectral channels to directly measure the far-infrared spectra as needed for future space missions and recommended.

  20. A rocket-borne observation of the far-infrared sky at high Galactic latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawada, M.; Bock, J. J.; Hristov, V. V.; Lange, A. E.; Matsuhara, H.; Matsumoto, T.; Matsuura, S.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Richards, P. L.; Tanaka, M.

    1994-01-01

    We have measured the surface brightness of the far-infrared sky at lambda = 134, 154, and 186 micrometers at high Galactic latitude using a liquid-He-cooled, rocket-borne telescope. The telescope scanned over a 5 deg x 20 deg region which includes infrared cirrus, high-latitude molecular clouds, the starburst galaxy M82, and the H I Hole in Ursa Major, a region with uniquely low H I column density. The measured brightness at 134, 154, and 186 micrometers is well correlated with the 100 micrometers brightness measured by IRAS and, in regions excluding molecular clouds, with H I column density. The spectrum of the component correlated with H I is well fitted by a gray-body spectrum with a temperature of 16.4 (+2.3/-1.8) K, assuming an emissivity proportional to lambda(exp -2). Assuming a constant far-infrared dust emissivity per hydrogen nucleus, the ratio of the H2 column density to the velocity-integrated CO intensity in the high-latitude molecular cloud is NH2/W(sub co) = (1.6 +/- 0.3) x 10(exp 20)/sq cm/(K km/s). The residual brightness after subtracting the emission correlated with H I column density is lambda I(sub lambda)(154 micrometers) = (1.4 +/- 0.6) x 10(exp -12) W/sq cm/sr, yielding an upper limit to the far-infrared extragalactic background radiation of lambda I(sub lambda)(154 micrometers) is less than 2.6 x 10(exp -12) W/sq cm/sr.

  1. The optical design of a far infrared imaging FTS for SPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, Carmen; Zuluaga, Pablo; Jellema, Willem; González Fernández, Luis Miguel; Belenguer, Tomas; Torres Redondo, Josefina; Kooijman, Peter Paul; Najarro, Francisco; Eggens, Martin; Roelfsema, Peter; Nakagawa, Takao

    2014-08-01

    This paper describes the optical design of the far infrared imaging spectrometer for the JAXA's SPICA mission. The SAFARI instrument, is a cryogenic imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (iFTS), designed to perform backgroundlimited spectroscopic and photometric imaging in the band 34-210 μm. The all-reflective optical system is highly modular and consists of three main modules; input optics module, interferometer module (FTS) and camera bay optics. A special study has been dedicated to the spectroscopic performance of the instrument, in which the spectral response and interference of the instrument have been modeled, as the FTS mechanism scans over the total desired OPD range.

  2. Wavefront Sensing and Control Technology for Submillimeter and Far-Infrared Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redding, Dave

    2004-01-01

    The NGST wavefront sensing and control system will be developed to TRL6 over the next few years, including testing in a cryogenic vacuum environment with traceable hardware. Doing this in the far-infrared and submillimeter is probably easier, as some aspects of the problem scale with wavelength, and the telescope is likely to have a more stable environment; however, detectors may present small complications. Since this is a new system approach, it warrants a new look. For instance, a large space telescope based on the DART membrane mirror design requires a new actuation approach. Other mirror and actuation technologies may prove useful as well.

  3. Water Structure Studied by Far Infrared Spectroscopy in FTIR Beam Line of MIRRORCLE 20

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, Nobuhiro; Moon, Ahsa; Kitagawa, Toshimichi; Yamada, Hironari

    2007-03-30

    Far infrared vibrational Spectroscopy for distilled water was performed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) in the FTIR beam line of MIRRORCLE 20. Synchrotron radiation was utilized as a light source for the absorption Spectroscopy in the frequency range from 100cm-1 to 20cm-1. Off-line measurements by black body radiation of ceramic heater were also examined in the range from 400cm-1 to 50cm-1. Wide range spectrum was obtained after the SR data merged the off-line data. We report the recent development in the beam line and the examples of spectra related to the water structure.

  4. THE FAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF VERY LARGE NEUTRAL POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    SciTech Connect

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Mattioda, Andrew L.; Boersma, Christiaan; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2010-01-20

    Here we report the computed far-infrared (FIR) spectra of neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules containing at least 82 carbons up to 130 carbons and with shapes going from compact round and oval-type structures to rectangular and to trapezoidal. The effects of size and shape on the FIR band positions and intensities are discussed. Using FIR data from the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database Version 1.1, we generate synthetic spectra that support the suggestion that the 16.4, 17.4, and 17.8 mum bands arise from PAHs.

  5. Microstructure and far infrared emission properties of tourmaline powders eroded by hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinsheng; Li, Juan; Meng, Junping; Ding, Yan; Xue, Gang

    2010-03-01

    The microstructure and far infrared emission properties of tourmaline powders eroded by hydrochloric acid were investigated. The indexes including crystal structure, unit cell volume, microstructure and infrared spectra were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show that the crystal structure was not changed; however, the unit cell volume decreased, the angularities of tourmaline particles became smooth, and there appeared nanohollows on their surfaces. The infrared emission properties were enhanced at proper concentrations of hydrochloric acid solutions. PMID:20355630

  6. Probing the structures of gas-phase rhodium cluster cations by far-infrared spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, D. J.; Gruene, P.; Haertelt, M.; Meijer, G.; Fielicke, A.; Hamilton, S. M.; Hopkins, W. S.; Mackenzie, S. R.; Neville, S. P.; Walsh, T. R.

    2010-12-07

    The geometric structures of small cationic rhodium clusters Rh{sub n}{sup +} (n = 6-12) are investigated by comparison of experimental far-infrared multiple photon dissociation spectra with spectra calculated using density functional theory. The clusters are found to favor structures based on octahedral and tetrahedral motifs for most of the sizes considered, in contrast to previous theoretical predictions that rhodium clusters should favor cubic motifs. Our findings highlight the need for further development of theoretical and computational methods to treat these high-spin transition metal clusters.

  7. The AKARI Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS): all-sky Diffuse Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komugi, Shinya; Doi, Yasuo; Hattori, Makoto; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Otsubo, Takafumi; Tanaka, Masahiro; Ikeda, Norio; Kato, Daisuke; Nakagawa, Takao

    2011-12-01

    The infrared astronomical satellite AKARI performed an all sky survey at six infrared bands. We report here on the calibration of the all-sky image data, observed in the four long wavelength bands with the FIS instrument (AKARI Far-infrared All Sky Survey : AFASS). The preliminary image attains a calibration uncertainty and sensitivity of better than ~ 30% and ~ 10 MJy str-1, respectively, for all four bands. The point spread function (PSF) is obtained via a stacking technique. The data are shown to be useful for exploring the internal structure and dust spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of nearby galaxies.

  8. Far-infrared investigations of a methanol clathrate hydrate - Implications for astronomical observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Reggie L.; Moore, Marla H.

    1993-01-01

    Observations of nonterrestrial clathrate hydrates are still lacking despite the fact that clathrates first were suggested to exist in cometary and interstellar ices over 40 years ago. Spectroscopy, the most direct method of astronomical detection, has been hampered by the similarity of clathrate hydrate spectra to those of unenclathrated guest molecules and solid H2O. We have prepared a methanol (CH3OH) clathrate hydrate, using a recently published procedure, and have investigated its far-infrared spectrum. The spectrum is quite different from that of either unenclathrated CH3OH or solid H2O and so should be of value in astronomical searches for this clathrate.

  9. Far-infrared absorption spectra and properties of SnO2 nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yingkai; Dong, Yi; Wang, Guanghou

    2003-01-01

    Gray-colored materials synthesized by calcining the precursor powders, which were produced in a microemulsion, are identified to be rutile structured SnO2 nanorods 20-45 nm in diameter and several micrometers in length by x-ray diffraction, transmission with electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission microscopy. Conspicuous far-infrared (FIR) absorption spectrum platform peaks with widths of up to 61.6 and 119 cm-1 are observed, and are explained as the overlap of the surface modes of cylindrical and spheroid particles. Good agreement is achieved between FIR platform peaks and calculated results.

  10. Balloon-borne three-meter telescope for far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fazio, Giovanni G.; Hoffmann, William F.; Harper, Doyal A.

    1988-01-01

    The scientific objectives, engineering analysis and design, results of technology development, and focal-plane instrumentation for a two-meter balloon-borne telescope for far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy are presented. The unique capabilities of balloon-borne observations are discussed. A program summary emphasizes the development of the two-meter design. The relationship of the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) is also discussed. Detailed treatment is given to scientific objectives, gondola design, the mirror development program, experiment accommodations, ground support equipment requirements, NSBF design drivers and payload support requirements, the implementation phase summary development plan, and a comparison of three-meter and two-meter gondola concepts.

  11. Temperature dependence of optically dumped far-infrared (FIR) laser output power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawandy, N. M.

    1978-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the small signal gain and saturation power are derived using temperature-dependent rates in a four-level model. An expression is developed for the output power of a far-infrared oscillator as a function of temperature for both fixed pressure and fixed density. The results are valid in the regime of homogeneous broadening of the rotational transition and Doppler broadening of the pump transition. It is shown that, for most lasers, both the small signal gain and the saturation power decrease with increasing temperature. These effects have the overall result of increasing output power with decreasing temperatures.

  12. Design of high-T{sub c} superconducting bolometers for a far infrared imaging array

    SciTech Connect

    Verghese, S.; Richards, P.L.; Fork, D.K.; Char, K.; Geballe, T.H.

    1992-08-01

    The design of high-{Tc} superconducting bolometers for use in a far infrared imaging array from wavelengths 30--100{mu}m is discussed. Measurements of the voltage noise in thin films of YBa{sub 2}CU{sub 3}O{sub 7-{var_sigma}} on yttria-stabilized zirconia buffer layers on silicon substrates are used to make performance estimates. Useful opportunities exist for imaging and spectroscopy with bolometer arrays made on micro-machined silicon membranes. A circuit on each pixel which performs some signal integration can improve the sensitivity of large two-dimensional arrays of bolometers which use multiplexed readout amplifiers.

  13. Water Structure Studied by Far Infrared Spectroscopy in FTIR Beam Line of MIRRORCLE 20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Nobuhiro; Moon, Ahsa; Yamada, Hironari; Kitagawa, Toshimichi

    2007-03-01

    Far infrared vibrational Spectroscopy for distilled water was performed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) in the FTIR beam line of MIRRORCLE 20. Synchrotron radiation was utilized as a light source for the absorption Spectroscopy in the frequency range from 100cm-1 to 20cm-1. Off-line measurements by black body radiation of ceramic heater were also examined in the range from 400cm-1 to 50cm-1. Wide range spectrum was obtained after the SR data merged the off-line data. We report the recent development in the beam line and the examples of spectra related to the water structure.

  14. Far-infrared observations of the evolved H II region M16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcbreen, B.; Fazio, G. G.; Jaffe, D. T.

    1982-01-01

    The results of far infrared (FIR) observations of the larger H II region M16, associated with the young open star cluster NGC 6611, are discussed. Three FIR sources detected on an extended ridge of FIR emission within the scanned region are described. The observations confirm that M16 is an H II region in a late stage of evolution. The H II region has expanded and is now extremely density bounded, consisting of an extended region of ionized gas and a series of ionization fronts located at the surrounding molecular cloud boundaries nearest to the exciting OB star cluster. The FIR radiation arises from heated dust at these boundaries.

  15. Far-infrared spectra of dysprosium doped yttrium aluminum garnet nanopowder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajić, J.; Rabasović, M. S.; Savić-Šević, S.; Ševic, D.; Babić, B.; Romčević, M.; Ristić-Djurović, J. L.; Paunović, N.; Križan, J.; Romčević, N.

    2016-07-01

    The solution combustion synthesis was used to prepare nanopowders of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) and YAG doped with dysprosium ions, Dy3+, (YAG:Dy). The morphology, specific surface area, texture, and optical properties of the prepared materials were studied by the means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen adsorption method, and far-infrared spectroscopy at room temperature in the spectral region between 80 and 600 cm-1. It was established that all the examined samples were microporous. The Maxwell-Garnet formula was used to model dielectric function of YAG and YAG:Dy nanopowders as mixtures of homogenous spherical inclusions in air.

  16. Study of Several Potentials as Scalar Field Dark Matter Candidates

    SciTech Connect

    Matos, Tonatiuh; Vazquez-Gonzalez, Alberto; Magan a, Juan

    2008-12-04

    In this work we study several scalar field potentials as a plausible candidate to be the dark matter in the universe. The main idea is the following; if the scalar field is an ultralight boson particle, it condensates like a Bose-Einstein system at very early times and forms the basic structure of the Universe. Real scalar fields collapse in equilibrium configurations which oscillate in space-time (oscillatons). The cosmological behavior of the field equations are solved using the dynamical system formalism. We use the current cosmological parameters as constraints for the free parameters of the scalar field potentials. We are able to reproduce very well the cosmological predictions of the standard {lambda}CDM model with some scalar field potentials. Therefore, scalar field dark matter seems to be a good alternative to be the nature of the dark matter of the universe.

  17. Flat-field and Dark Frame Corrections for IRIS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saar, S. H.; Jaeggli, S. A.; Bush, R. I.; Boerner, P.; Wuelser, J.; Tarbell, T. D.; Lites, B. W.; De Pontieu, B.

    2013-12-01

    We discuss the development of flat-field and dark frame corrections for Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) data. Flat-fields for IRIS were taken prior to launch using a lamp filtered to NUV wavelengths; following launch the Sun itself was used as a flat-field source. The solar flat-field for the slit-jaw imagers is constructed using the Chae method, which extracts the moving object and fixed gain patterns from a set of dithered images. The spectrographic flat-fields are produced by significantly defocusing the telescope and averaging many images in a scan to remove solar structure, so that the average spectral profile can be removed. A given dark frame consists of pedestal and dark current components. In IRIS, both are temperature dependent, though they respond to different measured temperatures; the dark current is also exposure time dependent. Each CCD readout port has a slightly different temperature and exposure time response. We have analyzed a series of dark frames over an IRIS orbit to calibrate for these effects. We plan to continue to monitor the flat-field and dark frames regularly for any changes.

  18. Fundamental scalar fields and the dark side of the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mychelkin, Eduard G.; Makukov, Maxim A.

    2015-11-01

    Starting with geometrical premises, we infer the existence of fundamental cosmological scalar fields. We then consider physically relevant situations in which spacetime metric is induced by one or, in general, by two scalar fields, in accord with the Papapetrou algorithm. The first of these fields, identified with dark energy (DE), has exceedingly small but finite (subquantum) Hubble mass scale ( ≈ 10-33 eV), and might be represented as a neutral superposition of quasi-static electric fields. The second field is identified with dark matter (DM) as an effectively scalar conglomerate composed of primordial neutrinos and antineutrinos in a special tachyonic state.

  19. HAWC+: A Detector, Polarimetry, and Narrow-Band Imaging Upgrade to SOFIA's Far-Infrared Facility Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowell, C. D.; Staguhn, J.; Harper, D. A.; Ames, T. J.; Benford, D. J.; Berthoud, M.; Chapman, N. L.; Chuss, D. T.; Dotson, J. L.; Irwin, K. D.; Jhabvala, C. A.; Kovacs, A.; Looney, L.; Novak, G.; Stacey, G. J.; Vaillancourt, J. E.; HAWC+ Science Collaboration

    2013-01-01

    HAWC, the High-resolution Airborne Widebandwidth Camera, is the facility far-infrared camera for SOFIA, providing continuum imaging from 50 to 250 microns wavelength. As a result of NASA selection as a SOFIA Second Generation Instruments upgrade investigation, HAWC will be upgraded with enhanced capability for addressing current problems in star formation and interstellar medium physics prior to commissioning in early 2015. We describe the capabilities of the upgraded HAWC+, as well as our initial science program. The mapping speed of HAWC is increased by a factor of 9, accomplished by using NASA/Goddard's Backshort-Under-Grid bolometer detectors in a 64x40 format. Two arrays are used in a dual-beam polarimeter format, and the full complement of 5120 transition-edge detectors is read using NIST SQUID multiplexers and U.B.C. Multi-Channel Electronics. A multi-band polarimeter is added to the HAWC opto-mechanical system, at the cryogenic pupil image, employing rotating quartz half-wave plates. Six new filters are added to HAWC+, bringing the full set to 53, 63, 89, 155, and 216 microns at R = 5 resolution and 52, 63, 88, 158, and 205 microns at R = 300 resolution. The latter filters are fixed-tuned to key fine-structure emission lines from [OIII], [OI], [CII], and [NII]. Polarimetry can be performed in any of the filter bands. The first-light science program with HAWC+ emphasizes polarimetry for the purpose of mapping magnetic fields in Galactic clouds. The strength and character of magnetic fields in molecular clouds before, during, and after the star formation phase are largely unknown, despite pioneering efforts on the KAO and ground-based telescopes. SOFIA and HAWC+ provide significant new capability: sensitivity to extended dust emission (to A_V ~ 1) which is unmatched, ~10 arcsec angular resolution combined with wide-field mapping which allows statistical estimates of magnetic field strength, and wavelength coverage spanning the peak of the far-infrared

  20. Far-infrared detector development for space-based Earth observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogue, H. H.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Abedin, M. N.; Masterjohn, S. A.; Huffman, J. E.

    2008-08-01

    DRS Sensors & Targeting Systems with silicon materials partner Lawrence Semiconductor Research Laboratory and development partner NASA Langley Research Center Earth Science Directorate are developing improved far-infrared detectors for Earth energy balance observations from orbit. Our team has succeeded in demonstrating the feasibility of extending the wavelength range of conventional arsenic-doped-silicon Blocked Impurity Band (BIB) detectors (cut-off ~28 μm) into the far infrared. The new far-IR member of the BIB detector family operates at temperatures accessible to existing space-qualified cryocoolers, while retaining the very high values of sensitivity, stability, linearity, and bandwidth typical of the broader class of silicon BIB detectors. The new detector should merit serious consideration for the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission defined by the recent National Research Council's Decadal Survey for Earth Science. Proposed further development of this detector technology includes wavelength extension to a goal of at least 100 μm, improvements in detector design, and implementation of light-trapping packaging. These are developments that will enable increased radiometric accuracy, reduced spatial smearing, and simpler calibration approaches for CLARREO.

  1. Towards Background-Limited Kinetic Inductance Detectors for a Cryogenic Far-Infrared Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyhrie, A.; Glenn, J.; Wheeler, J.; Day, P.; Eom, B. H.; Leduc, H.; Skrutskie, M.

    2016-02-01

    Arrays of tens of thousands of sensitive far-infrared detectors coupled to a cryogenic 4-6 m class orbital telescope are needed to trace the assembly of galaxies over cosmic time. The sensitivity of a 4 Kelvin telescope observing in the far-infrared (30-300 \\upmu m) would be limited by zodiacal light and Galactic interstellar dust emission, and require broadband detector noise equivalent powers (NEPs) in the range of 3× 10^{-19} W/√{Hz} . We are fabricating and testing 96 element arrays of lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) designed to reach NEPs near this level in a low-background laboratory environment. The LEKIDs are fabricated with aluminum: the low normal-state resistivity of Al permits the use of very thin wire-grid absorber lines (150 nm) for efficient absorption of radiation, while the small volumes enable high sensitivities because quasiparticle densities are high. Such narrow absorption lines present a fabrication challenge, but we deposit TiN atop the Al to increase the robustness of the detectors and achieve a 95 % yield. We present the design of these Al/TiN bilayer LEKIDs and preliminary sensitivity measurements at 350 \\upmu m optically loaded by cold blackbody radiation.

  2. Far-infrared and sub-millimetre imaging of HD 76582's circumstellar disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Jonathan P.; Booth, Mark; Holland, Wayne; Matthews, Brenda C.; Greaves, Jane S.; Zuckerman, Ben

    2016-04-01

    Debris disks, the tenuous rocky and icy remnants of planet formation, are believed to be evidence for planetary systems around other stars. The JCMT/SCUBA-2 debris disk legacy survey `SCUBA-2 Observations of Nearby Stars' (SONS) observed 100 nearby stars, amongst them HD 76582, for evidence of such material. Here we present imaging observations by JCMT/SCUBA-2 and Herschel/PACS at sub-millimetre and far-infrared wavelengths, respectively. We simultaneously model the ensemble of photometric and imaging data, spanning optical to sub-millimetre wavelengths, in a self-consistent manner. At far-infrared wavelengths, we find extended emission from the circumstellar disk providing a strong constraint on the dust spatial location in the outer system, although the angular resolution is too poor to constrain the interior of the system. In the sub-millimetre, photometry at 450 and 850 μm reveal a steep fall-off that we interpret as a disk dominated by moderately-sized dust grains (amin~ = ~36~μm), perhaps indicative of a non-steady-state collisional cascade within the disk. A disk architecture of three distinct annuli, comprising an unresolved component at 20 au and outer components at 80 and 270 au, along with a very steep particle size distribution (γ~ = ~5), is proposed to match the observations.

  3. H-ATLAS: the far-infrared properties of galaxies in and around the Coma cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, C.; Davies, J. I.; Smith, M. W. L.; Valiante, E.; Eales, S.; Bourne, N.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Furlanetto, C.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R.; Maddox, S.; Sansom, A.; Michałowski, M. J.; Davis, T.

    2016-05-01

    We describe a far-infrared survey of the Coma cluster and the galaxy filament it resides within. Our survey covers an area of ˜150 deg2 observed by Herschel H-ATLAS (Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey) in five bands at 100, 160, 250, 350 and 500 μm. The SDSS spectroscopic survey (mr ≤ 17.8) is used to define an area (within the virial radius) and redshift selected (4268 < v < 9700 km s-1) sample of 744 Coma cluster galaxies - the Coma Cluster Catalogue. For comparison, we also define a sample of 951 galaxies in the connecting filament - the Coma Filament Catalogue. The optical positions and parameters are used to define appropriate apertures to measure each galaxy's far-infrared emission. We have detected 99 of 744 (13 per cent) and 422 of 951 (44 per cent) of the cluster and filament galaxies in the SPIRE 250 μm band. We consider the relative detection rates of galaxies of different morphological types finding that it is only the S0/Sa population that shows clear differences between the cluster and filament. We find no differences between the dust masses and temperatures of cluster and filament galaxies with the exception of early-type galaxy dust temperatures, which are significantly hotter in the cluster than in the filament (X-ray heating?). From a chemical evolution model, we find no evidence for different evolutionary processes (gas loss or infall) between galaxies in the cluster and filament.

  4. Inhibition of water activated by far infrared functional ceramics on proliferation of hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongmei; Liang, Jinsheng; Ding, Yan; Meng, Junping; Zhang, Guangchuan

    2014-05-01

    Rare earth (RE)/tourmaline composite materials prepared by the precipitation method are added to the ceramic raw materials at a certain percentage and sintered into RE functional ceramics with high far infrared emission features. Then the far infrared functional ceramics are used to interact with water. The influence of the ceramics on the physical parameters of water is investigated, and the effect of the activated water on the growth of Bel-7402 hepatoma cells cultured in vitro is further studied. The results indicate that, compared with the raw water, the water activated by the ceramics can inhibit the proliferation of hepatoma cells, with statistical probability P < 0.01, which means that the effect is significant. It can be explained that the water activated by the ceramics has a higher concentration of H+, which decreases the potential difference across the cell membrane to release the apoptosis inducing factor (AIF). After entering the cells, the activated water stimulates the mitochondria to produce immune substances that lead tumor cells to apoptosis. PMID:24734643

  5. Performance and application of far infrared rays emitted from rare earth mineral composite materials.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinsheng; Zhu, Dongbin; Meng, Junping; Wang, Lijuan; Li, Fenping; Liu, Zhiguo; Ding, Yan; Liu, Lihua; Liang, Guangchuan

    2008-03-01

    Rare earth mineral composite materials were prepared using tourmaline and cerous nitrate as raw materials. Through characterization by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, dynamic contact angle meter and tensiometer, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, it was found that the composite materials had a better far infrared emitting performance than tourmaline, which depended on many factors such as material composition, microstructure, and surface free energy. Based on the results of the flue gas analyzer and the water boiling test, it was found that the rare earth mineral composite materials could accelerate the combustion of liquefied petroleum gas and diesel oil. The results showed that the addition of Ce led to the improvement of far infrared emitting performance of tourmaline due to the decrease of cell volume caused by the oxidation of more Fe2+ ions and the increase of surface free energy. The application of rare earth mineral composite materials to diesel oil led to a decrease in surface tension and flash point, and the fuel saving ratio could reach 4.5%. When applied to liquefied petroleum gas, the composite materials led to the enhanced combustion, improved fuel consumption by 6.8%, and decreased concentration of CO and O2 in exhaust gases by 59.7% and 16.2%, respectively; but the temperature inside the flue increased by 10.3%. PMID:18468124

  6. Terahertz time domain and far-infrared spectroscopies of side-chain electro-optic polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Toshiki; Kaji, Takahiro; Aoki, Isao; Yamada, Chiyumi; Mizuno, Maya; Saito, Shingo; Tominari, Yukihiro; Tanaka, Shukichi; Otomo, Akira

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the dielectric properties of side-chain electro-optic polymers in a broad THz frequency region (90 GHz to 7 THz). For this investigation, we used terahertz time domain spectroscopy and the absorption coefficient in a broader frequency region of up to 20 THz that was obtained by far-infrared spectroscopy. The polymers studied were a new methacrylate polymer with a high-hyperpolarizability chromophore as the sidechain, a side-chain copolymer Disperse Red 1 polymethylmethacrylate, and pure polymethylmethacrylate. The dielectric properties in the low THz frequency region (∼0.1 THz) provide us with important information about the intrinsic refractive index for ultrahigh-speed electro-optic modulation (∼100 GHz), as well as versatile information such as the absorption coefficient and dielectric loss. The THz and far-infrared spectroscopic data in the wide frequency region provide us with the fundamental data for applications of side-chain electro-optic polymers within THz generation and detection.

  7. Far-infrared spectroscopy of a lensed starburst: a blind redshift from Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, R. D.; Ivison, R. J.; Hopwood, R.; Riechers, D. A.; Bussmann, R. S.; Cox, P.; Dye, S.; Krips, M.; Negrello, M.; Neri, R.; Serjeant, S.; Valtchanov, I.; Baes, M.; Bourne, N.; Clements, D. L.; De Zotti, G.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S. A.; Ibar, E.; Maddox, S.; Smith, M. W. L.; Valiante, E.; van der Werf, P.

    2013-11-01

    We report the redshift of HATLAS J132427.0+284452 (hereafter HATLAS J132427), a gravitationally lensed starburst galaxy, the first determined `blind' by the Herschel Space Observatory. This is achieved via the detection of [C II] consistent with z = 1.68 in a far-infrared spectrum taken with the SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS). We demonstrate that the [C II] redshift is secure via detections of CO J = 2 → 1 and 3 → 2 using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy and the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique's Plateau de Bure Interferometer. The intrinsic properties appear typical of high-redshift starbursts despite the high lensing-amplified fluxes, proving the ability of the FTS to probe this population with the aid of lensing. The blind detection of [C II] demonstrates the potential of the SPICA Far-infrared Instrument imaging spectrometer, proposed for the much more sensitive Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics mission, to determine redshifts of multiple dusty galaxies simultaneously without the benefit of lensing.

  8. Development of Cryogenic Readout Electronics for Sensitive Far-Infrared Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watabe, Toyoki; Shibai, Hiroshi; Hirao, Takanori; Nagata, Hirohisa; Hibi, Yasunori; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Nakagawa, Takao; Noda, Manabu

    We have successfully developed low-noise, low-power cryogenic readout electronics (CRE) for sensitive far-infrared detectors operated at low temperatures. The CRE must be mounted besides of the detector, and thus, it must be operated at cryogenic temperatures. The reasons of that are to avoid electrical interferences to the high-impedance portion between the detector itself and the CRE, and to minimize the stray capacitance that may decrease the read-out gain. The goals of the CRE performance are the operation temperature can be down to 2K, the noise level is 2µV/√Hz at 1Hz, the power consumption is 10µW/channel, and the open-loop gain of differential amplifier is over 1000. We have so far manufactured the CRE four times, and evaluated the performances at 4.2K. The present performance achieved is nearly acceptable for the far-infrared sensor of the next Japanese infrared astronomical satellite, ASTRO-F.

  9. Cryogenic far-infrared laser absorptivity measurements of the Herschel Space Observatory telescope mirror coatings.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Jacqueline; Klaassen, Tjeerd; Hovenier, Niels; Jakob, Gerd; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Sternberg, Oren

    2004-07-01

    Far-infrared laser calorimetry was used to measure the absorptivity, and thus the emissivity, of aluminum-coated silicon carbide mirror samples produced during the coating qualification run of the Herschel Space Observatory telescope to be launched by the European Space Agency in 2007. The samples were measured at 77 K to simulate the operating temperature of the telescope in its planned orbit about the second Lagrangian point, L2, of the Earth-Sun system. Together, the telescope's equilibrium temperature in space and the emissivity of the mirror surfaces will determine the far-infrared-submillimeter background and thus the sensitivity of two of the three astronomical instruments aboard the observatory if stray-light levels can be kept low relative to the mirror emission. Absorptivities of both clean and dust-contaminated samples were measured at 70, 118, 184, and 496 microm. Theoretical fits to the data predict absorptivities of 0.2-0.4% for the clean sample and 0.2-0.8% for the dusty sample, over the spectral range of the Herschel Space Observatory instruments. PMID:15250543

  10. BLAST: A FAR-INFRARED MEASUREMENT OF THE HISTORY OF STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Pascale, Enzo; Ade, Peter A. R.; Dye, Simon; Eales, Steve A.; Griffin, Matthew; Hargrave, Peter C.; Mauskopf, Philip; Moncelsi, Lorenzo; Bock, James J.; Chapin, Edward L.; Halpern, Mark; Marsden, Gaelen; Ngo, Henry; Devlin, Mark J.; Klein, Jeff; Gundersen, Joshua O.; Hughes, David H.; Netterfield, Calvin B.; Olmi, Luca; Patanchon, Guillaume

    2009-12-20

    We directly measure redshift evolution in the mean physical properties (far-infrared luminosity, temperature, and mass) of the galaxies that produce the cosmic infrared background (CIB), using measurements from the Balloon-borne Large Aperture Submillimeter Telescope (BLAST), and Spitzer which constrain the CIB emission peak. This sample is known to produce a surface brightness in the BLAST bands consistent with the full CIB, and photometric redshifts are identified for all of the objects. We find that most of the 70 mum background is generated at z approx< 1 and the 500 mum background generated at z approx> 1. A significant growth is observed in the mean luminosity from approx10{sup 9}-10{sup 12} L{sub sun}, and in the mean temperature by 10 K, from redshifts 0 < z < 3. However, there is only weak positive evolution in the comoving dust mass in these galaxies across the same redshift range. We also measure the evolution of the far-infrared luminosity density, and the star formation rate history for these objects, finding good agreement with other infrared studies up to z approx 1, exceeding the contribution attributed to optically selected galaxies.

  11. High resolution spectroscopy of six SOCl2 isotopologues from the microwave to the far-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Drumel, M. A.; Roucou, A.; Brown, G. G.; Thorwirth, S.; Pirali, O.; Mouret, G.; Hindle, F.; McCarthy, M. C.; Cuisset, A.

    2016-02-01

    Despite its potential role as an atmospheric pollutant, thionyl chloride, SOCl2, remains poorly characterized in the gas phase. In this study, the pure rotational and ro-vibrational spectra of six isotopologues of this molecule, all detected in natural abundance, have been extensively studied from the cm-wave band to the far-infrared region by means of three complementary techniques: chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy, sub-millimeter-wave spectroscopy using frequency multiplier chain, and synchrotron-based far-infrared spectroscopy. Owing to the complex line pattern which results from two nuclei with non-zero spins, new, high-level quantum-chemical calculations of the hyperfine structure played a crucial role in the spectroscopic analysis. From the combined experimental and theoretical work, an accurate semi-experimental equilibrium structure (reSE) of SOCl2 has been derived. With the present data, spectroscopy-based methods can now be applied with confidence to detect and monitor this species, either by remote sensing or in situ.

  12. Extended far-infrared emission and star formation in Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marston, A. P.

    1994-01-01

    An investigation into the extended distribution of far-infrared (FIR) emission associated with nearby Seyfert galaxies is made using a set of MEM reconstructions of IRAS Chopped Photometric Channel (CPC) data (Marston 1993). The data is compared to a set of HII/starburst galaxy images similarly processed in order to compare distributions and FIR color properties. It is shown that the central 1 kpc or so of Seyfert galaxies show extended FIR emission. FIR colors suggest that the bulk of this emission is not directly associated with an active nucleus. They further suggest that the origins of the majority of the emission is from heated dust associated with star formation surrounding the nucleus rather than dust heated by the active nucleus. Nearby Seyfert galaxies are shown to have a higher concentration of far-infrared emission from their centers than the HII/starburst galaxies and a number appear to reside in disk galaxies with relatively low ongoing star formation in their disks. An example of this is NGC 7582 which has a smooth disk but an active nucleus/starbust center.

  13. Far-infrared and sub-millimetre imaging of HD 76582's circumstellar disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Jonathan P.; Booth, Mark; Holland, Wayne; Matthews, Brenda C.; Greaves, Jane S.; Zuckerman, Ben

    2016-07-01

    Debris discs, the tenuous rocky and icy remnants of planet formation, are believed to be evidence for planetary systems around other stars. The JCMT/SCUBA-2 debris disc legacy survey `SCUBA-2 Observations of Nearby Stars' (SONS) observed 100 nearby stars, amongst them HD 76582, for evidence of such material. Here, we present imaging observations by JCMT/SCUBA-2 and Herschel/PACS at sub-millimetre and far-infrared wavelengths, respectively. We simultaneously model the ensemble of photometric and imaging data, spanning optical to sub-millimetre wavelengths, in a self-consistent manner. At far-infrared wavelengths, we find extended emission from the circumstellar disc providing a strong constraint on the dust spatial location in the outer system, although the angular resolution is too poor to constrain the interior of the system. In the sub-millimetre, photometry at 450 and 850 μm reveals a steep fall-off that we interpret as a disc dominated by moderately sized dust grains (amin = 36 μm), perhaps indicative of a non-steady-state collisional cascade within the disc. A disc architecture of three distinct annuli, comprising an unresolved component at 20 au and outer components at 80 and 270 au, along with a very steep particle size distribution (γ = 5), is proposed to match the observations.

  14. The spectrum of Titan in the far-infrared and microwave regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courtin, R.

    1982-01-01

    The pressure-induced absorptions of gaseous nitrogen (N2) and methane (CH4) are computed on the basis of the collisional lineshape theory of Birnbaum and Cohen (1976). Laboratory data at 300 and 124 K for N2 and at 296 and 195 K for CH4 are used to determine the collisional time constants and their temperature dependence. The spectrum of Titan from the microwave to the far-infrared region (0.1-600/cm) is then modeled using these opacities and a temperature profile of Titan's atmosphere derived from the Voyager 1 radio occultation experiment. The model atmosphere is composed of N2 and CH4, their relative proportions being determined by the vapor pressure law of CH4. A model with gaseous opacity alone is ruled out by the far-infrared observations. An additional opacity, thought to be associated with a methane cloud, is confirmed. The effective temperature of Titan is estimated at 83.2 plus or minus 1.4 K.

  15. Effects of Somatothermal Far-Infrared Ray on Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Yu-Min; Ou, Ming-Chiu; Ho, Cheng-Kun; Lin, Yung-Sheng; Liu, Ho-Yen; Chang, Wen-An

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the beneficial effects of using a far-infrared (FIR) belt on the management of patients with primary dysmenorrhea. This is the first study to determine the efficacy of somatothermal FIR using a parallel-arm randomized sham-controlled and double-blinded design with objective physical evidence and psychometric self-reports. Fifty-one Taiwanese women with primary dysmenorrhea were enrolled in the study. Results indicate that there was an increased abdominal temperature of 0.6°C and a 3.27% increase in abdominal blood flow in the FIR group (wearing FIR belt) compared to those in the control group (wearing sham belt). Verbal rating scale and numeric rating scale scores in the FIR group were both lower than those in the control group. Compared to the blank group (wearing no belt), the average dysmenorrhea pain duration of the FIR group was significantly reduced from 2.5 to 1.8 days, but there was no significant difference in the control group. These results demonstrate that the use of a belt made of far-infrared ceramic materials can reduce primary dysmenorrhea. PMID:23320024

  16. Mission Concept for the Single Aperture Far-Infrared (SAFIR) Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benford, Dominic J.; Amato, Michael J.; Mather, John C.; Moseley, S. Harvey, Jr.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a preliminary but comprehensive mission concept for SAFIR, as a 10 m-class far-infrared and submillimeter observatory that would begin development later in this decade to meet the needs outlined above. Its operating temperature (< or = 4K) and instrument complement would be optimized to reach the natural sky confusion limit in the far-infrared with diffraction-limited performance down to at least the atmospheric cutoff, lambda > or approx. 40 microns. This would provide a point source sensitivity improvement of several orders of magnitude over that of the Spitzer Space Telescope (previously SIRTF) or the Herschel Space Observatory. Additionally, it would have an angular resolution 12 times finer than that of Spitzer and three times finer than Herschel. This sensitivity and angular resolution are necessary to perform imaging and spectroscopic studies of individual galaxies in the early universe. We have considered many aspects of the SAFIR mission, including the telescope technology (optical design, materials, and packaging), detector needs and technologies, cooling method and required technology developments, attitude and pointing, power systems, launch vehicle, and mission operations. The most challenging requirements for this mission are operating temperature and aperture size of the telescope, and the development of detector arrays. SAFIR can take advantage of much of the technology under development for JWST, but with much less stringent requirements on optical accuracy.

  17. Towards Background-Limited Kinetic Inductance Detectors for a Cryogenic Far-Infrared Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyhrie, A.; Glenn, J.; Wheeler, J.; Day, P.; Eom, B. H.; Leduc, H.; Skrutskie, M.

    2016-08-01

    Arrays of tens of thousands of sensitive far-infrared detectors coupled to a cryogenic 4-6 m class orbital telescope are needed to trace the assembly of galaxies over cosmic time. The sensitivity of a 4 Kelvin telescope observing in the far-infrared (30-300 \\upmu m) would be limited by zodiacal light and Galactic interstellar dust emission, and require broadband detector noise equivalent powers (NEPs) in the range of 3× 10^{-19} W/√{Hz}. We are fabricating and testing 96 element arrays of lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) designed to reach NEPs near this level in a low-background laboratory environment. The LEKIDs are fabricated with aluminum: the low normal-state resistivity of Al permits the use of very thin wire-grid absorber lines (150 nm) for efficient absorption of radiation, while the small volumes enable high sensitivities because quasiparticle densities are high. Such narrow absorption lines present a fabrication challenge, but we deposit TiN atop the Al to increase the robustness of the detectors and achieve a 95 % yield. We present the design of these Al/TiN bilayer LEKIDs and preliminary sensitivity measurements at 350 \\upmu m optically loaded by cold blackbody radiation.

  18. Application of advanced millimeter/far-infrared sources to collective Thomson scattering plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Woskoboinikow, P.; Cohn, D.R.; Temkin, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    The application of advanced millimeter/far infrared sources to substantially improve the effectiveness of collective Thomson scattering plasma diagnostics is discussed. Gyrotrons, CO/sub 2/ lasers and far infrared lasers which are optically pumped with CO/sub 2/ laser radiation can now provide important new capabilities in terms of combined high peak power and high average power, fine frequency tunability and a wide range of operating frequencies. Their capabilities can improve the signal to noise ratio and make possible time dependent scattering measurements. Both thermal level scattering used for determination of ion temperature and low level non-thermal measurements used for the investigation of plasma turbulence and wave phenomena are considered. Rapidly pulsed gyrotrons, CO/sub 2/, and optically pumped lasers can provide a range of combinations of high peak power and high energy during a given time interval. The use of this high peak power - high energy trade off capability to maximize signal to noise ratios is discussed. Dramatic reduction in stray light, using fine frequency source tunability and gas absorption cell technology, is also discussed.

  19. Radio continuum and far-infrared observations of low surface brightness galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoeppe, G.; Brinks, E.; Klein, U.; Giovanardi, C.; Altschuler, D. R.; Price, R. M.; Deeg, H. -J.

    1994-01-01

    We present Very Large Array (VLA) radio continuum and Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) far-infrared (FIR) observations of 16 low luminosity galaxies of mostly low surface brightness. All galaxies had previously claimed single dish radio continuum detections. However, at the frequencies of our observations (1.49 and 8.48 GHz), we find significant radio emission for two objects only. We show that the other previously claimed detections are due to confusion with physically unrelated background sources. This implies a low radio continuum detection rate for these galaxies. Re-reduced IRAS scans yield significant far-infrared flux densities in at least one IRAS band for 6 of the 16 galaxies. These, together with the FIR and radio continuum upper limits, are consistent with the well established radio/FIR relation, where most of our galaxies populate the low-luminosity end. From the radio continuum and FIR flux densities and their upper limits we estimate the current star formation rates and demonstrate that the galaxies are currently passive in forming stars, in agreement with previous optical investigations. There is an indication that the galaxies were forming stars more intensively averaged over their lifetime than they are presently.

  20. FAR-INFRARED EMISSION FROM THE INTERGALACTIC MEDIUM IN STEPHAN'S QUINTET REVEALED BY AKARI

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Toyoaki; Kaneda, Hidehiro; Onaka, Takashi; Kitayama, Tetsu

    2011-04-10

    Stephan's Quintet (SQ, HCG92) was observed with the Far-Infrared Surveyor on board AKARI in four far-infrared (IR) bands at 65, 90, 140, and 160 {mu}m. The AKARI four-band images show far-IR emission in the intergalactic medium of SQ. In particular, the 160 {mu}m band image shows single peak emission in addition to the structure extending in the north-south direction along the shock ridge as seen in the 140 {mu}m band, H{sub 2} emission, and X-ray emission. Whereas most of the far-IR emission in the shocked region comes from the cold dust component, shock-powered [C II]158 {mu}m emission can significantly contribute to the emission in the 160 {mu}m band that shows a single peak at the shocked region. In the shocked region, the observed gas-to-dust mass ratio is in agreement with the Galactic one. The color temperature of the cold dust component ({approx}20 K) is lower than that in surrounding galaxies ({approx}30 K). We discuss a possible origin of the intergalactic dust emission.

  1. The spectrum of Titan in the far-infrared and microwave regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtin, R.

    1982-09-01

    The pressure-induced absorptions of gaseous nitrogen (N2) and methane (CH4) are computed on the basis of the collisional lineshape theory of Birnbaum and Cohen (1976). Laboratory data at 300 and 124 K for N2 and at 296 and 195 K for CH4 are used to determine the collisional time constants and their temperature dependence. The spectrum of Titan from the microwave to the far-infrared region (0.1-600/cm) is then modeled using these opacities and a temperature profile of Titan's atmosphere derived from the Voyager 1 radio occultation experiment. The model atmosphere is composed of N2 and CH4, their relative proportions being determined by the vapor pressure law of CH4. A model with gaseous opacity alone is ruled out by the far-infrared observations. An additional opacity, thought to be associated with a methane cloud, is confirmed. The effective temperature of Titan is estimated at 83.2 plus or minus 1.4 K.

  2. The nature of the emission-line nebulae in powerful far-infrared galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armus, Lee; Heckman, Timothy M.; Miley, George K.

    1990-01-01

    The authors discuss their program of narrow-band (H alpha + (NII)) imaging of a sample of 30 powerful far-infrared galaxies (FIRG's) chosen to have far-infrared spectral energy distributions similar to the prototype FIRG's Arp 220, NGC 3690, NGC 6240, and M82. The emission-line nebulae of these IR color-selected sample (ICSS) galaxies as a class are both impressively large (mean half light radius, r approx. 1.3 Kpc, and mean diameter, D approx. 16 Kpc) and luminous (L sub TOT approx. 10(exp 8) solar lumninosity; uncorrected for internal extinction). The mean total H alpha + (NII) luminosity of the FIRG's is comparable to that found for pairs of optically selected interacting galaxies (Bushouse, Lamb, and Werner 1988), but is a factor of approx. 5 greater than that of isolated spirals (Kennicutt and Kent 1983). Only approx. 25 percent of the nearby (z approx. less than 0.10) FIRG's have morphologies suggesting that large HII-regions contribute significantly to their emission-line appearance. The broad-band morphologies of our IR color-selected galaxies fall into three major categories. Nearly 75 percent are single galaxy systems, with the remaining FIRG's being either multiple nuclei systems, or members of interacting pairs. Since the authors saw few (10 percent) currently interacting FIRG's, yet many (80 percent) with highly distorted continuum morphologies, their IR color criteria may be preferentially selecting galaxies that have undergone highly inelastic, rapidly merging interactions.

  3. Constraining scalar fields with stellar kinematics and collisional dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Barranco, Juan; Bernal, Argelia; Rezzolla, Luciano E-mail: jbarranc@aei.mpg.de E-mail: rezzolla@aei.mpg.de

    2010-11-01

    The existence and detection of scalar fields could provide solutions to long-standing puzzles about the nature of dark matter, the dark compact objects at the centre of most galaxies, and other phenomena. Yet, self-interacting scalar fields are very poorly constrained by astronomical observations, leading to great uncertainties in estimates of the mass m{sub φ} and the self-interacting coupling constant λ of these fields. To counter this, we have systematically employed available astronomical observations to develop new constraints, considerably restricting this parameter space. In particular, by exploiting precise observations of stellar dynamics at the centre of our Galaxy and assuming that these dynamics can be explained by a single boson star, we determine an upper limit for the boson star compactness and impose significant limits on the values of the properties of possible scalar fields. Requiring the scalar field particle to follow a collisional dark matter model further narrows these constraints. Most importantly, we find that if a scalar dark matter particle does exist, then it cannot account for both the dark-matter halos and the existence of dark compact objects in galactic nuclei.

  4. TALC: a new deployable concept for a 20m far-infrared space telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durand, Gilles; Sauvage, Marc; Bonnet, Aymeric; Rodriguez, Louis; Ronayette, Samuel; Chanial, Pierre; Scola, Loris; Révéret, Vincent; Aussel, Hervé; Carty, Michael; Durand, Matthis; Durand, Lancelot; Tremblin, Pascal; Pantin, Eric; Berthe, Michel; Martignac, Jérôme; Motte, Frédérique; Talvard, Michel; Minier, Vincent; Bultel, Pascal

    2014-08-01

    TALC, Thin Aperture Light Collector is a 20 m space observatory project exploring some unconventional optical solutions (between the single dish and the interferometer) allowing the resolving power of a classical 27 m telescope. With TALC, the principle is to remove the central part of the prime mirror dish, cut the remaining ring into 24 sectors and store them on top of one-another. The aim of this far infrared telescope is to explore the 600 μm to 100 μm region. With this approach we have shown that we can store a ring-telescope of outer diameter 20m and ring thickness of 3m inside the fairing of Ariane 5 or Ariane 6. The general structure is the one of a bicycle wheel, whereas the inner sides of the segments are in compression to each other and play the rule of a rim. The segments are linked to each other using a pantograph scissor system that let the segments extend from a pile of dishes to a parabolic ring keeping high stiffness at all time during the deployment. The inner corners of the segments are linked to a central axis using spokes as in a bicycle wheel. The secondary mirror and the instrument box are built as a solid unit fixed at the extremity of the main axis. The tensegrity analysis of this structure shows a very high stiffness to mass ratio, resulting into 3 Hz Eigen frequency. The segments will consist of two composite skins and honeycomb CFRP structure build by replica process. Solid segments will be compared to deformable segments using the controlled shear of the rear surface. The adjustment of the length of the spikes and the relative position of the side of neighbor segments let control the phasing of the entire primary mirror. The telescope is cooled by natural radiation. It is protected from sun radiation by a large inflatable solar screen, loosely linked to the telescope. The orientation is performed by inertia-wheels. This telescope carries a wide field bolometer camera using cryocooler at 0.3K as one of the main instruments. This

  5. Far-infrared and dc-Magnetotransport of CaMnO3 CaRuO3 Superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Yordanov, P.; Boris, A. V.; Freeland, J. W.; Kavich, J. J.; Chakhalian, J.; Lee, Ho Nyung; Keimer, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    We report temperature- and magnetic-field-dependent measurements of the dc resistivity and the far-infrared reflectivity (FIR) (photon energies {h_bar}{omega} = 50-700 cm{sup -1}) of superlattices comprising ten consecutive unit cells of the antiferromagnetic insulator CaMnO{sub 3}, and four to ten unit cells of the correlated paramagnetic metal CaRuO{sub 3}. Below the Neel temperature of CaMnO{sub 3}, the dc resistivity exhibits a logarithmic divergence upon cooling, which is associated with a large negative, isotropic magnetoresistance. The {omega} {yields} 0 extrapolation of the resistivity extracted from the FIR reflectivity, on the other hand, shows a much weaker temperature and field dependence. We attribute this behavior to scattering of itinerant charge carriers in CaRuO{sub 3} from sparse, spatially isolated magnetic defects at the CaMnO{sub 3}-CaRuO{sub 3} interfaces. This field-tunable 'transport bottleneck' effect may prove useful for functional metal-oxide devices.

  6. Heavy dark matter annihilation from effective field theory.

    PubMed

    Ovanesyan, Grigory; Slatyer, Tracy R; Stewart, Iain W

    2015-05-29

    We formulate an effective field theory description for SU(2)_{L} triplet fermionic dark matter by combining nonrelativistic dark matter with gauge bosons in the soft-collinear effective theory. For a given dark matter mass, the annihilation cross section to line photons is obtained with 5% precision by simultaneously including Sommerfeld enhancement and the resummation of electroweak Sudakov logarithms at next-to-leading logarithmic order. Using these results, we present more accurate and precise predictions for the gamma-ray line signal from annihilation, updating both existing constraints and the reach of future experiments. PMID:26066425

  7. Controlling the dark exciton spin eigenstates by external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantz, L.; Schmidgall, E. R.; Schwartz, I.; Don, Y.; Waks, E.; Bahir, G.; Gershoni, D.

    2016-07-01

    We study the dark exciton's behavior as a coherent physical two-level spin system (qubit) using an external magnetic field in the Faraday configuration. Our studies are based on polarization-sensitive intensity autocorrelation measurements of the optical transition resulting from the recombination of a spin-blockaded biexciton state, which heralds the dark exciton and its spin state. We demonstrate control over the dark exciton eigenstates without degrading its decoherence time. Our observations agree well with computational predictions based on a master equation model.

  8. REGIONAL VARIATIONS IN THE DENSE GAS HEATING AND COOLING IN M51 FROM HERSCHEL FAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Parkin, T. J.; Wilson, C. D.; Schirm, M. R. P.; Foyle, K.; Baes, M.; De Looze, I.; Boquien, M.; Boselli, A.; Cooray, A.; Cormier, D.; Karczewski, O. Ł.; Lebouteiller, V.; Madden, S. C.; Sauvage, M.; Spinoglio, L.

    2013-10-20

    We present Herschel PACS and SPIRE spectroscopy of the most important far-infrared cooling lines in M51, [C II](158 μm), [N II](122 and 205 μm), [O I](63 and 145 μm), and [O III](88 μm). We compare the observed flux of these lines with the predicted flux from a photon-dominated region model to determine characteristics of the cold gas such as density, temperature, and the far-ultraviolet (FUV) radiation field, G{sub 0}, resolving details on physical scales of roughly 600 pc. We find an average [C II]/F{sub TIR} of 4 × 10{sup –3}, in agreement with previous studies of other galaxies. A pixel-by-pixel analysis of four distinct regions of M51 shows a radially decreasing trend in both the FUV radiation field, G{sub 0}, and the hydrogen density, n, peaking in the nucleus of the galaxy, and then falling off out to the arm and interarm regions. We see for the first time that the FUV flux and gas density are similar in the differing environments of the arm and interarm regions, suggesting that the inherent physical properties of the molecular clouds in both regions are essentially the same.

  9. Nonrelativistic approach for cosmological scalar field dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ureña-López, L. Arturo

    2014-07-01

    We derive nonrelativistic equations of motion for the formation of cosmological structure in a scalar field dark matter (SFDM) model corresponding to a complex scalar field endowed with a quadratic scalar potential. Starting with the equations of motion written in the Newtonian gauge of scalar perturbations, we separate out the involved fields into relativistic and nonrelativistic parts and find the equations of motion for the latter that can be used to build up the full solution. One important assumption will be that the SFDM field is in the regime of fast oscillations, under which its behavior in the homogeneous regime is exactly that of cold dark matter. The resultant equations are quite similar to the Schrödinger-Poisson system of Newtonian boson stars plus relativistic leftovers, and they can be used to study the formation of cosmological structure in SFDM models, and others alike, to ultimately prove their viability as complete dark matter models.

  10. Accurate determination of the fine-structure intervals in the 3P ground states of C-13 and C-12 by far-infrared laser magnetic resonance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooksy, A. L.; Saykally, R. J.; Brown, J. M.; Evenson, K. M.

    1986-01-01

    Accurate values are presented for the fine-structure intervals in the 3P ground state of neutral atomic C-12 and C-13 as obtained from laser magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The rigorous analysis of C-13 hyperfine structure, the measurement of resonant fields for C-12 transitions at several additional far-infrared laser frequencies, and the increased precision of the C-12 measurements, permit significant improvement in the evaluation of these energies relative to earlier work. These results will expedite the direct and precise measurement of these transitions in interstellar sources and should assist in the determination of the interstellar C-12/C-13 abundance ratio.

  11. Infrared Detectors Overview in the Short Wave Infrared to Far Infrared for CLARREO Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abedin, M. N.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Refaat, Tamer F.

    2010-01-01

    There exists a considerable interest in the broadband detectors for CLARREO Mission, which can be used to detect CO2, O3, H2O, CH4, and other gases. Detection of these species is critical for understanding the Earth?s atmosphere, atmospheric chemistry, and systemic force driving climatic changes. Discussions are focused on current and the most recent detectors developed in SWIR-to-Far infrared range for CLARREO space-based instrument to measure the above-mentioned species. These detector components will make instruments designed for these critical detections more efficient while reducing complexity and associated electronics and weight. We will review the on-going detector technology efforts in the SWIR to Far-IR regions at different organizations in this study.

  12. Effects of particle size on far infrared emission properties of tourmaline superfine powders.

    PubMed

    Meng, Junping; Jin, Wei; Liang, Jinsheng; Ding, Yan; Gan, Kun; Yuan, Youde

    2010-03-01

    Tourmaline superfine powders with different particle sizes were prepared by grinding, superfine ball milling, and high-speed centrifugation. The powders were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, dynamic contact angle meter and tensiometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The results show that tourmaline powders exhibit improved far infrared emission properties as the particle size decreases. The increased surface free energy and proportion of the polar component are considered to play an important role for their properties. The spontaneous polarization is increased, and the dipole moment of tourmaline is stimulated to a high energy level more easily for the chemical bond vibration, so that the energy is apt to emit by transition. In the range of 2000-500 cm(-1), the emissivity values of the samples with D50 size of 2.67 microm and 0.2 microm are 0.973 and 0.991, respectively. PMID:20355631

  13. Symmetric Absorber-Coupled Far-Infrared Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    U-yen, Kongpop (Inventor); Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor); Brown, Ari D. (Inventor); Stevenson, Thomas R. (Inventor); Patel, Amil A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to a symmetric absorber-coupled far-infrared microwave kinetic inductance detector including: a membrane having an absorber disposed thereon in a symmetric cross bar pattern; and a microstrip including a plurality of conductor microstrip lines disposed along all edges of the membrane, and separated from a ground plane by the membrane. The conducting microstrip lines are made from niobium, and the pattern is made from a superconducting material with a transition temperature below niobium, including one of aluminum, titanium nitride, or molybdenum nitride. The pattern is disposed on both a top and a bottom of the membrane, and creates a parallel-plate coupled transmission line on the membrane that acts as a half-wavelength resonator at readout frequencies. The parallel-plate coupled transmission line and the conductor microstrip lines form a stepped impedance resonator. The pattern provides identical power absorption for both horizontal and vertical polarization signals.

  14. Foreign-gas collision broadening of the far-infrared spectrum of water vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasster, Samuel D.; Townes, Charles H.; Goorvitch, David; Valero, Francisco P. J.

    1988-01-01

    The far-infrared rotational spectrum of H2(O-16) has been studied in the spectral range 25-112/cm to measure the foreign-gas collision-broadened linewidths. Measurements of 17 lines broadened by nitrogen and 21 lines broadened by oxygen are reported. The measurements were made at 297 K. From these data, the widths due to air broadening are obtained. The experimental results are compared with recent theoretical calculations and with the case of a constant linewidth, equal to the average experimental width. There is some correlation between the relative experimental linewidths and the theoretical predictions. However, the simple assumption of a constant value for the collision-broadened linewidths gives a better representation for the case of N2- and O2-broadened linewidths than do present detailed theoretical calculations.

  15. Far-infrared image restoration analysis of the protostellar cluster in S140

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, D. F.; Harvey, P. M.; Joy, M.; Ellis, H. B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Image restoration techniques are applied to one-dimensional scans at 50 and 100 microns of the protostellar cluster in S140. These measurements resolve the surrounding nebula clearly, and Fourier methods are used to match the effective beam profiles at these wavelengths. This allows the radial distribution of temperature and dust column density to be derived at a diffraction limited spatial resolution of 23 arcsec (0.1 pc). Evidence for heating of the S140 molecular cloud by a nearby ionization front is established, and the dissociation of molecules inside the ionization front is spatially well correlated with the heating of the dust. The far-infrared spectral distribution of the three near-infrared sources within 10 arcsesc of the cluster center is presented.

  16. Far-Infrared Hydrogen Lasers in the Peculiar Star MWC 349A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strelnitski, Vladimir; Haas, Michael R.; Smith, Howard A.; Erickson, Edwin F.; Colgan, Sean W. J.; Hollenbach, David J.

    1996-01-01

    Far-infrared hydrogen recombination lines H15(alpha)(169.4 micrometers), H12(alpha)(88.8 micrometers), and H10(alpha)(52.5 micrometers) were detected in the peculiar luminous star MWC 349A from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. Here it is shown that at least H15(alpha) is strongly amplified, with the probable amplification factor being greater than or about equal to 10(exp 3) and a brightness temperature that is greater than or about equal to 10(exp 7) kelvin. The other two lines also show signs of amplification, although to a lesser degree. Beyond H10(alpha) the amplification apparently vanishes. The newly detected amplified lines fall into the laser wavelength domain. These lasers, as well as the previously detected hydrogen masers may originate in the photoionized circumstellar disk of MWC 349A and constrain the disk's physics and structure.

  17. A new, compact far-infrared source in the W31 region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fazio, G. G.; Lada, C. J.; Kleinmann, D. E.; Wright, E. L.; Ho, P. T. P.; Low, F. J.

    1978-01-01

    In a survey of the W31 region, a compact far-infrared source was detected at the position of the radio continuum source G 10.6-0.4. Associated with this infrared source and in close coincidence with its position is an H II region with a compact core and extended halo as well as OH and H2O masers. An extended molecular cloud, centered on these sources, has also been detected. The compact source and associated masers may be located at the H II region-molecular-cloud interface in a thin shocked layer of neutral gas driven into the molecular cloud by the expansion of the H II region. The compact H II region is depleted of dust and must be surrounded by a very dense shell of dust and gas (hydrogen number density in excess of 200,000 per cu cm). The source probably represents an early stage of stellar evolution.

  18. Vibration mitigation in J-TEXT far-infrared diagnostic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Q.; Chen, J.; Zhuang, G.; Wang, Z. J.; Gao, L.; Chen, W.

    2012-10-15

    Optical structure stability is an important issue for far-infrared (FIR) phase measurements. To ensure good signal quality, influence of vibration should be minimized. Mechanical amelioration and optical optimization can be taken in turn to decrease vibration's influence and ensure acceptable measurement. J-TEXT (Joint Texal Experiment Tokamak, formerly TEXT-U) has two FIR diagnostic systems: a HCN interferometer system for electron density measurement and a three-wave polarimeter-interferometer system (POLARIS) for electron density and Faraday effect measurements. All use phase detection techniques. HCN interferometer system has almost eliminated the influence of vibration after mechanical amelioration and optical optimization. POLARIS also obtained first experimental results after mechanical stability improvements and is expected to further reduce vibration's influence on Faraday angle to 0.1 Degree-Sign after optical optimization.

  19. Mid-infrared versus far-infrared (THz) relative intensities of room-temperature Bacillus spores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Sharpe, Steven W.

    2005-02-01

    We have simultaneously recorded the mid-IR and far-IR (a.k.a. terahertz, THz) spectra of the sporulated form of five Bacillus bacteria: Bacillus subtilis ATCC 49760, B. subtilis ATCC 6051, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki ATCC 35866, Bacillus globigii 01, and Bacillus atrophaeus 49337. The 295 K spectra were recorded from ˜8 to 6000 cm -1 using spore counts on the order of 10 9 deposited onto windows transparent in both the mid- and far-infrared. The results indicate that any room-temperature THz absorption features due to the spores are at least 28 times weaker (based on p-p noise) than the corresponding mid-IR amide I band.

  20. Far Infrared Line Profiles from Photodissociation Regions and Warm Molecular Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boreiko, R. T.; Betz, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the work done under NASA Grant NAG2-1056 awarded to the University of Colorado. The aim of the project was to analyze data obtained over the past several years with the University of Colorado far-infrared heterodyne spectrometer aboard the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. Of particular interest were observations of CO and ionized carbon (C II) in photodissociation regions (PDRS) at the interface between UV-ionized H II regions and the neutral molecular clouds supporting star formation. These data, obtained with a heterodyne spectrometer having a resolution of 3.2 MHz, which is equivalent to a velocity resolution of 0.2 km s(exp -1) at 60 microns and 1.0 km s(exp -1) at 300 microns, were analyzed to obtain physical parameters such as density and temperature in the observed PDR.

  1. Determination of the Far-Infrared Cosmic Background Using COBE/DIRBE and WHAM Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, N.; Arendt, R. G.; Dwek, E.; Haffner, L. M.; Hauser, M. G.; Reynolds, R. J.

    2007-01-01

    Determination of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) at far infrared wavelengths using COBE/DIRBE data is limited by the accuracy to which foreground interplanetary and Galactic dust emission can be modeled and subtracted. Previous determinations of the far infrared CIB (e.g., Hauser et al. 1998) were based on the detection of residual isotropic emission in skymaps from which the emission from interplanetary dust and the neutral interstellar medium were removed. In this paper we use the Wisconsin H(alpha) Mapper (WHAM) Northern Sky Survey as a tracer of the ionized medium to examine the effect of this foreground component on determination of the CIB. We decompose the DIRBE far infrared data for five high Galactic latitude regions into HI- and H(alpha)- correlated components and a residual component. Eased on FUSE H2 absorption line observations, the contribution of a11 H2-correlated component is expected to he negligible. We find the H(alpha)-correlated component to be consistent with zero for each region, and we find that addition of an H(alpha)-correlated component in modeling the foreground emission has negligible effect on derived CIB results. Our CIB detections and 2(sigma) upper limits are essentially the same as those derived by Hauser et al. and are given by (nu)I(sub nu)(nW/sq m/sr) < 75, < 32, 25+/-8, and 13+/-3 at gamma = 60, 100, 140, and 240 microns, respectively. Our residuals have not been subjected to a detailed anisotropy test, so our CIB results do not supersede those of Hauser et al. Mie derive upper limits on the 100 micron emissivity of the ionized medium that are typically about 40% of the 100 micron emissivity of the neutral atomic medium. This low value may be caused in part by a lower dust-to-gas mass ratio in the ionized medium than in the neutral medium, and in part by a shortcoming of using H(alpha) intensity as a tracer of far infrared emission. If H(alpha) is not a reliable tracer, our analysis would underestimate the emissivity of

  2. Far-infrared observations of main sequence stars surrounded by dust shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Paul M.; Smith, Beverly J.; Difrancesco, J.

    1995-01-01

    We have used a 20-channel bolometer array on NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory to obtain photometry and size information for several main sequence stars surrounded by dust shells. The observations were made at 50 and/or 100 micrometers on flights based in Christchurch, New Zealand, in 1992, 1993. The stars include the 'Vega-like' star, Beta Pic, as well as two stars, HD 135344 and HD 139614, suggested by subsequent studies to belong possibly to the same class. The results of our observations are best interpreted as upper limits to the far-infrared sizes of the dust clouds around these stars. In addition to the basic size and flux measurements, we have fit simple, optically thin models to the Beta Pic data to explore the range of shell parameters consistent with our limits and with previous observations.

  3. Dust properties around evolved stars from far-infrared size limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Paul M.; Lester, Daniel F.; Brock, David; Joy, Marshall

    1991-01-01

    High angular resolution far-infrared scans were obtained of six stars surrounded by circumstellar dust shells believed to result from mass loss by the central star. None of the dust shells was clearly resolved at either 50 or 100 microns; the upper limits are in the range 4 to 10 arcsec. These size limits place constraints on the far-IR dust emissivity and dust density distribution. For one of the objects, AFGL 2343, larger than normal grains are almost certainly required. For several other stars, the size limits are much more consistent with dust having an emissivity law no steeper than 1/lambda in the 1-100-micron spectral region. For IRC + 10216, an earlier suggestion is confirmed that, assuming reasonable grain properties, a smooth radial dust distribution is not consistent with the scans and the energy distribution of the object.

  4. A Demonstration of TIA Using FD-SOI CMOS OPAMP for Far-Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagase, Koichi; Wada, Takehiko; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Arai, Yasuo; Ohno, Morifumi; Hanaoka, Misaki; Kanada, Hidehiro; Oyabu, Shinki; Hattori, Yasuki; Ukai, Sota; Suzuki, Toyoaki; Watanabe, Kentaroh; Baba, Shunsuke; Kochi, Chihiro; Yamamoto, Keita

    2016-02-01

    We are developing a fully depleted silicon-on-insulator (FD-SOI) CMOS readout integrated circuit (ROIC) operated at temperatures below ˜ 4 K. Its application is planned for the readout circuit of high-impedance far-infrared detectors for astronomical observations. We designed a trans-impedance amplifier (TIA) using a CMOS operational amplifier (OPAMP) with FD-SOI technique. The TIA is optimized to readout signals from a germanium blocked impurity band (Ge BIB) detector which is highly sensitive to wavelengths of up to ˜ 200 \\upmu m. For the first time, we demonstrated the FD-SOI CMOS OPAMP combined with the Ge BIB detector at 4.5 K. The result promises to solve issues faced by conventional cryogenic ROICs.

  5. Slot Antenna Coupled Thin-Film Warm Carrier Far-Infrared Radiation Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuoka, Yoshizumi; Suzuki, Kenji

    Slot antenna coupled thin-film warm carrier devices were fabricated, and the detection properties were investigated at 94 and 700 GHz. Two-dimensional 8 × 3 slot antenna arrays fed by a coplanar waveguide were used as the antennas. The thin-film antennas were fabricated with a photolithographic method, and the warm carrier detectors, which have the contact area of 8 × 10-10 cm2, were fabricated with an electron beam lithographic method. The experimental results indicate that the fabricated devices receive the far-infrared radiation with antenna and rectified it with non-linear I-V characteristic. By changing the antenna from the single slot antenna to the two-dimensional 8 × 3 slot antenna array, the detected sensitivity improved by 11 dB.

  6. A Demonstration of TIA Using FD-SOI CMOS OPAMP for Far-Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagase, Koichi; Wada, Takehiko; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Arai, Yasuo; Ohno, Morifumi; Hanaoka, Misaki; Kanada, Hidehiro; Oyabu, Shinki; Hattori, Yasuki; Ukai, Sota; Suzuki, Toyoaki; Watanabe, Kentaroh; Baba, Shunsuke; Kochi, Chihiro; Yamamoto, Keita

    2016-07-01

    We are developing a fully depleted silicon-on-insulator (FD-SOI) CMOS readout integrated circuit (ROIC) operated at temperatures below ˜ 4 K. Its application is planned for the readout circuit of high-impedance far-infrared detectors for astronomical observations. We designed a trans-impedance amplifier (TIA) using a CMOS operational amplifier (OPAMP) with FD-SOI technique. The TIA is optimized to readout signals from a germanium blocked impurity band (Ge BIB) detector which is highly sensitive to wavelengths of up to ˜ 200 μm. For the first time, we demonstrated the FD-SOI CMOS OPAMP combined with the Ge BIB detector at 4.5 K. The result promises to solve issues faced by conventional cryogenic ROICs.

  7. FIFI: The MPE Garching/UC Berkeley Far-Infrared Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geis, Norbert; Genzel, Reinhard; Haggerty, M.; Herrmann, F.; Jackson, J.; Madden, Suzanne C.; Nikola, T.; Poglitsch, Albrecht; Rumitz, M.; Stacey, G. J.

    1995-01-01

    We describe the performance characteristics of the MPE Garching/UC Berkeley Far-Infrared Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FIFI) for the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO). The spectrometer features two or three cryogenic tunable Fabry-Perot filters in series giving spectral resolution R of up to 10(exp 5) in the range of 40 microns less than lambda less than 200 microns, and an imaging 5x5 array of photoconductive detectors with variable focal plane plate scale. The instrument works at background limited sensitivity of up to 2 x 10(exp -19) W cm(exp -2) Hz(exp -1/2) per pixel per resolution element at R = 10(exp 5) on the KAO.

  8. Analysis and design of optically pumped far infrared oscillators and amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galantowicz, T. A.

    1978-01-01

    A waveguide laser oscillator was designed and experimental measurements made of relationships among output power, pressure, pump power, pump frequency, cavity tuning, output beam pattern, and cavity mirror properties for various active gases. A waveguide regenerative amplifier was designed and gain measurements were made for various active gases. An external Fabry-Perot interferometer was fabricated and used for accurate wavelength determination and for measurements of the refractive indices of solids transparent in the far infrared. An electronic system was designed and constructed to provide an appropriate error signal for use in feedback control of pump frequency. Pump feedback from the FIR laser was decoupled using a vibrating mirror to phase modulate the pump signal.

  9. Far-infrared laser magnetic resonance of vibrationally excited CD2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evenson, K. M.; Sears, T. J.; Mckellar, A. R. W.

    1984-01-01

    The detection of 13 rotational transitions in the first excited bending state (010) of CD2 using the technique of far-infrared laser magnetic resonance spectroscopy is reported. Molecular parameters for this state are determined from these new data together with existing infrared observations of the v(2) band. Additional information on the ground vibrational state (000) is also provided by the observation of a new rotational transition, and this is combined with existing data to provide a refined set of molecular parameters for the CD2 ground state. One spectrum has been observed that is assigned as a rotational transition within the first excited symmetric stretching state (100) of CD2. These data will be of use in refining the structure and the potential function of the methylene radical.

  10. Measurement of the stratospheric hydrogen peroxide concentration profile using far infrared thermal emission spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chance, K. V.; Johnson, D. G.; Traub, W. A.; Jucks, K. W.

    1991-01-01

    The first unequivocal measurement of hydrogen peroxide in the stratosphere have been made, a concentration profile obtained from a balloon platform using Fourier transform thermal emission spectroscopy in the far infrared. Measurements were made using the 112/cm R-Q5 branch of the rotational-torsional spectrum, with some confirmation from the 94/cm R-Q4 branch. The volume mixing ratio of H2O2 is 1.6 x 10 to the -10th at 38.4 km, decreasing to 0.6 x 10 to the -10th at 23.8 km, with uncertainties of about 16 percent. These measurements are compared to a recent stratospheric model calculation.

  11. Upgrade of far-infrared laser-based Faraday rotation measurement on MST

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Bergerson, W. F.; Lin, L.

    2010-10-15

    Recently, the far-infrared (FIR) laser ({lambda}{sub 0}=432 {mu}m) Faraday rotation measurement system on MST has been upgraded. The dc flowing-gas discharge CO{sub 2} pump laser is replaced by a rf-excited, sealed CO{sub 2} laser at 9.27 {mu}m (GEM select 100, Coherent Inc., Santa Clara, CA), which is subdivided equally into three parts to simultaneously pump three FIR cavities. The total infrared pump power is approximately 80 W on the 9R(20) line required to pump the formic acid molecule. Each FIR cavity produces {approx}12 mW, sufficient for 11 simultaneous chord interferometry-polarimetry operations. Three key issues [(1) conservation of circularly polarized wave, (2) colinearity of two probe waves, and (3) stability of intermediate frequencies between lasers] affecting the Faraday rotation measurement have been resolved experimentally.

  12. Balloon-borne three-meter telescope for far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fazio, G. G.

    1985-01-01

    This is the second Semiannual Report submitted under Grant NAGW-509 for the development of a Balloon-Borne Three-Meter Telescope for Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Astronomy. It covers the period 1 March 1984 through 31 August 1984. This grant covers work at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), University of Arizona (UA) and the University of Chicago (UC). SAO is responsible for program management, the gondola structure including the attitude control and aspect systems, mechanical systems, and telemetry and command systems; the UA is responsible for optics design and fabrication; the UC is responsible for determining provisions for focal-plane instrumentation. SAO and the UA share responsibility for the ground support data and control computer.

  13. Balloon-borne three-meter telescope for far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fazio, G. G.

    1985-01-01

    Presented are scientific objectives, engineering analysis and design, and results of technology development for a Three-Meter Balloon-Borne Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Telescope. The scientific rationale is based on two crucial instrumental capabilities: high angular resolution which approaches eight arcseconds at one hundred micron wavelength, and high resolving power spectroscopy with good sensitivity throughout the telescope's 30-micron to 1-mm wavelength range. The high angular resolution will allow us to resolve and study in detail such objects as collapsing protostellar condensations in our own galaxy, clusters of protostars in the Magellanic clouds, giant molecular clouds in nearby galaxies, and spiral arms in distant galaxies. The large aperture of the telescope will permit sensitive spectral line measurements of molecules, atoms, and ions, which can be used to probe the physical, chemical, and dynamical conditions in a wide variety of objects.

  14. Isotope effects in far-infrared spectra of bis(theophyllinato)copper(II)-complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drożdżewski, Piotr; Kordon, Ewa

    1998-07-01

    Far-infrared spectra have been measured for 63Cu and 65Cu isotope substituted theophylline (Tp)-metal ion complexes: Cu(Tp) 2(NH 3) 2 · 2H 2O, Cu(Tp) 2(NH 3) 2, Cu(Tp) 2 · 2H 2O and Cu(Tp) 2. In addition, spectrum of Cu(Tp) 2(ND 3) 2 · 2D 2O has been recorded. Metal-theophylline, metal-ammine and water librational and translational modes have been assigned based on observed isotope shifts and complex dehydration effects. The copper-ammine vibrations have been found at 453 and 224 cm -1, whereas the bis(theophyllinato)copper(II) modes have been detected at 192 cm -1 for Cu(Tp) 2(NH 3) 2 and presumably at about 170 cm -1 for Cu(Tp) 2.

  15. The Far-Infrared Fourier Transform Spectrum of H 2Se

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozin, I. N.; Klee, S.; Jensen, P.; Polyansky, O. L.; Pavlichenkov, I. M.

    1993-04-01

    In the present work, we study the spectrum of the H 2Se molecule in the far-infrared region. This work is a continuation of our experimental investigation of the anomalous "fourfold clustering effect" exhibited by the rotational energy levels in the vibrational ground state of H 2Se. The spectrum in the region 30-360 cm -1 was measured with a Bruker IFS 120 HR interferometer attached to a 3-m-long cell. In order to observe transitions involving high J and K a quantum numbers the cell was heated to 90°C. About 2500 lines were identified and fitted using a modified Watson Hamiltonian. Improved sets of rotational and centrifugal distortion constants for all six selenium isotopomers were obtained. It is shown that the fourfold clustering of rotational levels, as well as the observed linestrength distortions, can be explained in terms of localized wavefunctions.

  16. A Demonstration of TIA Using FD-SOI CMOS OPAMP for Far-Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagase, Koichi; Wada, Takehiko; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Arai, Yasuo; Ohno, Morifumi; Hanaoka, Misaki; Kanada, Hidehiro; Oyabu, Shinki; Hattori, Yasuki; Ukai, Sota; Suzuki, Toyoaki; Watanabe, Kentaroh; Baba, Shunsuke; Kochi, Chihiro; Yamamoto, Keita

    2016-07-01

    We are developing a fully depleted silicon-on-insulator (FD-SOI) CMOS readout integrated circuit (ROIC) operated at temperatures below ˜ 4 K. Its application is planned for the readout circuit of high-impedance far-infrared detectors for astronomical observations. We designed a trans-impedance amplifier (TIA) using a CMOS operational amplifier (OPAMP) with FD-SOI technique. The TIA is optimized to readout signals from a germanium blocked impurity band (Ge BIB) detector which is highly sensitive to wavelengths of up to ˜ 200 \\upmu m. For the first time, we demonstrated the FD-SOI CMOS OPAMP combined with the Ge BIB detector at 4.5 K. The result promises to solve issues faced by conventional cryogenic ROICs.

  17. Mid-Infrared Versus Far-Infrared (THz) Relative Intensities of Room-temperature Bacillus Spores

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Timothy J.; Valentine, Nancy B.; Sharpe, Steven W.

    2005-02-14

    We have simultaneously recorded the mid-IR and far-IR (sometimes called terahertz, THz) spectra of the sporulated form of five common Bacillus bacteria: Bacillus subtilis ATCC 49760, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051, B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki ATCC 35866, Bacillus globigii 01, and B. atrophaeus 49337. The 295 K spectra were recorded from {approx}8 to 6,000 cm{sup -1} of samples deposited onto windows transparent in both the mid- and far-infrared. The results indicate that any room-temperature THz absorption features due to the bacterial spores are at least 28 times weaker (based on p-p noise) than the corresponding mid-IR amide I band.

  18. Stable 1.25 watts CW far infrared laser radiation at the 119 micron methanol line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhoomand, Jam; Pickett, Herbert M.

    1987-01-01

    Far-infrared CW radiation of 1.25 watts has been obtained at the 119 micron methanol line with a CO2 pump power of 125 watts, and the maximum frequency fluctuation of the free running laser is measured to be less than + or - 100 kHz per hour. Reflecting optics have been used, when possible, to minimize CO2 degradation, and the frequency stability is ensured by cooling the input and output couplers. The input and output assemblies within the lasing medium are enclosed to minimize the external effects on the cavity length and to eliminate the mechanical instabilities associated with the use of bellows. The vibrational bottle-neck is broken by cooling the resonator wall to 5 deg and adding He as the buffer gas.

  19. Dichroic filters to protect milliwatt far-infrared detectors from megawatt ECRH radiation.

    PubMed

    Bertschinger, G; Endres, C P; Lewen, F; Oosterbeek, J W

    2008-10-01

    Dichroic filters have been used to shield effectively the far infrared (FIR) detectors at the interferometer/polarimeter on TEXTOR. The filters consist of metal foils with regular holes, the hole diameter, the mutual spacing and the thickness of the foils are chosen to transmit radiation at the design frequency with transmission >90%. The attenuation at the low frequency end of the bandpass filter is about 30 dB per octave, the high frequency transmission is between 20% and 40%. The filters have been used to block the stray radiation from the megawatt microwave heating beam to the detectors of the FIR interferometer, operating with power on the detector in the milliwatt range. If required, the low frequency attenuation can be still enhanced, without compromising the transmission in the passband. The FIR interferometer used for plasma density and position control is no longer disturbed by electromagnetic waves used for plasma heating. PMID:19044527

  20. Dichroic filters to protect milliwatt far-infrared detectors from megawatt ECRH radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertschinger, G.; Endres, C. P.; Lewen, F.; Oosterbeek, J. W.

    2008-10-01

    Dichroic filters have been used to shield effectively the far infrared (FIR) detectors at the interferometer/polarimeter on TEXTOR. The filters consist of metal foils with regular holes, the hole diameter, the mutual spacing and the thickness of the foils are chosen to transmit radiation at the design frequency with transmission >90%. The attenuation at the low frequency end of the bandpass filter is about 30dB per octave, the high frequency transmission is between 20% and 40%. The filters have been used to block the stray radiation from the megawatt microwave heating beam to the detectors of the FIR interferometer, operating with power on the detector in the milliwatt range. If required, the low frequency attenuation can be still enhanced, without compromising the transmission in the passband. The FIR interferometer used for plasma density and position control is no longer disturbed by electromagnetic waves used for plasma heating.

  1. Dichroic filters to protect milliwatt far-infrared detectors from megawatt ECRH radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bertschinger, G.; Oosterbeek, J. W.; Endres, C. P.; Lewen, F.

    2008-10-15

    Dichroic filters have been used to shield effectively the far infrared (FIR) detectors at the interferometer/polarimeter on TEXTOR. The filters consist of metal foils with regular holes, the hole diameter, the mutual spacing and the thickness of the foils are chosen to transmit radiation at the design frequency with transmission >90%. The attenuation at the low frequency end of the bandpass filter is about 30 dB per octave, the high frequency transmission is between 20% and 40%. The filters have been used to block the stray radiation from the megawatt microwave heating beam to the detectors of the FIR interferometer, operating with power on the detector in the milliwatt range. If required, the low frequency attenuation can be still enhanced, without compromising the transmission in the passband. The FIR interferometer used for plasma density and position control is no longer disturbed by electromagnetic waves used for plasma heating.

  2. Far-infrared reflectivity and Raman spectra of Ba5Nb4O15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massa, Néstor E.; Pagola, Silvina; Carbonio, Raúl

    1996-04-01

    We report low-temperature, far-infrared reflectivity, and Raman-scattering measurements for layered Ba5Nb4O15. We find that this material is characterized by a strong anharmonic lattice where the symmetric stretching vibration of the empty octahedra, a singular feature of this layer compound, splits into two narrow Raman-active bands. We assign them to the same phonon in a slightly different environment, and suggest a small local departure of the reported centrosymmetric D33d-P3m1 space group. We think that the infrared and mainly the Raman band profiles indicate that the lattice of Ba5Nb4O15 is close to collapsing into a lower symmetry structure.

  3. Specification and Design of the SBRC-190: A Cryogenic Multiplexer for Far Infrared Photoconductor Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, E. F.; Young, E. T.; Wolf, J.; Asbrock, J. F.; Lum, N.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Arrays of far-infrared photoconductor detectors operate at a few degrees Kelvin and require electronic amplifiers in close proximity. For the electronics, a cryogenic multiplexer is ideal to avoid the large number of wires associated with individual amplifiers for each pixel, and to avoid adverse effects of thermal and radiative heat loads from the circuitry. For low background applications, the 32 channel CRC 696 CMOS device was previously developed for SIRTF, the cryogenic Space Infrared Telescope Facility. For higher background applications, we have developed a similar circuit, featuring several modifications: (a) an AC coupled, capacitive feedback transimpedence unit cell, to minimize input offset effects, thereby enabling low detector biases, (b) selectable feedback capacitors to enable operation over a wide range of backgrounds, and (c) clamp and sample & hold output circuits to improve sampling efficiency, which is a concern at the high readout rates required. We describe the requirements for and design of the new device.

  4. Bose-Einstein condensates from scalar field dark matter

    SciTech Connect

    Urena-Lopez, L. Arturo

    2010-12-07

    We review the properties of astrophysical and cosmological relevance that may arise from the bosonic nature of scalar field dark matter models. The key property is the formation of Bose-Einstein condensates, but we also consider the presence of non-empty excited states that may be relevant for the description of scalar field galaxy halos and the properties of rotation curves.

  5. Line Intensities in the Far-Infrared Spectrum of H 2O 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, A.; Flaud, J.-M.; Camy-Peyret, C.; Schermaul, R.; Winnewisser, M.; Mandin, J.-Y.; Dana, V.; Badaoui, M.; Koput, J.

    1996-04-01

    Using high resolution Fourier transform spectra (resolution 0.002 cm -1) recorded at the Instituto Ricerca Onde Electromagnetiche Firenze and at the Justus Liebig University Giessen, it has been possible to measure the relative intensities of lines in the far-infrared spectrum of H 2O 2in the 25-400 cm -1spectral region. These intensities were used as input data in a least-squares fit calculation in order to obtain the expansion parameters of the transition moment operator of the pure torsional-rotational transitions of H 2O 2. For these intensity calculations, the theoretical model takes into account the cos γ-type dependence of the dipole moment due to the large amplitude motion of the H atoms relative to the O-O bond, where 2γ is the torsion angle. The value of the dipole moment obtained from the fit of the observed intensities was then scaled to the value obtained from Stark effect measurements. Finally, a synthetic spectrum of the far infrared band of H 2O 2was generated, using the dipole moment expansion determined in this work for the line intensities and the parameters and the Hamiltonian matrix given in a previous analysis (C. Camy-Peyret, J.-M. Flaud, J. W. C. Johns, and M. Noel, J. Mol. Spectrosc.155,84-104 (1992)) for the line positions. In addition to the (Δ n= ±1, Δ Ka= ∓2) torsional-rotational resonances within the ground vibrational state, which are usually observed for H 2O 2, the Hamiltonian model takes explicitly into account both the vibration-rotation resonances involving the ground state and the v3= 1 vibrational state and the "staggering" effect which is due to the cispotential barrier.

  6. Modeling the light-travel-time effect on the far-infrared size of IRC +10216

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Edward L.; Baganoff, Frederick K.

    1995-01-01

    Models of the far-infrared emission from the large circumstellar dust envelope surrounding the carbon star IRC +10216 are used to assess the importance of the light-travel-time effect (LTTE) on the observed size of the source. The central star is a long-period variable with an average period of 644 +/- 17 days and a peak-to-peak amplitude of two magnituds, so a large light-travel-time effect is seen at 1 min radius. An attempt is made to use the LTTE to reconcile the discrepancy between the observations of Fazio et al. and Lester et al. regarding the far-infrared source size. This discrepancy is reviewed in light of recent, high-spatial-resolution observations at 11 microns by Danchi et al. We conclude that IRC +10216 has been resolved on the arcminute scale by Fazio et al. Convolution of the model intensity profile at 61 microns with the 60 sec x 90 sec Gaussian beam of Fazio et al. yields an observed source size full width at half maximum (FWHM) that ranges from approximately 67 sec to 75 sec depending on the phase of the star and the assumed distance to the source. Using a simple r(exp -2) dust distribution and the 106 deg phase of the Fazio et al. observations, the LTTE model reaches a peak size of 74.3 sec at a distance of 300 pc. This agrees favorably with the 78 sec x 6 sec size measured by Fazio et al. Finally, a method is outlined for using the LTTE as a distance indicator to IRC +10216 and other stars with extended mass outflows.

  7. Cosmological Constant or Intergalactic Dust? Constraints from the Cosmic Far-Infrared Background

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre, Anthony; Haiman, Zoltan

    2000-03-20

    Recent observations of Type Ia supernovae (SNe) at redshifts 0far-infrared (FIR) wavelengths. Here we compare the FIR emission from IG dust with observations of the cosmic microwave (CMB) and cosmic far-infrared backgrounds (FIRB) by the DIRBE/FIRAS instruments. We find that the emission would not lead to measurable distortion of the CMB, but would represent a substantial fraction ((greater-or-similar sign)75%) of the measured value of the FIRB in the 300-1000 {mu}m range. This contribution would be marginally consistent with the present unresolved fraction of the observed FIRB in an open universe. However, we find that IG dust probably could not reconcile the standard {omega}=1 CDM model with the SN observations, even if the necessary quantity of dust existed. Future observations, capable of reliably resolving the FIRB to a flux limit of {approx}0.5 mJy, along with a more precise measure of the coarse-grained FIRB, will provide a definitive test of the IG dust hypothesis in all cosmologies. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society.

  8. A test setup for the characterization of far-infrared filters under cryogenic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkmann, Stephan M.; Grözinger, Ulrich; Stegmaier, Jutta; Krause, Oliver; Pitz, Eckhard; Lemke, Dietrich

    2006-06-01

    The characterization and calibration of far-infrared (FIR) detectors is a delicate task that requires good knowledge of the incident flux and its spectral composition. In many test setups the FIR flux to the detectors is provided by means of an external or internal black body and a set of cold attenuation, band pass, and blocking filters. For scientific instruments (e.g. PACS aboard ESA's Herschel satellite) band pass and blocking filters are used to achieve the desired spectral throughput either as order sorting filters in spectrometers or for selecting a wavelength range in imaging cameras. In all cases a detailed knowledge of the spectral transmittance of the used filters is mandatory for an accurate calibration of the system. We have build a test platform that allows to measure the transmission of cold (T ~ 4K) filters in the far-infrared. The setup uses a dual grating monochromator with excellent spectral purity and a resolution up to 800, which is operated under a dry nitrogen atmosphere to eliminate water vapor absorption bands. An Si-bolometer is used as detector and is read out by a cryogenic low noise trans-impedance amplifier circuit with common mode rejection and a warm electronics using a lock-in amplifier and a 22 bit analog-to-digital converter. A cryogenic filter slider in the setup allows for differential measurements between filters and the use of cold order sorting filters. We present initial results for FIR cut-on and attenuation filters, demonstrating that our setup is suited to measure transmissions as low as 10 -4 over the covered wavelength range.

  9. The Contribution of Ionizing Stars to the Far-Infrared and Radio Emission in the Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terebey, S.; Fich, M.; Taylor, R.

    1999-01-01

    A summary of research activities carried out in this eighth and final progress report. The final report includes: this summary document, copies of three published research papers, plus a draft manuscript of a fourth research paper entitled "The Contribution of Ionizing Stars to the FarInfrared and Radio Emission in the Milky Way; Evidence for a Swept-up Shell and Diffuse Ionized Halo around the W4 Chimney/Supershell." The main activity during the final quarterly reporting period was research on W4, including analysis of the radio and far-infrared images, generation of shell models, a literature search, and preparation of a research manuscript. There will be additional consultation with co-authors prior to submission of the paper to the Astrophysical Journal. The results will be presented at the 4th Tetons Summer Conference on "Galactic Structure, Stars, and the ISM" in May 2000. In this fourth and last paper we show W4 has a swept-up partially ionized shell of gas and dust which is powered by the OCl 352 star cluster. Analysis shows there is dense interstellar material directly below the shell, evidence that that the lower W4 shell "ran into a brick wall" and stalled, whereas the upper W4 shell achieved "breakout" to form a Galactic chimney. An ionized halo is evidence of Lyman continuum leakage which ionizes the WIM (warm ionized medium). It has long been postulated that the strong winds and abundant ionizing photons from massive stars are responsible for much of the large scale structure in the interstellar medium (ISM), including the ISM in other galaxies. However standard HII region theory predicts few photons will escape the local HII region. The significance of W4 and this work is it provides a direct example of how stellar winds power a galactic chimney, which in turn leads to a low density cavity from which ionizing photons can escape to large distances to ionize the WIM.

  10. Downwelling Far-Infrared Radiance Spectra Measured by FIRST at Cerro Toco, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mast, J. C.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Cageao, R.; Kratz, D. P.; Latvakoski, H.; Johnson, D. G.; Mlawer, E. J.; Turner, D. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) instrument is a Fourier transform spectrometer developed by NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with the Space Dynamics Laboratory and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. FIRST was initially developed for measuring the far-infrared portion of Earth's longwave spectrum as a balloon borne instrument and later was reconfigured to operate as a ground-based instrument. In its current ground-based configuration FIRST was deployed at 17500 ft on Cerro Toco, a mountain in the Atacama Desert of Chile, from August to October, 2009. There the integrated precipitable water (IPW) was as low as 0.02 cm. FIRST measurements from days with IPW between 0.024 and 0.035 cm during the campaign are presented here between 200 cm-1 and 800 cm-1. Significant spectral development in the far-IR is observed over the entire 200 cm-1 to 800 cm-1 band. Water vapor and temperature profiles from radiosonde and GVRP measurements are used as inputs to the AER Line-by-Line Radiative Transfer Model (LBLRTM) utilizing the AER v3.2 line parameter database. Uncertainties in both the measured and modeled radiances are accounted for in this study. The residual LBLRTM - FIRST is calculated to assess agreement between the measured and modeled spectra. Measured and model radiances generally agree to within the combined uncertainties for wavenumbers greater than 360 cm-1. At wavenumbers less than 360 cm-1 persistent troughs in the residual are present outside of the combined uncertainties. These features are present on different days and at different water vapor amounts. Possible solutions for these features are discussed.

  11. Tunable far infrared laser spectroscopy of van der Waals bonds: Ar-NH sub 3

    SciTech Connect

    Gwo, Dz-Hung California Univ., Berkeley, CA . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1989-11-01

    Hyperfine resolved vibration-rotation-tunneling spectra of Ar--NH{sub 3} and (NH{sub 3}){sub 2}, generated in a planar supersonic jet, have been measured with the Berkeley tunable far infrared laser spectrometer. Among the seven rotationally assigned bands, one band belongs to Ar--NH{sub 3}, and the other six belong to (NH{sub 3}){sub 2}. To facilitate the intermolecular vibrational assignment for Ar--NH{sub 3}, a dynamics study aided by a permutation-inversion group theoretical treatment is performed on the rovibrational levels. The rovibrational quantum number correlation between the free internal rotor limit and the semi-rigid limit is established to provide a basic physical picture of the evolution of intermolecular vibrational component states. An anomalous vibronically allowed unique Q branch vibrational band structure is predicted to exist for a near prolate binary complex containing an inverting subunit. According to the model developed in this work, the observed band of Ar--NH{sub 3} centered at 26.470633(17) cm{sup {minus}1} can correlate only to either the fundamental dimeric stretching band for the A{sub 2} states with the NH{sub 3} inversional quantum number v{sub i} = 1, or the K{sub a} = 0 {l arrow} 0 subband of the lowest internal-rotation-inversion difference band. Although the estimated nuclear quadrupole coupling constant favors a tentative assignment in terms of the first possibility, a definitive assignment will require far infrared data and a dynamical model incorporating a potential surface.

  12. Revealing the Galactic Center in the Far-Infrared with SOFIA/FORCAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Ryan M.; Herter, Terry; Morris, Mark; Li, Zhiyuan; Becklin, Eric; Adams, Joseph; Hankins, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    We present a summary of far-infrared imaging observations of the inner 40 pc of the Galactic center addressing the dense, dusty torus around Sgr A*, massive star formation, and dust production around massive stars and in the Sgr A East supernova remnant. Observations of warm dust emission were performed using the Faint Object Infrared Camera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST). The Circumnuclear Ring (CNR) surrounding and heated by central cluster in the vicinity of Sgr A* shows no internal active star formation but does exhibit significant density “clumps,” a surprising result because tidal shearing should act quickly to smear out structure. G-0.02-0.07, a complex consisting of three compact HII regions and one ultracompact HII region, is site of the most recent confirmed star formation within ~10 pc of the Galactic center. Our observations reveal the dust morphologies and SEDs of the regions to constrain the composition and gas-to-dust mass ratios of the emitting dust and identify heating sources candidates from archival near-IR images. FORCAST observations Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) located in and near the Quintuplet Cluster reveal the asymmetric, compressed shell of hot dust surrounding the Pistol Star and provide the first detection of the thermal emission from the symmetric, hot dust envelope surrounding G0.120-0.048. These two LBV’s have nebulae with similar quantities of dust (~0.02 M⊙) but exhibit contrasting appearances due to the external influence of their different environments. Finally, the far-infrared observations indicate the presence of ~0.02 M⊙ of warm (~100 K) dust in the hot interior of the ~10,000 yr-old SgrA East supernova remnant indicating the dust has survived the passage of the reverse shock. The results suggest that supernovae may indeed be the dominant dust production mechanism in the dense environment of early Universe galaxies.

  13. Far-Infrared and Millimeter Continuum Studies of K-Giants: Alpha Boo and Alpha Tau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Carbon, Duane F.; Welch, William J.; Lim, Tanya; Forster, James R.; Goorvitch, David; Thigpen, William (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have imaged two normal, non-coronal, infrared-bright K-giants, alpha Boo and alpha Tau, in the 1.4-millimeter and 2.8-millimeter continuum using BIMA. These stars have been used as important absolute calibrators for several infrared satellites. Our goals are: (1) to probe the structure of their upper photospheres; (2) to establish whether these stars radiate as simple photospheres or possess long-wavelength chromospheres; and (3) to make a connection between millimeter-wave and far-infrared absolute flux calibrations. To accomplish these goals we also present ISO Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) measurements of both these K-giants. The far-infrared and millimeter continuum radiation is produced in the vicinity of the temperature minimum in a Boo and a Tau, offering a direct test of the model photospheres and chromospheres for these two cool giants. We find that current photospheric models predict fluxes in reasonable agreement with those observed for those wavelengths which sample the upper photosphere, namely less than or equal to 170 micrometers in alpha Tau and less than or equal to 125 micrometers in alpha Boo. It is possible that alpha Tau is still radiative as far as 0.9 - 1.4 millimeters. We detect chromospheric radiation from both stars by 2.8 millimeters (by 1.4 millimeters in alpha Boo), and are able to establish useful bounds on the location of the temperature minimum. An attempt to interpret the chromospheric fluxes using the two-component "bifurcation model" proposed by Wiedemann et al. (1994) appears to lead to a significant contradiction.

  14. Far-infrared emission lines of CO and OH in the Orion-KL molecular shock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, D. M.; Genzel, R.; Townes, C. H.; Storey, J. M. V.

    1985-01-01

    Observations of far infrared rotational emission lines which arise in the shocked gas associated with Orion-Kl are presented, including detections of the CO J = 34 yields 33, J = 31 yields 30, J = 26 yields 25, and OH sup 2 PI sub (3/2) J sup P = 7/2(-) yields 5/2(+) emission lines, as well as improved measurements of the CO J = 22 yields 21 and OH sup 2 PI sub (3/2) J = 5/2 yields 3/2 lines. These lines are observed to have velocity widths of Del V approx. 20 to 30 km/sec, somewhat less than either the 2 micro H sub 2 lines or the high velocity plateau component of the millimeter wave CO lines seen in this object. An H sub 2 column density of approx. 3 x 10 to the 21st power, a total mass of approx. 1 solar mass and characteristic temperature and density T approx. 750 K and approx. 2 x 10 to the 6th power per cu cm can be derived from the CO intensities. The density is too low by at least an order of magnitude for the observed infrared H sub 2 and far infrared CO emission to be accounted for by a purely hydrodynamic shock, and support is lent to hydromagnetic shock models. From the present measurements, the relative abundance of CO is estimated to be CO H sub 2 = 1.2 x .0001, corresponding to 20% of the cosmic abundance of C existing in the form of CO. The average relative abundance of OH in the shocked gas is O/H sub 2 or = 5 x 10 to the -7th power. An upper limit to the intensity of the HD J = 1 yields 0 line is used to derive an upper limit of tau or = 3 for the D/H relative abundance in the Orion cloud core.

  15. Rototranslational absorption spectra of H/sub 2/-H/sub 2/ pairs in the far infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, W.; Frommhold, L.; Birnbaum, G.

    1989-03-01

    For the computation of the induced dipole moments, the collisional H/sub 2/-H/sub 2/ complex is treated as a molecule in the self-consistent field and size-consistent, coupled electron pair approximations. The basis set accounts for 95% of the correlation energies and separates correctly at distant range. The average of the induced dipole components is obtained for the case of both H/sub 2/ molecules in the vibrational groundstate (v = v' = 0) and recast in a simple but accurate analytical form. The analytical dipole expression is used for computations of the spectral moments (sum rules) and line shapes of the collision-induced rototranslational absorption spectra of molecular hydrogen in the far infrared, over a range of frequencies from 0 to 2200 cm/sup -1/, and for temperatures from 77 to 300 K, using a quantum formalism. Proven isotropic potential models are input. Numerical consistency of the line-shape calculations with the sum rules is observed at the 1% level. The comparison of the computational results with the available measurements shows agreement within the estimated uncertainties of the measurements of typically better than 10%. This fact suggests that the theory is capable of predicting these spectra reliably at temperatures for which no measurements exist.

  16. Scattering and absorption property database for nonspherical ice particles in the near- through far-infrared spectral region.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ping; Wei, Heli; Huang, Hung-Lung; Baum, Bryan A; Hu, Yong X; Kattawar, George W; Mishchenko, Michael I; Fu, Qiang

    2005-09-10

    The single-scattering properties of ice particles in the near- through far-infrared spectral region are computed from a composite method that is based on a combination of the finite-difference time-domain technique, the T-matrix method, an improved geometrical-optics method, and Lorenz-Mie theory. Seven nonspherical ice crystal habits (aggregates, hexagonal solid and hollow columns, hexagonal plates, bullet rosettes, spheroids, and droxtals) are considered. A database of the single-scattering properties for each of these ice particles has been developed at 49 wavelengths between 3 and 100 microm and for particle sizes ranging from 2 to 10,000 microm specified in terms of the particle maximum dimension. The spectral variations of the single-scattering properties are discussed, as well as their dependence on the particle maximum dimension and effective particle size. The comparisons show that the assumption of spherical ice particles in the near-IR through far-IR region is generally not optimal for radiative transfer computation. Furthermore, a parameterization of the bulk optical properties is developed for mid-latitude cirrus clouds based on a set of 21 particle size distributions obtained from various field campaigns. PMID:16161667

  17. Submillimeter and far infrared line observations of M17 SW: A clumpy molecular cloud penetrated by UV radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutzki, J.; Stacey, G. J.; Genzel, R.; Harris, A. I.; Jaffe, d. T.; Lugten, J. B.

    1987-01-01

    Millimeter, submillimeter, and far infrared spectroscopic observations of the M17 SW star formation region are discussed. The results require the molecular cloud near the interface to be clumpy or filamentary. As a consequence, far ultraviolet radiation from the central OB stellar cluster can penetrate into the dense molecular cloud to a depth of several pc, thus creating bright and extended (CII) emission from the photodissociated surfaces of dense atomic and molecular clumps or sheets. The extended (CII) emission throughout the molecular cloud SW of the M17 complex has a level 20 times higher than expected from a single molecular cloud interface exposed to an ultraviolet radiation field typical of the solar neighborhood. This suggests that the molecular cloud as a whole is penetrated by ultraviolet radiation and has a clumpy or filamentary structure. The number of B stars expected to be embedded in the M17 molecular cloud probably can provide the UV radiation necessary for the extended (CII) emission. Alternatively, the UV radiation could be external, if the interstellar radiation in the vicinity of M17 is higher than in the solar neighborhood.

  18. Dark-field Z-scan imaging technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongzhen; Cassagne, Christophe; Leblond, Hervé; Boudebs, Georges

    2016-05-01

    We report on Dark-Field Z-scan (DFZ-scan) as a new imaging technique combining Z-scan method with Dark-field microscopy in order to measure optical refraction nonlinearity. Numerical and experimental results are provided to validate this concept. The image of the induced phase shift is spatially resolved without introducing a complex interferometric setup. Moreover, the experimental results show almost 3 times increase of the sensitivity when compared to the conventional Z-scan method. New perspective of microscope laser scanning is introduced.

  19. An Analysis of Far-Infrared Radiances Obtained By the First Instrument at Table Mountain through the Use of Radiative Transfer Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kratz, D. P.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Cageao, R.; Johnson, D. G.; Mast, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) instrument is a Fourier Transform Spectrometer with a moderately high spectral resolution (0.643 cm-1 unapodized). Designed to measure the most energetically important range (100 to 2000 cm-1) of Earth's emitted infrared spectrum, the FIRST instrument was specifically engineered to include the often overlooked far-infrared (100 to 650 cm-1). To date, the FIRST instrument has been deployed on several field missions, both balloon-borne and ground-based, with the most recent deployment occurring at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory Table Mountain Facility in California during the months of September and October 2012. This deployment, located 2,285 meters above the Mojave Desert, provided an opportunity to observe down-welling radiances under low water vapor conditions, with some cases having total column water vapor amounts of approximately 2 to 3 millimeters. Such low water vapor conditions allow for stringent testing of both the FIRST instrument and the radiative transfer methods used to analyze these measurements. This study is focused on the analysis of the FIRST measurements in the far-infrared obtained during clear-sky conditions, and requires an accounting of the uncertainties in both the measured and calculated radiances. The former involves the manner in which calibration and full-sky conditions affect the radiances measured by the FIRST instrument. The latter involves not only differences in the model formulations and the uncertainties in the water vapor and temperature data provided by the radio-sonde measurements, but also the critical differences and uncertainties contained within the input line parameter databases. This study specifically explores the significant differences that can arise in the calculated radiances that are associated with the choice of a line parameter database, and how this choice affects the analysis of the FIRST measurements.

  20. Signal flow graph approach to multiphoton analysis and transient characteristics of mode-locked far infrared lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H.K.

    1981-01-01

    The signal flow graph application to the analysis of multiphoton interactions has been developed in this study. It is shown that the Schroedinger equation for the multiphoton interactions can be represented as signal flow graphs in the semiclassical limit. A few examples are given to illustrate the construction, manipulation and application of the graphs. Also, the generation of temporally short far infrared pulses and their evolution in time and space have been examined experimentally and theoretically. It is shown that the far infrared pulsewidth can be as short as one-half the pump pulsewidth which is already shorter than the molecular relaxation times. In particular, the far infrared pulse energy is found to be scaled in z as e..sqrt..gz, contrary to the Beer's law growth, e/sup gz/.

  1. Effect of morphology of dispersed nano-CeO2 on far infrared emission property of natural tourmaline.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dongbin; Xu, Anping; Liang, Jinsheng

    2011-11-01

    Dispersed nano-CeO2 successfully grew on the surface of natural tourmaline powders by a precipitation method. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that CeO2 (111) nanospots could apparently enhance the far infrared emission property of tourmaline in relation to CeO2 nanoparticles. This is the first report regarding the effect of the morphology of nano-CeO2 on the far infrared emission property of natural tourmaline. The results of the characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that CeO2 (111) nanospots have much more chemisorbed oxygen than CeO2 nanoparticles, which is beneficial to the unit cell volume shrinkage of tourmaline, thus increasing its far infrared emissivity. PMID:22413254

  2. Unified dark energy and dark matter from a scalar field different from quintessence

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Changjun; Kunz, Martin; Liddle, Andrew R.; Parkinson, David

    2010-02-15

    We explore unification of dark matter and dark energy in a theory containing a scalar field of non-Lagrangian type, obtained by direct insertion of a kinetic term into the energy-momentum tensor. This scalar is different from quintessence, having an equation of state between -1 and 0 and a zero sound speed in its rest frame. We solve the equations of motion for an exponential potential via a rewriting as an autonomous system, and demonstrate the observational viability of the scenario, for sufficiently small exponential potential parameter {lambda}, by comparison to a compilation of kinematical cosmological data.

  3. Magneto-optic far-infrared study of Sr14Cu24O41 : Triplet excitations in chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüvonen, D.; Nagel, U.; Rõõm, T.; Haas, P.; Dressel, M.; Hwang, J.; Timusk, T.; Wang, Y.-J.; Akimitsu, J.

    2007-10-01

    Using far-infrared spectroscopy, we have studied the magnetic field and temperature dependence of the spin gap modes in the chains of Sr14Cu24O41 . Two triplet modes T1 and T2 were found in the center of the Brillouin zone at Δ1=9.65meV and Δ2=10.86meV in zero magnetic field. The T1 mode was excited when the electric field vector E of the light was polarized along the b axis (perpendicular to the planes of chains and ladders) and T2 was excited for E‖a (perpendicular to the chains and along the rungs). Up to the maximum magnetic field of 18T , applied along the chains, the electron g factors of these two modes were similar, g1c=2.049 and g2c=2.044 . Full linewidth at half maximum for both modes was 1cm-1 (0.12meV) at 4K and increased with T . The temperature dependence of mode energies and line intensities was in agreement with the inelastic neutron scattering results from two groups [M. Matsuda , Phys. Rev. B 59, 1060 (1999); L. P. Regnault , ibid 59, 1055 (1999)]. The T1 mode has not been observed by inelastic neutron scattering in the points of the k space equivalent to the center of the Brillouin zone. Our study indicates that the zone structure model of magnetic excitations of Sr14Cu24O41 must be modified to include a triplet mode at 9.65meV in the center of the magnetic Brillouin zone.

  4. Quantum Dynamics of Dark and Dark-Bright Solitons beyond the Mean-Field Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krönke, Sven; Schmelcher, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Dark solitons are well-known excitations in one-dimensional repulsively interacting Bose-Einstein condensates, which feature a characteristical phase-jump across a density dip and form stability in the course of their dynamics. While these objects are stable within the celebrated Gross-Pitaevskii mean-field theory, the situation changes dramatically in the full many-body description: The condensate being initially in a dark soliton state dynamically depletes and the density notch fills up with depleted atoms. We analyze this process in detail with a particular focus on two-body correlations and the fate of grey solitons (dark solitons with finite density in the notch) and thereby complement the existing results in the literature. Moreover, we extend these studies to mixtures of two repulsively interacting bosonic species with a dark-bright soliton (dark soliton in one component filled with localized atoms of the other component) as the initial state. All these many-body quantum dynamics simulations are carried out with the recently developed multi-layer multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method for bosons (ML-MCTDHB).

  5. Herschel far-infrared observations of the Carina Nebula complex. I. Introduction and global cloud structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preibisch, T.; Roccatagliata, V.; Gaczkowski, B.; Ratzka, T.

    2012-05-01

    Context. The Carina Nebula represents one of the most massive star forming regions known in our Galaxy and displays a high level of feedback from the large number of very massive stars. While the stellar content is now well known from recent deep X-ray and near-infrared surveys, the properties of the clouds remained rather poorly studied until today. Aims: By mapping the Carina Nebula complex in the far-infrared, we aim at a comprehensive and detailed characterization of the dust and gas clouds in the complex. Methods: We used SPIRE and PACS onboard of Herschel to map the full spatial extent (≈5.3 square-degrees) of the clouds in the Carina Nebula complex at wavelengths between 70 μm and 500 μm. We used here the 70 μm and 160 μm far-infrared maps to determine color temperatures and column densities, and to investigate the global properties of the gas and dust clouds in the complex. Results: Our Herschel maps show the far-infrared morphology of the clouds at unprecedented high angular resolution. The clouds show a very complex and filamentary structure that is dominated by the radiation and wind feedback from the massive stars. In most locations, the column density of the clouds is NH ≲ 2 × 1022 cm-2 (corresponding to visual extinctions of AV ≲ 10 mag); denser cloud structures are restricted to the massive cloud west of Tr 14 and the innermost parts of large pillars. Our temperature map shows a clear large-scale gradient from ≈35-40 K in the central region to ≲20 K at the periphery and in the densest parts of individual pillars. The total mass of the clouds seen by Herschel in the central (1 degree radius) region is ≈656 000 M⊙. We also derive the global spectral energy distribution in the mid-infrared to mm wavelength range. A simple radiative transfer model suggests that the total mass of all the gas (including a warmer component that is not well traced by Herschel) in the central 1 degree radius region is ≤890 000 M⊙. Conclusions: Despite

  6. Heat trap - An optimized far infrared field optics system. [for astronomical sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, D. A.; Hildebrand, R. H.; Winston, R.; Stiening, R.

    1976-01-01

    The article deals with the design and performance of a heat trap IR system designed to maximize the concentration and efficient reception of far IR and submillimeter wavelength radiation. The test object is assumed to be extended and/or viewed at wavelengths much longer than the detector, and the entrance aperture is limited to the size of the telescope Airy diffraction disk. The design of lenses, cavity, bolometers, light collectors, and mirrors for the system is discussed. Advantages and feasibility of arrays of heat traps are considered. Beam patterns, flux concentration, and performance variation with wavelength are dealt with. The heat trap is recommended for sensing all types of far IR sources and particularly for extended far IR sources.-

  7. Simultaneous density and magnetic field fluctuation measurements by far-infrared interferometry and polarimetry in MST

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, T. F.; Ding, W. X.; Carter, T. A.; Brower, D. L.

    2008-10-15

    Fluctuations are expected to play an important role in anomalous particle, momentum, and energy transport for magnetic confinement devices. Magnetic and density fluctuations are simultaneously measured using a high-speed laser-based Faraday rotation-interferometry system with a bandwidth of 500 kHz and 8 cm chord spacing. Density fluctuation and magnetic fluctuation profiles are obtained by using a newly developed fitting procedure.

  8. The Far-Infrared Emission Line and Continuum Spectrum of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 1068

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinoglio, Luigi; Smith, Howard A.; Gonzalez-Alfonso, Eduardo; Fisher, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    We report on the analysis of the first complete far-infrared spectrum (43-197 microns) of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 as observed with the Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) onboard the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). In addition to the 7 expected ionic fine structure emission lines, the OH rotational lines at 79, 119 and 163 microns were all detected in emission, which is unique among galaxies with full LWS spectra, where the 119 micron line, where detected, is always in absorption. The observed line intensities were modelled together with IS0 Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) and optical and ultraviolet line intensities from the literature, considering two independent emission components: the AGN component and the starburst component in the circumnuclear ring of approximately 3kpc in size. Using the UV to mid-IR emission line spectrum to constrain the nuclear ionizing continuum, we have confirmed previous results: a canonical power-law ionizing spectrum is a poorer fit than one with a deep absorption trough, while the presence of a big blue bump is ruled out. Based on the instantaneous starburst age of 5 Myr constrained by the Br gamma equivalent width in the starburst ring, and starburst synthesis models of the mid- and far-infrared fine-structure line emission, a low ionization parameter (U=10(exp -3.5)) and low densities (n=100 cm (exp -3)) are derived. Combining the AGN and starburst components, we succeed in modeling the overall UV to far-IR atomic spectrum of SGC 1068, reproducing the line fluxes to within a factor 2.0 on average with a standard deviation of 1.4. The OH 119 micron emission indicates that the line is collisionally excited, and arises in a warm and dense region. The OH emission has been modeled using spherically symmetric, non-local, non-LTE radiative transfer models. The models indicate that the bulk of the emission arises from the nuclear region, although some extended contribution from the starburst is not ruled out. The OH abundance

  9. The far-infrared emitting region in local galaxies and QSOs: Size and scaling relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, D.; Berta, S.; Contursi, A.; Förster Schreiber, N. M.; Genzel, R.; Graciá-Carpio, J.; Herrera-Camus, R.; Netzer, H.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L. J.; Tadaki, K.; Veilleux, S.

    2016-06-01

    We use Herschel 70 to 160 μm images to study the size of the far-infrared emitting region in about 400 local galaxies and quasar (QSO) hosts. The sample includes normal "main-sequence" star-forming galaxies, as well as infrared luminous galaxies and Palomar-Green QSOs, with different levels and structures of star formation. Assuming Gaussian spatial distribution of the far-infrared (FIR) emission, the excellent stability of the Herschel point spread function (PSF) enables us to measure sizes well below the PSF width, by subtracting widths in quadrature. We derive scalings of FIR size and surface brightness of local galaxies with FIR luminosity, with distance from the star-forming main-sequence, and with FIR color. Luminosities LFIR~ 1011 L⊙ can be reached with a variety of structures spanning 2 dex in size. Ultraluminous LFIR≳ 1012 L⊙ galaxies far above the main-sequence inevitably have small Re,70~ 0.5 kpc FIR emitting regions with large surface brightness, and can be close to optically thick in the FIR on average over these regions. Compared to these local relations, first ALMA sizes for the dust emission regions in high redshift galaxies, measured at somewhat longer rest wavelengths, suggest larger sizes at the same IR luminosity. We report a remarkably tight relation with 0.15 dex scatter between FIR surface brightness and the ratio of [Cii] 158 μm emission and FIR emission - the so-called [Cii]-deficit is more tightly linked to surface brightness than to FIR luminosity or FIR color. Among 33 z ≤ 0.1 PG QSOs with typical LFIR/LBol,AGN ≈ 0.1, 19 have a measured 70 μm half light radius, with median Re,70 = 1.1 kpc. This is consistent with the FIR size for galaxies with similar LFIR but lacking a QSO, in accordance with a scenario where the rest FIR emission of these types of QSOs is, in most cases, due to host star formation.

  10. Liquid phase epitaxial growth and characterization of germanium far infrared blocked impurity band detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Bandaru, Jordana

    2001-05-12

    dropped by an order of magnitude over {approx} 1.5 {micro}m. Layers grown at 550 C did not show significant Sb diffusion. Sn doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (ITO) was studied for use in far infrared transparent low temperature contacts for BIB arrays. It was found that {approx}100 nm of ITO deposited on Ge remains electrically conducting at 4 K and is {approx}90% transparent in the far infrared. ITO should be suitable for passivating contacts to Ge BIB arrays.

  11. Emissivity and Anisothermality Studies at the Lunar Poles with Diviner's Far Infrared Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aye, K.; Paige, D. A.; Siegler, M. A.; Greenhagen, B. T.

    2013-12-01

    The Diviner Radiometer on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is measuring surface temperatures in 7 different thermal channels, 4 of them in the wavelength area classically defined as far infrared, starting at 13 microns, and ending with the longest wavelength channel at 400 microns. The surface temperatures derived from these thermal infrared measurements at the lunar poles indicate some of the coldest temperatures measured in the solar system of around 20 K. This work aims to disprove the null hypothesis that other effects like wavelength and temperature dependent emissivities are responsible for a reduced radiant exitance and the subsequently low derived surface temperature. To address the wavelength dependency of emissivity we are comparing nighttime temperatures over time (cooling curves) in between the different far infrared channels at selected locations. The locations have to be selected for low rock abundance to minimize anisothermality effects influencing the cooling curves. For this we are applying the method of lunar surface rock abundance using Diviner data as described in Bandfield et al. (2011), that has not been done so far at latitudes poleward of 60°. To avoid the large influence of slopes on the surface temperatures, the main reason for the latitude restriction in Bandfield et al. (2011) we use recent LOLA altimeter data to resolve any slopes that could influence the cooling curve at a chosen location. Having selected a location relatively free of anisothermalities and taking their effect into account, general differences in the cooling curves of the different Diviner wavelengths are interpreted as wavelength-dependent emissivities. To address the potential temperature dependency of emissivity, we are studying how the parameters of a mid-temperature range exponential fit to the cooling curve fit from approx. 250 to 70K, where we do not expect a temperature dependence of emissivity, extends to highest and lowest temperatures at the poles

  12. Dwarf galaxies in multistate scalar field dark matter halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Medina, L. A.; Robles, V. H.; Matos, T.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the velocity dispersion for eight of the Milky Way dwarf spheroidal satellites in the context of finite temperature scalar field dark matter. In this model the finite temperature allows the scalar field to be in configurations that possess excited states, a feature that has proved to be necessary in order to explain the asymptotic rotational velocities found in low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. In this work we show that excited states are not only important in large galaxies but also have visible effects in dwarf spheroidals. Additionally, we stress that contrary to previous works where the scalar field dark matter halos are consider to be purely Bose-Einstein condensates, the inclusion of excited states in these halo configurations provides a consistent framework capable of describing LSB and dwarf galaxies of different sizes without arriving to contradictions within the scalar field dark matter model. Using this new framework we find that the addition of excited states accounts very well for the raise in the velocity dispersion in Milky Way dwarf spheroidal galaxies improving the fit compared to the one obtained assuming all the dark matter to be in the form of a Bose-Einstein condensate.

  13. Higgs particles interacting via a scalar Dark Matter field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Yajnavalkya; Darewych, Jurij

    2016-07-01

    We study a system of two Higgs particles, interacting via a scalar Dark Matter mediating field. The variational method in the Hamiltonian formalism of QFT is used to derive relativistic wave equations for the two-Higgs system, using a truncated Fock-space trial state. Approximate solutions of the two-body equations are used to examine the existence of Higgs bound states.

  14. Dark matter deprivation in the field elliptical galaxy NGC 7507

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Richard R.; Salinas, Ricardo; Richtler, Tom

    2015-02-01

    Context. Previous studies have shown that the kinematics of the field elliptical galaxy NGC 7507 do not necessarily require dark matter. This is troubling because, in the context of ΛCDM cosmologies, all galaxies should have a large dark matter component. Aims: Our aims are to determine the rotation and velocity dispersion profile out to larger radii than do previous studies, and, therefore, more accurately estimate of the dark matter content of the galaxy. Methods: We use penalised pixel-fitting software to extract velocities and velocity dispersions from GMOS slit mask spectra. Using Jeans and MONDian modelling, we then produce models with the goal of fitting the velocity dispersion data. Results: NGC 7507 has a two-component stellar halo, with the outer halo counter rotating with respect to the inner halo, with a kinematic boundary at a radius of ~110'' (~12.4 kpc). The velocity dispersion profile exhibits an increase at ~70'' (~7.9 kpc), reminiscent of several other elliptical galaxies. Our best fit models are those under mild anisotropy, which include ~100 times less dark matter than predicted by ΛCDM, although mildly anisotropic models that are completely dark matter free fit the measured dynamics almost equally well. Our MONDian models, both isotropic and anisotropic, systematically fail to reproduce the measured velocity dispersions at almost all radii. Conclusions: The counter-rotating outer halo implies a merger remnant, as does the increase in velocity dispersion at ~70''. From simulations it seems plausible that the merger that caused the increase in velocity dispersion was a spiral-spiral merger. Our Jeans models are completely consistent with a no dark matter scenario, however, some dark matter can be accommodated, although at much lower concentrations than predicted by ΛCDM simulations. This indicates that NGC 7507 may be a dark matter free elliptical galaxy. Regardless of whether NGC 7507 is completely dark matter free or very dark matter poor

  15. Advancing toward far-infrared interferometry in space through coordinated international efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leisawitz, D.; Baryshev, A.; Griffin, M. J.; Helmich, F. P.; Ivison, R. J.; Rinehart, S. A.; Savini, G.; Shibai, H.

    2013-09-01

    The international far-infrared astrophysics community is eager to follow up Spitzer and Herschel observations with sensitive, high-resolution imaging and spectroscopy, for such measurements are needed to understand merger-driven star formation, Active Galactic Nuclei, chemical enrichment in galaxies, star and planetary system formation, and the development and prevalence of water-bearing planets. Through concerted efforts worldwide, the key enabling technologies are maturing. NASA sponsored the SPIRIT Probe and SPECS flagship-class mission concept studies during the past decade. Experiments involving interferometry testbeds are underway in the UK and the US. With new EU Seventh Framework Programme support, the European community is undertaking science definition studies and investing in enabling technology for a future space far-IR interferometry mission. The Japanese balloon-borne far-IR interferometer FITE is being prepared for its maiden flight, and NASA's BETTII balloon interferometer is under development, with contributions from the UK. This paper reviews recent technical progress, summarizes mission design tradeoffs, and offers a vision for space-based far-IR interferometry involving international collaboration.

  16. Exoplanetary Systems with SAFARI: A Far Infrared Imaging Spectrometer for SPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goicoechea, J. R.; Swinyard, B.

    2010-10-01

    The far-infrared (far-IR) spectral window plays host to a wide range of spectroscopic diagnostics with which to study planetary disk systems and exoplanets at wavelengths completely blocked by the Earth atmosphere. These include the thermal emission of dusty belts in debris disks, the water ice features in the “snow lines” of protoplanetary disks, as well as many key chemical species (O, OH, H2O, NH3, HD, etc.). These tracers play a critical diagnostic role in a number of key areas including the early stages of planet formation and potentially, exoplanets. The proposed Japanese-led IR space telescope SPICA, with its 3m-class cooled mirror (˜5 K) will be the next step in sensitivity after ESA’s Herschel Space Observatory (successfully launched in May 2009). SPICA is a candidate “M-mission” in ESA’s Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 process. We summarize the science possibilities of SAFARI: a far-IR imaging-spectrometer (covering the &sim34 - 210 μm band) that is one of a suite of instruments for SPICA.

  17. Constraining spatial extent and temperature of dust around galaxies from far-infrared image stacking analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiwagi, Toshiya; Suto, Yasushi

    2015-08-01

    We propose a novel method to constrain the spatial extent of dust around galaxies through the measurement of dust temperature. Our method combines the dust emission of galaxies from far-infrared (FIR) image stacking analysis and the quasar reddening due to the dust absorption around galaxies. As a specific application of our method, we use the stacked FIR emission profiles of SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) photometric galaxies over the IRAS 100 μm map, and the recent measurement of the SDSS galaxy-quasar cross-correlation. If we adopt a single-temperature dust model, the resulting temperature is around 18 K, which is consistent with a typical dust temperature for a central part of galaxies. If we assume an additional dust component with much lower temperature, the current data imply that the temperature of the galactic dust needs to be higher, 20-30 K. Since the model of the density and temperature distribution of dust adopted in the current paper is very simple, we cannot draw any strong conclusion at this point. Nevertheless, our novel method with the elaborated theoretical model and multiband measurement of dust will offer an interesting constraint on the statistical nature of galactic dust.

  18. Thermal stability of lightweight graphite glass sandwich reflectors for far infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bluege, J. H.; Mayor, R. A.; Hoffman, W. F.

    1986-01-01

    Graphite fiber-reinforced glass matrix composites are being developed for a variety of structural applications requiring excellent thermomechanical stability. These materials are ideally suited for lightweight, high strength, thermally stable infrared mirrors because of their low density, low thermal expansion, high strength and stiffness, and their ability to be machined, replicated and figured using standard polishing techniques. These properties are particularly promising for applications such as a 3-meter balloon-borne far-infrared and submillimeter telescope mirror which must be both very lightweight and able to retain its figure accuracy when cycled between room temperature and its operating temperature of -50 C. This paper presents the results of a set of low temperature optical tests conducted to determine the figure stability of a 30-cm diameter, frit-bonded graphite/glass mirror in the +20 to -60 C temperature range using a 10.6 micron laser interferometer. The results indicate that the residual change in figure was less than 0.3 microns, rms.

  19. Novel far infrared imaging sensor based on the use of titanium-nickel shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Ho-Pui; Chung, Jonathan C. Y.; Ng, Ki-Cheong; Cheng, K. L.; Wu, Shu-Yuen

    2002-11-01

    In this paper we describe a novel imaging sensor design1 that uses the thermo-mechanical properties of nickel-titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloys (SMAs) for detecting far infrared radiation (FIR). A thin NiTi SMA cantilever is coated with a FIR absorbing layer on one surface, while the other is coated with a highly reflecting metallic layers such as gold. Upon absorption of FIR, the temperature of the cantilever changes. This causes the tilt angle of the cantilever to change as well. The deflection is very large if the temperature change coincides with the temperature range of the phase transformation of the NiTi SMA. The detection of the mechanical movements in the cantilever is achieved by illuminating the reflective side using a visible laser beam. A Michelson interferometer is used to covert the reflected light into optical modulation. In doing this, very small displacement in the cantilever can be visualized as laser intensity variation. A single element device has been fabricated for this purpose and our initial experimental results have demonstrated the successful detection of FIR. An estimation of angular deflection per unit change of temperature suggests that our approach can offer sensitivity higher than the reported design based on the use of bi-material strips. We envisage that a two-dimensional array of such devices can lead to the possibility of realizing a practical low-cost infrared imaging device operating under room temperature conditions.

  20. Development of a new two color far infrared laser interferometer for future fusion devices

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahata, K.; Tanaka, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Akiyama, T.; Ito, Y.; Okajima, S.; Nakayama, K.; Wylde, R.J.

    2004-10-01

    A new two color far infrared (FIR) laser interferometer under development for future fusion devices will be presented. The laser wavelength is optimized from the consideration of the beam refraction effect due to plasma density gradient and signal-to-noise ratio for an expected phase shift due to plasmas. Laser lines of 57.2 and 47.6 {mu}m are found to be suitable for the applications to high performance plasmas of Large Helical Device and future fusion devices such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The output power of 57.2 {mu}m CH{sub 3}OD laser is estimated to be {approx}1.6 W, which is the highest laser power in the FIR wavelength regime. The optical configuration of a new interferometer system using two colors will be proposed. In the system, one detector simultaneously detects the beat signals of the 57.2 and 47.6 {mu}m laser lines, and each interference signal can be separated electronically (1 MHz for 57.2 {mu}m and 0.84 MHz expected for 47.6 {mu}m). Mechanical vibration can be compensated by using the two color interferometer. The present status of the development of the system is also presented.

  1. Recognizing pedestrian's unsafe behaviors in far-infrared imagery at night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Ko, Byoung Chul; Nam, Jae-Yeal

    2016-05-01

    Pedestrian behavior recognition is important work for early accident prevention in advanced driver assistance system (ADAS). In particular, because most pedestrian-vehicle crashes are occurred from late of night to early of dawn, our study focus on recognizing unsafe behavior of pedestrians using thermal image captured from moving vehicle at night. For recognizing unsafe behavior, this study uses convolutional neural network (CNN) which shows high quality of recognition performance. However, because traditional CNN requires the very expensive training time and memory, we design the light CNN consisted of two convolutional layers and two subsampling layers for real-time processing of vehicle applications. In addition, we combine light CNN with boosted random forest (Boosted RF) classifier so that the output of CNN is not fully connected with the classifier but randomly connected with Boosted random forest. We named this CNN as randomly connected CNN (RC-CNN). The proposed method was successfully applied to the pedestrian unsafe behavior (PUB) dataset captured from far-infrared camera at night and its behavior recognition accuracy is confirmed to be higher than that of some algorithms related to CNNs, with a shorter processing time.

  2. Improved collision strengths and line ratios for forbidden [O III] far-infrared and optical lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palay, Ethan; Nahar, Sultana N.; Pradhan, Anil K.; Eissner, Werner

    2012-06-01

    Far-infrared and optical [O III] lines are useful temperature-density diagnostics of nebular as well as dust obscured astrophysical sources. Fine-structure transitions among the ground state levels 1 s22 s22 p33 P 0,1,2 give rise to the 52- and 88-?m lines, whereas transitions among the 3 P 0,1,2, 1 D 2, 1 S 0 levels yield the well-known optical lines λλ4363, 4959 and 5007 Å. These lines are excited primarily by electron impact excitation. However, despite their importance in nebular diagnostics collision strengths for the associated fine-structure transitions have not been computed taking full account of relativistic effects. We present Breit-Pauli R-matrix calculations for the collision strengths with highly resolved resonance structures. We find significant differences of up to 20 per cent in the Maxwellian averaged rate coefficients from previous works. We also tabulate these to lower temperatures down to 100 K to enable determination of physical conditions in cold dusty environments such photodissociation regions and ultraluminous infrared galaxies observed with the Herschel Space Observatory. We also examine the effect of improved collision strengths on temperature- and density-sensitive line ratios.

  3. Laboratory far-infrared spectroscopy of terrestrial sulphides to support analysis of cosmic dust spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brusentsova, T.; Peale, R. E.; Maukonen, D.; Figueiredo, P.; Harlow, G. E.; Ebel, D. S.; Nissinboim, A.; Sherman, K.; Lisse, C. M.

    2012-03-01

    As an aid in interpreting data from space far-infrared (far-IR) missions, such as the Herschel Space Observatory with its Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer, this paper presents spectroscopic studies of selected naturally occurring terrestrial sulphide minerals in the wavelength range 15-250 μm. The data can also be used to support the return from other, both past and planned, IR space missions, such as the Infrared Space Observatory, Spitzer, SOFIA, SPiCA and Millimetron. In this study, we present far-IR spectra for 11 natural sulphide minerals in the form of dispersed powders of micron particle dimensions. Samples of various sulphides from the American Museum of Natural History mineral collection were selected based on criteria of diversity and potential astrophysical relevancy, based on their identification in Stardust, in stratospheric interplanetary dust particle samples, or in meteorites. Mineral species include digenite, galena, alabandite, sphalerite, wurtzite, covellite, pyrrhotite, pyrite, marcasite, chalcopyrite and stibnite. Most of the sulphides examined possess prominent and characteristic features in the far-IR range. Spectra obtained are compared to those available from previous studies. Far-IR peak frequencies and mass absorption coefficient values are tabulated. Effects of particle size distribution, low temperature, and provenance on IR spectra are demonstrated for selected samples.

  4. Bright debris disk candidates detected with the AKARI/FAR-infrared surveyor

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Qiong; Wang, Tinggui; Jiang, Peng E-mail: twang@ustc.edu.cn

    2014-07-01

    We cross-correlate the Hipparcos main-sequence star catalog with the AKARI/FIS catalog and identify 136 stars (at >90% reliability) with far-infrared detections in at least one band. After rejecting 57 stars classified as young stellar objects, Be stars and other type stars with known dust disks or with potential contaminations, and 4 stars without infrared excess emission, we obtain a sample of 75 candidate stars with debris disks. Stars in our sample cover spectral types from B to K with most being early types. This represents a unique sample of luminous debris disks that derived uniformly from an all-sky survey with a spatial resolution factor of four better than the previous such survey by IRAS. Moreover, by collecting the infrared photometric data from other public archives, almost three-quarters of them have infrared excesses in more than one band, allowing an estimate of the dust temperatures. We fit the blackbody model to the broadband spectral energy distribution of these stars to derive the statistical distribution of the disk parameters. Four B stars with excesses in four or more bands require a double blackbody model, with the high one around 100 or 200 K and the low one around 40-50 K.

  5. Optical and quasi-optical analysis of system components for a far-infrared space interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, C.; O'Sullivan, C.; Donohoe, A.; Murphy, A.; Savini, G.; Juanola-Parramon, R.; Baccichet, N.; Guisseau, A.; Ade, P.; Pascale, E.; Spencer, L.; Walker, I.; Dohlen, K.; Lightfoot, J.; Holland, W.; Jones, M.; Walker, D. D.; McMillan, A.

    2015-03-01

    Many important astrophysical processes occur at wavelengths that fall within the far-infrared band of the EM spectrum, and over distance scales that require sub-arc second spatial resolution. It is clear that in order to achieve sub-arc second resolution at these relatively long wavelengths (compared to optical/near-IR), which are strongly absorbed by the atmosphere, a space-based far-IR interferometer will be required. We present analysis of the optical system for a proposed spatial-spectral interferometer, discussing the challenges that arise when designing such a system and the simulation techniques employed that aim to resolve these issues. Many of these specific challenges relate to combining the beams from multiple telescopes where the wavelengths involved are relatively short (compared to radio interferometry), meaning that care must be taken with mirror surface quality, where surface form errors not only present potential degradation of the single system beams, but also serve to reduce fringe visibility when multiple telescope beams are combined. Also, the long baselines required for sub-arc second resolution present challenges when considering propagation of the relatively long wavelengths of the signal beam, where beam divergence becomes significant if the beam demagnification of the telescopes is not carefully considered. Furthermore, detection of the extremely weak far-IR signals demands ultra-sensitive detectors and instruments capable of operating at maximum efficiency. Thus, as will be shown, care must be taken when designing each component of such a complex quasioptical system.

  6. MODELING THE HD 32297 DEBRIS DISK WITH FAR-INFRARED HERSCHEL DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, J. K.; Lebreton, J.; Augereau, J.-C.; Krivov, A. V.

    2013-07-20

    HD 32297 is a young A-star ({approx}30 Myr) 112 pc away with a bright edge-on debris disk that has been resolved in scattered light. We observed the HD 32297 debris disk in the far-infrared and sub-millimeter with the Herschel Space Observatory PACS and SPIRE instruments, populating the spectral energy distribution (SED) from 63 to 500 {mu}m. We aimed to determine the composition of dust grains in the HD 32297 disk through SED modeling, using geometrical constraints from the resolved imaging to break the degeneracies inherent in SED modeling. We found the best fitting SED model has two components: an outer ring centered around 110 AU, seen in the scattered light images, and an inner disk near the habitable zone of the star. The outer disk appears to be composed of grains >2 {mu}m consisting of silicates, carbonaceous material, and water ice with an abundance ratio of 1:2:3 respectively and 90% porosity. These grains appear consistent with cometary grains, implying the underlying planetesimal population is dominated by comet-like bodies. We also discuss the 3.7{sigma} detection of [C II] emission at 158 {mu}m with the Herschel PACS instrument, making HD 32297 one of only a handful of debris disks with circumstellar gas detected.

  7. Pedestrian Detection in Far-Infrared Daytime Images Using a Hierarchical Codebook of SURF

    PubMed Central

    Besbes, Bassem; Rogozan, Alexandrina; Rus, Adela-Maria; Bensrhair, Abdelaziz; Broggi, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenges in intelligent vehicles concerns pedestrian detection for driving assistance. Recent experiments have showed that state-of-the-art descriptors provide better performances on the far-infrared (FIR) spectrum than on the visible one, even in daytime conditions, for pedestrian classification. In this paper, we propose a pedestrian detector with on-board FIR camera. Our main contribution is the exploitation of the specific characteristics of FIR images to design a fast, scale-invariant and robust pedestrian detector. Our system consists of three modules, each based on speeded-up robust feature (SURF) matching. The first module allows generating regions-of-interest (ROI), since in FIR images of the pedestrian shapes may vary in large scales, but heads appear usually as light regions. ROI are detected with a high recall rate with the hierarchical codebook of SURF features located in head regions. The second module consists of pedestrian full-body classification by using SVM. This module allows one to enhance the precision with low computational cost. In the third module, we combine the mean shift algorithm with inter-frame scale-invariant SURF feature tracking to enhance the robustness of our system. The experimental evaluation shows that our system outperforms, in the FIR domain, the state-of-the-art Haar-like Adaboost-cascade, histogram of oriented gradients (HOG)/linear SVM (linSVM) and MultiFtrpedestrian detectors, trained on the FIR images. PMID:25871724

  8. Far Infrared Line Profiles from Photodissociation Regions and Warm Molecular Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boreiko, R. T.; Betz, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the work done under NASA Grant NAG2-1056 awarded to the University of Colorado. The aim of the project was to analyze data obtained over the past several years with the University of Colorado far-infrared heterodyne spectrometer (Betz & Boreiko 1993) aboard the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. Of particular interest were observations of CO and ionized carbon (C II) in photodissociation regions (PDRs) at the interface between UV-ionized H II regions and the neutral molecular clouds supporting star formation. These data, obtained with a heterodyne spectrometer having a resolution of 3.2 MHz, which is equivalent to a velocity resolution of 0.2 km/s at 60 microns and 1.0 km/s at 300 microns, were analyzed to obtain physical parameters such as density and temperature in the observed PDR. The publication resulting from the work reported here is appended. No inventions were made nor was any federally owned property acquired as a result of the activities under this grant.

  9. Far Infrared Line Profiles from Photodissociation Regions and Warm Molecular Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boreiko, R. T.; Betz, A. L.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the work done under NASA Grant NAG2-1056 awarded to the University of Colorado. The aim of the project was to analyze data obtained over the past several years with the University of Colorado far-infrared heterodyne spectrometer (Betz Boreiko 1993) aboard the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. Of particular interest were observations of CO and ionized carbon (C II) in photodissociation regions (PDRS) at the interface between UV-ionized H II regions and the neutral molecular clouds supporting star formation. These data, obtained with a heterodyne spectrometer having a resolution of 3.2 MHz, which is equivalent to a velocity resolution of 0.2 km/s at 60 microns and 1.0 km/s at 300 microns, were analyzed to obtain physical parameters such as density and temperature in the observed PDR. The publication resulting from the work reported here is appended. No inventions were made nor was any federally owned property acquired as a result of the activities under this grant.

  10. Pedestrian detection in far-infrared daytime images using a hierarchical codebook of SURF.

    PubMed

    Besbes, Bassem; Rogozan, Alexandrina; Rus, Adela-Maria; Bensrhair, Abdelaziz; Broggi, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    One of the main challenges in intelligent vehicles concerns pedestrian detection for driving assistance. Recent experiments have showed that state-of-the-art descriptors provide better performances on the far-infrared (FIR) spectrum than on the visible one, even in daytime conditions, for pedestrian classification. In this paper, we propose a pedestrian detector with on-board FIR camera. Our main contribution is the exploitation of the specific characteristics of FIR images to design a fast, scale-invariant and robust pedestrian detector. Our system consists of three modules, each based on speeded-up robust feature (SURF) matching. The first module allows generating regions-of-interest (ROI), since in FIR images of the pedestrian shapes may vary in large scales, but heads appear usually as light regions. ROI are detected with a high recall rate with the hierarchical codebook of SURF features located in head regions. The second module consists of pedestrian full-body classification by using SVM. This module allows one to enhance the precision with low computational cost. In the third module, we combine the mean shift algorithm with inter-frame scale-invariant SURF feature tracking to enhance the robustness of our system. The experimental evaluation shows that our system outperforms, in the FIR domain, the state-of-the-art Haar-like Adaboost-cascade, histogram of oriented gradients (HOG)/linear SVM (linSVM) and MultiFtrpedestrian detectors, trained on the FIR images. PMID:25871724

  11. Fundamental Limits on the Imaging and Polarisation Properties of Far-Infrared Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Christopher N.; Withington, Stafford; Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.; Moseley, S. Harvey

    2009-01-01

    Far-infrared bolometric detectors are used extensively in ground-based and space-borne astronomy, and thus it is important to understand their optical behaviour precisely. We have studied the intensity and polarisation response of free-space bolometers, and shown that when the size of the absorber is reduced below a wavelength, the response changes from being that of a classical optical detector to that of a few-mode antenna. We have calculated the modal content of the reception patterns, and found that for any volumetric detector having a side length of less than a wavelength, three magnetic and three electric dipoles characterize the behaviour. The size of the absorber merely determines the relative strengths of the contributions. The same formalism can be applied to thin-film absorbers, where the induced current is forced to flow in a plane. In this case, one magnetic and two electric dipoles characterize the behaviour. The ability to model easily the intensity, polarisation, and straylight characteristics of electrically-small detectors will be of great value when designing high-performance polarimetric imaging arrays.

  12. Micro-Spec: an ultracompact, high-sensitivity spectrometer for far-infrared and submillimeter astronomy.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Huang, Wei-Chung; Moseley, S Harvey; Stevenson, Thomas R; Wollack, Edward J

    2014-02-20

    High-performance, integrated spectrometers operating in the far-infrared and submillimeter ranges promise to be powerful tools for the exploration of the epochs of reionization and initial galaxy formation. These devices, using high-efficiency superconducting transmission lines, can achieve the performance of a meter-scale grating spectrometer in an instrument implemented on a 4 inch silicon wafer. Such a device, when combined with a cryogenic telescope in space, provides an enabling capability for studies of the early universe. Here, the optical design process for Micro-Spec (μ-Spec) is presented, with particular attention given to its two-dimensional diffractive region, where the light of different wavelengths is focused on the different detectors. The method is based on the stigmatization and minimization of the light path function in this bounded region, which results in an optimized geometrical configuration. A point design with an efficiency of ~90% has been developed for initial demonstration and can serve as the basis for future instruments. Design variations on this implementation are also discussed, which can lead to lower efficiencies due to diffractive losses in the multimode region. PMID:24663307

  13. Ab initio calculations for the far infrared collision induced absorption by N2 gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussery-Honvault, Béatrice; Hartmann, Jean-Michel

    2014-02-01

    We present (far-infrared) Collision Induced Absorption (CIA) spectra calculations for pure gaseous N2 made for the first time, from first-principles. They were carried out using classical molecular dynamics simulations based on ab initio predictions of both the intermolecular potential and the induced-dipole moment. These calculations reproduce satisfactory well the experimental values (intensity and band profile) with agreement within 3% at 149 K. With respect to results obtained with only the long range (asymptotic) dipole moment (DM), including the short range overlap contribution improves the band intensity and profile at 149 K, but it deteriorates them at 296 K. The results show that the relative contribution of the short range DM to the band intensity is typically around 10%. We have also examined the sensitivity of the calculated CIA to the intermolecular potential anisotropy, providing a test of the so-called isotropic approximation used up to now in all N2 CIA calculations. As all these effects interfere simultaneously with quantitatively similar influences (around 10%), it is rather difficult to assert which one could explain remaining deviations with the experimental results. Furthermore, the rather large uncertainties and sometimes inconsistencies of the available measurements forbid any definitive conclusion, stressing the need for new experiments.

  14. Bright Debris Disk Candidates Detected with the AKARI/Far-infrared Surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiong; Wang, Tinggui; Jiang, Peng

    2014-07-01

    We cross-correlate the Hipparcos main-sequence star catalog with the AKARI/FIS catalog and identify 136 stars (at >90% reliability) with far-infrared detections in at least one band. After rejecting 57 stars classified as young stellar objects, Be stars and other type stars with known dust disks or with potential contaminations, and 4 stars without infrared excess emission, we obtain a sample of 75 candidate stars with debris disks. Stars in our sample cover spectral types from B to K with most being early types. This represents a unique sample of luminous debris disks that derived uniformly from an all-sky survey with a spatial resolution factor of four better than the previous such survey by IRAS. Moreover, by collecting the infrared photometric data from other public archives, almost three-quarters of them have infrared excesses in more than one band, allowing an estimate of the dust temperatures. We fit the blackbody model to the broadband spectral energy distribution of these stars to derive the statistical distribution of the disk parameters. Four B stars with excesses in four or more bands require a double blackbody model, with the high one around 100 or 200 K and the low one around 40-50 K.

  15. Synchrotron Based Fourier Transform Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of CH3NO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twagirayezu, Sylvestre; Billinghurst, Brant E.; May, Tim; Dawadi, Mahesh B.; Perry, David S.

    2013-06-01

    As a slightly asymmetric top molecule (κ = 0.25) with both a free internal rotor and a methyl group, CH_3NO_2 is a benchmark system for studies of torsional motion in a 6-fold potential and of the coupling between a large amplitude vibration and other small-amplitude vibrations. For this purpose, rotationally resolved infrared spectra of CH_3NO_2, have been recorded using the Far-Infrared beamline at the Canadian Light Source, which is equipped with a high resolution Bruker IFS 125HR spectrometer. The observed infrared spectra, in the range 550-1000cm^{-1}, are the average of 300 interferometer scans collected at a nominal resolution of 0.00096cm^{-1}. Two a-type bands, centered at 657.08cm^{-1}for NO symmetric bend and at 917.99cm^{-1}for CN-stretch, have been measured. The initial analysis of a number of torsional states is currently being carried out and the progress will be reported in this talk.

  16. Evolution of the Far-Infrared Cloud at Titan's South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Achterberg, R. K.; Cottini, V.; Anderson, C. M.; Flasar, F. M.; Nixon, C. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Kunde, V. G.; Carlson, R. C.; Guandique, E.; Kaelberer, M. S.; Tingley, J. S.; Albright, S. A.; Segura, M. E.; de Kok, R.; Coustenis, A.; Vinatier, S.; Bampasidis, G.; Teanby, N. A.; Calcutt, S.

    2015-01-01

    A condensate cloud on Titan identified by its 220 cm (sup -1) far-infrared signature continues to undergo seasonal changes at both the north and south poles. In the north the cloud, which extends from 55 North to the pole, has been gradually decreasing in emission intensity since the beginning of the Cassini mission with a half-life of 3.8 years. The cloud in the south did not appear until 2012 but its intensity has increased rapidly, doubling every year. The shape of the cloud at the South Pole is very different from that in the north. Mapping in December 2013 showed that the condensate emission was confined to a ring with a maximum at 80 South. The ring was centered 4 degrees from Titan's pole. The pattern of emission from stratospheric trace gases like nitriles and complex hydrocarbons (mapped in January 2014) was also offset by 4 degrees, but had a central peak at the pole and a secondary maximum in a ring at about 70 South with a minimum at 80 South. The shape of the gas emissions distribution can be explained by abundances that are high at the atmospheric pole and diminish toward the equator, combined with correspondingly increasing temperatures. We discuss possible causes for the condensate ring. The present rapid build up of the condensate cloud at the South Pole is likely to transition to a gradual decline during 2015-16.

  17. Influence of Water Activated by Far infrared Porous Ceramics on Nitrogen Absorption in the Pig Feed.

    PubMed

    Meng, Junping; Liu, Jie; Liang, Jinsheng; Zhang, Hongchen; Ding, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Under modern and, intensive feeding livestock and poultry density has increased, and brought a deterioration of the farm environment. The livestock and their excrement generate harmful gases such as ammonia, etc. which restricted the sustainable development and improvement of production efficiency of animal husbandry. In this paper, a new kind of far infrared porous ceramics was prepared to activate, the animal drinking water. The activated water and common water were then supplied to pigs, and the fresh pig feces of experimental group and:control group were collected on a regular basis. The residual protein content in feces was tested by Kjeldahl nitrogen method to study the influence law of the porous ceramics on absorbing nitrogen element in animal feces. The results showed that compared with the control group, the protein content in the experimental group decreased on average by 39.2%. The activated drinking water was conducive to the absorption of nitrogen in pig feed. The clusters of water molecules became smaller under the action of the porous ceramics. Hence, they were easy to pass through the water protein channel on the cell membrane for speeding up the metabolism. PMID:27451750

  18. Spectroscopic Capabilities and Possibilities of the Far Infrared and Submillimeter Telescope Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J. C.

    2000-01-01

    The Far Infrared and Submillimeter Telescope (FIRST) mission is the fourth European Space Agency corner stone mission. FIRST will be an observatory with a passively cooled (80 Kelvin) 3.5 meter class telescope and three cryogenic instruments covering the 670 to 80 mm spectral region. The mission is slated for a 4.5 year operational lifetime in an L2 orbit. It will share an Arian 5 launch with PLANCK in early 2007. The three payload instruments include the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE), which is a bolometer array with Martin-Puplett FTS for 200-670 microns, the Photoconductor Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS), which is a photoconductor array with a grating spectrometer for 80-210 microns and the Heterodyne Instrument for FIRST (HIFI), which is a series of seven heterodyne receivers covering 480-1250 GHz and portions of 1410-1910 GHz and 2400-2700 GHz. FIRST will make many detailed spectral surveys of a wide variety of objects previously obscured by the atmosphere and in regions of the spectrum seldom used for astronomical observations, With all of the spectroscopic capability on FIRST a great deal of laboratory spectroscopic support will be needed for accurate interpretation of the spectral data.

  19. Atrazine Molecular Imprinted Polymers: Comparative Analysis by Far-Infrared and Ultraviolet Induced Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jun; Bai, Lian-Yang; Liu, Kun-Feng; Liu, Run-Qiang; Zhang, Yu-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) were comparatively synthesized using identical polymer formulation by far-infrared (FIR) radiation and ultraviolet (UV)-induced polymerization, respectively. Equilibrium binding experiments were carried out with the prepared MIPs; the results showed that MIPuv possessed specific binding to atrazine compared with their MIPFIR radiation counterparts. Scatchard plot’s of both MIPs indicated that the affinities of the binding sites in MIPs are heterogeneous and can be approximated by two dissociation-constants corresponding to the high-and low-affinity binding sites. Moreover, several common pesticides including atrazine, cyromazine, metamitron, simazine, ametryn, terbutryn were tested to determine their specificity, similar imprinting factor (IF) and different selectivity index (SI) for both MIPs. Physical characterization of the polymers revealed that the different polymerization methods led to slight differences in polymer structures and performance by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared absorption (FT-IR), and mercury analyzer (MA). Finally, both MIPs were used as selective sorbents for solid phase extraction (SPE) of atrazine from lake water, followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Compared with commercial C18 SPE sorbent (86.4%–94.8%), higher recoveries of atrazine in spiked lake water were obtained in the range of 90.1%–97.1% and 94.4%–101.9%, for both MIPs, respectively. PMID:24398982

  20. Balloon measurements of stratospheric HCl and HF by far infrared emission spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shibasaki, Kazuo; Chance, Kelly V.; Johnson, David G.; Jucks, Kenneth W.; Traub, Wesley A.

    1994-01-01

    We have analyzed atmospheric thermal emission spectra obtained with the balloon-borne FIRS-2 far infrared Fourier transform spectrometer during balloon flights from Palestine, Texas on May 12-13, 1988 and from Fort Sumner, New Mexico on September 26-27, 1989 and on July 4-5, 1990. Seven and two pure rotational transition lines in 100-205 cm(exp -1) range are analyzed for deriving vertical profiles of stratospheric HCl and HF, respectively. We obtain both the daytime and nighttime average vertical profiles from 15 to 50 km. We compare these profiles with the ones obtained in June, 1983 with the first version of FIRS spectrometer during the Balloon Intercomparison Campaign (BIC-2). BIC-2 results were revised to be consistent with the present analysis which uses the latest spectral parameters. According to our comparison results no increase is recognized for HCl but about 3 percent per year increase for HF from 1983 to 1990, assuming a linear trend. These annual increase rates are smaller than those reported by other groups. Recently Rinsland et al. (1991) and Wallace and Livingston (1991) reported long term behavior of total HCl and HF observed on Kit Peak between 1977 and 1990. As Kit Peak is located near both balloon launching sites, Palestine and Fort Sumner, we think our results are favorably comparable with theirs. Comparison results with ours and ground-based measurements will be presented and discussed.

  1. The far-infrared emission of the radio-loud quasar 3C 318

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podigachoski, P.; Barthel, P. D.; Peletier, R. F.; Steendam, S.

    2016-01-01

    3C 318, a radio-loud quasar at z = 1.574, is a subgalactic-sized radio source, and a good test-bed for the interplay between black hole and galaxy growth in the high-z Universe. Based on its IRAS, ISO, and SCUBA detections, it has long been considered as one of the most intrinsically luminous (LIR > 1013 L⊙) infrared sources in the Universe. Recent far-infrared data from the Herschel Space Observatory reveal that most of the flux associated with 3C 318, measured with earlier instruments, in fact comes from a bright nearby source. Optical imaging and spectroscopy show that this infrared-bright source is a strongly star-forming pair of interacting galaxies at z = 0.35. Adding existing Spitzer and SDSS photometry, we perform a spectral energy distribution analysis of the pair, and find that it has a combined infrared luminosity of LIR = 1.5 × 1012 L⊙, comparable to other intermediate-redshift ultra-luminous infrared galaxies studied with Herschel. Isolating the emission from 3C 318's host, we robustly constrain the level of star formation to a value a factor of three lower than that published earlier, which is more in line with the star formation activity found in other Herschel-detected 3CR objects at similar redshift.

  2. Far infrared reflectance of sintered nickel manganite samples for negative temperature coefficient thermistors

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolic, M.V. . E-mail: maria@mi.sanu.ac.yu; Paraskevopoulos, K.M.; Aleksic, O.S.; Zorba, T.T.; Savic, S.M.; Lukovic, D.T.

    2007-08-07

    Single phase complex spinel (Mn, Ni, Co, Fe){sub 3}O{sub 4} samples were sintered at 1050, 1200 and 1300 deg. C for 30 min and at 1200 deg. C for 120 min. Morphological changes of the obtained samples with the sintering temperature and time were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Room temperature far infrared reflectivity spectra for all samples were measured in the frequency range between 50 and 1200 cm{sup -1}. The obtained spectra for all samples showed the presence of the same oscillators, but their intensities increased with the sintering temperature and time in correlation with the increase in sample density and microstructure changes during sintering. The measured spectra were numerically analyzed using the Kramers-Kroenig method and the four-parameter model of coupled oscillators. Optical modes were calculated for six observed ionic oscillators belonging to the spinel structure of (Mn, Ni, Co, Fe){sub 3}O{sub 4} of which four were strong and two were weak.

  3. Use of a Far-Infrared Active Warming Device in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus)

    PubMed Central

    Zarndt, Bethany S; Buchta, Jessica N; Garver, Lindsey S; Davidson, Silas A; Rowton, Edgar D; Despain, Kenneth E

    2015-01-01

    Small mammals have difficulty maintaining body temperature under anesthesia. This hypothermia is a potential detriment not only to the health and comfort of the animal but also to the integrity of any treatment given or data gathered during the anesthetic period. Using an external warming device to assist with temperature regulation can mitigate these effects. In this study, we investigated the ability of an advanced warming device that uses far-infrared (FIR) heating and responds to real-time core temperature monitoring to maintain a normothermic core temperature in guinea pigs. Body temperatures were measured during 30 min of ketamine–xylazine general anesthesia with and without application of the heating device. The loss of core body heat from anesthetized guinea pigs under typical (unwarmed) conditions was significant, and this loss was almost completely mitigated by application of the FIR heating pad. The significant difference between the temperatures of the actively warmed guinea pigs as compared with the control group began as early as 14 min after anesthetic administration, leading to a 2.6 °C difference at 30 min. Loss of core body temperature was not correlated with animals’ body weight; however, weight influences the efficiency of FIR warming slightly. These study results show that the FIR heating device accurately controls core body temperature in guinea pigs, therefore potentially alleviating the effects of body heat loss on animal physiology. PMID:26632788

  4. Stratospheric spectroscopy with the far-infrared spectrometer (FIRS-2) - Overview and recent results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traub, Wesley A.; Chance, Kelly V.; Johnson, David G.; Jucks, Kenneth W.

    1991-01-01

    The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory's program of balloon-borne stratospheric spectroscopic measurements is described, including instrumentation, recent scientific results, and future plans. The design and operation of the FIRS-2 far-infrared spectrometer is discussed. The current status of our efforts to recover mixing-ratio profiles with about 1 percent precision is presented. Representative recent results are shown giving mixing-ratio profiles from 20 to 50 km, selected from the suite HOCl, HCl, HF, NO2, N2O, HNO3, OH, HO2, H2O2, H2O (and isotopes), O2 (and isotopes), O3 (and isotopes), and CO2 (and isotopes). The utility of O2 and CO2 spectral lines for information on view angle or temperature and pressure is discussed. Future plans are mentioned, including the use of FIRS-2 on a balloon platform for UARS correlative measurements, the use of FIRS-2 on the NASA DC-8 platform for polar measurements, and the potential benefits of a FIRS instrument on a Shuttle platform.

  5. Review of optically pumped far-infrared laser lines from methanol isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, D.; Moraes, J. C. S.; Telles, E. M.; Scalabrin, A.; Strumia, F.; Moretti, A.; Carelli, G.; Massa, C. A.

    1994-01-01

    The technique of optical pumping in polar molecules is the most efficient for Far-Infrared (FIR) laser generation, providing also a versatile and powerful tool for molecular spectroscopy in this spectral region. Methanol CH3OH and its isotopic varieties are the best media for optically pumped FIR laser, with over thousand lines observed, and the most widely used for investigations and applications. In this sense, it is important to organize and make available catalogues of FIR laser lines as complete as possible. Since the last critical reviews of 1984 on methanol and its isotopic varieties, over hundred papers have been published dealing with hundreds of new FIR laser lines. In 1992 a review of FIR laser lines from CH3OH was presented. In this communication we extend this work to the other methanol isotopes, namely CH3OD, CD3OH, CD3OD, (13)CH3OH, (13)CD3OH, (13)CD3OD, CH3OH-18, CH2DOH, CHD2OH and CH2DOD.

  6. Effect of far-infrared irradiation on the antioxidant activity of defatted sesame meal extracts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Cheol; Jeong, Seok-Moon; Kim, So-Young; Nam, K C; Ahn, D U

    2005-03-01

    To determine the effect of far-infrared (FIR) irradiation on the antioxidant activities of sesame meal, half of sesame seeds were FIR-irradiated and then oil was extracted from the seeds. The resulting defatted sesame meal (DSM) was extracted with methanol, and the antioxidant activities of methanolic extract were determined. FIR irradiation of sesame seeds for 30 min increased the total phenol content from 34.0 to 59.0 muM and radical scavenging activity of DSM extracts from 26.40 to 68.76%. The induction time of lipid oxidation of oil added to extracts was also retarded from 0.82 to 0.96 h. According to the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, several low molecular weight phenolic compounds, such as p-hydroxy benzoic acid, vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid, isoferulic acid, and o-coumaric acid, were frequently detected in FIR-irradiated DSM extracts as compared to unirradiated ones. These results indicated that FIR irradiation of sesame seeds increased the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of DSM. PMID:15740030

  7. Calibration of the AKARI far-infrared all-sky survey maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takita, Satoshi; Doi, Yasuo; Ootsubo, Takafumi; Arimatsu, Ko; Ikeda, Norio; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Kitamura, Yoshimi; Matsuura, Shuji; Nakagawa, Takao; Hattori, Makoto; Morishima, Takahiro; Tanaka, Masahiro; Komugi, Shinya

    2015-06-01

    We present an initial analysis of the properties of an all-sky image obtained by the Far-Infrared Surveyor (FIS) onboard the AKARI satellite, at 65 μm (N60), 90 μm (WIDE-S), 140 μm (WIDE-L), and 160 μm (N160). An absolute flux calibration was determined by comparing the data with COBE/DIRBE data sets; the intensity range was as wide as from a few MJy sr-1 to > 1 GJy sr-1. The uncertainties are considered to be the standard deviations with respect to the DIRBE data, and are less than 10% for intensities above 10, 3, 25, and 26 MJy sr-1 at the N60, WIDE-S, WIDE-L, and N160 bands, respectively. The characteristics of point sources in the image were also determined by stacking maps centred on photometric standard stars. The full width at half maxima of the point spread functions (PSFs) were 63″, 78″, and 88″ at the N60, WIDE-S, and WIDE-L bands, respectively. The PSF at the N160 band was not obtained due to the sensitivity, but it is thought to be the same as that of the WIDE-L one.

  8. Far-infrared line emission from the galaxy. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, G. J.

    1985-01-01

    The diffuse 157.74 micron (CII) emission from the Galaxy was sampled at several galactic longitudes near the galactic plane including complete scan across the plane at (II) = 2.16 deg and (II) = 7.28 deg. The observed (CII) emission profiles follow closely the nearby (12)CO (J=1to0) emission profiles. The (CII) emission probably arises in neutral photodissociation regions near the edges of giant moleclar clouds (GMC's). These regions have densities of approximately 350 cm(-3) and temperatures of approximately 300 K, and amount to 4x10(8) solar mass of hydrogen in the inner Galaxy. The total 157.74 micron luminosity of the Galaxy is estimated to be 6x10(7) solar luminosity. Estimates were also made of the galactic emission in other far-infrared (FIR) cooling lines. The (CII) line was found to be the dominant FIR emission line from the galaxy and the primary coolant for the warm neutral gas near the galactic plane. Other cooling lines predicted to be prominent in the galactic spectrum are discussed. The 145.53 micron (OI) emission line from the Orion nebula was also measured.

  9. Development of Charge Sensitive Infrared Phototransistors for the Far-Infrared Wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nihei, R.; Komiyama, S.; Kawada, M.; Matsuura, S.; Doi, Y.; Satoh, T.; Nakagawa, T.

    2014-08-01

    Ultra-highly-sensitive far-infrared detectors are developed for potential application to astronomy. The detectors exploit a novel mechanism called Charge Sensitive Infrared Phototransistors (CSIPs), in which an upper quantum well (QW) in GaAs/AlGaAs double QW structures is positively charged up by photo-excitation via inter-subband transition. This causes the conductance of the lower QW channel to increase. The device is effectively a phototransistor, in which the upper QW serves as a photo-sensitive gate to the source-drain channel provided by the lower QW. Resultant extraordinary high photoconductive gain makes CSIPs so sensitive as to detect single photons. CSIPs are well established in the mid-infrared ( = 12-20 m), achieving noise equivalent power around 1.9 10 W/Hz with a quantum efficiency of 7 %. CSIPs have been demonstrated to work in longer wavelengths up to 45 m, but the sensitivity was not as high as in the shorter wavelengths, probably due to lower quantum efficiency. Reported here is a remarkable improvement in the performance of longer wavelength CSIPs (45 m), achieved primarily by optimizing the doping concentration in the upper QW. This work indicates that longer wavelength CSIPs are promising detectors for the astronomical application.

  10. Modeling the HD 32297 Debris Disk With Far-Infrared Herschel Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson, J.K.; Lebreton, J.; Roberge, A.; Augereau, J.-C.; Krivov, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    HD 32297 is a young A-star (approx. 30 Myr) 112 pc away with a bright edge-on debris disk that has been resolved in scattered light. We observed the HD 32297 debris disk in the far-infrared and sub-millimeter with the Herschel Space Observatory PACS and SPIRE instruments, populating the spectral energy distribution (SED) from 63 to 500 micron..We aimed to determine the composition of dust grains in the HD 32297 disk through SED modeling, using geometrical constraints from the resolved imaging to break the degeneracies inherent in SED modeling. We found the best fitting SED model has two components: an outer ring centered around 110 AU, seen in the scattered light images, and an inner disk near the habitable zone of the star. The outer disk appears to be composed of grains>2 micron consisting of silicates, carbonaceous material, and water ice with an abundance ratio of 1:2:3 respectively and 90% porosity. These grains appear consistent with cometary grains, implying the underlying planetesimal population is dominated by comet-like bodies. We also discuss the 3.7 sigma detection of [C ii] emission at 158 micron with the Herschel PACS instrument, making HD 32297 one of only a handful of debris disks with circumstellar gas detected

  11. Specular reflectance of optical-black coatings in the far infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.

    1984-01-01

    Far-infrared specular reflectance spectra of seven optically black coatings near normal incidence are presented. Seven photometric spectra were obtained using eleven bandpass transmission filters in the wavelength range between 12 and 500 microns, and three interferometric spectra were obtained for corroboration. Data on the construction, thickness, and rms surface roughness of the coatings are also presented. The chemical composition of three coatings can be distinguished from that of the others by a strong absorption feature between 20 and 40 microns, which can be largely attributed to amorphous silicate material. At 100 microns, the most and least reflective coatings differ by nearly 3 orders of magnitude. Inverse relationships observed between the spectra and the roughness and thickness of the coatings led to development of a reflecting-layer model for the measured reflectance. The model successfully describes the spectra at wavelengths outside the silicate absorption, and optical constants are deduced from a nonlinear least squares fit to the data. Parametric errors are estimated by chi-square analysis, and sensitivity tests are performed to determine which parameters control reflectance in different spectral regions.

  12. Far infrared observations of pre-protostellar sources in Lynds 183

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehtinen, K.; Mattila, K.; Lemke, D.; Juvela, M.; Prusti, T.; Laureijs, R.

    2003-02-01

    Using ISOPHOT maps at 100 and 200 mu m and raster scans at 100, 120, 150 and 200 mu m we have detected four unresolved far-infrared sources in the high latitude molecular cloud L 183. Two of the sources are identified with 1.3 mm continuum sources found by Ward-Thompson et al. (\\cite{wthompson94}, \\cite{wthompson00}) and are located near the temperature minimum and the coincident column density maximum of dust distribution. For these two sources, the ISO observations have enabled us to derive temperatures ( ~ 8.3 K) and masses ( ~ 1.4 and 2.4 Msun). They are found to have masses greater than or comparable to their virial masses and are thus expected to undergo gravitational collapse. We classify them as pre-protostellar sources. The two new sources are good candidates for pre-protostellar sources or protostars within L 183. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

  13. New developments in waveguide mode-matching techniques for far- infrared astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, J. Anthony; Doherty, Stephen; Trappe, Neil; Bracken, Colm; Peacocke, Tully; O'Sullivan, Creidhe

    2012-02-01

    New developments in waveguide mode matching techniques are considered, in particular the efficient modeling of waveguide cavity coupled detectors. This approach is useful in far-infrared astronomical instrumentation and cosmic microwave background experiments in which bolometers feeding horn antennas or Winston cones are often employed for high sensitivity, good control of stray light and well behaved beam patterns. While such systems can, in theory, be modeled using full wave FEM techniques it would be desirable, especially for large structures in terms of the wavelength, to exploit more efficient mode matching techniques, particularly for initial design optimization. This would also be especially useful for cavities feeding partially coherent multi-mode horns or Winston cones. The mode matching approach also allows for straightforward modeling of the complete coupling structure including the horn, waveguide cavity and absorbing layer of the bolometer, thus marking a significant advance in the ability to predict the optical efficiencies of cavity coupled bolometers. We consider typical single mode and multi-mode examples that illustrate the power of the technique.

  14. THz Instrumentation for the Herschel Space Observatory's Heterodyne Instrument for Far Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, J. C.; Mehdi, I.; Ward, J. S.; Maiwald, F.; Ferber, R. R.; Leduc, H. G.; Schlecht, E. T.; Gill, J. J.; Hatch, W. A.; Kawamura, J. H.; Stern, J. A.; Gaier, T. C.; Samoska, L. A.; Weinreb, S.; Bumble, B.; Pukala, D. M.; Javadi, H. H.; Finamore, B. P.; Lin, R. H.; Dengler, R. J.; Velebir, J. R.; Luong, E. M.; Tsang, R.; Peralta, A .; Wells, M.

    2004-01-01

    The Heterodyne Instrument for Far Infrared (HIFI) on ESA's Herschel Space Observatory utilizes a variety of novel RF components in its five SIS receiver channels covering 480-1250 GHz and two HEB receiver channels covering 1410-1910 GHz. The local oscillator unit will be passively cooled while the focal plane unit is cooled by superfluid helium and cold helium vapors. HIFI employs W-band GaAs amplifiers, InP HEMT low noise IF amplifiers, fixed tuned broadband planar diode multipliers, high power W-bapd Isolators, and novel material systems in the SIS mixers. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration through the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is managing the development of the highest frequency (1119-1250 GHz) SIS mixers, the local oscillators oscillators for the three highest frequency receivers as well as W-band power amplifiers, high power W-band isolators, varactor diode devices for all high frequency multipliers and InP HEMT components for all the receiver channels intermediate frequency amplifiers. The NASA developed components represent a significant advancement in the available performance. This paper presents an update of the performance and the current state of development.

  15. Detection of small surface vessels in near, medium, and far infrared spectral bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulski, R.; Milewski, S.; Kastek, M.; Trzaskawka, P.; Szustakowski, M.; Ciurapinski, W.; Zyczkowski, M.

    2011-11-01

    Protection of naval bases and harbors requires close co-operation between security and access control systems covering land areas and those monitoring sea approach routes. The typical location of naval bases and harbors - usually next to a large city - makes it difficult to detect and identify a threat in the dense regular traffic of various sea vessels (i.e. merchant ships, fishing boats, tourist ships). Due to the properties of vessel control systems, such as AIS (Automatic Identification System), and the effectiveness of radar and optoelectronic systems against different targets it seems that fast motor boats called RIB (Rigid Inflatable Boat) could be the most serious threat to ships and harbor infrastructure. In the paper the process and conditions for the detection and identification of high-speed boats in the areas of ports and naval bases in the near, medium and far infrared is presented. Based on the results of measurements and recorded thermal images the actual temperature contrast delta T (RIB / sea) will be determined, which will further allow to specify the theoretical ranges of detection and identification of the RIB-type targets for an operating security system. The data will also help to determine the possible advantages of image fusion where the component images are taken in different spectral ranges. This will increase the probability of identifying the object by the multi-sensor security system equipped additionally with the appropriate algorithms for detecting, tracking and performing the fusion of images from the visible and infrared cameras.

  16. In-flight Far-Infrared Performance of the CIRS Instrument on Cassini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, Conor A.; Brasunas, John C.; Lakew, Brook; Fettig, Rainer; Jennings, Donald E.; Carlson, Ronald; Kunde, Virgil G.

    2004-01-01

    The Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) on-board Cassini consists of two interferometers: a conventional Michelson for the mid-infrared; and a Martin-Puplett type in the far-infrared employing wire grid polarizers to split, recombine and analyze the radiation. The far-IR focal plane (FP1) assembly uses two thermopile detectors to measure the final transmitted and reflected beams at the polarizer-analyzer: if one fails, the interferometer can still operate, albeit with a lower efficiency. The combined effect is for good response from 10 to 300/cm, and declining response to 600/cm. This paper will examine in-flight performance of the far-IR interferometer, including NESR and response. Regular noise spikes, resulting from pickup from other electrical sub-systems has been found on the CIRS interferograms, and the removal of these effects is discussed. The radiometric calibration is described, and then we show how the calibration was applied to science data taken during the Jupiter flyby of December 2000. Finally, we discuss signal-to-noise on the calibrated spectra, emphasizing limitations of the current instrument and the potential for improvement in future missions.

  17. Water Vapor in Titan's Stratosphere from Cassini CIRS Far-Infrared Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Anderson, C. M.; Gorius, N.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Coustenis, A.; Teanby, N. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Bezard, B.; deKok, R,; Lellouch, E.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Flasar, F. M.; Bampasidis, G.

    2012-01-01

    Here we report the measurement of water vapor in Titan's stratosphere using the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS). CIRS senses water emissions in the far infrared spectral region near 50 micron, which we have modeled using two independent radiative transfer codes. From the analysis of nadir spectra we have derived a mixing ratio of 0.14 +/- 0.05 ppb at an altitude of 97 km, which corresponds to an integrated (from 0 to 600 km) surface normalized column abundance of 3.7 +/- 1.3 1014 molecules/cm2. In the latitude range 80S to 30N we see no evidence for latitudinal variations in these abundances within the error bars. Using limb observations, we obtained mixing ratios of 0.13 +/- 0.04 ppb at an altitude of 115 km and 0.45 +/- 0.15 ppb at an altitude of 230 km, confirming that the water abundance has a positive vertical gradient as predicted by photochemical models. We have also fitted our data using scaling factors of 0.1-0.6 to these photochemical model profiles, indicating that the models over-predict the water abundance in Titan's lower stratosphere.

  18. Use of a Far-Infrared Active Warming Device in Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus).

    PubMed

    Zarndt, Bethany S; Buchta, Jessica N; Garver, Lindsey S; Davidson, Silas A; Rowton, Edgar D; Despain, Kenneth E

    2015-11-01

    Small mammals have difficulty maintaining body temperature under anesthesia. This hypothermia is a potential detriment not only to the health and comfort of the animal but also to the integrity of any treatment given or data gathered during the anesthetic period. Using an external warming device to assist with temperature regulation can mitigate these effects. In this study, we investigated the ability of an advanced warming device that uses far-infrared (FIR) heating and responds to real-time core temperature monitoring to maintain a normothermic core temperature in guinea pigs. Body temperatures were measured during 30 min of ketamine-xylazine general anesthesia with and without application of the heating device. The loss of core body heat from anesthetized guinea pigs under typical (unwarmed) conditions was significant, and this loss was almost completely mitigated by application of the FIR heating pad. The significant difference between the temperatures of the actively warmed guinea pigs as compared with the control group began as early as 14 min after anesthetic administration, leading to a 2.6 °C difference at 30 min. Loss of core body temperature was not correlated with animals' body weight; however, weight influences the efficiency of FIR warming slightly. These study results show that the FIR heating device accurately controls core body temperature in guinea pigs, therefore potentially alleviating the effects of body heat loss on animal physiology. PMID:26632788

  19. Synchrotron far-infrared spectroscopy of corroded steel surfaces using a variable angle of incidence.

    PubMed

    Lepková, Kateřina; van Bronswijk, Wilhelm; Pandarinathan, Vedapriya; Gubner, Rolf

    2014-05-01

    Far-infrared spectroscopy, using a synchrotron source, has been used to study carbon steel corroded in CO2-saturated brine in the presence and absence of the corrosion inhibitor 2-mercaptopyrimidine (MPY), which allowed the steel surface roughness to be modified. The effect of the angle of incidence (θi, 30-80°) on the band intensity and observed bands of the spectra from these surfaces has been determined. For the MPY-treated steel (low surface roughness) the highest band intensity is observed at high θi (80°) and different bands were observed at different θi. In contrast, for the MPY-free steel (high surface roughness) the highest band intensity is observed at low θi (30°) and spectral content changes were not observed. The results are explained in terms of the roughness of the MPY-treated and MPY-free steels, and their effect on the level of diffusely reflected light of the incident infrared beam. PMID:24763648

  20. Exploring Conformation Selective Far Infrared Action Spectroscopy of Isolated Molecules and Solvated Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, Daniël; Rijs, Anouk; Mahé, Jérôme; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre

    2015-06-01

    Far-Infrared (IR) spectroscopy has been labeled as a promising method for identifying structural motifs in large molecules. However, several hurdles have kept this promising spectral region from breaking through to widespread use for gas phase experiments. Normal modes in the far-IR mostly have weak intensities, and high brightness sources of far-IR radiation are rare. Moreover, standard density functional theory - applied to identify the specific molecular structure responsible for the measured IR spectra - does not reproduce features in the far-IR well. This mismatch can be attributed to the high degree of anharmonicity of many of the normal modes present in the far-IR. We have overcome these hurdles by combining an advanced laser source with novel experiments and high-level dynamical calculations. We present far-IR spectra of a family of phenolic molecules and solvated clusters, obtained using the free electron laser FELIX. By employing IR-UV ion-dip spectroscopy in the gas phase, we are able to obtain conformer specific far-IR spectra of isolated molecules or solvated clusters. The studied systems display both intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonding, enabling us to study the merits of far-IR action spectroscopy for direct probing of these weak interactions. Moreover, the combination of far-IR experiments with quantum chemical calculations allows us to test the limits of the harmonic approximation in DFT calculations, and to test the possibilities of employing a more sophisticated technique, namely Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics.

  1. Atrazine molecular imprinted polymers: comparative analysis by far-infrared and ultraviolet induced polymerization.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Bai, Lian-Yang; Liu, Kun-Feng; Liu, Run-Qiang; Zhang, Yu-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Atrazine molecular imprinted polymers (MIPs) were comparatively synthesized using identical polymer formulation by far-infrared (FIR) radiation and ultraviolet (UV)-induced polymerization, respectively. Equilibrium binding experiments were carried out with the prepared MIPs; the results showed that MIP(uv) possessed specific binding to atrazine compared with their MIP(FIR) radiation counterparts. Scatchard plot's of both MIPs indicated that the affinities of the binding sites in MIPs are heterogeneous and can be approximated by two dissociation-constants corresponding to the high- and low-affinity binding sites. Moreover, several common pesticides including atrazine, cyromazine, metamitron, simazine, ametryn, terbutryn were tested to determine their specificity, similar imprinting factor (IF) and different selectivity index (SI) for both MIPs. Physical characterization of the polymers revealed that the different polymerization methods led to slight differences in polymer structures and performance by scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared absorption (FT-IR), and mercury analyzer (MA). Finally, both MIPs were used as selective sorbents for solid phase extraction (SPE) of atrazine from lake water, followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Compared with commercial C18 SPE sorbent (86.4%-94.8%), higher recoveries of atrazine in spiked lake water were obtained in the range of 90.1%-97.1% and 94.4%-101.9%, for both MIPs, respectively. PMID:24398982

  2. Technology Development of Miniaturized Far-Infrared Sources for Biomolecular Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kono, Junichiro

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a purely solid-state based, thus miniaturized, far-infrared (FIR) (also known as terahertz (THz)) wave source using III-V semiconductor nanostructures for biomolecular detection and sensing. Many biomolecules, such as DNA and proteins, have distinct spectroscopic features in the FIR wavelength range as a result of vibration-rotation-tunneling motions and various inter- and intra-molecule collective motions. Spectroscopic characterization of such molecules requires narrow linewidth, sufficiently high power, tunable (in wavelength), and coherent FIR sources. Unfortunately, the FIR frequency is one of the least technologically developed ranges in the electromagnetic spectrum. Currently available FIR sources based on non-solid state technology are bulky, inefficient, and very often incoherent. In this project we investigated antimonide based compound semiconductor (ABCS) nanostructures as the active medium to generate FIR radiation. The final goal of this project was to demonstrate a semiconductor THz source integrated with a pumping diode laser module to achieve a compact system for biomolecular applications.

  3. Ab initio calculations for the far infrared collision induced absorption by N2 gas.

    PubMed

    Bussery-Honvault, Béatrice; Hartmann, Jean-Michel

    2014-02-01

    We present (far-infrared) Collision Induced Absorption (CIA) spectra calculations for pure gaseous N2 made for the first time, from first-principles. They were carried out using classical molecular dynamics simulations based on ab initio predictions of both the intermolecular potential and the induced-dipole moment. These calculations reproduce satisfactory well the experimental values (intensity and band profile) with agreement within 3% at 149 K. With respect to results obtained with only the long range (asymptotic) dipole moment (DM), including the short range overlap contribution improves the band intensity and profile at 149 K, but it deteriorates them at 296 K. The results show that the relative contribution of the short range DM to the band intensity is typically around 10%. We have also examined the sensitivity of the calculated CIA to the intermolecular potential anisotropy, providing a test of the so-called isotropic approximation used up to now in all N2 CIA calculations. As all these effects interfere simultaneously with quantitatively similar influences (around 10%), it is rather difficult to assert which one could explain remaining deviations with the experimental results. Furthermore, the rather large uncertainties and sometimes inconsistencies of the available measurements forbid any definitive conclusion, stressing the need for new experiments. PMID:24511942

  4. A far-infrared study of N/O abundance ratio in galactic H 2 regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, D. F.; Dinerstein, H. L.; Werner, M. W.; Watson, D. M.; Genzel, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Far-infrared lines of N++ and O++ in several galactic H II regions were measured in an effort to probe the abundance ratio N/O. New measurements are presented for W32 (630.8-0.0), Orion A, and G75.84+0.4. The combination of (N III) 57.3 millimicrons and (O III) 88.4 and 51.8 millimicrons yields measurements of N++/O++ that are largely insensitive to electron temperature, density uncertainties, and to clumping of the ionized gas, due to the similarity of the critical densities for these transitions. In the observed nebulae, N++/O++ should be indicative of N/O, a ratio that is of special importance in nucleosynthesis theory. Measurements are compared with previous measurements of M17 and W51. For nebulae in the solar circle, N++/O++ is greater than the N/O values derived from optical studies of N+/O+ in low ionization zones of the same nebulae. We find that N++/O++ in W43 is significantly higher than for the other H II regions in the sample. Since W43 is located at R = 5 kpc, which is the smallest galactocentric distance in our sample, our data appear consistent with the presence of a negative abundance gradient d(N/O)dR.

  5. Micro-Spec: An Ultracompact, High-sensitivity Spectrometer for Far-Infrared and Submillimeter Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Huang, Wei-Chung; Moseley, S. Harvey; Stevenson, Thomas R.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    High-performance, integrated spectrometers operating in the far-infrared and submillimeter ranges promise to be powerful tools for the exploration of the epochs of reionization and initial galaxy formation. These devices, using high-efficiency superconducting transmission lines, can achieve the performance of a meter-scale grating spectrometer in an instrument implemented on a 4 inch silicon wafer. Such a device, when combined with a cryogenic telescope in space, provides an enabling capability for studies of the early universe. Here, the optical design process for Micro-Spec (micron-Spec) is presented, with particular attention given to its two-dimensional diffractive region, where the light of different wavelengths is focused on the different detectors. The method is based on the stigmatization and minimization of the light path function in this bounded region, which results in an optimized geometrical configuration. A point design with an efficiency of (is) approximately 90% has been developed for initial demonstration and can serve as the basis for future instruments. Design variations on this implementation are also discussed, which can lead to lower efficiencies due to diffractive losses in the multimode region.

  6. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schneck, K.; Cabrera, B.; Cerdeño, D. G.; Mandic, V.; Rogers, H. E.; Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; et al

    2015-05-18

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter-nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. Here. we demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. In conclusion, we discussmore » the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.« less

  7. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schneck, K.

    2015-05-01

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter–nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implicationsmore » of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.« less

  8. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schneck, K.

    2015-05-01

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter–nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.

  9. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schneck, K.; Cabrera, B.; Cerdeño, D. G.; Mandic, V.; Rogers, H. E.; Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Caldwell, D. O.; Calkins, R.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Harris, H. R.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jardin, D. M.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lukens, P.; Mahapatra, R.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Morales Mendoza, J. D.; Oser, S. M.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Roberts, A.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Toback, D.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J. S.; Wright, D. H.; Yang, X.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2015-05-18

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter-nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. Here. we demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. In conclusion, we discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.

  10. Possibility of observation of polaron normal modes at the far-infrared spectrum of acetanilide and related organics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalosakas, G.; Aubry, S.; Tsironis, G. P.

    1998-10-01

    We use a stationary and normal mode analysis of the semiclassical Holstein model in order to connect the low-frequency linear polaron modes to low-lying far-infrared lines of the acetanilide spectrum and through parameter fitting we comment on the validity of the polaron results in this system.

  11. Free-electron laser - far-infrared study of Fef2:Mn. Report No. 1, January 1986-January 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Spector, J.; Kaminski, J.; Jaccarino, V.

    1987-01-01

    The first use of a free-electron laser (FEL) for condensed-matter research was made on iron fluoride:manganese with the far-infrared radiation from the UCSB FEL. The versatility of the FEL for linear and nonequilibrium spectroscopy is demonstrated in studies of the host and impurity modes.

  12. Photometry of Galactic and Extragalactic Far-Infrared Sources using the 91.5 cm Airborne Infrared Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this grant was to construct a series of far infrared photometers, cameras, and supporting systems for use in astronomical observations in the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. The observations have included studies of galaxies, star formation regions, and objects within the Solar System.

  13. Far-infrared observations of a luminous dust-shrouded source in the nucleus of NGC 4945

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, David; Joy, Marshall; Lester, Daniel F.; Harvey, Paul M.; Ellis, H. Benton, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    High-resolution far-infrared observations of the galaxy NGC 4945 have been obtained from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. Using new observational techniques and nonlinear deconvolution routines, it is found that virtually all of the far-infrared luminosity originates from a nuclear source no larger than 12 arcsec x 9 arcsec (225 pc x 170 pc) in extent. This size constraint, coupled with the far-infrared dust temperature, indicates that the source is deeply embedded in dust: the lower limit for the 100 micron optical depth is 0.35, which is by far the largest yet measured in an external galaxy. Published optical spectra of NGC 4945 reveal a heavily obscured nonthermal source which exhibits broad line profiles typical of a Seyfert 2 active nucleus; it is concluded that the far-infrared emission is probably due to thermal radiation from dust grains surrounding the nonthermal nuclear source. A compact cluster of massive young stars may also contribute to the infrared luminosity, but the evidence for such star-forming activity is weak.

  14. A scalar field dark energy model: Noether symmetry approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Sourav; Panja, Madan Mohan; Chakraborty, Subenoy

    2016-04-01

    Scalar field dark energy cosmology has been investigated in the present paper in the frame work of Einstein gravity. In the context of Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker space time minimally coupled scalar field with self interacting potential and non-interacting perfect fluid with barotropic equation of state (dark matter) is chosen as the matter context. By imposing Noether symmetry on the Lagrangian of the system the symmetry vector is obtained and the self interacting potential for the scalar field is determined. Then we choose a point transformation (a, φ )→ (u, v) such that one of the transformation variable (say u) is cyclic for the Lagrangian. Subsequently, using conserved charge (corresponding to the cyclic co-ordinate) and the constant of motion, solutions are obtained. Finally, the cosmological implication of the solutions in the perspective of recent observation has been examined.

  15. Human Detection Based on the Generation of a Background Image by Using a Far-Infrared Light Camera

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Eun Som; Choi, Jong-Suk; Lee, Ji Hoon; Shin, Kwang Yong; Kim, Yeong Gon; Le, Toan Thanh; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2015-01-01

    The need for computer vision-based human detection has increased in fields, such as security, intelligent surveillance and monitoring systems. However, performance enhancement of human detection based on visible light cameras is limited, because of factors, such as nonuniform illumination, shadows and low external light in the evening and night. Consequently, human detection based on thermal (far-infrared light) cameras has been considered as an alternative. However, its performance is influenced by the factors, such as low image resolution, low contrast and the large noises of thermal images. It is also affected by the high temperature of backgrounds during the day. To solve these problems, we propose a new method for detecting human areas in thermal camera images. Compared to previous works, the proposed research is novel in the following four aspects. One background image is generated by median and average filtering. Additional filtering procedures based on maximum gray level, size filtering and region erasing are applied to remove the human areas from the background image. Secondly, candidate human regions in the input image are located by combining the pixel and edge difference images between the input and background images. The thresholds for the difference images are adaptively determined based on the brightness of the generated background image. Noise components are removed by component labeling, a morphological operation and size filtering. Third, detected areas that may have more than two human regions are merged or separated based on the information in the horizontal and vertical histograms of the detected area. This procedure is adaptively operated based on the brightness of the generated background image. Fourth, a further procedure for the separation and removal of the candidate human regions is performed based on the size and ratio of the height to width information of the candidate regions considering the camera viewing direction and perspective

  16. Exploring the relationship between black hole accretion and star formation with blind mid-/far-infrared spectroscopic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonato, M.; Negrello, M.; Cai, Z.-Y.; De Zotti, G.; Bressan, A.; Lapi, A.; Pozzi, F.; Gruppioni, C.; Danese, L.

    2014-11-01

    We present new estimates of redshift-dependent luminosity functions of IR lines detectable by SPICA/SAFARI (SPace InfraRed telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics/SpicA FAR infrared Instrument) and excited both by star formation and by AGN activity. The new estimates improve over previous work by using updated evolutionary models and dealing in a self-consistent way with emission of galaxies as a whole, including both the starburst and the AGN component. New relationships between line and AGN bolometric luminosity have been derived and those between line and IR luminosities of the starburst component have been updated. These ingredients were used to work out predictions for the source counts in 11 mid-/far-IR emission lines partially or entirely excited by AGN activity. We find that the statistics of the emission line detection of galaxies as a whole is mainly determined by the star formation rate, because of the rarity of bright AGNs. We also find that the slope of the line integral number counts is flatter than two implying that the number of detections at fixed observing time increases more by extending the survey area than by going deeper. We thus propose a wide spectroscopic survey of 1 h integration per field of view over an area of 5 deg2 to detect (at 5σ) ˜760 AGNs in [O IV]25.89 μm - the brightest AGN mid-infrared line - out to z ˜ 2. Pointed observations of strongly lensed or hyperluminous galaxies previously detected by large area surveys such as those by Herschel and by the South Pole Telescope can provide key information on the galaxy-AGN co-evolution out to higher redshifts.

  17. Far infrared stimulated emission from the ns and nf Rydberg states of NO

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, Hiroki; Araki, Mitsunori; Umeki, Hiroya; Tsukiyama, Koichi

    2013-06-28

    We report directional far-infrared emission from the {upsilon}= 0 vibrational levels of the 9s{sigma}, 10s{sigma}, 11s{sigma}, 9f, and 10f Rydberg states of NO in the gas phase. The emission around 28 and 19 {mu}m from the 9f state was identified as the downward 9f{yields} 8g and subsequent 8g{yields} 7f cascade transitions, respectively. The emission around 38 and 40 {mu}m from the 10f state was identified as the 10f{yields} 9g and 10f{yields} 9d{sigma}{pi} transition, respectively. Following the excitation of the 9s{sigma}, 10s{sigma}, and 11s{sigma} states, the emission around 40, 60, and 83 {mu}m was assigned as the 9s{sigma}{yields} 8p{sigma}, 10s{sigma}{yields} 9p{sigma}, and 11s{sigma}{yields} 10p{sigma} transitions, respectively. In addition to these emission systems originated from the laser-prepared levels, we found the emission bands from the 8f, 9f, and 10f states which are located energetically above the 9s{sigma}, 10s{sigma}, and 11s{sigma} states, respectively. This observation suggests that the upward 8f Leftwards-Arrow 9s{sigma}, 9f Leftwards-Arrow 10s{sigma}, and 10f Leftwards-Arrow 11s{sigma} optical excitation occurs. Since the energy differences between nf and (n+ 1)s{sigma} states correspond to the wavelength longer than 100 {mu}m, the absorption of blackbody radiation is supposed to be essential for these upward transitions.

  18. Measurement of the spectral signature of small carbon clusters at near and far infrared wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarter, J.; Saykally, R.

    1991-01-01

    A significant percentage of the carbon inventory of the circumstellar and interstellar media may be in the form of large refractory molecules (or small grains) referred to as carbon clusters. At the small end, uneven numbers of carbon atoms seem to be preferred, whereas above 12 atoms, clusters containing an even number of carbon atoms appear to be preferred in laboratory chemistry. In the lab, the cluster C-60 appears to be a particularly stable form and has been nicknamed Bucky Balls because of its resemblance to a soccer ball and to geodesic domes designed by Buckminster Fuller. In order to investigate the prevalence of these clusters, and their relationship to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that have become the newest focus of IR astronomy, it is necessary to determine the spectroscopic characteristics of these clusters at near and far infrared wavelengths. Described here is the construction of a near to far IR laser magnetic resonance spectrometer that has been built at the University of California Berkeley in order to detect and characterize these spectra. The equipment produces carbon clusters by laser evaporation of a graphitic target. The clusters are then cooled in a supersonic expansion beam in order to simulate conditions in the interstellar medium (ISM). The expansion beam feeds into the spectrometer chamber and permits concentrations of clusters sufficiently high as to permit ultra-high resolution spectroscopy at near and far IR wavelengths. The first successful demonstration of this apparatus occurred last year when the laboratory studies permitted the observational detection of C-5 in the stellar outflow surrounding IRC+10216 in the near-IR. Current efforts focus on reducing the temperature of the supersonic expansion beam that transport the C clusters evaporated from a graphite target into the spectrometer down to temperatures as low as 1 K.

  19. Far-infrared Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST): sensor calibration performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, Gail E.; Latvakoski, Harri M.; Wellard, Stanley J.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Johnson, David G.; Traub, Wesley A.; Jucks, Kenneth W.

    2005-01-01

    The radiative balance of the troposphere, and hence global climate, is dominated by the infrared absorption and emission of water vapor, particularly at far-infrared (far-IR) wavelengths from 15-50 &mum. Water vapor is the principal absorber and emitter in this region. The distribution of water vapor and associated far-IR radiative forcings and feedbacks are widely recognized as major uncertainties in our understanding of current and the prediction of future climate. Cirrus clouds modulate the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) in the far-IR. Up to half of the OLR from the Earth occurs beyond 15.4 &mum (650 cm-1). Current and planned operational and research satellites observe the midinfrared to only about 15.4 &mum, leaving space or airborne spectral measurement of the far-IR region unsupported. NASA has now developed the sensor required to make regular far-IR measurements of the Earth's atmosphere possible. Far InfraRed Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) was developed for NASA's Instrument Incubator Program under the direction of the Langley Research Center. The objective of FIRST is to provide a balloon-based demonstration of the key technologies required for a space-based sensor. The FIRST payload will also be proposed for science flights in support of validation of the various experiments on the Earth Observing System (EOS). We discuss the FIRST Fourier transform spectrometer system (0.6 cm-1 unapodized resolution), along with its radiometric calibration in the spectral range from 10 to 100 μm (1000 to 100 cm-1). FIRST incorporates a broad bandpass beamsplitter, a cooled (~180 K) high throughput optical system, and an image type detector system. We also discuss the actual performance of the FIRST instrument relative to its performance goal of a NE(delta)T of 0.2 K from 10 to 100 &mum.

  20. Far-infrared spectroscopy of the troposphere (FIRST): sensor development and performance drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, Gail E.; Latvakoski, Harri M.; Wellard, Stanley J.; Mlynczak, Martin G.; Johnson, David G.; Traub, Wesley A.; Jucks, Kenneth W.

    2003-11-01

    The radiative balance of the troposphere, and hence global climate, is dominated by the infrared absorption and emission of water vapor, particularly at far-infrared (far-IR) wavelengths from 15-50 μm. Water vapor is the principle absorber and emitter in this region. The distribution of water vapor and associated far-IR radiative forcings and feedbacks are widely recognized as major uncertainties in our understanding of current and the prediction of future climate. Cirrus clouds modulate the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) in the far-IR, and up to half of the OLR from the Earth occurs beyond 15.4 μm (650 cm-1). Current and planned operational and research satellites observe the mid-infrared to only about 15.4 μm, leaving space or airborne spectral measurement of the far-IR region unsupported. NASA is now developing the technology required to make regular far-IR measurements of the Earth"s atmosphere possible. Far InfraRed Spectroscopy of the Troposphere (FIRST) is being developed for NASA"s Instrument Incubator Program under the direction of the Langley Research Center. The objective of FIRST is to provide a balloon-based demonstration of the key technologies required for a space-based sensor. We discuss the FIRST Fourier transform spectrometer system (0.6 cm-1 unapodized resolution), along with radiometric calibration techniques in the spectral range from 10 to 100 μm (1000 to 100 cm-1). FIRST will incorporate a broad bandpass beamsplitter, a cooled (~180 K) high throughput optical system, and an image type detector system. The FIRST performance goal is a NEΔT of 0.2 K from 10 to 100 μm.

  1. The AU Mic Debris Disk: Far-infrared and Submillimeter Resolved Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Brenda C.; Kennedy, Grant; Sibthorpe, Bruce; Holland, Wayne; Booth, Mark; Kalas, Paul; MacGregor, Meredith; Wilner, David; Vandenbussche, Bart; Olofsson, Göran; Blommaert, Joris; Brandeker, Alexis; Dent, W. R. F.; de Vries, Bernard L.; Di Francesco, James; Fridlund, Malcolm; Graham, James R.; Greaves, Jane; Heras, Ana M.; Hogerheijde, Michiel; Ivison, R. J.; Pantin, Eric; Pilbratt, Göran L.

    2015-10-01

    We present far-infrared and submillimeter maps from the Herschel Space Observatory and the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope of the debris disk host star AU Microscopii. Disk emission is detected at 70, 160, 250, 350, 450, 500, and 850 μm. The disk is resolved at 70, 160, and 450 μm. In addition to the planetesimal belt, we detect thermal emission from AU Mic’s halo for the first time. In contrast to the scattered light images, no asymmetries are evident in the disk. The fractional luminosity of the disk is 3.9× {10}-4 and its milimeter-grain dust mass is 0.01 {M}\\oplus (±20%). We create a simple spatial model that reconciles the disk spectral energy distribution as a blackbody of 53 ± 2 K (a composite of 39 and 50 K components) and the presence of small (non-blackbody) grains which populate the extended halo. The best-fit model is consistent with the “birth ring” model explored in earlier works, i.e., an edge-on dust belt extending from 8.8 to 40 AU, but with an additional halo component with an {r}-1.5 surface density profile extending to the limits of sensitivity (140 AU). We confirm that AU Mic does not exert enough radiation force to blow out grains. For stellar mass-loss rates of 10-100 times solar, compact (zero porosity) grains can only be removed if they are very small; consistently with previous work, if the porosity is 0.9, then grains approaching 0.1 μm can be removed via corpuscular forces (i.e., the stellar wind).

  2. Far infrared spectra, conformational equilibria, vibrational assignments, ab initio calculations and structural parameters for 2-bromoethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durig, J. R.; Shen, S.; Guirgis, G. A.

    2001-01-01

    The far infrared spectrum from 370 to 50 cm -1 of gaseous 2-bromoethanol, BrCH 2CH 2OH, was recorded at a resolution of 0.10 cm -1. The fundamental O-H torsion of the more stable gauche ( Gg') conformer, where the capital G refers to internal rotation around the C-C bond and the lower case g to the internal rotation around the C-O bond, was observed as a series of Q-branch transitions beginning at 340 cm -1. The corresponding O-H torsional modes were observed for two of the other high energy conformers, Tg (285 cm -1) and Tt (234 cm -1). The heavy atom asymmetric torsion (rotation around C-C bond) for the Gg' conformer has been observed at 140 cm -1. Variable temperature (-63 to -100°C) studies of the infrared spectra (4000-400 cm -1) of the sample dissolved in liquid xenon have been recorded. From these data the enthalpy differences have been determined to be 411±40 cm -1 (4.92±0.48 kJ/mol) for the Gg'/ Tt and 315±40 cm -1 (3.76±0.48 kJ/mol) for the Gg'/ Tg, with the Gg' conformer the most stable form. Additionally, the infrared spectrum of the gas, and Raman spectrum of the liquid phase are reported. The structural parameters, conformational stabilities, barriers to internal rotation and fundamental frequencies have been obtained from ab initio calculations utilizing different basis sets at the restricted Hartree-Fock or with full electron correlation by the perturbation method to second order. The theoretical results are compared to the experimental results when appropriate. Combining the ab initio calculations with the microwave rotational constants, r0 adjusted parameters have been obtained for the three 2-haloethanols (F, Cl and Br) for the Gg' conformers.

  3. HERSCHEL OBSERVATIONS OF FAR-INFRARED COOLING LINES IN INTERMEDIATE REDSHIFT (ULTRA)-LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Rigopoulou, D.; Magdis, G. E.; Thatte, N.; Hopwood, R.; Clements, D.; Swinyard, B. M.; Pearson, C.; Farrah, D.; Huang, J.-S.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Bock, J. J.; Cooray, A.; Griffin, M. J.; Oliver, S.; Smith, A.; Wang, L.; Riechers, D.; Scott, D.; Vaccari, M.; Valtchanov, I.

    2014-01-20

    We report the first results from a spectroscopic survey of the [C II] 158 μm line from a sample of intermediate redshift (0.2 10{sup 11.5} L {sub ☉}), using the Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver-Fourier Transform Spectrometer on board the Herschel Space Observatory. This is the first survey of [C II] emission, an important tracer of star formation, at a redshift range where the star formation rate density of the universe increases rapidly. We detect strong [C II] 158 μm line emission from over 80% of the sample. We find that the [C II] line is luminous, in the range (0.8-4) × 10{sup –3} of the far-infrared continuum luminosity of our sources, and appears to arise from photodissociation regions on the surface of molecular clouds. The L{sub [C} {sub II]}/L {sub IR} ratio in our intermediate redshift (U)LIRGs is on average ∼10 times larger than that of local ULIRGs. Furthermore, we find that the L{sub [C} {sub II]}/L {sub IR} and L{sub [CII]}/L{sub CO(1-0)} ratios in our sample are similar to those of local normal galaxies and high-z star-forming galaxies. ULIRGs at z ∼ 0.5 show many similarities to the properties of local normal and high-z star-forming galaxies. Our findings strongly suggest that rapid evolution in the properties of the star-forming regions of (U)LIRGs is likely to have occurred in the last 5 billion years.

  4. The AU Mic Debris Disk: Far-infrared and Submillimeter Resolved Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Brenda C.; Kennedy, Grant; Sibthorpe, Bruce; Holland, Wayne; Booth, Mark; Kalas, Paul; MacGregor, Meredith; Wilner, David; Vandenbussche, Bart; Olofsson, Göran; Blommaert, Joris; Brandeker, Alexis; Dent, W. R. F.; de Vries, Bernard L.; Di Francesco, James; Fridlund, Malcolm; Graham, James R.; Greaves, Jane; Heras, Ana M.; Hogerheijde, Michiel; Ivison, R. J.; Pantin, Eric; Pilbratt, Göran L.

    2015-10-01

    We present far-infrared and submillimeter maps from the Herschel Space Observatory and the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope of the debris disk host star AU Microscopii. Disk emission is detected at 70, 160, 250, 350, 450, 500, and 850 μm. The disk is resolved at 70, 160, and 450 μm. In addition to the planetesimal belt, we detect thermal emission from AU Mic’s halo for the first time. In contrast to the scattered light images, no asymmetries are evident in the disk. The fractional luminosity of the disk is 3.9× {10}-4 and its milimeter-grain dust mass is 0.01 {M}\\oplus (±20%). We create a simple spatial model that reconciles the disk spectral energy distribution as a blackbody of 53 ± 2 K (a composite of 39 and 50 K components) and the presence of small (non-blackbody) grains which populate the extended halo. The best-fit model is consistent with the “birth ring” model explored in earlier works, i.e., an edge-on dust belt extending from 8.8 to 40 AU, but with an additional halo component with an {r}-1.5 surface density profile extending to the limits of sensitivity (140 AU). We confirm that AU Mic does not exert enough radiation force to blow out grains. For stellar mass-loss rates of 10–100 times solar, compact (zero porosity) grains can only be removed if they are very small; consistently with previous work, if the porosity is 0.9, then grains approaching 0.1 μm can be removed via corpuscular forces (i.e., the stellar wind).

  5. Micro-Spec: an integrated direct-detection spectrometer for far-infrared space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Hseih, Wen-Ting; Huang, Wei-Chung; Moseley, S. H.; Stevenson, Thomas R.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2014-08-01

    The far-infrared and submillimeter portions of the electromagnetic spectrum provide a unique view of the astrophysical processes present in the early universe. Our ability to fully explore this rich spectral region has been limited, however, by the size and cost of the cryogenic spectrometers required to carry out such measurements. Micro-Spec (μ-Spec) is a high-sensitivity, direct-detection spectrometer concept working in the 450-1000 μm wavelength range which will enable a wide range of flight missions that would otherwise be challenging due to the large size of current instruments with the required spectral resolution and sensitivity. The spectrometer design utilizes two internal antenna arrays, one for transmitting and one for receiving, superconducting microstrip transmission lines for power division and phase delay, and an array of microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) to achieve these goals. The instrument will be integrated on a ~10 cm2 silicon chip and can therefore become an important capability under the low background conditions accessible via space and high-altitude borne platforms. In this paper, an optical design methodology for μ-Spec is presented, with particular attention given to its two-dimensional diffractive region, where the light of different wavelengths is focused on the different detectors. The method is based on the maximization of the instrument resolving power and minimization of the RMS phase error on the instrument focal plane. This two-step optimization can generate geometrical configurations given specific requirements on spectrometer size, operating spectral range and performance. Two point designs with resolving power of 260 and 520 and an RMS phase error less than ~0:004 radians were developed for initial demonstration and will be the basis of future instruments with resolving power up to about 1200.

  6. Evolution of the Far-Infrared Cloud at Titan's South Pole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Donald E.; Achterberg, R. K.; Cottini, V.; Anderson, C. M.; Flasar, F. M.; Nixon, C. A.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Kunde, V. G.; Carlson, R. C.; Guandique, E.; Kaelberer, M. S.; Tingley, J. S.; Albright, S. A.; Segura, M. E.; de Kok, R.; Coustenis, A.; Vinatier, S.; Bampasidis, G.; Teanby, N. A.; Calcutt, S.

    2015-01-01

    A condensate cloud on Titan identified by its 220 cm-1 far-infrared signature continues to undergo seasonal changes at both the north and south poles. In the north, the cloud, which extends from 55 N to the pole, has been gradually decreasing in emission intensity since the beginning of the Cassini mission with a half-life of 3.8 years. The cloud in the south did not appear until 2012 but its intensity has increased rapidly, doubling every year. The shape of the cloud at the south pole is very different from that in the north. Mapping in 2013 December showed that the condensate emission was confined to a ring with a maximum at 80 S. The ring was centered 4deg from Titan's pole. The pattern of emission from stratospheric trace gases like nitriles and complex hydrocarbons (mapped in 2014 January) was also offset by 4deg, but had a central peak at the pole and a secondary maximum in a ring at about 70 S with a minimum at 80 S. The shape of the gas emission distribution can be explained by abundances that are high at the atmospheric pole and diminish toward the equator, combined with correspondingly increasing temperatures. We discuss possible causes for the condensate ring. The present rapid build up of the condensate cloud at the south pole is likely to transition to a gradual decline from 2015 to 2016. Key words: molecular processes - planets and satellites: atmospheres - planets and satellites: composition - planets and satellites: individual (Titan) - radiation mechanisms: thermal

  7. Far-infrared Dust Temperatures and Column Densities of the MALT90 Molecular Clump Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Andrés E.; Sanhueza, Patricio; Contreras, Yanett; Smith, Howard A.; Jackson, James M.; Hoq, Sadia; Rathborne, Jill M.

    2015-12-01

    We present dust column densities and dust temperatures for ˜3000 young, high-mass molecular clumps from the Millimeter Astronomy Legacy Team 90 GHz survey, derived from adjusting single-temperature dust emission models to the far-infrared intensity maps measured between 160 and 870 μm from the Herschel/Herschel Infrared Galactic Plane Survey (Hi-Gal) and APEX/APEX Telescope Large Area Survey of the Galaxy (ATLASGAL) surveys. We discuss the methodology employed in analyzing the data, calculating physical parameters, and estimating their uncertainties. The population average dust temperature of the clumps are 16.8 ± 0.2 K for the clumps that do not exhibit mid-infrared signatures of star formation (quiescent clumps), 18.6 ± 0.2 K for the clumps that display mid-infrared signatures of ongoing star formation but have not yet developed an H ii region (protostellar clumps), and 23.7 ± 0.2 and 28.1 ± 0.3 K for clumps associated with H ii and photo-dissociation regions, respectively. These four groups exhibit large overlaps in their temperature distributions, with dispersions ranging between 4 and 6 K. The median of the peak column densities of the protostellar clump population is 0.20 ± 0.02 g cm-2, which is about 50% higher compared to the median of the peak column densities associated with clumps in the other evolutionary stages. We compare the dust temperatures and column densities measured toward the center of the clumps with the mean values of each clump. We find that in the quiescent clumps, the dust temperature increases toward the outer regions and that these clumps are associated with the shallowest column density profiles. In contrast, molecular clumps in the protostellar or H ii region phase have dust temperature gradients more consistent with internal heating and are associated with steeper column density profiles compared with the quiescent clumps.

  8. Absorption of crystalline water ice in the far infrared at different temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinert, C.; Mutschke, H.; Krivov, A. V.; Löhne, T.; Mohr, P.

    2015-01-01

    The optical properties of ice in the far infrared are important for models of protoplanetary and debris disks. In this report, we derive a new set of data for the absorption (represented by the imaginary part of the refractive index κ) of crystalline water ice in this spectral range. The study includes a detailed inspection of the temperature dependence, which has not been conducted in such detail before. We measured the transmission of three ice layers with different thicknesses at temperatures ϑ = 10...250 K and present data at wavelengths λ = 80...625 μm. We found a change in the spectral dependence of κ at a wavelength of 175 ± 6 μm. At shorter wavelengths, κ exhibits a constant flat slope and no significant temperature dependence. Long-ward of that wavelength, the slope gets steeper and has a clear, approximately linear temperature dependence. This change in behaviour is probably caused by a characteristic absorption band of water ice. The measured data were fitted by a power-law model that analytically describes the absorption behaviour at an arbitrary temperature. This model can readily be applied to any object of interest, for instance a protoplanetary or debris disk. To illustrate how the model works, we simulated the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the resolved, large debris disk around the nearby solar-type star HD 207129. Replacing our ice model by another, commonly used data set for water ice results in a different SED slope at longer wavelengths. This leads to changes in the characteristic model parameters of the disk, such as the inferred particle size distribution, and affects the interpretation of the underlying collisional physics of the disk.

  9. The nuclear and integrated far-infrared emission of nearby Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-González, J.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Hernán-Caballero, A.; Pereira-Santaella, M.; Ramos-Almeida, C.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Esquej, P.; González-Martín, O.; Ichikawa, K.; López-Rodríguez, E.; Povic, M.; Roche, P. F.; Sánchez-Portal, M.

    2016-06-01

    We present far-infrared (FIR) 70-500 μm imaging observations obtained with Herschel/Photodetector Array Camera (PACS) and Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver (SPIRE) of 33 nearby (median distance of 30 Mpc) Seyfert galaxies from the Revised Shapley-Ames (RSA) catalogue. We obtain the FIR nuclear (r = 1 kpc and r = 2 kpc) and integrated spectral energy distributions (SEDs). We estimate the unresolved nuclear emission at 70 μm and we fit the nuclear and integrated FIR SEDs with a grey body model. We find that the integrated FIR emission of the RSA Seyferts in our sample is dominated by emission from the host galaxy, with dust properties similar to those of normal galaxies (non-AGN). We use four criteria to select galaxies whose nuclear 70 μm emission has a significant AGN contribution: (1) elevated 70/160 μm flux ratios, (2) spatially resolved, high dust temperature gradient, (3) 70 μm excess emission with respect to the fit of the FIR SEDs with a grey body, and (4) excess of nuclear SFR obtained from 70 μm over SFR from mid-infrared indicators. 16 galaxies (48 per cent of the initial sample) satisfy at least one of these conditions, whereas 10 satisfy half or more. After careful examination of these, we select six bona fide candidates (18 per cent of the initial sample) and estimate that ˜40-70 per cent of their nuclear (r = 1-2 kpc) 70 μm emission is contributed by dust heated by the AGN.

  10. Water vapor in Titan's stratosphere from Cassini CIRS far-infrared spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Anderson, C. M.; Gorius, N.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Coustenis, A.; Teanby, N. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Bézard, B.; de Kok, R.; Lellouch, E.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Flasar, F. M.; Bampasidis, G.

    2012-08-01

    Here we report the measurement of water vapor in Titan's stratosphere using the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS, Flasar, F.M. et al. [2004]. Space Sci. Rev. 115, 169-297). CIRS senses water emissions in the far infrared spectral region near 50 μm, which we have modeled using two independent radiative transfer codes (NEMESIS (Irwin, P.G.J. et al. [2008]. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Trans. 109, 1136-1150) and ART (Coustenis, A. et al. [2007]. Icarus 189, 35-62; Coustenis, A. et al. [2010]. Icarus 207, 461-476). From the analysis of nadir spectra we have derived a mixing ratio of 0.14 ± 0.05 ppb at an altitude of 97 km, which corresponds to an integrated (from 0 to 600 km) surface normalized column abundance of 3.7 ± 1.3 × 1014 molecules/cm2. In the latitude range 80°S to 30°N we see no evidence for latitudinal variations in these abundances within the error bars. Using limb observations, we obtained mixing ratios of 0.13 ± 0.04 ppb at an altitude of 115 km and 0.45 ± 0.15 ppb at an altitude of 230 km, confirming that the water abundance has a positive vertical gradient as predicted by photochemical models (e.g. Lara, L.M., Lellouch, F., Lopez-Moreno, J.J., Rodrigo, R. [1996]. J. Geophys. Res. 101(23), 261; Wilson, E.H., Atreya, S.K. [2004]. J. Geophys. Res. 109, E6; Hörst, S.M., Vuitton, V., Yelle, R.V. [2008]. J. Geophys. Res., 113, E10). We have also fitted our data using scaling factors of ˜0.1-0.6 to these photochemical model profiles, indicating that the models over-predict the water abundance in Titan's lower stratosphere.

  11. Micro-spec: an Integrated Direct-detection Spectrometer for Far-infrared Space Telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Giuseppe; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Huang, Wei-Chung; Moseley, S. Harvey; Stevenson, Thomas R.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    The far-infrared and submillimeter portions of the electromagnetic spectrum provide a unique view of the astrophysical processes present in the early universe. Our ability to fully explore this rich spectral region has been limited, however, by the size and cost of the cryogenic spectrometers required to carry out such measurements.Micro-Spec (µ-Spec) is a high-sensitivity, direct-detection spectrometer concept working in the 450-1000 (micrometers) wavelength range which will enable a wide range of flight missions that would otherwise be challenging due tothe large size of current instruments with the required spectral resolution and sensitivity. The spectrometer design utilizes two internal antenna arrays, one for transmitting and one for receiving, superconducting microstrip transmission lines for power division and phase delay, and an array of microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) to achieve these goals. The instrument will be integrated on a approximately 10 sq cm silicon chip and can therefore become an important capability under the low background conditions accessible via space and high-altitude borne platforms. In this paper, an optical design methodology for micro-Spec is presented, with particular attention given to its two-dimensional diffractive region, where the light of different wavelengths is focused on the different detectors. The method is based on the maximization of the instrument resolving power and minimization of the RMS phase error on the instrument focal plane. This two-step optimization can generate geometrical configurations given specific requirements on spectrometer size, operating spectral range and performance.Two point designs with resolving power of 260 and 520 and an RMS phase error less than approximately 0.004 radians were developed for initial demonstration and will be the basis of future instruments with resolving power up to about 1200.

  12. CORSAIR-Calibrated Observations of Radiance Spectra from the Atmosphere in the Far- Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynczak, M. G.; Johnson, D.; Abedin, N.; Liu, X.; Kratz, D.; Jordan, D.; Wang, J.; Bingham, G.; Latvakoski, H.; Bowman, K.; Kaplan, S.

    2008-12-01

    The CORSAIR project is a new NASA Instrument Incubator Project (IIP) whose primary goal is to develop and demonstrate the necessary technologies to achieve SI-traceable, on-orbit measurements of Earth's spectral radiance in the far-infrared (far-IR). The far-IR plays a vital role in the energy balance of the Earth yet its spectrum has not been comprehensively observed from space for the purposes of climate sensing. The specific technologies being developed under CORSAIR include: passively cooled, antenna-coupled terahertz detectors for the far-IR (by Raytheon Vision Systems); accurately calibrated, SI-traceable blackbody sources for the far-IR (by Space Dynamics Laboratory); and high-performance broad bandpass beamsplitters (by ITT). These technologies complement those already developed under past Langley IIP projects (FIRST; INFLAME) in the areas of Fourier Transform Spectrometers and dedicated far-IR beamsplitters. The antenna-coupled far-IR detectors will be validated in the FIRST instrument at Langley. The SI-traceable far-IR blackbodies will be developed in conjunction with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). An overview of the CORSAIR technologies will be presented as well as their larger role in the Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission. Upon successful completion of CORSAIR these IIP efforts will provide the necessary technologies to achieve the first comprehensive, accurate, high-resolution measurements from a satellite of the far-IR spectrum of the Earth and its atmosphere, enabling major advances in our understanding of Earth's climate.

  13. Design of far-infrared polarimeter/interferometer system for EAST tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H. Q.; Jie, Y. X.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Zou, Z. Y.; Wang, Z. X.; Yang, Y.; Qian, J. P.; Zeng, L.; Wei, X. C.; Shen, J. S.; An, Z. H.; Lan, T.; Wang, H. B.

    2013-11-01

    A double-pass, radially-viewing, multichannel far-infrared (FIR) polarimeter/interferometer system is under development for current density profile and electron density profile measurements in the EAST tokamak. The system utilizes three 432.5 μm CW formic acid FIR lasers pumped by three CO2 lasers. Each of the three FIR lasers can generate high output power of more than 30 mW per cavity. Two lasers, with slight frequency offset ( ~ 1 MHz), will be made collinear with counter-rotating circular polarization in order to determine the Faraday effect by measuring their phase difference. The third laser also frequency offset, will be used as a reference providing local oscillator (LO) power to each mixer so that one can obtain the phase shift caused by the plasma electron density. Novel molybdenic retro-reflectors with shutter protection have been designed and will be mounted on the inner vessel wall in EAST. The retro-reflectors can withstand baking temperature up to 350°C and discharge duration more than 1000 s. Vibrations and path length changes due to thermal expansion will be compensated using a He-Ne interferometer as the second color. VDI planar-diode Integrated Conical Horn Fundamental Mixers optimized for high sensitivity, typical 750 V/W, will be used. Initially a five-chord system will be installed in 2013 and an eleven-chord system will be implemented on the core region of EAST plasmas. MHz frequency response allows system to resolve fast MHD events such as tearing/neoclassical tearing, disruptions and fast-particle modes. Preliminary design will be presented.

  14. Water Vapor in Titan's Stratosphere from Cassini/CIRS Far-infrared Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Jennings, D. E.; Anderson, C. M.; Gorius, N.; Bjoraker, G. L.; Coustenis, A.; Teanby, N. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Bezard, B.; de Kok, R.; Lellouch, E.; Irwin, J.; Flasar, F. M.; Bampasidis, G.

    2012-01-01

    Since the first detection of water vapor in Titan's stratosphere by disk-average observations from the Infrared Space Observatory (Coustenis et al. 1998) we report here the successful detection of stratospheric water vapor using the Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS, Flasar et al. 2004). CIRS senses water emissions in the far infrared spectral region near 50 microns, which we have modeled using two independent radiative transfer codes (NEMESIS, Irwin et al 2008 and ART, Coustenis et al. 2007, 2010). From the analysis of nadir spectra we have derived a mixing ratio of (0.14 0.05) ppb at an altitude of 97 kilometers, which corresponds to an integrated (from 0 to 600 kilometers) surface normalized column abundance of (3.7 plus or minus 1.3) x 10(exp 14) molecules per square centimeter. In the latitude range 80 S to 30 N we see no evidence for latitudinal variations in these abundances within the error bars. Using limb observations, we obtained mixing ratios of (0.13 plus or minus 0.04) ppb at an altitude of 115 kilometers and (0.45 plus or minus 0.15) ppb at an altitude of 230 kilometers, confirming that the water abundance has a positive vertical gradient as predicted by photochemical models (e.g. Lara et al. 1996, Wilson and Atreya 2004, Horst et al. 2008); retrieved scaling factors (from approximately 0.1 to approximately 0.6) to the water profile suggested by these models show that water vapor is present in Titan stratosphere with less abundance than predicted.

  15. Electrochemically induced far-infrared difference spectroscopy on metalloproteins using advanced synchrotron technology.

    PubMed

    Vita, Nicolas; Brubach, Jean-Blaise; Hienerwadel, Rainer; Bremond, Nicolas; Berthomieu, Dorothée; Roy, Pascale; Berthomieu, Catherine

    2013-03-01

    New information on a protein's structure, intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonds, or metal-ligand bond properties can be unraveled in the far-infrared (far-IR)-terahertz-domain (600-3 cm(-1) or 18-0.1 THz). In this study, we compare the performances of thermal sources with synchrotron far-IR to record reaction-induced Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) difference signals with proteins in solution. Using the model protein Cu-azurin placed in a short path length electrochemical cell adapted for transmission spectroscopy in vacuum-purged optics, we show that minute spectral shifts induced by metal isotope labeling or temperature changes are detected using the far-IR beamline AILES of the synchrotron SOLEIL. On one hand, these data allow us to identify modes involving Cu-ligand vibrations and pave the way for the analysis of metal sites or metal redox states of proteins not amenable to resonance Raman spectroscopy. On another hand, small band shifts or changes in band intensity upon temperature modifications show that far-IR difference spectroscopy allows one to extract from a complex background hydrogen-bonding signatures directly relevant to the protein function. For Cu-azurin, a temperature-sensitive IR mode involving Cu(II)-His vibrations points to the role of a hydrogen bond between a Cu histidine ligand and the water solvent in tuning the Cu(II)-histidine bond properties. Furthermore, these experimental data support the possible role of a His117-water interaction in electron-transfer activity of Cu-azurin proposed by theoretical studies. PMID:23360365

  16. Temperature dependence of far-infrared difference reflectivity of YBa2Cu3O7-y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenn, H.; Bauer, G.; Vogl, G.; Strasser, G.; Gornik, E.

    1989-04-01

    Far-infrared difference reflectivity spectra (50-450 cm-1) below, across and above the transition temperature on polycrystalline single-phase YBa2Cu3O7-y samples were measured. The data are compared with model fits using the explicit temperature dependence of the Mattis-Bardeen conductivity, an effective-medium approach and temperature-dependent phonon oscillator parameters and alternatively a plasma model. For the plasma model we alternatively use a generalized Drude-like expression with a frequency-dependent damping after Thomas et al. [Phys. Rev. B 36, 846 (1987)] or the original model with Orenstein et al. [Phys. Rev. B 36, 729 (1987)] and Sherwin, Richards, and Zettl [Phys. Rev. B 37, 1587 (1988)] with a Drude contribution plus a mid-infrared oscillator, but with constant carrier relaxation rates. The models explain the difference reflectivity data (precision <0.2%) with a fitting accuracy of 1-2 % (Mattis-Bardeen model) or 2-3 % (plasma model) over the full temperature range. In order to investigate their applicability, reflectivity, and conductivity data of a highly oriented YBa2Cu3O7-y sample, as recently published by Bonn et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2249 (1987)], were also fitted with both models. Because of the frequency dependence of the free-carrier damping rates, it was important to fulfill the Kramers-Kronig relations between the real and the imaginary part of the dynamic conductivity in the calculations. For both models the characteristic dependences of the conductivity on frequency and temperature are given. Whereas, naturally, the Mattis-Bardeen model yields a gaplike depression of the conductivity for frequencies below an assumed gap, the plasma model results in somewhat smoother dependences of Re(σ(ω)) and Im(σ(ω)) in the frequency region of interest.

  17. EVOLVING STARBURST MODELING OF FAR-INFRARED/SUBMILLIMETER/MILLIMETER LINE EMISSION. II. APPLICATION TO M 82

    SciTech Connect

    Yao Lihong

    2009-11-01

    We present starburst models for far-infrared/sub-millimeter/millimeter line emission of molecular and atomic gas in an evolving starburst region, which is treated as an ensemble of noninteracting hot bubbles that drive spherical shells of swept-up gas into a surrounding uniform gas medium. These bubbles and shells are driven by stellar winds and supernovae within massive star clusters formed during an instantaneous starburst. The underlying stellar radiation from the evolving clusters affects the properties and structure of photodissociation regions (PDRs) in the shells, and hence the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the molecular and atomic line emission from these swept-up shells and the associated parent giant molecular clouds contain a signature of the stage of evolution of the starburst. The physical and chemical properties of the shells and their structure are computed using a simple, well-known similarity solution for the shell expansion, a stellar population synthesis code, and a time-dependent PDR chemistry model. The SEDs for several molecular and atomic lines ({sup 12}CO and its isotope {sup 13}CO, HCN, HCO{sup +}, C, O, and C{sup +}) are computed using a nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium line radiative transfer model. By comparing our models with the available observed data of nearby infrared bright galaxies, especially M 82, we constrain the models and in the case of M 82, we provide estimates for the ages (5-6 Myr, 10 Myr) of recent starburst activity. We also derive a total H{sub 2} gas mass of approx(2-3.4) x 10{sup 8} M {sub sun} for the observed regions of the central 1 kpc starburst disk of M 82.

  18. High Resolution Far Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy of the NH_2 Radical.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Drumel, M. A.; Pirali, O.; Balcon, D.; Vervloet, M.

    2011-06-01

    First identified toward Sgr B2, the NH_2 radical has recently been detected in the interstellar medium by the HIFI instrument on board of Herschel. Despite the fact that this radical has not been detected in brown dwarfs and exoplanets yet, it is already included in physical and chemical models of those environments (temperature higher than 2000 K expected in several objects). Its detection in those objects will depend on the existence of a reliable high temperature and high resolution spectroscopic database on the NH_2 radical.The absorption spectrum of NH_2 has been recorded between 15 and 700 Cm-1 at the highest resolution available using the Bruker IFS125HR Fourier transform interferometer connected to the far infrared AILES beamline at SOLEIL (R=0.001 Cm-1). The radical was produced by an electrical discharge (DC) through a continuous flow of NH_3 and He using the White-type discharge cell developped on the beamline (optical path: 24m). Thanks to the brilliance of the synchrotron radiation, more than 700 pure rotational transitions of NH_2 have been identified with high N values (NMax=25) in its fundamental and first excited vibrational modes. By comparison to the previous FT spectroscopic study on that radical in the FIR spectral range, asymmetric splitting as well as fine and hyperfine structure have been resolved for several transitions. E. F. Van Dishoeck, D. J. Jansen, P. Schilke, T. G. Phillips The Astrophysical Journal 416, L83-L86 (1993) C. M. Persson, J. H. Black, J. Cernicharo et al. Astronomy and Astrophysics 521, L45 (2010) K. Lodders and B. Fegley, Jr Icarus 155, 393-424 (2002) I. Morino and K. Kawaguchi Journal of Molecular Spectroscopy 182, 428-438 (1997)

  19. Planck intermediate results. XVII. Emission of dust in the diffuse interstellar medium from the far-infrared to microwave frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Planck Collaboration; Abergel, A.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Alves, M. I. R.; Aniano, G.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J. R.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Burigana, C.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Couchot, F.; Crill, B. P.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Enßlin, T. A.; Eriksen, H. K.; Falgarone, E.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Ghosh, T.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K. M.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Guillet, V.; Hansen, F. K.; Harrison, D.; Helou, G.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S. R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W. A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K. M.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jaffe, T. R.; Joncas, G.; Jones, A.; Jones, W. C.; Juvela, M.; Kalberla, P.; Keihänen, E.; Kerp, J.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T. S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leonardi, R.; Levrier, F.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P. B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P. M.; Macías-Pérez, J. F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D. J.; Martin, P. G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Massardi, M.; Matarrese, S.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J. A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C. A.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G. W.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J. P.; Reach, W. T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Savini, G.; Spencer, L. D.; Starck, J.-L.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J. A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Verstraete, L.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L. A.; Wandelt, B. D.; Winkel, B.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.

    2014-06-01

    The dust-Hi correlation is used to characterize the emission properties of dust in the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) from far infrared wavelengths to microwave frequencies. The field of this investigation encompasses the part of the southern sky best suited to study the cosmic infrared and microwave backgrounds. We cross-correlate sky maps from Planck, the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), and the diffuse infrared background experiment (DIRBE), at 17 frequencies from 23 to 3000 GHz, with the Parkes survey of the 21 cm line emission of neutral atomic hydrogen, over a contiguous area of 7500 deg2 centred on the southern Galactic pole. We present a general methodology to study the dust-Hi correlation over the sky, including simulations to quantify uncertainties. Our analysis yields four specific results. (1) We map the temperature, submillimetre emissivity, and opacity of the dust per H-atom. The dust temperature is observed to be anti-correlated with the dust emissivity and opacity. We interpret this result as evidence of dust evolution within the diffuse ISM. The mean dust opacity is measured to be (7.1 ± 0.6) × 10-27 cm2 H-1 × (ν/ 353 GHz)1.53 ± 0.03 for 100 ≤ ν ≤ 353 GHz. This is a reference value to estimate hydrogen column densities from dust emission at submillimetre and millimetre wavelengths. (2) We map the spectral index βmm of dust emission at millimetre wavelengths (defined here as ν ≤ 353 GHz), and find it to be remarkably constant at βmm = 1.51 ± 0.13. We compare it with the far infrared spectral index βFIR derived from greybody fits at higher frequencies, and find a systematic difference, βmm - βFIR = - 0.15, which suggests that the dust spectral energy distribution (SED) flattens at ν ≤ 353 GHz. (3) We present spectral fits of the microwave emission correlated with Hi from 23 to 353 GHz, which separate dust and anomalous microwave emission (AME). We show that the flattening of the dust SED can be accounted for with

  20. Herschel far-infrared observations of the Carina Nebula complex. III. Detailed cloud structure and feedback effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roccatagliata, V.; Preibisch, T.; Ratzka, T.; Gaczkowski, B.

    2013-06-01

    Context. The star formation process in large clusters/associations can be strongly influenced by the feedback from high-mass stars. Whether the resulting net effect of the feedback is predominantly negative (cloud dispersal) or positive (triggering of star formation due to cloud compression) is still an open question. Aims: The Carina Nebula complex (CNC) represents one of the most massive star-forming regions in our Galaxy. We use our Herschel far-infrared observations to study the properties of the clouds over the entire area of the CNC (with a diameter of ≈3.2°, which corresponds to ≈125 pc at a distance of 2.3 kpc). The good angular resolution (10''-36'') of the Herschel maps corresponds to physical scales of 0.1-0.4 pc, and allows us to analyze the small-scale (i.e., clump-size) structures of the clouds. Methods: The full extent of the CNC was mapped with PACS and SPIRE in the 70, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm bands. We determined temperatures and column densities at each point in these maps by modeling the observed far-infrared spectral energy distributions. We also derived a map showing the strength of the UV radiation field. We investigated the relation between the cloud properties and the spatial distribution of the high-mass stars and computed total cloud masses for different density thresholds. Results: Our Herschel maps resolve for the first time the small-scale structure of the dense clouds over the entire spatial extent of the CNC. Several particularly interesting regions, including the prominent pillars south of η Car, are analyzed in detail. We compare the cloud masses derived from the Herschel data with previous mass estimates based on sub-mm and molecular line data. Our maps also reveal a peculiar wave-like pattern in the northern part of the Carina Nebula. Finally, we characterize two prominent cloud complexes at the periphery of our Herschel maps, which are probably molecular clouds in the Galactic background. Conclusions: We find that the