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1

Aim for 55-Day Dry Period for Top Production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The research cited in this article determined the optimal dry period length (the number of days between lactations when a cow is not being milked) for US Jersey cows using traits such as milk, fat, and protein yield, fat and protein percentages, somatic cell score, and days open. This was accomplis...

2

Ninety-day waiting period limitation. Final rules.  

PubMed

These final regulations clarify the maximum allowed length of any reasonable and bona fide employment-based orientation period, consistent with the 90-day waiting period limitation set forth in section 2708 of the Public Health Service Act, as added by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Affordable Care Act), as amended, and incorporated into the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 and the Internal Revenue Code. PMID:25011163

2014-06-25

3

Periodicity of ~155 days in solar electron fluence  

E-print Network

In this paper we have investigated the occurrence rate of high energetic(E>10 MeV) solar electron flares measured by IMP-8 spacecraft of NASA for solar cycle 21 (June, 1976 to August, 1986) first time by three different methods to detect periodicities accurately. Power-spectrum analysis confirms a periodicity ~155 days which is in consistent with the result of Chowdhury and Ray (2006), that "Rieger periodicity" was operated throughout the cycle 21 and it is independent on the energy of the electron fluxes.

Partha Chowdhury; P. C. Ray; saibal Ray

2007-06-07

4

Cultural Support Workers and Long Day Care Services  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Australia, eligible long day care services may apply for support at the state level to assist with the transition of children from culturally or linguistically diverse backgrounds into childcare settings. For staff in childcare services, this support comes in the form of a cultural support worker (CSW). The primary role of a CSW is to build…

Miller, Melinda G.; Knowles, Meg; Grieshaber, Susan

2011-01-01

5

Sun-Earth Day Connects History, Culture and Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education forum annually promotes and event called Sun-Earth Day: a national celebration of the Sun, the space around the Earth (geospace), and how all of it affects life on our planet. For the past 3 years this event has provided a venue by which classrooms, museums, planetaria, and at NASA centers have had a sensational time sharing stories, images, and activities related to the Sun-Earth connections and the views o fthe Sun from Earth. Each year we select a different theme by which NASA Space Science can be further related to cross-curricular activities. Sun-Earth Day 2002, "Celebrate the Equinox", drew parallels between Native American Cultures and NASA's Sun-Earth Connection research via cultural stories, interviews, web links, activities and Native American participation. Sun-Earth Day 2003, "Live From the Aurora", shared the beauty of the Aurora through a variety of activities and stories related to perspectives of Northern Peoples. Sun-Earth Day 2004 will share the excitement of the transit of Venus through comparisons of Venus with Earth and Mars, calculations of the distances to nearby stars, and the use of transits to identify extra-solar planets. Finally, Sun-Earth Day 2005 will bring several of these themes together by turning our focus to the history and culture surrounding ancient observatories such as Chaco Canyon, Machu Picchu, and Chichen Itza.

Cline, T.; Thieman, J.

2003-12-01

6

Performance of stool cultures before and after a 3-day hospitalization: fewer cultures, better for patients and for money.  

PubMed

We evaluated retrospectively the yield of stool culture (SC) depending on the length of hospitalization, and we characterized the patients missed by the 3-day rejection rule. SC detects bacterial enteric pathogens (Campylobacter spp., Salmonella enterica, Yersinia spp., Shigella spp.). During this 5-year study period, 13,039 SCs were requested, and 376 were positive (2.9%). The yield of SC dropped from 11.7% before 3 days of hospitalization to 0.7% after 3 days in children and 4.3% to 0.3% in adults. Finally, only 13 clinically relevant cases (0.2% of SC prescribed after 3 days) were undiagnosed by strict application of the 3-day rule. In conclusion, rejection of SC prescribed after 3 days of hospitalization allows to reduce workload by 37.8% for children and 65.7% for adults, representing a cost of €12,500 ($16,250) per year in our hospital. PMID:23867328

Le Guern, Rémi; Loïez, Caroline; Grandbastien, Bruno; Courcol, René; Wallet, Frédéric

2013-09-01

7

77 FR 64759 - Rescission of 10-Day Agency Discretionary Period in Assigning Unsatisfactory Safety Ratings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FMCSA-2012-0262] RIN 2126-AB55 Rescission of 10-Day Agency Discretionary Period in Assigning Unsatisfactory...provision indicating that the Agency will consider a 10- day extension of the 45-day period after which passenger and hazardous...

2012-10-23

8

Automating Partial Period Bond Valuation with Excel's Day Counting Functions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An Excel model for calculating the actual price of bonds under a 30 day/month, 360 day/year day counting assumption by nesting the DAYS360 function within the PV function is developed. When programmed into an Excel spreadsheet, the model can accommodate annual and semiannual payment bonds sold on or between interest dates using six fundamental…

Vicknair, David; Spruell, James

2009-01-01

9

Changes in Phosphoinositide Metabolism with Days in Culture Affect Signal Transduction Pathways in Galdieria sulphuraria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The metabolism of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) changed during the culture period of the thermoacidophilic red alga Galdieria sulphuraria. Seven days after inoculation, the amount of PIP2 in the cells was 910 6 100 pmol g 21 fresh weight; by 12 d, PIP2 levels increased to 1200 6 150 pmol g21 fresh weight. In vitro assays indicated that phosphatidylinositol monophosphate (PIP) ki-

Ingo Heilmann; Imara Y. Perera; Wolfgang Gross; Wendy F. Boss

1999-01-01

10

Novel three dimensional human endocervix cultures respond to 28-day hormone treatment.  

PubMed

The endocervix has both anatomical and biological functions that participate in the delicate balance between tolerance necessary for conception and protection from pathogens. Our goal was to develop a robust 3-dimensional (3D) endocervix model that was a reliable representation of the in vivo tissues and to identify the physiological responses to changing levels of steroid hormones during a 28-day time period. Human endocervical cells were grown on polystyrene scaffolds, and the morphologic and hormonal responses of cultured cells were assessed in response to fluctuating levels of estradiol (E2) or progesterone (P4). Morphologically, the 3D cultures were composed of a mixed population of cells, including epithelial and stromal cells. Treatment with E2 and P4 (d 28) increased cell growth and proliferation as compared with no treatment control. Cells expressed estrogen receptor and P4 receptor and produced both neutral and acidic mucins, including Mucin 16. In addition, a 45-plex Luminex assay identified numerous factors secreted and regulated by hormones. Specifically, IL-1? and leukemia inhibitory factor significantly decreased in the presence of E2 and P4 as compared with the no hormone control at day 26. Cotreatment with RU486 (mifepristone) attenuated the inhibition of IL-1? and leukemia inhibitory factor secretion. In summary, a robust, novel 3D endocervical culture was developed, and physiologic responses to the menstrual cycle mimic of E2 and P4 levels for a period of 28 days were identified. PMID:25635622

Arslan, Sevim Yildiz; Yu, Yanni; Burdette, Joanne E; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Hope, Thomas J; Woodruff, Teresa K; Kim, J Julie

2015-04-01

11

The 78.4 day period of Cygnus XR-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A search for a 78.4 day modulation in the high energy X-ray flux observed with OSO-8 and in the U-band optical polarization is reported. It is suggested that if such a modulation does exist, it is more likely to be related to the rotation of the free modes of oscillation of the primary than to the existence of a third body in the system.

Dolan, J. F.; Caraveo, P.; Coe, M. J.; Crannell, C. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Frost, K. J.; Orwig, L. E.

1979-01-01

12

78 FR 17313 - Ninety-Day Waiting Period Limitation and Technical Amendments to Certain Health Coverage...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...CMS-9952-P] RIN 0938-AR77 Ninety-Day Waiting Period Limitation and Technical...These proposed rules implement the 90-day waiting period limitation under section...section 2704(b)(4)) that exceeds 90 days. PHS Act section 2704(b)(4),...

2013-03-21

13

42 CFR 137.134 - When does the 45 day review period begin?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... Final Offer § 137.134 When does the 45 day review period begin? The 45 day review period begins from the date the IHS receives the final offer. Proof of receipt may include a date stamp, or postal return receipt, or hand...

2014-10-01

14

42 CFR 137.134 - When does the 45 day review period begin?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Final Offer § 137.134 When does the 45 day review period begin? The 45 day review period begins from the date the IHS receives the final offer. Proof of receipt may include a date stamp, or postal return receipt, or hand...

2011-10-01

15

42 CFR 137.134 - When does the 45 day review period begin?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Final Offer § 137.134 When does the 45 day review period begin? The 45 day review period begins from the date the IHS receives the final offer. Proof of receipt may include a date stamp, or postal return receipt, or hand...

2010-10-01

16

Metallicity effects on the light curve shape of Cepheids with period close to 10 days  

Microsoft Academic Search

The light curves of population I classical Cepheids with period P in the range between 5 and 13 days in the very metal poor irregular galaxy IC 1613 have been analyzed and compared with those of Cepheids in the Galaxy. Even if there are few Cepheids in this period range in IC 1613, the results are of some importance for

E. Antonello; D. Fugazza; L. Mantegazza

2000-01-01

17

Cultural interaction and biological distance in postclassic period Mexico.  

PubMed

Economic, political, and cultural relationships connected virtually every population throughout Mexico during Postclassic period (AD 900-1520). Much of what is known about population interaction in prehistoric Mexico is based on archaeological or ethnohistoric data. What is unclear, especially for the Postclassic period, is how these data correlate with biological population structure. We address this by assessing biological (phenotypic) distances among 28 samples based upon a comparison of dental morphology trait frequencies, which serve as a proxy for genetic variation, from 810 individuals. These distances were compared with models representing geographic and cultural relationships among the same groups. Results of Mantel and partial Mantel matrix correlation tests show that shared migration and trade are correlated with biological distances, but geographic distance is not. Trade and political interaction are also correlated with biological distance when combined in a single matrix. These results indicate that trade and political relationships affected population structure among Postclassic Mexican populations. We suggest that trade likely played a major role in shaping patterns of interaction between populations. This study also shows that the biological distance data support the migration histories described in ethnohistoric sources. Am J Phys Anthropol 157:121-133, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25599818

Ragsdale, Corey S; Edgar, Heather J H

2015-05-01

18

Long-Period Cultural Noise: The Panama Canal Seiche  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, the spectral composition of human generated or “cultural” seismic noise is dominated by short-period (SP) energy (<1s). In this study, we present evidence for long-period (LP) cultural noise (100-200s) at the USGS Global Seismographic Network (GSN) station CU.BCIP, located at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) on Barro Colorado Island (BCI) in the Panama Canal. The LP seismic energy has a strong diurnal signal, with highest power during the daytime when traffic through the Panama Canal is the heaviest, ~1 ship every 10 minutes. The lowest power occurs during the late-night/early-morning hours, when container ship traffic slows to ~1 ship every hour. Spectral power observations are corroborated with data recorded by a water-level meter located approximately 80m from the seismic station, indicating that water waves are the primary source of the LP seismic signal. We show that the observed water waves are a “seiche” induced by the wakes of container ship traffic in the canal. As passing ships disturb the water surface, standing waves are induced by the summation of propagating waves, traveling in opposite directions, due to reflections off the opposite shorelines of the Panama Canal. Vertical harmonic motion results as gravity seeks to restore the horizontal surface of the body of water to a state of hydrostatic equilibrium. The longest natural-period of a seiche in an enclosed body of water is a function of basin depth and length and can be computed by a common oceanographic relationship, known as the Merian formula. For a reasonable range of Panama Canal dimensions in the vicinity of BCI, (depths from 15 to 30m and lengths from 700 to 1500m), the predicted dominant period of a seiche is between 100-200s, consistent with our seismic spectral power observations. Small rhythmic seiches are always present in disturbed enclosed bodies of water and are most often caused by either meteorological effects (wind and atmospheric pressure variations), and/or seismic activity (earthquakes, tsunamis). Historical accounts of anomalously large seiches in enclosed bodies of water such as harbors (Galveston, TX), lakes (Great Lakes, Lake Baikal), and inland seas (Adriatic Sea, Baltic Sea, North Sea) demonstrate the existence of significant flooding hazard to adjacent coastal communities. We present a possible new passive-seismic method for seiche monitoring.

McNamara, D. E.; Hutt, C. R.; Ringler, A.; Gee, L. S.

2009-12-01

19

Effect of a short period of high day temperatures during flowering on the seed number  

E-print Network

Agronomy Effect of a short period of high day temperatures during flowering on the seed number per temperatures did not influence growth and development of the leaves, flowers, or the number of pods per plant. However, they reduced the number of seeds per pod. By categorizing the different stages of flower and pod

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

20

Ten days of darkness causes temporary blindness during an early critical period in felines.  

PubMed

Extended periods of darkness have long been used to study how the mammalian visual system develops in the absence of any instruction from vision. Because of the relative ease of implementation of darkness as a means to eliminate visually driven neural activity, it has usually been imposed earlier in life and for much longer periods than was the case for other manipulations of the early visual input used for study of their influences on visual system development. Recently, it was shown that following a very brief (10 days) period of darkness imposed at five weeks of age, kittens emerged blind. Although vision as assessed by measurements of visual acuity eventually recovered, the time course was very slow as it took seven weeks for visual acuity to attain normal levels. Here, we document the critical period of this remarkable vulnerability to the effects of short periods of darkness by imposing 10 days of darkness on nine normal kittens at progressively later ages. Results indicate that the period of susceptibility to darkness extends only to about 10 weeks of age, which is substantially shorter than the critical period for the effects of monocular deprivation in the primary visual cortex, which extends beyond six months of age. PMID:25673680

Mitchell, Donald E; Crowder, Nathan A; Holman, Kaitlyn; Smithen, Matthew; Duffy, Kevin R

2015-03-22

21

Spontaneous closure of a symptomatic coronary artery fistula just within a few days of newborn period.  

PubMed

We present a rare case of spontaneous closure of a fistula between the left coronary artery and the right ventricle (RV) within a few days of newborn period. A 14-day-old male newborn was referred to our clinic for investigation of tachypnea and cardiac murmur. A color flow Doppler echocardiography revealed turbulent flow of a large coronary artery fistula (CAF) between the left coronary artery and the RV. Tachypnea was regressed and repeat echocardiogram showed no CAF related to cardiac chambers after 4 days of admission. The spontaneous closure of CAF was found to be more likely in cases younger than 2 years with small-sized fistulas opening into the right-sided structures, especially into the RV. Nevertheless, the spontaneous closure is very rare in cases with significant shunt. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case with documented spontaneous closure of CAF just within the newborn period. PMID:23601860

Yilmazer, Murat Muhtar; Demir, Fikri; Yolba?, Ilyas; Bilici, Meki

2014-01-01

22

A 20-day period standing oscillation in the northern winter stratosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations of the ozone profile by a ground-based microwave radiometer in Switzerland indicate a dominant 20-day oscillation in stratospheric ozone, possibly related to oscillations of the polar vortex edge during winter. For further understanding of the nature of the 20-day oscillation, the ozone data set of ERA Interim meteorological reanalysis is analyzed at the latitude belt of 47.5° N and in the time from 1979 to 2010. Spectral analysis of ozone time series at 7 hPa indicates that the 20-day oscillation is maximal at two locations: 7.5° E, 47.5° N and 60° E, 47.5° N. Composites of the stream function are derived for different phases of the 20-day oscillation of stratospheric ozone at 7 hPa in the Northern Hemisphere. The streamline at Ψ = -2 × 107 m2 s-1 is in the vicinity of the polar vortex edge. The other streamline at Ψ = 4 × 107 m2 s1 surrounds the Aleutian anticyclone and goes to the subtropics. The composites show 20-day period standing oscillations at the polar vortex edge and in the subtropics above Northern Africa, India, and China. The 20-day period standing oscillation above Aral Sea and India is correlated to the strength of the Aleutian anticyclone.

Hocke, K.; Studer, S.; Martius, O.; Scheiben, D.; Kämpfer, N.

2013-04-01

23

The power spectrum of the solar wind speed for periods greater than 10 days  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of the more than 11 years of solar wind speed data obtained by Vela 2-6 and Imp 6-8 to study the power spectrum of speed variations in the range near the solar rotational frequency is discussed. The broad bands of power near periods of 27 days (corresponding to the rotational period of the sun), 13.5 days, and higher harmonics are characterized, and it is suggested that the described individual peaks in both the solar wind and the geomagnetic spectra are probably not due to differential rotation. The alternate explanation is that the multipeak nature of the power spectra are explained by a wave packet concept in which recurring highspeed streams are described as a series of pulses (separated by a constant period) that last for a varying number of solar rotations.

Fenimore, E. E.; Asbridge, J. R.; Bame, S. J.; Feldman, W. C.; Gosling, J. T.

1978-01-01

24

Return of the Near 160 Day Periodicity in the Photospheric Magnetic Flux during Solar Cycle 23  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A periodicity between 152 and 158 days was discovered in the daily number of high-energy solar flares detected by the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and the Geosynchronous Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) around the maximum of solar cycle 21. In a previous work we pointed out that this periodicity had been time-coincident with a periodic emergence of magnetic flux in the form of strong magnetic fields, which suggested a causal relationship between both periodicities. Using the Mount Wilson Sunspot Index, evidence is presented for the return of the periodicity in the strong photospheric magnetic flux during the current solar cycle. The periodicity has reappeared around the solar activity maximum with a frequency similar to that of solar cycle 21, but contrary to what happened during cycle 21, it is completely absent in energetic flares. A tentative explanation for this feature is that in the current solar cycle, part of the periodic emergence of magnetic flux has taken place away from already developed sunspot groups and so has not contributed to enhance their magnetic complexity, which has prevented the triggering of periodic energetic flares.

Ballester, J. L.; Oliver, R.; Carbonell, M.

2004-11-01

25

Regulation of period 1 expression in cultured rat pineal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro expression of Period 1 (Per1), Period 2 (Per2) and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) genes in the rat pineal gland to understand the mechanism(s) regulating the expression of these genes in this organ. Pineals, when maintained in vitro for 5 days, did not show circadian rhythmicity in the expression of any of the three genes monitored. Norepinephrine (NE) induced AA-NAT and Per1, whereas its effect on Per2 was negligible. Contrary to what was observed in other systems, NE stimulation did not induce circadian expression of Per1. The effect of NE on Per1 level was dose- and receptor subtype-dependent, and both cAMP and cGMP induced Per1. Per1 was not induced by repeated NE - or forskolin - stimulation. Protein synthesis was not necessary for NE-induced Per1, but it was for reduction of Per1 following NE stimulation. Per1 transcription in pinealocytes was activated by BMAL1/CLOCK. Our results indicate that important differences are present in the regulation of these genes in the mammalian pineal. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Fukuhara, Chiaki; Dirden, James C.; Tosini, Gianluca

2002-01-01

26

Study of 23 day periodicity of Blazar Mkn501 in 1997  

E-print Network

We confirm a 23 day periodicity during a large flare in 1997 for X-ray data of X-ray satellite RXTE all sky monitor(ASM), 2 TeV gamma ray data from Utah Seven Telescope and HEGRA, with a Fourier analysis. We found the three results to be the same with a newly estimated error. We confirm the presence of a frequency dependent power (1/f noise) in a frequency-power diagram. Further, we calculated a chance probability of the occurrence of the 23 day periodicity by considering the 1/f noise and obtained a chance probability 4.88*10^-3 for the HEGRA data: this is more significant than previous result by an order. We also obtained an identical peridoicity with another kind of timing analysis-epoch folding method for the ASM data and HEGRA data. We strongly suggest an existence of the periodicity. We divided the HEGRA data into two data sets, analyzed them with a Fourier method, and found an unstableness of the periodicity with a 3.4 sigma significance. We also analyzed an energy spectra of the X-ray data of a RXTE proportional counter array and we found that a combination of three parameters-a magnetic field, a Lorentz factor, and a beaming factor-is related to the periodicity.

S. Osone

2006-08-03

27

Growth of mallards fed phosphamidon for 13-day periods during three different developmental stages  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos) were exposed to a 13-day dietary treatment of O, 0.5, or 5.0 ppm phosphamidon at one of three successive age intervals (5-17 days, 18-30 days, or 31-43 days) during a 10-week growth period. Weekly measurements of body weight, wing length, primary feather length, and bill length revealed slower development of primary feathers in those birds treated from 5 to 17 days; treatment effects on body weight and wing length from 6 to 8 weeks of age were observed among those birds treated from 18 to 30 days of age. Some differences in growth patterns among birds treated with the same phosphamidon level, but at different growth stages, were attributed to the varying size of the group with which a duckling was housed at different times in the growth process. No brain cholinesterase depression was observed in any group either 24 h after phosphamidon treatment was terminated or at 10 weeks of age.

Haseltine, S.; Hensler, G.L.

1981-01-01

28

Immune and inflammation responses to a 3-day period of intensified running versus cycling.  

PubMed

Functional overreaching has been linked to alterations in immunity and host pathogen defense, but little is known as to whether or not running and cycling evoke different responses. This study compared inflammation, muscle damage and soreness, and innate immune function responses to a 3-day period of intensified exercise in trained long distance runners (N=13, age 34.4±2.4year) and cyclists (N=22, age 36.6±1.7year, P=0.452). Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) symptomatology was monitored for 12weeks using the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS), and subjects from both athletic groups came to the lab during week five and exercised 2.5h/day for 3days in a row at 70% VO2max. Blood samples were collected before and after the 3-day period of exercise, with recovery samples collected 1-, 14-, and 38h-post-exercise. Samples were analyzed for muscle damage [creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin (MYO)], inflammation (CRP, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, MCP), and innate immunity [granulocyte and monocyte phagocytosis (GR-PHAG and MO-PHAG) and oxidative burst activity (GR-OBA and MO-OBA)]. Runners compared to cyclists experienced significantly more muscle damage (CK 133% and MYO 404% higher post-3days exercise), inflammation (CRP 87%, IL-6 256%, IL 8 61%, IL-10 32%, MCP 29%), and delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS, 87%). The 3-day period of exercise caused significant downturns in GR-PHAG, MO-PHAG, GR-OBA, MO-OBA by 14- and 38h-recovery, but the pattern of change did not differ between groups. No group differences were measured for 12-week URTI severity (18.3±5.6 and 16.6±4.0, P=0.803) and symptom scores (33.4±12.6 and 24.7±5.8, P=0.477). These data indicate that a 3-day period of functional overreaching results in substantially more muscle damage and soreness, and systemic inflammation in runners compared to cyclists, but without group differences for 12-week URTI symptomatology and post-exercise decrements in innate immune function. PMID:24055861

Nieman, David C; Luo, Beibei; Dréau, Didier; Henson, Dru A; Shanely, R Andrew; Dew, Dustin; Meaney, Mary Pat

2014-07-01

29

The dynamic response of visual accommodation over a seven-day period  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Four college students, ranging in age from 18 to 21 years, were tested on their dynamic, monocular accommodation responses to a square wave stimulus and sine waves of two frequencies. The tests were conducted over a period of seven days in a controlled environment, each subject being tested once every three hours. Latency, magnitude, velocity, gain and phase lag of the responses were measured, and means and standard deviations were computed. The latency of response was stable throughout and agreed fairly well with previous studies. The response magnitude was relatively stable. Three of the subjects had higher velocities on receding targets; one was faster on approaching targets. The group mean velocity increased over the seven days of the study. In keeping with the trend to faster dynamics over the seven days, both gain and phase lag improved.

Randle, R. J.; Murphy, M. R.

1974-01-01

30

Quasi-16-day period oscillations observed in middle atmospheric ozone and temperature in Antarctica  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nightly averaged mesospheric temperature derived from the hydroxyl nightglow at Rothera station (67°34' S, 68°08' W) and nightly midnight measurements of ozone mixing ratio obtained from Troll station (72°01' S, 2°32' E) in Antarctica have been used to investigate the presence and vertical profile of the quasi-16-day planetary wave in the stratosphere and mesosphere during the Antarctic winter of 2009. The variations caused by planetary waves on the ozone mixing ratio and temperature are discussed, and spectral and cross-correlation analyses are performed to extract the wave amplitudes and to examine the vertical structure of the wave from 34 to 80 km. The results show that while planetary-wave signatures with periods 3-12 days are strong below the stratopause, the oscillations associated with the 16-day wave are the strongest and present in both the mesosphere and stratosphere. The period of the wave is found to increase below 42 km due to the Doppler shifting by the strong eastward zonal wind. The 16-day oscillation in the temperature is found to be correlated and phase coherent with the corresponding oscillation observed in O3 volume mixing ratio at all levels, and the wave is found to have vertical phase fronts consistent with a normal mode structure.

Demissie, T. D.; Kleinknecht, N. H.; Hibbins, R. E.; Espy, P. J.; Straub, C.

2013-07-01

31

Periodic heat shock accelerated the chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in pellet culture.  

PubMed

Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of diseases that seriously affect elderly people's quality of life. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) offer a potential promise for the joint repair in OA patients. However, chondrogenic differentiation from hMSCs in vitro takes a long time (? 6 weeks) and differentiated cells are still not as functionally mature as primary isolated chondrocytes, though chemical stimulations and mechanical loading have been intensively studied to enhance the hMSC differentiation. On the other hand, thermal stimulations of hMSC chondrogenesis have not been well explored. In this study, the direct effects of mild heat shock (HS) on the differentiation of hMSCs into chondrocytes in 3D pellet culture were investigated. Periodic HS at 41 °C for 1 hr significantly increased sulfated glycosaminoglycan in 3D pellet culture at Day 10 of chondrogenesis. Immunohistochemical and Western Blot analyses revealed an increased expression of collagen type II and aggrecan in heat-shocked pellets than non heat-shocked pellets on Day 17 of chondrogenesis. In addition, HS also upregulated the expression of collagen type I and X as well as heat shock protein 70 on Day 17 and 24 of differentiation. These results demonstrate that HS accelerated the chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs and induced an early maturation of chondrocytes differentiated from hMSCs. The results of this study will guide the design of future protocols using thermal treatments to facilitate cartilage regeneration with human mesenchymal stem cells. PMID:24632670

Chen, Jing; Li, Chenghai; Wang, Sihong

2014-01-01

32

GENE EXPRESSION PATTERNS OF CD-1 DAY-8 EMBRYO CULTURES EXPOSED TO BROMOCHLORO ACETIC ACID  

EPA Science Inventory

Gene expression patterns of CD-1 day-8 embryo cultures exposed to bromochloro acetic acid Edward D. Karoly?*, Judith E. Schmid* and E. Sidney Hunter III* ?Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina and *Reproductiv...

33

Geopathology on May Day: Expressions of Culture on Hawai'i's Elementary School Stages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Hawai'i's elementary schools, May Day programs feature children adorned with flower leis, singing and dancing hula about Hawaiian culture and performing traditions from major ethnic groups who settled the islands. Using the lens of geopathology, this research questions how various groups of residents long for belonging and struggle for…

Steele, Jamie Simpson

2013-01-01

34

WASP-117b: a 10-day-period Saturn in an eccentric and misaligned orbit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the discovery of WASP-117b, the first planet with a period beyond 10 days found by the WASP survey. The planet has a mass of Mp = 0.2755 ± 0.0089 MJ, a radius of Rp= 1.021_{-0.065+0.076 Rjup} and is in an eccentric (e = 0.302 ± 0.023), 10.02165 ± 0.00055 d orbit around a main-sequence F9 star. The host star's brightness (V = 10.15 mag) makes WASP-117 a good target for follow-up observations, and with a periastron planetary equilibrium temperature of Teq= 1225_{-39+36} K and a low planetary mean density (?p= 0.259_{-0.048+0.054 ?jup}) it is one of the best targets for transmission spectroscopy among planets with periods around 10 days. From a measurement of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we infer a projected angle between the planetary orbit and stellar spin axes of ? = -44 ± 11 deg, and we further derive an orbital obliquity of ? = 69.6 +4.7-4.1 deg. Owing to the large orbital separation, tidal forces causing orbital circularization and realignment of the planetary orbit with the stellar plane are weak, having had little impact on the planetary orbit over the system lifetime. WASP-117b joins a small sample of transiting giant planets with well characterized orbits at periods above 8 days. Based on data obtained with WASP-South, CORALIE and EulerCam at the Euler-Swiss telescope, TRAPPIST, and HARPS at the ESO 3.6 m telescope (Prog. IDs 087.C-0649, 089.C-0151, 090.C-0540)Photometric and radial velocities are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/568/A81

Lendl, M.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Doyle, A. P.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Neveu-VanMalle, M.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Udry, S.; Van Grootel, V.; West, R. G.

2014-08-01

35

A seven day running training period increases basal urinary hepcidin levels as compared to cycling  

PubMed Central

Background This investigation compared the effects of an extended period of weight-bearing (running) vs. non-weight-bearing (cycling) exercise on hepcidin production and its implications for iron status. Methods Ten active males performed two separate exercise training blocks with either running (RTB) or cycling (CTB) as the exercise mode. Each block consisted of five training sessions (Day 1, 2, 4, 5, 6) performed over a seven day period that were matched for exercise intensity. Basal venous blood samples were obtained on Day 1 (D1), and on Recovery Days 3 (R3) and 7 (R7) to assess iron status, while basal and 3 h post-exercise urinary hepcidin levels were measured on D1, D2, D6, as well as R3 and R7 (basal levels only) for each condition. Results Basal urinary hepcidin levels were significantly elevated (p???0.05) at D2, R3 and R7 as compared to D1 in RTB. Furthermore, 3 h post-exercise urinary hepcidin levels on D1 were also significantly higher in RTB compared to CTB (p???0.05). In CTB, urinary hepcidin levels were not statistically different on D1 as compared to R7. Iron parameters were not significantly different at D1 compared to R3 and R7 during both conditions. Conclusions These results suggest that basal hepcidin levels may increase over the course of an extended training program, especially if a weight-bearing exercise modality is undertaken. However, despite any variations in hepcidin production, serum iron parameters in both RTB and CTB were unaffected, possibly due to the short duration of each training block. In comparing running to cycling, non-weight-bearing activity may require more training sessions, or sessions of extended duration, before any significant changes in basal hepcidin levels appear. Chronic elevations in hepcidin levels may help to explain the high incidence of iron deficiency in athletes. PMID:24716892

2014-01-01

36

Observations of 20-day period meridional current oscillations in the upper ocean along the Pacific Equator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prominent oscillations of the meridional current, with a mean period of approximately 20 days, is observed in the upper ocean from May 1979 to October 1985 using moored current measurements along the Pacific equator at 95, 110, 124, 140, and 152 deg W, as well as off (but near) the equator at 110 and 140 deg W. The fluctuations are relatively narrowband in frequency. A 95 percent statistically significant peak in the power spectra of the meridional current occurs at 110, 124, and 140 deg W, but not at 95 and 152 deg W where the spectral peaks are smaller. The dominant wave period decreases by about 4 percent from 110 to 140 deg W. The wave amplitude decreases with depth, and the wave is essentially confined to the upper 80 m. The penetration depth of the oscillation is greatest at 110 deg W and least at 140 deg W.

Halpern, David; Knox, Robert A.; Luther, Douglas S.

1988-01-01

37

29 CFR 553.230 - Maximum hours standards for work periods of 7 to 28 days-section 7(k).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...work periods of 7 to 28 days-section 7(k). 553.230 Section 553.230 Labor...work periods of 7 to 28 days—section 7(k). (a) For those employees engaged...compensation is required under section 7(k) until the number of hours worked...

2012-07-01

38

29 CFR 553.230 - Maximum hours standards for work periods of 7 to 28 days-section 7(k).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...work periods of 7 to 28 days-section 7(k). 553.230 Section 553.230 Labor...work periods of 7 to 28 days—section 7(k). (a) For those employees engaged...compensation is required under section 7(k) until the number of hours worked...

2014-07-01

39

29 CFR 553.230 - Maximum hours standards for work periods of 7 to 28 days-section 7(k).  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...work periods of 7 to 28 days-section 7(k). 553.230 Section 553.230 Labor...work periods of 7 to 28 days—section 7(k). (a) For those employees engaged...compensation is required under section 7(k) until the number of hours worked...

2013-07-01

40

Electromagnetic induction in the oceans and the anomalous behaviour of coastal C-responses for periods up to 20 days  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electromagnetic transfer functions at coastal sites are known to be strongly distorted by the conductivity of the seawater. This ocean effect is generally considered to be small for periods greater than a few days. We revise this statement by detailed and systematic model studies in the period range from 1 to 64 days, with subsequent comparison of the modelled and

Alexei V. Kuvshinov; Nils Olsen; Dmitry B. Avdeev; Oleg V. Pankratov

2002-01-01

41

WASP-117b: a 10-day-period Saturn in an eccentric and misaligned orbit  

E-print Network

We report the discovery of WASP-117b, the first planet with a period beyond 10 days found by the WASP survey. The planet has a mass of M_p = 0.2755 (+/-0.0090) M_jup, a radius of R_p = 1.021 (-0.065 +0.076) R_jup and is in an eccentric (e = 0.302 +/-0.023), 10.02165 +/- 0.00055 d orbit around a main-sequence F9 star. The host star's brightness (V=10.15 mag) makes WASP-117 a good target for follow-up observations, and with a planetary equilibrium temperature of T_eq = 1024 (-26 +30) K and a low planetary density (rho_p = 0.259 (-0.048 +0.054) rho_jup) it is one of the best targets for transmission spectroscopy among planets with periods around 10 days. From a measurement of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we infer a projected angle between the planetary orbit and stellar spin axes of beta = -44 (+/-11) deg, and we further derive an orbital obliquity of psi = 69.5 (+3.6 -3.1) deg. Owing to the large orbital separation, tidal forces causing orbital circularization and realignment of the planetary orbit with the ...

Lendl, M; Anderson, D R; Cameron, A Collier; Delrez, L; Doyle, A; Gillon, M; Hellier, C; Jehin, E; Maxted, P F L; Neveu-VanMalle, M; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D; Queloz, D; Segransan, D; Smalley, B; Smith, A M S; Udry, S; Van Grootel, V; West, R G

2014-01-01

42

Periodicity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In thinking about a title for this chapter, the word periodicity came to mind. I was sure this had some kind of pop culture reference. After discussing this with my wife, we figured I was thinking of synchronicity, which is a reference to music by the band, The Police. Looking the word Periodicity up on the internet, I found that I was, in fact, a science geek and had not made a hip reference. Periodicity refers mainly to the Periodic Table, which is a focus of this chapter. No music, just science.

William C. Robertson, Ph.D.

2007-01-01

43

G328: A Small-Amplitude Red Variable with a Period Near One Day  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

G328 = A65 = L3314 (V = 13.83, B-V = 1.91) is a field star in the direction of the globular cluster M4. If we take E(B-V) = 0.40, then its (B-V)0 = 1.51, corresponding to a spectral type of K5III if it is a giant star; or of dM2 if it is a dwarf. Observations at both the MSSSO and Yunnan Observatory have shown that G328 is a new variable with peak to peak amplitude simeq 0.05 mag in V. While it is not unusual for so red a star to be a variable, special attention must be paid to its short period of about one day. If the variability is due to pulsation, the spectral type and luminosity as well as effective temperature should be determined in order to compare it with Xiong's theory.

Yao, Bao-An; Shen, Chang-Jun; Zhang, Chun-Sheng; Hu, Han-Ming; Lin, Qing

2006-10-01

44

Characteristics of the equatorial ionization anomaly in relation to the day-to-day variability of ionospheric irregularities around the postsunset period  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equatorial ionosphere is characterized by the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) over a major part of the day, and ionospheric F region irregularities causing amplitude and phase scintillations on transionospheric satellite links during the postsunset period. Scintillations of transionospheric signals constitute one of the most intense Space Weather related propagation effects and exhibit extreme variability in space and time. The

A. Paul; A. DasGupta

2010-01-01

45

Mediterraneità and modernità : architecture and culture during the period of Italian colonization of North Africa  

E-print Network

This dissertation examines the intersection of the modern and the colonial in architecture and culture during the period of Italian colonization of North Africa from 1911 to 1943. Rather than see the colonies as merely a ...

McLaren, Brian L. (Brian Lloyd), 1958-

2001-01-01

46

Cultural factors in orthodox Jewish adolescents treated in a day program for eating disorders.  

PubMed

This study explores the specific role of culture and religion in the development of eating disorders (ED) in Orthodox Jewish female adolescents. We present eight cases admitted to a Day Treatment Program (DTP) for Eating Disorders. Additionally, some preliminary comparisons are examined between Orthodox and all other patients, and also between ultra and modern Orthodox patients. All eight adolescents were transferred from inpatient care, three met program treatment goals, two left prematurely, and three required re-hospitalization. The only significant differences between the Orthodox group and all other patients were on length of stay in the DTP and current use of psychotropic medications. Overall, results suggest that Orthodox patients and all other patients show similar ED presentation and course. However, there are unique cultural and religious circumstances, which require consultation with rabbinic authorities. PMID:12613113

Dancyger, Ida; Fornari, Victor; Fisher, Martin; Schneider, Marcie; Frank, Shawn; Wisotsky, Willo; Sison, Cristina; Charitou, Marina

2002-01-01

47

Twenty years of interplanetary magnetic field variations with periods in the range of 10 days to 3 years  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Twenty years of interplanetary magnetic field data collected primarily by the IMP-8 spacecraft near Earth has been analyzed by a dynamic periodogram method in search of significant periodicities in the range of 10 days to 3 years. The method has the advantage of detecting variations with time in the periodicities besides determining the power and phase of the dominant variations. It has been found that the well known periodicities near 1 year and 27 days are strongly modulated by the solar cycle. Both of these periodicities are only detected during solar minimum. During solar maximum. a number of unusual variations are observed. Special emphasis will be placed on the recently reported 1.3 year variation in solar wind parameters besides periods in the interplanetary magnetic field near 51, 73 and 154 days. Correlations with solar wind plasma and solar index variations will also be presented.

Szabo, A.; Lepping, R. P.; King, J. H.

1995-01-01

48

45 CFR 147.116 - Prohibition on waiting periods that exceed 90 days.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...reasonable and bona fide employment-based orientation period). Moreover, except as provided...1,200 hours. (iii) Limitation on orientation periods. To ensure that an orientation period is not used as a subterfuge...

2014-10-01

49

76 FR 6794 - 30-Day Submission Period for Requests for ONC-Approved Accreditor (ONC-AA) Status  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Requests for ONC-Approved Accreditor (ONC-AA) Status AGENCY: Office of the National...requests for ONC-Approved Accreditor (ONC-AA) status. Authority: 42 U.S.C. 300jj-11...30-day period during which requests for ONC-AA status may be submitted. The 30-day...

2011-02-08

50

XMM-Newton EPIC & OM observations of Her X-1 over the 35 day beat period  

E-print Network

We present the results of a series of XMM-Newton EPIC and OM observations of Her X-1, spread over a wide range of the 35 day precession period. We confirm that the spin modulation of the neutron star is weak or absent in the low state - in marked contrast to the main or short-on states. During the states of higher intensity, we observe a substructure in the broad soft X-ray modulation below ~1keV, revealing the presence of separate peaks which reflect the structure seen at higher energies. The strong fluorescence emission line at ~6.4keV is detected in all observations (apart from one taken in the middle of eclipse), with higher line energy, width and normalisation during the main-on state. In addition, we report the detection of a second line near 7keV in 10 of the 15 observations taken during the low-intensity states of the system. This feature is rather weak and not significantly detected during the main-on state, when the strong continuum emission dominates the X-ray spectrum. Spin resolved spectroscopy j...

Zane, S; Jiménez-Garate, M A; Den Herder, J W A; Hailey, C J; Zane, Silvia; Ramsay, Gavin; Jimenez-Garate, Mario A.; Herder, Jan Willem den; Hailey, Charles J.

2004-01-01

51

CTEPP NC DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 10 (PERIODS 1-3): DAY CARE CENTER CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

This data set contains data concerning the child?s activities at the day care center over the 48-h monitoring period. The diary was divided into three time periods over the 48-h monitoring interval. The Food Survey collected information on the frequency and types of fruits, veget...

52

CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 10 (PERIODS 1-3): DAY CARE CENTER CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

This data collection form collects information on the child's activities at the day care center over the 48-hr monitoring period. The diary is divided into three time periods over the 48-monitoring interval. The Food Survey collects information on the frequency and types of frui...

53

Voids and Question Marks in the Present-day Data Concerning the Rotation Period of the First 1000 Numbered Asteroids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Currently, there are only 19 three-digit numbered asteroids - none of them within the first 500 - for which their rotation period is unknown. Chances are that all of the first 1000 asteroids will have a known period in just a few years. However, not all of the 981 present-day published rotation period data for asteroids numbered below 1000 are secure. Ongoing investigations to verify, refine, or revise existing periods remains an important endeavor, especially for the 17 asteroids for which the period is currently uncertain.

Alvarez, Eduardo Manuel

2015-04-01

54

Comparison of the electrophysiological and immunohistochemical properties of acutely dissociated and 1-day cultured rat trigeminal ganglion neurons.  

PubMed

To clarify whether changes to the cellular properties of sensory neurons occur after a brief culture, we compared the electrophysiological and immunohistochemical properties of rat trigeminal ganglion neurons. We compared these neurons after acute dissociation and after a 1-day culture under serum-free and neurotrophin-free conditions. In whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, the 1-day cultured neurons required a lower current threshold to induce an action potential in both small- and medium-sized neurons. Furthermore, the input resistance was higher in the medium-sized neurons after a 1-day culture compared to the acutely dissociated medium-sized neurons. Immunofluorescent studies demonstrated that both the translocation of the activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) into the nucleus and the expression of a low threshold Na(+) channel (Na(v)1.3) were upregulated after 1-day of culture. However, in the acutely dissociated neurons, ATF3 translocation occurred at low levels, and Na(v)1.3 was not expressed. These electrophysiological and immunohistochemical changes after 1-day of culture were very similar to the reported changes that occur after nerve injury. Our study demonstrated that injury-like characteristics appear to be manifested in the 1-day cultured sensory neurons, which do not occur in acutely dissociated neurons. Overall, our results are relevant and will help when interpreting the results of studies examining dissociated sensory neurons in pain research. PMID:22771569

Ono, Kentaro; Xu, Shenghong; Hitomi, Suzuro; Inenaga, Kiyotoshi

2012-08-15

55

Discovery of a 115 Day Orbital Period in the Ultraluminous X-ray Source NGC 5408 X-1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report the detection of a 115 day periodicity in SWIFT/XRT monitoring data from the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC 5408 X-1. Our o ngoing campaign samples its X-ray flux approximately twice weekly and has now achieved a temporal baseline of ti 485 days. Periodogram ana lysis reveals a significant periodicity with a period of 115.5 +/- 4 days. The modulation is detected with a significance of 3.2 x 10(exp -4) . The fractional modulation amplitude decreases with increasing e nergy, ranging from 0.13 +/- 0.02 above 1 keV to 0.24 +/- 0.02 below 1 keV. The shape of the profile evolves as well, becoming less sharply peaked at higher energies. The periodogram analysis is consistent wi th a periodic process, however, continued monitoring is required to c onfirm the coherent nature of the modulation. Spectral analysis indic ates that NGC 5408 X-1 can reach 0.3 - 10 keV luminosities of approxi mately 2 x 10 40 ergs/s . We suggest that, like the 62 day period of the ULX in M82 (X41.4-1-60), the periodicity detected in NGC 5408 X-1 represents the orbital period of the black hole binary containing the ULX. If this is true then the secondary can only be a giant or super giant star.

Strohmayer, Tod E.

2009-01-01

56

Emergence of magnetic flux on the Sun as the cause of a 158-day periodicity in sunspot areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temporal behaviour of solar activity (as manifested in sunspots) has long been debated. The 11-year periodicity in the total number of sunspots is well established observationally, as is a periodicity of 152-158 days in the occurrence of high-energy solar flares that was seen during cycle 21 (refs 1-7). The cause of the latter periodicity is not clear, although several mechanisms have been proposed. Here we report a time-frequency analysis, using the wavelet technique, of sunspot areas between 1874 and 1993, which reveals a 158-day periodicity coincident with that of energetic solar flares. The signature of this periodicity is strongest in cycle 19, which was the most intense cycle of the century. The periodicity disappears after cycle 21. The analysis shows that the 158-day periodicity in both high-energy solar flares and sunspots is related to a periodic emergence of magnetic flux which only appears near the maxima of some solar cycles.

Oliver, R.; Ballester, J. L.; Baudin, F.

1998-08-01

57

78 FR 36560 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: FHA Lender Approval, Annual Renewal, Periodic...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Information Collection: FHA Lender Approval, Annual Renewal, Periodic Updates and Noncompliance Reporting by FHA Approved Lenders...Information Collection: FHA Lender Approval, Annual Renewal, Periodic Updates and Noncompliance Reporting by FHA Approved...

2013-06-18

58

XMM-Newton EPIC & OM observations of Her X-1 over the 35 day beat period  

E-print Network

We present the results of a series of XMM-Newton EPIC and OM observations of Her X-1, spread over a wide range of the 35 day precession period. We confirm that the spin modulation of the neutron star is weak or absent in the low state - in marked contrast to the main or short-on states. During the states of higher intensity, we observe a substructure in the broad soft X-ray modulation below ~1keV, revealing the presence of separate peaks which reflect the structure seen at higher energies. The strong fluorescence emission line at ~6.4keV is detected in all observations (apart from one taken in the middle of eclipse), with higher line energy, width and normalisation during the main-on state. In addition, we report the detection of a second line near 7keV in 10 of the 15 observations taken during the low-intensity states of the system. This feature is rather weak and not significantly detected during the main-on state, when the strong continuum emission dominates the X-ray spectrum. Spin resolved spectroscopy just after the rise to the main-on state shows that the variation of the Fe Kalpha line at 6.4 keV is correlated with the soft X-ray emission. This confirms our past finding based on the XMM-Newton observations made further into the main-on state, and indicates the common origin for the thermal component and the Fe Kalpha line detected at these phases. We also find that the normalisation of the 6.4keV line during the low state is correlated with the binary orbital phase, having a broad maximum centered near phi_(orbit) ~ 0.5. We discuss these observations in the context of previous observations, investigate the origin of the soft and hard X-rays and consider the emission site of the 6.4keV and 7keV emission lines.

Silvia Zane; Gavin Ramsay; Mario A. Jimenez-Garate; Jan Willem den Herder; Charles J. Hailey

2004-01-23

59

Periodical batch culture of the immobilized growing fungi Sporotrichum cellulophilum producing cellulase in the nonwoven materials  

SciTech Connect

The thermophilic fungus Sporotrichum cellulophilum was immobilized with nonwoven materials for cellulase production. The cellulose powder concentration in the medium was an important factor controlling cellulase production. When the cellulase powder concentration in the nonwoven materials was more than 4%, cellulase production was suppressed. The growth of the immobilized fungi depended on the spaces in the nonwoven materials. Immobilized growing fungi were retained by the nonwoven materials, and the supernatant medium did not contain mycelia. The heat stability of the immobilized growing fungus was higher than that of the free fungus. The immobilized fungus gave the same FPA as the free mycelium, but the lag time for cellulase production in the immobilized fungus was longer. It was necessary for the medium to be changed in order to get the immobilized growing fungus to continue producing cellulase. In this instance there was no difference of lag time in comparsion with the free cells, and the supply of cellulose powder and polypepton was reduced to two-thirds. After 23 exchanges of the medium (2.6 mg cellulose powder/1 cubic cm nonwoven materials) FPA value was maintained. The periodic batch culture was continued for 69 days. 12 references.

Tamada, M.; Kasai, N.; Kumakura, M.; Kaetsu, I.

1986-08-01

60

76 FR 16031 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation Kennedy Center Visitors...and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation Kennedy Center Visitors...allow ECA/P/V as part of their larger Sports and Culture Evaluation to conduct a...

2011-03-22

61

76 FR 16032 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation IWP Survey, OMB...and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation IWP Survey. OMB...allow ECA/P/V as part of their larger Sports and Culture Evaluation to conduct a...

2011-03-22

62

76 FR 16033 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation IVLP Survey, OMB...and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation IVLP Survey. OMB...allow ECA/P/V as part of their larger Sports and Culture Evaluation to conduct a...

2011-03-22

63

GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #20: 60-DAY PUBLIC COMMENT PERIOD FOR "OVERVIEW" REPORT FROM U.S. NATIONAL ASSESSMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The draft "Overview" report from the U.S. National Assessment was released today for a 60-day public comment period. The report, entitled "Climate Change Impacts on the United States: The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change," was written by the National Asses...

64

Auroral and thermospheric response to the 9 day periodic variations in the dayside reconnection rate in 2005  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we seek the means to forecast changes in thermospheric composition. In particular, we focus on a period where there was a strong 9 day periodicity in the high-latitude drivers, as this provides the best opportunity to explore our ability to determine the signature of the drivers that change the thermosphere. Using measurements from ACE and TIMED/GUVI in 2005, we establish a link among the dayside magnetic merging rate (MMR), auroral hemispheric power (HP), thermospheric neutral density, and temperature as all of them showed a clear 9 day variation. The magnitude of the 9 day variation in the thermospheric temperature increased from the equator (?latitude? < 30) to the midlatitude (30 < ?latitude? < 45) and reached its peak values at high latitudes (45 < ?latitude? < 90). These observations confirm that changes in thermospheric composition are created locally at high latitude (i.e., in the auroral zone). These composition changes then expanded to lower latitudes due to the global thermosphere circulation. The correlation among the drivers (MMR and HP) and the thermospheric density/temperature provides an opportunity to establish a forecast relationship between solar wind and IMF measurements and thermospheric conditions. The 9 day periodic variation in HP and the thermosphere also leads to periodic variations in ionosphere electron density/conductance and field-aligned currents. All these changes strongly impact satellite drag, satellite surface charging, and radio frequency propagation.

Zhang, Yongliang; Paxton, Larry J.; Morrison, Daniel

2010-07-01

65

Finding a 24 Day Orbital Period for the X-Ray Binary 1A 1118-616  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report the first determination of the binary period and the orbital ephemeris of the Be X-ray binary containing the pulsar IA 1118-616 (35 years after the discovery of the source). The orbital period is found to be P(sub orb) = 24.0+/-0.4 days. The source was observed by RXTE during its last big X-ray outburst in January 2009, peaking at MJD 54845.4. This outburst was sampled by taking short observations every few days, covering an elapsed time comparable to the orbital period. Using the phase connection technique, pulse arrival time delays could be measured and an orbital solution determined. The data are consistent with a circular orbit, the time of 90 degrees longitude was found to be T,/2 = MJD 54845.37(10), coincident with the peak X-ray flux.

Staubert, R.; Pottschmidt, K.; Doroshenko, V.; Wilms, J.; Suchy, S.; Rothschild, R.; Santangelo, A.

2010-01-01

66

Manifestations of solar activity and short-period variations of the duration of the earth day  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of solar activity on velocity fluctuations of the earth's diurnal motion and angular (kinetic) momentum of the earth atmosphere is investigated. The FFT method is used to calculate the power spectrum for the variations in the length of day (LOD), atmospheric angular momentum (AAM), and for some indices of solar activity on a 20-200-d time scale. The obtained

L. S. Levitskij; L. V. Rykhlova

1992-01-01

67

DISJUNCTURE AMONG CLASSIC PERIOD CULTURAL LANDSCAPES IN THE TUXTLA MOUNTAINS, SOUTHERN VERACRUZ, MEXICO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teotihuacan was the most influential city in the Classic Mesoamerican worldsystem. Like other influential cities in the ancient world, however, Teotihuacan did not homogenously affect the various cultural landscapes that thrived in Mesoamerica during the Classic period (300-900 CE). Even where strong central Mexican influences appear outside the Basin of Mexico, the nature, extent, and strength of these influences are

Wesley Durrell Stoner

2011-01-01

68

Determination of Period of Cultural Occupation at The Harriet Johnson Site (FS # 05-891)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses lithic analysis, floral analysis, and radiocarbon dating to determine the period of cultural occupation at the Harriet Johnson Site located in the Superior National Forest (SNF) of northeastern Minnesota and partially excavated in the summers of 2004 and 2005. Statistical analysis of the artifact assemblage currently on loan from the SNF and housed at the Mississippi Valley

Nicole Lohman

2007-01-01

69

Comparison of SAFER Behavior Assessment Results in Shelter Dogs at Intake and After a 3-Day Acclimation Period.  

PubMed

In this study, it was hypothesized that different results would be obtained by canine behavior assessments performed within 24 hr of shelter intake (Day 0) and after a 3-day acclimation period (Day 3). Safety Assessment for Evaluating Rehoming assessments were performed on 33 dogs at 2 municipal shelters. Agreements between Day 0 and Day 3 varied among subtests, and no consistent temporal patterns were observed. Weighted kappa statistics for each subtest ranged from .28 to .78, and percentage discordance was 0% to 18%. In a 2nd analysis, subtests skipped due to serious aggression were replaced with scores corresponding to serious aggression, and missing values for the Food subtest were replaced with scores for no aggression if the dog did not eat. For subtests skipped due to severe aggression, more than 50% of the dogs had scores indicating low aggression on the other assessment. Eight of 16 dogs who did not eat on Day 0 ate on Day 3; 2 showed aggression. Until the ideal time to test can be identified, it should be based on the individual dog's welfare status, and testing of dogs showing severe stress should be avoided. PMID:25603466

Bennett, Sara L; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Walker, Sheryl L; Placer, Margaret; Litster, Annette

2015-01-01

70

The 54-day orbital period of AX J1820.5-1434 unveiled by Swift  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The hard X-ray survey that Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) has been performing since late 2004 provides a considerable database for a large number of sources, whose hard X-ray emission are poorly known. Aims: We exploit the BAT survey archive to improve the temporal and spectral characterization of the Galactic hard-X-ray sources. We focus here on the study of the high mass X-ray binary AX J1820.5-1434. Methods: All the data relevant to AX J1820.5-1434 were extracted from the BAT survey archive and analyzed using a folding technique to search for periodical modulations. A broad-band spectral analysis was also performed, complementing the BAT spectrum with the available Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and XMM-Newton pointed observations. Results: A timing analysis revealed the detection of a coherent signal at P0 = 54.0 ± 0.4 d, which we interpret as the orbital period of the binary system. When folded with a period of P0, the light curve shows an asymmetric profile with a minimum roughly consistent with zero intensity. The broadband spectral analysis coupling Swift-XRT, XMM-Newton, and Swift-BAT spectra confirms that the source emission is well modeled with a strongly absorbed power law with no evidence of a high energy exponential cutoff.

Segreto, A.; La Parola, V.; Cusumano, G.; D'Aì, A.; Masetti, N.; Campana, S.

2013-10-01

71

76 FR 33395 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collections: ECA Sports & Culture Evaluation Surveys  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Culture Evaluation, International Visitor Leadership Program (IVLP) Survey. OMB Control...Respondents: ECA's International Visitor Leadership Program (IVLP) participants who were...Culture Evaluation, International Visitor Leadership Program (IVLP) Survey:...

2011-06-08

72

76 FR 16029 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation Envoys Survey, OMB...and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation Envoys Survey OMB...Respondents: Envoy participants of the Sports Envoys Program conducted by ECA from...

2011-03-22

73

75 FR 60490 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...Office of Policy and Evaluation, Evaluation Division...Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...Office of Policy and Evaluation, Evaluation Division...Office: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...Office of Policy and Evaluation, Evaluation...

2010-09-30

74

The role of 3D microenvironmental organization in MCF-7 epithelial–mesenchymal transition after 7 culture days  

SciTech Connect

We present a multi-technique study on in vitro epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human MCF-7 cells cultured on electrospun scaffolds of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA), with random and aligned fiber orientations. Our aim is to investigate the morphological and genetic characteristics induced by extracellular matrix in tumor cells cultured in different 3D environments, and at different time points. Cell vitality was assessed with AlamarBlue at days 1, 3, 5 and 7. Scanning electron microscopy was performed at culture days 3 and 7. Immunohistochemistry (for E-cadherin, ?-catenin, cytokeratins, nucleophosmin, tubulin, Ki-67 and vimentin), immunofluorescence (for F-actin) western blot (for E-cadherin, ?-catenin and vimentin) and transmission electron microscopy were carried out at day 7. An EMT gene array followed by PCR analysis confirmed the regulation of selected genes. At day 7, scanning electron microscopy on aligned-PLA revealed spindle-shaped cells gathered in buds and ribbon-like structures, with a higher nucleolar/nuclear ratio and a loss in E-cadherin and ?-catenin at immunohistochemistry and western blot. An up-regulation of SMAD2, TGF-?2, TFPI2 and SOX10 was found in aligned-PLA compared to random-PLA cultured cells. The topography of the extracellular matrix has a role in tumor EMT, and a more aggressive phenotype characterizes MCF-7 cells cultured on aligned-PLA scaffold. -- Highlights: • After 7 culture days an aligned-PLA scaffold induces a spindle shape to MCF-7 cells. • Despite these changes, the aligned MCF-7 cells keep an epithelial phenotype. • The extracellular environment alone influences the E-cadherin/?-catenin axis. • The extracellular environment can promote the epithelial–mesenchymal transition.

Foroni, Laura [Pathology Unit, Department of Haematology, Oncology and Clinical Pathology, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna University (Italy); Vasuri, Francesco, E-mail: vasurifrancesco@libero.it [Pathology Unit, Department of Haematology, Oncology and Clinical Pathology, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna University (Italy); Chair of Vascular Surgery, Department of Specialistic Surgery and Anaesthesiological Sciences, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna University (Italy); Valente, Sabrina [Pathology Unit, Department of Haematology, Oncology and Clinical Pathology, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna University (Italy); Gualandi, Chiara [Department of Chemistry “G. Ciamician” and National Consortium of Materials Science and Technology (INSTM, RU Bologna), Bologna University (Italy); Focarete, Maria Letizia [Department of Chemistry “G. Ciamician” and National Consortium of Materials Science and Technology (INSTM, RU Bologna), Bologna University (Italy); Health Science and Technologies–Interdepartmental Center for Industrial Research (HST-ICIR), Bologna University (Italy); Caprara, Giacomo [Pathology Unit, Department of Haematology, Oncology and Clinical Pathology, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna University (Italy); Scandola, Mariastella [Department of Chemistry “G. Ciamician” and National Consortium of Materials Science and Technology (INSTM, RU Bologna), Bologna University (Italy); D'Errico-Grigioni, Antonia; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea [Pathology Unit, Department of Haematology, Oncology and Clinical Pathology, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, Bologna University (Italy)

2013-06-10

75

The response of middle atmospheric ozone to solar UV irradiance variations with a period of 27 days  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A one-dimensional photochemical-dynamical-radiative time-dependent model was used to study the response of middle atmospheric temperature and ozone to solar UV irradiance variations with the period of 27 days. The model solar UV O(x), HO(x), NO(x), and CIO(x)families and modeled solar UV variations. The amplitude of the primary temperature response to the solar UV variation is plus 0.4 K at 85-90 km with a phase lag of about 6 days. A secondary maximum response of plus 0.3 K at 45-50 km appears with a phase lag of 1 day. There is a maximum positive ozone response to the 27-day solar UV oscillation of 2.5 percent at 80-90 km with a phase lag of about 10 days after the solar irradiance maximum. At 70 km the ozone response is about 1.2 percent and is out of phase with the solar variation. In the upper stratosphere (40-50 km) the relative ozone variation is small, about 0.2 percent to 0.3 percent, and there is a negative phase of about 4 days between the ozone and solar oscillations. These oscillations are in phase in the middle stratosphere (35-40 km) where there is again a maximum relative response of about 0.6 percent. The reasons for these ozone amplitude and phase variations are discussed.

Chen, LI; Brasseur, Guy; London, Julius

1994-01-01

76

Vida PURA: A Cultural Adaptation of Screening and Brief Intervention to Reduce Unhealthy Drinking among Latino Day Laborers.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Background: Brief intervention is known to reduce drinking in primary care, however because health care access is limited for Latino immigrants, traditional brief interventions are unlikely to reach this population. Methods: Using Barrera and Castro's framework, our study aims to culturally adapt a screening and brief intervention program to reduce unhealthy alcohol use among Latino day laborers, a particularly vulnerable group of Latino immigrant men. We conducted 18 interviews with Latino day laborers and 13 interviews with mental health and substance use providers that serve Latino immigrant men. Interviews were conducted until saturation of themes was reached. Themes from interviews were used to identify sources of mismatch between traditional screening and brief intervention and our target population. Results: Unhealthy alcohol use was common,culturally accepted, and helped relieve immigration-related stressors. Men had limited knowledge about how to change their behavior. Men preferred to receive information from trusted providers in Spanish. Men faced significant barriers to accessing health and social services, but were open to receiving brief interventions in community settings. Findings were used to design Vida PURA, a preliminary adaptation design of brief intervention for Latino day laborers. Key adaptations include providing brief intervention at a day labor worker center, by promotores trained to incorporate the social and cultural context of drinking for Latino immigrant men. Conclusions: Culturally adapted brief intervention may help reduce unhealthy drinking in this underserved population. PMID:25153904

Ornelas, India J; Allen, Claire; Vaughan, Catalina; Williams, Emily C; Negi, Nalini

2014-08-25

77

Clouds in North Polar Region Tracked by MOC Over Five Day Period  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is mid-summer in the northern hemisphere of Mars--a time of enhanced heating that leads to the release of water vapor into the atmosphere. In the north polar region, temperature differences between bright areas of year-round ice and dark areas of sand and rock create strong winds that mix the atmosphere and create waves of clouds that swirl around the polar cap. Sometimes, as seen during the Viking mission, these winds form tight cyclones; other times, they weave an intricate pattern reflecting the turbulence of the circulation of the atmosphere.

This animation shows four days of observations of a representative portion of the northern hemisphere. Five Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) wide angle image pairs(red/blue filters) were combined. These image pairs were warped to create a polar stereographic map projection, which is used by cartographers to present polar areas as if viewed from above. The edges of the pictures move back and forth because of the slightly different path taken by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft on each of the five orbits used in this sequence. Seen in the right-hand side of the image is the permanent ice cap and the dark areas that surround it.

The motion of the clouds viewed in this image is typical for this season on Mars, and shows forms often seen on Earth. Waves of clouds are moving from the upper portion of the frame towards the bottom (towards the east northeast). This motion is most likely the movement of a moister portion of the martian atmosphere under the influence of circumpolar winds. Early in the sequence, a prominent circular band of clouds moves almost due east, rotating slightly counter-clockwise. Towards the end of the sequence, the circle dissipates and a linear set of clouds propagates towards the bottom of the frame. Linear cloud speeds vary from day today, averaging about 16 km/hr (10 miles/hr); rotational rates appear to have been less than 10 km/hr (6 miles/hr).

Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

1999-01-01

78

Cryopreservation of a Small Number of Fresh Human Testicular Spermatozoa and Testicular Spermatozoa Cultured In Vitro for 3 Days in an Empty Zona Pellucida  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that the motility of human testicular sperm can be improved when they are cultured in vitro for a few days. The purpose of this study was to determine whether it is better to freeze human testicular spermatozoa on the day of biopsy (fresh) or after they were cultured for 3 days. A modified, single-sperm freezing technique was

JIAEN LIU; XUE-ZHONG ZHENG; THEODORE A. BARAMKI; GAIL COMPTON; RICARDO A. YAZIGI; EUGENE KATZ

79

Multiparametric temporal analysis of the Caco-2/TC7 demonstrated functional and differentiated monolayers as early as 14 days of culture.  

PubMed

Reducing the differentiation period for obtaining an in vitro intestinal barrier model is required to reduce the duration and cost for drug screening assays. In this frame, the Caco-2/TC7 subclone differentiation state was investigated from day 0 (D0) to day 32 (D32). As such, the expression of 45 genes (including cell junction, cell polarization, cell functionality, drug transport and metabolism genes) was followed throughout the 32days. In parallel, the monolayer polarization and the formation of the cellular junctions were characterized by the immuno-staining of occludin, claudin-1 and actin proteins. The cell monolayer permeability was analyzed via transepithelial electric resistance measurements and paracellular transport of Lucifer Yellow. The P-gp efflux efficiency was assessed by rhodamine 123 transport. Alkaline phosphate activity was quantified to assess the cell differentiation. Three stages of differentiation were observed using the clustering of principal component analysis of the RTqPCR data and the overall assays. From D0 to D10, cells were in a proliferation stage and under-differentiated; from D14 to D21 a stable differentiation stage was reached; from D25 to D32 the epithelium seemed to enter into a post-differentiated stage. This study demonstrates that Caco-2/TC7 cells are functional and ready for use in drug screening permeability assays from 14days in culture when compared with conventional 21days for Caco-2 cells. In addition, this study provides a refined set of data allowing temporal and multi scale investigations, due to the intracellular kinetics and mRNA levels that can be correlated with membrane protein kinetics and functional extracellular activities. Therefore, shorter time in culture combined with a better knowledge of the cells during the time in culture will in turn help to improve the quality and cost of Caco-2/TC7 assays for drug development. PMID:25725134

Zeller, Perrine; Bricks, Thibault; Vidal, Guillaume; Jacques, Sébastien; Anton, Pauline M; Leclerc, Eric

2015-05-25

80

Effect of dark/light periods on the polyhydroxyalkanoate production of a photosynthetic mixed culture.  

PubMed

This work studied the possibility of operating a viable polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) producing photosynthetic mixed culture (PMC) under dark/light periods without aeration. The culture was subjected to a feast and famine regime, being fed in the dark phase and entering into famine during the light phase. Throughout consecutive feast and famine dark/light periods, the PMC became enriched in PHA accumulating organisms, where non-PHA producing algae that can grow under continuous illumination were out-competed. The very low algae levels enabled greater light and carbon source availability for PHA accumulating bacteria, leading to higher metabolic rates and PHA levels. The PMC reached a PHA content of 30% PHA/VSS, and doubled its specific PHA production rate in relation to PMCs operated previously under continuous illumination. This new process takes a further step towards operating a more cost effective PMC system for PHA production, opening up the possibility for direct sunlight utilization in the future. PMID:24077157

Fradinho, J C; Oehmen, A; Reis, M A M

2013-11-01

81

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE 0.94-DAY PERIOD TRANSITING PLANETARY SYSTEM WASP-18  

SciTech Connect

We present high-precision photometry of five consecutive transits of WASP-18, an extrasolar planetary system with one of the shortest orbital periods known. Through the use of telescope defocusing we achieve a photometric precision of 0.47-0.83 mmag per observation over complete transit events. The data are analyzed using the JKTEBOP code and three different sets of stellar evolutionary models. We find the mass and radius of the planet to be M {sub b} = 10.43 +- 0.30 +- 0.24 M {sub Jup} and R {sub b} = 1.165 +- 0.055 +- 0.014 R {sub Jup} (statistical and systematic errors), respectively. The systematic errors in the orbital separation and the stellar and planetary masses, arising from the use of theoretical predictions, are of a similar size to the statistical errors and set a limit on our understanding of the WASP-18 system. We point out that seven of the nine known massive transiting planets (M {sub b} > 3 M {sub Jup}) have eccentric orbits, whereas significant orbital eccentricity has been detected for only four of the 46 less-massive planets. This may indicate that there are two different populations of transiting planets, but could also be explained by observational biases. Further radial velocity observations of low-mass planets will make it possible to choose between these two scenarios.

Southworth, John; Anderson, D. R.; Maxted, P. F. L. [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Newcastle-under Lyme, ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Hinse, T. C. [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh, BT61 9DG (United Kingdom); Dominik, M.; Mathiasen, M.; Browne, P. [SUPA, University of St. Andrews, School of Physics and Astronomy, North Haugh, St. Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Glitrup, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade, 8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Joergensen, U. G.; Harpsoee, K. [Niels Bohr Institute and Centre for Star and Planet Formation, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen Oe (Denmark); Liebig, C.; Maier, G. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Heidelberg, Moenchhofstrasse 12-14, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Bozza, V.; Calchi Novati, S.; Mancini, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica 'E. R. Caianiello', Universita di Salerno, Baronissi (Italy); Burgdorf, M. [Deutsches SOFIA Institut, NASA Ames Research Center, Mail Stop 211-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Dreizler, S.; Hessman, F.; Hundertmark, M. [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany); Finet, F., E-mail: jkt@astro.keele.ac.u [Institut d'Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de Liege, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

2009-12-10

82

Synchronization of the cultures of Scenedesmus quadricauda by optimalizing the length of the light period  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments revealed that the synchronized cultures ofScenedesmus quadricauda, strainGreifswald\\/15, must be kept under continuous illumination throughout the whole growth phase (from the release of daughter coenobia up\\u000a to the moment when all cells are capable of further reproduction). The length of the light period is among others the function\\u000a of the suspension density. With regard to these facts a method

J. Komárek; J. R?ži?ka; J. Simmer

1968-01-01

83

Planktonic and biofilm community characterization and Salmonella resistance of 14-day old chicken cecal microflora derived continuous-flow cultures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

These studies were initiated to compare the composition of GIT bacterial communities in birds during the transition period in age where their susceptibility to Salmonella shifts to resistance. One of the challenges to developing probiotics is to develop an efficacious culture of minimal diversity, ...

84

Factors influencing the chance of cows being pregnant 30 days after the herd voluntary waiting period.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to study factors affecting a reproductive performance indicator at the cow level adjusted for herd management strategy. Associations between the outcome variable, pregnant or not at the herd voluntary waiting period (VWP) plus 30d (pregnant at VWP+30), and the predictor variables were analyzed using a multivariable, generalized estimation equations model that adjusted for clustering of the data at the herd level. The statistical analysis was stratified on parity. In total, 132,721 cows were retained for analyses, of which 29,113 (22%) were pregnant at VWP+30d. Of the nonpregnant cows, 81,483 cows had records of artificial inseminations (AI) and 22,125 cows had no records of AI. The chance of pregnancy was higher for cows of the Swedish Red and for other/crossbreeds compared with Swedish Holstein, for cows from herds with high heat detection efficiency compared with cows from herds with medium and low heat detection efficiency, for cows from herds with long VWP (i.e., >51d) compared with cows from herds with short VWP (<51d), and for cows in freestalls compared with cows in tiestalls. The chance for pregnancy was lower for cows with severe problems at claw trimming compared with cows with no problems at trimming (only for second- and higher-parity cows), for cows that had a record of reproduction-related disease, for cows that had a record of any other disease compared with cows without record, for second- and higher-parity cows with records of dystocia compared with cows with no record of dystocia, for first-parity cows in the group with the highest milk yield compared with first-parity cows in the group with the lowest milk yield, for cows of third and higher parity in the group with the lowest milk yield compared with cows in higher yielding groups, for cows bred in summer compared with those bred in winter-spring (not significant for first-parity cows), and for cows with a twin birth had compared with cows with a single birth. We observed associations of the dose-response type, such that when the milk fat-to-protein ratio increased, the chance for pregnancy decreased, and as the somatic cell count increased, the chance for pregnancy decreased. In conclusion, factors that are known to affect reproductive efficiency also affect the chance of cows being pregnant at the herd VWP plus 30d. PMID:24485688

Löf, E; Gustafsson, H; Emanuelson, U

2014-04-01

85

The Day Bolivian Students Came to School Motivating Students through Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Like many elementary foreign language teachers, the author traveled from room to room to teach. Each room had different materials and a different classroom culture. This article describes how the author taught her students about Bolivia and how to motivate them through culture. It discusses a service-learning project that brings life-changing…

Davin, Kristin

2010-01-01

86

Global Characteristics of the Correlation and Time Lag Between Solar and Ionospheric Parameters in the 27-day Period  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 27-day variations of topside ionosphere are investigated using the in-situ electron density measurements from the CHAMP planar Langmuir probe and GRACE K-band ranging system. As the two satellite systems orbit at the altitudes of approx. 370 km and approx. 480 km, respectively, the satellite data sets are greatly valuable for examining the electron density variations in the vicinity of F2-peak. In a 27-day period, the electron density measurements from the satellites are in good agreements with the solar flux, except during the solar minimum period. The time delays are mostly 1-2 day and represent the hemispherical asymmetry. The globally-estimated spatial patterns of the correlation between solar flux and in-situ satellite measurements show poor correlations in the (magnetic) equatorial region, which are not found from the ground measurements of vertically-integrated electron content. We suggest that the most plausible cause for the poor correlation is the vertical movement of ionization due to atmospheric dynamic processes that is not controlled by the solar extreme ultraviolet radiation.

Lee, Choon-Ki; Han, Shin-Chan; Dieter,Bilitza; Ki-Weon,Seo

2012-01-01

87

Another new small-amplitude red variable star with period of about one day in the globular cluster M4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A66 is a red star located at the lowest end of the red giant branch (near the top of the sub-giant branch) of the globular cluster M4. According to its location on the C-M diagram, A66 may be a cluster member. No proper motion and radial velocity determinations are available up to date. It is discovered that A66 is a small-amplitude new variable star with a period of about one day and the peak to peak amplitude is about 0.05 mag in V. However, if its membership can be confirmed by proper motion and radial velocity determinations, the cause of light variation may not be pulsation. This is because according to Xiong's theory, a red star at such low luminosity can not pulsate at a period longer than 0.1 day. But with the amplitude and period of A66, it is difficult to imagine that the cause of variability is due to EW type eclipsing of a binary or rotation of a spotted star. Otherwise A66 is not a cluster member.

Yao, B. A.; Sheng, C. J.; Zhang, C. S.; Hu, H. M.; Lin, Q.

2007-01-01

88

Optimal Culture Incubation Time in Orthopedic Device-Associated Infections: a Retrospective Analysis of Prolonged 14-Day Incubation  

PubMed Central

Accurate diagnosis of orthopedic device-associated infections can be challenging. Culture of tissue biopsy specimens is often considered the gold standard; however, there is currently no consensus on the ideal incubation time for specimens. The aim of our study was to assess the yield of a 14-day incubation protocol for tissue biopsy specimens from revision surgery (joint replacements and internal fixation devices) in a general orthopedic and trauma surgery setting. Medical records were reviewed retrospectively in order to identify cases of infection according to predefined diagnostic criteria. From August 2009 to March 2012, 499 tissue biopsy specimens were sampled from 117 cases. In 70 cases (59.8%), at least one sample showed microbiological growth. Among them, 58 cases (82.9%) were considered infections and 12 cases (17.1%) were classified as contaminations. The median time to positivity in the cases of infection was 1 day (range, 1 to 10 days), compared to 6 days (range, 1 to 11 days) in the cases of contamination (P < 0.001). Fifty-six (96.6%) of the infection cases were diagnosed within 7 days of incubation. In conclusion, the results of our study show that the incubation of tissue biopsy specimens beyond 7 days is not productive in a general orthopedic and trauma surgery setting. Prolonged 14-day incubation might be of interest in particular situations, however, in which the prevalence of slow-growing microorganisms and anaerobes is higher. PMID:24153117

Wahl, Peter; Fracheboud, Dominique; Gautier, Emanuel

2014-01-01

89

Cultural/Favorite Recipe Day: Strengthening Approaches to Increase Culturally Diverse Foods Served in Head Start Meals  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One approach to halting the childhood obesity epidemic has been the modification of foods available to children during the school day. In recent years there has been an increased focus on obesity prevention efforts among children ages birth to 5 and the role of child care settings in prevention efforts. Head Start serves as an important venue for…

Hoffman, Jessica A.; Agrawal, Tara; Carter, Sonia; Grinder, AnnMarie; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen

2012-01-01

90

76 FR 16030 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation Kennedy Center Mentor Survey...Affairs, Office of Policy and Evaluation, Evaluation Division (ECA/P/ V). ...SV-yyyy- ) will be generated as needed. Respondents: Kennedy...

2011-03-22

91

76 FR 16031 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...  

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...Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation Sports Surveys. OMB Control...Affairs, Office of Policy and Evaluation, Evaluation Division (ECA/P/V) Form...SV-yyyy- ) will be generated as needed. Respondents: Sports...

2011-03-22

92

76 FR 16033 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

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2011-03-22

93

Use of a lactobacillus-based probiotic culture to reduce Salmonella in day of hatch broilers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A commercially available Lactobacillus probiotic (FM-B11™ Ivesco LLC) (B11) significantly reduced Salmonella recovery from day-of-hatch chicks in several studies. For all experiments, day-of-hatch male broiler chicks (n=40 per pen) were challenged with approximately 10**4 cfu per chick of Salmonell...

94

Another new small-amplitude red variable star with period of about one day in the globular cluster M4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A66 is a red star located at the lowest end of the red giant branch (near the top of the sub-giant branch) of the globular cluster M4. According to its location on the GM diagram, A66 may be a cluster member. No proper motion and radial velocity determinations are available up to date. We discovered that A66 is a small-amplitude new variable star with a period of about one day and the peak to peak amplitude is about 0.05 mag in V. However, if its membership can be confirmed by proper motion and radial velocity determinations, the cause of light variation may be not pulsation. This is because according to Xiong's theory, a red star at such low luminosity can not pulsate at a period longer than 0.1 day. Then other causes such as EW type eclipsing variable star or rotation of a spotted star might be responsible. Otherwise A66 is not a cluster member.

Yao, Bao-an; Sheng, Chang-jun; Zhang, Chun-sheng; Hu, Han-ming; Lin, Qing

2006-10-01

95

Continuous cultures of macrophages derived from the 8-day epiblast of the pig.  

PubMed

Secondary macrophage cell cultures were generated from the primary culture of epiblasts of 8-d-old pig blastocysts. The epiblast-derived macrophagelike (EDM) cells have a morphology and ameboid behavior that is typical of tissue histocytes. The cells reacted positively with monoclonal antibodies specific for pig granulocyte-macrophage lineage cells, and were not reactive with monoclonal antibodies specific for pig B and T lymphocytes. Marked phagocytic behavior and the formation of phagosomes were demonstrated following incubation with FITC-labeled bacteria. The EDM cells stained positively for nonspecific acid esterase that was not inhibited by sodium fluoride. DiI-acetylated-LDL was rapidly taken up by the cells. Transmission electron microscopy of the EDM cells showed phagolysosomes, numerous cytoplasmic vacuoles, large, lobed nuclei, and numerous pseudopods or filopodia at the cell surface. Strong reactivity of the cells with anti-CD14 monoclonal antibody was observed. Further, cytotoxic activity was produced from the EDM cells after exposure to lipopolysaccharide in a concentration and time-dependent manner. The cultures could be maintained and expanded for several months on STO co-culture. Their derivation from the epiblast of the pig demonstrates the possibility of obtaining hemopoietic cell cultures from the preimplantation blastocysts of all mammals. PMID:8946226

Talbot, N C; Worku, M; Paape, M J; Grier, P; Rexroad, C E; Pursel, V G

1996-10-01

96

Ecological momentary assessment of maternal cortisol profiles over a multiple-day period predict the length of human gestation  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Biobehavioral models of prenatal stress highlight the importance of the stress-related hormone cortisol. However, the association between maternal cortisol levels and length of human gestation require further investigation because most previous studies have relied on one-time cortisol measures assessed at varying gestational ages. This study assessed whether ecological momentary assessment (EMA) of cortisol sampling improves the ability to predict the length of human gestation. In addition, associations between EMA based measures of psychological state (negative affect) with cortisol levels during pregnancy were assessed. METHODS Over a 4-day period, 25 healthy pregnant women (mean gestational age at assessment 23.4 ± 9.1 weeks) collected 7 salivary samples per day for assessment of cortisol and provided a rating of negative affect every waking hour using an electronic diary. RESULTS Higher salivary cortisol concentrations at awakening and throughout the day (p=.001) as well as a flatter cortisol response to awakening (p=.005) were associated with shorter length of gestation. Women delivering at 36 weeks gestations had 13% higher salivary cortisol levels at awakening than women delivering at 41 weeks gestation. The EMA-based measure of negative affect was associated with higher cortisol throughout the day (p=.006), but not to gestational length (p=.641). The one-time measure of cortisol was not associated with length of gestation, and traditional retrospective recall measures of negative affect were not associated with cortisol. CONCLUSION Our findings support the ecological validity of repeated ambulatory assessments of cortisol in pregnancy and their ability to improve the prediction of adverse birth outcomes. PMID:21700714

Entringer, Sonja; Buss, Claudia; Andersen, Judith; Chicz-DeMet, Aleksandra; Wadhwa, Pathik D.

2011-01-01

97

Podcasts as a Learning Tool: German Language and Culture Every Day  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Podcasts provide a straightforward opportunity to stay connected with language, culture, and recent events of German-speaking countries. Podcasts offer clearly articulated, authentic material that can be automatically and regularly delivered to your computer and classrooms; continuously exposing students and teachers to German. This article…

Schmidt, Johannes

2008-01-01

98

A "Day in the Lives" of Four Resilient Youths: Cultural Roots of Resilience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grounded in the examples of four impoverished, relocated youths (two Sesotho-speaking orphans in South Africa and two Mexican immigrants in Canada), we explore cultural factors as potential roots of resilience. We triangulate rich qualitative findings (visual, dialogical, and observational) to foreground the particular, as well as acknowledge the…

Theron, Linda; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Didkowsky, Nora; Lau, Cindy; Liebenberg, Linda; Ungar, Michael

2011-01-01

99

Comparison of PCR versus Culture for Detection of Mycobacterium bovis after Experimental Inoculation of Various Matrices Held under Environmental Conditions for Extended Periods  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of a molecular detection technique (nested PCR) with that of mycobacterial culture in the detection of Mycobacterium bovis DNA in a set of 687 samples of experimentally inoculated environmental substrates (hay, soil, corn, water) exposed to natural weather conditions in Michigan. Four replicates of each substrate were used; half were autoclaved for sterilization, all were inoculated with 50,000 CFU of M. bovis isolated from Michigan livestock, and all were placed in outdoor enclosures, with half under shade and the other half exposed to direct sunlight. Samples were tested for the presence of M. bovis during one 12-month period, with monthly sample testing and during three 12-week periods (winter, spring, summer) with weekly sample testing. Samples were subjected to mycobacterial culture for isolation of M. bovis and a nested PCR with two primer sets targeting IS6110 to detect M. bovis DNA. In 128 samples tested during the 12-month period, M. bovis was not detectable by culture after 2 months but M. bovis DNA was detectable by PCR for at least 7 months. Of the 559 samples tested during the 12-week periods, PCR detected M. bovis DNA for up to 88 days in all of the sample types. There were no significant differences in the detection of M. bovis between shade and sun samples or between sterile and unsterilized samples, regardless of the detection method (PCR or culture). For use in epidemiologic investigations, the PCR assay was more rapid than mycobacterial culture, was not hindered by contaminating organisms, and detected M. bovis DNA in environment samples much longer after initial contamination than mycobacterial culture did. PMID:23956383

Adams, Angela P.; Bolin, Steven R.; Fine, Amanda E.; Bolin, Carole A.

2013-01-01

100

Effects of a Seven Day Overload-Period of High-Intensity Training on Performance and Physiology of Competitive Cyclists  

PubMed Central

Objectives Competitive endurance athletes commonly undertake periods of overload training in the weeks prior to major competitions. This investigation examined the effects of two seven-day high-intensity overload training regimes (HIT) on performance and physiological characteristics of competitive cyclists. Design The study was a matched groups, controlled trial. Methods Twenty-eight male cyclists (mean ± SD, Age: 33±10 years, Mass 74±7 kg, VO2 peak 4.7±0.5 L·min?1) were assigned to a control group or one of two training groups for seven consecutive days of HIT. Before and after training cyclists completed an ergometer based incremental exercise test and a 20-km time-trial. The HIT sessions were ?120 minutes in duration and consisted of matched volumes of 5, 10 and 20 second (short) or 15, 30 and 45 second (long) maximal intensity efforts. Results Both the short and long HIT regimes led to significant (p<0.05) gains in time trial performance compared to the control group. Relative to the control group, the mean changes (±90% confidence limits) in time-trial power were 8.2%±3.8% and 10.4%±4.3% for the short and long HIT regimes respectively; corresponding increases in peak power in the incremental test were 5.5%±2.7% and 9.5%±2.5%. Both HIT (short vs long) interventions led to non-significant (p>0.05) increases (mean ± SD) in VO2 peak (2.3%±4.7% vs 3.5%±6.2%), lactate threshold power (3.6%±3.5% vs 2.9%±5.3%) and gross efficiency (3.2%±2.4% vs 5.1%±3.9%) with only small differences between HIT regimes. Conclusions Seven days of overload HIT induces substantial enhancements in time-trial performance despite non-significant increases in physiological measures with competitive cyclists. PMID:25521824

Clark, Bradley; Costa, Vitor P.; O'Brien, Brendan J.; Guglielmo, Luiz G.; Paton, Carl D.

2014-01-01

101

Effects of timing of vaccination (day 0 versus day 14 of a receiving period) with a modified-live respiratory viral vaccine on performance, feed intake, and febrile response of beef heifers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of timing of the administration of a modified-live respiratory viral vaccine on day 0 or on day 14 of a receiving period on performance, feed intake, and febrile response in beef heifers. Our hypothesis was vaccine timing will alter febrile res...

102

Culture and Character Education in a Jewish Day School: A Case Study of Life and Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article addresses how to teach character comprehensively by studying ways a school's concurrent curricula (the official curriculum, the operational curriculum, the extra curriculum, and the hidden curriculum) can be used to teach character to students. A single case study analyzes the curriculum at a Jewish day school by examining school…

Roso, Calvin G.

2013-01-01

103

Postnatal Day 2 to 11 Constitutes a 5-HT-Sensitive Period Impacting Adult mPFC Function  

PubMed Central

Early-life serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] signaling modulates brain development, which impacts adult behavior, but 5-HT-sensitive periods, neural substrates, and behavioral consequences remain poorly understood. Here we identify the period ranging from postnatal day 2 (P2) to P11 as 5-HT sensitive, with 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) blockade increasing anxiety- and depression-like behavior, and impairing fear extinction learning and memory in adult mice. Concomitantly, P2–P11 5-HTT blockade causes dendritic hypotrophy and reduced excitability of infralimbic (IL) cortex pyramidal neurons that normally promote fear extinction. By contrast, the neighboring prelimbic (PL) pyramidal neurons, which normally inhibit fear extinction, become more excitable. Excitotoxic IL but not PL lesions in adult control mice reproduce the anxiety-related phenotypes. These findings suggest that increased 5-HT signaling during P2–P11 alters adult mPFC function to increase anxiety and impair fear extinction, and imply a differential role for IL and PL neurons in regulating affective behaviors. Together, our results support a developmental mechanism for the etiology and pathophysiology of affective disorders and fear-related behaviors. PMID:25209278

Rebello, Tahilia J.; Yu, Qinghui; Goodfellow, Nathalie M.; Caffrey Cagliostro, Martha K.; Teissier, Anne; Morelli, Emanuela; Demireva, Elena Y.; Chemiakine, Alexei; Rosoklija, Gorazd B.; Dwork, Andrew J.; Lambe, Evelyn K.; Ansorge, Mark S.

2014-01-01

104

A HIGHLY INCLINED ORBIT FOR THE 110 DAY PERIOD M-DWARF COMPANION KOI-368.01  

SciTech Connect

We report the detection of asymmetry in the transit light curves of the 110 day period companion to KOI-368, a rapidly rotating A-dwarf. The significant distortion in the transit light curve is attributed to spin-orbit misalignment between the transiting companion and the gravity darkened host star. Our analysis was based on 11 long cadence and 2 short cadence transits of KOI-368.01 from the Kepler mission, as well as stellar parameters determined from our follow-up spectroscopic observation. We measured the true obliquity between the orbit normal and the stellar rotation axis to be 69{sub -10}{sup +9o}. We also find a secondary eclipse event with depth 29 ± 3 ppm at phase 0.59, from which the temperature of the companion is constrained to 3060 ± 50 K, indicating that KOI-368.01 is a late M-dwarf. The eccentricity is also calculated from the eclipse to be 0.1429 ± 0.0007. The long period, high obliquity, and low eccentricity of KOI-368.01 allow us to limit a number of proposed theories for the misalignment of binary systems.

Zhou, George [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia)] [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Huang, Chelsea X., E-mail: george@mso.anu.edu.au [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

2013-10-20

105

Inter- and intra-individual variation in urinary biomarker concentrations over a 6-day sampling period. Part 1: metals.  

PubMed

The aim of the current HBM-study is to further the understanding of the impact of inter- and intra-individual variability in HBM surveys as it may have implications for the design and interpretation of the study outcomes. As spot samples only provide a snapshot in time of the concentrations of chemicals in an individual, it remains unclear to what extent intra-individual variability plays a role in the overall variability of population-wide HBM surveys. The current paper describes the results of an intensive biomonitoring study, in which all individual urine samples of 8 individuals were collected over a 6-day sampling period (a total of 352 unique samples). By analyzing different metals (As, Cd, Mn, Ni) in each individual sample, inter- and intra-individual variability for these four metals could be determined, and the relationships between exposure, internal dose, and sampling protocol assessed. Although the range of biomarker values for different metals was well within the normal range reported in large-scale population surveys, large intra-individual differences over a 6-day period could also be observed. Typically, measured biomarker values span at least an order of magnitude within an individual, and more if specific exposure episodes could be identified. Fish consumption for example caused a twenty- to thirty-fold increase in urinary As-levels over a period of 2-6h. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were typically low for uncorrected biomarker values (between 0.104 and 0.460 for the 4 metals), but improved when corrected for creatinine or specific gravity (SG). The results show that even though urine is a preferred matrix for HBM studies, there are certain methodological issues that need to be taken into account in the interpretation of urinary biomarker data, related to the intrinsic variability of the urination process itself, the relationship between exposure events and biomarker quantification, and the timing of sampling. When setting up HBM-projects, this expected relationship between individual exposure episode and urinary biomarker concentration needs to be taken into account. PMID:25128590

Smolders, Roel; Koch, Holger M; Moos, Rebecca K; Cocker, John; Jones, Kate; Warren, Nick; Levy, Len; Bevan, Ruth; Hays, Sean M; Aylward, Lesa L

2014-12-01

106

Periodization  

PubMed Central

Background: Clinicians are constantly faced with the challenge of designing training programs for injured and noninjured athletes that maximize healing and optimize performance. Periodization is a concept of systematic progression—that is, resistance training programs that follow predictable patterns of change in training variables. The strength training literature is abundant with studies comparing periodization schemes on uninjured, trained, and untrained athletes. The rehabilitation literature, however, is scarce with information about how to optimally design resistance training programs based on periodization principles for injured athletes. The purpose of this review is to discuss relevant training variables and methods of periodization, as well as periodization program outcomes. A secondary purpose is to provide an anecdotal framework regarding implementation of periodization principles into rehabilitation programs. Evidence Acquisition: A Medline search from 1979 to 2009 was implemented with the keywords periodization, strength training, rehabilitation, endurance, power, hypertrophy, and resistance training with the Boolean term AND in all possible combinations in the English language. Each author also undertook independent hand searching of article references used in this review. Results: Based on the studies researched, periodized strength training regimens demonstrate improved outcomes as compared to nonperiodized programs. Conclusions: Despite the evidence in the strength training literature supporting periodization programs, there is a considerable lack of data in the rehabilitation literature about program design and successful implementation of periodization into rehabilitation programs. PMID:23015982

Lorenz, Daniel S.; Reiman, Michael P.; Walker, John C.

2010-01-01

107

An orbital period of 0.94 days for the hot-Jupiter planet WASP-18b.  

PubMed

The 'hot Jupiters' that abound in lists of known extrasolar planets are thought to have formed far from their host stars, but migrate inwards through interactions with the proto-planetary disk from which they were born, or by an alternative mechanism such as planet-planet scattering. The hot Jupiters closest to their parent stars, at orbital distances of only approximately 0.02 astronomical units, have strong tidal interactions, and systems such as OGLE-TR-56 have been suggested as tests of tidal dissipation theory. Here we report the discovery of planet WASP-18b with an orbital period of 0.94 days and a mass of ten Jupiter masses (10 M(Jup)), resulting in a tidal interaction an order of magnitude stronger than that of planet OGLE-TR-56b. Under the assumption that the tidal-dissipation parameter Q of the host star is of the order of 10(6), as measured for Solar System bodies and binary stars and as often applied to extrasolar planets, WASP-18b will be spiralling inwards on a timescale less than a thousandth that of the lifetime of its host star. Therefore either WASP-18 is in a rare, exceptionally short-lived state, or the tidal dissipation in this system (and possibly other hot-Jupiter systems) must be much weaker than in the Solar System. PMID:19713926

Hellier, Coel; Anderson, D R; Cameron, A Collier; Gillon, M; Hebb, L; Maxted, P F L; Queloz, D; Smalley, B; Triaud, A H M J; West, R G; Wilson, D M; Bentley, S J; Enoch, B; Horne, K; Irwin, J; Lister, T A; Mayor, M; Parley, N; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D L; Segransan, D; Udry, S; Wheatley, P J

2009-08-27

108

CTEPP-OH DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 10 (PERIODS 1-3): DAY CARE CENTER CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

This data set contains data for CTEPP-OH concerning the child?s activities at the day care center over the 48-h monitoring period. The diary was divided into three time periods over the 48-h monitoring interval. The Food Survey collected information on the frequency and types of ...

109

Swift reveals a ~5.7 day super-orbital period in the M31 globular cluster X-ray binary XB158  

E-print Network

The M31 globular cluster X-ray binary XB158 (a.k.a. Bo 158) exhibits intensity dips on a 2.78 hr period in some observations, but not others. The short period suggests a low mass ratio, and an asymmetric, precessing disk due to additional tidal torques from the donor star since the disk crosses the 3:1 resonance. Previous theoretical 3D smoothed particle hydrodynamical modeling suggested a super-orbital disk precession period 29$\\pm$1 times the orbital period, i.e. $\\sim$81$\\pm$3 hr. We conducted a Swift monitoring campaign of 30 observations over ~1 month in order to search for evidence of such a super-orbital period. Fitting the 0.3--10 keV Swift XRT luminosity lightcurve with a sinusoid yielded a period of 5.65+/-0.05 days, and a >5$\\sigma$ improvement in $\\chi^2$ over the best fit constant intensity model. A Lomb-Scargle periodogram revealed that periods 5.4--5.8 days were detected at a >3$\\sigma$ level, with a peak at 5.6 days. We consider this strong evidence for a 5.65 day super-orbital period, ~70\\% l...

Barnard, R; Murrray, S S

2015-01-01

110

Age-period-cohort modelling of alcohol volume and heavy drinking days in the US National Alcohol Surveys: divergence in younger and older adult trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims The decomposition of trends in alcohol volume and heavy drinking days into age, period, cohort and demo- graphic effects offers an important perspective on the dynamics of change in alcohol use patterns in the United States. Design The present study utilizes data from six National Alcohol Surveys conducted over the 26-year period between 1979 and 2005. Setting United States.

William C. Kerr; Thomas K. Greenfield; Jason Bond; Yu Ye; Jürgen Rehm

2009-01-01

111

43 CFR 1822.14 - What if I try to file a required document on the last day of the stated period for filing, but...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...period for filing, but the BLM office where it is to be filed is officially...period for filing, but the BLM office where it is to be filed is officially...filed if we receive it in the office on the next day it is officially...

2011-10-01

112

A search for the 154 day periodicity in the occurrence rate of solar flares using Ottawa 2.8 GHz burst data, 1955-1990  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ottawa 2.8 GHz burst record from 1955 January to 1990 February has been examined for evidence of a periodicity near 154 days in the occurrence rate of solar flares. This periodicity is found to be statistically significant, at the 1-percent level, only for the years from 1978 to 1983, corresponding to the activity maximum of solar cycle 21. Through 1990 February, the Ottawa data show no evidence for a 154 day period in the current 22d solar cycle that began in 1986 September. A spectral peak near 51 days is found in solar cycle 19 (1955-1964), as had been previously reported based on an examination of CFI data, but its significance is low, at the 33-percent level. It is concluded that, other than for the period in cycle 21 in which it was first discovered, the evidence for the 154 day periodicity from flare-related data sets is contradictory and not compelling. Stronger evidence for the occurrence of the 154 day periodicity outside cycle 21 can be found in recent studies that examine parameters such as sunspot counts and areas that characterize solar active regions.

Kile, J. N.; Cliver, E. W.

1991-03-01

113

Swift Reveals a ~5.7 Day Super-orbital Period in the M31 Globular Cluster X-Ray Binary XB158  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The M31 globular cluster X-ray binary XB158 (a.k.a. Bo 158) exhibits intensity dips on a 2.78 hr period in some observations, but not others. The short period suggests a low mass ratio, and an asymmetric, precessing disk due to additional tidal torques from the donor star since the disk crosses the 3:1 resonance. Previous theoretical three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamical modeling suggested a super-orbital disk precession period 29 ± 1 times the orbital period, i.e., ~81 ± 3 hr. We conducted a Swift monitoring campaign of 30 observations over ~1 month in order to search for evidence of such a super-orbital period. Fitting the 0.3-10 keV Swift X-Ray Telescope luminosity light curve with a sinusoid yielded a period of 5.65 ± 0.05 days, and a >5? improvement in ?2 over the best fit constant intensity model. A Lomb-Scargle periodogram revealed that periods of 5.4-5.8 days were detected at a >3? level, with a peak at 5.6 days. We consider this strong evidence for a 5.65 day super-orbital period, ~70% longer than the predicted period. The 0.3-10 keV luminosity varied by a factor of ~5, consistent with variations seen in long-term monitoring from Chandra. We conclude that other X-ray binaries exhibiting similar long-term behavior are likely to also be X-ray binaries with low mass ratios and super-orbital periods.

Barnard, R.; Garcia, M. R.; Murray, S. S.

2015-03-01

114

75 FR 1656 - Draft Safety Culture Policy Statement: Request for Public Comments; Extension of Comment Period  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...COMMISSION [NRC-2009-0485] Draft Safety Culture Policy Statement: Request for Public...ACTION: Issuance of draft safety culture policy statement and notice of opportunity...comment a draft policy statement on safety culture to include the unique aspects of...

2010-01-12

115

Cultural Identities of Adolescent Immigrants: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study Including the Pre-Migration Period  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the cultural identities of adolescent immigrants in the pre-migration period and during the first 3 years after immigration. The target population consists of high-school Jewish adolescents from Russia and Ukraine participating in an Israeli immigration program. In this program, Jewish adolescents immigrate to Israel…

Tartakovsky, Eugene

2009-01-01

116

Pre-culture period of mesenchymal stem cells in osteogenic media influences their in vivo bone forming potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate if the in vitro pre-culture period in osteogenic media of rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), influences their ability to regenerate bone when implanted in a critical size cranial defect. MSCs were harvested from the bone marrow of 6-8 weeks old male Fisher rats and expanded in vitro in osteogenic media for different

H. Castano-Izquierdo; J. Alvarez-Barreto; J. van den Dolder; J. A. Jansen; A. G. Mikos; V. I. Sikavitsas

2007-01-01

117

The “Belorussianisation” of the Jewish population during the interwar period: discourses and achievements in political and cultural spheres  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship and cultural transfer between Jews and Belorussians are still rather unexplored topics. This article aims at analysing a historical process neglected by the historians of both the Jewish people and the Soviet Union: the “Belorussianisation” of the Jewish people in the interwar period. It proposes to scrutinise the impact of the nationalities policy on the crystallisation of a

Claire Le Foll

2008-01-01

118

Can the 62 Day X-ray Period of ULX M82 X-1 Be Due to a Precessing Accretion Disk?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have analyzed all the archival RXTE/PCA monitoring observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) M82 X-1 in order to study the properties of its previously discovered 62 day X-ray period (Kaaret & Feng 2007). Based on the high coherence of the modulation it has been argued that the observed period is the orbital period of the binary. Utilizing a much longer data set than in previous studies we find: (1) The phase-resolved X-ray (3-15 keV) energy spectra - modeled with a thermal accretion disk and a power-law corona - suggest that the accretion disk's contribution to the total flux is responsible for the overall periodic modulation while the power-law flux remains approximately constant with phase. (2) Suggestive evidence for a sudden phase shift-of approximately 0.3 in phase (20 days)-between the first and the second halves of the light curve separated by roughly 1000 days. If confirmed, the implied timescale to change the period is approx. = 10 yrs, which is exceptionally fast for an orbital phenomenon. These independent pieces of evidence are consistent with the 62 day period being due to a precessing accretion disk, similar to the so-called super-orbital periods observed in systems like Her X-1, LMC X-4, and SS433. However, the timing evidence for a change in the period needs to be confirmed with additional observations. This should be possible with further monitoring of M82 with instruments such as the X-ray telescope (XRT) on board Swift.

Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Strohmayer, Tod E.

2013-01-01

119

42 CFR 409.63 - Reduction of inpatient psychiatric benefit days available in the initial benefit period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...entitlement are not subtracted under paragraph (a) of this section even if the stay was for diagnosis or treatment of mental illness. (2) After entitlement, all psychiatric care days, whether in a general or a psychiatric hospital, are...

2013-10-01

120

African Easterly Waves in 30-day High-Resolution Global Simulations: A Case Study During the 2006 NAMMA Period  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this study, extended -range (30 -day) high-resolution simulations with the NASA global mesoscale model are conducted to simulate the initiation and propagation of six consecutive African easterly waves (AEWs) from late August to September 2006 and their association with hurricane formation. It is shown that the statistical characteristics of individual AEWs are realistically simulated with larger errors in the 5th and 6th AEWs. Remarkable simulations of a mean African easterly jet (AEJ) are also obtained. Nine additional 30 -day experiments suggest that although land surface processes might contribute to the predictability of the AEJ and AEWs, the initiation and detailed evolution of AEWs still depend on the accurate representation of dynamic and land surface initial conditions and their time -varying nonlinear interactions. Of interest is the potential to extend the lead time for predicting hurricane formation (e.g., a lead time of up to 22 days) as the 4th AEW is realistically simulated.

Shen, Bo-Wen; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Wu, Man-Li C.

2010-01-01

121

“Nothing Special, Everything Is Maamuli”: Socio-Cultural and Family Practices Influencing the Perinatal Period in Urban India  

PubMed Central

Background Globally, India contributes the largest share in sheer numbers to the burden of maternal and infant under-nutrition, morbidity and mortality. A major gap in our knowledge is how socio-cultural practices and beliefs influence the perinatal period and thus perinatal outcomes, particularly in the rapidly growing urban setting. Methods and Findings Using data from a qualitative study in urban south India, including in-depth interviews with 36 women who had recently been through childbirth as well as observations of family life and clinic encounters, we explored the territory of familial, cultural and traditional practices and beliefs influencing women and their families through pregnancy, childbirth and infancy. We found that while there were some similarities in cultural practices to those described before in studies from low resource village settings, there are changing practices and ideas. Fertility concerns dominate women’s experience of married life; notions of gender preference and ideal family size are changing rapidly in response to the urban context; however inter-generational family pressures are still considerable. While a rich repertoire of cultural practices persists throughout the perinatal continuum, their existence is normalised and even underplayed. In terms of diet and nutrition, traditional messages including notions of ‘hot’ and ‘cold’ foods, are stronger than health messages; however breastfeeding is the cultural norm and the practice of delayed breastfeeding appears to be disappearing in this urban setting. Marriage, pregnancy and childbirth are so much part of the norm for women, that there is little expectation of individual choice in any of these major life events. Conclusions A greater understanding is needed of the dynamic factors shaping the perinatal period in urban India, including an acknowledgment of the health promoting as well as potentially harmful cultural practices and the critical role of the family. This will help plan culturally appropriate integrated perinatal health care. PMID:25369447

Raman, Shanti; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Kurpad, Anura; Razee, Husna; Ritchie, Jan

2014-01-01

122

SWIFT OBSERVATIONS OF THE HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARY IGR J16283-4838 UNVEIL A 288 DAY ORBITAL PERIOD  

SciTech Connect

We report on the temporal and spectral properties of the high-mass X-ray binary IGR J16283-4838 in the hard X-ray band. We searched the first 88 months of Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) survey data for long-term periodic modulations. We also investigated the broad band (0.2-150 keV) spectral properties of IGR J16283-4838 complementing the BAT dataset with soft X-ray data from the available Swift-XRT pointed observations. The BAT light curve of IGR J16283-4838 revealed a periodic modulation at P{sub o} = 287.6 ± 1.7 days (with a significance higher than 4 standard deviations). The profile of the light curve folded at P{sub o} shows a sharp peak lasting ?12 days over a flat plateau. The long-term light curve also shows a ?300 day interval of prolonged enhanced emission. The observed phenomenology suggests that IGR J16283-4838 has a Be nature, where the narrow periodic peaks and the ?300 day outburst can be interpreted as Type I and Type II outbursts, respectively. The broad band 0.2-150 keV spectrum can be described with an absorbed power-law and a steepening in the BAT energy range.

Cusumano, G.; Segreto, A.; La Parola, V. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, Via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146, Palermo (Italy)] [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, Via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146, Palermo (Italy); D'Aì, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Palermo, via Archirafi 36, I-90123, Palermo (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Palermo, via Archirafi 36, I-90123, Palermo (Italy); Masetti, N. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, I-40129, Bologna (Italy)] [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Bologna, via Gobetti 101, I-40129, Bologna (Italy); Tagliaferri, G., E-mail: cusumano@ifc.inaf.it [INAF-Brera Astronomical Observatory, via Bianchi 46, I-23807, Merate (Italy)

2013-09-20

123

Block training periodization in alpine skiing: effects of 11-day HIT on V O 2max and performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attempting to achieve the high diversity of training goals in modern competitive alpine skiing simultaneously can be difficult\\u000a and may lead to compromised overall adaptation. Therefore, we investigated the effect of block training periodization on maximal\\u000a oxygen consumption (VO2max) and parameters of exercise performance in elite junior alpine skiers. Six female and 15 male athletes were assigned to high-intensity\\u000a interval

Fabio A. Breil; Simone N. Weber; Stefan Koller; Hans Hoppeler; Michael Vogt

2010-01-01

124

Earth Observing-1 Advanced Imager Flight Performance Assessment: Investigating Dark Current Stability Over One-Half Orbit Period during the First 60 Days  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The stability of the EO-1 Advanced Land Imager dark current levels over the period of one-half orbit is investigated. A series of two-second dark current collections, over the course of 40 minutes, was performed during the first sixty days the instrument was in orbit. Analysis of this data indicates only two dark current reference periods, obtained entering and exiting eclipse, are required to remove ALI dark current offsets for 99.9% of the focal plane to within 1.5 digital numbers for any observation on the solar illuminated portion of the orbit.

Mendenhall, J. A.

2001-01-01

125

Kepler and the seven dwarfs: detection of low-level day-time-scale periodic photometric variations in white dwarfs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We make use of the high photometric precision of Kepler to search for periodic modulations among 14 normal (DA- and DB-type, likely non-magnetic) hot white dwarfs (WDs). In five, and possibly up to seven of the WDs, we detect periodic, ˜2 h-10 d, variations, with semi-amplitudes of 60-2000 ppm, lower than ever seen in WDs. We consider various explanations: WD rotation combined with magnetic cool spots; rotation combined with magnetic dichroism; rotation combined with hotspots from an interstellar-medium accretion flow; transits by size ˜50-200 km objects; relativistic beaming due to reflex motion caused by a cool companion WD; or reflection/re-radiation of the primary WD light by a brown-dwarf or giant-planet companion, undergoing illumination phases as it orbits the WD. Each mechanism could be behind some of the variable WDs, but could not be responsible for all five to seven variable cases. Alternatively, the periodicity may arise from UV metal-line opacity, associated with accretion of rocky material, a phenomenon seen in ˜50 per cent of hot WDs. Non-uniform UV opacity, combined with WD rotation and fluorescent optical re-emission of the absorbed UV energy, could perhaps explain our findings. Even if reflection by a planet is the cause in only a few of the seven cases, it would imply that hot Jupiters are very common around WDs. If some of the rotation-related mechanisms are at work, then normal WDs rotate as slowly as do peculiar WDs, the only kind for which precise rotation measurements have been possible to date.

Maoz, Dan; Mazeh, Tsevi; McQuillan, Amy

2015-02-01

126

Quasi-periodic Variations of 2 to 4 Days in the Electron Density of the Post Sunset Equatorial Anomaly Observed to be Synchronous on a Planetary Sale.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quasi-periodic variations are observed in the F layer maximum electron density of the post sunset equatorial anomaly at its temporal maximum which occurs near 2100 LT. Periods are 3-4 days in Oct-Jan and about 2 days in Mar-Apr; magnitudes are large, peak-to-valley ratios being between 2 and 5; conditions are solar maximum. Observations are by ionospheric sounders in the American sector at magnetically conjugate locations in Northern and Southern hemispheres, and at Okinawa in the northern anomaly of Eastern Asia. The variations are synchronous in that the dates of each maximum and of each minimum coincide at all locations, day-to-day continuously for month-long periods. This relation exists although measurements in the American sector are at 02 UT and those at Okinawa are at 12 UT. In addition, the magnetically conjugate variations are simultaneous, which is evidence that the variations are a product of pre-reversal ExB drift velocity. These variations are similar both in frequency and in their episodic nature to those observed principally in the daytime anomaly where they are attributed to planetary scale oscillations in the neutral mesospheric zonal winds. If the variations reported here have a similar cause, it raises the possibility that the magnitude of the electron density of the anomaly - and therefore the conditions under which scintillation on trans-ionospheric RF signals can occur - can be forecast by two means: by the quasi-periodic repetition of the variations; and by the observation of planetary waves in the mesosphere by the TIMED satellite.

Whalen, J. A.

2005-12-01

127

Modulation of innate immune function and phenotype in bred dairy heifers during the periparturient period induced by feeding an immunostimulant for 60 days prior to delivery.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a feed additive (OmniGen-AF(®), reported to have immune modulating activity) on innate immunity and health events during the periparturient period in dairy heifers when immunity is suppressed. From 60 days prepartum through calving, supplemented heifers (n=20) received OmniGen-AF(®) daily and were compared with unsupplemented controls (n=20). Blood leukocyte innate immune activity (phenotype markers, phagocytic activity, and reactive oxygen species--ROS production) was measured prior to feeding (60 days prepartum), 30 days later, and on days 1, 7, 14, and 30 postpartum. Adverse health events (udder edema, ketosis, displaced abomasum, and death) and milk production were measured at calving and into early lactation. The fraction of leukocytes with measurable CD62L (L-selectin) on their surface from supplemented heifers tended to be greater during the periparturient period in treated heifers than controls (p=0.100). Likewise, leukocyte phagocytosis of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus during this time period tended to be greater in heifers supplemented with OmniGen-AF(®) (p=0.100). Conversely, ROS production in response to phorbol myristate acetate or when leukocytes were stimulated with killed S. aureus lysate tended to be greater among control heifers compared with supplemented animals (p=0.100). Supplemented heifers exhibited fewer incidents of udder edema than controls (p=0.030) and tended to exhibit a lower rate of new cases of mastitis (p=0.098); however, no differences were observed in milk somatic cell counts or level of milk production. Results demonstrate a positive role of OmniGen-AF(®) in amplifying leukocyte function consistent with antibacterial activity during the periparturient period, and support the continued study of dietary supplementation to enhance mammary gland health in dairy cows. PMID:25219783

Nace, E L; Nickerson, S C; Kautz, F M; Breidling, S; Wochele, D; Ely, L O; Hurley, D J

2014-10-15

128

Johannes and the seven dwarfs: Kepler detection of low-level day-timescale periodic photometric variations in white dwarfs  

E-print Network

We make use of the high photometric precision of Kepler to search for periodic variations among 14 normal (DA- and DB-type, likely non-magnetic) hot white dwarfs (WDs) observed by the mission. In seven of the WDs, we detect periodic, ~2 hr to 10 d, variations, with semi-amplitudes of 40 to 2000 ppm, lower than ever seen in WDs. We consider various explanations for the observed variations: WD rotation combined with magnetic cool spots; rotation combined with magnetic dichroism; rotation combined with hot spots from an interstellar-medium accretion flow, channeled onto weak magnetic poles; transits by size ~50-200 km objects; relativistic beaming due to reflex motion caused by a cool companion WD; or reflection/re-radiation of the primary WD light by a brown-dwarf companion, or by a giant planet of about Jupiter radius, undergoing illumination phases as it orbits the WD. Each of these mechanisms could be behind some of the variable WDs, but could not be responsible for all seven variable cases. Alternatively, t...

Maoz, Dan; McQuillan, Amy

2014-01-01

129

A double-blind assessment of additive intolerance in children using a 12 day challenge period at home.  

PubMed

Alleged food-additive intolerance (respiratory, dermatological, behavioural or abdominal) was assessed in 19 children using daily challenge drinks of either, base product alone, base product plus sunset yellow/tartrazine, or base product plus sodium metabisulphite/sodium benzoate. The same type of drink was given for 12 days, double-blind and in random order. During the trial the children were maintained on an additive-free diet under supervision. Diary cards were used to record symptoms and medication usage. If there was an apparent association between symptoms and drink ingredient the trial was repeated, again double-blind. Additive intolerance was confirmed by a consistent deterioration of symptoms in only three children. In one, urticaria was induced by the colourings, in another extremely abnormal behaviour was induced by the preservatives and a third child was only free of asthma and abdominal pain on placebo. This form of individual trial, using 12 daily drinks, overcomes some of the objections to a single challenge study. Despite this, intolerance to the additives was only confirmed in 3/19 children in whom it had been believed to occur. PMID:2736427

Wilson, N; Scott, A

1989-05-01

130

Natural Variation in the Drosophila melanogaster Clock Gene Period Modulates Splicing of Its 3?-Terminal Intron and Mid-Day Siesta  

PubMed Central

Drosophila melanogaster exhibits circadian (?24 hr) regulated morning and evening bouts of activity that are separated by a mid-day siesta. Increases in daily ambient temperature are accompanied by a progressively longer mid-day siesta and delayed evening activity. Presumably, this behavioral plasticity reflects an adaptive response that endows D. melanogaster with the ability to temporally optimize daily activity levels over a wide range of physiologically relevant temperatures. For example, the shift in activity towards the cooler nighttime hours on hot days might minimize the risks associated with exposure to mid-day heat, whereas on cold days activity is favored during the warmer daytime hours. These temperature-induced shifts in the distribution of daily activity are partly based on the thermal sensitive splicing of an intron found in the 3? untranslated region (UTR) of the circadian clock gene termed period (per). As temperature decreases, splicing of this 3?-terminal intron (termed dmpi8) is gradually increased, which is causally linked to a shorter mid-day siesta. Herein we identify several natural polymorphisms in the per 3? UTR from wild-caught populations of flies originating along the east coast of the United States. Two non-intronic closely spaced single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) modulate dmpi8 splicing efficiency, with the least efficiently spliced version associated with a longer mid-day siesta, especially at lower temperatures. Although these SNPs modulate the splicing efficiency of dmpi8 they have little to no effect on its thermal responsiveness, consistent with the notion that the suboptimal 5? and 3? splice sites of the dmpi8 intron are the primary cis-acting elements mediating temperature regulation. Our results demonstrate that natural variations in the per gene can modulate the splicing efficiency of the dmpi8 intron and the daily distribution of activity, providing natural examples for the involvement of dmpi8 splicing in the thermal adaptation of behavioral programs in D. melanogaster. PMID:23152918

Low, Kwang Huei; Chen, Wen-Feng; Yildirim, Evrim; Edery, Isaac

2012-01-01

131

Effect of a 3-day high-fat feeding period on carbohydrate balance and ad-libitum energy intake in humans  

PubMed Central

Objective A reduction in glycogen after the switch to an isoenergetic high-fat diet might promote a compensatory increase in food intake in order to reestablish carbohydrate balance. We assessed the effect of an isoenergetic switch from a 49%-carbohydrate to 50%-fat diet on nutrient balance and ad-libitum food intake. We hypothesized that carbohydrate balance would be inversely related to ad-libitum energy intake. Methods In 47 males and 11 females (22.6 ± 0.4 y; 26.1 ± 0.5 kg/m2), fuel balance was measured in a respiration chamber over 4 days. During the first day, an isoenergetic, high-carbohydrate diet was provided followed by a 3-day isoenergetic, high-fat diet. At the end of this period and after 16 hours of fasting, three options of foods (cookies, fruit salad and turkey sandwich) were offered ad-libitum for 4 hours. The relationships between post-chamber ad-libitum intake and macronutrient oxidation and balance measured day-to-day and over the 4-day respiration chamber stay were studied. Results After switching to a high-fat diet, 24-h respiratory quotient decreased from 0.87 ± 0.02 to 0.83 ± 0.02 (p<0.0001) resulting in a 4-d cumulative carbohydrate, fat and protein balances of ?183 ± 368, 342 ± 480 and 65 ± 267 kcal, respectively. Cumulative energy balance (224 ± 362 kcal/4 d) did not influence ad-libitum energy intake. However, we detected that 4-d carbohydrate balance was a positive and independent predictor of post-chamber ad-libitum energy intake (R2=0.10; p=0.01), whereas no significant influence of fat and protein balances was found. Conclusion In response to an isoenergetic change from a high-carbohydrate to high-fat diet, higher carbohydrate balance related to increased energy intake. PMID:20195283

Galgani, Jose E.; de Jonge, Lilian; Most, Marlene M.; Bray, George A.; Smith, Steven R.

2015-01-01

132

Comparison between two trigonometric models for the long-period variations in the Wolf numbers and in the length of day  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A trigonometric model by Luo Shi-fang et al. (1977) reproducing the decade variations in the length of day from 1821 to 1970 is reexamined and criticized with the aid of new data from 1971 to 1980. The possibility of a correspondence between periods, amplitudes, and phase angles from such model and from a similar one reproducing the Wolf numbers from 1749 to 1977 is investigated, in order to support the hypothesis of an influence of the solar activity on the earth's rotation. Works from previous authors on the subject are reviewed to add further arguments to the comparison.

Picchio, G.

1982-07-01

133

Implantation rates after in vitro fertilization and transfer of a maximum of two embryos that have undergone three to five days of culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To evaluate implantation and pregnancy rates in patients undergoing IVF after the transfer of a maximum of two embryos that had been cultured for 3–5 days.Design: Prospective study.Setting: An IVF laboratory at a tertiary referral university hospital.Patient(s): One thousand seven hundred eighty-seven couples who underwent their first IVF cycle between January 1995 and December 1997.Intervention(s): In vitro fertilization and

Gerritdina J Huisman; Bart C. J. M Fauser; Marinus J. C Eijkemans; Math H. E. C Pieters

2000-01-01

134

Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period.  

PubMed

The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity profile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam distillation, and chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and determination of density. Survival curves were obtained from counts of L. rhamnosus and the starter culture (alone and in combination), upon addition of 0.04% essential oils. In parallel, titratable acidity was monitored over 28 experimental days. Minimum inhibitory concentration values, obtained using the microdilution method in Brain Heart Infusion medium, were 0.025, 0.2 and 0.4% for cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils, respectively. Cinnamon essential oil had the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against the starter culture, interfering with lactic acid production. Although viable cell counts of L. rhamnosus were lower following treatment with all 3 essential oils, relative to controls, these results were not statistically significant; in addition, cell counts remained greater than the minimum count of 10(8)CFU/mL required for a product to be considered a probiotic. Thus, although use of cinnamon essential oil in yogurt makes starter culture fermentation unfeasible, it does not prevent the application of L. rhamnosus to probiotic fermented milk. Furthermore, clove and mint essential oil caused sublethal stress to L. rhamnosus. PMID:24031939

Moritz, Cristiane Mengue Feniman; Rall, Vera Lúcia Mores; Saeki, Margarida Júri; Júnior, Ary Fernandes

2012-07-01

135

Socio-cultural factors surrounding mental distress during the perinatal period in Zambia: a qualitative investigation  

PubMed Central

Background The presence of mental distress during pregnancy and after childbirth imposes detrimental developmental and health consequences for families in all nations. In Zambia, the Ministry of Health (MoH) has proposed a more comprehensive approach towards mental health care, recognizing the importance of the mental health of women during the perinatal period. Aim The study explores factors contributing to mental distress during the perinatal period of motherhood in Zambia. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in Lusaka, Zambia with nineteen focus groups comprising 149 women and men from primary health facilities and schools respectively. Findings There are high levels of mental distress in four domains: worry about HIV status and testing; uncertainty about survival from childbirth; lack of social support; and vulnerability/oppression. Conclusion Identifying mental distress and prompt referral for interventions is critical to improving the mental health of the mother and prevent the effects of mental distress on the baby. Recommendation Strategies should be put in place to ensure pregnant women are screened for possible perinatal mental health problems during their visit to antenatal clinic and referral made to qualified mental health professionals. In addition further research is recommended in order to facilitate evidence based mental health policy formulation and implementation in Zambia. PMID:22954173

2012-01-01

136

Meanings, expressions, and experiences of care of chronically mentally ill in a day treatment center using Leininger's culture care theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this qualitative study was to discover the care meanings, expressions, and lived experiences of the chronically mentally ill living in an urban community as a subculture. This study was conceptualized within Leiningers Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality with the use of the Sunrise Model to explicate worldview, social structure factors, and historical and environmental context

Tamara Bloom George

1998-01-01

137

Outdoor Day-Care Centres--A Culturalization of Nature: How Do Children Relate to Nature as Educational Practice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article will discuss how children and adults experience a certain outdoor environment as part of an educational practice, through the activities the adults and children have. It will further discuss how these activities realize cultural values through the educators' and children's activities. In Norway the use of outdoor environments has…

Melhuus, E. Cathrine

2012-01-01

138

Mitochondrial DNA in Day 3 embryo culture medium is a novel, non-invasive biomarker of blastocyst potential and implantation outcome.  

PubMed

In assisted reproduction technology, embryo competence is routinely evaluated on morphological criteria. Over the last decade, efforts in improving non-invasive embryo assessment have looked into the secretome of embryos. Human embryos release genomic DNA (gDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) into the culture medium, and the mtDNA/gDNA ratio is significantly correlated with embryo fragmentation. Here, we investigate whether mtDNA/gDNA ratio in embryo spent medium is correlated with blastulation potential and implantation. The mtDNA/gDNA ratio was assessed in 699 Day 3 culture media by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to investigate its correlation with embryo morphology, blastocyst development and implantation. A logistic regression model evaluated whether mtDNA/gDNA ratio in the secretome may improve the prediction of blastulation. We found that embryos that successfully developed into blastocysts exhibited a significantly higher mtDNA/gDNA ratio in the culture medium compared with those that arrest (P = 0.0251), and mtDNA/gDNA, combined with morphological grading, has the potential to predict blastulation better than morphology alone (P = 0.02). Moreover, mtDNA/gDNA ratio was higher in the media from good-quality embryos that reached the full blastocyst stage on Day 5 compared with those that developed more slowly (P < 0.0001). With respect to blastocyst morphology, higher trophectoderm quality was associated with a higher mtDNA/gDNA ratio in the culture medium. Finally, a high mtDNA/gDNA ratio in spent medium was associated with successful implantation outcome (P = 0.0452) of good-quality embryos. In summary, the mtDNA/gDNA ratio in the Day 3 embryo secretome, in combination with morphological grading, may be a novel, non-invasive, early biomarker to improve identification of viable embryos with high developmental potential. PMID:25232043

Stigliani, S; Persico, L; Lagazio, C; Anserini, P; Venturini, P L; Scaruffi, P

2014-12-01

139

[The motive characteristics and pattern of manifestation of Chinese medicinal herb during the period of "Cultural Revolution"].  

PubMed

During the period of "Cultural Revolution", there started a movement of Chinese medicinal herb throughout the whole country. As a national movement meeting the needs of the time, not only had the guarantee of national policy, but also had the support of finance and the propaganda of People's Daily, PLA Daily and Red Flag Magazine. The movement had all kinds of different manifestations such as cooperative medical care, mobile medical team, research team, three tu (folk recipe, folk healer, folk medicine), four selves (self-planting, self-collection, self-making, self-use), exhibition of Chinese medicinal herb, compiling the handbook of Chinese medicinal herb etc. It had reference values to the current medical care system. PMID:19824359

Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-xian

2009-01-01

140

Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Twelve conference papers on cultural aspects of second language instruction include: "Towards True Multiculturalism: Ideas for Teachers" (Brian McVeigh); Comparing Cultures Through Critical Thinking: Development and Interpretations of Meaningful Observations" (Laurel D. Kamada); "Authority and Individualism in Japan and the USA" (Alisa Woodring);…

1997

141

Ninety-day waiting period limitation and technical amendments to certain health coverage requirements under the Affordable Care Act. Final rule.  

PubMed

These final regulations implement the 90-day waiting period limitation under section 2708 of the Public Health Service Act, as added by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Affordable Care Act), as amended, and incorporated into the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 and the Internal Revenue Code. These regulations also finalize amendments to existing regulations to conform to Affordable Care Act provisions. Specifically, these rules amend regulations implementing existing provisions such as some of the portability provisions added by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) because those provisions of the HIPAA regulations have become superseded or require amendment as a result of the market reform protections added by the Affordable Care Act. PMID:24611209

2014-02-24

142

Safety, efficacy and acceptability of outpatient mifepristone-misoprostol medical abortion through 70 days since last menstrual period in public sector facilities in Mexico City.  

PubMed

Extensive evidence exists regarding the efficacy and acceptability of medical abortion through 63 days since last menstrual period (LMP). In Mexico City's Secretariat of Health (SSDF) outpatient facilities, mifepristone-misoprostol medical abortion is the first-line approach for abortion care in this pregnancy range. Recent research demonstrates continued high rates of complete abortion through 70 days LMP. To expand access to legal abortion services in Mexico City (where abortion is legal through 12 weeks LMP), this study sought to assess the efficacy and acceptability of the standard outpatient approach through 70 days in two SSDF points of service. One thousand and one women seeking pregnancy termination were enrolled and given 200 mg mifepristone followed by 800 ?g misoprostol 24-48 hours later. Women were asked to return to the clinic one week later for evaluation. The great majority of women (93.3%; 95% CI: 91.6-94.8) had complete abortions. Women with pregnancies ?8 weeks LMP had significantly higher success rates than women in the 9th or 10th weeks (94.9% vs. 90.5%; p = 0.01). The difference in success rates between the 9th and 10th weeks was not significant (90.0% vs. 91.2%; p = 0.71). The majority of women found the side effects (82.9%) and the use of misoprostol (84.4%) to be very acceptable or acceptable. This study provides additional evidence supporting an extended outpatient medical abortion regimen through 10 weeks LMP. PMID:25702071

Sanhueza Smith, Patricio; Peña, Melanie; Dzuba, Ilana G; Martinez, María Laura García; Peraza, Ana Gabriela Aranguré; Bousiéguez, Manuel; Shochet, Tara; Winikoff, Beverly

2015-02-01

143

NPR: Day to Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by award-winning National Public Radio (NPR) correspondent Alex Chadwick, Day to Day is a way for regular NPR listeners to listen to smart news coverage during the middle of the day or during their lunch-hour. Fortunately, Day to Day is available online, complete with an archive dating back to January 2003. Produced in the NPR West office in Los Angeles, and includes a number of NPR regulars and contributors from the online publication Slate. Day to Day also features the helpful daily reports from the Minnesota Public Radio show, Marketplace, which is "an informative conversation about business and economic news". Other regular features on Day to Day include commentaries on recent music releases from independent music critic Christian Bordal and curious and novel exposes and reports on the "odd underbelly" of the City of Angels, direct from Southern California.

144

St. Patrick's Day Activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Utah State 4th Grade Social Studies Core Standard 4: Objective 1- Demonstrate cultural understanding, by showing appreciation for the uniqueness of other cultures, identifying the contributions of various cultures in Utah, and demontrating respect for cultural differences. ~In groups of 6-7 students, search the link provided on your specific topic (Kwanzaa, St. Patrick's Day, or Pioneer Day). KWANZAA: http://holidays.kaboose.com/kwanzaa-index.html ST. PATRICKS DAY: http://www.lilesnet.com/St_Patricks/stpaddy.htm PIONEER DAY: http://heritage.uen.org/ ~Each group member is to present a part of their holiday presentation to the class. You will receive ...

MissNguyen

2012-02-13

145

Effects of gaseous atmosphere and antioxidants on the development and cryotolerance of bovine embryos at different periods of in vitro culture.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of antioxidant supplementation and O2 tension on embryo development, cryotolerance and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. The antioxidant supplementation consisted of 0.6 mM cysteine (CYST); 0.6 mM cysteine + 100 ?M cysteamine (C+C); 100 IU catalase (CAT) or 100 ?M ?-mercaptoethanol (?-ME) for 3 or 7 days of in vitro culture (IVC). Two O2 tensions (20% O2 [5% CO2 in air] or 7% O2, 5% CO2 and 88% N2 [gaseous mixture]) were examined. After 7 days of antioxidant supplementation, the blastocyst frequencies were adversely affected (P < 0.05) by CYST (11.2%) and C+C (1.44%), as well as by low O2 tension (17.2% and 11.11% for 20% and 7% O2, respectively) compared with the control (26.6%). The blastocyst re-expansion rates were not affected (P > 0.05) by the treatments (range, 66-100%). After 3 days of antioxidant supplementation, the blastocyst frequencies were not affected (P > 0.05) by any of the antioxidants (range, 43.6-48.5%), but they were reduced by low O2 tension (P < 0.05) (52.1% and 38.4% for 20% and 7% O2, respectively). The intracellular ROS levels, demonstrated as arbitrary fluorescence units, were not affected (P > 0.05) by antioxidant treatment (range, 0.78 to 0.95) or by O2 tension (0.86 and 0.88 for 20% and 7% O2, respectively). The re-expansion rates were not affected (P > 0.05) by any of the treatments (range, 63.6-93.3%). In conclusion, intracellular antioxidant supplementation and low O2 tension throughout the entire IVC period were deleterious to embryo development. However, antioxidant supplementation up to day 3 of IVC did not affect the blastocyst frequencies or intracellular ROS levels. PMID:24040954

Rocha-Frigoni, Nathália Alves de Souza; Leão, Beatriz Caetano da Silva; Nogueira, Ériklis; Accorsi, Mônica Ferreira; Mingoti, Gisele Zoccal

2015-04-01

146

Investigation of near-infrared spectroscopy for periodic in situ cell culture media determination of glucose and lactate  

E-print Network

, biosensors must be developed that are capable of monitoring the cell culture processes non-invasively and continuously. Non-invasive determinations of glucose and lactate in cell culture media were investigated via near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) across...

Lewis, Christopher Bryan

1999-01-01

147

17 CFR 274.127f-1 - Form N-27F-1, notice to periodic payment plan certificate holders of 45-day withdrawal right with...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Form N-27F-1, notice to periodic payment plan certificate holders...withdrawal right with respect to periodic payment plan certificates. 274...127f-1 Form N-27F-1, notice to periodic payment plan certificate...

2010-04-01

148

The analysis of fundamental period of cultural heritage buildings: experimental data for church towers in Basilicata (Southern Italy)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic hazard is among the main factors conditioning the conservation of historical centres and cultural heritage located in them. This consideration is suitable especially for downtown areas located in Italy, whose territory is prone to seismic hazards, in the southern area especially. As a matter of fact, the historical sources inform us that most of monuments located in Southern Italy suffered damage and consequent restoration or rebuilding due to the earthquake of the past. Therefore, knowing what buildings are the most exposed to the seismic risk can help the stakeholders to fix priority actions aimed at mitigating the effects of future events. Starting from these preliminary remarks, in the framework of the Project PRO_CULT, we started an extensive campaign of measurements of dynamic features of the church towers in some towns of the Basilicata Region (Southern Italy). The aim of the research activity is to assess the fundamental period of such a typology of historical buildings and comparing it with the dynamic features of the foundation soil to put into evidence possible resonance phenomena responsible of an increase of building damage during the seismic shaking. The selection of the towns to be considered as a target of the experimental survey was performed taking into account the availability of written sources dealing with the historical seismic effects suffered by the bell-towers over the centuries with special attention to the sites heavily affected by the 16 December 1857 Basilicata and 23 November 1980 Irpinia-Basilicata earthquakes (Gizzi and Masini 2007). The fundamental period of bell-towers is estimated using ambient noise vibration signals recorded at the highest level of the towers. The techniques used to get the dynamic values are both the Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) and the Horizontal to Horizontal Spectral Ratio (HHSR) (Liberatore et al. 2008). Once the fundamental frequency has been estimated, it is compared with the dynamic features of the soil obtained by free-field measurements. The detailed architectural survey of each investigated tower will also allow correlating the estimated frequencies with the features of the historic building such as structural symmetry, number of storeys and height of the tower, building materials, presence and dimension of openings, presence of tie rods, and presence of adjoining buildings. In this way, we can get new insights for a tentative scheme of typological classification of such historic buildings. References Gizzi F.T., Masini N. 2007. Historical earthquakes and damage patterns in Potenza (Basilicata, southern Italy), Annals of Geophysics, 50 (5), pp.675-687, doi: 10.4401/ag-3061 Liberatore D., Mucciarelli M., Gallipoli M. R., Masini N. 2008, Two Applications of the HVSR Technique to Cultural Heritage and Historical Masonry in Increasing Seismic Safety by Combining Engineering Technologies and Seismological Data, M. Mucciarelli, M. Herak and J. Cassidy eds., Springer, [ISBN 978-1-4020-9196-4; ISSN: 1871-4668], 325-336, doi: 10.1007/978-1-4020-9196-4_22 Acknowledgements The authors thanks Basilicata Region for supporting this activity in the framework of the Project "PRO_CULT" (Advanced methodological approaches and technologies for Protection and Security of Cultural Heritage ) financed by Regional Operational Programme ERDF 2007/2013

Gizzi, Fabrizio T.; Liberatore, Domenico; Masini, Nicola; Sileo, Maria; Zotta, Cinzia; Potenza, Maria Rosaria; Scavone, Manuela; Sorrentino, Luigi

2014-05-01

149

A whole-genome microarray study of Arabidopsis thaliana semisolid callus cultures exposed to microgravity and nonmicrogravity related spaceflight conditions for 5 days on board of Shenzhou 8.  

PubMed

The Simbox mission was the first joint space project between Germany and China in November 2011. Eleven-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana wild type semisolid callus cultures were integrated into fully automated plant cultivation containers and exposed to spaceflight conditions within the Simbox hardware on board of the spacecraft Shenzhou 8. The related ground experiment was conducted under similar conditions. The use of an in-flight centrifuge provided a 1?g gravitational field in space. The cells were metabolically quenched after 5 days via RNAlater injection. The impact on the Arabidopsis transcriptome was investigated by means of whole-genome gene expression analysis. The results show a major impact of nonmicrogravity related spaceflight conditions. Genes that were significantly altered in transcript abundance are mainly involved in protein phosphorylation and MAPK cascade-related signaling processes, as well as in the cellular defense and stress responses. In contrast to short-term effects of microgravity (seconds, minutes), this mission identified only minor changes after 5 days of microgravity. These concerned genes coding for proteins involved in the plastid-associated translation machinery, mitochondrial electron transport, and energy production. PMID:25654111

Fengler, Svenja; Spirer, Ina; Neef, Maren; Ecke, Margret; Nieselt, Kay; Hampp, Rüdiger

2015-01-01

150

Sleep Duration and "on" Time during Different Periods of the Day and Night in Patients with Advanced Parkinson's Disease Receiving Adjunctive Ropinirole Prolonged Release.  

PubMed

Patients undergoing long-term therapy for PD often experience motor fluctuations and nocturnal disturbances. In a post-hoc analysis, we explored effects of ropinirole prolonged release on sleep, night-time awakenings, and "on" time over 24 hours. Patients with advanced PD suboptimally controlled with L-dopa were randomized to adjunctive ropinirole prolonged release (2-24?mg/day) or placebo for 24 weeks. Awake/asleep and, if awake, "on"/"off" status was recorded via diary cards. At week 24 last observation carried forward, changes in nighttime or daytime sleep duration were not significantly different between treatments. Of patients with baseline awakenings, a significantly higher proportion in the ropinirole prolonged release group had a reduction in awakenings versus placebo. Patients receiving ropinirole prolonged release had a significantly greater increase in amount/percentage of awake time "on"/"on" without troublesome dyskinesia during all periods assessed (including night-time and early morning), versus placebo, and higher odds for being "on" on waking. Adjunctive once-daily ropinirole prolonged release may help provide 24-hour symptom control in patients with advanced PD not optimally controlled with L-dopa. PMID:21687750

Reichmann, Heinz; Cooper, James; Rolfe, Katie; Martinez-Martin, Pablo

2011-01-01

151

An anxiety, personality and altitude symptomatology study during a 31-day period of hypoxia in a hypobaric chamber (experiment 'Everest-Comex 1997').  

PubMed

Extreme environmental situations are useful tools for the investigation of the general processes of adaptation. Among such situations, high altitude of more than 3000 m produces a set of pathological disorders that includes both cerebral (cAS) and respiratory (RAS) altitude symptoms. High altitude exposure further induces anxiety responses and behavioural disturbances. The authors report an investigation on anxiety responses, personality traits, and altitude symptoms (AS) in climbers participating in a 31-day period of confinement and gradual decompression in a hypobaric chamber equivalent to a climb from sea-level to Mount Everest (8848 m altitude). Personality traits, state-trait anxiety, and AS were assessed, using the Cattell 16 Personality Factor questionnaire (16PF), the Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Lake Louise concensus questionnaire. Results show significant group effect for state-anxiety and AS; state-anxiety and AS increased as altitude increased. They also show that state-type anxiety shows a similar time-course to cAS, but not RAS. Alternatively, our results demonstrate a significant negative correlation between Factor M of the 16PF questionnaire, which is a personality trait that ranges from praxernia to autia. In contrast, no significant correlation was found between personality traits and AS. This suggests that AS could not be predicted using personality traits and further support that personality traits, such as praxernia (happening sensitivity), could play a major role in the occurrence of state-type anxiety responses in extreme environments. In addition, the general processes of coping and adaptation in individuals participating in extreme environmental experiments are discussed. PMID:11543191

Nicolas, M; Thullier-Lestienne, F; Bouquet, C; Gardette, B; Gortan, C; Joulia, F; Bonnon, M; Richalet, J P; Therme, P; Abraini, J H

1999-12-01

152

Day to day with COPD  

MedlinePLUS

... but there are things you can do every day to keep COPD from getting worse, to protect ... COPD - day to day; Chronic obstructive airways disease - day to day; Chronic obstructive lung disease - day to day ; Chronic ...

153

20 CFR 1002.196 - What is the employee's reemployment position if the period of service was less than 91 days?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...What is the employee's reemployment position if the period of service was less than...Reemployment Rights and Benefits Reemployment Position § 1002.196 What is the employee's reemployment position if the period of service was less...

2014-04-01

154

20 CFR 1002.196 - What is the employee's reemployment position if the period of service was less than 91 days?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...What is the employee's reemployment position if the period of service was less than...Reemployment Rights and Benefits Reemployment Position § 1002.196 What is the employee's reemployment position if the period of service was less...

2013-04-01

155

20 CFR 1002.196 - What is the employee's reemployment position if the period of service was less than 91 days?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...What is the employee's reemployment position if the period of service was less than...Reemployment Rights and Benefits Reemployment Position § 1002.196 What is the employee's reemployment position if the period of service was less...

2012-04-01

156

20 CFR 1002.196 - What is the employee's reemployment position if the period of service was less than 91 days?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...What is the employee's reemployment position if the period of service was less than...Reemployment Rights and Benefits Reemployment Position § 1002.196 What is the employee's reemployment position if the period of service was less...

2011-04-01

157

20 CFR 1002.196 - What is the employee's reemployment position if the period of service was less than 91 days?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...What is the employee's reemployment position if the period of service was less than...Reemployment Rights and Benefits Reemployment Position § 1002.196 What is the employee's reemployment position if the period of service was less...

2010-04-01

158

KELT-6b: A P ~ 7.9 Day Hot Saturn Transiting a Metal-poor Star with a Long-period Companion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the discovery of KELT-6b, a mildly inflated Saturn-mass planet transiting a metal-poor host. The initial transit signal was identified in KELT-North survey data, and the planetary nature of the occulter was established using a combination of follow-up photometry, high-resolution imaging, high-resolution spectroscopy, and precise radial velocity measurements. The fiducial model from a global analysis including constraints from isochrones indicates that the V = 10.38 host star (BD+31 2447) is a mildly evolved, late-F star with T eff = 6102 ± 43 K, log g_\\star =4.07_{-0.07}^{+0.04}, and [Fe/H] = -0.28 ± 0.04, with an inferred mass M sstarf = 1.09 ± 0.04 M ? and radius R_\\star =1.58_{-0.09}^{+0.16} \\,R_\\odot. The planetary companion has mass MP = 0.43 ± 0.05 M Jup, radius R_{P}=1.19_{-0.08}^{+0.13} \\,R_Jup, surface gravity log g_{P}=2.86_{-0.08}^{+0.06}, and density \\rho _{P}=0.31_{-0.08}^{+0.07}\\,g\\,cm^{-3}. The planet is on an orbit with semimajor axis a = 0.079 ± 0.001 AU and eccentricity e=0.22_{-0.10}^{+0.12}, which is roughly consistent with circular, and has ephemeris of T c(BJDTDB) = 2456347.79679 ± 0.00036 and P = 7.845631 ± 0.000046 days. Equally plausible fits that employ empirical constraints on the host-star parameters rather than isochrones yield a larger planet mass and radius by ~4}-7}. KELT-6b has surface gravity and incident flux similar to HD 209458b, but orbits a host that is more metal poor than HD 209458 by ~0.3 dex. Thus, the KELT-6 system offers an opportunity to perform a comparative measurement of two similar planets in similar environments around stars of very different metallicities. The precise radial velocity data also reveal an acceleration indicative of a longer-period third body in the system, although the companion is not detected in Keck adaptive optics images. KELT is a joint project of The Ohio State University, Vanderbilt University, and Lehigh University.

Collins, Karen A.; Eastman, Jason D.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Siverd, Robert J.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Pepper, Joshua; Kielkopf, John F.; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W.; Fischer, Debra A.; Manner, Mark; Bieryla, Allyson; Latham, David W.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Gregorio, Joao; Buchhave, Lars A.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Penev, Kaloyan; Crepp, Justin R.; Hinkley, Sasha; Street, Rachel A.; Cargile, Phillip; Mack, Claude E.; Oberst, Thomas E.; Avril, Ryan L.; Mellon, Samuel N.; McLeod, Kim K.; Penny, Matthew T.; Stefanik, Robert P.; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L.; Mao, Qingqing; Richert, Alexander J. W.; DePoy, Darren L.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Gould, Andrew; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Oelkers, Ryan J.; Pogge, Richard W.; Trueblood, Mark; Trueblood, Patricia

2014-02-01

159

Day to Day  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A clean, healthy and safe school provides students, faculty and staff with an environment conducive to learning and working. However, budget and staff reductions can lead to substandard cleaning practices and unsanitary conditions. Some school facility managers have been making the switch to a day-schedule to reduce security and energy costs, and…

Jurecki, Dennis

2006-01-01

160

25 CFR 291.9 - What must the Secretary do at the end of the 60-day comment period if the State offers an...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...offers an alternative proposal for Class III gaming procedures? 291.9 Section 291...INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.9 What must...offers an alternative proposal for Class III gaming procedures? Within 30 days of...

2010-04-01

161

41 CFR 302-6.107 - What effect do partial days of temporary quarters occupancy have on my authorized period for...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...period for claiming actual TQSE reimbursement? 302-6.107 Section 302-6.107 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...ALLOWANCES FOR SUBSISTENCE AND TRANSPORTATION EXPENSES 6-ALLOWANCE FOR TEMPORARY QUARTERS SUBSISTENCE...

2014-07-01

162

Inter- and intra-individual variation in urinary biomarker concentrations over a 6-day sampling period. Part 2: personal care product ingredients.  

PubMed

An intensive study was conducted to provide data on intra- and inter-individual variation in urinary excretion of a series of ingredients in personal care products (parabens, triclosan, benzophenones) and bisphenol A (BPA, not expected to be an ingredient) in 8 volunteers over 6 days. Exposure diaries recorded use of personal care products with identified target analytes as ingredients. Participants' usual products were replaced with products without the target analytes for 2 of the 6 days. Urine void volumes and times were recorded. Methyl, ethyl, and n-propylparabens, triclosan, benzophenone-3, and BPA were frequently detected (?70% of samples). Urinary concentrations of the parabens and triclosan were lower on product replacement days. First morning void concentrations correlated moderately to highly with 24-h composite concentrations for all analytes. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for spot samples collected on days with usual product use were low for BPA (0.15), moderate for n-propylparaben and methylparaben (0.39 and 0.56, respectively), and high for ethylparaben, benzophenone-3, and triclosan (0.76, 0.81, and 0.934, respectively); ICCs were consistently higher on the basis of cr-adjusted concentrations. Hydration status adjustment methods were assessed by comparing unadjusted and adjusted concentrations to urinary excretion rates (ER, ng/kg-h) for all analytes and samples. Specific gravity-adjusted concentrations correlated slightly better with ER than creatinine-adjusted concentrations. Within-individual variation in biomarker concentrations was highest for methyl and ethylparabens (2 orders of magnitude variation in spot sample concentrations) and lower for the other analytes (1-1.5 orders of magnitude). This dataset provides insight into the design and interpretation of urinary biomonitoring studies for non-persistent chemicals. PMID:24956590

Koch, Holger M; Aylward, Lesa L; Hays, Sean M; Smolders, Roel; Moos, Rebecca K; Cocker, John; Jones, Kate; Warren, Nicholas; Levy, Len; Bevan, Ruth

2014-12-01

163

Survival of a five-strain cocktail of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during the 60-day aging period of cheddar cheese made from unpasteurized milk.  

PubMed

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Standard of Identity for Cheddar cheeses requires pasteurization of the milk, or as an alternative treatment, a minimum 60-day aging at > or =2 degrees C for cheeses made from unpasteurized milk, to reduce the number of viable pathogens that may be present to an acceptable risk. The objective of this study was to investigate the adequacy of the 60-day minimum aging to reduce the numbers of viable pathogens and evaluate milk subpasteurization heat treatment as a process to improve the safety of Cheddar cheeses made from unpasteurized milk. Cheddar cheese was made from unpasteurized milk inoculated with 10(1) to 10(5) CFU/ml of a five-strain cocktail of acid-tolerant Escherichia coli O157:H7. Samples were collected during the cheese manufacturing process. After pressing, the cheese blocks were packaged into plastic bags, vacuum sealed, and aged at 7 degrees C. After 1 week, the cheese blocks were cut into smaller-size uniform pieces and then vacuum sealed in clear plastic pouches. Samples were plated and enumerated for E. coli O157:H7. Populations of E. coli O157:H7 increased during the cheese-making operations. Population of E. coli O157:H7 in cheese aged for 60 and 120 days at 7 degrees C decreased less than 1 and 2 log, respectively. These studies confirm previous reports that show 60-day aging is inadequate to eliminate E. coli O157:H7 during cheese ripening. Subpasteurization heat-treatment runs were conducted at 148 degrees F (64.4 degrees C) for 17.5 s on milk inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 at 10(5) CFU/ml. These heat-treatment runs resulted in a 5-log E. coli O157: H7 reduction. PMID:16715794

Schlesser, J E; Gerdes, R; Ravishankar, S; Madsen, K; Mowbray, J; Teo, A Y L

2006-05-01

164

Clonally Derived Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines Maintain Pluripotency and Proliferative Potential for Prolonged Periods of Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embryonic stem (ES) cell lines derived from human blastocysts have the developmental potential to form derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers even after prolonged culture. Here we describe the clonal derivation of two human ES cell lines, H9.1 and H9.2. At the time of the clonal derivation of the H9.1 and H9.2 ES cell lines, the parental ES cell

Michal Amit; Melissa K. Carpenter; Margaret S. Inokuma; Choy-Pik Chiu; Charles P. Harris; Michelle A. Waknitz; Joseph Itskovitz-Eldor; James A. Thomson

2000-01-01

165

A 420-day X-ray/optical modulation and extended X-ray dips in the short-period transient Swift J1753.5-0127  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have discovered a ˜420-d modulation, with associated X-ray dips, in Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer-All Sky Monitor/Monitor of All-Sky X-ray Image/Swift-Burst Alert Telescope archival light curves of the short-period (3.2 h) black hole X-ray transient, Swift J1753.5-0127. This modulation only appeared at the end of a gradual re-brightening, approximately 3 yr after the initial X-ray outburst in mid-2005. The same periodicity is present in both the 2-20 and 15-50 keV bands, but with a ˜0.1 phase offset (?40 d). Contemporaneous photometry in the optical and near-infrared reveals a weaker modulation, but consistent with the X-ray period. There are two substantial X-ray dips (very strong in the 15-50 keV band, weaker at lower energies) that are separated by an interval equal to the X-ray period. This likely indicates two physically separated emitting regions for the hard X-ray and lower energy emission. We interpret this periodicity as a property of the accretion disc, most likely a long-term precession, where the disc edge structure and X-ray irradiation are responsible for the hard X-ray dips and modulation, although we discuss other possible explanations, including Lense-Thirring precession in the inner disc region and spectral state variations. Such precession indicates a very high mass ratio low-mass X-ray binary, which even for a ˜10 M? BH requires a brown dwarf donor (˜0.02 M?), making Swift J1753.5-0127 a possible analogue of millisecond X-ray pulsars. We compare the properties of Swift J1753.5-0127 with other recently discovered short-period transients, which are now forming a separate population of high-latitude BH transients located in the galactic halo.

Shaw, A. W.; Charles, P. A.; Bird, A. J.; Cornelisse, R.; Casares, J.; Lewis, F.; Muñoz-Darias, T.; Russell, D. M.; Zurita, C.

2013-07-01

166

Increase in nitrate uptake by soybean plants during interruption of the dark period with low intensity light  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Diurnal patterns of net NO3- uptake by nonnodulated soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Ransom] plants growing in flowing hydroponic culture at 26 and 16 degrees C root temperatures were measured at hourly intervals during alternate days of a 12-day growth period. Ion chromatography was used to determine removal of NO3- from the culture solution. Day and night periods of 9 and 15 h were used during growth. The night period included two 6-h dark periods and an intervening 3-h period of night interruption by incandescent lamps to effect a long-day photoperiod and repress floral initiation. At both root temperatures, the average specific rates of NO3- uptake were twice as great during the night interruption period as during the day period; they were greater during the day period than during the dark periods; and they were greater during the dark period immediately following the day period than during the later dark period that followed the night interruption. While these average patterns were repetitious among days, measured rates of uptake varied hourly and included intervals of net efflux scattered through the day period and more frequently through the 2 dark periods. Root temperature did not affect the average daily specific rates of uptake or the qualitative relationships among day, dark and night interruption periods of the diurnal cycle.

Raper, C. D. Jr; Vessey, J. K.; Henry, L. T.

1991-01-01

167

Altered energy status of primary cerebellar granule neuronal cultures from rats exposed to lead in the pre- and neonatal period.  

PubMed

This paper examines the effect of pre- and neonatal exposure of rats to lead (0.1% lead acetate in drinking water, resulting in rat offspring whole blood lead concentration (Pb-B) 4?g/dL) on the energy status of neuronal mitochondria by measuring changes in ATP, ADP, AMP, adenosine, TAN concentration, adenylate energy charge value (AEC) and mitochondrial membrane potential in primary cerebellar granule neurons (CGC) in dissociated cultures. Fluorescence studies were performed to imaging and evaluate mitochondria mass, mitochondrial membrane potential, intracellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity in intact CGC was measured spectrophotometrically. Our data shows that pre- and neonatal exposure of rats to Pb, even below the threshold of whole blood Pb value considered safe for people, affects the energy status of cultured primary cerebellar granule neurons through a decrease in ATP and TAN concentrations and AEC value, inhibition of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, and increase in intracellular and mitochondrial ROS concentration. These observations suggest that even these low levels of Pb are likely to induce important alterations in neuronal function that could play a role in neurodegeneration. PMID:21108985

Baranowska-Bosiacka, I; Gutowska, I; Marchetti, C; Rutkowska, M; Marchlewicz, M; Kolasa, A; Prokopowicz, A; Wiernicki, I; Piotrowska, K; Ba?kiewicz, M; Safranow, K; Wiszniewska, B; Chlubek, D

2011-02-01

168

Drought, epidemic disease, and the fall of classic period cultures in Mesoamerica (AD 750-950). Hemorrhagic fevers as a cause of massive population loss.  

PubMed

The classical period in Mexico (AD 250-750) was an era of splendor. The city of Teotihuacan was one of the largest and most sophisticated human conglomerates of the pre-industrial world. The Mayan civilization in southeastern Mexico and the Yucatan peninsula reached an impressive degree of development at the same time. This time of prosperity came to an end during the Terminal Classic Period (AD 750-950) a time of massive population loss throughout Mesoamerica. A second episode of massive depopulation in the same area was experienced during the sixteenth century when, in less than one century, between 80% and 90% of the entire indigenous population was lost. The 16th century depopulation of Mexico constitutes one of the worst demographic catastrophes in human history. Although newly imported European and African diseases caused high mortality among the native population, the major 16th century population losses were caused by a series of epidemics of a hemorrhagic fever called Cocoliztli, a highly lethal disease unknown to both Aztec and European physicians during the colonial era. The cocoliztli epidemics occurred during the 16th century megadrought, when severe drought extended at times from central Mexico to the boreal forest of Canada, and from the Pacific to the Atlantic coast. The collapse of the cultures of the Classic Period seems also to have occurred during a time of severe drought. Tree ring and lake sediment records indicate that some of the most severe and prolonged droughts to impact North America-Mesoamerica in the past 1000-4000 years occurred between AD 650 and 1000, particularly during the 8th and 9th centuries, a period of time that coincides with the Terminal Classic Period. Based on the similarities of the climatic (severe drought) and demographic (massive population loss) events in Mesoamerica during the sixteenth century, we propose that drought-associated epidemics of hemorrhagic fever may have contributed to the massive population loss during the Terminal Classic Period. PMID:15922121

Acuna-Soto, Rodolfo; Stahle, David W; Therrell, Matthew D; Gomez Chavez, Sergio; Cleaveland, Malcolm K

2005-01-01

169

Optimization of phase feeding of starter, grower, and finisher diets for male broilers by mixture experimental design: forty-eight-day production period.  

PubMed

A mixture experiment, a variant of response surface methodology, was designed to determine the proportion of time to feed broiler starter (23% protein), grower (20% protein), and finisher (18% protein) diets to optimize production and processing variables based on a total production time of 48 d. Mixture designs are useful for proportion problems where the components of the experiment (i.e., length of time the diets were fed) add up to a unity (48 d). The experiment was conducted with day-old male Ross x Ross broiler chicks. The birds were placed 50 birds per pen in each of 60 pens. The experimental design was a 10-point augmented simplex-centroid (ASC) design with 6 replicates of each point. Each design point represented the portion(s) of the 48 d that each of the diets was fed. Formulation of the diets was based on NRC standards. At 49 d, each pen of birds was evaluated for production data including BW, feed conversion, and cost of feed consumed. Then, 6 birds were randomly selected from each pen for processing data. Processing variables included live weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, fat pad percentage, and breast yield (pectoralis major and pectoralis minor weights). Production and processing data were fit to simplex regression models. Model terms determined not to be significant (P > 0.05) were removed. The models were found to be statistically adequate for analysis of the response surfaces. A compromise solution was calculated based on optimal constraints designated for the production and processing data. The results indicated that broilers fed a starter and finisher diet for 30 and 18 d, respectively, would meet the production and processing constraints. Trace plots showed that the production and processing variables were not very sensitive to the grower diet. PMID:15339000

Roush, W B; Boykin, D; Branton, S L

2004-08-01

170

White Day  

E-print Network

but also to their male co-workers. Men have White Day a month later on March 14th. Created by a sweets manufacturer in 1980 to boost sales, White Day is more of a marketing ploy than a holiday. On White Day, you will see men scurrying about purchasing giri...

Hacker, Randi

2010-05-05

171

Earth Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On April 22, 2005, people around the world will celebrate the 35th anniversary of Earth Day. This Topic in Depth focuses on the past and present of this significant day. From the Wisconsin Historical Society, the first two sites contain historical documents pertaining to Earth Day. The first (1) document features a May 1970 issue of The Gaylord Nelson Newsletter reporting on the first Earth Day. The second (2) document is a speech by Nelson entitled "An Environmental Agenda for the 70's." Housed in the archives of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) website, the next two sites also contain historical documents. The first (3) site contains an article written by Nelson for the EPA Journal in April of 1980, entitled "Earth Day '70: What It Meant." The second (4) site contains an article written by John C. Whitaker (former Interior undersecretary in the Nixon administration) for the EPA Journal in the summer of 1998. The article is entitled "Earth Day Recollections: What It Was Like When the Movement Took Off." The (5) Earth Day Network (first mentioned in the April 4, 2003, Scout Report for Life Sciences) works "to broaden the environmental movement worldwide and to educate and mobilize people, governments, and corporations to take responsibility for a clean and healthy environment." In addition to information sections about Ongoing Programs, Current Campaigns, and News, the Earth Day Network website contains Earth Day 2005 Materials for organizers. From EarthDay.gov, Take Action In Your Classroom (6) offers links to a variety of environmental education resources. The next website, from the U.S. Army Environmental Center, presents (7) Army Earth Day; and links to information about the Army's environmental activities. The final (8) site is an Earth Day-inspired educational website (first reported on in the April 14, 1999 Scout Report for Science & Engineering) from the Wilderness Society. The site offers a collection of environmental education resources for teachers and students. [NL

172

Space Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Space Day '98, to be held on May 21, 1998, celebrates and honors the people who have made space exploration possible. The highlight of the Space Day homepage, maintained by Lockheed Martin Corporation, will be a live interactive webcast all day on May 21. Features of the webcast include experts in the fields of space discussing issues ranging from global collaboration to mysteries that remain. In addition to the webcast, the Space Day '98 home page provides resources for teachers and the curious alike. Mission: Fun allows visitors to test their space knowledge through interactive Shockwave games and quizzes while Teachers' Space provides educators with downloadable lesson plans (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format).

173

Dinosaur Day!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors describe how they capitalized on their first-grade students' love of dinosaurs by hosting a fun-filled Dinosaur Day in their classroom. On Dinosaur Day, students rotated through four dinosaur-related learning stations that integrated science content with art, language arts, math, and history in a fun and time-efficient…

Nakamura, Sandra; Baptiste, H. Prentice

2006-01-01

174

34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Day; business day; school day. 300.11 ...DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part ...Day; business day; school day. (a) Day ...that children are in attendance at school for instructional...

2010-07-01

175

Earth Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The State University of New York at Buffalo presents this History of Earth Day website. The goal of the site is that teachers and students can better understand the development and purpose of Earth Day. In addition to the history, SUNY-Buffalo has compiled a series of websites complete with projects associated with Earth Day, appropriate for children, high school students, and college undergrads. Furthermore, the legal aspect of Earth Day - environmental legislation, EPA standards, and Global Climate Change legislation - are also discussed on the site. A list of further sites is also provided if users want more information on this national effort to help solve environmental issues such as pollution, overpopulation, and global warming. Teachers will find this website both informative and helpful in developing appropriate teaching curricula connected to this holiday, while students can have fun learning and creating projects of their own that contribute to preserving the environment.

176

Effect of insulin on glycogen and protein synthesis in monolayer cultures of hepatocytes from normal and alloxan diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The effects of insulin on net glycogen synthesis and amino acid incorporation into protein were studied in cultured hepatocytes from adult normal and alloxan diabetic rats. Insulin stimulated glycogen synthesis in monolayer cells throughout a four day culture period and enhanced leucine incorporation into protein more effectively in normal cells with high glycogen levels than in cultured diabetic cells. These

P. Bellemann; J. R. Fry; J. W. Bridges; W. Schlote; D. Mecke

1977-01-01

177

Capitol Day  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stennis Space Center Director Gene Goldman visits with Mississippi Gov. Haley Barbour during NASA Day at the Capitol activities on Feb. 19. During the visit, Goldman presented the governor with a model of the J-2X rocket engine currently in development. Stennis engineers did early component testing for the new engine.

2009-01-01

178

Inspire Day  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors collaborated on hosting a "Spring Inspire Day." planned and delivered by preservice elementary teachers as a social studies/science methods project. Projects that have authentic application opportunities can make learning meaningful for prospective teachers as well as elementary students. With the impetus for an integrated…

Bohach, Barbara M.; Meade, Birgitta

2014-01-01

179

Dinosaur Day!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On Dinosaur Day, first-grade students rotated through four dinosaur-related learning stations that integrated science content with art, language arts, math, and history in a fun and time-efficient manner. The event drew parents, teachers, and students together as they helped each other discuss, write, draw, measure, mix, and record at each learning station.

H. Prentice Baptiste

2006-01-01

180

The ultrastructure of rat palatal mucosa maintained in organ culture.  

PubMed Central

Palatal mucosa from neonatal rats was examined by electron microscopy after maintenance in a chemically defined medium in organ culture for periods up to 24 days. Throughout the culture period there was little overall change in the explants. Apart from limited disturbances of the basal lamina complex early in the culture period, and the presence of occasional degenerating keratinocytes after 18 days in vitro, the epithelium displayed an ultrastructure comparable with that at the time of explantation. The connective tissue showed greater changes, but despite considerable cell death a viable cell population apparently capable of both phagocytosis and synthesis of extracellular material was maintained. It is concluded that this organ culture system is a valid model for experimental investigations into the behaviour of oral mucosa. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 PMID:744746

Hill, M W

1978-01-01

181

Seven Days  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A SCEC-VDO movie showing two approx. magnitude 5 earthquakes that occurred within seven days in Southern California. The second earthquake is on or near the San Andreas fault and led to concern of a much larger earthquake (that did not happen). The Southern California Earthquake Center's Virtual Display of Objects (SCEC-VDO) is 3D visualization software that allows users to display, study and make movies of earthquakes as they occur globally. SCEC-VDO was developed by interns of SCEC Undergraduate Studies in Earthquake Information Technology (UseIT), under the supervision of Sue Perry and Tom Jordan.

Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC)

182

CoRoT 101186644: A transiting low-mass dense M-dwarf on an eccentric 20.7-day period orbit around a late F-star. Discovered in the CoRoT lightcurves  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the study of the CoRoT transiting planet candidate 101186644, also named LRc01_E1_4780. Analysis of the CoRoT lightcurve and the HARPS spectroscopic follow-up observations of this faint (mV = 16) candidate revealed an eclipsing binary composed of a late F-type primary (Teff = 6090 ± 200 K) and a low-mass, dense late M-dwarf secondary on an eccentric (e = 0.4) orbit with a period of ~20.7 days. The M-dwarf has a mass of 0.096 ± 0.011 M?, and a radius of 0.104-0.006+0.026 R?, which possibly makes it the smallest and densest late M-dwarf reported so far. Unlike the claim that theoretical models predict radii that are 5-15% smaller than measured for low-mass stars, this one seems to have a radius that is consistent and might even be below the radius predicted by theoretical models. Based on observations made with the 1-m telescope at the Wise Observatory, Israel, the Swiss 1.2-m Leonhard Euler telescope at La Silla Observatory, Chile, the IAC-80 telescope at the Observatory del Teide, Canarias, Spain, and the 3.6-m telescope at La Silla Observatory (ESO), Chile (program 184.C-0639).

Tal-Or, L.; Mazeh, T.; Alonso, R.; Bouchy, F.; Cabrera, J.; Deeg, H. J.; Deleuil, M.; Faigler, S.; Fridlund, M.; Hébrard, G.; Moutou, C.; Santerne, A.; Tingley, B.

2013-05-01

183

Periodicities of solar flare and its relations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Daily flare index during period between March 1975 and May 1978, were studied by using power spectral analysis method. There are periodicities between 4.5 days to 21.7 days. Our results confirm the periodicity around 12.5 days found by several authors. This periodicity was attributed to the rotation of solar core. Long term periodicities were given where 88 and 320 days periodicities were confirmed. The relation between these periodicities and other solar activities periodicity were given.

Hady, Ahmed A.

1995-01-01

184

Enhanced recovery of Phytophthora ramorum from soil following 30 days storage at 4C  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chlamydospores of Phytophthora ramorum produced by mixing 20 percent V8 juice broth cultures with sand and incubating over a 30 day period were used to infest field soil at densities ranging from 0.2 to 42 chlamydospores per cubic centimeter of soil. Chlamydospore recovery was determined by baiting...

185

In vitro maintenance of spermatogenesis in Xenopus laevis testis explants cultured in serum-free media  

SciTech Connect

Spermatogenesis has been maintained for extended periods in Xenopus laevis testis explants cultured in serum-free media supplemented with bovine serum albumin, insulin, transferrin, follicle-stimulating hormone, dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, retinol, ascorbate, and tocopherol. The organization of the testis fragments was maintained for 28 days, and all stages of development were present throughout the culture period. /sup 3/H-Thymidine-labeled secondary (Type B) spermatogonia developed in 28 days into spermatids at the acrosomal vesicle stage whereas labeled zygotene spermatocytes became mature spermatids in 28 days. Spermatogonial proliferation also continued in vitro for 28 days. Germ cell differentiation was not dependent upon exogenous testosterone, ascorbate, or tocopherol since /sup 3/H-labeled spermatogonia became mature spermatids in testes cultured 35 days in media lacking these supplements. Autoradiography demonstrated that 55% of the luminal sperm present in explants cultured 10 days had differentiated in vitro. Sperm from testes cultured 10-35 days were similar to sperm from freshly dissected testes with regard to motility and fecundity, and eggs fertilized with sperm from explant cultures developed normally into swimming tadpoles. The results demonstrate the feasibility of maintaining vertebrate spermatogenesis in culture and suggest that in vitro analysis of Xenopus spermatogenesis using defined media may provide important insights into the evolution of regulatory mechanisms in spermatogenesis.

Risley, M.S.; Miller, A.; Bumcrot, D.A.

1987-05-01

186

Paradoxical effect of supplementary progesterone between Day 3 and Day 7 on corpus luteum function and conceptus development in cattle.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of short-term progesterone (P4) supplementation during the early metoestrous period on circulating P4 concentrations and conceptus development in cattle. The oestrous cycles of cross-bred beef heifers were synchronised using a 7-day P4-releasing intravaginal device (PRID® Delta; 1.55 g P4) treatment with administration of a prostaglandin F(2?) analogue (Enzaprost; CEVA Sante Animale) the day before PRID® Delta removal. Only those heifers recorded in standing oestrus (Day 0) were used. In Experiment 1, heifers were randomly assigned to one of five groups: (1) control: no treatment; (2) placebo: insertion of a blank device (no P4) from Day 3 to Day 7; (3) insertion of a PRID® Delta from Day 3 to Day 7; (4) insertion of a PRID® Delta from Day 3 to Day 5; or (5) insertion of a PRID® Delta from Day 5 to Day 7. In vitro-produced blastocysts were transferred to each heifer in Groups 2-5 on Day 7 (n=10 blastocysts per heifer) and conceptuses were recovered when heifers were killed on Day 14. Based on the outcome of Experiment 1, in Experiment 2 heifers were artificially inseminated at oestrus and randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups: (1) placebo; (2) PRID from Day 3 to Day 5; or (3) PRID from Day 3 to Day 7. All heifers were killed on Day 16 and recovered conceptuses were incubated in synthetic oviducal fluid medium for 24 h; spent media and uterine flushes were analysed for interferon-? (IFNT). In both experiments, daily blood samples were taken to determined serum P4 concentrations. Data were analysed using the PROC MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA). Insertion of a PRID resulted in an increase (P<0.05) in serum P4 that declined following removal. In Experiment 1, P4 supplementation from Day 3 to Day 5 (17.0±1.4 mm) or Day 3 to Day 7 (11.3±2.3 mm) increased conceptus length compared with placebo (2.1±1.8 mm). Serum P4 was significantly lower from Day 9 to Day 14 (P<0.05) and the weight of the Day 14 corpus luteum (CL) was lower in the PRID Day 3-7 group than the placebo or control groups. In Experiment 2, supplementation from Day 3 to Day 5 (94.0±18.8 mm) or Day 3 to Day 7 (143.6±20.6 mm) increased conceptus length on Day 16 compared with placebo (50.3±17.4 mm). Serum P4 was significantly lower in the two supplemented groups following PRID removal compared with placebo (P<0.05) and was associated with a lower CL weight in the Day 3-7 group. Conceptus length was strongly correlated with the IFNT concentration in the uterine flush (r=0.58; P=0.011) and spent culture medium (r=0.68; P<0.002). The findings of the present study highlight the somewhat paradoxical effects of P4 supplementation when given in the early metoestrous period in terms of its positive effect on conceptus development and its potentially negative effects on CL lifespan. PMID:23439105

O'Hara, L; Forde, N; Carter, F; Rizos, D; Maillo, V; Ealy, A D; Kelly, A K; Rodriguez, P; Isaka, N; Evans, A C O; Lonergan, P

2014-01-01

187

Longterm cultures of sheep thyroid cells.  

PubMed

A thyroid tissue culture system has been established in which follicular morphology can be preserved for at least 30 days. The system is highly dependent on whether or not the medium supporting the cells is changed during the culture period. The high levels of TSH (40 mU/ml) normally used in thyroid culture systems enhance follicular morphology but are not a prerequisite for differentiation. In the absence of medium changes follicular morphology improves for up to 20 days after initiation of the culture. Thereafter, the cells die unless the medium is changed. If differentiation is to be preserved after 20 days the medium into which the cells are transferred must be "conditioned" by preincubation with thryoid cultures. Regular medium changes into fresh medium causes the cultures to lose their differentiated characteristics and revert to a conventional monolayer. The capacity of these cultures to trap iodide has been quantified using a new method. The method is based on comparison of the 125I--iodide retained by thyroid cells with that retained in a undifferentiated established cell line (CHO--K1). The results demonstrated that trapping can be preserved for at least 20 days in cells cultured in the presence of TSH, provided the medium is not changed; and that under appropriate conditions the cells can trap iodide even in the absence of TSH stimulation. The extent to which the above cultures proliferate is also investigated. At the relatively high innoculation of cells used in primary cultures little proliferation takes place even when the cells are stimulated by TSH. However, regular medium changed induce some growth. In the absence of medium changes the cells die after 15-20 days. Those grown in the presence of TSH live slightly longer than those grown in its absence. Subculturing thyroid cells and innoculating them at low densities in Petri dishes leads to substantial cell proliferation whether or not TSH is present. The doubling time of cells in these cultures is the order of 1 to 2 days. The population resulting from this growth exhibit both epithelial and fibroblast like morphology although the former predominates. When cells from primary thryoid cultures are reseeded at very low concentrations (approximately 10(3) cells/Petri dish) about 3-10 per cent of the population give rise to viable macroscopic clones. PMID:6996408

O'Connor, M K; Malone, J F; Cullen, M J

1980-01-01

188

Cultural Treatment of Selected Species for Woody Biomass Production in the Pacific Northwest : Final Report for the Period August 1, 1978 - September 30, 1984.  

SciTech Connect

The project focused on six major objectives related not only to tree growth, but to other aspects of plantation management and operation in the Pacific Northwest as well: (1) determine the growth and yield of red alder (Alnus rubra) and black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) under a variety of cultural treatments and densities (tree spacing); (2) assess the interactions of soil characteristics and cultural treatments on fertility and biomass production; (3) assess the occurrence and effects of pests that may be associated with plantation management; (4) evaluate the applicability of a prototype whole-tree baling machine for handling biomass crops after harvest; (5) identify and quantify the thermal and physical characteristics of plantation-grown fuels; and (6) estimate the cost of producing plantation-grown fuels. 171 references, 35 figures, 40 tables.

Schroeder, Paul R.

1984-11-01

189

Effective Cross Cultural Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

When we speak about communication it is imperative to consider it as being cultural — it draws on ways we have learned to speak and give nonverbal messages. We do not always communicate the same way from day to day, since there are factors like context, individual personality, and mood interact usually with the variety of cultural influences we have

Adriana Vintean

2008-01-01

190

Festivals of the Darkest Days.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents historical background on various winter festivals around the world including Saturnalia, Christmas, winter solstice, Yule festivals, Hannukah, Divali, and New Year's Day. Suggests how teachers can help elementary school students understand their own culture by studying these and other festivals using maps, mobiles, discussion, and reading…

Cacha, Frances B.

1980-01-01

191

Pesticides Safely For more information on selection, planting, cultural  

E-print Network

Applying Pesticides Safely For more information on selection, planting, cultural practices and instructions. Observe the days-to- harvest period for fruits and vegetables to the letter. Use pesticides only and use of pesticides are regulat- ed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency

Liskiewicz, Maciej

192

January 2008 BEE CULTURE 41 Get ReadyTo  

E-print Network

January 2008 BEE CULTURE 41 Get ReadyTo POLLINATE This Spring Jennifer Berry While the cold January seasons in a 24 hour period. One day we are outside working hives in t-shirts while the bees are buzzing revealed little to no pollen in many of our colonies. Pollen patties were fed last month to most colonies

Delaplane, Keith S.

193

Hippocampal culture stimulus with 4-megahertz ultrasound  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among current modalities, ultrasound uniquely offers both millisecond and millimeter accuracy in noninvasively stimulating brain tissue. In addition, by sweeping the ultrasound beam within the refractory period of the neuronal tissue, ultrasonic neuromodulation can be adapted to target extended or multiply connected regions with quasi-simultaneity. Towards the development of this safe brain stimulus technique, the response of rat hippocampal cultures to ultrasound was investigated. Hippocampal slices, 0.4-mm thick, were obtained from 8-day old Sprague Dawley rats and cultured for 6 days. The in vitro cultures were exposed to multiple 100-ms 4.04-MHz ultrasound pulses from a 42-mm diameter, 90-mm spherical cap transducer. Peak pressure ranged from 0 through about 77 kPa. Responses in the form of electrical potentials from a sixty channel electrode array were digitized and recorded. The DG and CA1 regions of the hippocampus exhibited similar ultrasonically-evoked field potentials.

Muratore, Robert; LaManna, Justine K.; Lamprecht, Michael R.; Morrison, Barclay, III

2012-10-01

194

A study of magnetic field effects on fibroblast cultures part 3. The evaluation of the effects of static and extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields on glycosaminoglycan metabolism in fibroblasts, cell coats and culture medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultures of fibroblasts isolated from murine liver by the method of tissue trypsinization were exposed to a static magnetic field (0.49 T) and an extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field (50 Hz, 0.020 T). The cultures were exposed to magnetic fields for exposure periods of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 min on four consecutive days. During the experiment

Bogus?aw Kula

1996-01-01

195

A study on magnetic field effects on fibroblast cultures part 2. The evaluation of the effects of static and extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields on free-radical processes in fibroblast cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultures of fibroblasts isolated from murine liver by the method of tissue trypsinization were exposed to static magnetic field (0.49 T) and extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field 50 Hz (0.020 T). The cultures were exposed to magnetic fields for exposure periods of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 min on four consecutive days. After exposure, the Zn, Fe

Bogus?aw Kula

1996-01-01

196

Prevalence of drug resistance and culture-positive rate among microorganisms isolated from patients with ocular infections over a 4-year period  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the microbial isolates from patients with ocular infections and the trend in the emergence of levofloxacin-resistant strains over the past four years from 2006 to 2009 retrospectively. Patients and methods The subjects were 242 patients with ocular infections or traumas treated in our hospital including outpatients, inpatients, and emergency room patients. Most of them needed urgent care presenting with eye complaints, traumas, or decreased vision. Clinical samples were obtained from discharges, corneal, conjunctival tissues or vitreous fluid or aqueous humor, and cultured. Items for assessment included the patient’s age, the diagnosis, the prevalence of isolated bacteria, and the results of susceptibility tests for levofloxacin (LVFX) cefamezin (CEZ), gentamicin (GM) and vancomycin. This information was obtained from the patients’ medical records. Results There were 156 male patients and 86 female patients who were aged from 2 months old to 94 years old and mean age was 56.8 ± 24.2 years. Of the 242 patients, 78 (32.2%) had positive cultures. The culture-positive rate was significantly higher in male patients than female in total (P = 0.002) and in patients with corneal perforation (P = 0.005). Corneal perforation was the highest culture-positive rate (60.0%), followed by orbital cellulitis (56.5%), blepharitis (50.0%), dacryoadenitis (45.5%), conjunctivitis (38.2%), infectious corneal ulcer (28.5%) and endophthalmitis (24.7%). LVFX-resistant strains accounted for 40 out of a total of 122 strains (32.8%), and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was significantly higher in LVFX and GM compared with the other antibiotics. There were no vancomycin-resistant strains. Conclusion Attention should be paid to a possible future increase of strains with resistance to LVFX, as commonly prescribed ocular antibiotics bring emergence of resistant bacteria. Although no vancomycin-resistant strains were isolated this drug should be reserved as the last resort, in order to prevent the emergence of vancomycin resistance. PMID:23589677

Shimizu, Yusuke; Toshida, Hiroshi; Honda, Rio; Matsui, Asaki; Ohta, Toshihiko; Asada, Yousuke; Murakami, Akira

2013-01-01

197

Cultural Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity combines cultural exploration with number patterns and systems. Choose a culture or historical period and have learners make a calendar for a month in that time. For more challenge, pick a country that uses different numerals, such as India or China or go back in time and make calendars for a month in ancient Mayan times, using the Mayan number system. Ask learners to compare: How are the calendars they’ve made different from the calendars we use? How are they the same? What patterns do you notice? Available as a web page and downloadable PDF. Blank calendar template is also available as a downloadable PDF.

2012-06-26

198

Cultural Diplomacy in Europe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evolution of European government activities in the sphere of international cultural relations is examined. Section 1 describes the period between World War I and World War II when European governments tried to enhance their prestige and policies by means of cultural propaganda. Section 2 analyzes the period during World War II when the…

Haigh, Anthony

199

A respirometer for organ cultures  

PubMed Central

1. A differential respirometer that can measure the oxygen uptake of organ cultures for periods of several days is described. 2. Diethanolamine is used as an external carbon dioxide buffer so that oxygen consumption can be measured in the presence of physiological concentrations of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate. 3. The efficiency of carbon dioxide retention with 5% carbon dioxide as gas phase is estimated to be 75% and the accuracy to be ±5% with a measured rate of oxygen uptake in excess of 40?l./hr. 4. Some experiments with guinea-pig retina are reported. ImagesFig. 2. PMID:5881664

Lucas, D. R.

1965-01-01

200

Is Screening for Depression in the Perinatal Period Enough? The Co-Occurrence of Depression, Substance Abuse, and Intimate Partner Violence in Culturally Diverse Pregnant Women  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background The perinatal period provides unique opportunities to identify and intervene with the co-occurrence of perinatal depression, intimate partner violence (IPV), and substance use problems. Psychosocial screening recommended for women seen in maternal child health settings tends to target single rather than multiple risk factors; there is limited research examining the co-occurrence of these issues especially in racially and ethnically diverse women across the perinatal period. These analyses explore the relationships of sociodemographic, psychosocial, and behavioral characteristics in a large, diverse sample of women. Method Women receiving perinatal services at routinely scheduled visits, including the 6-week postpartum visit, were recruited from 10 community obstetric/gynecologic clinics. Data were collected on perinatal depression, IPV, maternal substance use, and sociodemographic characteristics by bilingual, bicultural research assistants. Results A total of 1868 women were screened, 1526 (82%) Latina, 1099 (58.8%) interviewed in Spanish; 20.4% (n=382) screened positive for depressive symptoms based on an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of 10 or above, 20.9% reported harmful drinking, 4.3% reported drug use, 23% reported substance use problems, and 3.5% reported current or recent IPV. Women who were Black, Asian, Pacific Islander, or other race/ethnicity had greater odds for depressive symptoms relative to women who were Hispanic or Latino (odds ratio [OR]=1.81, p=0.005). Women reporting substance use problems (OR=2.37, p<0.0001) and IPV (OR=3.98, p<0.0001) had higher odds for depressive symptoms. Conclusion In a predominately Latina sample, 1 in 5 mothers (20.4%) screened positive for depressive symptoms and over one third (36.7%) reported one or more psychosocial issues during the perinatal period. Screening for multiple risk factors rather than just one can help clinicians tailor interventions for the successful management of psychosocial issues. PMID:23931153

Hazen, Andrea L.; Baker-Ericzén, Mary J.; Landsverk, John; Horwitz, Sarah McCue

2013-01-01

201

Expression of merA, trxA, amoA, and hao in Continuously Cultured Nitrosomonas europaea  

E-print Network

WWTP influents primarily from industrial discharges and urban storm water runoff (Davis et al., 2001 for 78 days with a 6.9 days hydraulic retention time. Over this period, six successive batch additions towards pure cultures of Nitrosomonas europaea, the model AOB (Chandran and Love, 2008; Park and Ely, 2008

Semprini, Lewis

202

Non-spore forming eubacteria isolated at an altitude of 20,000 m in Earth's atmosphere: extended incubation periods needed for culture-based assays  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On 13 August 2004, an atmospheric sample was collected at an altitude of 20,000 m along a west to east transect over the continental United States by NASA’s Stratospheric and Cosmic Dust Program. This sample was then shipped to the US Geological Survey’s Global Desert Dust program for microbiological analyses. This sample, which was plated on a low nutrient agar to determine if cultivable microorganisms were present, produced 590 small yellow to off-white colonies after approximately 7 weeks of incubation at room-temperature. Of 50 colonies selected for identification using 16S rRNA sequencing, 41 belonged to the family Micrococcaceae, seven to the family Microbacteriaceae, one to the genus Staphylococcus, and one to the genus Brevibacterium. All of the isolates identified were non-spore-forming pigmented bacteria, and their presence in this sample illustrate that it is not unusual to recover viable microbes at extreme altitudes. Additionally, the extended period required to initiate growth demonstrates the need for lengthy incubation periods when analyzing high-altitude samples for cultivable microorganisms.

Griffin, Dale W.

2008-01-01

203

Epidermal growth factor receptor numbers in male and female mouse primary hepatocyte cultures.  

PubMed

Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGF-R) were measured in adult male and female mouse primary hepatocyte cultures. On culture day 1, female hepatocytes had significantly fewer EGF-R than male hepatocytes (1.3 x 10(4) versus 6.2 x 10(5) per cell). Over the next three days, morphological changes consistent with progressive heptocyte dedifferentiation were observed. During this period, EGF-R numbers progressively increased in female cultures and decreased in male cultures, and by day 4 the sexual difference in EGF-R numbers was obliterated. These results indicate that a relationship exists between the degree of differentiation in hepatocyte cultures and the expression of EGF-R on the cell surface. PMID:3191582

Benveniste, R; Danoff, T M; Ilekis, J; Craig, H R

1988-10-01

204

Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Cold cereal Toast Oatmeal Cold cereal Scones  

E-print Network

Applesauce pineapple Milk Milk Milk Milk Milk Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Cold cereal Cinn. Raisin toast Oatmeal Cold cereal Muffin Peaches Apricots Bananas Pineapple Pears Milk Milk Milk Milk Pineapple Tropical fruit Oranges Fruit coktail Applesauce Milk Milk Milk Milk Milk Day 1 Day 2 Day

Farritor, Shane

205

STS-79 Flight Day 5  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On this fifth day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz, in the first full day of joint Shuttle/Mir operations begin in with the transfer of a biotechnology investigation and logistical supplies from Atlantis to Mir. The Biotechnology System, an investigation that will study the long-term development of cartilage cells in microgravity, was transported to Mir early this morning. During his planned four-month stay on Mir, John Blaha will take weekly samples of the culture which may provide researchers with information on engineering cartilage cells for possible use in transplantation. They also took time out of their schedules to talk with Good Morning America's Elizabeth Vargas in a brief interview. Prior to beginning the day's transfer activities, all nine astronauts and cosmonauts participated in a joint planning session to outline the day's schedule.

1996-01-01

206

Embryonic mouse pre-metatarsal development in organ culture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Embryonic mouse pre-metatarsals were removed from embryos at 13 days of gestation and cultured in a defined, serum-free medium for up to 15 days. By histological analysis, we observe that the cultured pre-metatarsal tissue undergoes a similar developmental profile as pre-metatarsals growing normally in vivo. The initial mesenchyme condensation regions undergo differentiation and morphogenesis to form distinct rods made up of cartilage tissue. A marker of this differentiation step is the synthesis of type II collagen. Metabolic labelling, pepsin digestion, SDS-PAGE, and autoradiography were used to demonstrate this protein when cartilage tissue is present in the cultures. After additional culture time, terminal chondrocyte differentiation and morphogenesis take place in specific regions of the cartilage rods to form bands of hypertrophied chondrocytes. One marker of this differentiation step is the synthesis of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase. We have measured the activity of this enzyme throughout the culture period and see a substantial increase at the time of terminal chondrocyte differentiation. Another feature of hypertrophied chondrocytes is that the matrix around the cells becomes calcified. Calcified matrix in our cultured pre-metatarsals was visualized by staining with alizarin red. By supplementing the defined culture medium with ITS, we observed that terminal chondrocyte differentiation took place in a shorter culture time. Supplementation of the medium with serum results in a similar acceleration of terminal differentiation, and, with additional culture time, an osteoid-like matrix forms around the central region of the rods.

Klement, B. J.; Spooner, B. S.

1993-01-01

207

When Every Day Is Professional Development Day  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the Monroe Township (New Jersey) Public Schools, teachers' learning occurs daily, not just on one day in October and February. Central office and school-level administrators foster job-embedded teacher growth. Every day is a professional development day in the district, but that has not always been so. How did the district become a system with…

Tienken, Christopher H.; Stonaker, Lew

2007-01-01

208

Use of an automated blood culture system (BD BACTEC™) for diagnosis of prosthetic joint infections: easy and fast  

PubMed Central

Background For the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) automated BACTEC™ blood culture bottle methods have comparable sensitivity, specificity and a shorter time to positivity than traditional cooked meat enrichment broth methods. We evaluate the culture incubation period required to maximise sensitivity and specificity of microbiological diagnosis, and the ability of BACTEC™ to detect slow growing Propionibacteria spp. Methods Multiple periprosthetic tissue samples taken by a standardised method from 332 patients undergoing prosthetic joint revision arthroplasty were cultured for 14 days, using a BD BACTEC™ instrumented blood culture system, in a prospective study from 1st January to 31st August 2012. The “gold standard” definition for PJI was the presence of at least one histological criterion, the presence of a sinus tract or purulence around the device. Cases where?>?=2 samples yielded indistinguishable isolates were considered culture-positive. 1000 BACTEC™ bottle cultures which were negative after 14 days incubation were sub-cultured for Propionibacteria spp. Results 79 patients fulfilled the definition for PJI, and 66 of these were culture-positive. All but 1 of these 66 culture-positive cases of PJI were detected within 3 days of incubation. Only one additional (clinically-insignificant) Propionibacterium spp. was identified on terminal subculture of 1000 bottles. Conclusions Prolonged microbiological culture for 2 weeks is unnecessary when using BACTEC™ culture methods. The majority of clinically significant organisms grow within 3 days, and Propionibacteria spp. are identified without the need for terminal subculture. These findings should facilitate earlier decisions on final antimicrobial prescribing. PMID:24885168

2014-01-01

209

7-29 A coal-burning power plant produces 300 MW of power. The amount of coal consumed during a one-day period and the rate of air flowing through the furnace are to be determined.  

E-print Network

7-11 7-29 A coal-burning power plant produces 300 MW of power. The amount of coal consumed during The heating value of the coal is given to be 28,000 kJ/kg. Analysis (a) The rate and the amount of heat inputs'tQQ The amount and rate of coal consumed during this period are kg/s48.33 s360024 kg10893.2 MJ/kg28 MJ101.8 6

Bahrami, Majid

210

Effects of Days Dry and Days Open on Holstein Milk Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Holstein lactation records from the Dairy Herd Improvement test day files of the New York Dairy Records Processing Lab- oratory at Cornell University were used to study genetic and environmental relation- ships of days dry and days open with milk production. Age and month of calving significantly influenced length of dry period. Within herd heritability estimates of days dry were

L. R. Schaeffer; C. R. Henderson

1972-01-01

211

TRANSMISSION DYNAMICS OF ENTERIC BACTERIA IN DAY-CARE CENTERS, HOUSTON, TEXAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was undertaken to evaluate the role of fomites in the transmission of diarrhea in day-care centers (DCC) and to elucidate the paths by which enteric organisms spread within this setting.^ During a nine-month period (December 1980-August 1981) extensive culturing of inanimate objects, as well as children and staff was done routinely each month and again repeated during diarrhea

EKANEM EFIONG EKANEM

1982-01-01

212

Schoolwide Literacy Days.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes 10 "literacy day" activities that one California elementary school has used successfully schoolwide, typically one such day per month, to make reading fun and purposeful, while developing a sense of community. Includes: spread-a-quilt day; teacher exchange day; turn off the TV; Dr. Seuss day; community readers; schoolwide poets; original…

Polder, Darlene D.

2000-01-01

213

DARPA Robotics Proposers' Day  

E-print Network

DARPA Robotics Challenge Proposers' Day April 16, 2012 #12;2 DARPA Robotics Challenge Proposers' Day The Proposers' Day will begin at 12:10 PM EDT April 16, 2012 #12;3 DARPA Robotics Challenge Proposers' Day Dr. Gill Pratt Program Manager, DARPA #12;DARPA Robotics Challenge Proposers' Day Agenda 4 12

214

No Treatment Day School.  

PubMed

At the No Treatment Day School, less than 15% of students used the dormitory during the school week. Located in the heart of a reservation and serving local students, the K-12 school enrolled over 1,000 students. The site received Therapeutic Residential Model funding for the 2001-2002 school year. Initial evaluation of this site found an array of daunting problems throughout the school structure and functioning. There were some successes, including implementation of the Morningside reading program in the elementary school and some response from the community to the comprehensive evaluation report which provided an overview of the situation to policy-makers and community members. However instability in the system and a mid-year change in leadership complicated the process of implementation. By the end of the first year, it was clear that the feasibility of the original proposal was questionable and that an overhaul of the school's system and culture was necessary before a Therapeutic Residential Model could be implemented or significant change could come about. Therapeutic Residential Model funding was terminated at the end of the school year. As there was no substantial implementation of a Therapeutic Residential Model program, data gathered were utilized as representing a naturally occurring control or minimal treatment site. PMID:17602404

DeJong, Judith A; Holder, Stanley R

2006-01-01

215

Insulin stimulates choline acetyltransferase activity in cultured embryonic chicken retina neurons  

SciTech Connect

The effect of insulin on the appearance of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase in embryonic chicken retina neurons cultured in defined medium was studied. In the presence of a minimal level of insulin (1 ng/ml), ChoAcT activity increased with time in culture. A correspondence between the insulin concentration in the defined medium (1-100 ng/ml) and both the rate of increase and maximum attained level of ChoAcT activity was observed. Maximal ChoAcT activity was 2- to 3-fold greater in cells cultured in the presence of 100 ng of insulin per ml than in cells cultured in the presence of 1 ng of insulin per ml. To elicit maximum ChoAcT activity, insulin at 100 ng/ml was required in the medium for only the first 4 days of the culture period, at which time insulin could be reduced to maintenance levels (10 ng/ml) without affecting ChoAcT activity. Insulin binding assays performed during a 7-day culture period revealed that irrespective of the /sup 125/I-insulin concentration in the medium during culture, cell-surface insulin receptors decreased by approx. = 90% between 4 and 7 days in culture. This decrease in insulin binding corresponded to the observed decrease in the sensitivity of ChoAcT activity to insulin. The findings suggest that insulin plays a role in mediating cholinergic differentiation in the embryonic chicken retina.

Kyriakis, J.M.; Hausman, R.E.; Peterson, S.W.

1987-11-01

216

Stress-Induced Changes in the Expression of the Clock Protein PERIOD1 in the Rat Limbic Forebrain and Hypothalamus: Role of Stress Type, Time of Day, and Predictability  

PubMed Central

Stressful events can disrupt circadian rhythms in mammals but mechanisms underlying this disruption remain largely unknown. One hypothesis is that stress alters circadian protein expression in the forebrain, leading to functional dysregulation of the brain circadian network and consequent disruption of circadian physiological and behavioral rhythms. Here we characterized the effects of several different stressors on the expression of the core clock protein, PER1 and the activity marker, FOS in select forebrain and hypothalamic nuclei in rats. We found that acute exposure to processive stressors, restraint and forced swim, elevated PER1 and FOS expression in the paraventricular and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei and piriform cortex but suppressed PER1 and FOS levels exclusively in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEAl) and oval nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTov). Conversely, systemic stressors, interleukin-1? and 2-Deoxy-D-glucose, increased PER1 and FOS levels in all regions studied, including the CEAl and BNSTov. PER1 levels in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master pacemaker, were unaffected by any of the stress manipulations. The effect of stress on PER1 and FOS was modulated by time of day and, in the case of daily restraint, by predictability. These results demonstrate that the expression of PER1 in the forebrain is modulated by stress, consistent with the hypothesis that PER1 serves as a link between stress and the brain circadian network. Furthermore, the results show that the mechanisms that control PER1 and FOS expression in CEAl and BNSTov are uniquely sensitive to differences in the type of stressor. Finally, the finding that the effect of stress on PER1 parallels its effect on FOS supports the idea that Per1 functions as an immediate-early gene. Our observations point to a novel role for PER1 as a key player in the interface between stress and circadian rhythms. PMID:25338089

Al-Safadi, Sherin; Al-Safadi, Aya; Branchaud, Marie; Rutherford, Spencer; Dayanandan, Arun; Robinson, Barry; Amir, Shimon

2014-01-01

217

Adult Day Centers  

MedlinePLUS

... programs and discussion groups. Why use an adult day center One reason to use an adult day ... your needs for future care. Evaluating an adult day center Consider the following when you evaluate an ...

218

First Day of Class  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled by Carol Ormand, SERC, Carleton College Check out a set of videos of what faculty in several disciplines do on their first day of class. Why is the first day important? It's the first day of class, ...

219

Volunteer Day Countries Represented  

E-print Network

Haiti Iran Korea Kuwait Russia Saudi Arabia Spain Taiwan Turkey Venezuela Vietnam Manners and Culture Q such a culture built around the automobile. Our roads are really good for the most part, and auto travel

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

220

The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of the Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture is "to collect and disseminate information on all aspects of the state's history and culture and to provide a comprehensive reference work for historians, teachers, students and individuals for the purpose of promoting the study, understanding, and appreciation of Arkansas's heritage." First-time visitors should check out the This Day in Arkansas History feature, which provides easy access to the lore, culture, history, and geography of the state. Moving on, visitors can use the Browse Entries area to look around the material by category, type, time period, or race & ethnicity. Those persons looking for a bit of audio-visual inspiration will want to click on over to the Browse Media area. Here, they can find songs performed by sons and daughters of Arkansas (including the legendary Al Hibbler), maps, and video clips from films like "Emerson County Shaping Dream" and "Unhooking the Hookworm."

221

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor induces rapid morphological changes in dendritic spines of olfactory bulb granule cells in cultured slices through the modulation of glutamatergic signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the acute physiological effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been well demonstrated, little is known regarding possible morphological effects that occur within a short period of time. The acute effects of BDNF on dendritic spine morphology were examined in granule cells in cultured main olfactory bulb slices. Organotypic slices prepared from 7-day-old rats were cultured for 1 day,

S Matsutani; N Yamamoto

2004-01-01

222

Induction of hairy root cultures of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and their production of azadirachtin and other important insect bioactive metabolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hairy root cultures were established from stem and leaf explants of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) following infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes.Transformation was confirmed using polymerase chain reaction analysis. The cultures had a relatively fast growth rate (0.134 g dry weight day –1) and showed a 100-fold increase in biomass over a 4-week culture period. Both the roots and cultivation medium were antifeedant

E. J. Allan; J. P. Eeswara; A. P. Jarvis; E. D. Morgan; T. Stuchbury

2002-01-01

223

Blood culture cross contamination associated with a radiometric analyzer  

SciTech Connect

During a 9-day period in August 1980 in a New Jersey hospital, three pairs of consecutively numbered blood cultures from different patients were identified as positive for the same organism, for each pair, both cultures were positive in the same atmosphere, both organisms had the same sensitivities, and the second of each pair grew at least 2 days after the first and was the only positive blood culture obtained from the patient. When the hospital laboratory discontinued use of its radiometric culture analyzer for 15 days, no more consecutive pairs of positive cultures occurred. Subsequent use of the machine for 9 days with a new power unit but the original circuit boards resulted in one more similar consecutive pair (Staphylococcus epidermidis). After replacement of the entire power unit, there were no further such pairs. Examination of the machine by the manufacturer revealed a defective circuit board which resulted in inadequate needle sterilization. Laboratories which utilize radiometric analyzers should be aware of the potential for cross contamination. Recognition of such events requires alert microbiologists and infection control practitioners and a record system in the bacteriology laboratory designed to identify such clusters.

Griffin, M.R.; Miller, A.D.; Davis, A.C.

1982-04-01

224

Family Day Care Associations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper presents information on the organization and accomplishments of Family Day Care Associations, organized groups of individuals who provide day care services in their own homes. Although primarily based on experiences of day care mothers in New York State, the paper presents information relevant to day care providers in any area.…

Bookman, Robert

225

Alabama Special Days  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Today, we are going to look at special days in Alabama history. Today we are going to look at four special Alabama Days: 1) Boll Weevil Festival 2) Helen Keller Day 3) Mardi Gras 4) Shrimp Festival I am giving you videos to watch about each special day. I am ...

Ms. Lucky

2012-04-04

226

Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Whole Grain Cereal Bagel Oatmeal Whole Grain Cereal Scones  

E-print Network

/ Cheese Bean Taco Italian Blend Bean Wrap Soy Nugget Celery, Carrots, Green Peppers Corn Fresh Cantaloupe Brown Rice Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Chili Mac w/Ground Turkey Turkey Lunch Pack w/ Cracker Sloppy Joes w/Ground Turkey on Bun Saus. Breakfast Burritos BBQ Chicken Chili Mac w/Beans Cheese Lunch Pack w

Powers, Robert

227

Periodic Table  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using the Macromedia Shockwave Player, this American Chemical Society website offers three interactive periodic tables. Students can find the basic data on each element including its atomic radius, stable isotopes, melting point, and density in the first periodic table tab. The website identifies different elemental groups by color. Users can view the electron configuration by selecting elements on the periodic table in the second tab. The last tab offers plots of the elements' electronegativity, ionization energy, and other properties.

228

The permeability of rat palatal mucosa maintained in organ culture.  

PubMed Central

The intercellular permeability barrier of neonatal rat palatal mucosa maintained in organ culture for periods up to 24 days was studied ultrastructurally using the tracers horseradish peroxidase and lanthanum nitrate. At all time intervals examined the limit of penetration of the tracers corresponded to the level at which the membrane-coating granules were being discharged. However, in the cultured mucosa, extrusion of granules occurred closer to the granular cell-keratin junction after 6 and 12 days in vitro than at other time intervals. This probably is a reflexion of the higher rate of tissue turnover at these times. It is concluded that a permeability barrier comparable with that described in vivo is produced by the epithelium during maintenance inorgan culture and is further evidence of the functional integrity of the tissue in vitro. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:422477

Hill, M W; Squier, C A

1979-01-01

229

Going Vegetarian for the Day  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine participants’ willingness to go “meat-free” for the day, a twelve-item survey was distributed randomly at campus restaurants during meal periods. The sample consisted of over 600 students and staff. The results were analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) statistical software. Nine percent (71% female & 29% male) claimed to be vegetarian with lacto-ovo vegetarianism the most

Laura Hartung

1999-01-01

230

Recent Innovations in Cultural Practices in the Mid-Atlantic Coast Region of the U. S.: Novel Systems for Increasing Fall Fruiting in Short-day Type Strawberry Cultivars and Opportunities for Out-of-Season Fruit Production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Producing strawberry transplants from runner tips that were plugged about one month earlier (early July) than the standard time (early August) promoted fall flowering in some short-day strawberry cultivars. In 2002, 100 percent of ‘Chandler’ transplants produced in early July flowered in the fall,...

231

Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003 Sponsored by  

E-print Network

Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003 Sponsored by University of California Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003 And" Davis, CA 1918 University of California Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

232

Day and Night Sky  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What objects can you see in the day sky? What objects can you see in the night sky? Are there objects that can be seen in both the day and night sky? Can the sun be seen during the night, or only during the day? Students will encounter these questions as they explore the similarities and differences between the day and night sky. This lesson will help students identify what objects can be seen in the day and night sky, and objects are exclusively seen in the day sky and the night sky.

Lindsay Demoranville

2012-07-10

233

SANDY MAGNUS, MS-1 (BLUE) Meal Day 1* Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 Day 6  

E-print Network

Crackers (NF) Granola Bar (NF) Candy Coated Peanuts (NF) Crackers (NF) Granola Bar (NF) Granola Bar (NF) x2 Chicken w/ Peanut Sauce (T) Tofu w/ Hoisin Sauce (T) Curry Sauce w/ Vegetables (T) Tortillas (FF Chocolates (NF) Brownie (NF) Candy Coated Peanuts (NF) Candy Coated Chocolates (NF) *Day 1 consists of Meal C

234

Riley-Day syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

Riley-Day syndrome is an inherited disorder that affects nerves throughout the body. ... Riley-Day syndrome is passed down through families (inherited). A person must inherit a copy of the defective gene ...

235

Mother's Day Card  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity page which supports the Cyberchase video, "Saving Mother's Day" uses lines of symmetry to create a Madre Bonita flower, the symbol of Mother's Day. This activity can be printed for student use.

2003-01-01

236

Culture shock and travelers.  

PubMed

As travel has become easier and more affordable, the number of people traveling has risen sharply. People travel for many and varied reasons, from the business person on an overseas assignment to backpackers seeking new and exotic destinations. Others may take up residence in different regions, states or countries for family, business or political reasons. Other people are fleeing religious or political persecution. Wherever they go and for whatever reason they go, people take their culture with them. Culture, like language, is acquired innately in early childhood and is then reinforced through formal and complex informal social education into adulthood. Culture provides a framework for interpersonal and social interactions. Therefore, the contact with a new culture is often not the exciting or pleasurable experience anticipated. When immersed in a different culture, people no longer know how to act when faced with disparate value systems. Contact with the unfamiliar culture can lead to anxiety, stress, mental illness and, in extreme cases, physical illness and suicide. "Culture shock" is a term coined by the anthropologist Oberg. It is the shock of the new. It implies that the experience of the new culture is an unpleasant surprise or shock, partly because it is unexpected and partly because it can lead to a negative evaluation of one's own culture. It is also known as cross-cultural adjustment, being that period of anxiety and confusion experienced when entering a new culture. It affects people intellectually, emotionally, behaviorally and physically and is characterized by symptoms of psychological distress. Culture shock affects both adults and children. In travelers or workers who have prolonged sojourns in foreign countries, culture shock may occur not only as they enter the new culture, but also may occur on their return to their original culture. Children may also experience readjustment problems after returning from leading sheltered lives in expatriate compounds. This readjustment back to their own culture after a period of time abroad has been termed "reverse culture shock, a condition which has been studied in both corporate managers and Peace Corps volunteers. With culture shock and many other processes of psychological adjustment, people tend to suffer alone, thinking that they are the only ones not coping well with their new circumstance. The objective of this paper was to bring the phenomenon of culture shock to the awareness of travel health advisors, who can in turn advise travelers, especially longer term travelers, about having realistic expectations of their travel and life in new cultures. PMID:9772322

Stewart, L; Leggat, P A

1998-06-01

237

[Effect evaluation of three cell culture models].  

PubMed

Primary rat hepatocytes were cultured using three kinds of models in vitro and the enzyme leakage, albumin secretion, and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP 1A) activity were observed. The results showed that the level of LDH in the medium decreased over time in the period of culture. However, on 5 days, LDH showed a significant increase in monolayer culture (MC) while after 8 days LDH was not detected in sandwich culture (SC). The levels of AST and ALT in the medium did not change significantly over the investigated time. The basic CYP 1A activity gradually decreased with time in MC and SC. The decline of CYP 1A in rat hepatocytes was faster in MC than that in SC. This effect was partially reversed by using cytochrome P450 (CYP450) inducers such as omeprazol and 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and the CYP 1A induction was always higher in MC than that in SC. Basic CYP 1A activity in bioreactor was keeped over 2 weeks and the highest albumin production was observed in bioreactor, and next were SC and MC. In conclusion, our results clearly indicated that there have some advantages and disadvantages in each of models in which can address different questions in metabolism of toxicants and drugs. PMID:14963896

Wang, Aiguo; Xia, Tao; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Xuemin

2003-11-01

238

Enhanced osteogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells by periodic heat shock in self-assembling peptide hydrogel.  

PubMed

The mechanisms for the heat-induced osteogenesis are not completely known and the thermal regulation of human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) differentiation is not well studied. In this study, the direct effects of mild heat shock (HS) on the differentiation of hMSCs into osteoblasts in self-assembling peptide hydrogel and on tissue culture plates were investigated. hMSCs isolated from human bone marrow were seeded in conventional culture plates (two-dimensional [2D] culture) and on the surface of three-dimensional (3D) PuraMatrix peptide hydrogel (3D culture), followed by 1?h HS at 41°C once a week during osteogenic differentiation. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was enhanced in both 2D and 3D cultures via periodic HS at early stage of differentiation; meanwhile, HS significantly increased the calcium deposition at day 19 and 27 of differentiation in both 2D and 3D cultures. The periodic HS also upregulated osteo-specific genes, osterix (OSX) on day 11, osteopontin (OP) on day 19, and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) on day 25 in 2D culture. In 3D PuraMatrix culture, the runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) was upregulated by HS on day 25 of differentiation. The heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was significantly upregulated by HS in differentiated hMSCs analyzed at 24?h after HS. These results demonstrate that HS induced an earlier differentiation of hMSCs and enhanced the maturation of osteoblasts differentiated from hMSCs. Therefore, mild HS treatment may be potentially used to enhance the bone regeneration using hMSCs. Our data will guide the design of in vivo heating protocols and enable further investigations in thermal treatments of MSC osteogenesis for bone tissue engineering. PMID:23072422

Chen, Jing; Shi, Zhong-Dong; Ji, Xinying; Morales, Jorge; Zhang, Jingwei; Kaur, Navneet; Wang, Sihong

2013-03-01

239

Adult Day Services  

MedlinePLUS

... 3 $35-45 $60-70 $130-140 Adult Day Services $75,000 $50,000 $25,000 $0 Adult Day Services At-a-Glance • Families share in the ... as many locations 5 • More funding for adult day services decreases Medicaid costs by reducing full-time ...

240

Every Day Is Mathematical  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

March 14 is special because it is Pi Day. Mathematics is celebrated on that day because the date, 3-14, replicates the first three digits of pi. Pi-related songs, websites, trivia facts, and more are at the fingertips of interested teachers and students. Less celebrated, but still fairly well known, is National Metric Day, which falls on October…

Barger, Rita H.; Jarrah, Adeeb M.

2012-01-01

241

WORD. A. DAY  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A. WORD. A. DAY. is the Web page for the mailing list A.Word A Day (AWAD), which mails out a vocabulary word and its definition (with occasional commentary) to the subscribers every day. Currently AWAD has over 10,000 subscribers in 53 countries.

242

Share This: Plastic Day  

E-print Network

of Delaware's Earth Week activities surrounding the observance of the 42nd Earth Day on April 22. DENINShare This: Upcoming Events April 18 Plastic Day: Book Discussion & Film April 28 Ag Day The DENIN to strengthen our efforts to understand, predict, and adjust to Earth's changing climate. One mild winter does

Cakoni, Fioralba

243

Carbon disulphide production in laboratory cultures of marine phytoplankton  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon disulphide (CS 2) data were collected from axenic monocultures of six species of marine phytoplankton. The tested species included Chaetoceros calcitrans, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Phaeocystis sp., Porphyridium purpureum, Synechococcus sp. and Isochrysis sp. For a period of between two weeks and forty days, substantial accumulation of CS 2 was found in the cultures of C. calcitrans, P. tricornutum and Phaeocystis sp., whereas the change of CS 2 concentration in the remaining cultures was insignificant. C. calcitrans had a potential for CS 2 production about 10 times higher than P. tricornutum or Phaeocystis sp. The formation of the compound was strongly dependent on the physiological state of the cultured species. More investigation is needed to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the formation of this sulphur compound in these cultures.

Xie, Huixiang; Scarratt, Michael G.; Moore, Robert M.

244

Every Day Is National Lab Day  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

President Barack Obama recently issued a call for increased hands-on learning in U.S. schools in an address at the National Academy of Sciences. Obama concluded that the future of the United States depends on one's ability to encourage young people to "create, and build, and invent." In this article, the author discusses National Lab Day (NLD)…

Bull, Glen

2010-01-01

245

New Swedish Cultural Environment Protection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current Swedish cultural policy was laid down in 1974. It was decided that one of the aims of that policy must be to ensure that earlier periods of history would be preserved and brought to life. The Government Bill (Prop. 1987/88:104) on protection of the cultural environment is concerned with helping the general public understand that cultural

Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs, Stockholm (Sweden).

246

Sensitive Periods  

PubMed Central

This chapter reviews sensitive periods in human brain development based on the literature on children raised in institutions. Sensitive experiences occur when experiences are uniquely influential for the development of neural circuitry. Because in humans, we make inferences about sensitive periods from evaluations of complex behaviors, we underestimate the occurrence of sensitive periods at the level of neural circuitry. Although we are most interested in complex behaviors, such as IQ or attachment or externalizing problems, many different sensitive periods at the level of circuits probably underlie these complex behaviors. Results from a number of studies suggest that across most, but not all, domains of development, institutional rearing limited to the first 4–6 months of life is associated with no significant increase risk for long-term adverse effects relative to non-institutionalized children. Beyond that, evidence for sensitive periods is less compelling, meaning that “the earlier the better” rule for enhanced caregiving is a reasonable conclusion at the current state of the science. PMID:25125708

Zeanah, Charles H.; Gunnar, Megan R.; McCall, Robert B.; Kreppner, Jana M.; Fox, Nathan A.

2010-01-01

247

The culture of care within psychiatric services: tackling inequalities and improving clinical and organisational capabilities  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cultural Consultation is a clinical process that emerged from anthropological critiques of mental healthcare. It includes attention to therapeutic communication, research observations and research methods that capture cultural practices and narratives in mental healthcare. This essay describes the work of a Cultural Consultation Service (ToCCS) that improves service user outcomes by offering cultural consultation to mental health practitioners. The setting is a psychiatric service with complex and challenging work located in an ethnically diverse inner city urban area. Following a period of 18 months of cultural consultation, we gather the dominant narratives that emerged during our evaluation of our service. Results These narratives highlight how culture is conceptualized and acted upon in the day-to-day practices of individual health and social care professionals, specialist psychiatric teams and in care systems. The findings reveal common narratives and themes about culture, ethnicity, race and their perceived place and meaningfulness in clinical care. These narratives express underlying assumptions and covert rules for managing, and sometimes negating, dilemmas and difficulties when considering “culture” in the presentation and expression of mental distress. The narratives reveal an overall “culture of understanding cultural issues” and specific “cultures of care”. These emerged as necessary foci of intervention to improve service user outcomes. Conclusion Understanding the cultures of care showed that clinical and managerial over-structuring of care prioritises organisational proficiency, but it leads to inflexibility. Consequently, the care provided is less personalised and less accommodating of cultural issues, therefore, professionals are unable to see or consider cultural influences in recovery. PMID:23020856

2012-01-01

248

Post-translational control of collagen fibrillogenesis in mineralizing cultures of chick osteoblasts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cultured osteoblasts from chick embryo calvaria were used as a model system to investigate the post-translational extracellular mechanisms controlling the macroassembly of collagen fibrils. The results of these studies demonstrated that cultured osteoblasts secreted a collagenous extracellular matrix that assembled and mineralized in a defined temporal and spatial sequence. The assembly of collagen occurred in a polarized fashion, such that successive orthogonal arrays of fibrils formed between successive cell layers proceeding from the culture surface toward the media. Mineralization followed in the same manner, being observed first in the deepest and oldest fibril layers. Collagen fibrillogenesis, the kinetics of cross-link formation, and collagen stability in the extracellular matrix of the cultures were examined over a 30 day culture period. Between days 8 and 12 in culture, collagen fibril diameters increased from < 30 nm to an average of 30-45 nm. Thereafter, diameters ranged in size from 20 to 200 nm. Quantitation of the collagen cross-linking residues, hydroxylysyl pyridinoline (HP) and lysyl pyridinoline (LP), showed that these mature cross-links increased from undetectable levels to concentrations found in normal chick bone. Analysis of the kinetics of their formation by pulse-chase labeling the cultures with [3H]lysine showed a doubling time of approximately 5 days. The relationships between cross-link formation, fibrillogenesis, and collagen stability were examined in cultures treated with beta-aminopropionitrile (beta-APN), a potent inhibitor of lysyl oxidase and cross-link formation. In beta-APN-treated cultures, total collagen synthesis was increased twofold, with no change in mRNA levels for type I collagen, whereas the amount of collagen accumulated in the cell layer was decreased by 50% and mineral deposition was reduced. The rate of collagen retention in the matrix was assessed by pulse-chase analysis of [3H]proline over a 16 day period in control and beta-APN-treated cultures. In control cultures, about 20% of the labeled collagen was lost from the cell layers over a 16 day period compared with > 80% in the presence of beta-APN. The beta-APN-treated cultures also showed a wider diversity of fibril diameters with a median in the > 45-60 nm range. In summary, these data suggest that cross-linking and assembly of collagen fibrils secreted by osteoblasts in vitro occur in a fashion similar to that found in vivo. The rate of cross-link formation is relatively constant and may be correlated with increasing collagen mass.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

Gerstenfeld, L. C.; Riva, A.; Hodgens, K.; Eyre, D. R.; Landis, W. J.

1993-01-01

249

Name: _______________ Period: _______  

E-print Network

temperatures, length of day, and earth's seasons. Instructions: 1. Click on the RSI Seasons icon on your seasons? Today you will use RSI Seasons software to explore several variables that affect earth's surface of earth's orbit (eccentricity) is 0.017 (almost a perfect circle!). This is the "normal" or the real shape

250

Mouse Pancreas Tissue Slice Culture Facilitates Long-Term Studies of Exocrine and Endocrine Cell Physiology in situ  

PubMed Central

Studies on pancreatic cell physiology rely on the investigation of exocrine and endocrine cells in vitro. Particularly, in the case of the exocrine tissue these studies have suffered from a reduced functional viability of acinar cells in culture. As a result not only investigations on dispersed acinar cells and isolated acini were limited in their potential, but also prolonged studies on pancreatic exocrine and endocrine cells in an intact pancreatic tissue environment were unfeasible. To overcome these limitations, we aimed to establish a pancreas tissue slice culture platform to allow long-term studies on exocrine and endocrine cells in the intact pancreatic environment. Mouse pancreas tissue slice morphology was assessed to determine optimal long-term culture settings for intact pancreatic tissue. Utilizing optimized culture conditions, cell specificity and function of exocrine acinar cells and endocrine beta cells were characterized over a culture period of 7 days. We found pancreas tissue slices cultured under optimized conditions to have intact tissue specific morphology for the entire culture period. Amylase positive intact acini were present at all time points of culture and acinar cells displayed a typical strong cell polarity. Amylase release from pancreas tissue slices decreased during culture, but maintained the characteristic bell-shaped dose-response curve to increasing caerulein concentrations and a ca. 4-fold maximal over basal release. Additionally, endocrine beta cell viability and function was well preserved until the end of the observation period. Our results show that the tissue slice culture platform provides unprecedented maintenance of pancreatic tissue specific morphology and function over a culture period for at least 4 days and in part even up to 1 week. This analytical advancement now allows mid -to long-term studies on the cell biology of pancreatic disorder pathogenesis and therapy in an intact surrounding in situ. PMID:24223842

Marciniak, Anja; Selck, Claudia; Friedrich, Betty; Speier, Stephan

2013-01-01

251

Paleolithic Counseling - The Good Old Days.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper outlines what clients were like in the "Good Ol' Days", as compared with what they are like now. Formerly clients appeared to come in with a plethora of ego energy, while now it seems more like a depletion. Explicit in our culture now is the idea that it is almost healthy and good to publicize one's private experience. Some of…

King, Paul T.

252

California Native American Day9th Celebration  

E-print Network

California Native American Day9th Annual Celebration Cahuilla Chemehuevi RinconPalaLa Jolla Pauma:30­8pm Cross-Cultural Center, Comunidad Room Native American Graduate School Information Workshop, Comunidad Room Undergraduates welcome. Reserve a seat 858-822-3536 Native American Film Festival FILM

Buckingham, Michael

253

Sun-Earth Days  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sun-Earth Day is a well-coordinated series of programs, resources and events under a unique yearly theme highlighting the fundamentals of heliophysics research and missions. A menu of activities, conducted throughout the year, inspire and educate participants. Sun-Earth Day itself can vary in date, but usually is identified by a celebration on or near the spring equinox. Through the Sun-Earth Day

J. Thieman; C. Ng; E. Lewis; T. Cline

2010-01-01

254

Periodic Table  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unique periodic table presents the elements in an interesting visual display. Select an element, and find an image of the element, a description, history, and even an animation. Other chemical data is linked as a PDF file (requires Acrobat Reader).

2010-01-01

255

Urine culture  

MedlinePLUS

Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You may also have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This most often means that you have a ...

256

Safeguards Culture  

SciTech Connect

The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

2012-07-01

257

Day Nurseries in Senegal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a village day nursery organized by peasant women in 1962 to provide care for preschool children whose mothers must work in the rice fields. Outlines the aims of the day nursery and the prerequisites for its establishment. Community and parent participation is stressed. (JK)

Gueye, Khady

1977-01-01

258

The Presidents' Day Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history behind the holiday commonly called "Presidents' Day" is a bit confusing. It started as a federal holiday called Washington's Birthday. It was a day set aside to honor George Washington for his accomplishments as a founding father of the country. Later, many northern states began to recognize Abraham Lincoln's Birthday as well for his…

Maxwell, D. Jackson

2008-01-01

259

Day of the Dead  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Foreign Language in Elementary School (FLES) teachers in the West Des Moines schools incorporate the Day of the Dead into the fourth grade curriculum each year. The teachers discuss the Day of the Dead celebration at the Art Center, and many ask for volunteers from fourth grade to participate in the event. Student presentations include a wide…

Dann, Tammy; Murphy, Amy

2012-01-01

260

Science Challenge Day  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Science fairs can be good motivators, but as extracurricular activities, they leave some students behind. However, by staging a Science Challenge Day at school, educators can involve all students in doing everything from choosing activities to judging projects. This article presents a model for running a successful Science Challenge Day. The…

Siegel, Deborah

2013-01-01

261

Family Science Day  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a family-friendly science day event that encourages scientific discovery through hands-on activities, while also providing an opportunity to learn about scientific careers from actual research scientists and science educators, thereby raising awareness of the importance of STEM in our society. The one-day event bought…

McCubbins, Sara; Thomas, Bethany; Vetere, Michael

2014-01-01

262

RED-LETTER DAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...

263

Rainy Day Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experienced caregivers plan ahead for rainy days. This article describes specific rainy day activities for young children, such as books and crafts to learn about rain (rain in a jar, making a rainbow), simple cooking activities (taffy pull, cinnamon candy tea), and games (mummy wrap, hunt the thimble, rain lotto). (EV)

Texas Child Care, 1997

1997-01-01

264

Walloon Space Days  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 28-29 March, the Cluster Wallonie Espace, mainly a partnership of companies in the Walloon ‘Space Valley', or-ganised the first so-called ‘W Space Days' at the Colonster Castle, located on the premises of the University of Liège. The primary aim of these days is to encourage meetings between professionals in the sector and to identify new scientific and technological opportunities. They should also help to raise awareness of the activities of the space sector amongst the general public and young people in particular. Indeed the event successfully brought together scientists, industrialists, funding agencies and policymakers. On the first day, some 210 representatives of research centres, industries and organisations from 13 countries in Europe participated in the professional event, while the next day was a ‘public day'. The first morning's programme comprised a series of talks, including ELT presentations by Roberto Gilmozzi and Philippe Dierickx.

Madsen, C.

2006-06-01

265

School mathematics in culture-conflict situations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In times of cultural change, education plays an especially important role. The writer suggests that even mathematics curricula, which have traditionally been considered culture-free, have a role to play in fostering mutual understanding amongst members of different cultures, after a period of cultural upheaval. Anthropological and educational sources are used to suggest points of relevance when a mathematical curriculum is

Norma C. Presmeg

1988-01-01

266

GIS Day 2005  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"GIS Day [November 16, 2005] is a grassroots event that formalizes the practice of geographic information systems (GIS) users and vendors of opening their doors to schools, businesses, and the general public to showcase real-world applications of this important technology." Visitors can find event information, a schedule of events, the latest news, and a registration form. Educators can find tips on how to host a successful GIS Day Event. Users can obtain links to discussion forums and GIS software. The website also offers links to GIS Day websites from around the world.

267

National Lab Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

NSF joins other partners in National Lab Day, an initiative connecting science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) teachers with STEM professionals who volunteer to share their expertise--and their passion--for science and engineering with students. You can view video clips that explain the basics of what National Lab Day is and how it works, get tips from a professional educator about how to effectively help in the classroom and learn about some NSF-funded projects that already are conducting activities in the spirit of Lab Day.

268

Day Traders At Risk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On July 29, 1999, Mark Barton, a 44-year old day trader, opened fire at two Atlanta brokerage firms, killing nine people and injuring thirteen before taking his own life. Barton had recently lost an estimated half a million dollars trading, according to The New York Times. Coincidentally, just a week and a half after the tragedy in Atlanta, the North American Securities Administrators Association (NASAA) released a study condemning the practice of day trading, finding that, of the 4,093 trades in 26 accounts analyzed, "seventy percent of the accounts lost money and were traded in a manner that realized a 100% Risk of Ruin (loss of all funds)." The study concluded, "It is absolutely clear that the average public investor should refrain from short-term trading." This week's In the News looks at the day trading industry and its effectiveness. The eight resources listed provide studies, recent news, background information, and commentary on day trading.

Missner, Emily D.

269

American Experience: Earth Days  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In late 1969, Wisconsin Senator Gaylord Nelson hired Denis Hayes to organize a national teach-in day about the importance of protecting the environment for future generations. On April 22, 1970, the first Earth Day was held and over 20 million Americans participated via a variety of celebrations and demonstrations. This website is designed to be a companion to the American Experience documentary on the history of Earth Day, and it includes a teacher's guide, several special interviews, and the documentary in its entirety. The film was directed by Robert Stone, and it serves as "a poetic meditation on man's complex relationship with nature and an engaging history...of groundbreaking eco-activism." On the homepage, visitors should also take note of the photo gallery, the interactive timeline of the modern environmental movement, and a telling interview with the father of the "Green Revolution", Norman Borlaug. Visitors are also encouraged to share their own Earth Day memories on the site.

270

Navasota Neighborhood Day  

E-print Network

The vision for Navasota Neighborhood Day included a combination tactics and after providing a broad overview, students asked meeting participants to split into smaller breakout groups to discuss the specifics....

Texas Target Communitites

2014-01-01

271

Scientist of the Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A first grade teacher in an urban school, eager to bring authentic science into the classroom, provides an opportunity for her students to experience science adventures and explorations, while also getting parents involved. She implemented a program called Scientist of the Day which allows students to experience simple hands-on science experiments, and to involve their parents both in and out of the classroom. The idea is for every child to have a turn being "Scientist of the Day".

Maria Salinas

2005-10-01

272

Stennis Day Camper  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sara Beth Casey, 5, proudly displays her artwork, 'Planets.' Sara Beth created the art as a student of Stennis Day Camp, a free camp for Stennis Space Center employees' children whose schools have not resumed since Hurricane Katrina hit the region on Aug. 29. The camp has registered nearly 200 children and averages 100 children each day. The camp will continue until all schools are back in session.

2005-01-01

273

Long term organ culture of human prostate tissue in a NASA-designed rotating wall bioreactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PURPOSE: To maintain ex vivo integral prostatic tissue including intact stromal and ductal elements using the NASA-designed Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) which maintains colocalized cells in an environment that promotes both three-dimensional cellular interactions together with the uniform mass transfer of nutrients and metabolic wastes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples of normal prostate were obtained as a byproduct of transurethral prostatectomy or needle biopsy. Prostatic tissue dissected into small 1 x 1 mm. blocks was cultured in the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) Bioreactor for various time periods and analyzed using histological, immunochemical, and total cell RNA assays. RESULTS: We report the long term maintenance of benign explanted human prostate tissue grown in simple culture medium, under the simulated microgravity conditions afforded by the RWV bioreactor. Mesenchymal stromal elements including blood vessels and architecturally preserved tubuloglandular acini were maintained for a minimum of 28 days. Cytokeratins, vimentin and TGF-beta2 receptor and ligand were preserved through the entire culture period as revealed by immunocytochemistry. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) was continuously expressed during the culture period, although somewhat decreased. Prostatic specific antigen (PSA) and its transcript were down regulated over time of culture. Prostatic carcinoma cells from the TSU cell line were able to invade RWV-cultured benign prostate tissue explants. CONCLUSIONS: The RWV bioreactor represents an additional new technology for culturing prostate tissue for further investigations concerning the basic physiology and pathobiology of this clinically important tissue.

Margolis, L.; Hatfill, S.; Chuaqui, R.; Vocke, C.; Emmert-Buck, M.; Linehan, W. M.; Duray, P. H.

1999-01-01

274

Venus Length-of-Day Variations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 2004 we have been monitoring the instantaneous spin state of Venus with the goals of measuring the precession of the rotation axis and of quantifying daily, seasonal, and secular changes in length-of-day. We use the Goldstone and Green Bank Telescopes for these observations. The spin period of Venus is thought to be set by a delicate balance between solid-body tides and atmospheric torques that must vary as insolation and orbital parameters change [Bills 2005]. Our measurements to date reveal length-of-day (LOD) variations of 50 ppm. None of the models can be reconciled with the Magellan 500-day-average spin period of 243.0185 +/- 0.0001 days [Davies et al 1992], nor with a 16-year-average estimate of 243.023 +/- 0.002 days [Mueller et al 2012], nor with any other constant spin period. With our nominal solution we can rule out a constant spin period with over 99.9% confidence. When allowances are made for uncertainties in spin axis orientation and instantaneous spin measurement epochs, the confidence is reduced but remains higher than 99%. We attribute the LOD variations primarily to angular momentum exchange between the atmosphere and solid planet. Because there are so few constraints on the internal dynamical structure of the Venusian atmosphere, a time history of atmospheric angular momentum changes can be used to address questions related to the dynamics of the atmosphere, including its super-rotation, and climatic variations.

Margot, Jean-Luc; Campbell, D. B.; Peale, S. J.; Ghigo, F. D.

2012-10-01

275

Effect of Fenton reagent shock and recovery periods on anaerobic microbial community structure and degradation of chlorinated aliphatics.  

PubMed

This study investigates the effect of Fenton reagent on the structure and function of a microbial consortium during the anaerobic degradation of hexachloroethane (HCA) and tetrachloroethene (PCE). Anaerobic biodegradation tests of HCA and PCE were performed in batch reactors using an anaerobic microbial consortium that had been exposed to Fenton reagent for durations of 0, 0.04, and 2 days and then allowed to recover for periods of 0, 3, and 7 days. The bacterial community structure was determined using culture-independent methods of 16S rRNA gene sequencing and automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis. Larger recovery periods partially restored the microbial community structure; however, the recovery periods did not restore the loss of ability to degrade HCA and PCE in cultures shocked for 0.04 days, and PCE in cultures shocked for 2 days. Overall the exposure to Fenton reagent had an impact on bacterial community structure with downstream effects on HCA and PCE degradation. This study highlights that the impacts of short- and long-term shocks on microbial community structure and function can be correlated using a combination of biodegradation tests and community structure analysis tools. PMID:23942782

Jho, Eun Hea; Shin, Doyun; Turner, Susan J; Singhal, Naresh

2014-04-01

276

Diterpenoid production in hairy root culture of Salvia sclarea L.  

PubMed

Growth and diterpenoid accumulation (salvipisone, ferruginol, aethiopinone and 1-oxoaethiopinone) during the growth cycle of a Salvia sclarea hairy root culture are described. The roots transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes (LBA 9402) were cultured in half-strength B5 liquid medium supplemented with 30 g L(-1) sucrose under light (16 h/8 h light/dark). A culture period of 30 days was optimal for both biomass and diterpenoid production. The total content of four diterpenoids in the hairy roots [(27.3 +/- 0.6) mg g(-1) dry weight] was higher than that of roots of field-grown S. sclarea plants [(3.15 +/- 0.15) mg g(-1) dry weight]. In transformed roots, aethiopinone was the main diterpenoid, whereas the principal diterpenoid of natural roots was salvipisone. PMID:18811013

Ku?ma, Lukasz; Bruchajzer, Elzbieta; Wysoki?ska, Halina

2008-01-01

277

Australia National Sorry Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Sorry Day," held on May 26, 1998 in Australia, was an attempt on the part of some Australians to come to grips with the policy of forced removal of Aboriginal children that took place for 150 years until the 1970s. The National Sorry Day site is provided by the Reconciliation and Social Justice Project of the Australasian Legal Information Institute. The site contains background and an educational activities kit. The centerpiece, however, is full text access (in the Publications) to Bringing Them Home: Report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families, which was tabled by the Australian Federal Parliament exactly one year before Sorry Day.

1998-01-01

278

Chambers's Book of Days  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Subtitled A Miscellany of Popular Antiquities in connection with the Calendar, Chambers's Book of Days is essentially a collection of "On this Day" trivia, short pieces, and other interesting tidbits, including history, literature, biography, and "oddities of human life and character." Digitized by the University of Wisconsin-Madison Libraries, this electronic reprint may be browsed in page order or via a calendar navigator. The site offers a fun look into pop-history/ tabloid news of the late nineteenth century. For instance, I discovered that on the day of my birth in 1626 "a cod-fish was brought to Cambridge market, which upon being opened, was found to contain a book in its maw or stomach." An auspicious date to be born indeed.

279

[Day surgery and anesthesia].  

PubMed

Ambulatory surgery comprised up to 70% of scheduled surgery in the USA during the past decades. The main reason for the increase was economic. In Japan, day surgery has been performed in the pediatric field, such as for inguinal hernia. However, recently day surgery has been performed in adult patients, because of medical economics as well as to improve the quality of life of patients. Patient safety is the most important issue in the increasing number of day surgeries in Japan. Postoperative care occurs at home. To reduce postoperative complications, skilled surgery, prompt recovery from anesthesia, and postoperative care using sophisticated systems, manpower, and equipment are necessary. To ensure patient safety, the Japan Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia announced a set of "safety standards for ambulatory anesthesia" in 1999 and we continue to work to developing protocols that maximize the safety of and benefits to patients. PMID:11107594

Takeda, J

2000-10-01

280

Earth Day Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Every spring, get ready for Earth Day with a visit to the official Web site of the Earth Day Network Web site, "an alliance of 5,000 groups in 184 countries working to promote a healthy environment and a peaceful, just, sustainable world." The Web site contains a wealth of information and resources designed to increase public awareness of important environmental issues and provide opportunities for individuals and communities to get involved. Visitors may read about current Earth Day Network campaigns and programs, as well as review environmental issues and threats with a collection of fact sheets and other resources. In all, this comprehensive and well-organized site is definitely worth a visit for anyone who would like to learn more about environmental problems and environmental activism.

281

A Total Immersion Day. Profiles of Promise 25.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Social studies teachers in Liverpool, New York, furnish their students with significant cultural experiences by a strategy called total immersion day. Two middle schools organized this experience by having grade six students examine a particular area, its geography, history, culture, and politics. The culminating activity of the study unit, an…

Hawke, Sharryl

282

Length of the Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students measure the length of the day using the rotation of the Earth, and discover that the Sun is not exactly in the same place at the same clock time every day, understand that the changes are due to motions of the Earth, and lead to differences in solar, star, and sidereal time. This resource is from PUMAS - Practical Uses of Math and Science - a collection of brief examples created by scientists and engineers showing how math and science topics taught in K-12 classes have real world applications.

283

A critical period for functional vestibular development in zebrafish  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have determined a critical period for vestibular development in zebrafish by using a bioreactor designed by NASA to simulate microgravity for cells in culture. A critical period is defined as the briefest period of time during development when stimulus deprivation results in long lasting or permanent sensory deficits. Zebrafish eggs were collected within 3 hours of being laid and fertilized. In experiment 1, eggs were placed in the bioreactor at 3, 24, 30, 36, 48, or 72 hours postfertilization (hPF) and maintained in the bioreactor until 96 hPF. In experiment 2, eggs were placed in the bioreactor immediately after they were collected and maintained in the bioreactor until 24, 36, 48, 60, 66, 72, or 96 hPF. Beginning at 96 hPF, all larvae had their vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) evaluated once each day for 5 days. Only larvae that hatched from eggs that were placed in the bioreactor before 30 hPF in experiment 1 or removed from the bioreactor later than 66 hPF in experiment 2 had VOR deficits that persisted for at least 5 days. These data suggest a critical period for vestibular development in the zebrafish that begins before 30 hPF and ends after 66 hPF. To confirm this, zebrafish eggs were placed in the bioreactor at 24 hPF and removed at 72 hPF. VORs were evaluated in these larvae once each day for 5 days beginning at 96 hPF. These larvae had VOR deficits that persisted for at least 5 days. In addition, larvae that had been maintained in the bioreactor from 24 to 66 hPF or from 30 to 72 hPF, had only temporary VOR deficits. In a final experiment, zebrafish eggs were placed in the bioreactor at 3 hPF and removed at 96 hPF but the bioreactor was turned off from 24 hPF to 72 hPF. These larvae had normal VORs when they were removed from the bioreactor at 96 hPF. Taken as a whole, these data support the idea that there is a critical period for functional maturation of the zebrafish vestibular system. The developmental period identified includes the timeframe during which the vestibular primary afferent neurons are born, innervate their central and peripheral targets, and remodel their central projections. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Moorman, Stephen J.; Cordova, Rodolfo; Davies, Sarah A.

2002-01-01

284

Culture Machine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Culture Machine is a new, refereed, electronic journal encompassing cultural studies and cultural theory. The international editorial board of the interactive journal aims to "generat[e] research in culture and theory" by promoting and publishing "the most provocative of new work." The theme of the inaugural issue is Taking Risks with the Future. Content includes articles such as Life After Death of the Text by Johan Fornas, Cultural Studies in the Clouds: Mourning for Detail by Tadeusz Slawek, and The Future States of Politics by Kenneth Surin. Culture Machine is hosted by the University of Teesside, England.

285

Expression of adult fast pattern of acetylcholinesterase molecular forms by mouse satellite cells in culture.  

PubMed

The pattern of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) molecular forms, obtained by sucrose gradient sedimentation, was studied at different in vitro developmental stages of myogenic cells isolated from adult mouse skeletal muscle. Only the globular forms were present in rapidly dividing satellite cells during the first days in culture. After myotube formation, a pattern similar to that described in mammalian fast-twitch skeletal muscle was observed. This pattern did not change during the following period in culture (up to 1 month) nor could it be modified by co-culturing with spinal cord motoneurons or by addition of brain-derived extracts. The internal-external localization of AChE molecular forms has been determined by the use of echothiophate iodide, a membrane-impermeant irreversible inhibitor of AChE. Echothiophate-treated cultures showed about 40% of both asymmetric and globular forms localized on the sarcolemma, with their active sites oriented outward. Analysis of culture medium from untreated cultures revealed the presence of both asymmetric and globular forms. When the same analysis was repeated on cultures of myoblasts derived from 16-day-old mouse embryos, the pattern of AChE forms was different. The myotubes derived from these cells exhibit a very small proportion of asymmetric form, which was not released into the medium. This pattern was not further modified during the following days of culture, nor by co-cultures with spinal cord motoneurons or by incubations with brain-derived extracts. Thus, the myotubes derived from myoblasts express in culture a clear phenotypic difference when compared to the corresponding myotubes from satellite cells, supporting the view that these two myogenic cells are endowed with different developmental programs. PMID:3449398

Senni, M I; Castrignano, F; Poiana, G; Cossu, G; Scarsella, G; Biagioni, S

1987-01-01

286

46 CFR Sec. 5 - Idle status period.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...and as soon as it is anticipated that the minimum period of inactivity will exceed fifteen (15) days, due, but not limited to...awaiting cargo. (c) Should the anticipated period of inactivity terminate prior to the expiration of the 15 day...

2010-10-01

287

Midterm periods of solar filaments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the basis of the Carte Synoptique catalogue of solar filaments from March 1919 to December 1989, we measure power spectra of detrended full-disk (FSFNs, latitudinal bands: 0?-90?), low-latitude (LSFNs, latitudinal bands: <50?), and high-latitude (HSFNs, latitudinal bands: ?50?) solar filament numbers by Maximum Entropy Method (MEM) and Continuous wavelet transform to detect midterm periods. It is found as the following: (1) FSFNs and LSFNs have the same midterm periodicity, while HSFNs show a different midrange periodicity. Some periods frequently mentioned in other solar indices are also detected from the solar filament numbers, such as 2-3 year period (quasi-biennial oscillation—QBO), ˜1.7 year, ˜1.3 year, ˜1 year, 150-157 day period (Rieger period), and 6.0-6.4 months (Rieger-type period). These periods are intermittent during considered time span. Some of them are missing in some solar cycles. (2) QBO is detected from total data and most solar cycles of FSFNs, LSFNs, and HSFNs. It may be related to oscillation of magnetic field of solar surface. (3) Approximately 1.3 year period occasionally appears, but ˜1.7 year period is hardly seen. These two periods probably are seasonal effects. (4) Approximately 1 year period is detected from both total data and every solar cycle of FSFNs and LSFNs but hardly detected from HSFNs. It is perhaps connected with sunspot activity. (5) Rieger period of 5.0-5.2 months is detected in total data and even solar cycles of HSFNs. Rieger-type period of 6.0-6.4 months is found in total data and most solar cycles, except cycle 18 of LSFNs and FSFNs. These periods seem to be subharmonics of ˜11 year period.

Zou, Peng; Li, Qixiu

2014-12-01

288

[The effect of biotic elicitors on the production of flavonoids in suspension cultures of Bellis perennis L].  

PubMed

The effect of two biotic elicitors (homogenates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida utilis) in a suspension culture of Bellis perennis L. cultivated in the dark and day light period were examined. The growth of the culture was not negatively affected by the action of elicitors. Increased production of flavonoids in the culture depended on the sort, concentration and space of time of action of the elicitor, and on the manner of cultivation from the viewpoint of the light regimen. The best results were achieved with the use of the homogenate of Candida utilis after 24 hours in cultivation under the day light period and after 48 hours in cultivation in the dark. PMID:10748744

Siatka, T; Kasparová, M

1999-11-01

289

Fabulous Weather Day  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in…

Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. Michael

2007-01-01

290

NetDay  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The mission of NetDay is "to connect every child to a brighter future by helping educators meet educational goals through the effective use of technology." The nonprofit organization provides direct service to 25 schools in five underserved communities and offers resources, guidance and skilled people to assist with technology integration in schools. The website posts issue articles, resource links and guides and serves as a forum to raise national awareness on topics related to the Internet. The organization's free online publication, NetDayCompass, includes more than 2,000 education technology resources for K-12 decision-makers. The site also features results from research, surveys, and analysis that NetDay conducts on issues that matter to the targeted communities. In 2003, the organization launched Speak Up Day, which is intended to "give a voice to all stakeholders in the educational community and to frame a new conversation around education and technology." Highlights from previous online surveys of teachers and students are posted on the site. Students have until November 12 to register their school and include their voice in the 2004 survey.

291

Modeling Day and Night  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (on page 1 of the PDF), learners make a "mini-globe" to investigate the causes of day and night on our planet. This is an introductory activity in a guide related to the science of sleep and daily rhythms. This lesson guide includes background information, information about cooperative learning, setup and management tips, extensions and handouts.

Nancy P. Moreno

2009-01-01

292

An Earth Day Reader.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents what the author believes to be some of the most important environmental books published since Earth Day 1970. Discusses each selection and how it provides the historical background, basic information, and appreciation necessary to understand the character of our environmental dilemma and our need to address it. (MCO)

Moser, Don, Ed.

1990-01-01

293

Sun-Earth Day  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Michael Sandras, a member of the Pontchartrain Astronomical Society, explains his solar telescope to students of Second Street in Bay St. Louis, Hancock County and Nicholson elementary schools in StenniSphere's Millennium Hall on April 10. The students participated in several hands-on activities at Stennis Space Center's Sun-Earth Day celebration.

2007-01-01

294

Every Child, Every Day  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We know more now than we ever did before about how to make every child a successful reader, write Allington and Gabriel in this research review. Yet, few students regularly receive the best reading instruction we know how to give. The authors present research supporting their recommendation that every child, every day, should (1) read something he…

Allington, Richard L.; Gabriel, Rachael E.

2012-01-01

295

Make a Splash Day  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the annual, all-day events-sponsored by Project WET (Water Education for Teachers) and held in nearly every state across the country each September--students participate in interactive activities and exhibits to learn about water resources and explore how human behaviors, such as development and recreation, can affect the quality of the…

Coverdale, Greg; Rust, April; Jensen, Belinda

2004-01-01

296

Marketing Your Day Camp.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Marketing strategies for day camps include encouraging camp staff to get involved in organizations involving children, families, and communities; holding camp fairs; offering the use of camp facilities to outside groups; hosting sport leagues and local youth outings; planning community fairs; and otherwise involving the camp in the community. (LP)

Coleman, George

1997-01-01

297

Volunteer Day Class Photo  

E-print Network

food to the homeless. Have a great day, everyone! Class Photo The ELI Class picture for Fall, 2011 being towed as well. Take the bus! It's cheaper and greener for the environment. Food & Drinks: Remember, food and drinks in the classrooms at the ELI and UF are strictly prohibited. Only water is allowed

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

298

Nutrition on match day  

Microsoft Academic Search

What players should eat on match day is a frequently asked question in sports nutrition. The recommendation from the available evidence is that players should eat a high-carbohydrate meal about 3 h before the match. This may be breakfast when the matches are played around midday, lunch for late afternoon matches, and an early dinner when matches are played late in

Clyde Williams; Luis Serratosa

2006-01-01

299

Welcome to Rock Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Seeking to revitalize a unit on rocks, sand, and soil for first-graders, the authors created new hands-on lessons. These included testing the hardness of rocks, making models of the Earth, and sorting rocks. As a culminating activity, students participated in a series of Rock Day events that focused on the three different types of rocks and the rock cycle.

Jeaneen Benhart

2004-01-01

300

Sunny Day Painting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners explore properties of water and watch evaporation happen by "painting" with water in the sun. On a sunny day, learners use a variety of painting tools (brushes, rollers, spray bottles, etc.) to "paint" water on sidewalks, buildings, fences, etc. outside. Learners observe how the water moves and evaporates from the surfaces.

Kohl Children's Museum

2012-01-01

301

No Treatment Day School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the No Treatment Day School, less than 15% of students used the dormitory during the school week. Located in the heart of a reservation and serving local students, the K-12 school enrolled over 1,000 students. The site received Therapeutic Residential Model funding for the 2001-2002 school year. Initial evaluation of this site found an array of…

DeJong, Judith A.; Holder, Stanley R.

2006-01-01

302

Shady Day MEA  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Model Eliciting Activity (MEA) is written at a 5th grade level. The Shady Day MEA provides students with an engineering problem in which they must work as a team to design a procedure to select the best beach umbrella for certain situations.

Kerri Caudill

2012-07-31

303

Time Change Volunteer Day  

E-print Network

of the spring term. This is your chance to help out the community while practicing your English in a real-life...brighten up their day! We will play bingo, chess, and other board games You can go on walks and share stories

Pilyugin, Sergei S.

304

International Children's Book Day  

E-print Network

International Children's Book Day April 2nd 2013 Folktales Storytelling & wORKSHOP By Barry Stewart Performing Arts Center 1080 SW 11th Street, Gainesville Peter Sís Award Winning Children's Book Author & Illustrator Peter Sís is an internationally acclaimed illustrator, author and the first childrens book artist

Watson, Craig A.

305

One Play a Day  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undergraduate theater students rarely get the chance to work on a major world premiere, but this year hundreds of them will. Currently, more than 70 colleges and universities are participating in "365 Days/365 Plays," an ambitious project from Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright Suzan-Lori Parks. Every week, as they mount their portion of this epic…

Blankenship, Mark

2007-01-01

306

Expression of the capacity to release (/sup 3/H)norepinephrine by neural crest cultures  

SciTech Connect

Cultures of trunk neural crest cells from quail embryos were tested for their ability to release (/sup 3/H)norepinephrine ((/sup 3/H)NE) in response to depolarization. After 7 days in vitro, exposure of the cultures to either the alkaloid veratridine or 40 mM K+ results in the evoked release of (/sup 3/H)NE. The release evoked by veratridine is blocked in the presence of tetrodotoxin. The release evoked by increased K+ is blocked by the calcium antagonist cobalt. Release in response to the nicotinic cholinergic agonist 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazine was also observed. The amount of evoked release is highly correlated with the number of histochemically demonstrable catecholamine-containing cells in a given culture. Autoradiography reveals that the radioactivity taken up by these cultures is located in a subpopulation of cells whose morphology resembles that of the histochemically detectable catecholamine-containing cell population. Whereas capacity for the release of (/sup 3/H) NE is readily detectable after 7 days in vitro, it is detectable only with difficulty after 4 days in vitro. There is a greater than 6-fold increase in uptake capacity over the period of 4 to 7 days in vitro. These results demonstrate that neural crest cultures grown without their normal synaptic inputs or targets can exhibit the capacity for stimulus secretion coupling characteristic of synaptic neurotransmitter release.

Maxwell, G.D.; Sietz, P.D.

1983-09-01

307

Culturing Protozoa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)

Stevenson, Paul

1980-01-01

308

Cultural Pluralism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This comment examines the roles of cultural pluralism and assimilation as guiding values in American law. In particular, it investigates the ways in which the legal system both implicitly and explicitly recognizes the value of cultural pluralism. (Author/AM)

Fong, Kevin M.

1978-01-01

309

Cultural practices updates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cultural practice updates from 2013 included the effects of shredding in spring, residue management, periodic flooding, no-till fertilizer applications, and billet planting on cane tonnage and sugar yield. Shredding, whether high or low, had little impacts in 2013. However, burning following shreddi...

310

Specimen Sample Preservation for Cell and Tissue Cultures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The era of the International Space Station with its longer duration missions will pose unique challenges to microgravity life sciences research. The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) is responsible for addressing these challenges and defining the science requirements necessary to conduct life science research on-board the International Space Station. Space Station will support a wide range of cell and tissue culture experiments for durations of 1 to 30 days. Space Shuttle flights to bring experimental samples back to Earth for analyses will only occur every 90 days. Therefore, samples may have to be retained for periods up to 60 days. This presents a new challenge in fresh specimen sample storage for cell biology. Fresh specimen samples are defined as samples that are preserved by means other than fixation and cryopreservation. The challenge of long-term storage of fresh specimen samples includes the need to suspend or inhibit proliferation and metabolism pending return to Earth-based laboratories. With this challenge being unique to space research, there have not been any ground based studies performed to address this issue. It was decided hy SSBRP that experiment support studies to address the following issues were needed: Fixative Solution Management; Media Storage Conditions; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Mammalian Cell/Tissue Cultures; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Plant Cell/Tissue Cultures; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Aquatic Cell/Tissue Cultures; and Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Microbial Cell/Tissue Cultures. The objective of these studies was to derive a set of conditions and recommendations that can be used in a long duration microgravity environment such as Space Station that will permit extended storage of cell and tissue culture specimens in a state consistent with zero or minimal growth, while at the same time maintaining their stability and viability.

Meeker, Gabrielle; Ronzana, Karolyn; Schibner, Karen; Evans, Robert

1996-01-01

311

Postnatal care: a cross-cultural and historical perspective.  

PubMed

Childbirth and the immediate postpartum period represent a major transition in a woman's life. This period is considered a vulnerable time for the mother and child in most societies, and rituals for this transition are common. In this study, we present some examples of postpartum customs in a cross-cultural and historical perspective. Also, we present the current knowledge on the possible impact of postnatal care on mental health. Systematic literature searches were performed in Medline, PsycINFO, and the Science Citation Index Expanded (ISI) for the time period 1966 through May 2010. Reference lists in books on pregnancy and childbirth from the University Library in Oslo were used to obtain additional information. We found that the postnatal period seems to be universally defined as 40 days. Most cultures have special postnatal customs, including special diet, isolation, rest, and assistance for the mother. The uniformity of customs across different cultures is striking. However, many postnatal customs that were common before 1950 are no longer existent. The focus on rest and assistance for the mother after delivery has gradually decreased. Studies of associations of postnatal care and mental health in the mother are limited and show inconsistent results. More knowledge is needed on postnatal care and mental health. PMID:20680363

Eberhard-Gran, Malin; Garthus-Niegel, Susan; Garthus-Niegel, Kristian; Eskild, Anne

2010-12-01

312

Periods found in heat measurements obtained by calorimetry  

SciTech Connect

During a span of 640 days, a periodicity of 1.5158 +- 0.0008 days was discovered in successive heater equilibria on Calorimeter No. 127. Measurements were taken at 12-h intervals, with occasional changes of exactly 3 or 6 h in the schedule of measurements. This schedule eliminated all other possible periods except a period of 0.150156 days. Periods of 1.519125 and 1.511283 days were discovered in data on the excess length of day as obtained by the US Naval Observatory over a period of 24 y. These two periods could equally well represent periods of 0.150189 and 0.150112 days, since measurements were obtained only once every 24 h. It is suggested that periods observed in sensitive calorimeters and in length of day data may be related. 1 reference, 6 figures, 5 tables.

Jordan, K.C.

1984-02-28

313

Subacute (90 days) oral toxicity studies of Kombucha tea.  

PubMed

Kombucha tea (KT) is a popular health beverage and is used as an alternative therapy. KT is prepared by placing the kombucha culture in solution of tea and sugar and allowing to ferment. The inoculum is a fungus consisting of symbiotic colony of yeast and bacteria. KT is consumed in several countries and is believed to have prophylactic and therapeutic benefits in a wide variety of ailments, viz., intestinal disorders, arthritis, ageing and stimulation of immunological system. Though KT is used in several parts of the world its beneficial effects and adverse effects have not been scientifically evaluated. Since there are no animal toxicological data on KT, subacute oral toxicity study was carried out. Five groups of rats were maintained: (a) control group given tap water orally, (b) KT given 2 ml/kg orally, (c) plain tea (PT) given 2 ml/kg orally, (d) KT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v) and (e) PT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v). The rats were given this treatment daily for a period of 90 days. Weekly records of weight, feed intake, water intake and general behaviour were monitored. There was no significant difference in the growth of the animals as evidenced by the progressive body weight change. The organ to body weight ratio and histological evaluation did not show any toxic signs. The haematological and biochemical variables were within the clinical limits. The study indicates that rats fed KT for 90 days showed no toxic effects. PMID:11351863

Vijayaraghavan, R; Singh, M; Rao, P V; Bhattacharya, R; Kumar, P; Sugendran, K; Kumar, O; Pant, S C; Singh, R

2000-12-01

314

Epidemiology of Viral Infections and Evaluation of the Potential Benefit of OM85 BV on the Virologie Status of Children Attending Day-Care Centers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viral investigations were performed during 4 winter seasons (88\\/89, 89\\/90, 92\\/93, 93\\/94) in children attending day-care centers (DCCs) in the Rhone Département in eastern France. Over the total observation period of 4 winter seasons, 780 children were screened with a nasal swab for the presence of viruses. Of those, 230 (29.5%) had a positive viral culture. The viruses identified were

M. Aymard; J. J. Chomel; J. P. Allard; D. Thouvenot; D. Honegger; D. Floret; J.-P. Boissel; J.-P. Collet; F. Dürr; J. Gillet; N. Bossard; L. Lyon

1994-01-01

315

An Apple A Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are presented with an apple and are asked to draw it. In each subsequent class period they are asked to draw the same apple again. In this way, they watch and record the changes the apple goes through as it decays.

Center for Inquiry Based Learning

2012-08-05

316

1. Disciplinary content outcome: Demonstrate mastery or competence in a specific area or period of art history (including pertinent terminology, major achievements, works of major artists in cultural and historic contexts)  

E-print Network

not previously known to them in a more successful way. Students develop skills essential in art historical of art history (including pertinent terminology, major achievements, works of major artists in cultural and historic contexts) Direct Assessment measure: Essay assignments, exams, group projects and image sleuthing

Asaithambi, Asai

317

The maintenance of rat palatal mucosa in organ culture.  

PubMed Central

Palatal mucosa from neonatal rats was maintained under organ culture conditions in a chemically defined medium for periods up to 28 days. The histological state of the cultured palatal mucosa was compared with that of control tissue from growing animals of comparable age. The control tissues showed an increase in epithelial thickness, first noticeable at 17 days. Whilst the general structure of the tissues in organ culture was preserved for the duration of the experiment, some changes in epithelial behavior were evident. There was an increase in epithelial thickness up to 6 days, followed by a reduction in the nucleated cell layer of the epithelium to a thickness comparable with that at the start of the experiment. There was a loss of epithelial glycogen within the first day, with occasional reappearance of patchy and irregular deposits. Whereas the control of epithelial thickness appeared to be restored after 10 days in vitro, disturbances in the maturation of the keratinocytes, manifested as epithelial pearls and dyskeratotic cells, were evident at subsequent stages. Epiboly never occurred. The connective tissue component showed continued development, indicated by an increase in the thickness of collagen fibres. The overall palatal growth seen in vivo did not occur in organ culture. We suggest that the improved maintenance reported is partly the result of explanting tissues in such a way as to minimize trauma, and partly the result of incorporating serum albumin into the chemically defined medium. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:1010792

Hill, M W; Miles, A E

1976-01-01

318

Cosmos: The Integrated Day Comes to College.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four full days of classroom instruction, devoted to the modeling of effective curriculum integration, were designed for preservice elementary school teachers. The unit was the result of a conviction on the part of teacher educators that children learn best when learning is not separated into forty-minute periods of math, social studies, language…

Kutz, Ronald E.; And Others

319

President Clinton: Final Days  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Available at Pocketmovies.net, this six-minute video is a humorous and clever peek into the twilight days at the Clinton White House. Shot for the Annual White House Correspondents's Dinner, the "home movie" depicts a lonely President Clinton taking care of the yard work, doing the laundry, and other mundane tasks. The movie is an entertaining diversion and demonstrates that even the "leader of the free world" can have a (self-deprecating) sense of humor.

320

Flight Day 2 Highlights  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The STS-107 second flight day begins with a shot of the Spacehab Research Double Module. Live presentations of experiments underway inside of the Spacehab Module are presented. Six experiments are shown. As part of the Space Technology and Research Student Payload, students from Australia, China, Israel, Japan, New York, and Liechtenstein are studying the effect that microgravity has on ants, spiders, silkworms, fish, bees, granular materials, and crystals. Mission Specialist Kalpana Chawla is seen working with the zeolite crystal growth experiment.

2003-01-01

321

Arbor Day Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Arbor Day was first observed in 1872, and the Arbor Day Foundation was founded in 1972 in Nebraska. The Arbor Day website contains a trove of information for visitors to peruse, make plans around, and learn from. The "Trees" section of the website includes "What Tree is That?", an online guide for tree identification; a "Tree Guide", that covers more than 200 different species of trees; and a quiz called "The Right Tree in the Right Place", about how and why to first make a simple plan, considering size and shape, when planting trees around a house. The "Programs" section of the website is an excellent resource for visitors such as teachers, parents and students. "Nature Explore" helps connect kids with nature via the "Resource Guide", which contains "field-tested resources developed to bring nature into children's daily learning in sustainable, significant, positive and joyful ways." Interested visitors can use the link entitled "Request a Resource Guide", to get a free copy. "Nature Explore Classroom Certification" links teachers to the certification process and examples of certified classrooms and classrooms in-progress.

322

Round the World in 18 Days: Science Connecting Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The autumn 2002 term at the Eden Project was a roller-coaster ride of multicultural celebration and a fantastic lesson in the power of young people to take practical action in addressing issues that affect their communities on a local and global scale. From Cornwall to India--global links provide valuable insights and opportunities for active…

Hodgson, Gill

2003-01-01

323

April 5, 2007 1 An analysis of pulsation periods of long-period  

E-print Network

by their substantial brightness changes, which are roughly sinusoidal with typical periods between 100 and 300 days. The period of a given star is determined by its internal structure. Period changes are therefore deemed and Fred Lombard University of Johannesburg, South Africa Abstract We report the results of a period change

324

Mobilization of Metals from Pristine Mineral Soil by Nitrifying and Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria – The Leaching Potential of Indigenous Culture Enrichments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indigenous chemolithotrophic nitrifying and sulfur-oxidizing culture enrichments mobilized metals from pristine mineral soil under conditions of ammonium or thiosulfate supplementation in a laboratory experiment carried out over a period of 40 days. The average mineralogical composition of the mineral soil was quartz (62%), feldspar (20%), muscovite (6%), chlorite (2%), hornblende (2%), dolomite (4%), and calcium carbonate (4%). The leaching efficiency

Renate Sonnleitner; Bernhard Redl; Petra Merschak; Franz Schinner

2011-01-01

325

Factors influencing culture positivity in pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis patients with prior antibiotic exposure.  

PubMed

We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate factors influencing tissue culture positivity in patients with pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis exposed to antibiotics before diagnosis. Tissue culture was positive in 48.3% (28/58) of the patients, and the median antibiotic-free period was 1.5 days (range, 0.7 to 5.7 days). In a multivariate analysis, a higher C-reactive protein (CRP) level (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.07 to 1.29) and open surgical biopsy (aOR, 6.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.12 to 35.86) were associated with tissue culture positivity. PMID:25666156

Kim, Chung-Jong; Kang, Seung-Ji; Yoon, Doran; Lee, Myung Jin; Kim, Moonsuk; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Jang, Hee-Chang; Jung, Sook-In; Kim, Eu Suk; Kim, Hong Bin; Oh, Myoung-Don; Park, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Nam Joong

2015-04-01

326

On the enigma of day-to-day variability in equatorial spread F  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show that large-scale wave structure (LSWS), in plasma density in the bottomside F layer, is a hitherto unheralded contributor to the long-standing enigma of day-to-day variability in equatorial spread F (ESF). Little is known about LSWS; it seems to appear in altitude near a vertical shear in zonal plasma drift, during the post-sunset rise of the F layer, and its growth via an interchange instability appears to predispose quasi-periodically spaced regions to development of plasma bubbles. First indications are that LSWS development is necessary and sufficient for ESF occurrence. We suggest that variability in LSWS development, perhaps together with the shear in zonal drift, may contribute to day-to-day ESF variability. A need revealed by this study is that a cluster of distributed sensors, not isolated ones, is necessary to pursue the problem of day-to-day variability.

Tsunoda, Roland T.

2005-04-01

327

Noon Day Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage is about the Noon Day project, which is a worldwide effort to measure the circumference of the earth. Students try to measure by a method created 2000 years ago first used by Eratosthenes. Students at various sites around the world will measure shadows cast by a meter stick and compare their results. From this data students will be able to calculate the circumference of the earth. There is an informational video explaining the project. Included on the webpage is a photo gallery, schedule, lesson plans, dissuction area, glossary, and archive.

Stevens Institute of Technology

2009-01-01

328

Preventing 30-day readmissions.  

PubMed

Preventing 30-day readmissions to hospitals is a top priority in the era of health care reform. New regulations will be costly to health care facilities because of payment guidelines. The most frequently readmitted medical conditions are acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia. The transition from the hospital and into the home has been classified as a vulnerable time for many patients. During this time of transition patients may fail to fully understand their discharge instructions. Ineffective communication, low health literacy, and compliance issues contribute to readmissions. Telehealth and the use of technology may be used to prevent some readmissions. PMID:25680492

Stevens, Sherri

2015-03-01

329

Fabulous Weather Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. After studying weather for three months, we celebrate what we have learned and stretch our thinking further into the weather world around us! Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in their understanding of how the weather works and how it can affect their lives. Our unit focused on guiding students to formulate explanations about animals based on scientific evidence.

Candice Marshall

2007-01-01

330

International Women's Day Celebrated  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With historical origins dating back to the early 20th century, International Women's Day has been officially celebrated since 1977, when the United Nations made a special declaration setting the date in early March every year. This year saw a flurry of important events around the world that coincided with March 8th, including ceremonies designed to honor women of national and international importance in many countries and a number of valuable statements made on behalf regarding the cause of gender equality. A number of prominent women also gave speeches this Monday, including Nobel Peace Prize laureate Shirin Ebadi, who noted that "The rights of women and democracy are one and the same." A study released this past Monday by the Inter-Parliamentary Union noted that women make up a record-breaking 15.3 percent of the world's lawmakers. The country with the greatest percentage of female lawmakers is Rwanda (49 percent), followed closely by Sweden, with 45 percent. While there was much to celebrate, there were also some ominous trends noted by lawmakers and officials, including the rapid and disturbing increase of young women with HIV around the world in the past few years, a fact noted by UN Secretary General Kofi Annan during his remarks to a special UN session.The first site will take visitors to a news piece from the Baltimore Sun that contains Shirin Ebadi's remarks made on International Women's Day. The second link leads to a news piece from Al-Jazeera that discusses the rapid increase of HIV among young women, a public health issue that is becoming endemic in certain parts of the developing world. The third link leads to an article from the Cornell (University) Daily Sun that offers details on a celebration honoring women on their campus who had worked to improve the situation of women locally, nationally, and internationally. The fourth link will take visitors to the rather comprehensive website for International Women's Day 2004 created by the United Nations. The site contains information on the events sponsored by the UN and its Women Watch website, which serves as a clearinghouse for resources on gender equality and empowerment of women. The fifth link will take users to a good history of International Women's Day, created by Joyce Stevens for the Australian Women's Intra Network. The final link leads to a well-honed site developed by the World Health Organization to highlight its own work on women's health (including special sections on work in Southeast Asia) and to bring together a number of useful fact sheets and related web-based resources.

331

3.NF Snow Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: Alec and Felix are brothers who go to different schools. The school day is just as long at Felix' school as at Alec's school. At Felix' school, there a...

332

Aquarist for a Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video Jonathan visits the New England Aquarium as a volunteer aquarist for a day to learn what it takes to care for thousands of fish in dozens of exhibits, up to the massive 200,000 gallon Giant Ocean Tank (GOT). What he finds is an eye opener—it’s not all fun and games. Maintaining an aquarium is serious work. But it does have its benefits, as Jonathan discovers while diving in the GOT and feeding the sharks. This segment won a New England Emmy Award! Please see the accompanying study guide for educational objectives and discussion points.

2012-07-19

333

6.EE Busy Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a task from the Illustrative Mathematics website that is one part of a complete illustration of the standard to which it is aligned. Each task has at least one solution and some commentary that addresses important asects of the task and its potential use. Here are the first few lines of the commentary for this task: The Jonas family had a really busy day. After leaving their home, Mrs. Jonas dropped son Cody at his tennis practice. She then drove daughter Kristin t...

334

Good Meals Every Day.  

E-print Network

well-balanced m e a 1 s with more calories. The underweight p e r s on should take in more calories than he uses, so that some will be left over to store as fat. The first essential in gaining weight is to include the foods listed on the Texas... for growth, maintenance of good health, normal eye functioning, healthy skin and mucous membrane linings of body, resist- ance to in- fection I Green lima beans Yellow corn Raw, cooked, frozen or canned-?/2 cup or more each day Essential...

Cox, Maeona; Reasonover, Frances; Harris, Jimmie Nell; Mason, Louise

1955-01-01

335

Culture evolves  

PubMed Central

Culture pervades human lives and has allowed our species to create niches all around the world and its oceans, in ways quite unlike any other primate. Indeed, our cultural nature appears so distinctive that it is often thought to separate humanity from the rest of nature and the Darwinian forces that shape it. A contrary view arises through the recent discoveries of a diverse range of disciplines, here brought together to illustrate the scope of a burgeoning field of cultural evolution and to facilitate cross-disciplinary fertilization. Each approach emphasizes important linkages between culture and evolutionary biology rather than quarantining one from the other. Recent studies reveal that processes important in cultural transmission are more widespread and significant across the animal kingdom than earlier recognized, with important implications for evolutionary theory. Recent archaeological discoveries have pushed back the origins of human culture to much more ancient times than traditionally thought. These developments suggest previously unidentified continuities between animal and human culture. A third new array of discoveries concerns the later diversification of human cultures, where the operations of Darwinian-like processes are identified, in part, through scientific methods borrowed from biology. Finally, surprising discoveries have been made about the imprint of cultural evolution in the predispositions of human minds for cultural transmission. PMID:21357216

Whiten, Andrew; Hinde, Robert A.; Laland, Kevin N.; Stringer, Christopher B.

2011-01-01

336

Microbial load in mass cultures of green algae Scenedesmus acutus and its processed powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial contamination in cultures of the alga,Scenedesmus acutus raised in outdoor open tanks and also in the processed powder of the alga was monitored; The total bacterial population increased\\u000a with time during the growth period of six days. When a combination of molasses and carbondioxide was employed as carbon source\\u000a for this alga, the bacterial load increased to 10 colony

M. Mahadevaswamy; L. V. Venkataraman

1981-01-01

337

A sunspot periodicity and the solar rotation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A least squares power spectrum analysis of daily sunspot numbers for the last 122 years yielded a statistically significant peak at 12.0715 plus or minus .002 days period. This feature at 11.685 days (sidereal) of the sunspot spectrum is discussed in relation to the peak at 12.22 days (sidereal) which Dicke found in his oblateness data. The data is attributed to the Sun's core if the core rotates at either 12.0715 days or 24.1430 days period (synodic). It is suggested that spacecraft observations combined with correlative analysis of solar surface features between eastern and western hemispheres could further reveal a basic core periodicity. A Dicke type space oblateness experiment is discussed for providing better photospheric observations than a ground instrument to determine the core periodicity.

Knight, J. W.; Sturrock, P. A.; Schatten, K. H.

1980-01-01

338

Should You Weigh Every Day?  

MedlinePLUS

... sense: By seeing what the scale reads each day you have a better chance of catching small ... dietary intake and physical activity, your weight fluctuates day-to-day. You may interpret a one-pound ...

339

Changing our culture.  

PubMed

Today, a great challenge of our profession is to envision how we will deliver exemplary neurosurgical care in the future. To accomplish this requires anticipating how economic, political, and societal influences will affect our ability to provide the highest quality of patient care in an arena that will look increasingly different from today's world of medicine. Already, our profession is battling a relentless assault as numerous sectors implement change that impacts us and our community every day. Surviving this requires an effective strategy that will involve significant cultural change. To accomplish this, neurosurgery must take an honest look inward and then commit to being the agents of positive cultural change. Such a path will not be easy but should reap important benefits for all of neurosurgery and our patients. Several practical and proven strategies can help us to realize the rewards of changing our culture. Vital to this process is understanding that effecting behavioral change will increase the likelihood of achieving sustainable cultural change. Innovation and diversity are crucial to encourage and reward when trying to effect meaningful cultural change, while appreciating the power of a "Tipping Point" strategy will also reap significant benefits. As a profession, if we adopt these strategies and tactics we can lead our profession to proceed in improvement, and as individuals we can use the spirit that drove us into neurosurgery to become the agents of an enduring and meaningful cultural change that will benefit our patients and us. PMID:24559225

Benzil, Deborah L

2014-05-01

340

Cultural Shock  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Demos organization in London is a think-tank that produces compelling reports on everything from public space to government spending. This report from October 2010 is by Samuel Jones, and he explores the relationship between the British government and culture and sport. His basic question is: "Why should the state get involved in culture, and if it should, how?" The 154-page report is divided into sections such as "Society and the cultural realm", "Taking the cultural pulse of a nation", and "Evidence of Potential". It's an interesting read, and the paper argues that "cultural policy must focus on the equitable distribution of individuals' cultural capabilities, indicating that this will require thinking anew about what form the structures take, and how they are run."

Jones, Samuel

341

Utah Culture Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Research one of Utah's many cultural festivals and send a text message explaining what you've learned! Step One: Research Select one of the following ethnic festivals in Utah to research. Navigate the webiste to find out what the festival is about and what one can do if they go to the festival. Look at available photos and videos to help learn about the festival. Asian Festival Festival of Colors Greek Festival India Fest Living Traditional Festival Scottish Festival St. Patrick s Day Parade Swiss Days Step Two: Text Message Pretend ...

Mrs. Wheeler

2011-03-02

342

Hydroponics or soilless culture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Historically, hydroponics is not a new field; plant physiologists have known and used it for some 100 years. Inevitably, some enthusiasts got carried away.Claims were made of enormous potential yields; skyscraper tops were said to be capable of producing enough food for all of their occupants; and closets, basements, garages, etc. were wishfully converted into fields for hydroponic culture. Numerous publications on the subject appeared during this period. Basic requirements for hydropinc techniques are given along with examples of where soilless culture has been used commercially.

Chapman, H. D.

1963-01-01

343

Cultural Entomology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article, succinctly written by the late Charles Hogue, was taken, with permission, from the 1987 Annual Review of Entomology. It provides an excellent explanation of cultural entomology, along with examples of the influence insects have had on art, folklore, history, literature and language, the performing arts, philosophy, religion, and other areas of culture from around the world. To delve more deeply into cultural entomology, the original 1987 article should be consulted for a listing of many specific references to the subject.

0000-00-00

344

Days of Diary Collection to Measure Mother and Infant Sleep  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of the study was to determine the number of days of diary data collection needed to reliably measure mother and infant sleep-wake pattern. Study Design and Methods Twenty healthy adult mothers and their healthy term gestation infants age 4 to 10 weeks postnatal age participated in a single group, cross-sectional design. Mothers completed a paper and pencil sleep-wake diary divided into 15 minute time periods. Data were collected in the home environment over a four days period. Mother and infant sleep and wake as well as infant feeding and cry were summarized and compared using between one and four days of data. Reliability was evaluated by correlating results obtained using from one to four days of data. Results Mean values for mother and infant sleep and activity variables did not differ significantly by day. Correlation among values calculated using increases in number of days of data showed adequate reliability (r ? 0.80) when three days of data were used. Clinical Implications Clinical measures should be valid and reliable. Due to day-to-day changes in maternal and infant sleep-wake pattern, a diary collected over one day may not provide adequate sleep information. Study findings indicate that three days of diary data were sufficient to reliably measure mother and infant sleep pattern. When using a diary to assess maternal and infant sleep-wake pattern in clinical practice or clinically-based research, a three day period is suggested. PMID:19587572

Thomas, Karen A.; Burr, Robert L.

2015-01-01

345

Nasopharyngeal culture  

MedlinePLUS

Culture - nasopharyngeal; Swab for respiratory viruses; Swab for Staph carriage ... test identifies viruses and bacteria that cause upper respiratory tract symptoms. Bordetella pertussis Neisseria meningitidis Staphylococcus aureus ...

346

Proceedings, Dean's Day 1999  

SciTech Connect

On January 14--15, 1999, Sandia National Laboratories sponsored Deans Day, a conference for the Deans of Engineering and other executive-level representatives from 29 invited universities. Through breakout sessions and a wrap-up discussion, university and Sandia participants identified activities to further develop their strategic relationships. The four primary activities are: (A) concentrate joint efforts on current and future research strengths and needs; (B) attract the best students (at all grade levels) to science and engineering; (C) promote awareness of the need for and work together to influence a national science and technology R and D policy; and (D) enable the universities and Sandia to be true allies, jointly pursuing research opportunities and funding from government agencies and industry.

Zanner, M.A.

1999-03-01

347

The First Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

There are many ways to start the school year, but icebreakers can be very successful. They help create a comfortable, lively, and active atmosphere students will come to expect and enjoy when they enter. Don't limit yourself to using these types of activities only at the beginning of the year. Use them also to rejuvenate after a long break, after a long, difficult unit has been covered, or before beginning a new unit. Students will understand the reasons for group work, perk up when it comes time to problem solve, and be able to help each other "see" other methods or answers to problems. And, when your students go home after those first days of school, your class will be the one they talk about at the dinner table. This free chapter also includes the Table of Contents and Introduction for this book.

C. Jill Swango

2003-01-01

348

Early Day Motions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The British House of Commons has recently unveiled an online database of Early Day Motions (EDM). EDMs are motions introduced by Members of Parliament (MPs) that are generally not debated but are rather used to draw attention to a particular issue or gather support for it by having other MPs add their signatures. Despite this, EDMs are often noted by the press, and some use them to interpret opinions on wider issues. Users can search the database of the 1997/9 Session by EDM number or description or browse the current list, which displays Title, Primary Sponsor, and the Number of Signatures. Parliament is currently on summer recess until October 19 (with the exception of a brief special session to introduce new security measures for Northern Ireland), but when it is in session, the database will be updated daily.

349

International Women's Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

International Women's Day has been celebrated by the United Nation since 1975, and this fine website provides a host of information on this year's celebration for the general public. On the site, visitors can read a message from Secretary-General Kofi Annan, view a webcast of related events sponsored by the UN, and learn about the history behind this event. The site also has a link to Women Watch, which provides very comprehensive information on gender equality and the empowerment of women from around the world. Additionally, the site also has information about the review and appraisal of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action of 1995. Finally, the site has some items that will be of broad interest, such as materials on the UN Millennium development goals and materials on disaster response strategies.

350

Carbonyl compounds in the ambient air of hazy days and clear days in Guangzhou, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbonyl compounds were measured in ambient air of Guangzhou in both hazy and clear days. Air samples were collected in two separate terms, 17–19th of November (the clear period) and 30th of November to 2nd of December 2005 (the hazy period). The total concentrations of carbonyls detected varied from 48.4 to 121.4 µg m?3 (with a mean of 92.0 µg m?3) in

Huixiong Lü; Quan-Ying Cai; Sheng Wen; Yuguang Chi; Songjun Guo; Guoying Sheng; Jiamo Fu; Blanca Antizar-Ladislao

2009-01-01

351

Myth or Truth: Independence Day.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most Americans think of the Fourth of July as Independence Day, but is it really the day the U.S. declared and celebrated independence? By exploring myths and truths surrounding Independence Day, this lesson asks students to think critically about commonly believed stories regarding the beginning of the Revolutionary War and the Independence Day

Gardner, Traci

352

Biodegradation of Palm Kernel Cake by Cellulolytic and Hemicellulolytic Bacterial Cultures through Solid State Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Four cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacterial cultures were purchased from the Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Culture (DSMZ) and the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). Two experiments were conducted; the objective of the first experiment was to determine the optimum time period required for solid state fermentation (SSF) of palm kernel cake (PKC), whereas the objective of the second experiment was to investigate the effect of combinations of these cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic bacteria on the nutritive quality of the PKC. In the first experiment, the SSF was lasted for 12 days with inoculum size of 10% (v/w) on different PKC to moisture ratios. In the second experiment, fifteen combinations were created among the four microbes with one untreated PKC as a control. The SSF lasted for 9 days, and the samples were autoclaved, dried, and analyzed for proximate analysis. Results showed that bacterial cultures produced high enzymes activities at the 4th day of SSF, whereas their abilities to produce enzymes tended to be decreased to reach zero at the 8th day of SSF. Findings in the second experiment showed that hemicellulose and cellulose was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased, whereas the amount of reducing sugars were significantly (P < 0.05) increased in the fermented PKC (FPKC) compared with untreated PKC. PMID:25019097

Alshelmani, Mohamed Idris; Loh, Teck Chwen; Foo, Hooi Ling; Lau, Wei Hong; Sazili, Awis Qurni

2014-01-01

353

Valentine's Day and Chocolate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

While the exact origins of Valentine's Day are often disputed, the link between chocolate and the modern incarnation of this particular holiday are undeniable. Recent data released in a report by the business information group Datamonitor revealed that the global consumption of chocolate totaled approximately $42.2 billion worth of chocolate-based consumable goods. It will not come as a surprise to anyone who has visited the British Isles to learn that out of the $42.2 billion, Britons spent $19.2 billion, and made almost one in three chocolate purchases, trumping all of the world's nations. The report from Datamonitor also noted that tastes in chocolate vary widely across Europe, noting that, "The French prefer simplicity and purity of taste, without additional flavors and with little sugar, while Italian tastes are geared toward the more indulgent and sophisticated end of the market." Additionally, the report also indicates that the United States continues to dominate the global chocolate confectionary market, with Americans spending $2.4 billion on boxed chocolates alone in 2001.The first link is to the recent report on global chocolate sales and consumption released by the Datamonitor group. The second link leads to a well-thought site from Exploratorium Magazine, which features interactive essays on chocolate production, the potential health benefits of chocolate, and a visit to a "chocolate party" in the heart of the Amazon. The third link will take visitors to a site that deals with the history of chocolate, beginning with the first use of chocolate (as a drink) in 750 AD. The fourth link takes visitors to a site featuring inventive and fun ways to use chocolate in recipes, such as those for chocolate banana bread and chocolate peanut butter pie. The fifth link leads to a site from ABC News.com that explores various contested origins of Valentine's Day over the past fifteen hundred years. The final link takes visitors to a piece written by Polly Curtis of The Guardian, writing on the various scientific studies that investigate various romantic activities, such as which direction do people tend to kiss or how to find the perfect partner.

Grinnell, Max

2003-01-01

354

Organizational Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concept of organizational culture has received increasing attention in recent years both from academics and practitioners. This article presents the author’s view of how culture should be defined and analyzed if it is to be of use in the field of organizational psychology. Other concepts are reviewed, a brief history is provided, and case materials are presented to illustrate

Edgar H. Schein

1990-01-01

355

Object of the Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Smithsonian Cooper-Hewitt Design Museum is closed for renovation until 2014. Until then, visit this website to "Discover a different object from the Museum's collection every day of the week!" Items range from a 1938 catalog of linoleum and cork flooring, The Armstrong Pattern Book, to scratch and sniff wallpaper designed by Michael Angelo and produced by Flavor Paper in 2007. Information about each object is presented blog-post style, with a short essay, images, and tags that link to related information. For example, the entry for Saturday June 22, 2013, titled Two Rooks, is about a a ceramic tile made at Rookwood Pottery in Cincinnati, Ohio between 1903 and 1913. There a short essay about the tile by Cynthia E. Smith, one of the curators, and clicking the author's name retrieves all of her posts. Other tags include the subject area Arts and Crafts, the style of the piece, and Cincinnati, where it was made. There's also a link to click through to the full collection record for the tile, with the object's location, acquisition information, and color palette.

356

Periodicity Analysis of SMMF in Solar Maximum and Minimum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using the data observed by Wilcox Solar Observatory from 1975 to 2010,the short periodicity of the solar mean magnetic field (SMMF)in solar maximum and minimum is analyzed. The result shows that SMMF has main periods about 9 days, 13.5 days, and 27 days. During the solar maximum, the SMMF has the most dominant period near 27 days. However, in solar minimum, the 13.5-day periodicity is most significant except in 1984-1986. These results show that the solar active region distribution in the solar maximum is quite different from that in solar minimum.

Ye, N.; Zhu, F. R.; Zhou, X. M.; Jia, H. Y.; Gao, G. N.

2012-01-01

357

Overcoming bottlenecks of enzymatic biofuel cell cathodes: crude fungal culture supernatant can help to extend lifetime and reduce cost.  

PubMed

Enzymatic biofuel cells (BFCs) show great potential for the direct conversion of biochemically stored energy from renewable biomass resources into electricity. However, enzyme purification is time-consuming and expensive. Furthermore, the long-term use of enzymatic BFCs is hindered by enzyme degradation, which limits their lifetime to only a few weeks. We show, for the first time, that crude culture supernatant from enzyme-secreting microorganisms (Trametes versicolor) can be used without further treatment to supply the enzyme laccase to the cathode of a mediatorless BFC. Polarization curves show that there is no significant difference in the cathode performance when using crude supernatant that contains laccase compared to purified laccase in culture medium or buffer solution. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the oxygen reduction activity of this enzymatic cathode can be sustained over a period of at least 120 days by periodic resupply of crude culture supernatant. This is more than five times longer than control cathodes without the resupply of culture supernatant. During the operation period of 120 days, no progressive loss of potential is observed, which suggests that significantly longer lifetimes than shown in this work may be possible. Our results demonstrate the possibility to establish simple, cost efficient, and mediatorless enzymatic BFC cathodes that do not require expensive enzyme purification procedures. Furthermore, they show the feasibility of an enzymatic BFC with an extended lifetime, in which self-replicating microorganisms provide the electrode with catalytically active enzymes in a continuous or periodic manner. PMID:23801592

Sané, Sabine; Jolivalt, Claude; Mittler, Gerhard; Nielsen, Peter J; Rubenwolf, Stefanie; Zengerle, Roland; Kerzenmacher, Sven

2013-07-01

358

Enhanced Biosynthesis of Withanolides by Elicitation and Precursor Feeding in Cell Suspension Culture of Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal in Shake-Flask Culture and Bioreactor  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated the biosynthesis of major and minor withanolides of Withania somnifera in cell suspension culture using shake-flask culture and bioreactor by exploiting elicitation and precursor feeding strategies. Elicitors like cadmium chloride, aluminium chloride and chitosan, precursors such as cholesterol, mevalonic acid and squalene were examined. Maximum total withanolides detected [withanolide A (7606.75 mg), withanolide B (4826.05 mg), withaferin A (3732.81 mg), withanone (6538.65 mg), 12 deoxy withanstramonolide (3176.63 mg), withanoside IV (2623.21 mg) and withanoside V (2861.18 mg)] were achieved in the combined treatment of chitosan (100 mg/l) and squalene (6 mM) along with 1 mg/l picloram, 0.5 mg/l KN, 200 mg/l L-glutamine and 5% sucrose in culture at 4 h and 48 h exposure times respectively on 28th day of culture in bioreactor. We obtained higher concentrations of total withanolides in shake-flask culture (2.13-fold) as well as bioreactor (1.66-fold) when compared to control treatments. This optimized protocol can be utilized for commercial level production of withanolides from suspension culture using industrial bioreactors in a short culture period. PMID:25089711

Sivanandhan, Ganeshan; Selvaraj, Natesan; Ganapathi, Andy; Manickavasagam, Markandan

2014-01-01

359

MIT Visualizing Cultures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Started in 2002, the Visualizing Cultures website is produced by MIT, and it was designed "to explore the potential of the Web for developing innovative image-driven scholarship and learning." The site contains topical units of self-discovery which are focused on Japan's role in the modern world and early-modern China. The various units address cultures of modernization, war and peace, and consumerism, among others. Each unit is represented by a different image, and visitors will find a short narrative essay along with plenty of visual images which document teach topic. One unit that should not be missed is "Felice Beato's Japan". Here visitors can learn about the pioneering work of Felice Beato, as he took photos of the "exotic" Japanese people in his Yokohama studio and captured the transitional period between the "feudal governance of the Edo period (1600-1868) and the imperial rule of the Meiji era (1868-1912)."

360

Traditional healing with animals (zootherapy): medieval to present-day Levantine practice.  

PubMed

Animals and products derived from different organs of their bodies have constituted part of the inventory of medicinal substances used in various cultures since ancient times. This article reviews the history of healing with animals in the Levant (the Land of Israel and parts of present-day Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan, defined by the Muslims in the Middle Ages as Bilad al-Sham) throughout history. Intensive research into the phenomenon of zootherapy in the Levant from early medieval to present-day traditional medicine yielded 99 substances of animal origin which were used medicinally during that long period. Fifty-two animal extracts and products were documented as being used from the early Muslim period (10th century) to the late Ottoman period (19th century). Seventy-seven were recorded as being used in the 20th century. Seven main animal sources have been exploited for medical uses throughout history: honey, wax, adder, beaver testicles, musk oil, coral, and ambergris. The first three are local and relatively easy to obtain; the last four are exotic, therefore, rare and expensive. The use of other materials of animal origin came to an end in the course of history because of change in the moral outlook of modern societies. Among the latter we note mummy, silkworm, stinkbug, scarabees, snail, scorpion, and triton. PMID:12576209

Lev, Efraim

2003-03-01

361

PSY 344. Psychology and Culture SDSU Fall 2013 Schedule # 22551  

E-print Network

PSY 344. Psychology and Culture SDSU ­ Fall 2013 ­ Schedule # 22551 Class Meetings Class Days of the course is to introduce you to the field of cultural psychology. This course will explore how culture influences human thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. The relations between culture and psychology are both

Gallo, Linda C.

362

Designing Cross-Cultural Orientation Programs for Business.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 1-day orientation workshop for business clients from other cultures is described. Factors in program design that relate to the specific cultural group addressed are discussed, and include such considerations as culture-specific versus culture-general content, professional focus, and the learning style to which the participants are accustomed.…

Ogden, John D.

363

In vitro equine embryo production using air-dried spermatozoa, with different activation protocols and culture systems.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of air-dried spermatozoa for in vitro production of equine embryos and verify if sperm extract activation and in vivo culture improve in vitro embryo production. Cooled spermatozoa (control) and air-dried spermatozoa stored for 2, 14 or 28 days were used for ICSI sperm extract, or ionomycin was used for oocyte activation, and embryos were in vitro or in vivo (in mare's oviduct) cultured for 7 days. With in vitro culture, cleavage rate was higher when activating with sperm extract (P < 0.05). No differences in embryo development were seen between the two activation treatments nor between storage periods (P > 0.05). Blastocysts were obtained with cooled spermatozoa, and morulae were achieved using in vivo culture with 28-day storage spermatozoa and ionomycin-activated oocytes. When in vivo culture was performed, sperm DNA fragmentation was assessed using the sperm chromatin dispersion test and did not show statistical correlation with cleavage nor embryo recovery rates. In conclusion, equine embryos can be produced using air-dried spermatozoa stored for several weeks. Sperm extract activation increased cleavage rates but did not improve embryo development. In vivo culture allowed intrauterine stage embryos to be achieved. PMID:24684246

Alonso, A; Baca Castex, C; Ferrante, A; Pinto, M; Castañeira, C; Trasorras, V; Gambarotta, M C; Losinno, L; Miragaya, M

2015-05-01

364

What is the incubation period for listeriosis?  

PubMed Central

Background Listeriosis is a foodborne infection with a low incidence but a high case fatality rate. Unlike common foodborne diseases, the incubation period can be long. The first incubation periods were documented during a large listeriosis outbreak published in 1987 by Linnan and al. in the New England Journal of Medicine (range: 3 days to 70 days). Data on the incubation period of listeriosis are scarce. Our study aim was to estimate precisely the incubation period of listeriosis using available data since 1987. Methods We estimated the incubation period of listeriosis using available published data and data from outbreak investigations carried out by the French National Institute for Public Health Surveillance. We selected cases with an incubation period calculated when a patient had a single exposure to a confirmed food source contaminated by Listeria monocytogenes. Results We identified 37 cases of invasive listeriosis (10 cases with central nervous system involvement (CNS cases), 15 bacteraemia cases and 12 pregnancy-associated cases) and 9 outbreaks with gastroenteritis. The overall median incubation period of invasive listeriosis was 8 days (range: 1–67 days) and differed significantly by clinical form of the disease (p<0.0001). A longer incubation period was observed for pregnancy-associated cases (median: 27.5 days; range: 17–67 days) than for CNS cases (median: 9 days; range: 1–14 days) and for bacteraemia cases (median: 2 days; range: 1–12 days). For gastroenteritis cases, the median incubation period was 24 hours with variation from 6 to 240 hours. Conclusions This information has implications for the investigation of food borne listeriosis outbreaks as the incubation period is used to determine the time period for which a food history is collected. We believe that, for listeriosis outbreaks, adapting the exposure window for documenting patients’ food histories in accordance with the clinical form of infection will facilitate the identification of food products as the source of contamination. We therefore propose to take an exposure window of 14 days before the diagnosis for CNS and bacteraemia cases, and of 6 weeks before the diagnosis, for pregnancy-associated cases. PMID:23305174

2013-01-01

365

RCN director pays tribute to staff working Christmas day.  

PubMed

RCN south west region director Jeannett Martin has thanked nurses in Somerset for the care they gave patients over the festive period, during a Christmas day visit to a community hospital. PMID:25544606

Gillen, Sally

2014-12-31

366

IN HONOR OF VETERANS DAY 2011 VETERANS DAY ACTIVITIES & DISCOUNTS  

E-print Network

IN HONOR OF VETERANS DAY 2011 VETERANS DAY ACTIVITIES & DISCOUNTS 1 8 0 1 E A S T C O T A T I A V E With Veterans Day fast approaching on November 11th , Sonoma State University would like to thank all of our student veterans who have served honorably in the military. SSU appreciates your service to our country

Ravikumar, B.

367

Eglin Archaeology Day 2013 Eglin Archaeology Day 2013 Summary  

E-print Network

a fun and educational venue to inform the public about cultural resources, archaeology, and local Resources in Niceville, Florida. The event is free and open to the public. The objective is to provide Balanzategui, Jess Palmer, and Bill and Jean Lucas); and Eglin Cultural Resources (Catherine Nolan, Teresa

368

Urine culture - catheterized specimen  

MedlinePLUS

Culture - urine - catheterized specimen; Urine culture - catheterization; Catheterized urine specimen culture ... urinary tract infections may be found in the culture. This is called a contaminant. You may not ...

369

Acquisition of multiple nuclei and the activity of DNA polymerase alpha and reinitiation of DNA replication in terminally differentiated adult cardiac muscle cells in culture  

SciTech Connect

Terminally differentiated ventricular cardiac muscle cells isolated from the adult rat and maintained in cell culture have been observed to acquire multiple nuclei. In one cultured myocyte as many as 10 nuclei have been counted. Apparently, these multiple nuclei are formed by DNA replication followed by karyokinesis; the cells must then fail to complete mitosis and divide. To investigate whether DNA synthesis was occurring, the cells were cultured in the presence of (3H)thymidine and then processed for autoradiography. Mononucleated, binucleated, and multinucleated cells incorporate (3H)thymidine into DNA as evidenced by the high concentration of silver grains over their nuclei. Peak periods of incorporation were observed to occur at 10- to 12-day intervals; at 11, 23, and 33 days after initially placing the cells in culture. When the cells were maintained in the presence of (3H)thymidine continuously from Day 7 to Day 17 of culture, 23% of the cells became labeled. If the cells were cultured continuously for 30 days in the presence of (3H)thymidine, from Day 10 to Day 40, 56% of the cells were labeled. Isopycnic gradient analysis indicates that this thymidine incorporation was into DNA that was being replicated semiconservatively; these experiments did not eliminate the possibility, however, that this incorporation was due to amplification of specific genes, such as those coding for the contractile proteins. The activity of DNA polymerase alpha also returns to these cells. These studies demonstrate that the terminally differentiated mammalian ventricular cardiac muscle cell, previously thought to have permanently lost the capacity to replicate DNA during early development, is able to reinitiate semiconservative DNA replication when grown in culture.

Claycomb, W.C.; Bradshaw, H.D. Jr.

1983-10-01

370

Culture duration-, donor-, and medium-dependent changes in OATP1B3-mediated telmisartan uptake in human hepatocytes.  

PubMed

Human hepatic organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs), including OATP1B1, 1B3, and 2B1, are expressed at the basolateral membrane of hepatocytes and mediate the uptake of a variety of compounds from blood into hepatocytes. The liver-specific OATPs are increasingly recognized as playing important roles in the pharmacokinetic (PK) of many drugs and thus, involved in the clinically significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs). However, the evaluation of the specific roles of individual OATPs in hepatocytes is challenging because of the lack of selective inhibitors and probe substrates for each OATP member. In the present study, the uptake activity of OATP1B3 was examined in human hepatocytes cultured up to 14 days using an in vitro uptake assay. The results showed that OATP-mediated uptake of rosuvastatin, a substrate for OATPs declined substantially in cultured human hepatocytes. In contrast, the uptake of OATP1B3-selective substrate telmisartan was not measureable at earlier culture periods, but became detectable on Day 7 and showed culture duration-dependent changes from Day 7 to 14. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses illustrated that the OATP functional change was not correlated with messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression alteration in hepatocytes cultured for 3 hours or 7 days. The OATP1B3-mediated telmisartan uptake was also culture medium- and donor-dependent, and only observed in 3 of 5 lots of hepatocytes cultured in 2 of 3 media tested. These results show that using human hepatocytes cultured in certain conditions may provide an excellent addition to transfected cell lines as a way to distinguish OATP1B3 from other hepatic OATP family members, such as OATP1B1, to provide more understanding of OATP-mediated clinical DDI. PMID:24628404

Zhu, Qing; Xia, Haiyan; Xia, Cindy Q; Yang, Qian; Doshi, Utkarsh; Li, Albert P; Liao, Mingxiang

2014-07-01

371

Throat Culture  

MedlinePLUS

... profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you ... Throat Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Collecting | ...

372

Culture Currents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Barone and Britzman, each in a short essay, discuss the books, poetry, performances, music, and other cultural media that influence them. Cites the publications of each and lists the works discussed. (MLF)

Barone, Tom; Britzman, Deborah P.

2003-01-01

373

Gastric culture  

MedlinePLUS

... test or procedure preparation (3 to 6 years) School age test or procedure preparation (6 to 12 ... immune system. The final results of the gastric culture test may take several weeks. Your health care ...

374

Paramilitary Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies the movie, "Rambo," and "Soldier of Fortune" magazine as artifacts of "paramilitary culture." Contends that they are a social phenomenon which helps legitimate the United States government's rapid escalation of military forces. (MS)

Gibson, James William

1989-01-01

375

The Two Cultures in Psychiatry.  

PubMed

The division between the two cultures of the literary and scientific worlds is considered, as is the division between the two cultures of humanism and somaticism. The development of psychiatric thought important to this latter dichotomy is described through the Age of Enlightenment, the Romantic Movement and the New Enlightenment. The two cultures of our present literary and scientific milieux are equated with the romanticism and somaticism of the past. The development of two cultures in psychiatry is traced, beginning with Freud's attempt to combine science and romanticism, to the present day where one finds some degree of convergence between the somatic and psychoanalytic approaches. Criteria are presented for a greater union of the two cultures in psychiatry. PMID:20328284

Cleghorn, R A

1965-07-10

376

Three Dimensional Primary Hepatocyte Culture  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our results demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of culturing PHH in microgravity bioreactors that exceeded the longest period obtained using other methods. Within the first week of culture, isolated hepatocytes started to form aggregates, which continuously increased in size (up to 1 cm) and macroscopically appeared as a multidimensional tissue-like assembly. To improve oxygenation and nutrition within the spheroids we performed experiments with the biodegradable nonwoven fiber-based polymers made from PolyGlycolic Acid (PGA). It has been shown that PGA scaffolds stimulate isolated cells to regenerate tissue with defined sizes and shapes and are currently being studied for various tissue-engineering applications. Our data demonstrated that culturing hepatocytes in the presence of PGA scaffolds resulted in more efficient cell assembly and formations of larger cell spheroids (up to 3 cm in length, see figure). The histology of cell aggregates cultured with PGA showed polymer fibers with attached hepatocytes. We initiated experiments to co-culture primary human hepatocytes with human microvascular endothelial cells in the bioreactor. The presence of endothelial cells in co-cultures were established by immunohistochemistry using anti-CD34 monoclonal Ab. Our preliminary data demonstrated that cultures of purified hepatocytes with human microvascular endothelial cells exhibited better growth and expressed higher levels of albumin MRNA for a longer period of time than cultures of ppfified, primary human hepatocytes cultured alone. We also evaluated microsomal deethylation activity of hepatocytes cultured in the presence of endothelial cells.In summary, we have established liver cell culture, which mimicked the structure and function of the parent tissue.

Yoffe, Boris

1998-01-01

377

Induction and analysis of the alkaloid mitragynine content of a Mitragyna speciosa suspension culture system upon elicitation and precursor feeding.  

PubMed

This study aimed to determine the effects of different concentrations and combinations of the phytohormones 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), kinetin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on callus induction and to demonstrate the role of elicitors and exogenous precursors on the production of mitragynine in a Mitragyna speciosa suspension culture. The best callus induction was achieved from petiole explants cultured on WPM that was supplemented with 4?mg?L?¹ 2,4-D (70.83%). Calli were transferred to liquid media and agitated on rotary shakers to establish Mitragyna speciosa cell suspension cultures. The optimum settled cell volume was achieved in the presence of WPM that contained 3?mg?L?¹ 2,4-D and 3% sucrose (9.47 ± 0.4667?mL). The treatment of cultures with different concentrations of yeast extract and salicylic acid for different inoculation periods revealed that the highest mitragynine content as determined by HPLC was achieved from the culture treated with 250?mg?L?¹ yeast extract (9.275 ± 0.082?mg?L?¹) that was harvested on day 6 of culturing; salicylic acid showed low mitragynine content in all concentrations used. Tryptophan and loganin were used as exogenous precursors; the highest level of mitragynine production was achieved in cultures treated with 3? ?M tryptophan and harvested at 6 days (13.226 ± 1.98?mg?L?¹). PMID:24065873

Mohamad Zuldin, Nor Nahazima; Said, Ikram Md; Mohd Noor, Normah; Zainal, Zamri; Jin Kiat, Chew; Ismail, Ismanizan

2013-01-01

378

Induction and Analysis of the Alkaloid Mitragynine Content of a Mitragyna speciosa Suspension Culture System upon Elicitation and Precursor Feeding  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to determine the effects of different concentrations and combinations of the phytohormones 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D), kinetin, 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) on callus induction and to demonstrate the role of elicitors and exogenous precursors on the production of mitragynine in a Mitragyna speciosa suspension culture. The best callus induction was achieved from petiole explants cultured on WPM that was supplemented with 4?mg?L?1 2, 4-D (70.83%). Calli were transferred to liquid media and agitated on rotary shakers to establish Mitragyna speciosa cell suspension cultures. The optimum settled cell volume was achieved in the presence of WPM that contained 3?mg?L?1 2,4-D and 3% sucrose (9.47 ± 0.4667?mL). The treatment of cultures with different concentrations of yeast extract and salicylic acid for different inoculation periods revealed that the highest mitragynine content as determined by HPLC was achieved from the culture treated with 250?mg?L?1 yeast extract (9.275 ± 0.082?mg?L?1) that was harvested on day 6 of culturing; salicylic acid showed low mitragynine content in all concentrations used. Tryptophan and loganin were used as exogenous precursors; the highest level of mitragynine production was achieved in cultures treated with 3??M tryptophan and harvested at 6 days (13.226 ± 1.98?mg?L?1). PMID:24065873

Mohamad Zuldin, Nor Nahazima; Said, Ikram Md.; Mohd Noor, Normah; Zainal, Zamri; Jin Kiat, Chew; Ismail, Ismanizan

2013-01-01

379

Sun-Earth Day, 2001  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to promote awareness of the Sun-Earth connection, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, in collaboration with the Stanford SOLAR Center, sponsored a one-day Sun-Earth Day event on April 27, 2001. Although \\

M. Adams; P. Mortfield; D. H. Hathaway

2001-01-01

380

School Day Just Got Healthier  

MedlinePLUS

... 32 million children receive meals throughout the school day. These meals are based on nutrition standards from ... served at school. more fruits and vegetables every day Kids have fruits and vegetables at school every ...

381

Paleomicrobiology: Revealing Fecal Microbiomes of Ancient Indigenous Cultures  

PubMed Central

Coprolites are fossilized feces that can be used to provide information on the composition of the intestinal microbiota and, as we show, possibly on diet. We analyzed human coprolites from the Huecoid and Saladoid cultures from a settlement on Vieques Island, Puerto Rico. While more is known about the Saladoid culture, it is believed that both societies co-existed on this island approximately from 5 to 1170 AD. By extracting DNA from the coprolites, followed by metagenomic characterization, we show that both cultures can be distinguished from each other on the basis of their bacterial and fungal gut microbiomes. In addition, we show that parasite loads were heavy and also culturally distinct. Huecoid coprolites were characterized by maize and Basidiomycetes sequences, suggesting that these were important components of their diet. Saladoid coprolite samples harbored sequences associated with fish parasites, suggesting that raw fish was a substantial component of their diet. The present study shows that ancient DNA is not entirely degraded in humid, tropical environments, and that dietary and/or host genetic differences in ancient populations may be reflected in the composition of their gut microbiome. This further supports the hypothesis that the two ancient cultures studied were distinct, and that they retained distinct technological/cultural differences during an extended period of close proximity and peaceful co-existence. The two populations seemed to form the later-day Taínos, the Amerindians present at the point of Columbian contact. Importantly, our data suggest that paleomicrobiomics can be a powerful tool to assess cultural differences between ancient populations. PMID:25207979

Cano, Raul J.; Rivera-Perez, Jessica; Toranzos, Gary A.; Santiago-Rodriguez, Tasha M.; Narganes-Storde, Yvonne M.; Chanlatte-Baik, Luis; García-Roldán, Erileen; Bunkley-Williams, Lucy; Massey, Steven E.

2014-01-01

382

2010 Stennis Day of Service  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Employees at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center visit exhibits of volunteer organizations during their observance of Martin Luther King Jr. Day with a Day of Service on Jan. 12. During the day, Mississippi and Louisiana organizations visited the center to encourage employees to register and serve as volunteers for various community activities. The day's focus was emphasized again and again - great things can happen when individuals work together toward a common goal.

2010-01-01

383

Casper Family Day Care Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of family day care was made in Casper, Wyoming, (1) to develop a profile of the family day care provider in Casper, (2) to determine the extent of need for family day care services, (3) to evaluate how well those needs were being met, and (4) to provide guidelines for meeting currently unmet and future needs. Data were obtained via…

Majeed, Anjum

384

A day for CS education  

Microsoft Academic Search

For this column, I'd like to share a few ideas that came out of Bay Area CSE Day 2005. Bay Area CSE day was one-day gathering of CSE people, started with a simple invitation on the SIGCSE list. The event was not elaborately prepared --- I just asked a few people to give 15-minute presentations about topics of interest, and

Nick Parlante

2005-01-01

385

A travelling quasi 2-day wave in the meteor region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oscillations in the meteor wind with periods of about 2 days during the summer are explained as the effects of traveling planetary-scale waves. Spaced station observations indicate that the waves are traveling westward with a zonal number three. A possible connection with the quasi 5-day wave is suggested.

H. G. Muller; L. Nelson

1978-01-01

386

The use of Bier's block for day case surgery.  

PubMed

With the increasing popularity of day case surgery it is important to ensure that safe and appropriate techniques are being used. We retrospectively reviewed a large series of 732 patients who underwent planned day case hand surgery under intravenous regional anaesthesia (modified Bier's block) over a 5-year period. We found a modified Bier's block to be ideally suited to day case surgery with no deaths, minimal morbidity and a success rate in excess of 98%. PMID:8543880

Dunlop, D J; Graham, C M; Waldram, M A; Mulligan, P J; Watt, J M

1995-10-01

387

24 CFR 58.45 - Public comment periods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...following minimum comment periods, counted in accordance with § 58.21: (a) Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) 15 days when published or, if no publication, 18 days when mailing and posting (b) Notice of Intent to Request...

2012-04-01

388

24 CFR 58.45 - Public comment periods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...following minimum comment periods, counted in accordance with § 58.21: (a) Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) 15 days when published or, if no publication, 18 days when mailing and posting (b) Notice of Intent to Request...

2011-04-01

389

24 CFR 58.45 - Public comment periods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...following minimum comment periods, counted in accordance with § 58.21: (a) Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) 15 days when published or, if no publication, 18 days when mailing and posting (b) Notice of Intent to Request...

2013-04-01

390

24 CFR 58.45 - Public comment periods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...following minimum comment periods, counted in accordance with § 58.21: (a) Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) 15 days when published or, if no publication, 18 days when mailing and posting (b) Notice of Intent to Request...

2014-04-01

391

24 CFR 58.45 - Public comment periods.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...following minimum comment periods, counted in accordance with § 58.21: (a) Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) 15 days when published or, if no publication, 18 days when mailing and posting (b) Notice of Intent to Request...

2010-04-01

392

A cultural, customizable and prefabricated housing grammar for Casablanca  

E-print Network

Proposing an innovative design grammar linking prefabrication, customization and cultural adaptability, this thesis addresses the present day housing deficit and lack of architectural identity in Casablanca, Morocco. The ...

Akkar, Ghita

2011-01-01

393

US EPA Earth Day 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thirty years ago, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was born with Earth Day. To celebrate this anniversary, the EPA has created this modest new site, which lists EPA-sponsored Earth Day events around the country and offers a history of Earth Day, and a number of publications, links, and other resources for observing Earth Day. In addition, the site links to a state-by-state listing of local events. A good place to begin looking for information on where and how to celebrate Earth Day 2000.

394

Feasibility of in vitro culturing of lesional psoriatic keratinocytes in medium containing high calcium concentrations.  

PubMed

Lesional psoriatic keratinocyte (LPK) culture is considered to be difficult under high-Ca2+ conditions in the absence of special proliferative agents. Using a permeable collagen membrane, we obtained a culture of LPKs under high-Ca2+ conditions without any special proliferative agents. Single-cell suspensions were prepared from the epidermis of chronic psoriatic plaques. Cells were inoculated on the collagen membrane suspended slightly above the bottom of a Petri dish. We used a culture medium of Eagle's MEM containing 10% fetal calf serum. LPKs attached to the membrane 12 h after inoculation and gradually spread. They reached a confluent state by the 10th day of culture. We measured the concentrations of TGF alpha and IL-6 in the medium of LPKs, and compared these with the concentrations in normal keratinocyte (NK) cultures. Significantly increased secretion of TGF alpha by LPKs was observed during the initial phase but this secretion subsequently decreased. Concentrations of IL-6 were below the detectable level in both of NKs and LPKs throughout the observation period. Our results demonstrate that cultured LPKs under high-Ca2+ conditions secrete a larger amount of TGF alpha but not IL-6. Our cell culture system, which allows LPKs to spread and stratify, contributes to the study of the pathogenesis of psoriasis. PMID:8554384

Miyauchi, Y; Mitsuhashi, Y; Kikuchi, T; Hashimoto, I

1995-01-01

395

An in vitro culturing model for rabbit dural cells.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were (a) to construct an in vitro model of rabbit dural healing, (b) to test the influence of collagen, laminin, and poly-L-lysine on the migration and proliferation of dural cells, and (c) to study the healing mechanism of duraplasty. Rabbit dural pieces (1.5 cm x 1.5 cm) were perforated in their central part with a 2 mm punch to mimic a dural defect. The dural pieces were cultured in 24-well plates that had been coated with collagen, laminin, or poly-L-lysine, and the influence of different extracellular matrices on migration and proliferation of dural cells was observed. Cells were subcultured on slides for immunocytochemistry to study their characteristics; dural healing was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The results demonstrated that only the dural pieces that were cultured on collagen-coated wells showed migration of cells into the central defect after a period of 8 to 10 days and that healing of the dural defect occurred by 13 to 15 days. The cultured dural cells stained strongly positive with an antibody to vimentin, but negative with an antibody to factor VIII. New collagen fibers were observed in the dural defects. This report demonstrates that an in vitro model for dural healing was successfully constructed in collagen-coated wells; the results implicate cellular migration of fibroblasts from the dural defect margin as an important mechanism of wound healing following duraplasty. PMID:16951277

Zhou, Feng; Chen, Gao; Zhang, Jian-Min; Huang, Zheng-Song

2006-01-01

396

Culturally Responsive Teaching: Understanding Disability Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To be culturally responsive teachers, we must first have an understanding of other cultures and how students from these cultures differ from one another. As we consider the many cultures represented in our classrooms, we might also consider students with disabilities as a cultural group. Within any main culture are subgroups differentiated by…

Darrow, Alice-Ann

2013-01-01

397

Dual periodicities in energetic electrons at Saturn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluxes of energetic electrons (110-365 keV) in Saturn's magnetosphere were subjected to Lomb periodogram analyses for 1677 days from late 2004 to the middle of 2009. The electrons generally exhibited strong periodicities at 10.82 hours and 10.60 hours for much of the ˜4.6 year interval. The longer period was generally present all the time, while the shorter period became prominent during the last ˜600 days of the interval. The 10.8-hour signal appeared strongly in observations made north of the equator and weakly in the south, while the 10.6-hour signal appeared only for northern observations. The dual periodicity in the electrons is similar to that recently discovered in the Saturn kilometric radiation. Periods in the 10.6 to 10.8 hour range are similar to the sun-referenced periods of neutral winds measured in Saturn's polar atmospheres.

Carbary, J. F.; Mitchell, D. G.; Krimigis, S. M.; Krupp, N.

2009-10-01

398

Clonal distribution of osteoprogenitor cells in cultured chick periostea: Functional relationship to bone formation  

SciTech Connect

Folded explants of periosteum from embryonic chick calvaria form bone-like tissue when grown in the presence of ascorbic acid, organic phosphate, and dexamethasone. All osteoblast-like cells in these cultures arise de novo by differentiation of osteoprogenitor cells present in the periosteum. To study the spatial and functional relationships between bone formation and osteoprogenitor cells, cultures were continuously labeled with (3H)thymidine for periods of 1-5 days. Radioautographs of serial 2-microns plastic sections stained for alkaline phosphatase (AP) showed maximal labeling of 30% of fibroblastic (AP-negative) cells by 3 days while osteogenic cells (AP-positive) exhibited over 95% labeling by 5 days. No differential shifts in labeling indices, grain count histograms of fibroblastic and osteogenic cells or numbers of AP-positive cells were observed, indicating no significant recruitment of cells from the fibroblastic to the osteogenic compartment. Despite the continuous presence of (3H)thymidine, less than 35% of both osteoblasts and osteocytes were labeled at 5 days, indicating that only one-third of the osteoprogenitor cells had cycled prior to differentiation. Spatial clustering of (3H)thymidine-labeled cells was measured by computer-assisted morphometry and application of the Poisson distribution to assess contagion. Cluster size and number of labeled cells per cluster did not vary between 1-3 days, but the number of clusters increased 20-fold between Day 1 and Day 3. Three-dimensional reconstruction from serial sections showed that clusters formed long, tubular arrays of osteogenic cells up to eight cells in length and located within 2-3 cell layers from the bone surface. Selective killing of S-phase cells with two pulse labels of high specific activity (3H)thymidine at 1 and 2 days of culture completely blocked bone formation.

McCulloch, C.A.; Fair, C.A.; Tenenbaum, H.C.; Limeback, H.; Homareau, R. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

1990-08-01

399

20 CFR 404.1311 - Ninety-day active service requirement for World War II veterans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(a) The 90 days of active service required for World War II veterans do not have to be consecutive if the 90 days were in the World War II period. The 90-day requirement cannot be met by totaling the periods of active duty for training purposes which were less than 90...

2010-04-01

400

Efficiency of blood culture bottles for the fungal sterility testing of corneal organ culture media  

PubMed Central

Background/aim: The consequences of fungal contamination of an organ cultured cornea, though exceptional, are often disastrous for the recipient. Consequently, eye banks often quarantine corneas for 10 days or more before passing them for grafting. This period, though detrimental to the endothelial cell density of the delivered cornea, is necessary to detect contamination using conventional microbiological methods. The authors previously validated the use of a pair of aerobic and anaerobic blood bottles for sensitive and rapid detection of bacteria. To allow a short quarantine period, it remained only to optimise detection of fungi. The authors aimed to compare sensitivity and rapidity of fungal contamination detection by three methods: blood bottles, Sabouraud, and daily visual inspection of the organ culture medium. Methods: Four inocula (106, 104, 102, 10 colony forming unit (CFU) per ml) of 11 fungi (Candida albicans, C tropicalis, C glabrata, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhodotorula rubra, Cryptococcus neoformans, Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, A fumigatus, A flavus, Acremonium falciforme) were inoculated in a commercial organ culture medium containing a coloured pH indicator (CorneaMax, Eurobio, Les Ulis, France). The real live fungal inoculum was verified immediately after inoculation. After 48 hours at 31°C, samples of the contaminated media were inoculated in three blood bottles: Bactec Aerobic/F, Bactec Mycosis IC/F, and Bactec Myco/F Lytic (Becton Dickinson, Le Pont de Claix, France), then placed in a Bactec 9240 rocking automat, and in four Sabouraud media (solid and liquid, 28°C and 37°C) with daily observation. Contaminated organ culture media were also checked daily for any change in turbidity and/or colour. Experiments were performed in triplicate. Results: Mycosis IC/F and Myco/F Lytic bottles were neither faster nor more sensitive than the aerobic bottle. The three methods were positive for all inocula, even the lowest (viable inoculum below 10 CFU/ml for each fungus). Contamination was detected within 24 hours by the aerobic bottles in 91% (40/44), by Sabouraud in 98% (43/44) (no significant difference) and by visual inspection in 66% of cases (29/44) (p<0.001 with the two others). Maximum times to detection were 46, 48 and 72 hours respectively. Conclusion: This study further counters the preconception that fungal contamination is hard to detect in corneal organ culture media. This study is the last step in validating the use of a pair of blood bottles for the sterility testing of organ culture media, this time for fungi. Their use should make it possible to shorten microbiological quarantine and thus deliver corneas with higher endothelial cell density, without increasing the risk of recipient contamination. PMID:15834090

Thuret, G; Carricajo, A; Vautrin, A C; Raberin, H; Acquart, S; Garraud, O; Gain, P; Aubert, G

2005-01-01

401

EAST ASIAN LANGUAGESEAST ASIAN LANGUAGESEAST ASIAN LANGUAGES & CULTURES& CULTURES& CULTURES  

E-print Network

EAST ASIAN LANGUAGESEAST ASIAN LANGUAGESEAST ASIAN LANGUAGES & CULTURES& CULTURES& CULTURES typically concentrate on one East Asian language and culture while also taking broader survey courses majoring in EALC. However, students are not restricted to focus their studies on one language or culture

Krylov, Anna I.

402

Invisible Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is invisible culture? In this instance, it is an electronic journal produced by the Visual & Cultural Studies graduate program within the Art and Art History Department at the University of Rochester. The journal was founded in 1998 under the editorship of Mario Caro and edited by a host of talented individuals since then. Currently, there are nineteen issues available online, including "Interrogating Subcultures," "The Loop as a Temporal Form," and "Making Sense of Visual Culture." Each issue contains thoughtful commentary, complemented by various slideshows of images and other complementary materials. One of the more recent issues takes on the world of the TV show "Mad Men" with the piece "Serializing the Past: Re-Evaluating History in Mad Men."

403

Postmodern Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Somehow it is not surprising that a journal titled Postmodern Culture would find a home on the Internet, which itself is a bricoleur of many different forms and styles, akin to the very notion of postmodernism. Located online since 1990, Postmodern Culture "has become the leading electronic journal of interdisciplinary thought on contemporary cultures." The journal itself is published by The Johns Hopkins University Press, with assistance by the University of Virginia and Vassar College. Visitors to the site can browse the entire contents of the current volume, and may browse through the text-only archive, which is also made available here. The current edition contains pieces by Chris Bongie titled "Exiles on Main Stream: Valuing the Popularity of Postcolonial Literature" and a trenchant exchange by Leonard Wilcox and Brad Butterfield on "Baudrillard, September 11, and the Haunting Abyss of Reversal."

404

Cultural Correspondence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In the early 1970s, Paul Buhle and Dave Wagner began to think about creating a new and unique journal. They were both veterans of the journal Radical America, and they were both interested in popular culture. As August 1975 came around, they published the first issue of "Cultural Correspondence", a journal intended to serve as a critical review of popular culture. As the journal was published in Providence, it's not surprising to learn that the Brown University Library Center for Digital Initiatives (CDL) has created this most engaging archive of this publication. Visitors to the site can read the entire contents of each issue, browse around as they see fit, and also check out their virtual "Magazine Stand". First-time visitors may wish to start out by reading the Spring 1977 issue titled "Television".

405

Development of persistent HCV genotype 3a infection cell culture model in huh-7 cell  

PubMed Central

Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the major health concerns globally, with genotype 3a as the most prevalent in Pakistan. Lack of efficient HCV genotype 3a small animal models as well as genomic replicons has hampered the complete understanding of its life cycle, pathogenesis and therapeutic options. In this study we aimed to develop a persistent HCV genotype 3a infectious cell culture model. Methods We inoculated Huh-7 cells with HCV genotype 3a serum. Cells and media supernatant were collected at different time periods up to 40th day post infection. Culture media supernatant was also collected to find out its ability to infect naive Huh-7 cells. Results HCV replication was confirmed at both RNA and protein level through Real Time RCR and western blot using HCV core as marker. In order to validate the persistence of our model for HCV genotype 3a replication we inhibited the HCV replication through core specific siRNAs. The HCV RNA was detected intracellularly from the day one post infection up till 40th day, while HCV core protein was detected from the second day up to 40th day consistently. In culture media supernatant HCV RNA was also actively detected conferring its ability to infect the naive Huh-7 cells. Furthermore, core specific siRNA showed significant inhibition at 24th hour post transfection both at RNA and protein level with progressive increase in the expression of core gene after 3rd day. It clearly depicts that the Huh-7 successfully retained the HCV replication after degradation of siRNA. Conclusion Finally, we report that our persistent infection cell culture model consistently replicate HCV genotype 3a for more than 1 month. PMID:22234052

2012-01-01

406

Guardian Culture Podcast  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you're not a culture vulture already, you may become one just by dipping into even one of the audio offerings here at the Guardian Culture podcast site. They have dozens of wonderful conversations covering the Edinburgh Fringe Festival, the creation of digital public space, and the Royal Opera House. First-time visitors should look at the Days in the Life at the Guardian, which offers "unique soundscapes from historic editions of the Guardian." The Everyday Moments podcasts feature "audio dramas for private performance." For example, "Everyday Moments 1" offers up a "playlet designed to be listened to in the early hours of the morning, in bed with a hot drink." [KMG

2012-08-13

407

Biomedical advances from tissue culture.  

PubMed

The demonstration that the "dedifferentiation" of cells commonly observed in the early days of tissue culture was due to selective overgrowth of fibroblasts led to enrichment culture techniques (alternate animal and culture passage) designed to give a selective advantage to functionally differentiated tumor cells. These experiments resulted in the derivation of a large number of functionally differentiated clonal strains of a range of cell types. These results gave rise to the hypothesis that cells in culture accurately represent cells in vivo but without the complex in vivo environment. This concept has been strengthened with the development of hormonally defined culture media in combination with functionally differentiated clonal cell lines, which have augmented the potential of tissue culture studies. The use of hormonally defined media in place of serum-supplemented media demonstrates that hormonal responses and dependencies can be discovered in culture. Discoveries of hormonal dependencies of cancer cells has led to therapies targeting intracellular signaling pathways while discoveries of hormonal responses of pluripotent cells are helping to identify the potential application of stem cells. In these and other ways tissue culture technology will continue to contribute to solving problems of human health. PMID:23828098

Okamoto, Tetsuji; Sato, J Denry; Barnes, David W; Sato, Gordon H

2013-12-01

408

Development of tissue culture techniques and hardware to study mineralization under microgravity conditions.  

PubMed

To study the effects of weightlessness on mouse fetal long bone rudiment growth and mineralization we have developed a tissue culture system for the Biorack facility of Spacelab. The technique uses standard liquid tissue culture medium, supplemented with NA-beta-glycerophosphate, confined in gas permeable polyethylene bags mounted inside ESA Biorack Type I experiment containers. The containers can be flushed with an air/5% CO2 gas mixture necessary for the physiological bicarbonate buffer used. Small amounts of fluid can be introduced at the beginning (e.g. radioactive labels for incorporation studies) or at the end of the experiment (fixatives). A certain form of mechanical stimulation (continuous compression) can be used to counteract the, possibly, adverse effect of microgravity. Using 16 day old metatarsals the in vitro calcification process under microgravity conditions can be studied for a 4 day period. PMID:11537928

van Loon, J J; Veldhuijzen, J P; Windgassen, E J; Brouwer, T; Wattel, K; van Vilsteren, M; Maas, P

1994-01-01

409

Culturing Fibroblasts in 3D Human Hair Keratin Hydrogels.  

PubMed

Human hair keratins are readily available, easy to extract, and eco-friendly materials with natural bioactivities. Keratin-based materials have been studied for applications such as cell culture substrates, internal hemostats for liver injury, and conduits for peripheral nerve repair. However, there are limited reports of using keratin-based 3D scaffolds for cell culture in vitro. Here, we describe the development of a 3D hair keratin hydrogel, which allows for living cell encapsulation under near physiological conditions. The convenience of making the hydrogels from keratin solutions in a simple and controllable manner is demonstrated, giving rise to constructs with tunable physical properties. This keratin hydrogel is comparable to collagen hydrogels in supporting the viability and proliferation of L929 murine fibroblasts. Notably, the keratin hydrogels contract less significantly as compared to the collagen hydrogels, over a 16-day culture period. In addition, preliminary in vivo studies in immunocompetent animals show mild acute host tissue response. These results collectively demonstrate the potential of cell-loaded keratin hydrogels as 3D cell culture systems, which may be developed for clinically relevant applications. PMID:25690726

Wang, Shuai; Wang, Zhenxing; Foo, Selin Ee Min; Tan, Nguan Soon; Yuan, Yuan; Lin, Weisi; Zhang, Zhiyong; Ng, Kee Woei

2015-03-11

410

In the Schools: California Treat: Three Days in Five Ecosystems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a 3-day program sponsored by the Orange County Marine Institute that provides biological, cultural, and historical learning experiences. Discusses the setting and activities of the five ecosystems explored by the students. The Chaparral to Ocean Science Camp includes chaparral, riparian, woodland, intertidal, and pelagic environments.…

Rigby, Jennifer A.

1986-01-01

411

It’s a Beautiful Day in the Gayborhood  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis project discusses the evolution of gay districts in urban centers from the late 1800s to present day. These gay districts transformed as American society and culture changed over the decades. The project begins by looking at the gay ghettos of the late 1880s through the 1910s as places of containment for the “unwanted” populations of a city. The

Cori E. Walter

2011-01-01

412

78 FR 59081 - Notice of Meeting of the Cultural Property Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...and Republican periods of its cultural heritage. An open session to receive...http://eca.state.gov/cultural-heritage-center. If you wish to attend...2013, you should notify the Cultural Heritage Center of the Department...

2013-09-25

413

77 FR 14581 - Notice of Meeting of the Cultural Property Advisory Committee  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...representing the Colonial Period of its cultural heritage. An open session to receive...2012, you should notify the Cultural Heritage Center of the Department of...Mail or Commercial Delivery. Cultural Heritage Center (ECA/P/C),...

2012-03-12

414

Expansion and preservation of multipotentiality of rabbit bone-marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in dextran-based microcarrier spin culture.  

PubMed

The use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in tissue repair and regeneration despite their multipotentiality has been limited by their cell source quantity and decelerating proliferative yield efficiency. A study was thus undertaken to determine the feasibility of using microcarrier beads in spinner flask cultures for MSCs expansion and compared to that of conventional monolayer cultures and static microcarrier cultures. Isolation and characterization of bone marrow derived MSCs were conducted from six adult New Zealand white rabbits. Analysis of cell morphology on microcarriers and culture plates at different time points (D0, D3, D10, D14) during cell culture were performed using scanning electron microscopy and bright field microscopy. Cell proliferation rates and cell number were measured over a period of 14 days, respectively followed by post-expansion characterization. MTT proliferation assay demonstrated a 3.20 fold increase in cell proliferation rates in MSCs cultured on microcarriers in spinner flask as compared to monolayer cultures (p < 0.05). Cell counts at day 14 were higher in those seeded on stirred microcarrier cultures (6.24 ± 0.0420 cells/ml) × 10(5) as compared to monolayer cultures (0.22 ± 0.004 cells/ml) × 10(5) and static microcarrier cultures (0.20 ± 0.002 cells/ml) × 10(5). Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated an increase in cell colonization of the cells on the microcarriers in stirred cultures. Bead-expanded MSCs were successfully differentiated into osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages. This system offers an improved and efficient alternative for culturing MSCs with preservation to their phenotype and multipotentiality. PMID:21461701

Boo, Lily; Selvaratnam, Lakshmi; Tai, Cheh Chin; Ahmad, Tunku Sara; Kamarul, Tunku

2011-05-01

415

Study of the Half-Day/Full-Day Kindergarten Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This case study and problem analysis was an in-depth investigation of the half-day/full-day kindergarten model by utilizing interviews and focus groups to provide insight from parents, teachers, and other district personnel as to how the model has impacted the social, emotional, and academic development of the participating students. This study…

McInroy, Thomas R.

2012-01-01

416

Familial Periodic Paralyses  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Familial Periodic Paralyses Information Page Synonym(s): Periodic Paralyses Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Familial Periodic Paralyses? Is there any treatment? What is the prognosis? What research is ...

417

So Many Periodic Tables!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Periodic tables come in a variety of shapes and formats. Some periodic tables have a flair of creativity! Take a look at these different versions of Periodic Tables at the following websites. You will be asked to reflect on the theme of periodicity after exploring these websites. 1. Some Periodic Tables provide a wealth of information about each element. Compare 2 different elements on the following Periodic Tables. Periodic Table Alive WebElements 2. Periodic Tables can be organized in unique and unusual 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional formats. Analyse the organization of periodicity in some of the following Periodic Tables. Presentation Forms of the Periodic Table Universal Periodic Table 3. Sometimes the designer ...

Mrs. Suggs

2007-11-30

418

Rethinking the Day of Silence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Back in 2006, 7th and 8th graders at Green Acres, the K-8 independent school where the author taught in suburban Maryland, participated in the Day of Silence. The Day of Silence is a national event: Students across the country take a one-day pledge of silence to show that they want to make schools safe for all students, regardless of their sexual…

Murphy, Adriana

2013-01-01

419

Sun-Earth Day, 2001  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to promote awareness of the Sun-Earth connection, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, in collaboration with the Stanford SOLAR Center, sponsored a one-day Sun-Earth Day event on April 27, 2001. Although "celebrated" on only one day, teachers and students from across the nation, prepared for over a month in advance. Workshops were held in March to train teachers. Students performed experiments, results of which were shared through video clips and an internet web cast. Our poster includes highlights from student experiments (grades 2 - 12), lessons learned from the teacher workshops, and plans for Sun-Earth Day 2002.

Adams, M.; Mortfield, P.; Hathaway, D. H.

2001-05-01

420

Sun-Earth Day, 2001  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To promote awareness of the Sun-Earth connection, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, in collaboration with the Stanford SOLAR Center, sponsored a one-day Sun-Earth Day event on April 27, 2001. Although "celebrated" on only one day, teachers and students from across the nation, prepared for over a month in advance. Workshops were held in March to train teachers. Students performed experiments, results of which were shared through video clips and an internet web cast. Our poster includes highlights from student experiments (grades 2 - 12), lessons learned from the teacher workshops and the event itself, and plans for Sun-Earth Day 2002.

Adams, Mitzi L.; Mortfield, P.; Hathaway, D. H.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

421

Equine influenza culture methods.  

PubMed

Equine influenza viruses are cultured in embryonated hen eggs, or in mammalian cells, generally Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, using methods much the same as for other influenza A viruses. Mutations associated with host adaptation occur in both eggs and MDCK cells, but the latter show greater heterogeneity and eggs are the generally preferred host. Both equine-1 H7N7 and equine-2 H3N8 viruses replicate efficiently in 11-day-old eggs, but we find that equine-1 viruses kill the embryos whereas equine-2 viruses do not. PMID:24899449

Chambers, Thomas M; Reedy, Stephanie E

2014-01-01

422

Hydrogen as an electron donor for dechlorination of tetrachloroethene by an anaerobic mixed culture.  

PubMed Central

Hydrogen served as an electron donor in the reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethene to vinyl chloride and ethene over periods of 14 to 40 days in anaerobic enrichment cultures; however, sustained dechlorination for more extended periods required the addition of filtered supernatant from a methanol-fed culture. This result suggests a nutritional dependency of hydrogen-utilizing dechlorinators on the metabolic products of other organisms in the more diverse, methanol-fed system. Vancomycin, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis in eubacteria, was found to inhibit acetogenesis when added at 100 mg/liter to both methanol-fed and hydrogen-fed cultures. The effect of vancomycin on dechlorination was more complex. Methanol could not sustain dechlorination when vancomycin inhibited acetogenesis, while hydrogen could. These results are consistent with a model in which hydrogen is the electron donor directly used for dechlorination by organisms resistant to vancomycin and with the hypothesis that the role of acetogens in methanol-fed cultures is to metabolize a portion of the methanol to hydrogen. Methanol and other substrates shown to support dechlorination in pure and mixed cultures may merely serve as precursors for the formation of an intermediate hydrogen pool. This hypothesis suggests that, for bioremediation of high levels of tetrachloroethene, electron donors that cause the production of a large hydrogen pool should be selected or methods that directly use H2 should be devised. PMID:1482184

DiStefano, T D; Gossett, J M; Zinder, S H

1992-01-01

423

Cultural Themes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Part of a larger report on the Four Directions Project, an American Indian technology innovation project, this section includes 10 "pathfinders" to locating information on Native American cultural themes. The pathfinders were designed by students in the Graduate School of Library and Information Science at the University of Texas at Austin in…

Roy, Loriene, Comp.

424

Cultural Concerns.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains four papers from a symposium on cultural concerns in human resource development (HRD). "Race, Gender, and Mentoring Patterns" (Linda M. Hite) examines mentoring patterns and opportunities among black female professionals and reports results reinforcing the need for increased availability of same-sex, same-race mentors in…

1998

425

Shanzhai Culture  

E-print Network

. Which it isn't. The shanzhai culture is deeply entrenched here. Shanzhai, fake, counterfeit, bogus. Shanzhai copies of most Western brand name items are available. Ripoff Rolexes? Check. Knockoff Nikes? Check. Bogus Blahniks? Check. And it doesn't stop...

Hacker, Randi

2011-09-07

426

Hydroponic Culture  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a hydroponic culture technique suitable for student exercises in biology. This technique of growing plants in nutrient solutions enhances plant growth, and is an excellent way to obtain intact plants with root systems free of soil or other particulate matter. (JR)

Steucek, G. L.; Yurkiewicz, W. J.

1973-01-01

427

Rat retina shows robust circadian expression of clock and clock output genes in explant culture  

PubMed Central

Purpose Circadian rhythms are central to vision and retinal physiology. A circadian clock located within the retina controls various rhythmic processes including melatonin synthesis in photoreceptors. In the present study, we evaluated the rhythmic expression of clock genes and clock output genes in retinal explants maintained for several days in darkness. Methods Retinas were dissected from Wistar rats, either wild-type or from the Per1-luciferase transgenic line housed under a daily 12 h:12 h light-dark cycle (LD12/12), and put in culture at zeitgeber time (ZT) 12 on semipermeable membranes. Explants from wild-type rats were collected every 4 h over 3 days, and total RNA was extracted, quantified, and reverse transcribed. Gene expression was assessed with quantitative PCR, and the periodicity of the relative mRNA amounts was assessed with nonlinear least squares fitting to sine wave functions. Bioluminescence in explants from Per1-luciferase rats was monitored for several days under three different culture protocols. Results Rhythmic expression was found for all studied clock genes and for clock downstream targets such as c-fos and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (Aanat) genes. Clock and output genes cycled with relatively similar periods and acrophases (peaks of expression during subjective night, except c-fos, which peaked around the end of the subjective day). Data for Per1 were confirmed with bioluminescence monitoring, which also permitted culture conditions to be optimized to study the retina clock. Conclusions Our work shows the free-running expression profile of multiple clock genes and potential clock targets in mammalian retinal explants. This research further strengthens the notion that the retina contains a self-sustained oscillator that can be functionally characterized in organotypic culture. PMID:24940028

Buonfiglio, Daniella C.; Malan, André; Sandu, Cristina; Jaeger, Catherine; Cipolla-Neto, José; Hicks, David

2014-01-01

428

76 FR 44573 - Child and Adult Care Food Program: National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Average Payment Rates, Day Care Home Food Service Payment Rates...Rates for Sponsoring Organizations of Day Care Homes for the Period July 1, 2011...Rates for Sponsoring Organizations of Day Care Homes per Home (Per month rates...

2011-07-26

429

Encapsulation of porcine islets permits extended culture time and insulin independence in spontaneously diabetic BB rats.  

PubMed

The ability to culture porcine islets for extended times allows for both their functional assessment and the assurance of their microbiological safety prior to transplantation. We have previously shown that agarose-encapsulated porcine islets can be cultured for at least 24 weeks. In the current study, porcine islet agarose macrobeads cultured for up to 67 weeks were assessed for their ability to restore normoglycemia, respond to an intraperitoneal glucose challenge, maintain spontaneously diabetic BB rats free of insulin therapy for more than 6 months, and for their biocompatibility. Porcine islets were encapsulated in agarose macrobeads and subjected to weekly static perifusion assays for the assessment of insulin production. After in vitro culture for either 9, 40, or 67 weeks, 56-60 macrobeads were transplanted to each spontaneously diabetic BB rat. Transplanted rats were monitored daily for blood glucose levels. Glucose tolerance tests and assessments for porcine C-peptide were conducted at various intervals throughout the study. Normoglycemia (100-200 mg/dl) was initially restored in all islet transplanted rats. Moderate hyperglycemia (200-400 mg/dl) developed at around 30 days posttransplantation and continued throughout the study period of 201-202 days. Importantly, all rats that received encapsulated porcine islets continued to gain weight and were free of exogenous insulin therapy for the entire study. Porcine C-peptide (0.2-0.9 ng/ml) was detected in the serum of islet recipients throughout the study period. No differences were detected between recipient animals receiving islet macrobeads of various ages. These results demonstrate that the encapsulation of porcine islets in agarose macrobeads allows for extended culture periods and is an appropriate strategy for functional and microbiological assessment prior to clinical use. PMID:17912952

Gazda, Lawrence S; Vinerean, Horatiu V; Laramore, Melissa A; Diehl, Carolyn H; Hall, Richard D; Rubin, Albert L; Smith, Barry H

2007-01-01

430

Polyamines and flowering in thin layer tobacco tissue cultures. III. Kinetics of uptake and binding of labelled spermidine  

SciTech Connect

/sup 14/C-labelled spermidine (Spd) was supplied to thin layer tobacco tissue cultures growing on Murashige-Skoog medium + 1 ..mu..M NAA and kinetin. Such cultures produce only flower buds, which become obvious after about 15 days. Spd is taken up rapidly at a rate sustained throughout the culture period. Considerable binding of Spd to TCA - precipitable material occurs by day 2 of culture; it increases to a maximum on day 4 and declines by day 10, shortly before flowering. About 80% of the TCA - precipitable label remains in the form of Spd, 12% shows up as putrescine and 3% as spermine. Differential centrifugation revealed binding of Spd to various cell organelles. DNase, RNase and proteases were used to liberate Spd from the bound form. In nuclei it appears that 60% of the label is associated with nucleic acids and 40% with the protein fraction. In view of evidence from animals indicating Spd binding to specific proteins during organogenesis, they are investigating the nature of the Spd binding protein(s).

Apelbaum, A.; Kaur-Sawhney, R.; Galston, A.W.

1987-04-01

431

Alternative Shopping Places: Periodic Markets in ¸stanbul  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the spatial and temporal characteristics of periodic markets ( pazar ) in Ãstanbul, by means of analyzing the behavioral patterns of sellers and buyers. Periodic markets have their own products, their own ways of marketing, their own architecture and their own olfactory characteristics. All these factors together create a local culture. some periodic markets have been operating

E. Umran Topcu

2006-01-01

432

78 FR 65242 - Occupational Exposure to Crystalline Silica; Extension of Comment Period; Extension of Period To...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...1218-AB70 Occupational Exposure to Crystalline Silica; Extension of Comment Period...NPRM) on Occupational Exposure to Crystalline Silica for an additional 47 days and...occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica (78 FR 56274). This...

2013-10-31

433

"Every Day He Has a Dream to Tell": Classroom Literacy Curriculum in a Full-Day Kindergarten  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Within an era of change to early childhood education and care, this case study of kindergarten classroom literacy curricula sought to understand the production and effects of the curriculum within one urban, Canadian full-day kindergarten that included culturally and linguistically diverse children. Central was a concern for the place of…

Heydon, Rachel; Moffatt, Lyndsay; Iannacci, Luigi

2015-01-01

434

[Desmin content and cell breathing in rats' m. soleus fibers after 3- and 7-day recovery from 14-day suspension].  

PubMed

Cell breathing and relative desmin content were investigated in m. soleus fibers of rats after 3 and 7 days of recovery from 14-day suspension according to the Morey - Holton modification of the Ilyin - Novikov procedure. The cell breathing parameters were determined with the help of polarography; desmin content was measured using the western-blot technique. The results evidence that cell breathing intensity subsided during 14 days of gravitational unloading, reached minimum after 3 days of recovery and regained baseline values after 7 days of recovery. Post suspension desmin content did not differ from control values, made a significant drop in 3 days and returned to baseline values in 7 days of recovery. These data suggest an interdependence between cell breathing and desmin content in m. soleus fibers of rats as during gravitation unloading, so in the period of recovery. PMID:22624480

Mirzoev, T M; Biriukov, N S; Veselova, O M; Larina, I M; Shenkman, B S; Ogneva, I V

2012-01-01

435

The Somali Bantu: Their History and Culture. Culture Profile.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is a basic introduction to the people, history, and cultures of the Somali Bantu. It is designed primarily for service providers and others assisting Somali Bantu refugees in their new communities in the United States. It focuses on: "Introduction"; "Land"; "People" (place in society and social structures); "History" (colonial period,…

Lehman, Dan Van; Eno, Omar

436

Cool Site of the Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Need a daily web fix of something new? Try The Cool Site of the Day. Every night at midnite the Cool Site of the Day gets set to point at a new Cool Site. You'll never know what's there until you take the link so expect to be surprised.

437

Celebrate International School Library Day  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Fourth Monday in October is International School Library Day (ISLD)--an opportunity for school libraries around the world to celebrate the contribution they make to the education of the children in their care. International School Library Day was proclaimed in 1999 by Dr Blanche Woolls, president of the International Association of School…

Braxton, Barbara

2004-01-01

438

WHERE IS DAY CARE HEADING.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

IN SEATTLE AND IN THE NATION, GOOD DAY CARE SERVICES MUST BE MADE MORE COMPREHENSIVE. A NARRATIVE OF THE EXPERIENCES OF THE SEATTLE DAY NURSERY ASSOCIATION SUGGESTS WAYS TO INITIATE AND SUSTAIN NEEDED CHILD CARE SERVICES. THESE SERVICES SHOULD BE AVAILABLE TO FAMILIES WITH VARYING INCOMES WHO PAY FEES ON A SLIDING SCALE. EMERGENCY HELP FOR…

REED, MILDRED A.

439

2014 Maine Earth Science Day  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

On October 15, 2014 Maine Earth Science Day was held at the Maine State Museum in Augusta. The USGS was represented by Charlie Culbertson, left, and Nick Waldron, right. This photo was taken as the two were packing up for the day, and shows a main feature of the table, a touch screen display with th...

440

All Day Kindergarten: Evaluation Update.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The All Day Kindergarten (ADK) program was established in five schools within the Wichita (Kansas) Public School System during the 1988-89 school year. The goal was to establish a full-day balanced readiness program that would enhance skill building in the cognitive, social/emotional, and motor development areas. A formative evaluation was…

Wichita Public Schools, KS. Office of Program Evaluation.

441

Day Care Infection Control Protocol.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This day care infection control manual was assembled to provide technical guidance for the prevention and control of communicable diseases to child day care facilities in Seattle and King County, Washington. For each disease, the manual provides background information, public health control recommendations, and letters that can be used to…

Seattle-King County Dept. of Public Health, Seattle, WA.

442

Youth Field Day Planning Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Youth field days expose children to outdoor activities, land use ethics, and habitat conservation and encourage adults to be mentors in these areas. A typical youth field day could have programs in archery, fishing, boating, shooting, or safety. The event requires a diverse steering committee that usually includes sporting clubs and state…

Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

443

Period Error Estimation for the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog (KEBC) describes 2165 eclipsing binaries identified in the 115 deg2 Kepler Field based on observations from Kepler quarters Q0, Q1, and Q2. The periods in the KEBC are given in units of days out to six decimal places but no period errors are provided. We present the PEC (Period Error Calculator) algorithm, which can be used to estimate the period errors of strictly periodic variables observed by the Kepler Mission. The PEC algorithm is based on propagation of error theory and assumes that observation of every light curve peak/minimum in a long time-series observation can be unambiguously identified. The PEC algorithm can be efficiently programmed using just a few lines of C computer language code. The PEC algorithm was used to develop a simple model that provides period error estimates for eclipsing binaries in the KEBC with periods less than 62.5 days: log ? P ? - 5.8908 + 1.4425(1 + log P), where P is the period of an eclipsing binary in the KEBC in units of days. KEBC systems with periods >=62.5 days have KEBC period errors of ~0.0144 days. Periods and period errors of seven eclipsing binary systems in the KEBC were measured using the NASA Exoplanet Archive Periodogram Service and compared to period errors estimated using the PEC algorithm.

Mighell, Kenneth J.; Plavchan, Peter

2013-06-01

444

PERIOD ERROR ESTIMATION FOR THE KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARY CATALOG  

SciTech Connect

The Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog (KEBC) describes 2165 eclipsing binaries identified in the 115 deg{sup 2} Kepler Field based on observations from Kepler quarters Q0, Q1, and Q2. The periods in the KEBC are given in units of days out to six decimal places but no period errors are provided. We present the PEC (Period Error Calculator) algorithm, which can be used to estimate the period errors of strictly periodic variables observed by the Kepler Mission. The PEC algorithm is based on propagation of error theory and assumes that observation of every light curve peak/minimum in a long time-series observation can be unambiguously identified. The PEC algorithm can be efficiently programmed using just a few lines of C computer language code. The PEC algorithm was used to develop a simple model that provides period error estimates for eclipsing binaries in the KEBC with periods less than 62.5 days: log {sigma}{sub P} Almost-Equal-To - 5.8908 + 1.4425(1 + log P), where P is the period of an eclipsing binary in the KEBC in units of days. KEBC systems with periods {>=}62.5 days have KEBC period errors of {approx}0.0144 days. Periods and period errors of seven eclipsing binary systems in the KEBC were measured using the NASA Exoplanet Archive Periodogram Service and compared to period errors estimated using the PEC algorithm.

Mighell, Kenneth J. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Plavchan, Peter [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

2013-06-15

445

Phosphatase activities of cultured phototrophic biofilms.  

PubMed

The responses of cultured phototrophic biofilms to diverse phosphorus (P) regimes were assessed using a semi-continuous flow incubator. Three biofilms were grown over 18 days under three different P regimes: replete inorganic P, organic P-only and limited inorganic P. Assessing the response of the biofilms took into account the rate of phosphomonoesterase and phosphodiesterase activities, biofilm nutrient contents and biomass accrual across the growth period. Phosphorus limitation was indicated by slower biomass accumulation and higher phosphatase activities of the organic P-only and P-limited biofilms compared to the P-replete biofilms. The cyanobacterium Phormidium sp. dominated the later stages in all the treatments forming a dense layer at the biofilm-medium interface. This layer possibly led to a reduction of light and nutrient diffusion to sub-surface cells and may account for the production of phosphatases under P replete conditions. In addition, the Phormidium-layer possibly produced a top-heavy P (and N) distribution and could explain the large reductions in areal nutrient concentrations. End-product repression and de-repression of phosphatase activity was suggested to be a main controlling factor of phosphatase activity. Consequently, it is proposed that for efficient nutrient removal from wastewaters that biofilms should be regularly removed to continually maintain biofilms at the initial stages (3-7 days). PMID:22118908

Ellwood, Neil T W; Di Pippo, Francesca; Albertano, Patrizia

2012-02-01

446

Culture and Education in Micronesia.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

By focusing on social and cultural backgrounds of the five U.S.-affiliated Micronesian states, this document highlight issues that pertain to education in this region. The first sections deal with the political history of the region, emphasizing the period of U.S. administration from the 1940's to the 1970's. The history of instititonalized…

Conklin, Nancy Faires

447

Baseball and American Cultural Values.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a lesson plan exploring social values and historical periods as it is reflected in the sport of baseball. Suggests that teachers start with an overview of the game's history and rules in the nineteenth century. Includes four sets of quotes relating to baseball and race, capitalism, community, and cultural context. (DK)

Briley, Ronald

1992-01-01

448

The potential use of constructed wetlands in a recirculating aquaculture system for shrimp culture.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale constructed wetland unit, consisting of free water surface (FWS) and subsurface flow (SF) constructed wetlands arranged in series, was integrated into an outdoor recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for culturing Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). This study evaluated the performance of the wetland unit in treating the recirculating wastewater and examined the effect of improvement in water quality of the culture tank on the growth and survival of shrimp postlarvae. During an 80-day culture period, the wetland unit operated at a mean hydraulic loading rate of 0.3 m/day and effectively reduced the influent concentrations of 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, 24%), suspended solids (SS, 71%), chlorophyll a (chl-a, 88%), total ammonium (TAN, 57%), nitrite nitrogen (NO2-N, 90%) and nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N, 68%). Phosphate (PO4-P) reduction was the least efficient (5.4%). The concentrations of SS, Chl-a, turbidity and NO3-N in the culture tank water in RAS were significantly (Pculture without wetland treatment. However, no significant difference (Pculture environment, consequently increasing the shrimp growth and survival without water exchange, in a recirculating system. PMID:12663210

Lin, Ying-Feng; Jing, Shuh-Ren; Lee, Der-Yuan

2003-01-01

449

Cryopreservation of yeast cultures.  

PubMed

A method is described that allows a wide range of yeast species to be stored in liquid nitrogen while maintaining a high level of viability. Yeast cultures are sealed in commercially available polypropylene straws after having been mixed with a glycerol-based cryoprotectant. Once placed in a secondary cryotube the temperature of the sealed straws is reduced slowly to -30 degrees C in a methanol bath over a period of up to 3 h. The straws are then transferred directly to the liquid nitrogen and placed in a racking system for long-term storage. PMID:18080465

Bond, Chris

2007-01-01

450

Exploring Ancient World Cultures: An Introduction to Ancient World Cultures on the World-Wide Web  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exploring Ancient World Cultures, provided by University of Evansville, "is an introductory, on-line, college-level 'textbook' of ancient world cultures, constructed around a series of cultural pages consisting of: The Ancient Near East, Ancient India, Ancient Egypt, Ancient China, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Early Islam, and Medieval Europe." Each home page may contain essays by subject specialists, an anthology of readings from the period, a chronology, bibliographic resources, hypertext links to related sites, and computer graded quizzes. Interested users can also navigate the site by topic across cultures. A highlight of the site is the ability it gives the user to view the entire chronology, or to click on a year and culture and then another culture, in order to compare cross-cultural developments at the same time period. The site is a work in progress that promises maps and images in the near future.

451

Cultural Diplomacy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Demos group in Britain describes itself as "the think tank for everyday democracy", and they have published a number of intelligent research reports and briefs as of late. One of their recent reports, released in February 2007, deals with the world of cultural diplomacy. Authored by Kirsten Bound, Rachel Briggs, John Holden, and Samuel Jones, the paper's central premise is that "the huge global reach and potential of Britain's world class artistic and cultural assets should be at the heart of government relationship building abroad." It's an interesting concept, and one that is developed over the course of this work through citing specific examples and also by pointing a way to forward efforts in this particular niche of public policy and international relations.

452

The American Child: A Cultural Studies Reader.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There has been increased critical interest in the child as a rich and varied site of cultural inscription. Scholars from a wide range of disciplines have turned their attention to the child in order to interrogate how it comes to represent, and often codify, the prevailing ideologies of a given culture or historical period. Noting that narratives…

Levander, Caroline F., Ed.; Singley, Carol J., Ed.

453

Culture of mature trophoblastic giant cells from bovine placentomes.  

PubMed

The mostly binucleate trophoblast giant cells (TGC) found in bovine placentomes, in addition to synthesizing and releasing hormones play an important role in fetal development and maternal adaptation to pregnancy. Placentomes from early gestation were collected, and for isolation of mature TGC, three cellular disaggregation methods, mechanical (MECH), enzymatic by trypsin (TRYP) or collagenase (COLL) were compared to each other. Further on, the cell survival in culture medium (DMEM) supplemented with either 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) or 10% serum replacement (SR) on culture plates free of any substrate was evaluated over a period of 90 days by trypan blue exclusion. The cells were further characterized by HOECHST 33342 nuclear staining, and immunocytochemical staining with monoclonal antibodies against vimentin and cytokeratin. A mean total rate of TGC survival of 82.56% was recorded. Statistical analysis showed significantly higher survival rates after enzymatic disaggregation with COLL (86.23%) than following MECH (80.38%) or TRYP (80.91%) treatment. Supplementation of DMEM with FCS resulted in significantly higher cellular survival rates (87.13%) when compared to the addition of SR (77.73%). Analysis of the influence of both, disaggregation method and medium supplementation on TGC survival revealed statistically significant differences between the following groups: MECH-SR (71.09%) was significantly lower than all other groups; TRYP-SR (78.03%) was significantly different from all other groups; TRYP-FCS (83.43%) and COLL-SR (84.08%) were significantly lower than MECH-FCS (89.98%) which together with COLL-FCS (88.25%) showed the highest cellular survival rate. In summary, our results show that TGC isolated from early gestation placentomes may be viable for more than 90 days of culture. However, whether these TGC produce placental lactogen throughout this period has yet to be determined. PMID:16716544

Landim, L P; Miglino, M A; Pfarrer, C; Ambrosio, C E; Garcia, J M

2007-04-01

454

Culture of human septal chondrocytes in a rotary bioreactor  

PubMed Central

Objective 1) To show that extracellular matrix deposition is possible in 3-dimensional culture of human septal chondrocytes cultured in a rotary bioreactor as well as in static conditions. 2) To demonstrate that the biomechanical properties of human septal chondrocytes cultured in a bioreactor and static culture amplify with time. Study Design Prospective, basic science Setting Research laboratory Methods Human septal chondrocytes from nine donors were expanded in monolayer and seeded in alginate beads. The beads were cultured in a rotary bioreactor for 21 days in media supplemented with growth factors and human serum, using static culture as the control. Biochemical and biomechanical properties of the beads were measured. Results Glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulation significantly increased during two measured time intervals, zero to 10 days and 10 to 21 days (p<0.01). No significant difference was seen between the static and bioreactor conditions. However, substantial type II collagen production was demonstrated in the beads terminated at day 21 of culture in both conditions. In addition, the biomechanical properties of the beads were enhanced at 21 days in comparison to beads from days 0 and 10. Conclusion Human septal chondrocytes cultured in alginate beads exhibit significant matrix deposition and improved biomechanical properties after 21 days. Enhanced matrix deposition during bead culture will expectantly lead to formation of neocartilage that is comparable to native tissue. Matrix production in beads is supported by the use of a rotary bioreactor. PMID:22597575

Reuther, Marsha S.; Briggs, Kristen K.; Wong, Van W.; Chang, Angela A.; Schumacher, Barbara L.; Masuda, Koichi; Sah, Robert L.; Watson, Deborah

2014-01-01

455

ET culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter invites the reader to enter the outerspaces of extraterrestrial culture, as a realm of social inquiry. Where\\u000a this journey leads is perhaps unexpected, especially for the discourse of aliens and Unidentified Flying Objects (UFOs). For\\u000a while we might expect to engage fields of exotic Otherness — of technomarvels and bizarre entities, epic enterprises, and\\u000a terrors unrecognizable in their

Debbora Battaglia

456

World Health Day is a day for safer motherhood.  

PubMed

Every year, April 7 is kept as World Health Day. This year [1998] marks the 50th anniversary of the foundation of WHO. However, the day has a double significance because the theme of this year's World Health Day is safe motherhood. All around the world people will mark this day and remind communities and leaders that there is still much work to be done to make pregnancy and childbirth safer. World leaders in Washington will be doing their part on this day, for without high-level political commitment it is hard to get things done. However, this effort is not just for a day. The whole year is dedicated to the theme of safe motherhood. Please let us know about the initiatives taking place in your country, and do send photographs] We can all do something this year to make things better for women and their newborns. Please send your stories and photos to the Editor, Safe Motherhood (address on back page). As well as the 10 action messages that were developed at the technical consultation to mark the 10th anniversary of the Safe Motherhood Initiative, fact sheets and slides are also available either by writing to WHO or on the Internet. PMID:12293570

1998-01-01

457

Day-to-day repeatability of the Pulse Time Index of Norm.  

PubMed

The pulse wave velocity (PWV) threshold for hypertensive target organ damage is presently set at 10 meters per second. New 24-hour monitors (eg, BPLab® and Vasotens®) provide several PWV measurements over a period of 24-72 hours. A new parameter, ie, the Pulse Time Index of Norm (PTIN), can be calculated from these data. The PTIN is defined as the percentage of a 24-hour period during which the PWV does not exceed 10 meters per second. The aim of the present study was to test the new PTIN for clinical feasibility using day-to-day repeatability analysis. Oscillometrically generated waveform files (n=85), which were previously used for research studies, were reanalyzed using the new 2013 version software of the Vasotens technology program, which enables calculation of PTIN. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.98 and Cronbach's alpha was 0.97, indicating that the PTIN has excellent day-to-day repeatability and internal consistency. The present results show adequate repeatability, and PTIN assessment using the Vasotens technology appears to be feasible. PMID:24600253

Posokhov, Igor N; Konradi, Aleksandra O; Shlyakhto, Eugeny V; Mamontov, Oleg V; Orlov, Artemy V; Rogoza, Anatoly N

2014-01-01

458

Day-to-day repeatability of the Pulse Time Index of Norm  

PubMed Central

The pulse wave velocity (PWV) threshold for hypertensive target organ damage is presently set at 10 meters per second. New 24-hour monitors (eg, BPLab® and Vasotens®) provide several PWV measurements over a period of 24–72 hours. A new parameter, ie, the Pulse Time Index of Norm (PTIN), can be calculated from these data. The PTIN is defined as the percentage of a 24-hour period during which the PWV does not exceed 10 meters per second. The aim of the present study was to test the new PTIN for clinical feasibility using day-to-day repeatability analysis. Oscillometrically generated waveform files (n=85), which were previously used for research studies, were reanalyzed using the new 2013 version software of the Vasotens technology program, which enables calculation of PTIN. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.98 and Cronbach’s alpha was 0.97, indicating that the PTIN has excellent day-to-day repeatability and internal consistency. The present results show adequate repeatability, and PTIN assessment using the Vasotens technology appears to be feasible. PMID:24600253

Posokhov, Igor N; Konradi, Aleksandra O; Shlyakhto, Eugeny V; Mamontov, Oleg V; Orlov, Artemy V; Rogoza, Anatoly N

2014-01-01

459

Tubular perfusion system for chondrocyte culture and superficial zone protein expression.  

PubMed

Tissue engineering is an alternative method for articular cartilage repair. Mechanical stimulus has been found to be an important element to the healthy development of chondrocytes and maintenance of their native phenotype. To enhance nutrient transport and apply mechanical stress, we have developed a novel bioreactor, the tubular perfusion system (TPS), to culture chondrocytes in three-dimensional scaffolds. In our design, chondrocytes are encapsulated in alginate scaffolds and placed into a tubular growth chamber, which is perfused with media to enhance nutrient transfer and expose cells to fluid flow. Results demonstrate that TPS culture promotes the proliferation of chondrocytes compared to static culture as shown by DNA content and histochemical staining. After 14 days of culture, low messenger RNA expression of proinflammatory and apoptotic markers in TPS bioreactor culture confirmed that a flow rate of 3 mL/min does not damage the chondrocytes embedded in alginate scaffolds. Additionally, cells cultured in the TPS bioreactor showed increased gene expression levels of aggrecan, type II collagen, and superficial zone protein compared to the static group, indicative of the emergence of the superficial zone specific phenotype. Therefore, the TPS bioreactor is an effective means to enhance the proliferation and phenotype maintenance of chondrocytes in vitro. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103A: 1864-1874, 2015. PMID:25195680

Yu, Li; Ferlin, Kimberly M; Nguyen, Bao-Ngoc B; Fisher, John P

2015-05-01

460

In vitro mineralization by mesenchymal stem cells cultured on titanium scaffolds.  

PubMed

Titanium has been utilized in the field of orthopaedic and dental reconstructive surgery, but mineralization through osteogenic differentiation of osteogenic cells on titanium surfaces has not been fully investigated. Here we cultured rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on the surfaces of titanium dishes in osteogenic media containing calcein which is a calcium-binding fluorescence dye. On titanium dishes, MSCs showed high viability to adhere to the surfaces and excellent proliferation. At day 14 of culture, MSCs differentiated into osteoblasts to form mineralized matrices on titanium dishes as well as tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) dishes which are widely recognized as optimal culture substrates. Calcein was incorporated into the bone minerals fabricated by MSCs cultured on both substrates to show green emission under fluorescence microscopy. The fluorescence intensity was quantified with an image analyser during culture periods. These results indicate that the surfaces of titanium showed a high adhesion/proliferation potential to MSCs and that the titanium effectively supported the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs comparable to TCPS dishes. Therefore, the titanium is an effective scaffold that is applicable in bone reconstruction surgery. PMID:17383975

Maeda, Masahiko; Hirose, Motohiro; Ohgushi, Hajime; Kirita, Tadaaki

2007-05-01

461

Radio Days: A Soundbite of History  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This wonderful site, provided by James F. Widner, has something for anyone interested in vintage radio or 1930s-40s American culture. Users will find a large number of substantial audio clips and information on radio programs of all stripes and colors. The Timeline section highlights significant radio programs that began in the current month, offering short descriptive pieces and recordings. Under Radio News, users will find biographies and audio samples from the "founding fathers" of American broadcast journalism. The section also contains some of the most famous radio recordings ever made, including the Hindenberg Disaster, George Hick's report on D-Day, and the sinking of the Andrea Doria. The Drama section has summaries and recordings from some of the greatest programs in the comedy, mystery, private eye, and science fiction genres. Highlights include samples from Burns and Allen, House of Mystery, and Flash Gordon. The site also offers a large collection of related links.

Widner, James F.

462

2011 Astronomy Day at McDonald Observatory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our philosophy is that everyday is Astronomy Day because the McDonald Observatory's Frank N. Bash Visitors Center is open 362 days a year. So, how did we create a special celebration for the "Astronomy Day” declared by the Astronomical League? During September 26-29 we conducted 20 videoconferences and served 12,559 students with "Astronomy Day” programming. Connect2Texas provides bridging for a network of Texas-based museums and cultural, historical, and scientific organizations that offer educational content to schools throughout the state via videoconferencing. Connect2Texas connected McDonald Observatory to 334 schools; most of these schools were in Texas, but schools in a dozen other states also participated. While most schools had a "view-only" connection, at least 20 of the schools had interactive connections, whereby the students could ask questions of the presenter. Connect2Texas also collects evaluation information from the participating schools that we will use to produce a report for our funders and make modifications to future programs as need be. The videoconferences were offered free of charge. The theme for the 2011 Astronomy Day program was the Year of the Solar System, which aligns with NASA's theme for 2011 and 2012. By aligning with this NASA theme, we could leverage NASA artwork and materials to both advertise and enrich the learning experience. Videoconference materials also included pre- and post-videoconference assessment sheets, an inquiry based activity, and pre- and post-videoconference activities, all of which were made available online. One of the lessons learned from past Astronomy Day videoconferences is that the days the Astronomical League declares as "Astronomy Day” are not always good days for Texas schools to participate. So, we choose an Astronomy Day that meets the needs of Texas schools and our schedule - so any day can be Astronomy Day. 2011 Astronomy Day was made possible by The Meyer-Levy Charitable Trust.

Preston, Sandra; Hemeway, M.; Wetzel, M.

2012-01-01

463

A day for actions nationwide.  

PubMed

Scott Buckler, of social enterprise, 4 All of Us, co-organisers, with London's Barts Health NHS Trust, of NHS Sustainability Day 2014--which will see NHS Trusts across England stage a variety of events on 27 March to show their support for a more sustainable approach to healthcare provision--looks back at a series of successful roadshows and other activities held over the past six months in the run-up to this year's big day, and describes some of the highlights set to take place on the day itself. PMID:24697090

Buckler, Scott

2014-03-01

464

National Mole Day Foundation, Inc.  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Celebrated annually on October 23 from 6:02 a.m. to 6:02 p.m., Mole Day commemorates Avogadro's Number (6.02 x 10^23), which is a basic measuring unit in chemistry." This website presents the National Mole Day Foundation, Inc.'s actions to get everyone, especially children, excited about chemistry. Users can learn about activities held throughout the United States and the world including the next Mole day breakfast held on April 3, 2004. The website features many awards to worthy teachers and schools. Interested teachers and students can learn how to become involved in this fun, educational organization.

465

A statistical study of days of precipitation over Texas  

E-print Network

, is the distribution and variability of precipitation. In the past few years many workers have investi- gated the distribution of precipitation over various time intervals, i. e. , weekly periods or less, monthly periods, seasonal periods, and annual periods. Also... distribution, or the binomial distribution. Three separate definitions of days of precipitation were utilized: (1) greater than or equal to 0. 10 in. , (2) greater than or equal to 0. 50 in. , and (3) greater than or equal to 1. 00 in. These data were...

Gabbert, Gale Lee

1968-01-01

466

Celtic Art and Cultures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Celtic Art and Cultures Website was originally created for art history students at University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill and can now be used by any would-be student of Celtic Art with access to a newer Web browser. The main feature of the site is its multimedia database of Celtic-related images, maps, timelines, and vocabulary aids complete with spoken pronunciations. Images can be viewed by period, material, object, and country. If you find yourself uncertain of which time period or object type to choose, as I did, helpful information is available in the Maps & Timelines section. The course syllabus, which can be found under site info, also provides an overview of Celtic Art.

467

Cosmos and Culture  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What can science do for us? Perhaps a better question is what can science not do for us? These are but a few questions posed by the NPR blog, "Cosmos and Culture". The contributors to the blog include a range of scientists, including a theoretical physicist, a biologist, and an astrophysicist. The goal of the blog is "to engage in a discussion with each other'and you'about how science has shaped culture and how culture has shaped science." Visitors should go ahead and read the daily post on the site, and they can also search through past blog posts and learn more about each contributor. Another way to get started here is by clicking on the "Most Popular" blog postings, which have included "How Rare is Life?" and "Hawking and God: An Intimate Relationship". Overall, it is a thoughtful and meaningful way to engage in a dialogue about some of the most crucial issues of our day, and it is well worth a look.

468

Culture and differentiation of chondrocytes entrapped in alginate gels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the response to culture conditions and the differentiative ability in suspension culture in alginate gels of resting chondrocytes from the preosseous cartilage of adult pig scapula. It was found that the maximum rate of chondrocyte duplication is reached at the fourth day in culture whereas the rate of proteoglycan synthesis and alkaline phosphatase expression do not gain a

M. Grandolfo; P. D'Andrea; S. Paoletti; M. Martina; G. Silvestrini; E. Bonucci; F. Vittur

1993-01-01

469

Class #10106 ANTH300.50: Language and Culture (WEB)  

E-print Network

Class #10106 ANTH300.50: Language and Culture (WEB) Instructor: Robey Callahan Days: WEB-8578 COURSE DESCRIPTION FROM THE CATALOG "Language as a factor in culture. Trends in the study of language LEARNING GOALS Language is, of course, a part of culture. But what is the nature of the relationship

de Lijser, Peter

470

RESEARCH ARTICLE In Vitro Culture of Embryos of the Guppy,  

E-print Network

to asynchronous fertilization. We have cultured explanted embryos in vitro and continuously observedRESEARCH ARTICLE In Vitro Culture of Embryos of the Guppy, Poecilia reticulata Ulrike Martyn their development. Although embryos explanted a few days after fertilization survived up to 4 weeks in culture

Weigel, Detlef

471

Question of the Day Examples  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Refine the Results Biosphere 2 matches Climate 2 matches Earth surface 1 match Ocean 4 matches Solid Earth 2 matches Results 1 - 10 of 11 matches Question of the Day: Efficiency of Food Production part of Question ...

472

Last Days of Life (PDQ®)  

Cancer.gov

Expert-reviewed information summary about care during the last days to last hours of life, including common symptoms, ethical dilemmas that may arise, and the role of the oncologist in caring for patients and their families during this time.

473

Mesenchymal stem cells cultured under hypoxia escape from senescence via down-regulation of p16 and extracellular signal regulated kinase  

SciTech Connect

Hypoxia has been considered to affect the properties of tissue stem cells including mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Effects of long periods of exposure to hypoxia on human MSCs, however, have not been clearly demonstrated. MSCs cultured under normoxic conditions (20% pO{sub 2}) ceased to proliferate after 15-25 population doublings, while MSCs cultured under hypoxic conditions (1% pO{sub 2}) retained the ability to proliferate with an additional 8-20 population doublings. Most of the MSCs cultured under normoxic conditions were in a senescent state after 100 days, while few senescent cells were found in the hypoxic culture, which was associated with a down-regulation of p16 gene expression. MSCs cultured for 100 days under hypoxic conditions were superior to those cultured under normoxic conditions in the ability to differentiate into the chondro- and adipogenic, but not osteogenic, lineage. Among the molecules related to mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) was significantly down-regulated by hypoxia, which helped to inhibit the up-regulation of p16 gene expression. Therefore, the hypoxic culture retained MSCs in an undifferentiated and senescence-free state through the down-regulation of p16 and ERK.

Jin, Yonghui; Kato, Tomohisa; Furu, Moritoshi [Department of Tissue Regeneration, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University (Japan)] [Department of Tissue Regeneration, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University (Japan); Nasu, Akira [Department of Tissue Regeneration, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University (Japan) [Department of Tissue Regeneration, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University (Japan); Kajita, Yo