Science.gov

Sample records for day culture period

  1. Scheduling: Seven Period Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Driven by stable or declining financial resources many school districts are considering the costs and benefits of a seven-period day. While there is limited evidence that any particular scheduling model has a greater impact on student learning than any other, it is clear that the school schedule is a tool that can significantly impact teacher…

  2. 12 CFR 329.104 - Ten-day grace period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ten-day grace period. 329.104 Section 329.104... INTEREST ON DEPOSITS § 329.104 Ten-day grace period. This interpretive rule provides for 10-day grace periods during which interest may be paid on a deposit without violating § 329.2. (a) During the...

  3. 12 CFR 329.104 - Ten-day grace period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ten-day grace period. 329.104 Section 329.104... INTEREST ON DEPOSITS § 329.104 Ten-day grace period. This interpretive rule provides for 10-day grace periods during which interest may be paid on a deposit without violating § 329.2. (a) During the...

  4. Aim for 55-Day Dry Period for Top Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The research cited in this article determined the optimal dry period length (the number of days between lactations when a cow is not being milked) for US Jersey cows using traits such as milk, fat, and protein yield, fat and protein percentages, somatic cell score, and days open. This was accomplis...

  5. Long-Period Tidal Variations in the Length of Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Erofeeva, Svetlana Y.

    2014-01-01

    A new model of long-period tidal variations in length of day is developed. The model comprises 80 spectral lines with periods between 18.6 years and 4.7 days, and it consistently includes effects of mantle anelasticity and dynamic ocean tides for all lines. The anelastic properties followWahr and Bergen; experimental confirmation for their results now exists at the fortnightly period, but there remains uncertainty when extrapolating to the longest periods. The ocean modeling builds on recent work with the fortnightly constituent, which suggests that oceanic tidal angular momentum can be reliably predicted at these periods without data assimilation. This is a critical property when modeling most long-period tides, for which little observational data exist. Dynamic ocean effects are quite pronounced at shortest periods as out-of-phase rotation components become nearly as large as in-phase components. The model is tested against a 20 year time series of space geodetic measurements of length of day. The current international standard model is shown to leave significant residual tidal energy, and the new model is found to mostly eliminate that energy, with especially large variance reduction for constituents Sa, Ssa, Mf, and Mt.

  6. On the day-to-day variation of the equatorial electrojet during quiet periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Y.; Richmond, A. D.; Maute, A.; Liu, H.-L.; Pedatella, N.; Sassi, F.

    2014-08-01

    It has been known for a long time that the equatorial electrojet varies from day to day even when solar and geomagnetic activities are very low. The quiet time day-to-day variation is considered to be due to irregular variability of the neutral wind, but little is known about how variable winds drive the electrojet variability. We employ a numerical model introduced by Liu et al. (2013), which takes into account weather changes in the lower atmosphere and thus can reproduce ionospheric variability due to forcing from below. The simulation is run for May and June 2009. Constant solar and magnetospheric energy inputs are used so that day-to-day changes will arise only from lower atmospheric forcing. The simulated electrojet current shows day-to-day variability of ±25%, which produces day-to-day variations in ground level geomagnetic perturbations near the magnetic equator. The current system associated with the day-to-day variation of the equatorial electrojet is traced based on a covariance analysis. The current pattern reveals return flow at both sides of the electrojet, in agreement with those inferred from ground-based magnetometer data in previous studies. The day-to-day variation in the electrojet current is compared with those in the neutral wind at various altitudes, latitudes, and longitudes. It is found that the electrojet variability is dominated by the zonal wind at 100-120 km altitudes near the magnetic equator. These results suggest that the response of the zonal polarization electric field to variable zonal winds is the main source of the day-to-day variation of the equatorial electrojet during quiet periods.

  7. A 50 day periodicity in the cosmic ray anisotropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fillius, W.; Ip, W.-H.; Axford, I.

    1983-01-01

    A modulation of the anisotropy of relativistic interplanetary particles with a period of approximately 50 days is discussed. Even though it is not unusual for cosmic ray data to reflect the solar rotation frequency and its harmonics with periods of 25/n days (n being 1, 2, 3, . . .), it is not known how a periodicity of 50 days, which would be a subharmonic, is generated. Since the Cerenkov counter responds to all kinds of relativistic particles, it does not identify the particles that cause the 50 day east-west modulation. Jovian electrons are considered unlikely in that they are most abundant near their source, whereas the modulation has never been reported for ground-based neutron monitors. It is pointed out that since the Cerenkov threshold is somewhat lower than typical neutron monitor cutoffs, it is conceivable that the modulation affects nucleons just in this energy gap. It is also thought that there might be a uniformly distributed component of interplanetary electrons which undergo this peculiar modulation.

  8. Cultural Support Workers and Long Day Care Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Melinda G.; Knowles, Meg; Grieshaber, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In Australia, eligible long day care services may apply for support at the state level to assist with the transition of children from culturally or linguistically diverse backgrounds into childcare settings. For staff in childcare services, this support comes in the form of a cultural support worker (CSW). The primary role of a CSW is to build…

  9. Automating Partial Period Bond Valuation with Excel's Day Counting Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicknair, David; Spruell, James

    2009-01-01

    An Excel model for calculating the actual price of bonds under a 30 day/month, 360 day/year day counting assumption by nesting the DAYS360 function within the PV function is developed. When programmed into an Excel spreadsheet, the model can accommodate annual and semiannual payment bonds sold on or between interest dates using six fundamental…

  10. Sun-Earth Day Connects History, Culture and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, T.; Thieman, J.

    2003-12-01

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education forum annually promotes and event called Sun-Earth Day: a national celebration of the Sun, the space around the Earth (geospace), and how all of it affects life on our planet. For the past 3 years this event has provided a venue by which classrooms, museums, planetaria, and at NASA centers have had a sensational time sharing stories, images, and activities related to the Sun-Earth connections and the views o fthe Sun from Earth. Each year we select a different theme by which NASA Space Science can be further related to cross-curricular activities. Sun-Earth Day 2002, "Celebrate the Equinox", drew parallels between Native American Cultures and NASA's Sun-Earth Connection research via cultural stories, interviews, web links, activities and Native American participation. Sun-Earth Day 2003, "Live From the Aurora", shared the beauty of the Aurora through a variety of activities and stories related to perspectives of Northern Peoples. Sun-Earth Day 2004 will share the excitement of the transit of Venus through comparisons of Venus with Earth and Mars, calculations of the distances to nearby stars, and the use of transits to identify extra-solar planets. Finally, Sun-Earth Day 2005 will bring several of these themes together by turning our focus to the history and culture surrounding ancient observatories such as Chaco Canyon, Machu Picchu, and Chichen Itza.

  11. Prolonging culture to 15 days improves bacterial detection in bone and joint infections.

    PubMed

    Drago, L; De Vecchi, E; Cappelletti, L; Vassena, C; Toscano, M; Bortolin, M; Mattina, R; Romanò, C L

    2015-09-01

    Since the optimal incubation period of cultures for diagnosis of bone and joint infections is still a matter of debate, the present study aimed to evaluate the effects of different incubation periods (5 and 15 days) on microbial isolation. Samples from 387 patients with bone and joint infections (including prosthetic ones) were analyzed from March 2012 to February 2014. In 197 patients (51 %) growth was obtained within 48 hrs, while in 124 (32 %) and 66 (17 %) patients cultures yielded positive results within and after 5 days of incubation, respectively. Of 449 microorganisms isolated, 247 grew within 48 hrs, 131 within the first 5 days of incubation while 71 were isolated after 5 days. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated pathogen within 48 hrs, while Propionibacteria were prevalently isolated after 5 days of incubation. Interestingly, about 25 % of microorganisms isolated after 5 days of incubation were coagulase-negative staphylococci. Extending incubation period of broth cultures improves isolation rates of pathogens involved in bone and joint infections thus improving management of these infections. PMID:26054716

  12. The 78.4 day period of Cygnus XR-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, J. F.; Caraveo, P.; Coe, M. J.; Crannell, C. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Frost, K. J.; Orwig, L. E.

    1979-01-01

    A search for a 78.4 day modulation in the high energy X-ray flux observed with OSO-8 and in the U-band optical polarization is reported. It is suggested that if such a modulation does exist, it is more likely to be related to the rotation of the free modes of oscillation of the primary than to the existence of a third body in the system.

  13. Ionospheric variations in the period range of days to tens of days deduced from HF Doppler observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Takashi; Yoshimura, Yasuo; Okuzawa, Takashi; Ogawa, Toshio

    Ionospheric variations in the period range of a few days to tens of days observed by the HF Doppler (HFD) method for the entire year of 1986 have been investigated by a spectrum analysis. The crystal oscillator employed has a stability of up 5 x 10 to the -9th/day at the primary stage of 5 MHz. The present method was shown to be capable of detecting ionospheric variations in the period range of both 3 to about 13 days and 16 to about 21 days. It is suggested that a 27-day period was not observed in both the HFD and the foF2 spectra due to minimum solar activity.

  14. Artery Remodeling Under Axial Twist in Three Days Organ Culture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Liang; Xiao, Yangming; Voorhees, Andrew; Qi, Ying-Xin; Jiang, Zong-Lai; Han, Hai-Chao

    2015-08-01

    Arteries often endure axial twist due to body movement and surgical procedures, but how arteries remodel under axial twist remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate early stage arterial wall remodeling under axial twist. Porcine carotid arteries were twisted axially and maintained for three days in ex vivo organ culture systems while the pressure and flow remained the same as untwisted controls. Cell proliferation, internal elastic lamina (IEL) fenestrae shape and size, endothelial cell (EC) morphology and orientation, as well as the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), MMP-2 and MMP-9, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) were quantified using immunohistochemistry staining and immunoblotting. Our results demonstrated that cell proliferation in both the intima and media were significantly higher in the twisted arteries compared to the controls. The cell proliferation in the intima increased from 1.33 ± 0.21% to 7.63 ± 1.89%, and in the media from 1.93 ± 0.84% to 8.27 ± 2.92% (p < 0.05). IEL fenestrae total area decreased from 26.07 ± 2.13% to 14.74 ± 0.61% and average size decreased from 169.03 ± 18.85 μm(2) to 80.14 ± 1.96 μm(2) (p < 0.01), but aspect ratio increased in the twist group from 2.39 ± 0.15 to 2.83 ± 0.29 (p < 0.05). MMP-2 expression significantly increased (p < 0.05) while MMP-9 and TIMP-2 showed no significant difference in the twist group. The ECs in the twisted arteries were significantly elongated compared to the controls after three days. The angle between the major axis of the ECs and blood flow direction under twist was 7.46 ± 2.44 degrees after 3 days organ culture, a decrease from the initial 15.58 ± 1.29 degrees. These results demonstrate that axial twist can stimulate artery remodeling. These findings complement our understanding of arterial wall remodeling under mechanical stress resulting from pressure and flow variations. PMID:25503524

  15. 26 CFR 301.6323(d)-1 - 45-day period for making disbursements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ....6323(d)-1 45-day period for making disbursements. (a) In general. Even though a notice of a lien... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 45-day period for making disbursements. 301.6323(d)-1 Section 301.6323(d)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  16. 26 CFR 301.6323(d)-1 - 45-day period for making disbursements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....6323(d)-1 45-day period for making disbursements. (a) In general. Even though a notice of a lien... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 45-day period for making disbursements. 301.6323(d)-1 Section 301.6323(d)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  17. 26 CFR 301.6323(d)-1 - 45-day period for making disbursements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....6323(d)-1 45-day period for making disbursements. (a) In general. Even though a notice of a lien... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 45-day period for making disbursements. 301.6323(d)-1 Section 301.6323(d)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  18. 26 CFR 301.6323(d)-1 - 45-day period for making disbursements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....6323(d)-1 45-day period for making disbursements. (a) In general. Even though a notice of a lien... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 45-day period for making disbursements. 301.6323(d)-1 Section 301.6323(d)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  19. Confirmation of the 62 Day X-Ray Periodicity from M82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaaret, Philip; Feng, Hua

    2007-11-01

    Using 400 days of new X-ray monitoring of M82, we confirm the 62 day periodicity previously reported. In the full data set spanning 1124 days, we find a period of 62.0+/-0.3 days and a coherence, Q=22.3, that is consistent with a strictly periodic signal. We estimate that the probability of chance occurrence of our observed signal is 6×10-7. The light curve folded at this period is roughly sinusoidal and has a peak-to-peak amplitude of (0.99+/-0.10)×10-11 erg cm-2 s-1. Confirmation of the periodicity strengthens our previous suggestion that the 62 day modulation is due to orbital motion within an X-ray binary.

  20. Periodic CO2 Dosing Strategy for Dunaliella salina Batch Culture

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Kezhen; Gilmour, D. James; Zimmerman, William B.

    2015-01-01

    A periodic CO2 dosing strategy for D. salina 19/30 batch culture is proposed. A model of periodic CO2 dosing including dosing time calculation, dosing interval estimation and final chlorophyll yield prediction was established. In experiments, 5% CO2/95% N2 gas was periodically dosed into D. salina culture. Two different gas dosing flow rates were tested. The corresponding dosing time for each flow rate was estimated via the model (10 min·d−1 for 0.7 L·min−1 and 36 min·d−1 for 0.3 L·min−1). Daily pH measurements showed that the pH of these cultures dosed periodically was always kept between 7.5 and 9.5, which highlights that periodic gas supply can maintain a suitable range of pH for microalgal growth without expensive buffers. Notably the culture dosed for set daily intervals was seen to have similar growth to the culture supplied constantly, but with much higher CO2 capture efficiency (11%–18%) compared to continuous dosing (0.25%). It shows great potential for using periodic gas supply to reduce cost, wasted gas and energy use. PMID:25997005

  1. Evidence for an approx. 300 day period in Cygnus X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Priedhorsky, W.C.; Terrell, J.; Holt, S.S.

    1983-07-01

    We present the time history of X-ray emission from Cyg X-1 over an 11 year period, with 10 day resolution. The data were obtained by experiments on the Vela 5B (1969--1979) and Ariel 5 (1974--1980) satellites. Cyg X-1 varies by approx.25% with a 294 +- 4 day period. This modulation is apparently unrelated to the known transitions between the source high and low states. Flux minima occur at 1974.05+nP. The observed period is within the possible range for the precession period of an accretion disk, or of the companion star HDE 226868, in the Cyg X-1 system.

  2. 42 CFR 137.170 - When does the 365 day period commence?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Operational Provisions Audits and... day period, an audit report is deemed received on the date of actual receipt by the Secretary, at the address specified in § 137.172, if, within 60 days after receiving the audit report, the Secretary...

  3. Periodic operation of a continuous culture of Baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Abulesz, E M; Lyberatos, G

    1989-09-01

    The possibility of enhancing the biomass productivity of a continuous culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae growing on a glucose-limited medium is addressed. An unstructured Monod-type model is first identified using steady-state data. The culture is subjected to step changes in dilution rate, and it is seen that the Monod model is unable to predict even qualitatively the dynamic response of the culture. Incorporation of a time delay allows significant improvement in the transient fit. It is found that the culture has a time lag of about 3 h in adapting its growth rate. Cycling the dilution rate with a period of 3 h leads to substantial improvement in the average biomass productivity. PMID:18588160

  4. On forced and free atmospheric oscillations near the 27-day periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanz, Ansgar; Hocke, Klemens; Kämpfer, Niklaus

    2016-06-01

    The Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model was used to investigate the influences of solar fluctuations on zonal wind oscillations. Two simulations were conducted with short-term solar forcing (<35 days) on and off. We found that a 27-day wave is an inherent feature of the atmosphere when the short-term solar forcing is inactive. This internal 27-day oscillation comes along with other periods of the extra-long period wave band (20-40 days) and cannot be linked to the Sun's rotation period. When the short-term solar variability is part of the forcing, including the solar 27-day periodicity, it affects a wide range of the spectrum of zonal wind. At mid-latitudes, a 10-day wave emerges by the short-term solar forcing, which suggests that indirect and nonlinear interactions are involved. Solar short-term variability seems to generate atmospheric perturbations that interact with modes of the internal wave spectrum or the background mean flow. A robust and clear solar interpretation of these wind oscillations is challenging. However, dynamical responses to short-term solar variability exist and need further investigation.

  5. 42 CFR 409.63 - Reduction of inpatient psychiatric benefit days available in the initial benefit period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 150-day pre-entitlement period have no effect on the inpatient hospital benefit days available to the... mental condition. Only the 78 days spent in the psychiatric hospital during the pre-entitlement period... psychiatric hospital care, are available. (b) Application to general hospital days. (1) Days spent in...

  6. 42 CFR 409.63 - Reduction of inpatient psychiatric benefit days available in the initial benefit period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 150-day pre-entitlement period have no effect on the inpatient hospital benefit days available to the... mental condition. Only the 78 days spent in the psychiatric hospital during the pre-entitlement period... psychiatric hospital care, are available. (b) Application to general hospital days. (1) Days spent in...

  7. Discovery of a 176 day period in 4U 1820-30

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priedhorsky, W.; Terrell, J.

    1984-09-01

    Long-term X-ray observations of the X-ray burster 4U 1820-30 (in NGC 6624) reveal a significant 176.4 + or - 1.3 day period. These data were obtained by a 3-12 keV detector on the Vela 5 B satellite during the years 1969-1976. The X-ray flux varies by a factor of 2 over the cycle; the light curve, which has a sawtooth shape with fast rise and slow decline, is quite similar to the 199 day light curve of the burster 4U 1915-05. These long-period variations may be intrinsic luminosity changes, perhaps similar to the quasi-periodic outbursts of dwarf novae, or aspect-dependent effects, such as periodic obscuration by a precessing accretion disk.

  8. Differential success in sampling of Atlantic Forest amphibians among different periods of the day.

    PubMed

    Rocha, C F D; Siqueira, C C; Ariani, C V; Vrcibradic, D; Guedes, D M; Kiefer, M C; Almeida-Gomes, M; Goyannes-Araújo, P; Borges-Júnior, V N T; Van Sluys, M

    2015-05-01

    In general, anurans tend to be nocturnal, though diurnal activity is characteristic of some groups. Studies show that frog activity may be inferred based on the number of individuals collected at different periods of the day, during large-scale field surveys. We investigated the best period of the day to conduct amphibian sampling in nine Atlantic Rainforest areas in southeastern Brazil, based on intensive field surveys. At each locality we employed similar sampling effort during diurnal, crepuscular and nocturnal searches (totaling 704.5 sampling hours). We pooled data from all localities for each period and estimated the proportion of frogs of each species active at each period based on the total number of individuals and on the number of species found during all surveys for that period. We recorded a total of 817 individual frogs from 69 species. Species richness was highest at night (median = 12 species), intermediate at dusk (median = 8), and lowest during the day (median = 4). The percentage of the total number of individual frogs found (pooled species) was highest during the night (ca. 53%) and lowest during the day (ca. 14%). Analyzing each species separately, the number of individuals recorded was consistently higher at dusk and night for most species. Our study evidences a trend for nocturnal activity for most Atlantic Rainforest frogs, with few species having primarily diurnal habits. Those results may favor future studies and conservation efforts for amphibian species. PMID:26132005

  9. The "Approximate 150 Day Quasi-Periodicity" in Interplanetary and Solar Phenomena During Cycle 23

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, I. G.; Cane, H. V.

    2004-01-01

    A"quasi-periodicity" of approx. 150 days in various solar and interplanetary phenomena has been reported in earlier solar cycles. We suggest that variations in the occurrence of solar energetic particle events, inter-planetary coronal mass ejections, and geomagnetic storm sudden commenceents during solar cycle 23 show evidence of this quasi-periodicity, which is also present in the sunspot number, in particular in the northern solar hemisphere. It is not, however, prominent in the interplanetary magnetic field strength.

  10. The 155-day solar period in the sixteenth century and later

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    Recent interest in short solar periods has been stimulated by the discovery of a peak period of about 150-160 days in very energetic solar flares and hard X-ray flares. Auroral data are used here as a proxy for solar activity to show the presence of the peak in data from 1570 to 1573 and in some other time periods. The data are also used to show the absence or lack of prominence of this peak at other times in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

  11. 19 CFR 141.82 - Invoice for installment shipments arriving within a period of 10 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Invoice for installment shipments arriving within..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Invoices § 141.82 Invoice for installment shipments arriving within a period of 10 days. (a) One invoice...

  12. 78 FR 36560 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: FHA Lender Approval, Annual Renewal, Periodic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: FHA Lender Approval, Annual Renewal...: Colette Pollard, Reports Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th... Title of Information Collection: FHA Lender Approval, Annual Renewal, Periodic Updates and...

  13. Ten days of darkness causes temporary blindness during an early critical period in felines

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Donald E.; Crowder, Nathan A.; Holman, Kaitlyn; Smithen, Matthew; Duffy, Kevin R.

    2015-01-01

    Extended periods of darkness have long been used to study how the mammalian visual system develops in the absence of any instruction from vision. Because of the relative ease of implementation of darkness as a means to eliminate visually driven neural activity, it has usually been imposed earlier in life and for much longer periods than was the case for other manipulations of the early visual input used for study of their influences on visual system development. Recently, it was shown that following a very brief (10 days) period of darkness imposed at five weeks of age, kittens emerged blind. Although vision as assessed by measurements of visual acuity eventually recovered, the time course was very slow as it took seven weeks for visual acuity to attain normal levels. Here, we document the critical period of this remarkable vulnerability to the effects of short periods of darkness by imposing 10 days of darkness on nine normal kittens at progressively later ages. Results indicate that the period of susceptibility to darkness extends only to about 10 weeks of age, which is substantially shorter than the critical period for the effects of monocular deprivation in the primary visual cortex, which extends beyond six months of age. PMID:25673680

  14. Tradeoffs between global warming and day length on the vegetation carbon uptake period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Hammerle, Albin; Gianelle, Damiano; Marcola, Barbara; Galvagno, Marta; Cremonese, Edoardo; Morra di Cella, Umberto

    2013-04-01

    There has been much discussion about whether earlier vegetation greenup associated with global warming will allow for an earlier starts of the net carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake period (CUP) by vegetation and thus possibly increase the terrestrial carbon sink. One aspect of this discussion that has received little attention so far is that earlier vegetation greenup will occur at shorter day lengths which reduces the time of the day during which the presence of sunlight allows for photosynthesis and thus carbon uptake. We hypothesise that shorter day lengths associated with earlier vegetation greenup will partly compensate for any temperature-mediated earlier starts of the vegetation period. To test this hypothesis we use eddy covariance CO2 flux data from three mountain grasslands in the Alps: Neustift (970m), Monte Bondone (1500m), Torgnon (2160m). The three grassland sites are at the same latitude, but differ in elevation and thus temperature and thus the length of the snow cover period. We hypothesise that the warming-induced lengthening of the vegetation period will be compensated most by day length at the lowest elevation site, where snow melt occurs close to the spring equinox when day length changes fastest. In contrast, snow melt at the site with the highest elevation occurs closer to the summer solstice, when daily changes in day length are minimal, and we thus hypothesise that compensating effects due to day length will be smallest there. The hypothesis was tested using a phenomenological model of the net CO2 exchange of mountain grassland ecosystems that has been trained with measured eddy covariance CO2 fluxes. On average, the model was well able to simulate both daytime and nighttime NEE and thus predicted the start of the CUP reasonably well. The model was then used to simulate the start of the carbon uptake period using climatological time series of air temperature by uniformly increasing air temperature between 0 and 3 K. A 10 day earlier start of the

  15. The power spectrum of the solar wind speed for periods greater than 10 days

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenimore, E. E.; Asbridge, J. R.; Bame, S. J.; Feldman, W. C.; Gosling, J. T.

    1978-01-01

    The use of the more than 11 years of solar wind speed data obtained by Vela 2-6 and Imp 6-8 to study the power spectrum of speed variations in the range near the solar rotational frequency is discussed. The broad bands of power near periods of 27 days (corresponding to the rotational period of the sun), 13.5 days, and higher harmonics are characterized, and it is suggested that the described individual peaks in both the solar wind and the geomagnetic spectra are probably not due to differential rotation. The alternate explanation is that the multipeak nature of the power spectra are explained by a wave packet concept in which recurring highspeed streams are described as a series of pulses (separated by a constant period) that last for a varying number of solar rotations.

  16. A 78 Day X-Ray Period Detected from NGC 5907 ULX1 by Swift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, D. J.; Fürst, F.; Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Brightman, M.; Fabian, A. C.; Gehrels, N.; Harrison, F. A.; Heida, M.; Middleton, M. J.; Rana, V.; Roberts, T. P.; Stern, D.; Tao, L.; Webb, N.

    2016-08-01

    We report the detection of a 78.1 ± 0.5 day period in the X-ray light curve of the extreme ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5907 ULX1 ({L}{{X,peak}}˜ 5× {10}40 erg s‑1), discovered during an extensive monitoring program with Swift. These periodic variations are strong, with the observed flux changing by a factor of ˜3–4 between the peaks and the troughs of the cycle; our simulations suggest that the observed periodicity is detected comfortably in excess of 3σ significance. We discuss possible origins for this X-ray period, but conclude that at the current time we cannot robustly distinguish between orbital and super-orbital variations.

  17. A 78 Day X-Ray Period Detected from NGC 5907 ULX1 by Swift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, D. J.; Fürst, F.; Bachetti, M.; Barret, D.; Brightman, M.; Fabian, A. C.; Gehrels, N.; Harrison, F. A.; Heida, M.; Middleton, M. J.; Rana, V.; Roberts, T. P.; Stern, D.; Tao, L.; Webb, N.

    2016-08-01

    We report the detection of a 78.1 ± 0.5 day period in the X-ray light curve of the extreme ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5907 ULX1 ({L}{{X,peak}}∼ 5× {10}40 erg s‑1), discovered during an extensive monitoring program with Swift. These periodic variations are strong, with the observed flux changing by a factor of ∼3–4 between the peaks and the troughs of the cycle; our simulations suggest that the observed periodicity is detected comfortably in excess of 3σ significance. We discuss possible origins for this X-ray period, but conclude that at the current time we cannot robustly distinguish between orbital and super-orbital variations.

  18. A 90-Day Subchronic Toxicity Study of Submerged Mycelial Culture of Cordyceps cicadae (Ascomycetes) in Rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Lien; Yeh, Shu-Hsing; Lin, Ting-Wei; Chen, Chin-Chu; Chen, Chin-Shuh; Kuo, Chia-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps cicadae is a parasitic fungus that hibernates inside a host (Cicada flammata Dist.) and then grows its fruiting body on the surface of the insect. The complete insect/fungus combination of C. cicadae has been widely applied in Chinese traditional medicine. Recent studies have demonstrated that the medicinal benefits of cultured mycelia are as effective as those found in the wild. However, toxicological information regarding the chronic consumption of C. cicadae mycelia culture is not available. This study was conducted to evaluate the possible toxicity arising from repeated exposure to freeze-dried submerged mycelial culture of C. cicadae for 90 days. A total of eighty 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (10 males and 10 females in each group). C. cicadae was administered daily to animals by gavage at doses of 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg body weight for 90 days. No animal deaths occurred and no treatment-related clinical signs were observed during the study period. No statistical differences in body weight gain, relative organ weight, hematology, serum chemistry, and urinalysis were observed. Gross necropsy and histopathological findings indicated that there was no treatment-related abnormality. Based on the results, the no observed adverse effect level of C. cicadae whole broth is determined to be > 2000 mg/kg for male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. The results of this study provides support for the use of C. cicadae fermentation product as a safe agent in functional food. PMID:26559863

  19. Growth of mallards fed phosphamidon for 13-day periods during three different developmental stages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haseltine, S.; Hensler, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    Mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos) were exposed to a 13-day dietary treatment of O, 0.5, or 5.0 ppm phosphamidon at one of three successive age intervals (5-17 days, 18-30 days, or 31-43 days) during a 10-week growth period. Weekly measurements of body weight, wing length, primary feather length, and bill length revealed slower development of primary feathers in those birds treated from 5 to 17 days; treatment effects on body weight and wing length from 6 to 8 weeks of age were observed among those birds treated from 18 to 30 days of age. Some differences in growth patterns among birds treated with the same phosphamidon level, but at different growth stages, were attributed to the varying size of the group with which a duckling was housed at different times in the growth process. No brain cholinesterase depression was observed in any group either 24 h after phosphamidon treatment was terminated or at 10 weeks of age.

  20. The dynamic response of visual accommodation over a seven-day period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, R. J.; Murphy, M. R.

    1974-01-01

    Four college students, ranging in age from 18 to 21 years, were tested on their dynamic, monocular accommodation responses to a square wave stimulus and sine waves of two frequencies. The tests were conducted over a period of seven days in a controlled environment, each subject being tested once every three hours. Latency, magnitude, velocity, gain and phase lag of the responses were measured, and means and standard deviations were computed. The latency of response was stable throughout and agreed fairly well with previous studies. The response magnitude was relatively stable. Three of the subjects had higher velocities on receding targets; one was faster on approaching targets. The group mean velocity increased over the seven days of the study. In keeping with the trend to faster dynamics over the seven days, both gain and phase lag improved.

  1. The physical properties of giant exoplanets within 400 days of period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santerne, Alexandre

    2015-12-01

    At a time when small planets in the habitable zone are found, not all the questions about giant planets have been answered. For example, their formation, migration and evolution are far from being fully understood. In this context, the Kepler space mission is providing unprecedented constraints to theories by probing transiting giant planets in a wide range of orbital periods. In this talk, we will present the results of a 6-year spectroscopic survey with the SOPHIE spectrograph of the transiting giant-planet candidates detected by Kepler within 400 days of period. First, we will describe the giant-planet candidate sample from the Kepler catalog and our spectroscopic observations which allowed us to screen out more than half of the candidates as false positives. Then, we will present the occurrence rate of giant planets, based on our sample cleaned from fake transiting planets, and compare it with other surveys. Finally, we will discuss the physical properties of the giant transiting planets within 400 days of period and compare them with predictions from planet-synthesis models.

  2. BVRI photometry of Nova KT Eri 2009 in quiescence and the 752 day period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munari, Ulisse; Dallaporta, Sergio

    2014-02-01

    We obtained extensive new BVRCIC photometry of Nova KT Eri 2009 over a 539-day interval during the post-outburst quiescence, from 30 September 2011 to 22 March 2013 (days +684 to +1223 past maximum). The median magnitudes we measured are B = 15.24, V = 15.00, RC = 14.75 and IC = 14.49. A marked variability is present (total amplitude of ΔV = 1.6 mag). Accounting for a generally overlooked correction to blue photographic magnitudes calibrated against modern B-band data, we found that mean brightness and amplitude of variability of KT Eri in quiescence are the same before and after the 2009 nova outburst. The distance to KT Eri derived from standard relations involving the absolute magnitude at maximum vs rate of decline (MMRD), is ∼6.5 kpc. At such a distance, to fit the BVRCIC + JHK flux distribution of KT Eri in quiescence requires an 8200 K blackbody with a radius of 3.5 R⊙, which is vastly larger than the radius of typical accretion disks of CVs and classical old novae (0.1 R⊙). The distance to KT Eri could therefore be much shorter than expected from MMRD relation. We also observed a new eclipse-like minimum to occur right on time following the 752 day period suspected to modulate the quiescence of KT Eri before the outburst. The nature of this period remains unclear. The faintness of KT Eri at infrared wavelengths (K = 14.1) precludes it from being the orbital period of the accreting WD, because in such a case the Roche lobe filling companion would be a cool giant shining at K∼9 mag.

  3. Observations of 20-day period meridional current oscillations in the upper ocean along the Pacific Equator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, David; Knox, Robert A.; Luther, Douglas S.

    1988-01-01

    Prominent oscillations of the meridional current, with a mean period of approximately 20 days, is observed in the upper ocean from May 1979 to October 1985 using moored current measurements along the Pacific equator at 95, 110, 124, 140, and 152 deg W, as well as off (but near) the equator at 110 and 140 deg W. The fluctuations are relatively narrowband in frequency. A 95 percent statistically significant peak in the power spectra of the meridional current occurs at 110, 124, and 140 deg W, but not at 95 and 152 deg W where the spectral peaks are smaller. The dominant wave period decreases by about 4 percent from 110 to 140 deg W. The wave amplitude decreases with depth, and the wave is essentially confined to the upper 80 m. The penetration depth of the oscillation is greatest at 110 deg W and least at 140 deg W.

  4. Effect of Dynamic Culture and Periodic Compression on Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Proliferation and Chondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ting; Yu, Li; Lim, Casey G; Goodley, Addison S; Xiao, Xuan; Placone, Jesse K; Ferlin, Kimberly M; Nguyen, Bao-Ngoc B; Hsieh, Adam H; Fisher, John P

    2016-07-01

    We have recently developed a bioreactor that can apply both shear and compressive forces to engineered tissues in dynamic culture. In our system, alginate hydrogel beads with encapsulated human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were cultured under different dynamic conditions while subjected to periodic, compressive force. A customized pressure sensor was developed to track the pressure fluctuations when shear forces and compressive forces were applied. Compared to static culture, dynamic culture can maintain a higher cell population throughout the study. With the application of only shear stress, qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry revealed that hMSCs experienced less chondrogenic differentiation than the static group. The second study showed that chondrogenic differentiation was enhanced by additional mechanical compression. After 14 days, alcian blue staining showed more extracellular matrix formed in the compression group. The upregulation of the positive chondrogenic markers such as Sox 9, aggrecan, and type II collagen were demonstrated by qPCR. Our bioreactor provides a novel approach to apply mechanical forces to engineered cartilage. Results suggest that a combination of dynamic culture with proper mechanical stimulation may promote efficient progenitor cell expansion in vitro, thereby allowing the culture of clinically relevant articular chondrocytes for the treatment of articular cartilage defects. PMID:26577256

  5. Search for evidence of a clock related to the solar 154 day complex of periodicities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, P. A.; Bai, T.

    1992-01-01

    Evidence that has recently been compiled (Bai and Sturrock 1991) indicates that the enigmatic 154-day periodicity in solar activity may be viewed as part of a complex of periodicities that are approximate multiples of 25.8 days, suggesting that the Sun contains a 'clock' with frequency in the range 440 to 463 nano Hz. The clock may comprise either an oscillator or a rotator, each of which may be either real or virtual. We have reconsidered a previous spectrum analysis of the Zurich sunspot-number sequence by Knight, Schatten, and Sturrock (1979) which revealed a sharp, persistent and significant periodicity with a period of 12.072 days, corresponding to a frequency of about 958.8 nano Hz. This periodicity may be regarded as the (second) upper sideband of the second harmonic (2nu(sub R) + 2nu(sub E)) of a fundamental frequency of 447.7 nano Hz that is clearly within the search band. In this expression, nu(sub R) is the sidereal frequency of the hypothetical rotator and nu(sub E) is the frequency (31.69 nano Hz) of the Earth in its orbital motion around the Sun. In analyzing sunspot area data derived from the Greenwich data set, and on noting that any frequency is defined only to within the Nyquist frequency, we find clear evidence not only for the upper sideband of the second harmonic, but also for the second harmonic (2nu(sub R)) and the lower sideband of the second harmonic (2nu(sub R) - 2nu(sub E)). There is no strong peak at the fundamental frequency in the Greenwich data, but there is in the Zurich sunspot data. The effect of a linear oscillator is, to the lowest order in the amplitude, the same as the combined effect of two rotators of opposite polarities. A rotator that has arbitrary orientation with respect to the ecliptic may influence the outer layers of the Sun and thereby modulate the occurrence of solar activity such as sunspots. By analyzing a simple model, we find that such a rotator would influence surface activity in such a way that the spectrum of

  6. Pulsation-triggered Mass Loss from AGB Stars: The 60 Day Critical Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.

    2016-06-01

    Low- and intermediate-mass stars eject much of their mass during the late, red giant branch (RGB) phase of evolution. The physics of their strong stellar winds is still poorly understood. In the standard model, stellar pulsations extend the atmosphere, allowing a wind to be driven through radiation pressure on condensing dust particles. Here, we investigate the onset of the wind, using nearby RGB stars drawn from the Hipparcos catalog. We find a sharp onset of dust production when the star first reaches a pulsation period of 60 days. This approximately coincides with the point where the star transitions to the first overtone pulsation mode. Models of the spectral energy distributions show stellar mass-loss rate suddenly increasing at this point, by a factor of ∼10 over the existing (chromospherically driven) wind. The dust emission is strongly correlated with both pulsation period and amplitude, indicating stellar pulsation is the main trigger for the strong mass loss, and determines the mass-loss rate. Dust emission does not strongly correlate with stellar luminosity, indicating radiation pressure on dust has little effect on the mass-loss rate. RGB stars do not normally appear to produce dust, whereas dust production by asymptotic giant branch stars appears commonplace, and is probably ubiquitous above the RGB-tip luminosity. We conclude that the strong wind begins with a step change in mass-loss rate and is triggered by stellar pulsations. A second rapid mass-loss-rate enhancement is suggested when the star transitions to the fundamental pulsation mode at a period of ∼300 days.

  7. Pulsation-triggered Mass Loss from AGB Stars: The 60 Day Critical Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, I.; Zijlstra, A. A.

    2016-06-01

    Low- and intermediate-mass stars eject much of their mass during the late, red giant branch (RGB) phase of evolution. The physics of their strong stellar winds is still poorly understood. In the standard model, stellar pulsations extend the atmosphere, allowing a wind to be driven through radiation pressure on condensing dust particles. Here, we investigate the onset of the wind, using nearby RGB stars drawn from the Hipparcos catalog. We find a sharp onset of dust production when the star first reaches a pulsation period of 60 days. This approximately coincides with the point where the star transitions to the first overtone pulsation mode. Models of the spectral energy distributions show stellar mass-loss rate suddenly increasing at this point, by a factor of ˜10 over the existing (chromospherically driven) wind. The dust emission is strongly correlated with both pulsation period and amplitude, indicating stellar pulsation is the main trigger for the strong mass loss, and determines the mass-loss rate. Dust emission does not strongly correlate with stellar luminosity, indicating radiation pressure on dust has little effect on the mass-loss rate. RGB stars do not normally appear to produce dust, whereas dust production by asymptotic giant branch stars appears commonplace, and is probably ubiquitous above the RGB-tip luminosity. We conclude that the strong wind begins with a step change in mass-loss rate and is triggered by stellar pulsations. A second rapid mass-loss-rate enhancement is suggested when the star transitions to the fundamental pulsation mode at a period of ˜300 days.

  8. Erratum: The 2.27 day period of WR-134 (HD 191765)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccandliss, Stephan R.; Bohannan, Bruce; Robert, Carmelle; Moffat, Anthony F. J.

    1994-01-01

    The original temporal analysis of a 12 night spectral timeseries of Wolf-Rayet (WR)-134 has been found to be flawed and a re-analysis shows that the line profile variations are indeed periodic. When combined with a 4 night timeseries taken 45 days earlier, a period near 2.27 d is found in periodograms of the He II lambda 5412 line centroid, rms line width, and line skew variations. When the emission line residuals are ordered as a function of phase, a sinuous feature appears to 'snake' about the line center with an amplitude of +/-500 km/s. This is approximately equal to 20 larger than the line centroid amplitude; the calculation of which is heavily weighted by static portions of the line profile. In addition to the 'snake,' emission residuals appear that move away from line center on unbound trajectories and are thought to result from the interaction of a periodic driver with the unstable flow of the radiation driven wind.

  9. Regulation of period 1 expression in cultured rat pineal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukuhara, Chiaki; Dirden, James C.; Tosini, Gianluca

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro expression of Period 1 (Per1), Period 2 (Per2) and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) genes in the rat pineal gland to understand the mechanism(s) regulating the expression of these genes in this organ. Pineals, when maintained in vitro for 5 days, did not show circadian rhythmicity in the expression of any of the three genes monitored. Norepinephrine (NE) induced AA-NAT and Per1, whereas its effect on Per2 was negligible. Contrary to what was observed in other systems, NE stimulation did not induce circadian expression of Per1. The effect of NE on Per1 level was dose- and receptor subtype-dependent, and both cAMP and cGMP induced Per1. Per1 was not induced by repeated NE - or forskolin - stimulation. Protein synthesis was not necessary for NE-induced Per1, but it was for reduction of Per1 following NE stimulation. Per1 transcription in pinealocytes was activated by BMAL1/CLOCK. Our results indicate that important differences are present in the regulation of these genes in the mammalian pineal. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Long-Period Cultural Noise: The Panama Canal Seiche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, D. E.; Hutt, C. R.; Ringler, A.; Gee, L. S.

    2009-12-01

    Traditionally, the spectral composition of human generated or “cultural” seismic noise is dominated by short-period (SP) energy (<1s). In this study, we present evidence for long-period (LP) cultural noise (100-200s) at the USGS Global Seismographic Network (GSN) station CU.BCIP, located at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) on Barro Colorado Island (BCI) in the Panama Canal. The LP seismic energy has a strong diurnal signal, with highest power during the daytime when traffic through the Panama Canal is the heaviest, ~1 ship every 10 minutes. The lowest power occurs during the late-night/early-morning hours, when container ship traffic slows to ~1 ship every hour. Spectral power observations are corroborated with data recorded by a water-level meter located approximately 80m from the seismic station, indicating that water waves are the primary source of the LP seismic signal. We show that the observed water waves are a “seiche” induced by the wakes of container ship traffic in the canal. As passing ships disturb the water surface, standing waves are induced by the summation of propagating waves, traveling in opposite directions, due to reflections off the opposite shorelines of the Panama Canal. Vertical harmonic motion results as gravity seeks to restore the horizontal surface of the body of water to a state of hydrostatic equilibrium. The longest natural-period of a seiche in an enclosed body of water is a function of basin depth and length and can be computed by a common oceanographic relationship, known as the Merian formula. For a reasonable range of Panama Canal dimensions in the vicinity of BCI, (depths from 15 to 30m and lengths from 700 to 1500m), the predicted dominant period of a seiche is between 100-200s, consistent with our seismic spectral power observations. Small rhythmic seiches are always present in disturbed enclosed bodies of water and are most often caused by either meteorological effects (wind and atmospheric pressure

  11. WASP-117b: a 10-day-period Saturn in an eccentric and misaligned orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lendl, M.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Doyle, A. P.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Neveu-VanMalle, M.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Udry, S.; Van Grootel, V.; West, R. G.

    2014-08-01

    We report the discovery of WASP-117b, the first planet with a period beyond 10 days found by the WASP survey. The planet has a mass of Mp = 0.2755 ± 0.0089 MJ, a radius of Rp= 1.021_{-0.065+0.076 Rjup} and is in an eccentric (e = 0.302 ± 0.023), 10.02165 ± 0.00055 d orbit around a main-sequence F9 star. The host star's brightness (V = 10.15 mag) makes WASP-117 a good target for follow-up observations, and with a periastron planetary equilibrium temperature of Teq= 1225_{-39+36} K and a low planetary mean density (ρp= 0.259_{-0.048+0.054 ρjup}) it is one of the best targets for transmission spectroscopy among planets with periods around 10 days. From a measurement of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we infer a projected angle between the planetary orbit and stellar spin axes of β = -44 ± 11 deg, and we further derive an orbital obliquity of ψ = 69.6 +4.7-4.1 deg. Owing to the large orbital separation, tidal forces causing orbital circularization and realignment of the planetary orbit with the stellar plane are weak, having had little impact on the planetary orbit over the system lifetime. WASP-117b joins a small sample of transiting giant planets with well characterized orbits at periods above 8 days. Based on data obtained with WASP-South, CORALIE and EulerCam at the Euler-Swiss telescope, TRAPPIST, and HARPS at the ESO 3.6 m telescope (Prog. IDs 087.C-0649, 089.C-0151, 090.C-0540)Photometric and radial velocities are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/568/A81

  12. A seven day running training period increases basal urinary hepcidin levels as compared to cycling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This investigation compared the effects of an extended period of weight-bearing (running) vs. non-weight-bearing (cycling) exercise on hepcidin production and its implications for iron status. Methods Ten active males performed two separate exercise training blocks with either running (RTB) or cycling (CTB) as the exercise mode. Each block consisted of five training sessions (Day 1, 2, 4, 5, 6) performed over a seven day period that were matched for exercise intensity. Basal venous blood samples were obtained on Day 1 (D1), and on Recovery Days 3 (R3) and 7 (R7) to assess iron status, while basal and 3 h post-exercise urinary hepcidin levels were measured on D1, D2, D6, as well as R3 and R7 (basal levels only) for each condition. Results Basal urinary hepcidin levels were significantly elevated (p ≤ 0.05) at D2, R3 and R7 as compared to D1 in RTB. Furthermore, 3 h post-exercise urinary hepcidin levels on D1 were also significantly higher in RTB compared to CTB (p ≤ 0.05). In CTB, urinary hepcidin levels were not statistically different on D1 as compared to R7. Iron parameters were not significantly different at D1 compared to R3 and R7 during both conditions. Conclusions These results suggest that basal hepcidin levels may increase over the course of an extended training program, especially if a weight-bearing exercise modality is undertaken. However, despite any variations in hepcidin production, serum iron parameters in both RTB and CTB were unaffected, possibly due to the short duration of each training block. In comparing running to cycling, non-weight-bearing activity may require more training sessions, or sessions of extended duration, before any significant changes in basal hepcidin levels appear. Chronic elevations in hepcidin levels may help to explain the high incidence of iron deficiency in athletes. PMID:24716892

  13. PCR-Based quantification of Borrelia burgdorferi organisms in canine tissues over a 500-Day postinfection period.

    PubMed

    Straubinger, R K

    2000-06-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi infection in beagle dogs was studied quantitatively with skin punch biopsy samples and blood samples collected at 4- and 2-week intervals, respectively, over a 500-day period. Thereafter, 25 tissue samples of each dog were collected for further analysis. Starting at day 120 after tick challenge, 12 dogs were treated with antibiotics (azithromycin, ceftriaxone, or doxycycline) for 30 consecutive days. Four dogs received no antibiotic therapy. Quantification of B. burgdorferi DNA was done with an ABI Prism 7700 Sequence Detection System with oligonucleotide primers and a fluorescence-labeled probe designed to specifically amplify a fragment of the ospA gene of B. burgdorferi strain N40. All 16 dogs became infected with B. burgdorferi after tick challenge. In skin biopsy samples, spirochete numbers peaked at day 60 postinfection (<1.5 x 10(6) organisms per 100 microgram of extracted DNA), at the same time when clinical signs of arthritis developed in 11 of 16 dogs, and decreased to almost undetectable levels during the following 6 months. The number of B. burgdorferi organisms detected in skin biopsy samples was inversely correlated with the antibody levels measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibiotic treatment reduced the amount of detectable spirochete DNA in skin tissue by a factor of 1,000 or more. At the end of the experiment, B. burgdorferi DNA was detectable at low levels (10(2) to 10(4) organisms per 100 microgram of extracted DNA) in multiple tissue samples regardless of treatment. However, more tissue samples of untreated dogs than of antibiotic-treated dogs were positive, and tissue samples of untreated dogs also were positive by culture. Only 1.6% of 576 blood samples of all dogs were positive for B. burgdorferi by PCR. PMID:10834975

  14. A Simple Method for Multi-Day Imaging of Slice Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Armin H.; Rubel, Edwin W

    2009-01-01

    The organotypic slice culture (Stoppini et al., 1991) has become the method of choice to answer a variety of questions in neuroscience. For many experiments however, it would be beneficial to image or manipulate a slice culture repeatedly, for example over the course of many days. We prepared organotypic slice cultures of the auditory brainstem of P3 and P4 mice and kept them in vitro for up to 4 weeks. Single cells in the auditory brainstem were transfected with plasmids expressing fluorescent proteins by way of electroporation (Haas et al., 2001). The culture was then placed in a chamber perfused with oxygenated ACSF and the labeled cell imaged with an inverted wide-field microscope repeatedly for multiple days, recording several time-points per day, before returning the slice to the incubator. We describe a simple method to image a slice culture preparation over to the course of multiple days and over many continuous hours, without noticeable damage to the tissue or photobleaching. Our method employs a simple, inexpensive custom-built insulator constructed around the microscope to maintain controlled temperature, and uses a perfusion chamber as used for in vitro slice recordings. PMID:19565635

  15. Geopathology on May Day: Expressions of Culture on Hawai'i's Elementary School Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Jamie Simpson

    2013-01-01

    In Hawai'i's elementary schools, May Day programs feature children adorned with flower leis, singing and dancing hula about Hawaiian culture and performing traditions from major ethnic groups who settled the islands. Using the lens of geopathology, this research questions how various groups of residents long for belonging and struggle for…

  16. GENE EXPRESSION PATTERNS OF CD-1 DAY-8 EMBRYO CULTURES EXPOSED TO BROMOCHLORO ACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gene expression patterns of CD-1 day-8 embryo cultures exposed to bromochloro acetic acid

    Edward D. Karoly?*, Judith E. Schmid* and E. Sidney Hunter III*
    ?Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina and *Reproductiv...

  17. A New Model for Long-Period Tidal Variations in Length of Day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, R. D.; Erofeeva, S.

    2012-12-01

    The standard IERS model for tidal variations in length of day (LOD), covering the band from one week to 18.6 years, stems from a 30-year-old paper by Yoder, Williams, and Parke. Their original table has been updated in the latest adopted standards by modifying only a few constituents: four constituents were adjusted for effects of mantle anelasticity and two constituents for effects of ocean tides. We here present a new, consistent, and comprehensive model. While Yoder et al. employed 62 tidal spectral lines, we employ 80, most of the new lines being higher frequency lines that are now detectable, or nearly detectable, in LOD measurements. We employ an anelastic model of Wahr and Bergen consistently to all lines throughout the entire long-period band, although there remains uncertainty in extrapolating to the lowest frequencies. Our model of ocean tides builds on recent experience modeling the fortnightly Mf tide (Ray and Egbert, Geophys. J. Int., 2012), for which good observational data allow extensive testing of both the numerical ocean model and the Wahr-Bergen anelastic model. Ocean model improvements now appear adequate to remove our dependence on data assimilation for Mf (at least for earth-rotation effects), which is a critical requirement before extending to other frequencies that lack reliable observational constraints. We have run the model for 12 major long-period constituents. The ocean-tide admittance at these 12 frequencies is then interpolated smoothly to all other lines, while relaxing to self-consistent equilibrium for the node tide. Application of this new model to a modern time series of space-geodetic LOD measurements shows a significant reduction in variance compared with the current IERS model. For example, in the 10-70 cpy band, the variance is reduced by 8%.

  18. Task Specific Frequencies of Neck Motion Measured in Healthy Young Adults over a 5 Day Period

    PubMed Central

    Cobian, Daniel G.; Sterling, Andrew C.; Anderson, Paul A.; Heiderscheit, Bryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Study Design Observational cohort design. Objective To quantify the frequencies and magnitudes of neck motion during daily activities in healthy subjects. Summary of Background Data Previous studies have measured the maximum excursions during re-created ADLs in lab settings, but there is a lack of information available on frequencies and excursions of neck motion with ADLs in non-artificial settings. Methods Ten healthy young adults were fitted with a portable motion measurement device that recorded movement about each primary axis. Participants were instructed to wear the unit continuously over a 5-day period and record their daily activities with corresponding times. After the collection period, subjects' activity logs were analyzed and data were partitioned into five categories which provided the most primary representation of ADLs: athletics, work, travel, sleep, and miscellaneous. Each category was further divided into increasingly specific activities (e.g. running and walking). Frequency of motions within 5° increments was determined and an hourly rate was calculated for each activity. Median motion about each axis for each activity was also determined. Results The total number of movements per hour for all axes, regardless of amplitude, was highest during athletic activity and lowest during sleeping. The majority of movements (92% of athletic activity, 90% of work) required less than 25° of lateral bending, while greater range of movement requirements were observed for flexion-extension and axial rotation. The median range of motion along all axes was highest for athletic activity and lowest for sleeping. Conclusions The results of this study provide a baseline of the frequency and magnitude of neck motion during normal ADLs for the specified population. These findings can assist physicians and physical therapists in determining the extent of disability and identifying activities that will likely be problematic for patients with limited cervical motion

  19. Synthesis and secretion of plasma proteins by embryonic chick hepatocytes: changing patterns during the first three days of culture

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    A simple model system is described for studying synthesis of plasma proteins. The system is based on chick embryo hepatocytes in primary monolayer culture which synthesize a broad spectrum of plasma proteins and secrete them into the culture medium. The secreted proteins are stable and consist almost exclusively of plasma proteins. The cultured cells are nonproliferating hepatic parenchymal cells whose cell mass remains constant in culture. By a modification of Laurell's rocket immunoelectrophoresis, the secreted plasma proteins can be detected in nanogram amounts in 3 microliter of unconcentrated culture medium. Kinetics of secretion are obtained by sequential assay of proteins accumulating in the medium. In this system it is demonstrated that: (a) intracellular plasma protein levels are equivalent to less than 5% of the daily secretion; (b) synthesis and secretion are continuous; and (c) the overall half-time for plasma protein movement along the secretory pathway is less than 10 min. From these results, it follows that the rate at which the plasma proteins are secreted gives a valid estimate of their rate of synthesis. This feature of the culture and the sensitivity of the assay allow routine measurements of plasma protein synthesis without disruption of the cells and without the use of radioisotopes. It is shown, furthermore, that the overall rate of plasma protein synthesis in cultured hepatocytes is constant over a 3- day period and is similar to that of the intact liver. 3,000,000 cells, containing 1 mg cell protein, synthesize 0.2 mg of plasma proteins daily, amounting to one-fifth of hepatocellular protein synthesis. Under the conditions used, albumin synthesis steadily decreases with culture time whereas the synthesis of many other plasma proteins increases. The observed phenotypic changes and reorganization of plasma protein synthesis illustrate how the system may be exploited for studying the regulatory processes governing plasma protein synthesis. PMID

  20. [The effectiveness of auricular micro-needle acupuncture in the early postoperative period under conditions of day surgical unit].

    PubMed

    Vorob'ev, V V; Dymnikov, A A

    2000-01-01

    The authors have developed a method of auricular microneedle analgesia--setting the microneedles in the area of the auricle floor for the period of up to 5 days which could reduce the pain syndrome. PMID:11209231

  1. 76 FR 6794 - 30-Day Submission Period for Requests for ONC-Approved Accreditor (ONC-AA) Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... Program for Health Information Technology, 76 FR 1262 (Jan. 7, 2011) (the ``Permanent Certification... HUMAN SERVICES 30-Day Submission Period for Requests for ONC-Approved Accreditor (ONC-AA) Status AGENCY... ONC-Approved Accreditor (ONC-AA) status. Authority: 42 U.S.C. 300jj-11. DATES: The 30-day...

  2. CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 10 (PERIODS 1-3): DAY CARE CENTER CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data collection form collects information on the child's activities at the day care center over the 48-hr monitoring period. The diary is divided into three time periods over the 48-monitoring interval. The Food Survey collects information on the frequency and types of frui...

  3. CTEPP NC DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 10 (PERIODS 1-3): DAY CARE CENTER CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains data concerning the child’s activities at the day care center over the 48-h monitoring period. The diary was divided into three time periods over the 48-h monitoring interval. The Food Survey collected information on the frequency and types of fruits, veget...

  4. Coccidiosis control by administering toltrazuril in the drinking water for a 2-day period.

    PubMed

    Mathis, G F; Froyman, R; Kennedy, T

    2004-05-01

    A 56-day floor pen study was conducted to determine the appropriate time to administer toltrazuril (Baycox) (TOL) for control of coccidiosis in broiler chickens. Litter was seeded with field strains of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima and Eimeria tenella. On Days 0, 21, 35 and 56, all birds and feed were weighed. Starting on Day 14, weekly lesion scores and oocyst counts were performed. The treatments were 125 ppm nicarb (NIC) in the starter to 66 ppm salinomycin (SAL) in the grower with no TOL (NIC/SAL/no TOL), 66 ppm salinomycin in both the starter and the grower but no TOL (SAL/SAL/no TOL), or no in-feed medication with the following TOL treatment: TOL Days 2-3, TOL Days 6-7, TOL Days 10-11, TOL Days 14-15, TOL Days 18-19, and as control NM/NM/no TOL (NM). The withdrawal feed was nonmedicated. TOL was administered in the drinking water at the rate of 7 mg/kg body weight. Oocysts per gram litter and lesion scores showed a significant infection in the NM birds, which peaked about Day 21. The NIC/SAL gave excellent early protection but only moderate protection during the SAL phase. The final performance for the SAL/SAL was significantly less compared to all TOL and NIC/SAL birds. All TOL treatments but Days 2-3 provided good coccidiosis control with accompanying performance. The absence of clinical coccidiosis relapse during the last third of the growout along with moderate oocyst counts and low lesions was indicative of unimpaired coccidiosis immunity. It can be inferred from the overall results that the use of TOL as the sole anticoccidial for two consecutive days in the drinking water between Days 10 and 14 would be the best time for good coccidiosis control allowing full performance. PMID:15110398

  5. Discovery of a 115 Day Orbital Period in the Ultraluminous X-ray Source NGC 5408 X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2009-01-01

    We report the detection of a 115 day periodicity in SWIFT/XRT monitoring data from the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC 5408 X-1. Our o ngoing campaign samples its X-ray flux approximately twice weekly and has now achieved a temporal baseline of ti 485 days. Periodogram ana lysis reveals a significant periodicity with a period of 115.5 +/- 4 days. The modulation is detected with a significance of 3.2 x 10(exp -4) . The fractional modulation amplitude decreases with increasing e nergy, ranging from 0.13 +/- 0.02 above 1 keV to 0.24 +/- 0.02 below 1 keV. The shape of the profile evolves as well, becoming less sharply peaked at higher energies. The periodogram analysis is consistent wi th a periodic process, however, continued monitoring is required to c onfirm the coherent nature of the modulation. Spectral analysis indic ates that NGC 5408 X-1 can reach 0.3 - 10 keV luminosities of approxi mately 2 x 10 40 ergs/s . We suggest that, like the 62 day period of the ULX in M82 (X41.4-1-60), the periodicity detected in NGC 5408 X-1 represents the orbital period of the black hole binary containing the ULX. If this is true then the secondary can only be a giant or super giant star.

  6. The Evolution of Cloud Features on Neptune over a 20-day time period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, S. C.; Roe, H.; de Pater, I.; Macintosh, B.; Gibbard, S.; Max, C. E.; Gavel, D.; Brown, M.; Ghez, A.

    2000-10-01

    Near-infrared images of Neptune were taken with SCAM, the slit-viewing camera of the AO/NIRSPEC system at the 10-m W.M. Keck II telescope, on 2000 June 8,17,18,22,23 and 29 UT. Observations with broad-band filter Nirspec-5 [1.61 micron], Nirspec-6 [1.93 micron], and K' [2.12 micron], and several narrow-band filters between 1.279 and 1.702 microns are compared to determine the temporal evolution of cloud features over the 20-day period. These images taken with the Keck Adaptive Optics system are spectacular, revealing narrow zonal bands at 3-4 degree latitude spacings within bright regions and near the equator. There are three regions of latitude that contain bright features along zonal bands. The dimmest of these bright regions is located in the Northern hemisphere and extends from 20 deg N to 40 deg N. The remaining two bright regions are located in the Southern hemisphere extending from 20 deg S to 50 deg S, and from 60 deg S to 70 deg S. The region near the South pole (a recently quiet location) contains a bright teardrop-shaped feature which may be related to the Westerly jet observed by Voyager and reported by Sanjay et.al. (Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.6, pp. 18941-18960, 1991) at a similar latitude. This research was supported in part by the STC Program of the National Science Foundation under Agreement No. AST-9876783, and in part under the auspices of the US Department of Energy at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Univ. of Calif. under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. Data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  7. Periodicity of about 13 days in the cosmic-ray intensity in the solar cycles no. 18, 19 and 20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filisetti, O.; Mussino, V.

    1982-12-01

    The quasi-periodical variations of the cosmic-ray intensity, with a period of about 13 days, have been studied in the data recorded through shielded ionization chambers at Huancayo and at Cheltenham-Fredericksburg during the solar cycles no. 18, 19 and 20 (1944-1974). The temporal variation of the annual average amplitudes of the oscillation of about 13 days for both stations is compared with the behavior of the Wolf number R of sunspot. For the cycles no. 18 and 19, these amplitudes present, like of 27-day oscillation, two maxima, while for the cycle no. 20 there is only one clear maximum. In this work is also presented the negative correlation between the annual mean cosmic-ray intensity and the amplitude of the 13-day oscillation.

  8. Results of 5-year photometric monitoring of the intermediate polar V2306 Cygni: correction of the orbital period and evidence of 2-day periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breus, V.; Petrík, K.; Zoła, S.; Baransky, A.; Hegedus, T.

    2015-09-01

    We present the results of 6 years of photometric monitoring of the magnetic cataclysmic variable V2306 Cygni (formerly known as 1WGAJ1958.2+3232) obtained at collaborating observatories. Using (O-C) analysis we tried to study variability of the spin period of the white dwarf, however we cannot make a firm conclusion based on the scatter. Simultaneously, using (O-C) diagram of orbital minima, we found that the value of 0.181545(3) days better corresponds with the light curve, than do previously published orbital period values. We also found that the variability has a 2.01 day period; this variability may be interpreted as possible precession of the accretion disk in this system.

  9. 77 FR 64759 - Rescission of 10-Day Agency Discretionary Period in Assigning Unsatisfactory Safety Ratings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... Statutory History The Motor Carrier Safety Act of 1990 (1990 Act) (section 15 of the Sanitary Food... Fitness procedures; Safety Ratings, 56 FR 40801, 40802, 40806 (Aug. 18, 1991) (FHWA final rule). \\3\\ http... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 385 RIN 2126-AB55 Rescission of 10-Day...

  10. +Gz tolerance in man after 14-day bedrest periods with isometric and isotonic exercise conditioning.

    PubMed

    Greenleaf, J E; Bernauer, E M; Morse, J T; Sandler, H; Armbruster, R; Sagan, L; van Beaumont, W

    1975-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of isometric or isotonic exercise training on post-bedrest +Gz tolerance. Seven male volunteers, 19-22 years, underwent accelerations of +2.1 Gz (740 s), +3.2 Gz (327 s), and +3.8 Gz (312 s) in a selected, randomized order; the ramp to peak acceleration was 1.8 G/min. The centrifugation runs were terminated by loss of central vision (blackout) to a white light with a luminance of 3.15 times 10-5 log candle/cm-2 (0.092 ft-lambert). The study began with a 14-d ambulatory control period, followed by three 14-d bedrest periods (each separated by a 21-d recovery period) and then a final week of recovery. During the ambulatory periods, the subjects exercised on a bicycle ergometer at 50% of their maximal oxygen uptake (max VO2) for 1 h/d. During two of the three bedrest periods, the subjects performed in the supine position one of two routines, either isometric exercise (21% of max leg extension force for 1 min followed by 1-min rest) or isotonic exercise (68% of max VO2) for 0.5 in the morning and afternoon. During the third bedrest period, no exercise was performed. In general +Gz tolerance was reduced by 24% to 35% (p less than or equal to 0.05) after bedrest. Compared with control values, there were significant reductions in average tolerance times after bedrest with no exercise and isotonic exercise at all G levels. With isometric exercise, there was a significant decrease in tolerance at 2.1 Gz but not at 3.2 Gz or 3.8 Gz, even though the latter tolerances were reduced 15.6% and 10.0%, respectively. Both exercise regimens maintained tolerance at levels equal to or above that obtained with no exercise. Compared with control values, average tolerances were lower (p less than or equal to 0.05) after the two recovery periods between the bedrest periods (minus 24% to minus 26% at 3.2 Gz and 3.8 Gz), indicating that 3 weeks of ambulation was not sufficient time for full recovery from the deconditioning induced in

  11. A degree-day model for the latent period of stagonospora nodorum blotch in winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB), which is caused by Stagonospora nodorum, occurs frequently in the southeastern United States and severe epidemics can lead to substantial economic losses. To establish a model for the development of SNB based on the effects of temperature on the latent period of th...

  12. 26 CFR 301.6332-3 - The 21-day holding period applicable to property held by banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... provisions of this paragraph (c) may be illustrated by the following examples: Example 1. On April 2, 1992, a... of A's contract with X Bank up through April 23, 1992, (the last day of the holding period). Example 2. The facts are the same as in Example 1 except that on April 3, 1992, A deposits an additional...

  13. 26 CFR 301.6332-3 - The 21-day holding period applicable to property held by banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The 21-day holding period applicable to property held by banks. 301.6332-3 Section 301.6332-3 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Seizure of Property for Collection of Taxes § 301.6332-3 The...

  14. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #20: 60-DAY PUBLIC COMMENT PERIOD FOR "OVERVIEW" REPORT FROM U.S. NATIONAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The draft "Overview" report from the U.S. National Assessment was released today for a 60-day public comment period. The report, entitled "Climate Change Impacts on the United States: The Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change," was written by the National Asses...

  15. 29 CFR 553.230 - Maximum hours standards for work periods of 7 to 28 days-section 7(k).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-section 7(k). 553.230 Section 553.230 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... Compensation Rules § 553.230 Maximum hours standards for work periods of 7 to 28 days—section 7(k). (a) For... 28 consecutive days, no overtime compensation is required under section 7(k) until the number...

  16. Finding a 24 Day Orbital Period for the X-Ray Binary 1A 1118-616

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staubert, R.; Pottschmidt, K.; Doroshenko, V.; Wilms, J.; Suchy, S.; Rothschild, R.; Santangelo, A.

    2010-01-01

    We report the first determination of the binary period and the orbital ephemeris of the Be X-ray binary containing the pulsar IA 1118-616 (35 years after the discovery of the source). The orbital period is found to be P(sub orb) = 24.0+/-0.4 days. The source was observed by RXTE during its last big X-ray outburst in January 2009, peaking at MJD 54845.4. This outburst was sampled by taking short observations every few days, covering an elapsed time comparable to the orbital period. Using the phase connection technique, pulse arrival time delays could be measured and an orbital solution determined. The data are consistent with a circular orbit, the time of 90 degrees longitude was found to be T,/2 = MJD 54845.37(10), coincident with the peak X-ray flux.

  17. +Gz tolerance in man after 14-day bedrest periods with isometric and isotonic exercise conditioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Haines, R. F.; Sandler, H.; Bernauer, E. M.; Morse, J. T.; Armbruster, R.; Sagan, L.; Van Beaumont, W.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of isometric and isotonic exercise training on post-bedrest +Gz tolerance were determined. In general, 14-day bedrest resulted in a significant loss of Gz tolerance, as previously discovered. At 2.1 Gz, neither the isometric nor the isotonic exercises regimens resulted in a significant increase in post-bedrest Gz tolerance. However, following isometric exercise, restoration of about half the tolerance decrement occurred at 3.2 Gz and 3.8 Gz. Possible reasons for this partial restoration of tolerance are put forward.

  18. 43 CFR 1822.14 - What if I try to file a required document on the last day of the stated period for filing, but...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... on the last day of the stated period for filing, but the BLM office where it is to be filed is... last day of the stated period for filing, but the BLM office where it is to be filed is officially closed all day? BLM considers the document timely filed if we receive it in the office on the next day...

  19. Building enterprise-wide resilience by integrating business continuity capability into day-to-day business culture and technology.

    PubMed

    Alesi, Patrick

    2008-04-01

    This paper follows the development of the business continuity planning (BCP) programme at Lehman Brothers following the events of September 11th. Previous attempts to implement a `traditional' form of BCP had been ineffective, but following the events, the firm began to look at BCP in a new light. This paper deals with three main themes: creating a culture of resiliency, leveraging technology, and building flexible plans. Distributing accountability for BCP to business line managers, integrating BCP change management into the normal course of business, and providing every employee with personalised BCP information breeds a culture of resiliency where people are empowered to react to events without burdensome, hierarchical response and recovery procedures. Building a strong relationship with one's application development community can result in novel, customised BCP solutions; existing systems and data structures can be used to enhance an existing BCP. Even the best plans are often challenged by events; understanding that flexibility is essential to effective incident response is a critical element in the development of a proper business continuity plan. PMID:21339108

  20. Comparison of SAFER behavior assessment results in shelter dogs at intake and after a 3-day acclimation period.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Sara L; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Walker, Sheryl L; Placer, Margaret; Litster, Annette

    2015-01-01

    In this study, it was hypothesized that different results would be obtained by canine behavior assessments performed within 24 hr of shelter intake (Day 0) and after a 3-day acclimation period (Day 3). Safety Assessment for Evaluating Rehoming assessments were performed on 33 dogs at 2 municipal shelters. Agreements between Day 0 and Day 3 varied among subtests, and no consistent temporal patterns were observed. Weighted kappa statistics for each subtest ranged from .28 to .78, and percentage discordance was 0% to 18%. In a 2nd analysis, subtests skipped due to serious aggression were replaced with scores corresponding to serious aggression, and missing values for the Food subtest were replaced with scores for no aggression if the dog did not eat. For subtests skipped due to severe aggression, more than 50% of the dogs had scores indicating low aggression on the other assessment. Eight of 16 dogs who did not eat on Day 0 ate on Day 3; 2 showed aggression. Until the ideal time to test can be identified, it should be based on the individual dog's welfare status, and testing of dogs showing severe stress should be avoided. PMID:25603466

  1. An estimate of equatorial wave energy flux at 9- to 90-day periods in the Central Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksen, Charles C.; Richman, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Deep fluctuations in current along the equator in the Central Pacific are dominated by coherent structures which correspond closely to narrow-band propagating equatorial waves. Currents were measured roughly at 1500 and 3000 m depths at five moorings between 144 and 148 deg W from January 1981 to March 1983, as part of the Pacific Equatorial Ocean Dynamics program. In each frequency band resolved, a single complex empirical orthogonal function accounts for half to three quarters of the observed variance in either zonal or meridional current. Dispersion for equatorial first meridional Rossby and Rossby gravity waves is consistent with the observed vertical-zonal coherence structure. The observations indicate that energy flux is westward and downward in long first meridional mode Rossby waves at periods 45 days and longer, and eastward and downward in short first meridional mode Rossby waves and Rossby-gravity waves at periods 30 days and shorter. A local minimum in energy flux occurs at periods corresponding to a maximum in upper-ocean meridional current energy contributed by tropical instability waves. Total vertical flux across the 9- to 90-day period range is 2.5 kW/m.

  2. Milk production from Holstein half udders after concurrent thirty- and seventy-day dry periods.

    PubMed

    Gulay, M S; Hayen, M J; Head, H H; Wilcox, C J; Bachman, K C

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study was to use a within-cow, half-udder model to compare the effect of cessation of milk removal from mammary quarters within respective half udders at either 30 or 70 d before expected calving date (ECD) on the ability of the half udders to subsequently produce milk. Pregnant Holstein cows were assigned to control (n = 14) or treatment (TRT, n = 26) groups. All mammary quarters in the udder of cows in the control group had 70-d (68 +/- 9 d) dry periods, whereas in each cow of the TRT group, 1 randomly selected half udder was dried at 70 d before ECD and the other half udder continued to be milked twice daily until dried at 30 d before ECD. From 80 through 70 d before ECD, amounts of milk produced by the left and right half udders of cows in the TRT group were measured at the first-shift milking. No differences were detected in the actual or relative amounts of milk produced by the left (3.46 +/- 0.2 kg; 48.8 +/- 1.0%) and the right (3.63 +/- 0.2 kg; 51.2 +/- 1.0%) half udders. Furthermore, the actual and relative amounts of milk produced by the half udders (n = 12 left, 14 right) subsequently dry for 67 +/- 7 d (3.56 +/- 0.2 kg; 50.2 +/- 1.0%) and the half udders (n = 14 left, 12 right) subsequently dry for 27 +/- 7 d (3.54 +/- 0.2 kg; 49.8 +/- 1.0%) did not differ before they were dried. However, from 3 to 100 d of the subsequent lactation, the 30-d dry half udders produced 18.9% less milk than the 70-d dry half udders (16.3 vs. 20.1 +/- 1.0 kg/d). In addition, relative amounts of total-udder milk produced by the 30- and 70-d dry half udders in the same cow differed (44.9 vs. 55.1 +/- 0.2%, respectively). Cows in the control group produced more milk than cows in the TRT group through 80 DIM (39.5 vs. 35.2 +/- 0.6 kg/d), but not from 3 through 150 DIM (39.0 vs. 36.2 +/- 1.6 kg/d). Thus, half udders that produced the same actual and relative amounts of milk before being dried did not do so when given a 30-d dry period instead of a 70-d dry

  3. Analysis of the 27.03 day Period found in Synoptic Data from NSO-Kitt Peak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henney, C. J.; Harvey, J. W.

    2001-05-01

    Over 25 years of synoptic data from the NSO-Kitt Peak Vacuum Telescope (KPVT) is used to investigate recent reports of a 27.03 day period observed in solar wind and solar surface magnetic field data. We present analysis of this signal using time series of integrated KPVT full-disk measurements of the magnetic flux in 868.8 nm and the line equivalent width in 1083.0 nm. In particular, we analyze the coherency of the 27.03 day signal, along with a search for potential solar surface sources of the signal. As a measure the coherency, a phase coherency spectrum was created using the signal phase measured for different segments of the time series. For comparison, we also analyze the international sunspot number (ISN) for the same period as the KPVT time series, along with the full period of the ISN time series. Similar to earlier results, we find that the signal is coherent for the last few decades but not over longer time periods. By constructing maps of the surface distribution of activity synchronized to different rotation periods, we find that the origin of the signal is long-lived complexes of active regions. This research was supported in part by the Office of Navel Research Grant N00014-91-J-1040. The NSO-Kitt Peak data used here are produced cooperatively by NSF/AURA, NASA/GSFC, and NOAA/SEC.

  4. Spin-orbit alignment for 110 day period KOI368.01 from gravity darkening

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlers, John P.; Seubert, Shayne A.; Barnes, Jason W.

    2014-05-10

    We fit the Kepler photometric light curve of the KOI-368 system using an oblate, gravity-darkened stellar model in order to constrain its spin-orbit alignment. We find that the system is relatively well-aligned with a sky-projected spin-orbit alignment of λ = 10° ± 2°, a stellar obliquity of ψ = 3° ± 7°, and a true spin-orbit alignment of ψ = 11° ± 3°. Although our measurement differs significantly from zero, the low value for ψ is consistent with spin-orbit alignment. We also measure various transit parameters of the KOI-368 system: R {sub KOI-368} = 2.28 ± 0.02 R {sub ☉}, R{sub p} = 1.83 ± 0.02 R {sub jup}, and i = 89.°221 ± 0.°013. This work shows that our gravity-darkened model can constrain long-period, well-aligned planets and M-class stars orbiting fast-rotators, allowing for measurement of a new subcategory of transiting bodies.

  5. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE 0.94-DAY PERIOD TRANSITING PLANETARY SYSTEM WASP-18

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, John; Anderson, D. R.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Hinse, T. C.; Dominik, M.; Mathiasen, M.; Browne, P.; Glitrup, M.; Joergensen, U. G.; Harpsoee, K.; Liebig, C.; Maier, G.; Bozza, V.; Calchi Novati, S.; Mancini, L.; Burgdorf, M.; Dreizler, S.; Hessman, F.; Hundertmark, M.; Finet, F.

    2009-12-10

    We present high-precision photometry of five consecutive transits of WASP-18, an extrasolar planetary system with one of the shortest orbital periods known. Through the use of telescope defocusing we achieve a photometric precision of 0.47-0.83 mmag per observation over complete transit events. The data are analyzed using the JKTEBOP code and three different sets of stellar evolutionary models. We find the mass and radius of the planet to be M {sub b} = 10.43 +- 0.30 +- 0.24 M {sub Jup} and R {sub b} = 1.165 +- 0.055 +- 0.014 R {sub Jup} (statistical and systematic errors), respectively. The systematic errors in the orbital separation and the stellar and planetary masses, arising from the use of theoretical predictions, are of a similar size to the statistical errors and set a limit on our understanding of the WASP-18 system. We point out that seven of the nine known massive transiting planets (M {sub b} > 3 M {sub Jup}) have eccentric orbits, whereas significant orbital eccentricity has been detected for only four of the 46 less-massive planets. This may indicate that there are two different populations of transiting planets, but could also be explained by observational biases. Further radial velocity observations of low-mass planets will make it possible to choose between these two scenarios.

  6. "A Day in the Life": Advancing a Methodology for the Cultural Study of Development and Learning in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen, Julia; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Tapanya, Sombat; Pinto, Giuliana; Hancock, Roger; Young, Susan; Gamannossi, Beatrice Accorti

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the methodology of an ecological investigation of aspects of culture in the interactional construction of early childhood in diverse global communities: Peru, Italy, Canada, Thailand, and the United Kingdom. Regarding culture as a dynamic dimension of the child's socialisation, the approach taken was to film a "day in the life"…

  7. Validation of shortened 2-day sterility testing of mesenchymal stem cell-based therapeutic preparation on an automated culture system.

    PubMed

    Lysák, Daniel; Holubová, Monika; Bergerová, Tamara; Vávrová, Monika; Cangemi, Giuseppina Cristina; Ciccocioppo, Rachele; Kruzliak, Peter; Jindra, Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Cell therapy products represent a new trend of treatment in the field of immunotherapy and regenerative medicine. Their biological nature and multistep preparation procedure require the application of complex release criteria and quality control. Microbial contamination of cell therapy products is a potential source of morbidity in recipients. The automated blood culture systems are widely used for the detection of microorganisms in cell therapy products. However the standard 2-week cultivation period is too long for some cell-based treatments and alternative methods have to be devised. We tried to verify whether a shortened cultivation of the supernatant from the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) culture obtained 2 days before the cell harvest could sufficiently detect microbial growth and allow the release of MSC for clinical application. We compared the standard Ph. Eur. cultivation method and the automated blood culture system BACTEC (Becton Dickinson). The time to detection (TTD) and the detection limit were analyzed for three bacterial and two fungal strains. The Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were recognized within 24 h with both methods (detection limit ~10 CFU). The time required for the detection of Bacillus subtilis was shorter with the automated method (TTD 10.3 vs. 60 h for 10-100 CFU). The BACTEC system reached significantly shorter times to the detection of Candida albicans and Aspergillus brasiliensis growth compared to the classical method (15.5 vs. 48 and 31.5 vs. 48 h, respectively; 10-100 CFU). The positivity was demonstrated within 48 h in all bottles, regardless of the size of the inoculum. This study validated the automated cultivation system as a method able to detect all tested microorganisms within a 48-h period with a detection limit of ~10 CFU. Only in case of B. subtilis, the lowest inoculum (~10 CFU) was not recognized. The 2-day cultivation technique is then capable of confirming the microbiological safety of

  8. 76 FR 33395 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collections: ECA Sports & Culture Evaluation Surveys

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collections: ECA Sports & Culture Evaluation Surveys ACTION: Notice of... Information Collection: Sports & Culture Evaluation, Between the Lines (BTL) Survey. OMB Control Number: None... Respond: Voluntary. Title of Information Collection: Sports & Culture Evaluation, Sports Envoys...

  9. Period trends in rate of suicide in first 28 days after discharge from psychiatric hospital in Scotland, 1968-92.

    PubMed Central

    Geddes, J. R.; Juszczak, E.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine period trends in the rate of suicide in the first 28 days after discharge from psychiatric hospital. DESIGN--Cohort study of patients discharged from psychiatric hospital. SETTING--Scotland. SUBJECTS--All patients aged 15-84 who were discharged from Scottish psychiatric hospitals during 1968 to 1992. OUTCOME MEASURE--The rate of suicide (classified as codes E950-9 and E980-9 according to the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision) within 28 days of discharge per 100,000 person years at risk for five year periods during 1968 to 1992. Crude, within cohort rates and externally standardised rates were calculated. RESULTS--Overall, 196 male patients committed suicide in 20,520 person years at risk, and 171 female patients committed suicide in 24,114 person years at risk. A significant linear trend was seen in period effect on externally standardised mortality ratios in both sexes: a decrease in male patients (P = 0.008) and an increase in female patients (P = 0.0001). The adjusted standardised mortality ratio in 1988-92 compared with 1968-72 was 0.62 (95% confidence interval 0.39 to 0.98) in male patients and 2.73 (1.64 to 4.56) in female patients. CONCLUSION--The increase in the rate of suicide in the 28 days after discharge in female psychiatric patients makes this an increasingly important period to target. The rise has occurred against the background of a reduction of 60% in the number of psychiatric beds for adults. PMID:7640540

  10. Periodicity of about 27 days in the cosmic-ray intensity and KP data during the solar cycle no. 18

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovera, G.; Filisetti, O.; Mussino, V.; Tedde, P. G.

    1981-07-01

    A periodicity analysis is presented of the 27-day quasi-periodic variations in cosmic ray intensity and associated Kp index during solar cycle 18 (1944-1953) and compared with those performed for cycles 19 and 20. Daily mean cosmic ray data was obtained with shielded ionization chambers at Huancayo, Peru and Cheltenham, MD, and together with daily sums of the Kp index, analyzed according to the periodicity method of Vercelli, which traces the time history and dynamics of a quasi-periodic variable showing amplitude, period and phase variations. Detailed diagrams are presented of the behavior of the single-oscillation amplitudes for the three cycles, and the generally low correspondence between the cosmic ray and Kp index variations is noted. The temporal variation of the annual amplitude means confirms the discrepancy between the cosmic ray amplitudes and the sunspot Wolf numbers discovered by Venkatesan (1958). Correlation coefficients among the experimental data from different locations are also calculated which show a high degree of correlation among cosmic ray intensities and a low negative correlation between Kp and cosmic ray data.

  11. Global Characteristics of the Correlation and Time Lag Between Solar and Ionospheric Parameters in the 27-day Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Choon-Ki; Han, Shin-Chan; Dieter,Bilitza; Ki-Weon,Seo

    2012-01-01

    The 27-day variations of topside ionosphere are investigated using the in-situ electron density measurements from the CHAMP planar Langmuir probe and GRACE K-band ranging system. As the two satellite systems orbit at the altitudes of approx. 370 km and approx. 480 km, respectively, the satellite data sets are greatly valuable for examining the electron density variations in the vicinity of F2-peak. In a 27-day period, the electron density measurements from the satellites are in good agreements with the solar flux, except during the solar minimum period. The time delays are mostly 1-2 day and represent the hemispherical asymmetry. The globally-estimated spatial patterns of the correlation between solar flux and in-situ satellite measurements show poor correlations in the (magnetic) equatorial region, which are not found from the ground measurements of vertically-integrated electron content. We suggest that the most plausible cause for the poor correlation is the vertical movement of ionization due to atmospheric dynamic processes that is not controlled by the solar extreme ultraviolet radiation.

  12. Quasi-periodic radar echoes from midlatitude sporadic E and role of the 5-day planetary wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunoda, Roland T.; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Igarashi, Kiyoshi; Hocke, Klemens; Fukao, Shoichiro

    Using measurements of magnetic-aspect-sensitive radar echoes from midlatitude sporadic E collected over a two-month period from Tanegashima, Japan, we show that while their occurrence duration from night to night did not exhibit any systematic variation, that of the so-called quasi-periodic (QP) echoes varied sinusoidally with a period of 5 days. We have interpreted this behavior in terms of effects produced by a planetary wave and identified its presence through neutral-wind measurements made with a partial-reflection drift radar located nearby at Yamagawa. We propose that the occurrence of QP echoes is affected both by a contribution of the wind to the dynamo electric field and by the direction of the neutral wind. We argue that because the wind vector of the planetary wave is elliptically polarized at midlatitudes, a preferred wind direction conducive to the generation of QP echoes occurs once every 5 days. On the other hand, this wave is linearly polarized and directed zonally over the geographic equator. The fact that QP echoes are most fully developed at midlatitudes and less so at lower latitudes suggests that zonal flow is not particularly favorable for QP echo production.

  13. The forty-day rest period and infant feeding practices among Negev Bedouin Arab women in Israel.

    PubMed

    Forman, M R; Hundt, G L; Towne, D; Graubard, B; Sullivan, B; Berendes, H W; Sarov, B; Naggan, L

    1990-03-01

    Four hundred and twelve Bedouin Arab women were interviewed within 48 hours of delivering a newborn in 1982 and two months later to examine the effect of social support during the forty-day postpartum rest period on the incidence of exclusive breast feeding at two months. Whereas the distribution of infant feeding practices at two months did not differ among women with and without support during the "forty days," the number of days of help during the "forty days" was significantly associated with type of feeding at two months. The longer the duration of help, the greater were the odds of maintaining exclusive breast feeding after adjustment for covariates by multinomial logistic regression analysis. The association between duration of help and infant feeding practices at two months was modified by the interview month and the feeding practices of the respondents' primary social supports. More respondents with infants who reached two months of age in May and June were exclusively breast feeding than respondents with infants who reached two months in the hot, dry months of July and August. Also, respondents with sisters-in-law who breast fed alone or in combination with the bottle were feeding their infants in the same way after adjustment for covariates. Given the beneficial effects of breast feeding on infant health and development, these findings identify potential avenues of intervention for programs promoting breast feeding. PMID:2233170

  14. The October-November, 2003 Solar Activity and its Relationship to the "approximately 155 day" Solar Periodicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, I. G.; Cane, H. V.

    2005-01-01

    Periodicities of - 155 days in various solar and interplanetary phenomena were first discovered during solar cycle 21 and have been shown t o be intermittently present in other solar cycles. In the current solar cycle (23), they have been reported in solar energetic particle events and interplanetary coronal maSS ejections. We assess whether the "unexpected" October - November 2003 burst of solar activity during the late declining phase of the cycle may have been a manifestation of such a periodic behavior, and hence might have been to =me extent "predictable". If the pattern were to continue, episodes of enhanced activity might be expected around April - May and October, 2004. There was a mod- est increase activity increase in mid-April, 2004 which may conform to this pattern.

  15. The October-November, 2003 Solar Activity and its Relationship to the "approx. 155 day" Solar Periodicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, I. G.; Cane, H. V.

    2004-01-01

    Periodicities of approx. 155 days in various solar and interplanetary phenomena were first discovered during solar cycle 21 and have been shown to be intermittently present in other solar cycles. In the current solar cycle (23), they have been reported in solar energetic particle events and interplanetary coronal mass ejections. We assess whether the "unexpected" October - November 2003 burst of solar activity during the late declining phase of the cycle may have been a manifestation of such a periodic behavior, and hence might have been to some extent "predictable". If the pattern were to continue, episodes of enhanced activity might be expected around April - May and October, 2004. There was a modest increase activity increase in mid-April, 2004 which may conform to this pattern.

  16. Antimicrobial use over a four-year period using days of therapy measurement at a Canadian pediatric acute care hospital

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Bruce R; MacTavish, Sandra J; Bresee, Lauren C; Rajapakse, Nipunie; Vanderkooi, Otto; Vayalumkal, Joseph; Conly, John

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance is a concern that is challenging the ability to treat common infections. Surveillance of antimicrobial use in pediatric acute care institutions is complicated because the common metric unit, the defined daily dose, is problematic for this population. OBJECTIVE: During a four-year period in which no specific antimicrobial stewardship initiatives were conducted, pediatric antimicrobial use was quantified using days of therapy (DOT) per 100 patient days (PD) (DOT/100 PD) at the Alberta Children’s Hospital (Calgary, Alberta) for benchmarking purposes. METHODS: Drug use data for systemic antimicrobials administered on wards at the Alberta Children’s Hospital were collected from electronic medication administration records. DOT were calculated and rates were determined using 100 PD as the denominator. Changes over the surveillance period and subgroup proportions were represented graphically and assessed using linear regression. RESULTS: Total antimicrobial use decreased from 93.6 DOT/100 PD to 75.7 DOT/100 PD (19.1%) over the 2010/2011 through to the 2013/2014 fiscal years. During this period, a 20.0% increase in PD and an essentially stable absolute count of DOT (2.9% decrease) were observed. Overall, antimicrobial use was highest in the pediatric intensive care and oncology units. DISCUSSION: The exact changes in prescribing patterns that led to the observed reduction in DOT/100 PD with associated increased PD are unclear, but may be a topic for future investigations. CONCLUSION: Antimicrobial use data from a Canadian acute care pediatric hospital reported in DOT/100 PD were compiled for a four-year time period. These data may be useful for benchmarking purposes. PMID:26600813

  17. 76 FR 16031 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation Kennedy Center Visitors Survey, OMB... Policy and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation Kennedy Center Visitors Survey...: Survey numbers (SV-yyyy- ) will be generated as needed. Respondents: Kennedy Center (KC)...

  18. 76 FR 16031 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation Sports Surveys, OMB Control Number... Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation Sports Surveys. OMB Control Number: None. Type... generated as needed. Respondents: Sports Visitors Program and the International Sports Grants...

  19. 75 FR 60490 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Office of Policy...: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Office of Policy and Evaluation, Evaluation Division Survey.... Originating Office: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Office of Policy and Evaluation,...

  20. 76 FR 16029 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation Envoys Survey, OMB Control Number... Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation Envoys Survey OMB Control Number: None Type of... collection clearance will allow ECA/P/V as part of their larger Sports and Culture Evaluation to conduct...

  1. 76 FR 16033 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation BTL Survey, OMB Control Number 1405..., Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation BTL Survey. OMB Control Number: None. Type of Request: New... collection clearance will allow ECA/P/V as part of their larger Sports and Culture Evaluation to conduct...

  2. 76 FR 16033 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation IVLP Survey, OMB Control Number 1405..., Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation IVLP Survey. OMB Control Number: None. Type of Request: New... larger Sports and Culture Evaluation to conduct a survey of exchange participants who participated...

  3. 76 FR 16032 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation IWP Survey, OMB Control Number 1405..., Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation IWP Survey. OMB Control Number: None. Type of Request: New... collection clearance will allow ECA/P/V as part of their larger Sports and Culture Evaluation to conduct...

  4. The Metabolomic Profile of Spent Culture Media from Day-3 Human Embryos Cultured under Low Oxygen Tension

    PubMed Central

    de los Santos, Maria José; Gámiz, Pilar; de los Santos, José María; Romero, Josep Lluís; Prados, Nicolás; Alonso, Cristina; Remohí, José; Dominguez, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Despite efforts made to improve the in vitro embryo culture conditions used during assisted reproduction procedures, human embryos must adapt to different in vitro oxygen concentrations and the new metabolic milieu provided by the diverse culture media used for such protocols. It has been shown that the embryo culture environment can affect not only cellular metabolism, but also gene expression in different species of mammalian embryos. Therefore we wanted to compare the metabolic footprint left by human cleavage-stage embryos under two types of oxygen atmospheric culture conditions (6% and 20% O2). The spent culture media from 39 transferred and implanted embryos from a total of 22 patients undergoing egg donation treatment was analyzed; 23 embryos came from 13 patients in the 6% oxygen concentration group, and 16 embryos from 9 patients were used in the 20% oxygen concentration group. The multivariate statistics we used in our analysis showed that human cleavage-stage embryos grown under both types of oxygen concentration left a similar metabolic fingerprint. We failed to observe any change in the net depletion or release of relevant analytes, such as glucose and especially fatty acids, by human cleavage-stage embryos under either type of culture condition. Therefore it seems that low oxygen tension during embryo culture does not alter the global metabolism of human cleavage-stage embryos. PMID:26562014

  5. SOPHIE velocimetry of Kepler transit candidates. XVII. The physical properties of giant exoplanets within 400 days of period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santerne, A.; Moutou, C.; Tsantaki, M.; Bouchy, F.; Hébrard, G.; Adibekyan, V.; Almenara, J.-M.; Amard, L.; Barros, S. C. C.; Boisse, I.; Bonomo, A. S.; Bruno, G.; Courcol, B.; Deleuil, M.; Demangeon, O.; Díaz, R. F.; Guillot, T.; Havel, M.; Montagnier, G.; Rajpurohit, A. S.; Rey, J.; Santos, N. C.

    2016-03-01

    While giant extrasolar planets have been studied for more than two decades now, there are still some open questions as to their dominant formation and migration processes, as well as to their atmospheric evolution in different stellar environments. In this paper, we study a sample of giant transiting exoplanets detected by the Kepler telescope with orbital periods up to 400 days. We first defined a sample of 129 giant-planet candidates that we followed up with the SOPHIE spectrograph (OHP, France) in a 6-year radial velocity campaign. This allowed us to unveil the nature of these candidates and to measure a false-positive rate of 54.6 ± 6.5% for giant-planet candidates orbiting within 400 days of period. Based on a sample of confirmed or likely planets, we then derived the occurrence rates of giant planets in different ranges of orbital periods. The overall occurrence rate of giant planets within 400 days is 4.6 ± 0.6%. We recovered, for the first time in the Kepler data, the different populations of giant planets reported by radial velocity surveys. Comparing these rates with other yields, we find that the occurrence rate of giant planets is lower only for hot Jupiters but not for the longer-period planets. We also derive a first measurement of the occurrence rate of brown dwarfs in the brown-dwarf desert with a value of 0.29 ± 0.17%. Finally, we discuss the physical properties of the giant planets in our sample. We confirm that giant planets receiving moderate irradiation are not inflated, but we find that they are on average smaller than predicted by formation and evolution models. In this regime of low-irradiated giant planets, we find a possible correlation between their bulk density and the iron abundance of the host star, which needs more detections to be confirmed. Based on observations made with SOPHIE on the 1.93 m telescope at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (CNRS), France.RV data (Appendices C and D) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to

  6. Physical and Behavioral Measures that Predict Cats’ Socialization in an Animal Shelter Environment during a Three Day Period

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Margaret; Garrison, Laurie; Miller, Katherine; Weiss, Emily; Drain, Natasha; Makolinski, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Information from surveys completed by the cats’ caregivers provided a score for the level of socialization of cats. We examined the effectiveness of structured assessments and measures in their ability to distinguish More and Less Socialized cats in a shelter-like setting over a three day period. Statistical models were developed that best predicted More and Less Socialized cats. Measures from these models were used to calculate a point system where more points indicated more socialization. In combination with key socialized behaviors, these points were able to fairly accurately distinguish More Socialized from Less Socialized cats. Abstract Animal welfare organizations typically take in cats with unknown levels of socialization towards humans, ranging from unsocialized cats well-socialized but lost pets. Agencies typically determine the socialization status and disposition options of cats within three days, when even a well-socialized pet may be too frightened of the unfamiliar surroundings to display its typical behavior. This is the third part of a three-phase project to develop and evaluate a reliable and valid tool to predict cats’ socialization levels. We recruited cats from the full spectrum of socialization and, using information from the cats’ caregivers regarding typical behavior toward familiar and unfamiliar people, assigned each cat to a Socialization Category. This information was compared to the cats’ behavior during three days of structured assessments conducted in a shelter-like setting. The results of logistic regression modeling generated two models using assessments from the mornings of the second and third day, focusing on predicting shyer or more aloof but socialized cats. Using the coefficients from each of these models, two sets of points were calculated which were useful in differentiating More and Less Socialized cats. In combination with key socialized behaviors, these points were able to fairly accurately identify

  7. The role of 3D microenvironmental organization in MCF-7 epithelial–mesenchymal transition after 7 culture days

    SciTech Connect

    Foroni, Laura; Vasuri, Francesco; Valente, Sabrina; Gualandi, Chiara; Focarete, Maria Letizia; Caprara, Giacomo; Scandola, Mariastella; D'Errico-Grigioni, Antonia; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea

    2013-06-10

    We present a multi-technique study on in vitro epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human MCF-7 cells cultured on electrospun scaffolds of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA), with random and aligned fiber orientations. Our aim is to investigate the morphological and genetic characteristics induced by extracellular matrix in tumor cells cultured in different 3D environments, and at different time points. Cell vitality was assessed with AlamarBlue at days 1, 3, 5 and 7. Scanning electron microscopy was performed at culture days 3 and 7. Immunohistochemistry (for E-cadherin, β-catenin, cytokeratins, nucleophosmin, tubulin, Ki-67 and vimentin), immunofluorescence (for F-actin) western blot (for E-cadherin, β-catenin and vimentin) and transmission electron microscopy were carried out at day 7. An EMT gene array followed by PCR analysis confirmed the regulation of selected genes. At day 7, scanning electron microscopy on aligned-PLA revealed spindle-shaped cells gathered in buds and ribbon-like structures, with a higher nucleolar/nuclear ratio and a loss in E-cadherin and β-catenin at immunohistochemistry and western blot. An up-regulation of SMAD2, TGF-β2, TFPI2 and SOX10 was found in aligned-PLA compared to random-PLA cultured cells. The topography of the extracellular matrix has a role in tumor EMT, and a more aggressive phenotype characterizes MCF-7 cells cultured on aligned-PLA scaffold. -- Highlights: • After 7 culture days an aligned-PLA scaffold induces a spindle shape to MCF-7 cells. • Despite these changes, the aligned MCF-7 cells keep an epithelial phenotype. • The extracellular environment alone influences the E-cadherin/β-catenin axis. • The extracellular environment can promote the epithelial–mesenchymal transition.

  8. 25 CFR 291.9 - What must the Secretary do at the end of the 60-day comment period if the State offers an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... comment period if the State offers an alternative proposal for Class III gaming procedures? 291.9 Section... GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.9 What must the Secretary do at the end of the 60-day comment period if the State offers an alternative proposal for Class III gaming procedures? Within 30 days of receiving the...

  9. The Day Bolivian Students Came to School Motivating Students through Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davin, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    Like many elementary foreign language teachers, the author traveled from room to room to teach. Each room had different materials and a different classroom culture. This article describes how the author taught her students about Bolivia and how to motivate them through culture. It discusses a service-learning project that brings life-changing…

  10. Impact of Magnet Culture in Maintaining Quality Outcomes During Periods of Organizational Transition.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Judith F Zedreck; Wolf, Gail; Dudjak, Linda; Jordan, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    Organizational transition presents substantial risk to maintaining quality outcomes. The leadership style and culture present during periods of change and transition empower the frontline staff to react quickly and identify opportunities. The culture of Magnet develops the skill set that enables staff to be leaders in problem solving and identifying creative care delivery approaches. Objectives of this study were to analyze the impact of organizational transition on patient and staff satisfaction, quality, and safety in a Magnet-designated hospital and determine key factors contributing to these outcomes. PMID:25768059

  11. Postnatal day 2 to 11 constitutes a 5-HT-sensitive period impacting adult mPFC function.

    PubMed

    Rebello, Tahilia J; Yu, Qinghui; Goodfellow, Nathalie M; Caffrey Cagliostro, Martha K; Teissier, Anne; Morelli, Emanuela; Demireva, Elena Y; Chemiakine, Alexei; Rosoklija, Gorazd B; Dwork, Andrew J; Lambe, Evelyn K; Gingrich, Jay A; Ansorge, Mark S

    2014-09-10

    Early-life serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] signaling modulates brain development, which impacts adult behavior, but 5-HT-sensitive periods, neural substrates, and behavioral consequences remain poorly understood. Here we identify the period ranging from postnatal day 2 (P2) to P11 as 5-HT sensitive, with 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) blockade increasing anxiety- and depression-like behavior, and impairing fear extinction learning and memory in adult mice. Concomitantly, P2-P11 5-HTT blockade causes dendritic hypotrophy and reduced excitability of infralimbic (IL) cortex pyramidal neurons that normally promote fear extinction. By contrast, the neighboring prelimbic (PL) pyramidal neurons, which normally inhibit fear extinction, become more excitable. Excitotoxic IL but not PL lesions in adult control mice reproduce the anxiety-related phenotypes. These findings suggest that increased 5-HT signaling during P2-P11 alters adult mPFC function to increase anxiety and impair fear extinction, and imply a differential role for IL and PL neurons in regulating affective behaviors. Together, our results support a developmental mechanism for the etiology and pathophysiology of affective disorders and fear-related behaviors. PMID:25209278

  12. A HIGHLY INCLINED ORBIT FOR THE 110 DAY PERIOD M-DWARF COMPANION KOI-368.01

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, George; Huang, Chelsea X.

    2013-10-20

    We report the detection of asymmetry in the transit light curves of the 110 day period companion to KOI-368, a rapidly rotating A-dwarf. The significant distortion in the transit light curve is attributed to spin-orbit misalignment between the transiting companion and the gravity darkened host star. Our analysis was based on 11 long cadence and 2 short cadence transits of KOI-368.01 from the Kepler mission, as well as stellar parameters determined from our follow-up spectroscopic observation. We measured the true obliquity between the orbit normal and the stellar rotation axis to be 69{sub -10}{sup +9o}. We also find a secondary eclipse event with depth 29 ± 3 ppm at phase 0.59, from which the temperature of the companion is constrained to 3060 ± 50 K, indicating that KOI-368.01 is a late M-dwarf. The eccentricity is also calculated from the eclipse to be 0.1429 ± 0.0007. The long period, high obliquity, and low eccentricity of KOI-368.01 allow us to limit a number of proposed theories for the misalignment of binary systems.

  13. Postnatal Day 2 to 11 Constitutes a 5-HT-Sensitive Period Impacting Adult mPFC Function

    PubMed Central

    Rebello, Tahilia J.; Yu, Qinghui; Goodfellow, Nathalie M.; Caffrey Cagliostro, Martha K.; Teissier, Anne; Morelli, Emanuela; Demireva, Elena Y.; Chemiakine, Alexei; Rosoklija, Gorazd B.; Dwork, Andrew J.; Lambe, Evelyn K.; Ansorge, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Early-life serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] signaling modulates brain development, which impacts adult behavior, but 5-HT-sensitive periods, neural substrates, and behavioral consequences remain poorly understood. Here we identify the period ranging from postnatal day 2 (P2) to P11 as 5-HT sensitive, with 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) blockade increasing anxiety- and depression-like behavior, and impairing fear extinction learning and memory in adult mice. Concomitantly, P2–P11 5-HTT blockade causes dendritic hypotrophy and reduced excitability of infralimbic (IL) cortex pyramidal neurons that normally promote fear extinction. By contrast, the neighboring prelimbic (PL) pyramidal neurons, which normally inhibit fear extinction, become more excitable. Excitotoxic IL but not PL lesions in adult control mice reproduce the anxiety-related phenotypes. These findings suggest that increased 5-HT signaling during P2–P11 alters adult mPFC function to increase anxiety and impair fear extinction, and imply a differential role for IL and PL neurons in regulating affective behaviors. Together, our results support a developmental mechanism for the etiology and pathophysiology of affective disorders and fear-related behaviors. PMID:25209278

  14. The implementation and the cultural adjustment of functional family therapy in a Dutch psychiatric day-treatment center.

    PubMed

    Breuk, Rene E; Sexton, Thomas L; van Dam, Astrid; Disse, Claudia; Doreleijers, Theo A H; Slot, Wim N; Rowland, Marcy K

    2006-10-01

    Because of the increasing severity of adolescent problem behavior, evidence-based practices are becoming of interest as an alternative to traditional treatment with the behavior problems of adolescents in juvenile justice settings. Despite interest in evidence-based practices, questions exist regarding whether or not evidence-based intervention models can be successfully transported to cultures other than those in which they were developed. This article describes the transportation process of an American evidence-based family therapy (Functional Family Therapy [FFT]) into the service delivery system of a psychiatric day treatment center for juvenile delinquents in Amsterdam. The characteristics of FFT that make it cross-culturally sensitive are discussed. Results from the changes in service delivery suggest FFT can be successfully implemented in international settings with adjustments to make the model fit the culture(s) of The Netherlands without changing the model of FFT itself. PMID:17120523

  15. Inter- and intra-individual variation in urinary biomarker concentrations over a 6-day sampling period. Part 1: metals.

    PubMed

    Smolders, Roel; Koch, Holger M; Moos, Rebecca K; Cocker, John; Jones, Kate; Warren, Nick; Levy, Len; Bevan, Ruth; Hays, Sean M; Aylward, Lesa L

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the current HBM-study is to further the understanding of the impact of inter- and intra-individual variability in HBM surveys as it may have implications for the design and interpretation of the study outcomes. As spot samples only provide a snapshot in time of the concentrations of chemicals in an individual, it remains unclear to what extent intra-individual variability plays a role in the overall variability of population-wide HBM surveys. The current paper describes the results of an intensive biomonitoring study, in which all individual urine samples of 8 individuals were collected over a 6-day sampling period (a total of 352 unique samples). By analyzing different metals (As, Cd, Mn, Ni) in each individual sample, inter- and intra-individual variability for these four metals could be determined, and the relationships between exposure, internal dose, and sampling protocol assessed. Although the range of biomarker values for different metals was well within the normal range reported in large-scale population surveys, large intra-individual differences over a 6-day period could also be observed. Typically, measured biomarker values span at least an order of magnitude within an individual, and more if specific exposure episodes could be identified. Fish consumption for example caused a twenty- to thirty-fold increase in urinary As-levels over a period of 2-6h. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were typically low for uncorrected biomarker values (between 0.104 and 0.460 for the 4 metals), but improved when corrected for creatinine or specific gravity (SG). The results show that even though urine is a preferred matrix for HBM studies, there are certain methodological issues that need to be taken into account in the interpretation of urinary biomarker data, related to the intrinsic variability of the urination process itself, the relationship between exposure events and biomarker quantification, and the timing of sampling. When setting up HBM

  16. Planktonic and biofilm community characterization and Salmonella resistance of 14-day old chicken cecal microflora derived continuous-flow cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    These studies were initiated to compare the composition of GIT bacterial communities in birds during the transition period in age where their susceptibility to Salmonella shifts to resistance. One of the challenges to developing probiotics is to develop an efficacious culture of minimal diversity, ...

  17. Multiparametric temporal analysis of the Caco-2/TC7 demonstrated functional and differentiated monolayers as early as 14 days of culture.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Perrine; Bricks, Thibault; Vidal, Guillaume; Jacques, Sébastien; Anton, Pauline M; Leclerc, Eric

    2015-05-25

    Reducing the differentiation period for obtaining an in vitro intestinal barrier model is required to reduce the duration and cost for drug screening assays. In this frame, the Caco-2/TC7 subclone differentiation state was investigated from day 0 (D0) to day 32 (D32). As such, the expression of 45 genes (including cell junction, cell polarization, cell functionality, drug transport and metabolism genes) was followed throughout the 32 days. In parallel, the monolayer polarization and the formation of the cellular junctions were characterized by the immuno-staining of occludin, claudin-1 and actin proteins. The cell monolayer permeability was analyzed via transepithelial electric resistance measurements and paracellular transport of Lucifer Yellow. The P-gp efflux efficiency was assessed by rhodamine 123 transport. Alkaline phosphate activity was quantified to assess the cell differentiation. Three stages of differentiation were observed using the clustering of principal component analysis of the RTqPCR data and the overall assays. From D0 to D10, cells were in a proliferation stage and under-differentiated; from D14 to D21 a stable differentiation stage was reached; from D25 to D32 the epithelium seemed to enter into a post-differentiated stage. This study demonstrates that Caco-2/TC7 cells are functional and ready for use in drug screening permeability assays from 14 days in culture when compared with conventional 21 days for Caco-2 cells. In addition, this study provides a refined set of data allowing temporal and multi scale investigations, due to the intracellular kinetics and mRNA levels that can be correlated with membrane protein kinetics and functional extracellular activities. Therefore, shorter time in culture combined with a better knowledge of the cells during the time in culture will in turn help to improve the quality and cost of Caco-2/TC7 assays for drug development. PMID:25725134

  18. Use of a lactobacillus-based probiotic culture to reduce Salmonella in day of hatch broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A commercially available Lactobacillus probiotic (FM-B11™ Ivesco LLC) (B11) significantly reduced Salmonella recovery from day-of-hatch chicks in several studies. For all experiments, day-of-hatch male broiler chicks (n=40 per pen) were challenged with approximately 10**4 cfu per chick of Salmonell...

  19. Cultural/Favorite Recipe Day: Strengthening Approaches to Increase Culturally Diverse Foods Served in Head Start Meals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jessica A.; Agrawal, Tara; Carter, Sonia; Grinder, AnnMarie; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    One approach to halting the childhood obesity epidemic has been the modification of foods available to children during the school day. In recent years there has been an increased focus on obesity prevention efforts among children ages birth to 5 and the role of child care settings in prevention efforts. Head Start serves as an important venue for…

  20. Effects of timing of vaccination (day 0 versus day 14 of a receiving period) with a modified-live respiratory viral vaccine on performance, feed intake, and febrile response of beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of timing of the administration of a modified-live respiratory viral vaccine on day 0 or on day 14 of a receiving period on performance, feed intake, and febrile response in beef heifers. Our hypothesis was vaccine timing will alter febrile res...

  1. Effects of timing of a modified-live respiratory viral vaccination (day 0 versus day 14 of a receiving period) on performance, feed intake, and febrile response of beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of timing associated with the administration of a modified-live respiratory viral vaccine (IBR-PI3-BRSV-BVD) on day 0 or on day 14 of a receiving period on performance, feed intake, and the febrile response in beef heifers. Our hypothesis was t...

  2. Optimal Culture Incubation Time in Orthopedic Device-Associated Infections: a Retrospective Analysis of Prolonged 14-Day Incubation

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Peter; Fracheboud, Dominique; Gautier, Emanuel

    2014-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of orthopedic device-associated infections can be challenging. Culture of tissue biopsy specimens is often considered the gold standard; however, there is currently no consensus on the ideal incubation time for specimens. The aim of our study was to assess the yield of a 14-day incubation protocol for tissue biopsy specimens from revision surgery (joint replacements and internal fixation devices) in a general orthopedic and trauma surgery setting. Medical records were reviewed retrospectively in order to identify cases of infection according to predefined diagnostic criteria. From August 2009 to March 2012, 499 tissue biopsy specimens were sampled from 117 cases. In 70 cases (59.8%), at least one sample showed microbiological growth. Among them, 58 cases (82.9%) were considered infections and 12 cases (17.1%) were classified as contaminations. The median time to positivity in the cases of infection was 1 day (range, 1 to 10 days), compared to 6 days (range, 1 to 11 days) in the cases of contamination (P < 0.001). Fifty-six (96.6%) of the infection cases were diagnosed within 7 days of incubation. In conclusion, the results of our study show that the incubation of tissue biopsy specimens beyond 7 days is not productive in a general orthopedic and trauma surgery setting. Prolonged 14-day incubation might be of interest in particular situations, however, in which the prevalence of slow-growing microorganisms and anaerobes is higher. PMID:24153117

  3. Periodic selection in longterm continuous-flow cultures of the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, M G; Robson, G D; Cunliffe, B; Oliver, S G; Trinci, A P

    1993-11-01

    By monitoring increases and decreases in the proportion of cycloheximide-resistant macroconidia, periodic selection was observed in populations of the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum, grown in glucose-limited chemostat cultures. The results indicated that periodic selection of advantageous mutants of F. graminearum occurred at intervals of about 124 h at both high (D = 0.19 h-1, approximately 34 generations) and low (D = 0.06 h-1, approximately 11 generations) dilution rates. Several 'adaptive' peaks (each indicating the appearance of an advantageous mutation) were observed before morphological (highly branched) mutants appeared in the populations; these mutants have previously been observed to have a selective advantage over the parental strain. At intervals, macroconidia harvested from the chemostat were used to inoculate plates of non-antibiotic-containing agar medium, and it was possible to monitor periodic selection in the original chemostat culture using second generation macroconidia harvested from these cultures. The proportion of cycloheximide-, potassium chlorate-, and p-fluoro-DL-phenylalanine-resistant macroconidia in these second generation macroconidia changed in a pattern similar to that observed when monitoring the proportion of cycloheximide-resistant macroconidia in the first generation population harvested directly from the chemostat. The experiments demonstrated that populations of filamentous fungi are heterogeneous and that much of this heterogeneity may already be present at the end of batch growth, i.e., before the onset of continuous cultivation. PMID:8277261

  4. Effects of a Seven Day Overload-Period of High-Intensity Training on Performance and Physiology of Competitive Cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Bradley; Costa, Vitor P.; O'Brien, Brendan J.; Guglielmo, Luiz G.; Paton, Carl D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Competitive endurance athletes commonly undertake periods of overload training in the weeks prior to major competitions. This investigation examined the effects of two seven-day high-intensity overload training regimes (HIT) on performance and physiological characteristics of competitive cyclists. Design The study was a matched groups, controlled trial. Methods Twenty-eight male cyclists (mean ± SD, Age: 33±10 years, Mass 74±7 kg, VO2 peak 4.7±0.5 L·min−1) were assigned to a control group or one of two training groups for seven consecutive days of HIT. Before and after training cyclists completed an ergometer based incremental exercise test and a 20-km time-trial. The HIT sessions were ∼120 minutes in duration and consisted of matched volumes of 5, 10 and 20 second (short) or 15, 30 and 45 second (long) maximal intensity efforts. Results Both the short and long HIT regimes led to significant (p<0.05) gains in time trial performance compared to the control group. Relative to the control group, the mean changes (±90% confidence limits) in time-trial power were 8.2%±3.8% and 10.4%±4.3% for the short and long HIT regimes respectively; corresponding increases in peak power in the incremental test were 5.5%±2.7% and 9.5%±2.5%. Both HIT (short vs long) interventions led to non-significant (p>0.05) increases (mean ± SD) in VO2 peak (2.3%±4.7% vs 3.5%±6.2%), lactate threshold power (3.6%±3.5% vs 2.9%±5.3%) and gross efficiency (3.2%±2.4% vs 5.1%±3.9%) with only small differences between HIT regimes. Conclusions Seven days of overload HIT induces substantial enhancements in time-trial performance despite non-significant increases in physiological measures with competitive cyclists. PMID:25521824

  5. Troposphere delay modeling using ray-traced delays around Tsukuba during a 14-days typhoon period in September 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pany, A.; Boehm, J.; Hobiger, T.; Schuh, H.

    2009-04-01

    Accurate modeling of the tropospheric delay of microwave signals is of great importance for space geodetic techniques, such as Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). In state-of-the-art VLBI analysis tropospheric zenith delays are estimated using mapping functions, and gradients are applied in order to account for azimuthal asymmetries. Monte Carlo simulations carried out within the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) to design the next generation VLBI system, VLBI2010, have clearly shown that the tropospheric delay is the limiting factor in VLBI analysis and that a simple gradient model, as currently applied, might be insufficient for VLBI2010 which will provide a much higher observation density. The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) provides high resolution numerical weather models. With KARAT, the Kashima Ray-Tracing Tools, we computed tropospheric slant delays around the VLBI site in Tsukuba for a 14-days typhoon period in September 2007. The resolution of these ray-traced delays is 1° in both azimuth and elevation, and three hours in time. The delays exhibit significant azimuthally asymmetric characteristics. We fit spherical harmonic functions of different degrees and orders to the ray-traced delays in order to test their ability of modeling the spatial structures of the troposphere, and we investigate whether further continuation of the continued fraction form, i.e. estimating more coefficients, might improve troposphere modeling.

  6. Tradeoffs between global warming and day length on the start of the carbon uptake period in seasonally cold ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Cremonese, Edoardo; Hammerle, Albin; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Galvagno, Marta; Gianelle, Damiano; Marcolla, Barbara; di Cella, Umberto Morra

    2013-12-16

    It is well established that warming leads to longer growing seasons in seasonally cold ecosystems. Whether this goes along with an increase in the net ecosystem carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake is much more controversial. We studied the effects of warming on the start of the carbon uptake period (CUP) of three mountain grasslands situated along an elevational gradient in the Alps. To this end we used a simple empirical model of the net ecosystem CO2 exchange, calibrated and forced with multi-year empirical data from each site. We show that reductions in the quantity and duration of daylight associated with earlier snowmelts were responsible for diminishing returns, in terms of carbon gain, from longer growing seasons caused by reductions in daytime photosynthetic uptake and increases in nighttime losses of CO2. This effect was less pronounced at high, compared to low, elevations, where the start of the CUP occurred closer to the summer solstice when changes in day length and incident radiation are minimal. PMID:24587563

  7. An orbital period of 0.94 days for the hot-Jupiter planet WASP-18b.

    PubMed

    Hellier, Coel; Anderson, D R; Cameron, A Collier; Gillon, M; Hebb, L; Maxted, P F L; Queloz, D; Smalley, B; Triaud, A H M J; West, R G; Wilson, D M; Bentley, S J; Enoch, B; Horne, K; Irwin, J; Lister, T A; Mayor, M; Parley, N; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D L; Segransan, D; Udry, S; Wheatley, P J

    2009-08-27

    The 'hot Jupiters' that abound in lists of known extrasolar planets are thought to have formed far from their host stars, but migrate inwards through interactions with the proto-planetary disk from which they were born, or by an alternative mechanism such as planet-planet scattering. The hot Jupiters closest to their parent stars, at orbital distances of only approximately 0.02 astronomical units, have strong tidal interactions, and systems such as OGLE-TR-56 have been suggested as tests of tidal dissipation theory. Here we report the discovery of planet WASP-18b with an orbital period of 0.94 days and a mass of ten Jupiter masses (10 M(Jup)), resulting in a tidal interaction an order of magnitude stronger than that of planet OGLE-TR-56b. Under the assumption that the tidal-dissipation parameter Q of the host star is of the order of 10(6), as measured for Solar System bodies and binary stars and as often applied to extrasolar planets, WASP-18b will be spiralling inwards on a timescale less than a thousandth that of the lifetime of its host star. Therefore either WASP-18 is in a rare, exceptionally short-lived state, or the tidal dissipation in this system (and possibly other hot-Jupiter systems) must be much weaker than in the Solar System. PMID:19713926

  8. The quasi 2 day wave activities during 2007 austral summer period as revealed by Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Sheng-Yang; Liu, Han-Li; Pedatella, N. M.; Dou, Xiankang; Li, Tao; Chen, Tingdi

    2016-03-01

    The quasi 2 day wave (QTDW) observed during 2007 austral summer period is well reproduced in an reanalysis produced by the data assimilation version of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM + Data Assimilation Research Testbed) developed at National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). It is found that the QTDW peaked 3 times from January to February but with different zonal wave numbers. Diagnostic analysis shows that the mean flow instabilities, refractive index, and critical layers of QTDWs are fundamental for their propagation and amplification, and thus, the temporal variations of the background wind are responsible for the different wave number structures at different times. The westward propagating wave number 2 mode (W2) grew and maximized in the first half of January, when the mean flow instabilities related to the summer easterly jet were enclosed by the critical layers of the westward propagating wave number 3 (W3) and wave number 4 (W4) modes. This prevented W3 and W4 from approaching and extracting energy from the unstable region. The W2 decayed rapidly thereafter due to the recession of critical layer and thus the lack of additional amplification by the mean flow instability. The W3 peaked in late January, when the instabilities were still encircled by the critical layer of W4. The attenuation of W3 afterward was also due to the disappearance of critical layer and thus the lack of overreflection. Finally, the W4 peaked in late February when both the instability and critical layer were appropriate.

  9. Podcasts as a Learning Tool: German Language and Culture Every Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Podcasts provide a straightforward opportunity to stay connected with language, culture, and recent events of German-speaking countries. Podcasts offer clearly articulated, authentic material that can be automatically and regularly delivered to your computer and classrooms; continuously exposing students and teachers to German. This article…

  10. The Class and Cultural Functions of Obesity Discourse: Our Latter Day Child Saving Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, John; Davies, Brian; Rich, Emma

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the inexorable rise of "health" as regulative discourse, highlighting its class and cultural dimensions. With reference to the policy content of recent obesity reports, analysis suggests that contemporary concerns around obesity are but a modern variant of earlier eighteenth and nineteenth century child saving crusades whose…

  11. A "Day in the Lives" of Four Resilient Youths: Cultural Roots of Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theron, Linda; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Didkowsky, Nora; Lau, Cindy; Liebenberg, Linda; Ungar, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Grounded in the examples of four impoverished, relocated youths (two Sesotho-speaking orphans in South Africa and two Mexican immigrants in Canada), we explore cultural factors as potential roots of resilience. We triangulate rich qualitative findings (visual, dialogical, and observational) to foreground the particular, as well as acknowledge the…

  12. Improvement of development of equine preantral follicles after 6 days of in vitro culture with ascorbic acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Gomes, R G; Lisboa, L A; Silva, C B; Max, M C; Marino, P C; Oliveira, R L; González, S M; Barreiros, T R R; Marinho, L S R; Seneda, M M

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of ascorbic acid (25, 50, and 100 μg/mL) in supplemented minimum essential medium (MEM+) on the development of equine preantral follicles that were cultured in vitro for 2 or 6 days. The contralateral ovaries (n = 5) from five mares in seasonal anestrus were collected from a local abattoir. Nine ovarian tissue fragments of approximately 5 × 5 × 1 mm were obtained from each animal. One fragment was immediately fixed and subjected to histologic analysis (control group; Day 0), and the other eight were placed in PBS supplemented with penicillin (200 IU/mL) and streptomycin (200 mg/mL) at 4 °C for 1 hour (during transport to the laboratory). The fragments were cultured in situ for 2 days (D2) or 6 days (D6) in MEM+ or MEM+ plus ascorbic acid at three different concentrations, establishing the following nine groups: control; MEM+ (D2); MEM+ (D6); MEM+ 25 μg/mL of ascorbic acid (D2); MEM+ 25 μg/mL of ascorbic acid (D6); MEM+ 50 μg/mL of ascorbic acid (D2); MEM+ 50 μg/mL of ascorbic acid (D6); MEM+ 100 μg/mL of ascorbic acid (D2); and MEM+ 100 μg/mL of ascorbic acid (D6). The preantral follicles were classified according to their stage (primordial, primary, secondary, or antral) and their morphology (normal or abnormal). Slides (n = 951) including 4450 histologic sections were evaluated. Follicles were observed in only 4.85% (216 of 4450) of the histologic sections. Of the 407 follicles evaluated, 120 were in the primordial stage and 287 were in different developmental stages; additionally, 43.5% were morphologically normal. After 6 days of culture, the groups cultured with 50 and 100 μg/mL of ascorbic acid differed in terms of follicular development compared with the other groups. On the basis of occurrence of follicular development and the presence of viable follicles, it can be concluded that a positive effect of culture for 6 days in MEM+ supplemented with 50 and 100 μg/mL of

  13. Culture and Character Education in a Jewish Day School: A Case Study of Life and Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roso, Calvin G.

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses how to teach character comprehensively by studying ways a school's concurrent curricula (the official curriculum, the operational curriculum, the extra curriculum, and the hidden curriculum) can be used to teach character to students. A single case study analyzes the curriculum at a Jewish day school by examining school…

  14. Cultural techniques for altering the flowering time and double-cropping short-day varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    July-plugged transplants of short-day cv. Strawberry Festival (Fragaria x ananassa), flowered in October and November even though they were grown under long photoperiods and warm temperatures (greater than 21 degrees C) in July and August. These unexpected results were attributed to a high plant de...

  15. CTEPP-OH DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 10 (PERIODS 1-3): DAY CARE CENTER CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains data for CTEPP-OH concerning the child’s activities at the day care center over the 48-h monitoring period. The diary was divided into three time periods over the 48-h monitoring interval. The Food Survey collected information on the frequency and types of ...

  16. Does the Culture of Modern Day Palliative Care Social Work Leave Room for Leadership?

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Jason

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes research undertaken as part of an MA study in leadership. It draws on interviews with six high profile leaders at the fore front of end of life care sector in the UK. Its findings and emerging themes offer insights about the opportunities for social work leaders in palliative care in the future and how the profession and palliative care sector address current barriers to taking advantage of such opportunity. The main focus of this paper is leadership related to palliative care social work. However, it relates to much broader themes including the history, politics and culture of this profession and the requirements for leadership on the part of social work in the broader contexts of health and social care. PMID:27570357

  17. 29 CFR 553.230 - Maximum hours standards for work periods of 7 to 28 days-section 7(k).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-section 7(k). 553.230 Section 553.230 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire Protection and Law Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Overtime... protection activities is 7.57 hours per day (rounded) and the ratio of 171 hours to 28 days for...

  18. 29 CFR 553.230 - Maximum hours standards for work periods of 7 to 28 days-section 7(k).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-section 7(k). 553.230 Section 553.230 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire Protection and Law Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Overtime... protection activities is 7.57 hours per day (rounded) and the ratio of 171 hours to 28 days for...

  19. 29 CFR 553.230 - Maximum hours standards for work periods of 7 to 28 days-section 7(k).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-section 7(k). 553.230 Section 553.230 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire Protection and Law Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Overtime... protection activities is 7.57 hours per day (rounded) and the ratio of 171 hours to 28 days for...

  20. Improvement on light penetrability and microalgae biomass production by periodically pre-harvesting Chlorella vulgaris cells with culture medium recycling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yun; Sun, Yahui; Liao, Qiang; Fu, Qian; Xia, Ao; Zhu, Xun

    2016-09-01

    To improve light penetrability and biomass production in batch cultivation, a cultivation mode that periodically pre-harvesting partial microalgae cells from suspension with culture medium recycling was proposed. By daily pre-harvesting 30% microalgae cells from the suspension, the average light intensity in the photobioreactor (PBR) was enhanced by 27.05-122.06%, resulting in a 46.48% increase in total biomass production than that cultivated in batch cultivation without pre-harvesting under an incident light intensity of 160μmolm(-2)s(-1). Compared with the semi-continuous cultivation with 30% microalgae suspension daily replaced with equivalent volume of fresh medium, nutrients and water input was reduced by 60% in the proposed cultivation mode but with slightly decrease (12.82%) in biomass production. No additional nutrient was replenished when culture medium recycling. Furthermore, higher pre-harvesting ratios (40%, 60%) and lower pre-harvesting frequencies (every 2, 2.5days) were not advantageous for the pre-harvesting cultivation mode. PMID:27289058

  1. Swift Reveals a ~5.7 Day Super-orbital Period in the M31 Globular Cluster X-Ray Binary XB158

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, R.; Garcia, M. R.; Murray, S. S.

    2015-03-01

    The M31 globular cluster X-ray binary XB158 (a.k.a. Bo 158) exhibits intensity dips on a 2.78 hr period in some observations, but not others. The short period suggests a low mass ratio, and an asymmetric, precessing disk due to additional tidal torques from the donor star since the disk crosses the 3:1 resonance. Previous theoretical three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamical modeling suggested a super-orbital disk precession period 29 ± 1 times the orbital period, i.e., ~81 ± 3 hr. We conducted a Swift monitoring campaign of 30 observations over ~1 month in order to search for evidence of such a super-orbital period. Fitting the 0.3-10 keV Swift X-Ray Telescope luminosity light curve with a sinusoid yielded a period of 5.65 ± 0.05 days, and a >5σ improvement in χ2 over the best fit constant intensity model. A Lomb-Scargle periodogram revealed that periods of 5.4-5.8 days were detected at a >3σ level, with a peak at 5.6 days. We consider this strong evidence for a 5.65 day super-orbital period, ~70% longer than the predicted period. The 0.3-10 keV luminosity varied by a factor of ~5, consistent with variations seen in long-term monitoring from Chandra. We conclude that other X-ray binaries exhibiting similar long-term behavior are likely to also be X-ray binaries with low mass ratios and super-orbital periods.

  2. African Easterly Waves in 30-day High-Resolution Global Simulations: A Case Study During the 2006 NAMMA Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Bo-Wen; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Wu, Man-Li C.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, extended -range (30 -day) high-resolution simulations with the NASA global mesoscale model are conducted to simulate the initiation and propagation of six consecutive African easterly waves (AEWs) from late August to September 2006 and their association with hurricane formation. It is shown that the statistical characteristics of individual AEWs are realistically simulated with larger errors in the 5th and 6th AEWs. Remarkable simulations of a mean African easterly jet (AEJ) are also obtained. Nine additional 30 -day experiments suggest that although land surface processes might contribute to the predictability of the AEJ and AEWs, the initiation and detailed evolution of AEWs still depend on the accurate representation of dynamic and land surface initial conditions and their time -varying nonlinear interactions. Of interest is the potential to extend the lead time for predicting hurricane formation (e.g., a lead time of up to 22 days) as the 4th AEW is realistically simulated.

  3. Can the 62 Day X-ray Period of ULX M82 X-1 Be Due to a Precessing Accretion Disk?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2013-01-01

    We have analyzed all the archival RXTE/PCA monitoring observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) M82 X-1 in order to study the properties of its previously discovered 62 day X-ray period (Kaaret & Feng 2007). Based on the high coherence of the modulation it has been argued that the observed period is the orbital period of the binary. Utilizing a much longer data set than in previous studies we find: (1) The phase-resolved X-ray (3-15 keV) energy spectra - modeled with a thermal accretion disk and a power-law corona - suggest that the accretion disk's contribution to the total flux is responsible for the overall periodic modulation while the power-law flux remains approximately constant with phase. (2) Suggestive evidence for a sudden phase shift-of approximately 0.3 in phase (20 days)-between the first and the second halves of the light curve separated by roughly 1000 days. If confirmed, the implied timescale to change the period is approx. = 10 yrs, which is exceptionally fast for an orbital phenomenon. These independent pieces of evidence are consistent with the 62 day period being due to a precessing accretion disk, similar to the so-called super-orbital periods observed in systems like Her X-1, LMC X-4, and SS433. However, the timing evidence for a change in the period needs to be confirmed with additional observations. This should be possible with further monitoring of M82 with instruments such as the X-ray telescope (XRT) on board Swift.

  4. Cosmic ray variations with the period close to 27 days and their connection with solar activity longitudinal distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bazilevskaya, G. A.; Tyasto, M. I.; Vernova, E. S.

    1985-01-01

    The amplitude and phase changes of the 27 day cosmic ray variation from 1958 to 1975 are studied. The comparison between cosmic ray intensity characteristics and longitudinal distribution of solar activity ones for different stages of the solar cycle are made.

  5. 78 FR 69077 - Notice of 30-Day Public Review Period and Availability of Final Environmental Assessment and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Department of Navy's (DoN) transfer of excess property at... VA's implementation and monitoring of the mitigation measures identified in the FONSI, would not have... infrastructure at the former NAS Alameda. The FONSI is available for public review for 30 days before...

  6. Analyzing the Relationship of Organizational Trust and Organizational Culture with Knowledge Sharing Behavior in Teachers of Second Intermediate Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahhosseini, Sakineh; Nadi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The present paper aims to study the relationship of organizational trust, organizational culture with knowledge sharing behavior among teachers of Second Intermediate Period in the City of Isfahan. Research method was correlation and statistical population included all teachers of Second Intermediate Period of Isfahan in academic year 2013-2014 (N…

  7. Physical and Behavioral Measures that Predict Cats' Socialization in an Animal Shelter Environment during a Three Day Period.

    PubMed

    Slater, Margaret; Garrison, Laurie; Miller, Katherine; Weiss, Emily; Drain, Natasha; Makolinski, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Animal welfare organizations typically take in cats with unknown levels of socialization towards humans, ranging from unsocialized cats well-socialized but lost pets. Agencies typically determine the socialization status and disposition options of cats within three days, when even a well-socialized pet may be too frightened of the unfamiliar surroundings to display its typical behavior. This is the third part of a three-phase project to develop and evaluate a reliable and valid tool to predict cats' socialization levels. We recruited cats from the full spectrum of socialization and, using information from the cats' caregivers regarding typical behavior toward familiar and unfamiliar people, assigned each cat to a Socialization Category. This information was compared to the cats' behavior during three days of structured assessments conducted in a shelter-like setting. The results of logistic regression modeling generated two models using assessments from the mornings of the second and third day, focusing on predicting shyer or more aloof but socialized cats. Using the coefficients from each of these models, two sets of points were calculated which were useful in differentiating More and Less Socialized cats. In combination with key socialized behaviors, these points were able to fairly accurately identify More and Less Socialized cats. PMID:26479759

  8. 25 CFR 291.8 - What must the Secretary do at the expiration of the 60-day comment period if the State has not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What must the Secretary do at the expiration of the 60-day comment period if the State has not submitted an alternative proposal? 291.8 Section 291.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING...

  9. 25 CFR 291.8 - What must the Secretary do at the expiration of the 60-day comment period if the State has not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What must the Secretary do at the expiration of the 60-day comment period if the State has not submitted an alternative proposal? 291.8 Section 291.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING...

  10. 25 CFR 291.8 - What must the Secretary do at the expiration of the 60-day comment period if the State has not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What must the Secretary do at the expiration of the 60-day comment period if the State has not submitted an alternative proposal? 291.8 Section 291.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING...

  11. 25 CFR 291.8 - What must the Secretary do at the expiration of the 60-day comment period if the State has not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What must the Secretary do at the expiration of the 60-day comment period if the State has not submitted an alternative proposal? 291.8 Section 291.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES §...

  12. Effect of the fluid core on changes in the length of day due to long period tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahr, J. M.; Smith, M. L.; Sasao, T.

    1981-01-01

    The long period luni-solar tidal potential is known to cause periodic changes in the earth's rotation rate. It is found that the effect of a dissipationless fluid outer core is to reduce the amplitudes of these tidal perturbations by about 11 percent. When the fluid core effect is added to Agnew and Farrell's (1978) estimate of the effect of an equilibrium ocean, the result is in accord with observation. The effects of dissipative processes within the fluid core are also examined. Out-of-phase perturbations are found which could be as large as about 10 ms at 18.6 yr. It is concluded, however, that the poorly understood decade fluctuations in the earth's rotation rate will prohibit observation of this effect.

  13. Variations of the semi-diurnal tidal wind in the meteor region with periods of about 27 and 13.5 days

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greisiger, K. M.

    1987-01-01

    Daily values of sunspot number and solar radio emission at 10.7 cm wavelength show a well known strong modulation with a period of 27 days, the Sun's rotation period. Recent satellite measurements revealed the same modulation of the ultraviolet irradiance at wavelength below 300 nm. These UV variations can influence the thermal heating of the ozone layer by altering the chemical composition. Therefore, one can also expect a corresponding variation in the middle atmosphere of the semi-diurnal tide, which is thermally excited essentially by absorption of UV between 200 and 370 nm in the upper ozone layer. Results of radar meteor wind measurements were used to detect a presumable very weak 27 day modulation within the natural and artificial noise of the daily values of the semi-diurnal wind amplitude. The summer period was chosen because of its relatively steady conditions and the maximum amplitudes during the year. The results of this investigation are given and discussed.

  14. The time-of-day that breaks occur between consecutive duty periods affects the sleep strategies used by shiftworkers.

    PubMed

    Roach, Gregory D; Dawson, Drew; Reid, Kathryn J; Darwent, David; Sargent, Charli

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the sleep strategies used in breaks between consecutive shifts. For two weeks, 253 shiftworkers collected data regarding the timing of all shifts and sleeps. The final dataset included 395 between-shift breaks that had a standard duration (i.e. ~16 h). If a break included an entire night, participants had a single sleep on 80-93% of occasions, but if a break occurred predominantly during the daytime, participants had more than one sleep on 41-50% of occasions. These data indicate that the sleep strategy employed is influenced by the time-of-day that a break occurs. PMID:27082460

  15. Pathogenicity and pathogenesis of a United States porcine deltacoronavirus cell culture isolate in 5-day-old neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Gauger, Phillip; Stafne, Molly; Thomas, Joseph; Arruda, Paulo; Burrough, Eric; Madson, Darin; Brodie, Joseph; Magstadt, Drew; Derscheid, Rachel; Welch, Michael; Zhang, Jianqiang

    2015-08-01

    Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was first identified in Hong Kong in 2009-2010 and reported in United States swine for the first time in February 2014. However, diagnostic tools other than polymerase chain reaction for PDCoV detection were lacking and Koch's postulates had not been fulfilled to confirm the pathogenic potential of PDCoV. In the present study, PDCoV peptide-specific rabbit antisera were developed and used in immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry assays to assist PDCoV diagnostics. The pathogenicity and pathogenesis of PDCoV was investigated following orogastric inoculation of 5-day-old piglets with a plaque-purified PDCoV cell culture isolate (3 × 10(4) TCID50 per pig). The PDCoV-inoculated piglets developed mild to moderate diarrhea, shed increasing amount of virus in rectal swabs from 2 to 7 days post inoculation, and developed macroscopic and microscopic lesions in small intestines with viral antigen confirmed by immunohistochemistry staining. This study experimentally confirmed PDCoV pathogenicity and characterized PDCoV pathogenesis in neonatal piglets. PMID:25817405

  16. SWIFT OBSERVATIONS OF THE HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARY IGR J16283-4838 UNVEIL A 288 DAY ORBITAL PERIOD

    SciTech Connect

    Cusumano, G.; Segreto, A.; La Parola, V.; D'Aì, A.; Masetti, N.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2013-09-20

    We report on the temporal and spectral properties of the high-mass X-ray binary IGR J16283-4838 in the hard X-ray band. We searched the first 88 months of Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) survey data for long-term periodic modulations. We also investigated the broad band (0.2-150 keV) spectral properties of IGR J16283-4838 complementing the BAT dataset with soft X-ray data from the available Swift-XRT pointed observations. The BAT light curve of IGR J16283-4838 revealed a periodic modulation at P{sub o} = 287.6 ± 1.7 days (with a significance higher than 4 standard deviations). The profile of the light curve folded at P{sub o} shows a sharp peak lasting ∼12 days over a flat plateau. The long-term light curve also shows a ∼300 day interval of prolonged enhanced emission. The observed phenomenology suggests that IGR J16283-4838 has a Be nature, where the narrow periodic peaks and the ∼300 day outburst can be interpreted as Type I and Type II outbursts, respectively. The broad band 0.2-150 keV spectrum can be described with an absorbed power-law and a steepening in the BAT energy range.

  17. Two-day period fluctuation of PMC occurrence over Syowa Station, Antarctica observed by a ground-based lidar and AIM satellite.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, T.; Suzuki, H.; Tsutsumi, M.; Ejiri, M. K.; Tomikawa, Y.; Abo, M.; Kawahara, T.; Tsuda, T. T.; Nishiyama, T.

    2014-12-01

    A Rayleigh/Raman lidar system has been operated by the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE) since February, 2011 (JARE 52nd) in Syowa Station Antarctica (69.0S, 39.5E). The lidar system consists of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser (355nm) as a transmitter and two telescopes with four photo multiplier tubes which are to detect Rayleigh scattered light from low and high atmosphere at 355 nm and N2 Raman emission at 387nm. Polar Mesospheric Cloud (PMC) was detected by the lidar at 22:30UT (+3hr for LT) on Feb 4th, 2011, the first day of a routine operation. This event was the first time to detect PMC over Syowa Station by a lidar [Suzuki et al., Ann. Geophys., 2013]. However, signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the PMC event was not so good due to large shot noises from daytime background signals. Moreover, a receiver system was designed mainly for nighttime observations. In this way, observation of PMC during the midnight sun, which also corresponds to most frequent PMC season, was difficult. Thus, to improve SNR of the PMC observation with the lidar during daytime, a narrow band-pass Fabry-Perot etalon unit has been developed and installed in the receiver system on Dec 2013 by JARE 55th. By using this new system, clear PMC signals were successfully detected under daylight condition during the period of summer operation of JARE55th. During this period of 53 days (from 17 Dec. 2013 to 7 Feb. 2014), only 11 days were with a clear sky and suitable for PMC observation. Thus, it was difficult to study temporal variations on a PMC activity only by using the lidar data. Fortunately, NASA's AIM satellite had passed near Syowa Station and provided with complimentary PMC data during observation gap of the lidar. By combining our lidar data with the AIM/CIPS data, nearly continuous monitoring of PMC variability over Syowa Station was achieved for period between 13th and 18th in January 2014. PMC occurrence with an interval of two days over Syowa Station during the period was clearly

  18. Three Cases of West Nile Encephalitis over an Eight-Day Period at a Downtown Los Angeles Community Hospital.

    PubMed

    Puchalski, Adam; Liu, Antonio K; Williams, Byron

    2015-01-01

    Since its introduction in New York City in 1999, the virus has spread throughout the entire North American continent and continues to spread into Central and Latin America. Our report discusses the signs and symptoms, diagnostics, and treatment of West Nile disease. It is important to recognize the disease quickly and initiate appropriate treatment. We present three cases of West Nile encephalitis at White Memorial Medical Center in East Los Angeles that occurred over the span of eight days. All three patients live within four to six miles from the hospital and do not live or work in an environment favorable to mosquitoes including shallow bodies of standing water, abandoned tires, or mud ruts. All the patients were Hispanic. Physicians and other health care providers should consider West Nile infection in the differential diagnosis of causes of aseptic meningitis and encephalitis, obtain appropriate laboratory studies, and promptly report cases to public health authorities. State governments should establish abatement programs that will eliminate sources that allow for mosquito reproduction and harboring. The public needs to be given resources that educate them on what entails the disease caused by the West Nile virus, what the symptoms are, and, most importantly, what they can do to prevent themselves from becoming infected. PMID:26106493

  19. Earth Observing-1 Advanced Imager Flight Performance Assessment: Investigating Dark Current Stability Over One-Half Orbit Period during the First 60 Days

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    The stability of the EO-1 Advanced Land Imager dark current levels over the period of one-half orbit is investigated. A series of two-second dark current collections, over the course of 40 minutes, was performed during the first sixty days the instrument was in orbit. Analysis of this data indicates only two dark current reference periods, obtained entering and exiting eclipse, are required to remove ALI dark current offsets for 99.9% of the focal plane to within 1.5 digital numbers for any observation on the solar illuminated portion of the orbit.

  20. 25 CFR 291.8 - What must the Secretary do at the expiration of the 60-day comment period if the State has not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What must the Secretary do at the expiration of the 60-day comment period if the State has not submitted an alternative proposal? 291.8 Section 291.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.8 What must the Secretary do at...

  1. 29 CFR 37.79 - If, before the 90-day period has expired, a recipient issues a Notice of Final Action with which...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true If, before the 90-day period has expired, a recipient issues a Notice of Final Action with which the complainant is dissatisfied, how long does the complainant have to file a complaint with the Director? 37.79 Section 37.79 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NONDISCRIMINATION...

  2. Continuous Influenza Virus Production in Cell Culture Shows a Periodic Accumulation of Defective Interfering Particles

    PubMed Central

    Pflugmacher, Antje; Behrendt, Ilona; Jordan, Ingo; Flockerzi, Dietrich; Genzel, Yvonne; Reichl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    Influenza viruses are a major public health burden during seasonal epidemics and a continuous threat due to their potential to cause pandemics. Annual vaccination provides the best protection against the contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses. However, the current production capacities for influenza vaccines are insufficient to meet the increasing demands. We explored the possibility to establish a continuous production process for influenza viruses using the duck-derived suspension cell line AGE1.CR. A two-stage bioreactor setup was designed in which cells were cultivated in a first stirred tank reactor where an almost constant cell concentration was maintained. Cells were then constantly fed to a second bioreactor where virus infection and replication took place. Using this two-stage reactor system, it was possible to continuously produce influenza viruses. Surprisingly, virus titers showed a periodic increase and decrease during the run-time of 17 days. These titer fluctuations were caused by the presence of defective interfering particles (DIPs), which we detected by PCR. Mathematical modeling confirmed this observation showing that constant virus titers can only emerge in the absence of DIPs. Even with very low amounts of DIPs in the seed virus and very low rates for de novo DIP generation, defective viruses rapidly accumulate and, therefore, represent a serious challenge for continuous vaccine production. Yet, the continuous replication of influenza virus using a two-stage bioreactor setup is a novel tool to study aspects of viral evolution and the impact of DIPs. PMID:24039749

  3. Cultural Identities of Adolescent Immigrants: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study Including the Pre-Migration Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tartakovsky, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the cultural identities of adolescent immigrants in the pre-migration period and during the first 3 years after immigration. The target population consists of high-school Jewish adolescents from Russia and Ukraine participating in an Israeli immigration program. In this program, Jewish adolescents immigrate to Israel…

  4. Culture of dialysis fluids on nutrient-rich media for short periods at elevated temperatures underestimate microbial contamination.

    PubMed

    Pass, T; Wright, R; Sharp, B; Harding, G B

    1996-01-01

    Recommended culture methods for monitoring bacterial contamination of H2O, dialysate and bicarbonate concentrate in dialysis centers in the USA involves culturing these fluids for 48 h at 37 degrees C. A variety of media and commercial culture methods are accepted for monitoring these fluids. Over a 3-month a comparison was made between an acceptable culture method, tryptic soy agar (TSA) employing the pour plate (PP) technique at 37 degrees C for 48 h, and PP cultures on standard methods agar (SMA) and R2A agar, incubated at ambient temperature (23 degrees C) for 48, 72, 168 h. Increases in the colony counts over time occurred for all three fluids. However, counts wee greater on SMA and R2A than on TSA. The increases over the standard 48-hour TSA cultures ranged as high as 10(4) times for 23 degrees C cultures at 7 days of incubation. Endotoxin levels even in the most contaminated samples were found to be below the acceptable 5 EU/ml recommended for reprocessor water. Bacterial colonies that appeared at 48, 72 and 168 h were isolated and identified. Pseudomonas, Moraxella, Acinetobacter and CDC group VI C-2 were among some of the common bacteria isolated. This study indicates that the media utilized, the time and temperature of incubation may result in a significant underestimation of the bacterial population of water and dialysis fluids, thus potentially placing the patient at a higher risk. PMID:8785029

  5. A study of mood changes and personality during a 31-day period of chronic hypoxia in a hypobaric chamber (Everest-Comex 97).

    PubMed

    Nicolas, M; Thullier-Lestienne, F; Bouquet, C; Gardette, B; Gortan, C; Richalet, J P; Abraini, J H

    2000-02-01

    High altitudes of more than 3,000 meters produce physiological disorders and adverse changes in mood states. In the present study, we report analyses of mood states and personality traits in eight experienced climbers participating in a 31-day period of confinement in hypobaric chamber and gradual decompression from sea level to 8,848 m (Experiment 'Everest-Comex 97'). The subjects were tested at 5,500 m and 6,500 m on Day 13, 5,000 m and 6,500 m on Day 24, and 8,000 m and 8,848 m altitude on Days 27 and 31. Adverse changes in mood states, such as Vigor and Fatigue, occurred at 8,000 m and 8,848 m, which were significantly correlated with cerebral altitude symptomatology. In addition, a significant negative correlation was found between Fatigue and Factor C, which is a personality measure of emotional stability. We suggest that individuals with low emotional stability could be more sensitive to environmental stressors than more emotionally stable subjects who face reality. PMID:10778257

  6. High energy X-ray observations of CYG X-3 from from OSO-8: Further evidence of a 34.1 day period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, J. F.; Crannell, C. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Frost, K. J.; Orwig, L. E.

    1981-01-01

    The X-ray source Cyg X-3 (=4U2030+40) was observed with the high energy X-ray spectrometer on OSO-8 for two weeks in 1975 and in 1976 and for one week in 1977. No change in spectral shape and intensity above 23 keV was observed from year to year. No correlation is observed between the source's intensity and the phase of the 34.1 day period discovered by Molteni, et al. (1980). The pulsed fraction of the 4.8 hour light curve between 23 and 73 keV varies from week to week, however, and the magnitude of the pulsed fraction appears to be correlated with the 34.1 day phase. No immediate explanation of this behavior is apparent in terms of previously proposed models of the source.

  7. A study of gravity-wave spectra in the troposphere and stratosphere at 5-min to 5-day periods with the Poker Flat MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bemra, R. S.; Rastogi, P. K.; Balsley, B. B.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of frequency spectra at periods of about 5 days to 5 min from two 20-day sets of velocity measurements in the stratosphere and troposphere region obtained with the Poker Flat mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar during January and June, 1984 is presented. A technique based on median filtering and averaged order statistics for automatic editing, smoothing and spectral analysis of velocity time series contaminated with spurious data points or outliers is outlined. The validity of this technique and its effects on the inferred spectral index was tested through simulation. Spectra obtained with this technique are discussed. The measured spectral indices show variability with season and height, especially across the tropopause. The discussion briefly outlines the need for obtaining better climatologies of velocity spectra and for the refinements of the existing theories to explain their behavior.

  8. “Nothing Special, Everything Is Maamuli”: Socio-Cultural and Family Practices Influencing the Perinatal Period in Urban India

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Shanti; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Kurpad, Anura; Razee, Husna; Ritchie, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, India contributes the largest share in sheer numbers to the burden of maternal and infant under-nutrition, morbidity and mortality. A major gap in our knowledge is how socio-cultural practices and beliefs influence the perinatal period and thus perinatal outcomes, particularly in the rapidly growing urban setting. Methods and Findings Using data from a qualitative study in urban south India, including in-depth interviews with 36 women who had recently been through childbirth as well as observations of family life and clinic encounters, we explored the territory of familial, cultural and traditional practices and beliefs influencing women and their families through pregnancy, childbirth and infancy. We found that while there were some similarities in cultural practices to those described before in studies from low resource village settings, there are changing practices and ideas. Fertility concerns dominate women’s experience of married life; notions of gender preference and ideal family size are changing rapidly in response to the urban context; however inter-generational family pressures are still considerable. While a rich repertoire of cultural practices persists throughout the perinatal continuum, their existence is normalised and even underplayed. In terms of diet and nutrition, traditional messages including notions of ‘hot’ and ‘cold’ foods, are stronger than health messages; however breastfeeding is the cultural norm and the practice of delayed breastfeeding appears to be disappearing in this urban setting. Marriage, pregnancy and childbirth are so much part of the norm for women, that there is little expectation of individual choice in any of these major life events. Conclusions A greater understanding is needed of the dynamic factors shaping the perinatal period in urban India, including an acknowledgment of the health promoting as well as potentially harmful cultural practices and the critical role of the family. This will

  9. Sexually active bucks are able to stimulate three successive groups of females per day with a 4-hour period of contact.

    PubMed

    Bedos, M; Velázquez, H; Fitz-Rodríguez, G; Flores, J A; Hernández, H; Duarte, G; Vielma, J; Fernández, I G; Retana-Márquez, M S; Muñoz-Gutiérrez, M; Keller, M; Delgadillo, J A

    2012-05-15

    Bucks rendered sexually active by a photoperiod treatment of long days can induce fertile ovulation in a group of goats with only 4 h of contact daily with a male:female ratio of 1:10. Here we tested whether such bucks could induce fertile ovulations when stimulating successively three different groups of anovulatory goats when interacting 4 h per day during 15 consecutive days. Control males (n=3) were introduced in the control group (n=25) of does at 8:00 h and were removed at 12:00 h. Experimental males (n=3) were in contact with the experimental groups of does: from 8:00 h to 12:00 h with a first group (n=27), from 12:00 h to 16:00 h with a second group (n=26) and with a third one (n=27) from 16:00 h to 20:00 h. Bucks were then placed until next day in another pen. Both in the control and the experimental groups, more than 85% of females ovulated, and the proportions did not differ between the control and experimental groups (P≥0.67) or between the three experimental groups (P≥0.67). Moreover, the ovulation rate did not differ significantly between the control and the experimental females nor between the three experimental groups. Bucks were able to fertilize more than 72% of does independently of the number of females they were exposed to (P≥0.17). Finally, more than 58% of females kidded and fertility did not differ between the control and experimental groups (P=1) nor among experimental groups (P≥0.77). We conclude that sexually active bucks are able to induce fertile ovulation in three successive groups of anovulatory goats even when the period of contact between sexes is reduced to 4 h per day. PMID:22366159

  10. Practical Physical and Behavioral Measures to Assess the Socialization Spectrum of Cats in a Shelter-Like Setting during a Three Day Period.

    PubMed

    Slater, Margaret; Garrison, Laurie; Miller, Katherine; Weiss, Emily; Makolinski, Kathleen; Drain, Natasha; Mirontshuk, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Animal welfare organizations routinely accept large numbers of cats with unknown histories, and whose backgrounds vary from well-socialized pets to cats that have had little or no contact with humans. Agencies are challenged with making the determination of socialization level in a highly stressful environment where cats are often too frightened to show typical behaviors. A variety of structured behavioral assessments were conducted in a shelter-like environment, from intake through a three day holding period, on cats from the full range of socialization as reported by their caregivers. Our results show that certain behaviors such as rubbing, playing, chirping, having the tail up or being at the front of the cage were found to be unique to More Socialized cats. While not all more socialized cats showed these behaviors, cats that did were socialized. Assessing the cats throughout the three day period was beneficial in eliciting key behaviors from shyer and more frightened cats. These results will be used in future work to develop an assessment tool to identify the socialization status of cats as a standardized guide for transparent and reliable disposition decisions and higher live release rates for cats in animal shelters. PMID:26479757

  11. [Retrospective Analysis of the Afatinib Clinical Pathway during the 28-Day Introductory Period-The Japanese Style of Collaborative Drug Therapy Management(J-CDTM)].

    PubMed

    Iwata, Kaori; Ryota, Noriko; Hikita, Ami; Sando, Masumi; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Tamiya, Motohiro; Azuma, Yuichiro; Tani, Eriko; Hamaguchi, Masanari; Tanaka, Ayako; Shiroyama, Takayuki; Morishita, Naoko; Okamoto, Norio; Futagami, Sumiko; Hirashima, Tomonori

    2015-08-01

    Afatinib is a newly approved second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibito r(EGFR-TKI). Afatinib has been shown to prolongthe overall survival of patients with non-small cell lungcancer (NSCLC) with EGFR mutations compared with the standard chemotherapy. However, Grade 3 or 4 toxicities, includingdiarrhea, rash, paronychia, and stomatitis, have been observed more frequently in patients treated with afatinib than in those treated with first-generation EGFR-TKIs. Accordingly, our institution developed an afatinib clinical pathway (the afatinib pathway), which was designed by certified nurses, medical physicians, and certified pharmacists, with the goal of reducing the severity of diarrhea and rash that occur most frequently duringthe 28-day introductory period of afatinib treatment. Between May and October 2014, afatinib was administered accordingto the afatinib pathway to 14 patients with NSCLC and EGFR mutations. Of these patients, only one (7.1%) experienced Grade 3 diarrhea. No other patient experienced Grade 3 or 4 toxicity. The afatinib pathway was effective in reducingthe severities of the diarrhea and rash duringthe 28-day introductory period of the afatinib treatment. Our implementation of the afatinib pathway could be considered the Japanese style of collaborative drugtherapy management (J-CDTM). PMID:26321711

  12. The optimal period of Ca-EDTA treatment for parthenogenetic activation of porcine oocytes during maturation culture

    PubMed Central

    MORITA, Yasuhiro; TANIGUCHI, Masayasu; TANIHARA, Fuminori; ITO, Aya; NAMULA, Zhao; DO, Lanh Thi Kim; TAKAGI, Mitsuhiro; TAKEMOTO, Tatsuya; OTOI, Takeshige

    2016-01-01

    The changes triggered by sperm-induced activation of oocytes, which are required for normal oocyte development, can be mediated by other agents, thereby inducing the parthenogenesis. In this study, we exposed porcine oocytes to 1 mM Ca-EDTA, a metal-ion chelator, at various intervals during 48 hr of in vitro maturation to determine the optimum period of Ca-EDTA treatment for parthenogenetic activation. When the oocytes were cultured with or without Ca-EDTA from 36 hr (post-12), 24 hr (post-24), 12 hr (post-36) and 0 hr (post-48) after the start of maturation culture, the blastocyst formation rates were significantly higher (P<0.05) in the post-24, post-36 and post-48 groups (3.3%, 4.0% and 2.6%, respectively) than those in the control group without treatment (0%). Furthermore, when the oocytes were cultured with Ca-EDTA for 0 hr (control), 12 hr (pre-12), 24 hr (pre-24), 36 hr (pre-36) and 48 hr (pre-48) from the start of maturation culture, the oocytes formed blastocysts only in the pre-36 and pre-48 groups (0.4% or 0.8%, respectively). Pronuclei (<66.7%) were observed only when the periods of Ca-EDTA treatment were more than 12 hr during maturation culture. In the control group, no pronuclei were detected. Our findings demonstrate that porcine immature oocytes can be parthenogenetically activated by Ca-EDTA treatment for at least 24 hr to 36 hr during maturation culture, leading to pronucleus formation followed by the formation of blastocysts. PMID:26947170

  13. A 62 Day X-Ray Periodicity and an X-Ray Flare from the Ultraluminous X-Ray Source in M82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaaret, Philip; Simet, Melanie G.; Lang, Cornelia C.

    2006-07-01

    In 240 days of X-ray monitoring of M82, we have discovered an X-ray periodicity at 62.0+/-2.5 days with a peak-to-peak amplitude corresponding to an isotropic luminosity of 2.4×1040 ergs s-1 in M82 and an X-ray flare reaching a peak luminosity of 9.8×1040 ergs s-1. The periodicity and flare likely originate from the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) in M82, which has been identified as a possible intermediate-mass black hole. We suggest that the 62 day modulation is due to orbital motion within an X-ray binary with a Roche lobe overflowing companion star, which would imply that the average density of the companion star is near 5×10-5 g cm-3 and is therefore a giant or supergiant. Chandra observations just after the flare show an energy spectrum that is consistent with a power law with no evidence of a thermal component or line emission. Radio observations made with the VLA during the flare allow us to rule out a blazar identification for the source and place strong constraints on relativistically beamed models of the X-ray emission. The Chandra observations reveal that a second X-ray source reached a flux of 4.4×10-12 ergs cm-2 s-1 in the 0.3-7 keV band, which is dramatically higher than any flux previously seen from this source and corresponds to an isotropic luminosity of 1.1×1040 ergs s-1. This source is a second ultraluminous X-ray source in M82 and may give rise to the QPOs detected from the central region of M82.

  14. Recovery of clinically important microorganisms from the BacT/Alert blood culture system does not require testing for seven days.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M L; Mirrett, S; Reller, L B; Weinstein, M P; Reimer, L G

    1993-01-01

    Recently, we published a comparison of the BacT/Alert blood culture system with the BACTEC 660/730 nonradiometric blood culture system using blood inocula of 5 ml per bottle. By reanalyzing data collected during that study, we found that, for true-positive isolates causing bacteremia or fungemia, 363 (97.6%) of 376 and 341 (97.7%) of 349 isolates were recovered by the end of day 5 of testing, and 364 (97.9%) of 376 and 343 (98.3%) of 349 isolates were recovered by the end of day 6 of testing for aerobic and anaerobic bottles, respectively. Most isolates recovered on days 6 (24 of 27) and 7 (20 of 25) of testing were either contaminants or indeterminate as a cause of sepsis. When used as recommended by the manufacturer, only six (1.3%) of 464 clinically important isolates recovered on test days 6-7 would have gone undetected had testing been limited to 5 days and four (0.9%) of 464 had testing been limited to 6 days. We conclude that BacT/Alert bottles can be tested for as few as 5 days and then discarded with minimal loss of true-positive isolates and maximal reduction of contaminants. PMID:8425375

  15. Seasonal size distribution of airborne culturable bacteria and fungi and preliminary estimation of their deposition in human lungs during non-haze and haze days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Min; Jia, Ruizhi; Qiu, Tianlei; Han, Meilin; Song, Yuan; Wang, Xuming

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, haze events in Beijing have significantly increased in frequency. On haze days, airborne microorganisms are considered to be a potential risk factor for various health concerns. However, limited information on bioaerosols has prevented our proper understanding of the possible threat to human health due to these bioaerosols. In this study, we used a six-stage impactor for sampling culturable bioaerosols and the LUDEP 2.07 computer-based model for calculating their deposition on human lungs to investigate seasonal concentration, size distribution, and corresponding deposition efficiency and flux in the human respiratory tract during different haze-level events. The current results of the analysis of 398 samples over four seasons indicate that the concentration of culturable airborne bacteria decreased with increasing haze severity. The bioaerosol concentration ratio was skewed towards larger particle sizes on heavy haze days leading to larger bioaerosol aerodynamic diameters than on non-haze days. During nasal breathing by an adult male engaged in light exercise in an outdoor environment, the total deposition efficiency of culturable bioaerosols is 80-90% including approximately 70% in the upper respiratory tract, 5-7% in the alveoli, and about 3% in the bronchial couple with bronchiolar regions. Although the difference in culturable bioaerosol aerodynamic diameters at different haze levels was not large enough to cause obvious differences in lung deposition efficiency, the deposition fluxes clearly varied with the degree of haze owing to the varied concentration of culturable airborne bacteria and fungi. The results here could improve our understanding of the seasonal health threat due to culturable bioaerosols during non-haze and haze days.

  16. Data assimilation of a ten-day period during June 1993 over the Southern Great Plains Site using a nested mesoscale model

    SciTech Connect

    Dudhia, J.; Guo, Y.R.

    1996-04-01

    A goal of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has been to obtain a complete representation of physical processes on the scale of a general circulation model (GCM) grid box in order to better parameterize radiative processes in these models. Since an observational network of practical size cannot be used alone to characterize the Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site`s 3D structure and time development, data assimilation using the enhanced observations together with a mesoscale model is used to give a full 4D analysis at high resolution. The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)/Penn State Mesoscale Model (MM5) has been applied over a ten-day continuous period in a triple-nested mode with grid sizes of 60, 20 and 6.67 in. The outer domain covers the United States` 48 contiguous states; the innermost is a 480-km square centered on Lamont, Oklahoma. A simulation has been run with data assimilation using the Mesoscale Analysis and Prediction System (MAPS) 60-km analyses from the Forecast Systems Laboratory (FSL) of the National Ocean and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). The nested domains take boundary conditions from and feed back continually to their parent meshes (i.e., they are two-way interactive). As reported last year, this provided a simulation of the basic features of mesoscale events over the CART site during the period 16-26 June 1993 when an Intensive Observation Period (IOP) was under way.

  17. The Extension of Cultural Dominance in Iran with the Establishment of New Schools in Ghajar Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piri, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of 19th century, England for political reasons tried to make relations with Iran. Englishmen besides political tricks tried to establish their trace in Iran society by cultural permeation. European religious commissions who proceeded in different parts of the world since 19th century, though apparently had religious…

  18. 77 FR 42790 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Last Days of Pompeii...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ..., Apocalypse, Resurrection'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations: Pursuant to the... ``The Last Days of Pompeii: Decadence, Apocalypse, Resurrection,'' imported from abroad for...

  19. Turbulence Kinetic Energy budget during the afternoon transition - Part 1: Observed surface TKE budget and boundary layer description for 10 intensive observation period days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, E.; Lohou, F.; Lothon, M.; Pardyjak, E.; Mahrt, L.; Darbieu, C.

    2015-11-01

    The decay of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and its budget in the afternoon period from mid-day until zero buoyancy flux at the surface is studied in a two-part paper by means of measurements from the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) field campaign for 10 Intensive Observation Period days. Here, in Part 1, near-surface measurements from a small tower are used to estimate a TKE budget. The overall boundary layer characteristics and meso-scale situation at the site are also described based upon taller tower measurements, radiosoundings and remote sensing instrumentation. Analysis of the TKE budget during the afternoon transition reveals a variety of different surface layer dynamics in terms of TKE and TKE decay. This is largely attributed to variations in the 8 m wind speed, which is responsible for different amounts of near-surface shear production on different afternoons and variations within some of the afternoon periods. The partitioning of near surface production into local dissipation and transport in neutral and unstably stratified conditions was investigated. Although variations exist both between and within afternoons, as a rule of thumb, our results suggest that about 50 % of the near surface production of TKE is compensated by local dissipation near the surface, leaving about 50 % available for transport. This result indicates that it is important to also consider TKE transport as a factor influencing the near-surface TKE decay rate, which in many earlier studies has mainly been linked with the production terms of TKE by buoyancy and wind shear. We also conclude that the TKE tendency is smaller than the other budget terms, indicating a quasi-stationary evolution of TKE in the afternoon transition. Even though the TKE tendency was observed to be small, a strong correlation to mean buoyancy production of -0.69 was found for the afternoon period. For comparison with previous results, the TKE budget terms are normalized with

  20. Ninety-day waiting period limitation and technical amendments to certain health coverage requirements under the Affordable Care Act. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2014-02-24

    These final regulations implement the 90-day waiting period limitation under section 2708 of the Public Health Service Act, as added by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Affordable Care Act), as amended, and incorporated into the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 and the Internal Revenue Code. These regulations also finalize amendments to existing regulations to conform to Affordable Care Act provisions. Specifically, these rules amend regulations implementing existing provisions such as some of the portability provisions added by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) because those provisions of the HIPAA regulations have become superseded or require amendment as a result of the market reform protections added by the Affordable Care Act. PMID:24611209

  1. Practical Physical and Behavioral Measures to Assess the Socialization Spectrum of Cats in a Shelter-Like Setting during a Three Day Period

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Margaret; Garrison, Laurie; Miller, Katherine; Weiss, Emily; Makolinski, Kathleen; Drain, Natasha; Mirontshuk, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Animal welfare organizations accept large numbers of cats with no known history. Because shelters are often highly stressful environments for cats, it is likely to be difficult to differentiate a frightened cat that is socialized to humans from a feral cat that is not. However, this distinction can help channel cats into appropriate dispositions. We conducted structured assessments to measure various behaviors and their potential to distinguish socialization levels. Our results show that a specific set of behaviors are only exhibited by more socialized cats. Many cats needed time to adjust to the shelter-type setting to show these socialized behaviors. Abstract Animal welfare organizations routinely accept large numbers of cats with unknown histories, and whose backgrounds vary from well-socialized pets to cats that have had little or no contact with humans. Agencies are challenged with making the determination of socialization level in a highly stressful environment where cats are often too frightened to show typical behaviors. A variety of structured behavioral assessments were conducted in a shelter-like environment, from intake through a three day holding period, on cats from the full range of socialization as reported by their caregivers. Our results show that certain behaviors such as rubbing, playing, chirping, having the tail up or being at the front of the cage were found to be unique to More Socialized cats. While not all more socialized cats showed these behaviors, cats that did were socialized. Assessing the cats throughout the three day period was beneficial in eliciting key behaviors from shyer and more frightened cats. These results will be used in future work to develop an assessment tool to identify the socialization status of cats as a standardized guide for transparent and reliable disposition decisions and higher live release rates for cats in animal shelters. PMID:26479757

  2. Safety, efficacy and acceptability of outpatient mifepristone-misoprostol medical abortion through 70 days since last menstrual period in public sector facilities in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Sanhueza Smith, Patricio; Peña, Melanie; Dzuba, Ilana G; García Martinez, María Laura; Aranguré Peraza, Ana Gabriela; Bousiéguez, Manuel; Shochet, Tara; Winikoff, Beverly

    2015-02-01

    Extensive evidence exists regarding the efficacy and acceptability of medical abortion through 63 days since last menstrual period (LMP). In Mexico City's Secretariat of Health (SSDF) outpatient facilities, mifepristone-misoprostol medical abortion is the first-line approach for abortion care in this pregnancy range. Recent research demonstrates continued high rates of complete abortion through 70 days LMP. To expand access to legal abortion services in Mexico City (where abortion is legal through 12 weeks LMP), this study sought to assess the efficacy and acceptability of the standard outpatient approach through 70 days in two SSDF points of service. One thousand and one women seeking pregnancy termination were enrolled and given 200 mg mifepristone followed by 800 μg misoprostol 24-48 hours later. Women were asked to return to the clinic one week later for evaluation. The great majority of women (93.3%; 95% CI: 91.6-94.8) had complete abortions. Women with pregnancies ≤ 8 weeks LMP had significantly higher success rates than women in the 9th or 10th weeks (94.9% vs. 90.5%; p = 0.01). The difference in success rates between the 9th and 10th weeks was not significant (90.0% vs. 91.2%; p = 0.71). The majority of women found the side effects (82.9%) and the use of misoprostol (84.4%) to be very acceptable or acceptable. This study provides additional evidence supporting an extended outpatient medical abortion regimen through 10 weeks LMP. PMID:25702071

  3. Integrated biological and cultural practices can reduce crop rotation period of organic strawberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approached by an organic grower and the land owner, a team of researchers conducted a replicated on-farm experiment with the break period between strawberry crops (continuous strawberries with broccoli residue incorporation, one year break, two year break, three year break, and seven year break) as ...

  4. Estimation of seasonal and annual acidic deposition through aggregation of three-day episodic periods. Report for February 1989-1991

    SciTech Connect

    Samson, P.J.; Brook, J.R.; Sillman, S.

    1990-08-01

    A method for aggregating episodic deposition estimates has been developed and used to identify which meteorological situations merit simulation by RADM based on their likelihood of producing sulfate (SO4(-2)) wet deposition at multiple locations across eastern North America, their frequency of occurrence, and their seasonality. The aggregation technique has been performed using four years (1982 - 1985) of precipitation chemistry data from the Utility Acid Precipitation Sampling Program (UAPSP). The method developed during the project improves upon random selection. It is based on the stratification of three-day periods into categories of similar 850 mb wind flow across eastern North America. The aggregation project has provided the RADM project with a list of simulation periods which represent the range of meteorological patterns over eastern North America. The selection of storm types was based on their likelihood of producing SO4(-2) wet deposition at multiple locations across eastern North America, their frequency of occurrence, and their seasonality. The project has also provided the RADM project with scaling factors for use in weighing episodic simulation results to seasonal and annual deposition.

  5. [Customs, habits and medical culture in the Qin-Han Periods].

    PubMed

    Zheng, H

    1994-01-01

    The unity of Qin-Han feudal dynasties improves the development of society, flourishes the economy and creates a good environment for friendly communication and fusion of customs among all nationalities, exerting positive and active influence on medicine. Analyses are made on the relation between customs and habits, and medical culture. it is stressed that not all customs are in line with science. Some of them might even be superstitious or anti-scientific. However, in some sense, it is the soil for the advent of medical and health care issues. PMID:11615220

  6. Ocean-Atmosphere Environments of Antarctic-Region Cold-Air Mesocyclones: Evaluation of Reanalyses for Contrasting Adjacent 10-Day Periods ("Macro-Weather") in Winter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carleton, A. M.; Auger, J.; Birkel, S. D.; Maasch, K. A.; Mayewski, P. A.; Claud, C.

    2015-12-01

    Mesoscale cyclones in cold-air outbreaks (mesocyclones) feature in the weather and climate of the Antarctic (e.g., Ross Sea) and sub-antarctic (Drake Passage). They adversely impact field operations, and influence snowfall, the ice-sheet mass balance, and sea-air energy fluxes. Although individual mesocyclones are poorly represented on reanalyses, these datasets robustly depict the upper-ocean and troposphere environments in which multiple mesocyclones typically form. A spatial metric of mesocyclone activity—the Meso-Cyclogenesis Potential (MCP)—used ERA-40 anomaly fields of: sea surface temperature (SST) minus marine air temperature (MAT), near-surface winds, 500 hPa air temperature, and the sea-ice edge location. MCP maps composited by teleconnection phases for 1979-2001, broadly correspond to short-period satellite "climatologies" of mesocyclones. Here, we assess 3 reanalysis datasets (CFSR, ERA-I and MERRA) for their reliably to depict MCP patterns on weekly to sub-monthly periods marked by strong regional shifts in mesocyclone activity (frequencies, track densities) occurring during a La Niña winter: June 21-30, 1999 (SE Indian Ocean) and September 1-10, 1999 (Ross Sea sector). All reanalyses depict the marked variations in upper ocean and atmosphere variables between adjacent 10-day periods. Slight differences may owe to model resolution or internal components (land surface, coupled ocean models), and/or how the observations are assimilated. For June 21-30, positive SST-MAT, southerly winds, proximity to the ice edge, and negative T500, accompany increased meso-cyclogenesis. However, for September 1-10, surface forcing does not explain frequent comma cloud "polar lows" north-east of the Ross Sea. Inclusion of the upper-level diffluence (e.g., from Z300 field) in the MCP metric, better depicts the observed mesocyclone activity. MCP patterns on these "macro-weather" time scales appear relatively insensitive to the choice of reanalysis.

  7. Outdoor Day-Care Centres--A Culturalization of Nature: How Do Children Relate to Nature as Educational Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melhuus, E. Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    This article will discuss how children and adults experience a certain outdoor environment as part of an educational practice, through the activities the adults and children have. It will further discuss how these activities realize cultural values through the educators' and children's activities. In Norway the use of outdoor environments has…

  8. Dancing as an Aspect of Early Mormon (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints) and Utah Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, Leona

    Dance has often been a significant part of a cultural heritage. Most of the religious organizations which were formed just after the United States achieved its independence, however, rejected many European religious customs, including dance. Despite this, the Mormon church not only allowed dance, but advocated and sponsored it. Dance was an…

  9. Lithium lengthens circadian period of cultured brain slices in area specific manner.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Tomoko; Honma, Sato

    2016-11-01

    Lithium has been used for the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). However, the mechanisms how lithium exerts its mood stabilizing effects remain to be studied. The disorder in circadian pacemaking has been suggested as an underlying mechanism of the characteristic mood instability of the BD. Lithium is also known to lengthen the circadian periods. We recently proposed that chronic methamphetamine treatment induced circadian oscillation as a complex oscillator including multiple dopaminergic brain areas, and the complex oscillator regulates behavior rhythm independent from the central circadian oscillator in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Sleep-wake pattern of rapid cycling BD exhibits similar rhythm disorganization to methamphetamine treated animals. Therefore, we hypothesized that the dysregulated circadian rhythm in BD patients is caused by desynchronization of sleep-wake rhythms from the central clock in the SCN, and that mood stabilizing effect of lithium is achieved through their resynchronization. In the present experiment, we examined how lithium affects the circadian rhythms of brain areas involved in the complex oscillator as well as the SCN. Here we report that lithium lengthens the circadian periods in the SCN, olfactory bulb, median eminence and substantia nigra with dose and area specific manner. The effective lithium dose was much higher than the plasma levels that are required for lengthening the circadian behavior rhythms as well for therapeutic use. Low dose of lithium did not lengthen the period but enhanced the amplitude of circadian rhythms, which may exert therapeutic effects on BD. PMID:27478137

  10. Musical rhythms in heart period dynamics: a cross-cultural and interdisciplinary approach to cardiac rhythms.

    PubMed

    Bettermann, H; Amponsah, D; Cysarz, D; van Leeuwen, P

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to expand classic heart period analysis methods by techniques from ethnomusicology that explicitly take complex musical rhythm principles into consideration. The methods used are based on the theory of African music, the theory of symbolic dynamics, and combinatorial theory. Heart period tachograms from 192 24-h electrocardiograms of 96 healthy subjects were transformed into binary symbol sequences that were interpretable as elementary rhythmic (percussive) patterns, the time lines in African music. Using a hierarchical rhythm pattern scheme closely related to the Derler Rhythm Classification (from jazz theory), we calculated the predominance and stability of pattern classes. The results show that during sleep certain classes, specific to individuals, occurred in a cyclically recurrent manner and many times more often than expected. Simultaneously, other classes disappeared more or less completely. Moreover, the most frequent classes obviously originate from phase-locking processes in autonomic regulation (e.g., between respiratory and cardiac cycles). In conclusion, the new interdisciplinary method presented here demonstrates that heart period patterns, in particular those occurring during night sleep, can be interpreted as musical rhythms. This method may be of great potential use in music therapy research. PMID:10564129

  11. Turbulence kinetic energy budget during the afternoon transition - Part 1: Observed surface TKE budget and boundary layer description for 10 intensive observation period days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, Erik; Lohou, Fabienne; Lothon, Marie; Pardyjak, Eric; Mahrt, Larry; Darbieu, Clara

    2016-07-01

    The decay of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and its budget in the afternoon period from midday until zero-buoyancy flux at the surface is studied in a two-part paper by means of measurements from the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) field campaign for 10 intensive observation period days. Here, in Part 1, near-surface measurements from a small tower are used to estimate a TKE budget. The overall boundary layer characteristics and mesoscale situation at the site are also described based upon taller tower measurements, radiosoundings and remote sensing instrumentation. Analysis of the TKE budget during the afternoon transition reveals a variety of different surface layer dynamics in terms of TKE and TKE decay. This is largely attributed to variations in the 8 m wind speed, which is responsible for different amounts of near-surface shear production on different afternoons and variations within some of the afternoon periods. The partitioning of near-surface production into local dissipation and transport in neutral and unstably stratified conditions was investigated. Although variations exist both between and within afternoons, as a rule of thumb, our results suggest that about 50 % of the near-surface production of TKE is compensated for by local dissipation near the surface, leaving about 50 % available for transport. This result indicates that it is important to also consider TKE transport as a factor influencing the near-surface TKE decay rate, which in many earlier studies has mainly been linked with the production terms of TKE by buoyancy and wind shear. We also conclude that the TKE tendency is smaller than the other budget terms, indicating a quasi-stationary evolution of TKE in the afternoon transition. Even though the TKE tendency was observed to be small, a strong correlation to mean buoyancy production of -0.69 was found for the afternoon period. For comparison with previous results, the TKE budget terms are normalized with

  12. Auroral activities observed by SNPP VIIRS day/night band during a long period geomagnetic storm event on April 29-30, 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xi; Cao, Changyong; Liu, Tung-chang; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Wenhui; Fung, Shing F.

    2015-10-01

    The Day/Night Band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard Suomi-NPP represents a major advancement in night time imaging capabilities. The DNB senses radiance that can span 7 orders of magnitude in one panchromatic (0.5-0.9 μm) reflective solar band and provides imagery of clouds and other Earth features over illumination levels ranging from full sunlight to quarter moon. When the satellite passes through the day-night terminator, the DNB sensor is affected by stray light due to solar illumination on the instrument. With the implementation of stray light correction, stray light-corrected DNB images enable the observation of aurora occurred in the high latitude regions during geomagnetic storms. In this paper, DNB observations of auroral activities are analyzed during a long period (> 20 hours) of geomagnetic storm event occurred on Apr. 29-30, 2014. The storm event has the Bz component of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) pointing southward for more than 20 hours. During this event, the geomagnetic storm index Dst reached -67 nT and the geomagnetic auroral electrojet (AE) index increased and reached as high as 1200 nT with large amplitude fluctuations. The event occurred during new moon period and DNB observation has minimum moon light contamination. During this event, auroras are observed by DNB for each orbital pass on the night side (~local time 1:30am) in the southern hemisphere. DNB radiance data are processed to identify regions of aurora during each orbital pass. The evolution of aurora is characterized with time series of the poleward and equatorward boundary of aurora, area, peak radiance and total light emission of the aurora in DNB observation. These characteristic parameters are correlated with solar wind and geomagnetic index parameters. It is found that the evolution of total area-integrated radiance of auroral region over the southern hemisphere correlated well with the ground geomagnetic AE index with correlation

  13. Socio-cultural factors surrounding mental distress during the perinatal period in Zambia: a qualitative investigation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The presence of mental distress during pregnancy and after childbirth imposes detrimental developmental and health consequences for families in all nations. In Zambia, the Ministry of Health (MoH) has proposed a more comprehensive approach towards mental health care, recognizing the importance of the mental health of women during the perinatal period. Aim The study explores factors contributing to mental distress during the perinatal period of motherhood in Zambia. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in Lusaka, Zambia with nineteen focus groups comprising 149 women and men from primary health facilities and schools respectively. Findings There are high levels of mental distress in four domains: worry about HIV status and testing; uncertainty about survival from childbirth; lack of social support; and vulnerability/oppression. Conclusion Identifying mental distress and prompt referral for interventions is critical to improving the mental health of the mother and prevent the effects of mental distress on the baby. Recommendation Strategies should be put in place to ensure pregnant women are screened for possible perinatal mental health problems during their visit to antenatal clinic and referral made to qualified mental health professionals. In addition further research is recommended in order to facilitate evidence based mental health policy formulation and implementation in Zambia. PMID:22954173

  14. Typing of Clinical Mycobacterium avium Complex Strains Cultured during a 2-Year Period in Denmark by Using IS1245

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Jeanett; Andersen, Åse B.; Askgaard, Dorthe; Giese, Sten B.; Larsen, Birger

    1999-01-01

    In the present study restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses with the recently described insertion sequence IS1245 as a probe was performed with clinical Mycobacterium avium complex strains cultured in Denmark during a 2-year period. The overall aim of the study was to disclose potential routes of transmission of these microorganisms. As a first step, the genetic diversity among isolates from AIDS patients and non-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients was described. In addition, a number of isolates from nonhuman sources cultured during the same period were analyzed and compared to the human isolates. A total of 203 isolates from AIDS patients (n = 90), non-HIV-infected patients (n = 91), and nonhuman sources (n = 22) were analyzed. The presence of IS1245 was restricted to Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium isolates. The majority of human isolates had large numbers of IS1245 copies, while nonhuman isolates could be divided into a high-copy-number group and a low-copy-number group. Groups of identical strains were found to be geographically widespread, comprising strains from AIDS patients as well as strains from non-HIV-infected patients. Samples of peat (to be used as potting soil) and veterinary samples were found to contain viable M. avium isolates belonging to genotypes also found in humans. PMID:9986819

  15. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period

    PubMed Central

    Moritz, Cristiane Mengue Feniman; Rall, Vera Lúcia Mores; Saeki, Margarida Júri; Júnior, Ary Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity profile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam distillation, and chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and determination of density. Survival curves were obtained from counts of L. rhamnosus and the starter culture (alone and in combination), upon addition of 0.04% essential oils. In parallel, titratable acidity was monitored over 28 experimental days. Minimum inhibitory concentration values, obtained using the microdilution method in Brain Heart Infusion medium, were 0.025, 0.2 and 0.4% for cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils, respectively. Cinnamon essential oil had the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against the starter culture, interfering with lactic acid production. Although viable cell counts of L. rhamnosus were lower following treatment with all 3 essential oils, relative to controls, these results were not statistically significant; in addition, cell counts remained greater than the minimum count of 108CFU/mL required for a product to be considered a probiotic. Thus, although use of cinnamon essential oil in yogurt makes starter culture fermentation unfeasible, it does not prevent the application of L. rhamnosus to probiotic fermented milk. Furthermore, clove and mint essential oil caused sublethal stress to L. rhamnosus. PMID:24031939

  16. Probing Rotational Dynamo Extremes: X-ray and Optical Spectroscopy of the 0.5 Day Period Eclipsing Binary, HD 79826

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huenemoerder, David P.; Nichols, Joy S.; DePalma, David; Garcia-Alvarez, David; Schulz, Norbert S.

    2015-01-01

    The highly modulated optical light curve of HD 79826 (spectral types G5+M5) was discovered in the \\chan guide-star light curves, indicating a period of about 0.5 days, a strong and migrating distortion wave, and a shallow eclipse. We subsequently obtained simultaneous \\chan high resolution X-ray spectra and optical photometry, along with contemporaneous ground-based photometry and spectra. X-ray rotational or eclipse modulation was totally obscured by X-ray variability and flares. X-ray spectra are characterized by coronal emission near the saturation limit of L_{x}/L_{bol} = 10^{mthree}. Optical spectra show extremely rotationally broadened features, variable with orbital phase. Optical light curves show the modulation to be not only rapidly migrating in phase, but also of variable amplitude. We characterize the X-ray emission through measurements of line widths, velocities, and fluxes, and provide coronal plasma models. This star is near or at the limits of dynamo saturation, and since it is partially eclipsing, has potential to be well characterized in terms of fundamental stellar parameters.

  17. Collagen content in the vastus lateralis and the soleus muscle following a 90-day bed rest period with or without resistance exercises

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Schjerling, Peter; Tesch, Per; Stål, Per; Langberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    /mg protein [95% CI: −29.7; 24.1], p=0.82). Conclusion muscle collagen content in the VL or SOL muscle does not seem to differ after a 90-day bed rest period with or without squat exercises. PMID:26958541

  18. Ground-based observations of Saturn's auroral ionosphere over three days: Trends in H3+ temperature, density and emission with Saturn local time and planetary period oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donoghue, James; Melin, Henrik; Stallard, Tom S.; Provan, G.; Moore, Luke; Badman, Sarah V.; Cowley, Stan W. H.; Baines, Kevin H.; Miller, Steve; Blake, James S. D.

    2016-01-01

    On 19-21 April 2013, the ground-based 10-m W.M. Keck II telescope was used to simultaneously measure H3+ emissions from four regions of Saturn's auroral ionosphere: (1) the northern noon region of the main auroral oval; (2) the northern midnight main oval; (3) the northern polar cap and (4) the southern noon main oval. The H3+ emission from these regions was captured in the form of high resolution spectral images as the planet rotated. The results herein contain twenty-three H3+ temperatures, column densities and total emissions located in the aforementioned regions - ninety-two data points in total, spread over timescales of both hours and days. Thermospheric temperatures in the spring-time northern main oval are found to be cooler than their autumn-time southern counterparts by tens of K, consistent with the hypothesis that the total thermospheric heating rate is inversely proportional to magnetic field strength. The main oval H3+ density and emission is lower at northern midnight than it is at noon, in agreement with a nearby peak in the electron influx in the post-dawn sector and a minimum flux at midnight. Finally, when arranging the northern main oval H3+ parameters as a function of the oscillation period seen in Saturn's magnetic field - the planetary period oscillation (PPO) phase - we see a large peak in H3+ density and emission at ∼115° northern phase, with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of ∼44°. This seems to indicate that the influx of electrons associated with the PPO phase at 90° is responsible at least in part for the behavior of all H3+ parameters. A combination of the H3+ production and loss timescales and the ±10° uncertainty in the location of a given PPO phase are likely, at least in part, to be responsible for the observed peaks in H3+ density and emission occurring at a later time than the peak precipitation expected at 90° PPO phase.

  19. An anxiety, personality and altitude symptomatology study during a 31-day period of hypoxia in a hypobaric chamber (experiment 'Everest-Comex 1997').

    PubMed

    Nicolas, M; Thullier-Lestienne, F; Bouquet, C; Gardette, B; Gortan, C; Joulia, F; Bonnon, M; Richalet, J P; Therme, P; Abraini, J H

    1999-12-01

    Extreme environmental situations are useful tools for the investigation of the general processes of adaptation. Among such situations, high altitude of more than 3000 m produces a set of pathological disorders that includes both cerebral (cAS) and respiratory (RAS) altitude symptoms. High altitude exposure further induces anxiety responses and behavioural disturbances. The authors report an investigation on anxiety responses, personality traits, and altitude symptoms (AS) in climbers participating in a 31-day period of confinement and gradual decompression in a hypobaric chamber equivalent to a climb from sea-level to Mount Everest (8848 m altitude). Personality traits, state-trait anxiety, and AS were assessed, using the Cattell 16 Personality Factor questionnaire (16PF), the Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Lake Louise concensus questionnaire. Results show significant group effect for state-anxiety and AS; state-anxiety and AS increased as altitude increased. They also show that state-type anxiety shows a similar time-course to cAS, but not RAS. Alternatively, our results demonstrate a significant negative correlation between Factor M of the 16PF questionnaire, which is a personality trait that ranges from praxernia to autia. In contrast, no significant correlation was found between personality traits and AS. This suggests that AS could not be predicted using personality traits and further support that personality traits, such as praxernia (happening sensitivity), could play a major role in the occurrence of state-type anxiety responses in extreme environments. In addition, the general processes of coping and adaptation in individuals participating in extreme environmental experiments are discussed. PMID:11543191

  20. Concerns Expressed by Parents of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders for Different Time Periods of the Day: A Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Yoshinori; Usami, Masahide; Sasayama, Daimei; Okada, Takashi; Iwadare, Yoshitaka; Watanabe, Kyota; Ushijima, Hirokage; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Harada, Maiko; Tanaka, Hiromi; Kodaira, Masaki; Sugiyama, Nobuhiro; Sawa, Tetsuji; Saito, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim The Questionnaire: Children with Difficulties (QCD) is a parent-assessed questionnaire designed to evaluate child’s difficulties in functioning during specific periods of the day. This study aimed to evaluate difficulties in daily functioning of children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) using the QCD. Results were compared with those for a community sample. Methods A case–control design was used. The cases comprised elementary school students (182 males, 51 females) and junior high school students (100 males, 39 females) with PDD, whereas a community sample of elementary school students (568 males, 579 females) and junior high school students (180 males, 183 females) was enrolled as controls. Their behavior was assessed using the QCD, the Tokyo Autistic Behavior Scale (TABS), the ADHD-rating scale (ADHD-RS), and the Oppositional Defiant Behavior Inventory (ODBI) for elementary and junior high school students, respectively. Effects of gender and diagnosis on the QCD scores were analyzed. Correlation coefficients between QCD and TABS, ADHD-RS, and ODBI scores were analyzed. Results The QCD scores for the children with PDD were significantly lower compared with those from the community sample (P < 0.001). Significantly strong correlations were observed in more areas of the ADHD-RS and ODBI scores compared with the TABS scores. Conclusions Children with PDD experienced greater difficulties in completing basic daily activities; moreover, their QCD scores revealed stronger associations with their ADHD-RS and ODBI scores in comparison with their TABS scores. The difficulties of PDD, ADHD and OBDI symptoms combined in children makes it necessary to assess all diagnoses before any therapy for PDD is initiated in order to be able to evaluate its results properly. PMID:25898260

  1. Day to Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurecki, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    A clean, healthy and safe school provides students, faculty and staff with an environment conducive to learning and working. However, budget and staff reductions can lead to substandard cleaning practices and unsanitary conditions. Some school facility managers have been making the switch to a day-schedule to reduce security and energy costs, and…

  2. Hypoglycemia-Associated Autonomic Failure in Healthy Humans: Comparison of Two vs Three Periods of Hypoglycemia on Hypoglycemia-Induced Counterregulatory and Symptom Response 5 Days Later

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, A.; Eberly, L. E.; Kim, J.; Roberts, R.; Seaquist, E. R.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure (HAAF) limits the ability of patients with diabetes to achieve target glycemia. Animal models have provided insights into the pathogenesis of HAAF, but a robust human model of HAAF in which recurrent hypoglycemia impacts the counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia days later is lacking. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of two or three episodes of moderate hypoglycemia on counterregulatory responses to subsequent hypoglycemia induced 5 days later. Design and Subjects: Six healthy subjects participated in each of the two study protocols. In both protocol 1 and 2, subjects underwent two 2-hour hypoglycemic clamp studies during the morning and afternoon of day 1. In protocol 2, subjects underwent an additional third hypoglycemic clamp during the morning of day 2. All subjects in both protocols underwent a final hypoglycemic clamp on the morning of day 5. Results: In protocol 1, there were no significant differences in the hypoglycemia-induced hormone response or in symptoms scores between the mornings of days 1 and 5. In protocol 2, hypoglycemia-induced epinephrine (P = .02) and cortisol (P = .04) secretions were significantly lower on day 5 compared with day 1, whereas glucagon (P = .08) and norepinephrine (P = .59) were not different. Also in protocol 2, neurogenic (P = .02) and neuroglycopenic (P = .04) symptoms during hypoglycemia were decreased on day 5 compared with day 1. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that exposure of healthy humans to three 2-hour hypoglycemic episodes over 30 hours leads to significant blunting in counterregulatory and symptom response to subsequent hypoglycemia on day 5. PMID:24423306

  3. KELT-6b: A P ∼ 7.9 day hot Saturn transiting a metal-poor star with a long-period companion

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Karen A.; Kielkopf, John F.; Eastman, Jason D.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Siverd, Robert J.; Pepper, Joshua; Stassun, Keivan G.; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Fischer, Debra A.; Manner, Mark; Bieryla, Allyson; Latham, David W.; Gregorio, Joao; Buchhave, Lars A.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Penev, Kaloyan; Crepp, Justin R.; and others

    2014-02-01

    We report the discovery of KELT-6b, a mildly inflated Saturn-mass planet transiting a metal-poor host. The initial transit signal was identified in KELT-North survey data, and the planetary nature of the occulter was established using a combination of follow-up photometry, high-resolution imaging, high-resolution spectroscopy, and precise radial velocity measurements. The fiducial model from a global analysis including constraints from isochrones indicates that the V = 10.38 host star (BD+31 2447) is a mildly evolved, late-F star with T {sub eff} = 6102 ± 43 K, log g{sub ⋆}=4.07{sub −0.07}{sup +0.04}, and [Fe/H] = –0.28 ± 0.04, with an inferred mass M {sub *} = 1.09 ± 0.04 M {sub ☉} and radius R{sub ⋆}=1.58{sub −0.09}{sup +0.16} R{sub ⊙}. The planetary companion has mass M{sub P} = 0.43 ± 0.05 M {sub Jup}, radius R{sub P}=1.19{sub −0.08}{sup +0.13} R{sub Jup}, surface gravity log g{sub P}=2.86{sub −0.08}{sup +0.06}, and density ρ{sub P}=0.31{sub −0.08}{sup +0.07} g cm{sup −3}. The planet is on an orbit with semimajor axis a = 0.079 ± 0.001 AU and eccentricity e=0.22{sub −0.10}{sup +0.12}, which is roughly consistent with circular, and has ephemeris of T {sub c}(BJD{sub TDB}) = 2456347.79679 ± 0.00036 and P = 7.845631 ± 0.000046 days. Equally plausible fits that employ empirical constraints on the host-star parameters rather than isochrones yield a larger planet mass and radius by ∼4)-7). KELT-6b has surface gravity and incident flux similar to HD 209458b, but orbits a host that is more metal poor than HD 209458 by ∼0.3 dex. Thus, the KELT-6 system offers an opportunity to perform a comparative measurement of two similar planets in similar environments around stars of very different metallicities. The precise radial velocity data also reveal an acceleration indicative of a longer-period third body in the system, although the companion is not detected in Keck adaptive optics images.

  4. KELT-6b: A P ~ 7.9 Day Hot Saturn Transiting a Metal-poor Star with a Long-period Companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Karen A.; Eastman, Jason D.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Siverd, Robert J.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Pepper, Joshua; Kielkopf, John F.; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W.; Fischer, Debra A.; Manner, Mark; Bieryla, Allyson; Latham, David W.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Gregorio, Joao; Buchhave, Lars A.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Penev, Kaloyan; Crepp, Justin R.; Hinkley, Sasha; Street, Rachel A.; Cargile, Phillip; Mack, Claude E.; Oberst, Thomas E.; Avril, Ryan L.; Mellon, Samuel N.; McLeod, Kim K.; Penny, Matthew T.; Stefanik, Robert P.; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L.; Mao, Qingqing; Richert, Alexander J. W.; DePoy, Darren L.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Gould, Andrew; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Oelkers, Ryan J.; Pogge, Richard W.; Trueblood, Mark; Trueblood, Patricia

    2014-02-01

    We report the discovery of KELT-6b, a mildly inflated Saturn-mass planet transiting a metal-poor host. The initial transit signal was identified in KELT-North survey data, and the planetary nature of the occulter was established using a combination of follow-up photometry, high-resolution imaging, high-resolution spectroscopy, and precise radial velocity measurements. The fiducial model from a global analysis including constraints from isochrones indicates that the V = 10.38 host star (BD+31 2447) is a mildly evolved, late-F star with T eff = 6102 ± 43 K, log g_\\star =4.07_{-0.07}^{+0.04}, and [Fe/H] = -0.28 ± 0.04, with an inferred mass M sstarf = 1.09 ± 0.04 M ⊙ and radius R_\\star =1.58_{-0.09}^{+0.16} \\,R_\\odot. The planetary companion has mass MP = 0.43 ± 0.05 M Jup, radius R_{P}=1.19_{-0.08}^{+0.13} \\,R_Jup, surface gravity log g_{P}=2.86_{-0.08}^{+0.06}, and density \\rho _{P}=0.31_{-0.08}^{+0.07}\\,g\\,cm^{-3}. The planet is on an orbit with semimajor axis a = 0.079 ± 0.001 AU and eccentricity e=0.22_{-0.10}^{+0.12}, which is roughly consistent with circular, and has ephemeris of T c(BJDTDB) = 2456347.79679 ± 0.00036 and P = 7.845631 ± 0.000046 days. Equally plausible fits that employ empirical constraints on the host-star parameters rather than isochrones yield a larger planet mass and radius by ~4}-7}. KELT-6b has surface gravity and incident flux similar to HD 209458b, but orbits a host that is more metal poor than HD 209458 by ~0.3 dex. Thus, the KELT-6 system offers an opportunity to perform a comparative measurement of two similar planets in similar environments around stars of very different metallicities. The precise radial velocity data also reveal an acceleration indicative of a longer-period third body in the system, although the companion is not detected in Keck adaptive optics images. KELT is a joint project of The Ohio State University, Vanderbilt University, and Lehigh University.

  5. Postnatal development and neoplastic disease pattern in NMRI mice after combined treatment with ethylnitrosourea and X-irradiation on different days of the fetal period.

    PubMed

    Wiggenhauser, A; Schmahl, W

    1987-06-01

    Mice were X-irradiated on day 14, 15 or 16 of gestation with 1.0 Gy. This did not result in an increased tumour frequency in the offspring until 12 months. Mice treated with ethylnitrosourea (ENU) (45 mg/kg) on these gestation days developed a significantly increased tumour frequency in the lungs and liver, and in the ovaries after treatment on day 15 of gestation. Additionally this experiment was the first to show that ENU treatment on gestation day 14, 15 or 16 results in haemangiosarcomas of the subcutis at a low incidence (2.0, 2.4, 2.6 per cent). After combined treatment with these two agents in the sequence X+ENU and an interval of 4 h, a significantly increased incidence rate of animals with tumours was observed in the offspring treated on gestation day 14 or 16. Moreover, the treatment on gestation day 16 exhibited the highest tumour frequency per examined animal (5.7) of all treatment groups. This result is due to a relatively uniform increase of all tumor types. Within this pattern, the frequency of liver tumours was most marked. The diagnosed liver tumours were significantly augmented after X+ENU treatment on day 16. In the reverse sequence (ENU+X), the total tumour outcome was not significantly altered compared with the effects of ENU alone. However, detailed analysis also showed a significant augmentation of the liver tumour frequency with treatment on day 15. PMID:3496295

  6. Effects of timing on vaccination (day 0 versus day 14 of a receiving period) with a modified-live respiratory viral vaccine on performance, feed intake, and febrile response of beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of timing of administration of a modified-live respiratory viral vaccine (IBR-PI3-BRSV-BVD) on d 0 or on d 14 of a receiving period on performance, feed intake, and febrile response in beef heifers. Our hypothesis was vaccine timing will alter ...

  7. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... number of days after the last one. The Menstrual Cycle Most girls get their first period between the ... to skip periods or to have an irregular menstrual cycle. Illness, rapid weight change, or stress can also ...

  8. A Whole-Genome Microarray Study of Arabidopsis thaliana Semisolid Callus Cultures Exposed to Microgravity and Nonmicrogravity Related Spaceflight Conditions for 5 Days on Board of Shenzhou 8

    PubMed Central

    Neef, Maren; Ecke, Margret; Hampp, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    The Simbox mission was the first joint space project between Germany and China in November 2011. Eleven-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana wild type semisolid callus cultures were integrated into fully automated plant cultivation containers and exposed to spaceflight conditions within the Simbox hardware on board of the spacecraft Shenzhou 8. The related ground experiment was conducted under similar conditions. The use of an in-flight centrifuge provided a 1 g gravitational field in space. The cells were metabolically quenched after 5 days via RNAlater injection. The impact on the Arabidopsis transcriptome was investigated by means of whole-genome gene expression analysis. The results show a major impact of nonmicrogravity related spaceflight conditions. Genes that were significantly altered in transcript abundance are mainly involved in protein phosphorylation and MAPK cascade-related signaling processes, as well as in the cellular defense and stress responses. In contrast to short-term effects of microgravity (seconds, minutes), this mission identified only minor changes after 5 days of microgravity. These concerned genes coding for proteins involved in the plastid-associated translation machinery, mitochondrial electron transport, and energy production. PMID:25654111

  9. A whole-genome microarray study of Arabidopsis thaliana semisolid callus cultures exposed to microgravity and nonmicrogravity related spaceflight conditions for 5 days on board of Shenzhou 8.

    PubMed

    Fengler, Svenja; Spirer, Ina; Neef, Maren; Ecke, Margret; Nieselt, Kay; Hampp, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    The Simbox mission was the first joint space project between Germany and China in November 2011. Eleven-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana wild type semisolid callus cultures were integrated into fully automated plant cultivation containers and exposed to spaceflight conditions within the Simbox hardware on board of the spacecraft Shenzhou 8. The related ground experiment was conducted under similar conditions. The use of an in-flight centrifuge provided a 1 g gravitational field in space. The cells were metabolically quenched after 5 days via RNAlater injection. The impact on the Arabidopsis transcriptome was investigated by means of whole-genome gene expression analysis. The results show a major impact of nonmicrogravity related spaceflight conditions. Genes that were significantly altered in transcript abundance are mainly involved in protein phosphorylation and MAPK cascade-related signaling processes, as well as in the cellular defense and stress responses. In contrast to short-term effects of microgravity (seconds, minutes), this mission identified only minor changes after 5 days of microgravity. These concerned genes coding for proteins involved in the plastid-associated translation machinery, mitochondrial electron transport, and energy production. PMID:25654111

  10. Effects of gaseous atmosphere and antioxidants on the development and cryotolerance of bovine embryos at different periods of in vitro culture.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Frigoni, Nathália Alves de Souza; Leão, Beatriz Caetano da Silva; Nogueira, Ériklis; Accorsi, Mônica Ferreira; Mingoti, Gisele Zoccal

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the effects of antioxidant supplementation and O2 tension on embryo development, cryotolerance and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. The antioxidant supplementation consisted of 0.6 mM cysteine (CYST); 0.6 mM cysteine + 100 μM cysteamine (C+C); 100 IU catalase (CAT) or 100 μM β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME) for 3 or 7 days of in vitro culture (IVC). Two O2 tensions (20% O2 [5% CO2 in air] or 7% O2, 5% CO2 and 88% N2 [gaseous mixture]) were examined. After 7 days of antioxidant supplementation, the blastocyst frequencies were adversely affected (P < 0.05) by CYST (11.2%) and C+C (1.44%), as well as by low O2 tension (17.2% and 11.11% for 20% and 7% O2, respectively) compared with the control (26.6%). The blastocyst re-expansion rates were not affected (P > 0.05) by the treatments (range, 66-100%). After 3 days of antioxidant supplementation, the blastocyst frequencies were not affected (P > 0.05) by any of the antioxidants (range, 43.6-48.5%), but they were reduced by low O2 tension (P < 0.05) (52.1% and 38.4% for 20% and 7% O2, respectively). The intracellular ROS levels, demonstrated as arbitrary fluorescence units, were not affected (P > 0.05) by antioxidant treatment (range, 0.78 to 0.95) or by O2 tension (0.86 and 0.88 for 20% and 7% O2, respectively). The re-expansion rates were not affected (P > 0.05) by any of the treatments (range, 63.6-93.3%). In conclusion, intracellular antioxidant supplementation and low O2 tension throughout the entire IVC period were deleterious to embryo development. However, antioxidant supplementation up to day 3 of IVC did not affect the blastocyst frequencies or intracellular ROS levels. PMID:24040954

  11. Two Randomized, Double-Blind, Split-Face Studies to Compare the Irritation Potential of Two Topical Acne Fixed Combinations Over a 21-Day Treatment Period.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Neal; Bhatt, Varsha; Martin, Gina; Pillai, Radhakrishnan

    2016-06-01

    Topical therapy of acne vulgaris (acne) is very common, however cutaneous tolerability can influence patient adherence, and concerns about skin irritation have lead to a number of comparative split-face studies. Advances in formulation technology have provided new fixed combinations with lower concentrations of potentially irritating ingredients without compromising efficacy. These developments now afford the opportunity to formulate fixed combinations with higher concentrations of active ingredients that may provide the greater efficacy needed in more severe disease with good tolerability.
    Here, we compare the tolerability of two such developments, clindamycin-BP 3.75% gel and adapalene 0.3%-BP 2.5% gel, in healthy volunteers with no apparent facial redness or dryness over 21-days, using a split-face methodology.
    Clindamycin-BP 3.75% gel was more tolerable than adapalene 0.3%-BP 2.5% gel over the duration of the two studies, with statistically significant differences in cumulative change from baseline starting as early as day 4 (stinging), day 5 (erythema, dryness, and scaling), day 6 (burning), and day 8 (itching); and in composite irritation index (stinging, erythema, dryness, scaling, burning, and itching) from day 4. Transepidermal water loss was less with clindamycin-BP 3.75% gel (statistically significant from day 8). Adverse events were twice as common with adapalene 0.3%-BP 2.5% gel.
    These data suggest that clindamycin-BP 3.75% gel is likely to be better tolerated than adapalene 0.3%-BP 2.5% gel in moderate-to-severe acne.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(6):721-726. PMID:27272079

  12. Amplitude, phase, and period variations of the quasi 2-day wave in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere over London, Canada (43°N, 81°W), during 1993 and 1994

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thayaparan, T.; Hocking, W. K.; MacDougall, J.

    1997-04-01

    Because there is as yet no conclusive evidence pointing to the source of the quasi 2-day wave, further observations are required in order to resolve questions about the generating mechanism as well as to better understand the role of the wave in the middle atmosphere. In this paper we investigate the period, amplitude, phase, and vertical wavelength for the quasi 2-day wave in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere, using the University of Western Ontario 2 MHz radar near London, Canada, and in addition, we look at possible coupling with atmospheric tides. The results of the present study bring out certain new aspects of the quasi 2-day wave at midlatitude in the northern hemisphere that have not been previously reported. In particular, we show that the period of the quasi 2-day wave determined from our study is smaller (46-47 hours) than the 51- to 52-h period generally suggested by other northern hemisphere results, and our periods also showed variability as a function of time. We also draw attention to the annual variability and especially highlight the occurrence of the wave in nonsummer months. For example, a brief occurrence in April is not uncommon. Our study also contributes additional midlatitude geographical data that should aid in developing a better picture of the quasi 2-day wave.

  13. The analysis of fundamental period of cultural heritage buildings: experimental data for church towers in Basilicata (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizzi, Fabrizio T.; Liberatore, Domenico; Masini, Nicola; Sileo, Maria; Zotta, Cinzia; Potenza, Maria Rosaria; Scavone, Manuela; Sorrentino, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    Seismic hazard is among the main factors conditioning the conservation of historical centres and cultural heritage located in them. This consideration is suitable especially for downtown areas located in Italy, whose territory is prone to seismic hazards, in the southern area especially. As a matter of fact, the historical sources inform us that most of monuments located in Southern Italy suffered damage and consequent restoration or rebuilding due to the earthquake of the past. Therefore, knowing what buildings are the most exposed to the seismic risk can help the stakeholders to fix priority actions aimed at mitigating the effects of future events. Starting from these preliminary remarks, in the framework of the Project PRO_CULT, we started an extensive campaign of measurements of dynamic features of the church towers in some towns of the Basilicata Region (Southern Italy). The aim of the research activity is to assess the fundamental period of such a typology of historical buildings and comparing it with the dynamic features of the foundation soil to put into evidence possible resonance phenomena responsible of an increase of building damage during the seismic shaking. The selection of the towns to be considered as a target of the experimental survey was performed taking into account the availability of written sources dealing with the historical seismic effects suffered by the bell-towers over the centuries with special attention to the sites heavily affected by the 16 December 1857 Basilicata and 23 November 1980 Irpinia-Basilicata earthquakes (Gizzi and Masini 2007). The fundamental period of bell-towers is estimated using ambient noise vibration signals recorded at the highest level of the towers. The techniques used to get the dynamic values are both the Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) and the Horizontal to Horizontal Spectral Ratio (HHSR) (Liberatore et al. 2008). Once the fundamental frequency has been estimated, it is compared with the

  14. Randomized, Double-Blind, Split-Face Study to Compare the Irritation Potential of Two Topical Acne Formulations Over a 21-Day Treatment Period.

    PubMed

    Kircik, Leon H; Bhatt, Varsha; Martin, Gina; Pillai, Radhakrishnan

    2016-02-01

    The use of fixed combinations in acne vulgaris (acne) is very common, however comparative clinical trial data are limited. Cutaneous tolerability can influence patient compliance, and concerns about skin irritation with topical acne treatments have lead to a number of comparative split-face studies.
    Recently, a new fixed combination product was introduced (clin 1.0%-BP 3.75% gel) that was shown to be effective in reducing both inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions in moderate to severe acne. Here, we assess the tolerability of clin 1.0%-BP 3.75% gel compared with adap 0.1%-BP 2.5% gel in healthy volunteers with no apparent facial redness or dryness over 21-days, using a split-face methodology.
    Especially over the first two weeks of treatment, clin 1.0%-BP 3.75% gel was more tolerable than adap 0.1%-BP 2.5% gel, with statistically significant differences in cumulative change from baseline starting as early as day 8 (dryness) and day 9 (erythema), and composite index on days 8-12 and 16. Transepidermal water loss was less with clin 1.0%-BP 3.75% gel, although the difference was not statistically significant.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(2):178-182. PMID:26885785

  15. 41 CFR 302-6.107 - What effect do partial days of temporary quarters occupancy have on my authorized period for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What effect do partial... reimbursement? 302-6.107 Section 302-6.107 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation... Reimbursement § 302-6.107 What effect do partial days of temporary quarters occupancy have on my...

  16. Variability of the quasi-2-day wave and interaction with longer period planetary waves in the MLT at Cachoeira Paulista (22.7°S, 45°W)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guharay, A.; Batista, P. P.; Clemesha, B. R.

    2015-08-01

    An exclusive study has been carried out with long term meteor wind data (2000-2014) to characterize the quasi-2-day wave (QTDW) in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) and its interactions with the longer period planetary waves at Cachoeira Paulista (22.7°S, 45°W). The QTDW is observed to be dominant during late summer (January-February) all the years under consideration except 2013. All the wave parameters exhibit significant interannual variability. The maximum wave amplitude comes out to be 39 m/s, which is significantly higher than the reported northern hemispheric findings. The mean MLT period exhibits a wide range of variability (36-70 h) indicating the presence of multiple Rossby normal modes with varying zonal wave numbers. Modulations of the QTDW amplitude by the planetary waves with longer periodicities (>9 days) are evident, especially during summer. The nonlinear interactions between the 2-day wave and longer period waves are believed to give rise to a host of secondary waves with frequencies lying close to 2-day. The strong QTDW activity, as observed at this location, has potential to cause significant effect on the overlying ionosphere and hence the atmosphere-ionosphere dynamical coupling.

  17. Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Twelve conference papers on cultural aspects of second language instruction include: "Towards True Multiculturalism: Ideas for Teachers" (Brian McVeigh); Comparing Cultures Through Critical Thinking: Development and Interpretations of Meaningful Observations" (Laurel D. Kamada); "Authority and Individualism in Japan and the USA" (Alisa Woodring);…

  18. Observations on the flight paths of the day-flying moth Virbia lamae during periods of mate location: do males have a strategy for contacting the pheromone plume?

    PubMed

    Cardé, Ring T; Cardé, Anja M; Girling, Robbie D

    2012-01-01

    1. To maximize the probability of rapid contact with a female's pheromone plume, the trajectories of male foraging flights might be expected to be directed with respect to wind flow and also to be energetically efficient. 2. Flights directed either upwind, downwind, or crosswind have been proposed as optimal strategies for rapid and/or energetically efficient plume contact. Other possible strategies are random and Lévy walks, which have trajectories and turn frequencies that are not dictated by the direction of wind flow. 3. The planar flight paths of males of the day-active moth Virbia lamae were recorded during the customary time of its sexual activity. 4. We found no directional preference in these foraging flights with respect to the direction of contemporaneous wind flow, but, because crosswind encompasses twice the possible orientations of either upwind or downwind, a random orientation is in effect a de facto crosswind strategy. 5. A crosswind preference should be favoured when the plume extends farther downwind than crosswind, and this strategy is realized by V. lamae males by a random orientation of their trajectories with respect to current wind direction. PMID:21729068

  19. Parathyroid hormone blocks the stimulatory effect of insulin-like growth factor-I on collagen synthesis in cultured 21-day fetal rat calvariae

    SciTech Connect

    Kream, B.E.; Petersen, D.N.; Raisz, L.G. )

    1990-01-01

    We examined the interaction of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) on collagen synthesis in 21-day fetal rat calvariae as assessed by measuring the incorporation of ({sup 3}H)proline into collagenase-digestible protein. After 96 hours of culture, 10 nM PTH antagonized the stimulation of collagen synthesis and partially blocked the increase in dry weight produced by 10 nM IGF-I. The effect of PTH to block IGF-I stimulated collagen synthesis was observed in the central bone of calvariae and was mimicked by forskolin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, but not by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, transforming growth factor-alpha or dexamethasone. Our data are consistent with the concept that the direct effect of PTH is to inhibit basal CDP labeling and fully oppose IGF-I stimulated CDP labeling. The finding that this effect of PTH is mimicked by forskolin and PMA suggests that this block in IGF-I stimulation of CDP labeling involves both cAMP and protein kinase C mediated pathways.

  20. Optimization of phase feeding of starter, grower, and finisher diets for male broilers by mixture experimental design: forty-eight-day production period.

    PubMed

    Roush, W B; Boykin, D; Branton, S L

    2004-08-01

    A mixture experiment, a variant of response surface methodology, was designed to determine the proportion of time to feed broiler starter (23% protein), grower (20% protein), and finisher (18% protein) diets to optimize production and processing variables based on a total production time of 48 d. Mixture designs are useful for proportion problems where the components of the experiment (i.e., length of time the diets were fed) add up to a unity (48 d). The experiment was conducted with day-old male Ross x Ross broiler chicks. The birds were placed 50 birds per pen in each of 60 pens. The experimental design was a 10-point augmented simplex-centroid (ASC) design with 6 replicates of each point. Each design point represented the portion(s) of the 48 d that each of the diets was fed. Formulation of the diets was based on NRC standards. At 49 d, each pen of birds was evaluated for production data including BW, feed conversion, and cost of feed consumed. Then, 6 birds were randomly selected from each pen for processing data. Processing variables included live weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, fat pad percentage, and breast yield (pectoralis major and pectoralis minor weights). Production and processing data were fit to simplex regression models. Model terms determined not to be significant (P > 0.05) were removed. The models were found to be statistically adequate for analysis of the response surfaces. A compromise solution was calculated based on optimal constraints designated for the production and processing data. The results indicated that broilers fed a starter and finisher diet for 30 and 18 d, respectively, would meet the production and processing constraints. Trace plots showed that the production and processing variables were not very sensitive to the grower diet. PMID:15339000

  1. Less incidence of coronary artery disease in general anesthesia compared to spinal-epidural anesthesia after total knee replacement: 90-day follow-up period by a population-based dataset.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Jui-Yang; Lin, Hui-Wen

    2015-07-01

    Total knee replacement (TKR) is an effective and safe procedure. However, large-scale study to compare the incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) after spinal or epidural anesthesia (SA-EA) or general anesthesia (GA) for TKR has not ever been conducted. To do so, we studied a population-based dataset from the Taiwan National Health Research Institute and hypothesized that the incidence of CAD might be different with regional than with general anesthesia. The risk of CAD-related events during a 90-day follow-up period among patients who received TKR under SA-EA or GA was evaluated in the present study. A total of 1500 patients from the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims database who underwent TKR from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2006, were allocated into two groups. Group 1 included 1012 patients who received SA-EA during TKR procedure. Group 2 included 488 patients who received GA during this procedure. The number of patients who developed CAD during the 90-day follow-up period was 31 (3.1 %) in group 1 and 6 (1.2 %) in group 2. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis of IHD-free cumulative survival rate during the 90-day follow-up period for patients who underwent TKR was significantly lower in group 1 than in group 2. The hazard ratio for the occurrence of CAD was 2.80 (95 % CI 1.16-6.78), and the hazard was higher for patients who received SA-EA than for patients who received GA after adjusted potential confounding factors. After the performance of TKR, patients had a potentially increased risk for CAD in SA-EA compared to GA during the 90-day follow-up period. PMID:25761988

  2. Kindergarten: All Day Every Day?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oelerich, Marjorie L.

    This paper reports findings that all-day every-day educational programs have positive effects on kindergarten children. Also included is a Minnesota Association for Childhood Education (MACE) position paper which advocates the provision of full-day kindergarten programs and details seven criteria that a quality full-day program must meet. Efforts…

  3. Producing biodiesel from cotton seed oil using Rhizopus oryzae ATTC #34612 whole cell biocatalysts: Culture media and cultivation period optimization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of culture medium composition and cultivation time on biodiesel production by Rhizopus oryzae ATCC #34612 whole cell catalysts, immobilized on novel rigid polyethylene biomass supports, was investigated. Supplementation of the medium with carbon sources led to higher lipase activity and i...

  4. Dynamic Evolutionary Changes in Blood Flow Measured by MDCT in a Hepatic VX2 Tumor Implant over an Extended 28-day Growth Period: Time-Density Curve Analysis1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hanping; Exner, Agata A.; Shi, Hong; Bear, Joshua; Haaga, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale and Objectives The enhancement pattern of malignant tumors has been studied in short-term animal models (7–14 days), but the reported results have been variable and inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changing blood flow characteristics of VX2 tumors implanted in rabbit livers with contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) to establish a predictable pattern of vascular evolution over an extended 28-day growth period. Materials and Methods VX2 carcinoma was implanted in livers of 10 male New Zealand White rabbits. Dynamic CT (2/seconds × 60 seconds) was conducted on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after tumor implantation. Enhancement parameters of time-density curve (TDC), time to start (T0), time to peak (TP), maximum enhancement (ΔH), slope of enhancement (SLe), and washout (SLw) in tumor center, tumor rim, and normal liver were analyzed. Tumor samples corresponding to CT images of one tumor on days 14 and 21 and seven tumors on day 28 were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and anti-CD31 monoclonal antibody. The relationship between enhancement parameters and histology parameters (thickness of tumor border, extent of blood stasis, and luminar vessel density) was analyzed. Results Consistent growth, appearance, and vascular changes occurred in 7 of 10 animals over the 4-week observation period. Peripheral rim-like enhancement was noted in CT images. TDC analysis showed that tumor rim enhancement was pronounced and more rapid than normal liver initially but this difference diminished with tumor progression. The SLe, SLw, and ΔH decreased from 10.03 ± 3.25 Hu/second, 0.42 ± 0.25 Hu/sec, and 58.00 ± 25.27 Hu on day 7 to 5.86 ± 2.73 Hu/second, 0.10 ± 0.13 Hu/second, and 37.78 ± 8.89 Hu/second on day 28, respectively. TP increased from 12.71 ± 4.85 seconds on day 7 to 25.57 ± 7.75 seconds on day 28. No significant changes were noted on the TDC parameters in normal liver. The maximum density difference between

  5. Dinosaur Day!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Sandra; Baptiste, H. Prentice

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they capitalized on their first-grade students' love of dinosaurs by hosting a fun-filled Dinosaur Day in their classroom. On Dinosaur Day, students rotated through four dinosaur-related learning stations that integrated science content with art, language arts, math, and history in a fun and time-efficient…

  6. CEMI Days

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    CEMI Days are an important channel of engagement between DOE and the manufacturing industry to identify challenges and opportunities for increasing U.S. manufacturing competitiveness. CEMI Days that are held at manufacturing companies’ facilities can include tours of R&D operations or other points of interest determined by the host company.

  7. Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merro, John; And Others

    Interviews on the quality of day care in the United States are presented in this transcript of a program broadcast in the National Public Radio weekly series, "Options in Education." Writers, day care center personnel and others describe and evaluate the current situation. Federal legislation concerning children is examined, and researchers…

  8. Attendance at cultural events, reading books or periodicals, and making music or singing in a choir as determinants for survival: Swedish interview survey of living conditions.

    PubMed Central

    Bygren, L. O.; Konlaan, B. B.; Johansson, S. E.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the possible influence of attendance at cultural events, reading books or periodicals, making music or singing in a choir as determinants for survival. DESIGN: A simple random sample was drawn of 15,198 individuals aged 16-74 years. Of these, 85% (12,982) were interviewed by trained non-medical interviewers between 1982 and 1983 about cultural activities. They were followed up with respect to survival until 31 December 1991. SETTING: Swedish interview survey of living conditions comprising a random sample of the adult Swedish population. SUBJECTS: 12,675 people interviewed between 1982 and 1983. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Survival of subjects after controlling for eight confounding variables: age, sex, education level, income, long term disease, social network, smoking, and physical exercise. RESULTS: 6,301 men and 6,374 women were followed up; 533 men and 314 women died during this period. The control variables influenced survival in the expected directions except for social network for men; a significant negative effective was found when the analysis was made separately for men and women. We found an influence on mortality when the eight control variables were controlled for in people who rarely attended events compared with those attending most often, the relative risk being 1.57 (95% confidence interval 1.18 to 2.09). CONCLUSION: Attendance at cultural events may have a positive influence on survival. Long term follow up of large samples with confounders that are well controlled for and with the cultural stimulation more highly specified should be used to try to falsify the hypothesis before experiments start. PMID:8990990

  9. To Teach Family Day Care Caregivers How Not to Be Discriminative with Sex Roles and to Encourage Positive Self Images with Children of Different Ethnic Cultures. (A Proposal).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Deryl Ann

    This document presents a portion of the Family Day Care Task Force's overall training program for family day care caregivers designed specifically to re-educate caregivers with regard to attitudes toward ethnic and sex stereotyping. Training objectives, procedures for the training sessions, and class outlines are presented. Also included are…

  10. Career Day

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's 2013 Career Days was a joint collaboration between NASA Langley and the Newport News Shipbuilding where 600 high school students from Virginia took on two design challenges -- designing a ca...

  11. No Matter How Long the Night, the Day is Sure to Come: Culture and Educational Transformation in Post-Colonial Namibia and Post-Apartheid South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekhwevha, Fhulu

    1999-11-01

    Following the defeat of Apartheid, the 1990s have witnessed serious attempts by Namibians and South Africans alike to reconstruct their social institutions along democratic lines. While education has not been excluded from these efforts, there is evidence that the new curricula are primarily influenced by western educational models. For example, prescriptions of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank have been uncritically incorporated into the new educational programme. Consequently the curricula lack an indigenous ingredient, namely the cultural capital of the African masses. It is suggested in this article that the much acclaimed African cultural renaissance in education will only become a reality when educationalists embrace the "pedagogy of hope".

  12. Drought, epidemic disease, and the fall of classic period cultures in Mesoamerica (AD 750-950). Hemorrhagic fevers as a cause of massive population loss.

    PubMed

    Acuna-Soto, Rodolfo; Stahle, David W; Therrell, Matthew D; Gomez Chavez, Sergio; Cleaveland, Malcolm K

    2005-01-01

    The classical period in Mexico (AD 250-750) was an era of splendor. The city of Teotihuacan was one of the largest and most sophisticated human conglomerates of the pre-industrial world. The Mayan civilization in southeastern Mexico and the Yucatan peninsula reached an impressive degree of development at the same time. This time of prosperity came to an end during the Terminal Classic Period (AD 750-950) a time of massive population loss throughout Mesoamerica. A second episode of massive depopulation in the same area was experienced during the sixteenth century when, in less than one century, between 80% and 90% of the entire indigenous population was lost. The 16th century depopulation of Mexico constitutes one of the worst demographic catastrophes in human history. Although newly imported European and African diseases caused high mortality among the native population, the major 16th century population losses were caused by a series of epidemics of a hemorrhagic fever called Cocoliztli, a highly lethal disease unknown to both Aztec and European physicians during the colonial era. The cocoliztli epidemics occurred during the 16th century megadrought, when severe drought extended at times from central Mexico to the boreal forest of Canada, and from the Pacific to the Atlantic coast. The collapse of the cultures of the Classic Period seems also to have occurred during a time of severe drought. Tree ring and lake sediment records indicate that some of the most severe and prolonged droughts to impact North America-Mesoamerica in the past 1000-4000 years occurred between AD 650 and 1000, particularly during the 8th and 9th centuries, a period of time that coincides with the Terminal Classic Period. Based on the similarities of the climatic (severe drought) and demographic (massive population loss) events in Mesoamerica during the sixteenth century, we propose that drought-associated epidemics of hemorrhagic fever may have contributed to the massive population loss

  13. "I Go to School Six Days a Week": The Role of Cultural and Religious Practices within Hybrid Turkish-American Communities in Supporting Academic and Socioemotional Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isik-Ercan, Zeynep

    2012-01-01

    Children's participation in cultural activities within the community, and the particular cognitive and socioemotional skills that they gain as a result of their participation, have been thoroughly studied (Cole, 1990; Gallimore & Tharp, 1990; Moll et al., 2005; Scribner & Cole, 1981). However, the connection of these skills to school learning or…

  14. Inspire Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohach, Barbara M.; Meade, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    The authors collaborated on hosting a "Spring Inspire Day." planned and delivered by preservice elementary teachers as a social studies/science methods project. Projects that have authentic application opportunities can make learning meaningful for prospective teachers as well as elementary students. With the impetus for an integrated…

  15. Increase in nitrate uptake by soybean plants during interruption of the dark period with low intensity light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raper, C. D. Jr; Vessey, J. K.; Henry, L. T.

    1991-01-01

    Diurnal patterns of net NO3- uptake by nonnodulated soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Ransom] plants growing in flowing hydroponic culture at 26 and 16 degrees C root temperatures were measured at hourly intervals during alternate days of a 12-day growth period. Ion chromatography was used to determine removal of NO3- from the culture solution. Day and night periods of 9 and 15 h were used during growth. The night period included two 6-h dark periods and an intervening 3-h period of night interruption by incandescent lamps to effect a long-day photoperiod and repress floral initiation. At both root temperatures, the average specific rates of NO3- uptake were twice as great during the night interruption period as during the day period; they were greater during the day period than during the dark periods; and they were greater during the dark period immediately following the day period than during the later dark period that followed the night interruption. While these average patterns were repetitious among days, measured rates of uptake varied hourly and included intervals of net efflux scattered through the day period and more frequently through the 2 dark periods. Root temperature did not affect the average daily specific rates of uptake or the qualitative relationships among day, dark and night interruption periods of the diurnal cycle.

  16. International Women's Day speech.

    PubMed

    Kazibwe, S W

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the International Women's Day are: 1) to celebrate the struggle for women's rights in the economic, social, political, and cultural domain; 2) to reaffirm women's solidarity in the struggle for peace; 3) and to show what women have achieved. In 1988, Uganda's government of the National Resistance Movement created the Ministry of Women in Development. The period 1988-1990 was one of consultations, needs assessment, planning, and recruiting staff for the Ministry. From 1990 to 1993, measurable results have been achieved. The Ministry's gender concerns pertained to the sector policies of the Ministries of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, Education, Health, Water, Energy, Minerals, and Environment Protection. Under the Umbrella Project for Women in Development, gender sensitization has been achieved with policy makers in ministries, at district level, and in the media. Gender issues have also been incorporated in the National Political School Curriculum. The Ministry has also trained a corps of 73 women trainers from 38 districts. The Ministry, with funding from DANIDA, collected women's views on the constitution through meetings and seminars in all the districts in the country. Recommendations were submitted in a consolidated report to the Constitution Commission. A pilot para-legal scheme is successfully being implemented in Kamuli district. A community-based pool of legal advisors has been developed. Legal matters that affect both women and men are undertaken at the community level. The economic emancipation of women is a crucial part of the Ministry's mandate. In conjunction with NGOs, pilot credit programs are being run in Mukono, Jinja, Mbale, and Kapchorwa districts. Cross-sectoral programs are in close collaboration with the rural water and sanitation program, the Northern Uganda rehabilitation program, and the integrated Basic Education Pilot Project to be implemented in 8 districts. PMID:12345405

  17. Positive behavioral interventions and supports: using strength-based approaches to enhance the culture of care in residential and day treatment education environments.

    PubMed

    Kalke, Thomas; Glanton, Ann; Cristalli, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports model, first introduced into public schools, has been extended to alternative settings. This article highlights applying PBIS to day treatment and residential treatment education programs increasingly challenged to serve seriously emotionally disturbed youth whose risk factors have become more complex. The results demonstrate a more positive environment enhancing children's treatment and education along with decreasing numbers of safety holds and need for out-of-classroom supports. PMID:18422053

  18. Valentine's Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02174 Valentine's Day

    This isolated mesa [lower left center of the image] has an almost heart-shaped margin. Happy Valentine's Day from Mars.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 29.4N, Longitude 79.1E. 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Evaluation of incubation time for dermatophytes cultures.

    PubMed

    Rezusta, Antonio; de la Fuente, Sonia; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Vidal-García, Matxalen; Alcalá, Leticia; López-Calleja, Ana; Ruiz, Maria Angeles; Revillo, Maria José

    2016-07-01

    In general, it is recommended to incubate dermatophytes cultures for a minimum of 4 weeks. Several aspects of routine fungal cultures should be evaluated in order to implement appropriate and necessary changes. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum incubation time for routine dermatophytes cultures, analysing the time to find first fungal growth by visual observation. We recorded the time when the initial growth was detected for all dermatophyte isolates during a 4-year period. A total of 5459 dermatophyte cultures were submitted to our laboratory. From the total cultures, only 16 (1.42%) isolates were recovered over/after 17 days of incubation and only three dermatophyte species were recovered over 17 days. Fourteen isolates belong to Trichophyton rubrum, one isolate to Trichophyton mentagrophytes complex and one isolate to Epidermophyton floccosum. We concluded that an incubation period of 17 days is enough to establish a microbiological diagnosis of dermatophytosis. PMID:27144472

  20. Hydrology day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel-Seytoux, H. J.

    Registration for the Hydrology Day sponsored by the Front Range Branch of AGU on April 23 at Colorado State University in Fort Collins, Colorado, totaled 121 participants, of whom 61 were students.Thirty-one individuals joined the Front Range Branch. Three students from Colorado State University won the awards for best paper in their category: Thomas W. Anzia (Sr.), ‘A Comprehensive Table of Standard Deviates for Confidence Limits on Extreme Events’ Victor Nazareth (M.S.), ‘Aquifer Properties from Single-Hole Aquifer Tests’ and Roy W. Koch (Ph.D.), ‘A Physically Based Derivation of the Distribution of Excess Precipitation.’ Judges for the awards were Dr. Bittinger, Resource Consultants, Fort Collins; George Leavesley and Daniel Bauer, USGS, Water Resources Division, Denver; Scott Tucker, Executive Director, Denver Urban Drainage and Flood Control District; Charles Brendecke, Department of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder.

  1. CoRoT 101186644: A transiting low-mass dense M-dwarf on an eccentric 20.7-day period orbit around a late F-star. Discovered in the CoRoT lightcurves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tal-Or, L.; Mazeh, T.; Alonso, R.; Bouchy, F.; Cabrera, J.; Deeg, H. J.; Deleuil, M.; Faigler, S.; Fridlund, M.; Hébrard, G.; Moutou, C.; Santerne, A.; Tingley, B.

    2013-05-01

    We present the study of the CoRoT transiting planet candidate 101186644, also named LRc01_E1_4780. Analysis of the CoRoT lightcurve and the HARPS spectroscopic follow-up observations of this faint (mV = 16) candidate revealed an eclipsing binary composed of a late F-type primary (Teff = 6090 ± 200 K) and a low-mass, dense late M-dwarf secondary on an eccentric (e = 0.4) orbit with a period of ~20.7 days. The M-dwarf has a mass of 0.096 ± 0.011 M⊙, and a radius of 0.104-0.006+0.026 R⊙, which possibly makes it the smallest and densest late M-dwarf reported so far. Unlike the claim that theoretical models predict radii that are 5-15% smaller than measured for low-mass stars, this one seems to have a radius that is consistent and might even be below the radius predicted by theoretical models. Based on observations made with the 1-m telescope at the Wise Observatory, Israel, the Swiss 1.2-m Leonhard Euler telescope at La Silla Observatory, Chile, the IAC-80 telescope at the Observatory del Teide, Canarias, Spain, and the 3.6-m telescope at La Silla Observatory (ESO), Chile (program 184.C-0639).

  2. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... included in the designation of business day, as in § 300.148(d)(1)(ii)). (c)(1) School day means any day... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day....

  3. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... included in the designation of business day, as in § 300.148(d)(1)(ii)). (c)(1) School day means any day... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day....

  4. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... included in the designation of business day, as in § 300.148(d)(1)(ii)). (c)(1) School day means any day... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day....

  5. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... included in the designation of business day, as in § 300.148(d)(1)(ii)). (c)(1) School day means any day... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day....

  6. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... included in the designation of business day, as in § 300.148(d)(1)(ii)). (c)(1) School day means any day... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day....

  7. Susceptibility Profile of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus haemolyticus Isolated from Blood Cultures to Vancomycin and Novel Antimicrobial Drugs over a Period of 12 Years.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Luiza; Brito, Carla Ivo; Pereira, Valéria Cataneli; Oliveira, Adilson; Bartolomeu, Ariane Rocha; Camargo, Carlos Henrique; Cunha, Maria Lourdes Ribeiro Souza

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility profile of 85 Staphylococcus epidermidis and 84 Staphylococcus haemolyticus strains isolated from blood cultures to oxacillin, vancomycin, tigecycline, linezolid, daptomycin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin over a period of 12 years. S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus isolated from blood cultures of inpatients, attended at a teaching hospital, were analyzed for the presence of the mecA gene and by SCCmec typing. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of tigecycline, linezolid, daptomycin, quinupristin/dalfopristin, and vancomycin were determined. Isolates exhibiting vancomycin MICs of ≥2 μg/ml were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The rate of mecA positivity was 92.9% and 100% in S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus, respectively. The most frequent SCCmec types were type III (53.2%) in S. epidermidis and type I (32.1%) in S. haemolyticus. All isolates were susceptible to linezolid and daptomycin, but 7.1% of S. haemolyticus and 2.3% of S. epidermidis isolates were resistant to tigecycline, and 1.2% each of S. haemolyticus and S. epidermidis were resistant and intermediately resistant to quinupristin/dalfopristin, respectively. S. epidermidis exhibited higher vancomycin MICs (40% with MIC of ≥2 μg/ml). Clonal typing of strains with vancomycin MIC of ≥2 μg/ml revealed the presence of different PFGE types of S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus over a period of up to 4 years (2002-2004, 2005-2008, 2006-2009, 2010-2011). Despite the observation of a high prevalence of mecA, the clinical strains were fully susceptible to vancomycin and to the new drugs linezolid, daptomycin, tigecycline, and quinupristin/dalfopristin. The PFGE types with vancomycin MIC of ≥2 μg/ml exhibited a great diversity of SCCmec cassettes, demonstrating that S. epidermidis and S. haemolyticus may easily acquire these resistance-conferring genetic elements. PMID:26623676

  8. Plant Tissue Cultures of Juniperus virginiana.

    PubMed

    Kašparová, Marie; Spilková, Jirina; Cvak, Ladislav; Siatka, Tomáš; Martin, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Callus cultures of Juniperus virginiana L. (varieties 'Hetzii', 'Glauca', 'Grey Owl') were derived from fresh leaves of garden-grown trees on Schenk and Hildebrandt medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/L of α-naphthaleneacetic acid, 0.2 mg/L of kinetin and 15 mg/L of ascorbic acid. The growth characteristics of one-year-old and two-years-old cultures were determined. The maximum biomass in all varieties was achieved on the 35th day of the cultivation period. The increase in fresh weights of two-years-old callus cultures, when compared with one-year-old callus cultures, was as follows: variety 'Hetzii' by 25%, variety 'Glauca' by 29% and variety 'Grey Owl' by 49%. J. virginiana suspension cultures (varieties 'Hetzii', 'Glauca', 'Grey Owl') were derived from two-years-old callus cultures on Schenk and Hildebrandt medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/L of α-naphthaleneacetic acid, 0.2 mg/L of kinetin and 15 mg/L of ascorbic acid. The maximum biomass of all varieties was found on the 21st day of the cultivation period. These results indicate that a sub-cultivation interval of 35 days for callus cultures and of 21st days for suspension cultures can be recommended. The callus and suspension cultures of J. virginiana of the variety 'Glauca' have the best survivability and thus provide the most biomass. PMID:27319150

  9. Same Day Identification and Full Panel Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Bacteria from Positive Blood Culture Bottles Made Possible by a Combined Lysis-Filtration Method with MALDI-TOF VITEK Mass Spectrometry and the VITEK2 System

    PubMed Central

    Machen, Alexandra; Drake, Tim; Wang, Yun F. (Wayne)

    2014-01-01

    Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of microorganisms causing bloodstream infections or sepsis have the potential to improve patient care. This proof-of-principle study evaluates the Lysis-Filtration Method for identification as well as antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria directly from positive blood culture bottles in a clinical setting. A total of 100 non-duplicated positive blood cultures were tested and 1012 microorganism-antimicrobial combinations were assessed. An aliquot of non-charcoal blood culture broth was incubated with lysis buffer briefly before being filtered and washed. Microorganisms recovered from the filter membrane were first identified by using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight VITEK® Mass Spectrometry (VITEK MS). After quick identification from VITEK MS, filtered microorganisms were inoculated to VITEK®2 system for full panel antimicrobial susceptibility testing analysis. Of 100 bottles tested, the VITEK MS resulted in 94.0% correct organism identification to the species level. Compared to the conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods, direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing from VITEK®2 resulted in 93.5% (946/1012) category agreement of antimicrobials tested, with 3.6% (36/1012) minor error, 1.7% (7/1012) major error, and 1.3% (13/1012) very major error of antimicrobials. The average time to identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was 11.4 hours by using the Lysis-Filtration method for both VITEK MS and VITEK®2 compared to 56.3 hours by using conventional methods (p<0.00001). Thus, the same-day results of microorganism identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing directly from positive blood culture can be achieved and can be used for appropriate antibiotic therapy and antibiotic stewardship. PMID:24551067

  10. Same day identification and full panel antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria from positive blood culture bottles made possible by a combined lysis-filtration method with MALDI-TOF VITEK mass spectrometry and the VITEK2 system.

    PubMed

    Machen, Alexandra; Drake, Tim; Wang, Yun F Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Rapid identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of microorganisms causing bloodstream infections or sepsis have the potential to improve patient care. This proof-of-principle study evaluates the Lysis-Filtration Method for identification as well as antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacteria directly from positive blood culture bottles in a clinical setting. A total of 100 non-duplicated positive blood cultures were tested and 1012 microorganism-antimicrobial combinations were assessed. An aliquot of non-charcoal blood culture broth was incubated with lysis buffer briefly before being filtered and washed. Microorganisms recovered from the filter membrane were first identified by using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight VITEK® Mass Spectrometry (VITEK MS). After quick identification from VITEK MS, filtered microorganisms were inoculated to VITEK®2 system for full panel antimicrobial susceptibility testing analysis. Of 100 bottles tested, the VITEK MS resulted in 94.0% correct organism identification to the species level. Compared to the conventional antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods, direct antimicrobial susceptibility testing from VITEK®2 resulted in 93.5% (946/1012) category agreement of antimicrobials tested, with 3.6% (36/1012) minor error, 1.7% (7/1012) major error, and 1.3% (13/1012) very major error of antimicrobials. The average time to identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was 11.4 hours by using the Lysis-Filtration method for both VITEK MS and VITEK®2 compared to 56.3 hours by using conventional methods (p<0.00001). Thus, the same-day results of microorganism identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing directly from positive blood culture can be achieved and can be used for appropriate antibiotic therapy and antibiotic stewardship. PMID:24551067

  11. Radiometric detection of yeasts in blood cultures of cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Hopfer, R.L.; Orengo, A.; Chesnut, S.; Wenglar, M.

    1980-09-01

    During a 12-month period, 19,457 blood cultures were collected. Yeasts were isolated from 193 cultures derived from 76 cancer patients. Candida albicans or Candida tropicalis accounted for 79% of isolates. Of the three methods compared, the radiometric method required 2.9 days to become positive, blind subculture required 2.6 days, and Gram stains required 1 day. However, the radiometric method was clearly superior in detecting positive cultures, since 73% of all cultures were first detected radiometrically, 22% were detected by subculture, and only 5% were detected by Gram stain. Although 93% of the isolates were detected by aerobic culture, five (7%) isolates were obtained only from anaerobic cultures. Seven days of incubation appear to be sufficient for the radiometric detection of yeasts.

  12. Thunder day increase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilberg, Steven D.

    1984-04-01

    A report issued by the Illinois State Water Survey concludes that annual values of thunder days for North America exhibited a general increase of about 15% from 1901 to 1945, followed by a general decrease of 10% from 1945 to 1980. A study of the variability of thunder days across North America showed a general decrease with time, particularly after 1940. A major finding of this study is that frequencies of thunderstorms over areas as large as the North American continent show major long-term trends.The report, “Temporal Distribution of Global Thunder Days,” summarizes the results of a 1-year study by Stanley A. Changnon, Jr., and Chin-Fei Hsu of the temporal variations of thunder-day records during 1901-1980 using quality weather records from weather stations scattered around the globe. A thunder day is recorded when one or more peals of thunder are heard anytime during the 24-hour period from midnight to midnight, which is consistent with the definition of a thunderstorm used at first-order weather stations since 1897. They found most stations in the northern hemisphere north of 45° latitude exhibited a general increase in thunder activity from 1901 to 1980. The project was funded by the National Science Foundation.

  13. Problem Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ Home Body Getting your period Problem periods Problem periods It’s common to have cramps or feel ... doctor Some common period problems Signs of period problems top One way to know if you may ...

  14. Enhanced recovery of Phytophthora ramorum from soil following 30 days storage at 4C

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlamydospores of Phytophthora ramorum produced by mixing 20 percent V8 juice broth cultures with sand and incubating over a 30 day period were used to infest field soil at densities ranging from 0.2 to 42 chlamydospores per cubic centimeter of soil. Chlamydospore recovery was determined by baiting...

  15. Festivals of the Darkest Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacha, Frances B.

    1980-01-01

    Presents historical background on various winter festivals around the world including Saturnalia, Christmas, winter solstice, Yule festivals, Hannukah, Divali, and New Year's Day. Suggests how teachers can help elementary school students understand their own culture by studying these and other festivals using maps, mobiles, discussion, and reading…

  16. Stennis Space Center celebrates Diversity Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Kendall Mitchell of the Naval Oceanographic Office (right) learns about the culture of Bolivia from Narda Inchausty, president of the Foreign Born Wives Association in Slidell, La., during 2009 Diversity Day events at NASA's John Stennis Space Center. Stennis hosted Diversity Day activities for employees on Oct. 7. The day's events included cultural and agency exhibits, diversity-related performances, a trivia contest and a classic car and motorcycle show. It also featured the first-ever sitewide Stennis Employee Showcase.

  17. Heat Stress Responses in Cultured Plant Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Min-Tze; Wallner, Stephen J.; Waddell, John W.

    1984-01-01

    The pipetting of pear (Pyrus communis cv Bartlett) suspension cultures was followed by a substantial but transient decrease in heat sensitivity. During a culture cycle, pear cells were most sensitive to heat at day 3, which coincided with the period of most active cell division. To minimize serious artifacts, the influence of culture handling and age on parameters such as heat sensitivity must be standardized. PMID:16663538

  18. Paradoxical effect of supplementary progesterone between Day 3 and Day 7 on corpus luteum function and conceptus development in cattle.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, L; Forde, N; Carter, F; Rizos, D; Maillo, V; Ealy, A D; Kelly, A K; Rodriguez, P; Isaka, N; Evans, A C O; Lonergan, P

    2014-01-01

    .05) and the weight of the Day 14 corpus luteum (CL) was lower in the PRID Day 3-7 group than the placebo or control groups. In Experiment 2, supplementation from Day 3 to Day 5 (94.0±18.8 mm) or Day 3 to Day 7 (143.6±20.6 mm) increased conceptus length on Day 16 compared with placebo (50.3±17.4 mm). Serum P4 was significantly lower in the two supplemented groups following PRID removal compared with placebo (P<0.05) and was associated with a lower CL weight in the Day 3-7 group. Conceptus length was strongly correlated with the IFNT concentration in the uterine flush (r=0.58; P=0.011) and spent culture medium (r=0.68; P<0.002). The findings of the present study highlight the somewhat paradoxical effects of P4 supplementation when given in the early metoestrous period in terms of its positive effect on conceptus development and its potentially negative effects on CL lifespan. PMID:23439105

  19. A Newly Defined and Xeno-Free Culture Medium Supports Every-Other-Day Medium Replacement in the Generation and Long-Term Cultivation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Ahmadian Baghbaderani, Behnam; Tian, Xinghui; Scotty Cadet, Jean; Shah, Kevan; Walde, Amy; Tran, Huan; Kovarcik, Don Paul; Clarke, Diana; Fellner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) present an unprecedented opportunity to advance human health by offering an alternative and renewable cell resource for cellular therapeutics and regenerative medicine. The present demand for high quality hPSCs for use in both research and clinical studies underscores the need to develop technologies that will simplify the cultivation process and control variability. Here we describe the development of a robust, defined and xeno-free hPSC medium that supports reliable propagation of hPSCs and generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from multiple somatic cell types; long-term serial subculturing of hPSCs with every-other-day (EOD) medium replacement; and banking fully characterized hPSCs. The hPSCs cultured in this medium for over 40 passages are genetically stable, retain high expression levels of the pluripotency markers TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, Oct-3/4 and SSEA-4, and readily differentiate into ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. Importantly, the medium plays an integral role in establishing a cGMP-compliant process for the manufacturing of hiPSCs that can be used for generation of clinically relevant cell types for cell replacement therapy applications. PMID:27606941

  20. Betelgeuse Period Analysis Using VSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, F.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) Betelgeuse was studied using the VSTAR software package and analysis of the observations in the AAVSO database. Period analysis derived a period of 376 days, in comparison with literature periods of 420 days using satellite UV data but significantly different from the VSX period of 2,335 days. The unique set of PEP observations of this star is also shown and advantage of PEP Johnson V observations is shown in comparison with the visual observations.

  1. When Every Day Is Professional Development Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Stonaker, Lew

    2007-01-01

    In the Monroe Township (New Jersey) Public Schools, teachers' learning occurs daily, not just on one day in October and February. Central office and school-level administrators foster job-embedded teacher growth. Every day is a professional development day in the district, but that has not always been so. How did the district become a system with…

  2. Your First Period

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe asthma). Always follow the directions on the bottle about how much to take. Exercise. Place a ... days. Glossary Amenorrhea: The absence of menstrual periods. Egg: The female reproductive cell produced in and released ...

  3. Prevalence of drug resistance and culture-positive rate among microorganisms isolated from patients with ocular infections over a 4-year period

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Yusuke; Toshida, Hiroshi; Honda, Rio; Matsui, Asaki; Ohta, Toshihiko; Asada, Yousuke; Murakami, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the microbial isolates from patients with ocular infections and the trend in the emergence of levofloxacin-resistant strains over the past four years from 2006 to 2009 retrospectively. Patients and methods The subjects were 242 patients with ocular infections or traumas treated in our hospital including outpatients, inpatients, and emergency room patients. Most of them needed urgent care presenting with eye complaints, traumas, or decreased vision. Clinical samples were obtained from discharges, corneal, conjunctival tissues or vitreous fluid or aqueous humor, and cultured. Items for assessment included the patient’s age, the diagnosis, the prevalence of isolated bacteria, and the results of susceptibility tests for levofloxacin (LVFX) cefamezin (CEZ), gentamicin (GM) and vancomycin. This information was obtained from the patients’ medical records. Results There were 156 male patients and 86 female patients who were aged from 2 months old to 94 years old and mean age was 56.8 ± 24.2 years. Of the 242 patients, 78 (32.2%) had positive cultures. The culture-positive rate was significantly higher in male patients than female in total (P = 0.002) and in patients with corneal perforation (P = 0.005). Corneal perforation was the highest culture-positive rate (60.0%), followed by orbital cellulitis (56.5%), blepharitis (50.0%), dacryoadenitis (45.5%), conjunctivitis (38.2%), infectious corneal ulcer (28.5%) and endophthalmitis (24.7%). LVFX-resistant strains accounted for 40 out of a total of 122 strains (32.8%), and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was significantly higher in LVFX and GM compared with the other antibiotics. There were no vancomycin-resistant strains. Conclusion Attention should be paid to a possible future increase of strains with resistance to LVFX, as commonly prescribed ocular antibiotics bring emergence of resistant bacteria. Although no vancomycin-resistant strains were isolated this drug should be reserved as

  4. Walls of Time: The "Walk through Time" Was Inspired by How Artists of Various Time Periods and Cultures Have Decorated Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komrska, Shelley; Rupe, Melissa

    2005-01-01

    Last year, a school embarked on a school-wide project that would take all of their students, kindergarten through-sixth grade, through a tangible art timeline. The result was a passageway--over seventy-five feet in length--that revealed the history of art, from cave painting to modern-day graffiti art. The "walk through time" was inspired by how…

  5. Schoolwide Literacy Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polder, Darlene D.

    2000-01-01

    Describes 10 "literacy day" activities that one California elementary school has used successfully schoolwide, typically one such day per month, to make reading fun and purposeful, while developing a sense of community. Includes: spread-a-quilt day; teacher exchange day; turn off the TV; Dr. Seuss day; community readers; schoolwide poets; original…

  6. First Day of Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy The First Day of Life KidsHealth > For Parents > The First Day ... continue What Your Baby Does on the First Day Many parents are surprised to see how alert ...

  7. Synthesis of gangliosides by cultured oligodendrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, S.R.; Szuchet, S.; Dawson, G.

    1981-01-01

    Gangliosides are enriched in the nervous system compared to other tissues. The synthesis of gangliosides by monolayer cultures of isolated oligodendrocytes has not previously been investigated. Cells were labeled with (3H) galactose at preselected times and gangliosides isolated by phase partition, purified, and identified by chromatography. Cultured oligodendrocytes showed selectivity in their synthesis of gangliosides, which was expressed in the type of ganglioside synthesized as well as in the change of incorporation over time in culture. For the first ten days, there was very little incorporation of (3H) galactose in gangliosides, but this was followed by a stimulation of uptake for GM3, GM1/GD3, and GD1 gangliosides, reaching a maximum after approximately 25-30 days in vitro. There was little incorporation into GM2 or trisialogangliosides throughout the life of the cultures. Since oligodendrocytes synthesize extensive membranes during this period, one may speculate that the de novo-synthesized gangliosides are used for membranes.

  8. Upgrading pretransplant human islet culture technology requires human serum combined with media renewal.

    PubMed

    Kerr-Conte, Julie; Vandewalle, Brigitte; Moerman, Ericka; Lukowiak, Bruno; Gmyr, Valery; Arnalsteen, Laurent; Caiazzo, Robert; Sterkers, Adrien; Hubert, Thomas; Vantyghem, Marie Christine; Pattou, François

    2010-05-15

    BACKGROUND.: The original Edmonton protocol used fresh islets, but for obvious logistic advantages most transplant centers have implemented pretransplant culture in human albumin. The aim of this study was to improve current pretransplant human islet culture techniques. METHODS.: Clinical-grade purified human islets from a total of 24 donors were directly resuspended after isolation in CMRL 1066-based media at 37 degrees C, and media additions and renewal were tested. At days 1 and 5 of culture, in vitro quality controls included islet viability, insulin content and function, apoptosis, and in vivo islet potency assay in nude mice. RESULTS.: Replacing human albumin with human AB serum improved 1- and 5-day preservation of islet function and viability which was further enhanced with antioxidant Stem Ease, leading to the iCulture medium (enriched CMRL: pyruvate, zinc sulfate, insulin, transferrin, selenium, 2.5% human AB serum and Stem Ease). Major damage occurs in the first day of culture and frequent media renewal (25% vol/hr) in this period further improved viability, apoptosis, islet recovery, and function in vitro and in vivo, compared with only changing medium after overnight culture. CONCLUSIONS.: The described human islet culture technique (iCulture medium+renewal) seems to be the best choice for clinical human islet culture when short (1 day) or long (5 days) periods are used. Media choice and dilution play a major role in the function and survival of human islets in culture. PMID:20098354

  9. Non-spore forming eubacteria isolated at an altitude of 20,000 m in Earth's atmosphere: extended incubation periods needed for culture-based assays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Dale W.

    2008-01-01

    On 13 August 2004, an atmospheric sample was collected at an altitude of 20,000 m along a west to east transect over the continental United States by NASA’s Stratospheric and Cosmic Dust Program. This sample was then shipped to the US Geological Survey’s Global Desert Dust program for microbiological analyses. This sample, which was plated on a low nutrient agar to determine if cultivable microorganisms were present, produced 590 small yellow to off-white colonies after approximately 7 weeks of incubation at room-temperature. Of 50 colonies selected for identification using 16S rRNA sequencing, 41 belonged to the family Micrococcaceae, seven to the family Microbacteriaceae, one to the genus Staphylococcus, and one to the genus Brevibacterium. All of the isolates identified were non-spore-forming pigmented bacteria, and their presence in this sample illustrate that it is not unusual to recover viable microbes at extreme altitudes. Additionally, the extended period required to initiate growth demonstrates the need for lengthy incubation periods when analyzing high-altitude samples for cultivable microorganisms.

  10. Adult Day Services

    MedlinePlus

    A Smart Choice Adult Day Services Comparison At-a-Glance 1 Adult Day Services Assisted Living Home Care Nursing Homes Live at home with family ... supervision Nursing care available as needed during the day Flexibility to receive care only on days when ...

  11. Family Day Care Associations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookman, Robert

    This paper presents information on the organization and accomplishments of Family Day Care Associations, organized groups of individuals who provide day care services in their own homes. Although primarily based on experiences of day care mothers in New York State, the paper presents information relevant to day care providers in any area.…

  12. The development of the action potential mechanism of amphibian neurons isolated in culture.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, N C; Lamborghini, J E

    1976-05-01

    Nerve and muscle cells differentiated morphologically, in cultures of dissociated cells prepared from amphibian neural plate and underlying mesoderm (Xenopus laevis, Nieuwkoop and Faber stage 15). Cultures were grown in a defined medium containing sterile Steinberg's salt solution and 0.1% bovine serum albumin, and maintained for periods up to 5 days. PMID:1064036

  13. The development of the action potential mechanism of amphibian neurons isolated in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer, N C; Lamborghini, J E

    1976-01-01

    Nerve and muscle cells differentiated morphologically, in cultures of dissociated cells prepared from amphibian neural plate and underlying mesoderm (Xenopus laevis, Nieuwkoop and Faber stage 15). Cultures were grown in a defined medium containing sterile Steinberg's salt solution and 0.1% bovine serum albumin, and maintained for periods up to 5 days. Images PMID:1064036

  14. Day-1 chick development.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Guojun

    2014-03-01

    The first day of chick development takes place inside the mother hen (in utero), during which the embryo progresses from fertilization to late blastula/early gastrula formation. The salient features of developmental anatomy in this period are conserved among the sauropsids (birds and reptiles). Many of these features are also shared in prototherian (monotreme) embryos, whereas metatherian (marsupial) and eutherian (placental) embryos display significant variations. Important for understanding the evolution of early development in amniotes, the knowledge of cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating in utero chick development may also offer valuable insight into early lineage specification in prototherians and conserved features in mammalian early development. This commentary provides a snapshot of what is currently known about intrauterine chick development and identifies key issues that await further clarification, including the process of cellularization, allocation of maternal determinants, zygotic gene activation, mid-blastula transition, cell layer increase and reduction, radial symmetry breaking, early lineage segregation, and role of yolk syncytium in early patterning. PMID:24550174

  15. Defrosting Polar Dunes--Changes Over a 26-Day Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    As the retreat of the south polar winter frost cap became visible in June 1999, high resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) began to show dark spots forming on the surfaces of frost-covered sand dunes. Immediately, the MOC science team began to plan to observe several dune fields more than once, should that opportunity arise, so that the evolution of these dark spots could be documented and studied. Such work will eventually lead to abetter understanding of how the martian polar caps retreat as winter ends and spring unfolds in each hemisphere.

    MGS is in a polar orbit, which means that, unlike many other places on Mars, the spacecraft has more opportunities to take pictures of the same place. Dune fields near 87o latitude can be repeatedly viewed; dunes near the equator are not likely to be photographed more than once during the entire MGS mission.

    The pictures presented here show changes on a set of nearly pear-shaped sand dunes located on the floor of an unnamed crater at 59oS, 353oW. The picture on the left shows the dunes as they appeared on June 19, 1999, the picture on the right shows the same dunes on July 15, 1999. The dark spots in the June 19picture--indicating areas where frost has sublimed away--became larger by July 15th. In addition, new spots had appeared as of mid-July. If possible, these dunes will be photographed by MOC again in mid-August and each month until the frost is gone.

    The pictures shown in (B) (above) are expanded views of portions of the pictures in (A). The 200 meter scale bar equals 656 feet; the 100 meter bar is 328 feet (109 yards) long. All images are illuminated from the upper left; north is toward the upper right.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  16. In vitro maintenance of spermatogenesis in Xenopus laevis testis explants cultured in serum-free media

    SciTech Connect

    Risley, M.S.; Miller, A.; Bumcrot, D.A.

    1987-05-01

    Spermatogenesis has been maintained for extended periods in Xenopus laevis testis explants cultured in serum-free media supplemented with bovine serum albumin, insulin, transferrin, follicle-stimulating hormone, dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, retinol, ascorbate, and tocopherol. The organization of the testis fragments was maintained for 28 days, and all stages of development were present throughout the culture period. /sup 3/H-Thymidine-labeled secondary (Type B) spermatogonia developed in 28 days into spermatids at the acrosomal vesicle stage whereas labeled zygotene spermatocytes became mature spermatids in 28 days. Spermatogonial proliferation also continued in vitro for 28 days. Germ cell differentiation was not dependent upon exogenous testosterone, ascorbate, or tocopherol since /sup 3/H-labeled spermatogonia became mature spermatids in testes cultured 35 days in media lacking these supplements. Autoradiography demonstrated that 55% of the luminal sperm present in explants cultured 10 days had differentiated in vitro. Sperm from testes cultured 10-35 days were similar to sperm from freshly dissected testes with regard to motility and fecundity, and eggs fertilized with sperm from explant cultures developed normally into swimming tadpoles. The results demonstrate the feasibility of maintaining vertebrate spermatogenesis in culture and suggest that in vitro analysis of Xenopus spermatogenesis using defined media may provide important insights into the evolution of regulatory mechanisms in spermatogenesis.

  17. Every Day Is National Lab Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen

    2010-01-01

    President Barack Obama recently issued a call for increased hands-on learning in U.S. schools in an address at the National Academy of Sciences. Obama concluded that the future of the United States depends on one's ability to encourage young people to "create, and build, and invent." In this article, the author discusses National Lab Day (NLD)…

  18. Riley-Day syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Riley-Day syndrome is an inherited disorder that affects nerves throughout the body. ... Riley-Day syndrome is passed down through families (inherited). A person must inherit a copy of the defective gene ...

  19. Riley-Day syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001387.htm Riley-Day syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Riley-Day syndrome is an inherited disorder that affects nerves ...

  20. Growing degree day calculator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Degree-day benchmarks indicate discrete biological events in the development of insect pests. For the Sparganothis fruitworm, we have isolated all key development events and linked them to degree-day accumulations. These degree-day accumulations can greatly improve treatment timings for cranberry IP...

  1. Every Day Is Mathematical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Rita H.; Jarrah, Adeeb M.

    2012-01-01

    March 14 is special because it is Pi Day. Mathematics is celebrated on that day because the date, 3-14, replicates the first three digits of pi. Pi-related songs, websites, trivia facts, and more are at the fingertips of interested teachers and students. Less celebrated, but still fairly well known, is National Metric Day, which falls on October…

  2. Hippocampal culture stimulus with 4-megahertz ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muratore, Robert; LaManna, Justine K.; Lamprecht, Michael R.; Morrison, Barclay, III

    2012-10-01

    Among current modalities, ultrasound uniquely offers both millisecond and millimeter accuracy in noninvasively stimulating brain tissue. In addition, by sweeping the ultrasound beam within the refractory period of the neuronal tissue, ultrasonic neuromodulation can be adapted to target extended or multiply connected regions with quasi-simultaneity. Towards the development of this safe brain stimulus technique, the response of rat hippocampal cultures to ultrasound was investigated. Hippocampal slices, 0.4-mm thick, were obtained from 8-day old Sprague Dawley rats and cultured for 6 days. The in vitro cultures were exposed to multiple 100-ms 4.04-MHz ultrasound pulses from a 42-mm diameter, 90-mm spherical cap transducer. Peak pressure ranged from 0 through about 77 kPa. Responses in the form of electrical potentials from a sixty channel electrode array were digitized and recorded. The DG and CA1 regions of the hippocampus exhibited similar ultrasonically-evoked field potentials.

  3. Periodized wavelets

    SciTech Connect

    Schlossnagle, G.; Restrepo, J.M.; Leaf, G.K.

    1993-12-01

    The properties of periodized Daubechies wavelets on [0,1] are detailed and contrasted against their counterparts which form a basis for L{sup 2}(R). Numerical examples illustrate the analytical estimates for convergence and demonstrate by comparison with Fourier spectral methods the superiority of wavelet projection methods for approximations. The analytical solution to inner products of periodized wavelets and their derivatives, which are known as connection coefficients, is presented, and several tabulated values are included.

  4. The modulation of tissue-specific gene expression in rat nasal chondrocyte cultures by bioactive glasses.

    PubMed

    Asselin, Audrey; Hattar, Susan; Oboeuf, Martine; Greenspan, David; Berdal, Ariane; Sautier, Jean-Michel

    2004-11-01

    Since bone repair may occur, following endochondral ossification, we have investigated the behaviour of chondrocytes isolated from nasal septum cartilage of foetal rats and cultured up to 21 days in the presence of a melt-derived bioactive glass (Bioglass 45S5) and a less reactive glass with 60 wt% silica content (60S). In both cultures, chondrocytes proliferate and form typical cartilaginous nodules on day 5 of cultures. However, on day 12, the nodules in contact with 45S5 granules became darker than in 60S cultures, corresponding to the emergence of matrix biomineralization. Transmission electron microscopy showed a collagen-rich matrix composed of densely packed fibres and mineralized foci formed of needle-shaped crystals in contact with an electron-dense layer located at the periphery of the material. The specific activity of alkaline phosphatase was significant higher in 45S5 cultures on day 15 than in 60S cultures. Real time RT-PCR was used to monitor gene expression levels of specific chondrogenic markers. The transcription factor Sox9 was expressed throughout the culture period, but with no significant differences between the two kinds of cultures. In contrast, Runx2 expression was higher in experiment cultures on day 12. Type II collagen mRNA and aggrecan, showed an almost similar expression pattern with a strong expression at the beginning of cultures but higher in experiment cultures. Indian hedgehog was strongly expressed between day 9 and 12 with a significant stimulation in 45S5 cultures. Similarly, type X collagen mRNA seemed to be up-regulated in 45S5 cultures on day 20. In conclusion, this study shows hat 45S5 Bioglass has the ability to support the growth of chondrocytes and to stimulate some chondrogenic molecular markers. PMID:15159078

  5. AAS 227: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 4 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Helen B. Warner Prize: Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems (by Erika Nesvold)Another excellent prize lecture started off todays sessions. The Helen B. Warner Prize is awarded for achievement in observational or theoretical astrophysics by a young researcher (no more than eight years after their Ph.D.). This years Warner Prize was presented to Ruth Murray-Clay of UC Santa Barbara. For her award lecture, Murray-Clay told us all about planetary system architecture: the number, masses, and orbits of planets in a given system.Ruth Murray-Clay [photo from http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~murray/biocv.html]The underlying question motivating this type of research is: How rare is the Solar System? In other words, how likely is it that a given planetary system will have rocky planets close to their star, gas giants farther out, and ice giants at the outer reaches of the system? Answering this question will help us solve the physics problem of how and where planets form, and will also help us on our search for other planets like Earth.The data on exoplanet population from transit and radial velocity observations and from direct imaging tell us that our Solar System is not common (many systems we observe have much more eccentric gas giants), but that doesnt

  6. Popular Chat Day Q & A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Day / Popular Chat Day Q & A Popular Chat Day Q & A Print Read students’ most popular questions ... Cool Order Free Materials National Drugs & Alcohol Chat Day Chat Day Participant FAQs Popular Chat Day Q & ...

  7. My Lucky Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olvey, Maura

    2010-01-01

    Teaching based on problem solving brings challenges for the teacher, primarily that of finding problems with multiple access points that accommodate all students. This article narrates the author's lucky day as she discovers the Four fours problem which impacted her passion for teaching math. The day she presented the Four fours problem to her…

  8. The Presidents' Day Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, D. Jackson

    2008-01-01

    The history behind the holiday commonly called "Presidents' Day" is a bit confusing. It started as a federal holiday called Washington's Birthday. It was a day set aside to honor George Washington for his accomplishments as a founding father of the country. Later, many northern states began to recognize Abraham Lincoln's Birthday as well for his…

  9. Day of the Dead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dann, Tammy; Murphy, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Foreign Language in Elementary School (FLES) teachers in the West Des Moines schools incorporate the Day of the Dead into the fourth grade curriculum each year. The teachers discuss the Day of the Dead celebration at the Art Center, and many ask for volunteers from fourth grade to participate in the event. Student presentations include a wide…

  10. Family Science Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCubbins, Sara; Thomas, Bethany; Vetere, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a family-friendly science day event that encourages scientific discovery through hands-on activities, while also providing an opportunity to learn about scientific careers from actual research scientists and science educators, thereby raising awareness of the importance of STEM in our society. The one-day event bought…

  11. School Building Day, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Scottsdale, AZ.

    This document presents information and development materials about "School Building Day" (an event spotlighting the school facility and developing support and pride in the community's schools) to help local school districts conduct their own "School Building Day" to be held on April 20th of 2001. Included are lists of suggested activities and…

  12. Science Challenge Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Science fairs can be good motivators, but as extracurricular activities, they leave some students behind. However, by staging a Science Challenge Day at school, educators can involve all students in doing everything from choosing activities to judging projects. This article presents a model for running a successful Science Challenge Day. The…

  13. Rainy Day Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Experienced caregivers plan ahead for rainy days. This article describes specific rainy day activities for young children, such as books and crafts to learn about rain (rain in a jar, making a rainbow), simple cooking activities (taffy pull, cinnamon candy tea), and games (mummy wrap, hunt the thimble, rain lotto). (EV)

  14. RED-LETTER DAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...

  15. Recent Innovations in Cultural Practices in the Mid-Atlantic Coast Region of the U. S.: Novel Systems for Increasing Fall Fruiting in Short-day Type Strawberry Cultivars and Opportunities for Out-of-Season Fruit Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producing strawberry transplants from runner tips that were plugged about one month earlier (early July) than the standard time (early August) promoted fall flowering in some short-day strawberry cultivars. In 2002, 100 percent of ‘Chandler’ transplants produced in early July flowered in the fall,...

  16. Adult Education in the American Experience from the Colonial Period to the Present. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubblefield, Harold W.; Keane, Patrick

    This book offers a comprehensive history of adult education in the United States from the colonial period to the present day. Chapter 1 discusses definitions of adult education and explores formative influences. Chapters 2-3 on the colonial and post-Revolutionary periods trace an Atlantic information network, rise of a literate culture, Puritan…

  17. Cultural Diplomacy in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haigh, Anthony

    The evolution of European government activities in the sphere of international cultural relations is examined. Section 1 describes the period between World War I and World War II when European governments tried to enhance their prestige and policies by means of cultural propaganda. Section 2 analyzes the period during World War II when the…

  18. Periodic cages.

    PubMed

    Diudea, Mircea V; Nagy, Csaba L; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Ioan; Graovac, Ante; Janezic, Dusanka; Vikić-Topić, Drazen

    2005-01-01

    Various cages are constructed by using three types of caps: f-cap (derived from spherical fullerenes by deleting zones of various size), kf-cap (obtainable by cutting off the polar ring, of size k), and t-cap ("tubercule"-cap). Building ways are presented, some of them being possible isomerization routes in the real chemistry of fullerenes. Periodic cages with ((5,7)3) covering are modeled, and their constitutive typing enumeration is given. Spectral data revealed some electronic periodicity in fullerene clusters. Semiempirical and strain energy calculations complete their characterization. PMID:15807490

  19. Pregnancy - identifying fertile days

    MedlinePlus

    ... between days 7 and 20 of a woman's menstrual cycle. In order to become pregnant, having sex every ... hours of ovulation. If you have an irregular menstrual cycle, an ovulation predictor kit can help you know ...

  20. Career Day 2012

    NASA Video Gallery

    More than 200 high school juniors and seniors with interests in science, technology, engineering and math met one-on-one with professionals at NASA's Langley Research Center during Career Day 2012,...

  1. Stennis Day Camper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Sara Beth Casey, 5, proudly displays her artwork, 'Planets.' Sara Beth created the art as a student of Stennis Day Camp, a free camp for Stennis Space Center employees' children whose schools have not resumed since Hurricane Katrina hit the region on Aug. 29. The camp has registered nearly 200 children and averages 100 children each day. The camp will continue until all schools are back in session.

  2. AAS 227: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 4 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Helen B. Warner Prize: Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems (by Erika Nesvold)Another excellent prize lecture started off todays sessions. The Helen B. Warner Prize is awarded for achievement in observational or theoretical astrophysics by a young researcher (no more than eight years after their Ph.D.). This years Warner Prize was presented to Ruth Murray-Clay of UC Santa Barbara. For her award lecture, Murray-Clay told us all about planetary system architecture: the number, masses, and orbits of planets in a given system.Ruth Murray-Clay [photo from http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~murray/biocv.html]The underlying question motivating this type of research is: How rare is the Solar System? In other words, how likely is it that a given planetary system will have rocky planets close to their star, gas giants farther out, and ice giants at the outer reaches of the system? Answering this question will help us solve the physics problem of how and where planets form, and will also help us on our search for other planets like Earth.The data on exoplanet population from transit and radial velocity observations and from direct imaging tell us that our Solar System is not common (many systems we observe have much more eccentric gas giants), but that doesnt

  3. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  4. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  5. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  6. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  7. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  8. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently. PMID:26760739

  9. AAS 228: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    began the session by explaining his new models which trace the diffusive cooling of an initial supernova shock. His team has created an open source code, the SuperNova Explosion Code or SNEC, to allow others to explore a variety of explosion properties.Janie De La Rosa then spoke about her work on observing Type IIn supernovae (those with narrow emission lines in their spectra) at ultraviolet and optical wavelengths. These wavelengths are sensitive to progenitor models and the geometry of the surrounding material.Composite image of the supernova remnant Cassiopeia A, using data from the Chandra X-ray telescope, NASAs Spitzer Space Telescope, and ground-based facilities. [NASA/CXC/SAO]Following the exploration of progenitor geometry, Douglas C. Leonard spoke about his work in hunting for polarization in type IIP supernovae (those with long, plateaued light curves). A high degree of polarization implies asymmetry in the explosion itself, and he has been able to find such asymmetry in a number of type IIP supernovae. He pointed out that bubble-like structure (like what we see in the beautiful supernova remnant Cassiopeia A) might explain the polarization as well. Switching gears, Karri Kolijonen spoke about an interesting X-ray binary (a binary consistent of a compact object and star that emits strongly in X-rays) known as GS 1354-64. This pair has an extremely short orbital period of just two and a half days! He explained how an instability in the black holes accretion disk might explain a recent outburst in the system.Thomas Pannuti explained the basic morphologies of supernova remnants: shell, composite, and mixed. He has taken extensive, multiwavelength images of a mixed remnant known as W28 from radio through X-ray wavelengths. He notes that the radio masers in the remnant are offset from the X-ray light, although the significance of this is still an open question.Finally, Maria Dainotti wrapped up the session with a discussion of long duration GRBs as standard

  10. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  11. [Periodic abstinence: its possibilities].

    PubMed

    1981-05-01

    Experience with family planning mehods requiring periodic sexual abstinence has been varied. During the last decade interest has centered on 2 methods, the cervical mucus and the sympto-thermal, which are based on identifying the onset of the fertile period. During the 1970s, the Australian physicians John and Evelyn Billings developed the cervical mucus method, in which changes in the quanitity and characteristics of cervical mucus are used to determine the moment of ovulation. The sympto-thermal method depends on identification of the slight rise in basal body temperature that occurs in the latter part of the menstrual cycle as well as cervical mucus changes and sometimes the calendar to determine the fertile period. The Catholic Church has been the main proponent of periodic abstinence methods, but since 1973 the World Health Organization has invested US$3.3 million on research in such methods. The Billings method requires differentiating between dry, wet, and very wet mucus in the vagina and between different consistencies of mucus. The method ususally requires 1-3 months for instruction and sexual abstinence is usually recommended for the 1st month. The average number of days of required abstinence was 9 in a study of 66 women and 15-18 in a study of 870 women. Many women with short menstrual cycles do not experience postmenstrual dry days, in which case abstinence may be required as many as 13 days out of 23. 18.8% of users of periodic abstinence methods in 1 North American study became pregnant in the 1st year, but most were using the calendar method. Women who desired to terminate childbearing had only about 1/2 as many failures with periodic abstinence methods as did women wishing to postpone a birth. PMID:12311397

  12. Paleolithic Counseling - The Good Old Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Paul T.

    This paper outlines what clients were like in the "Good Ol' Days", as compared with what they are like now. Formerly clients appeared to come in with a plethora of ego energy, while now it seems more like a depletion. Explicit in our culture now is the idea that it is almost healthy and good to publicize one's private experience. Some of…

  13. Embryonic mouse pre-metatarsal development in organ culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klement, B. J.; Spooner, B. S.

    1993-01-01

    Embryonic mouse pre-metatarsals were removed from embryos at 13 days of gestation and cultured in a defined, serum-free medium for up to 15 days. By histological analysis, we observe that the cultured pre-metatarsal tissue undergoes a similar developmental profile as pre-metatarsals growing normally in vivo. The initial mesenchyme condensation regions undergo differentiation and morphogenesis to form distinct rods made up of cartilage tissue. A marker of this differentiation step is the synthesis of type II collagen. Metabolic labelling, pepsin digestion, SDS-PAGE, and autoradiography were used to demonstrate this protein when cartilage tissue is present in the cultures. After additional culture time, terminal chondrocyte differentiation and morphogenesis take place in specific regions of the cartilage rods to form bands of hypertrophied chondrocytes. One marker of this differentiation step is the synthesis of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase. We have measured the activity of this enzyme throughout the culture period and see a substantial increase at the time of terminal chondrocyte differentiation. Another feature of hypertrophied chondrocytes is that the matrix around the cells becomes calcified. Calcified matrix in our cultured pre-metatarsals was visualized by staining with alizarin red. By supplementing the defined culture medium with ITS, we observed that terminal chondrocyte differentiation took place in a shorter culture time. Supplementation of the medium with serum results in a similar acceleration of terminal differentiation, and, with additional culture time, an osteoid-like matrix forms around the central region of the rods.

  14. Rationalization of Comet Halley's periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belton, M. J. S.

    1990-07-01

    The sense of long axis orientation of Comet Halley during the Vega 1 encounter must be reversed from that deduced by Sagdeev et al. (1986) in order to harmonize the comet nucleus' Vega/Giotto-observed orientations with periodicities extracted from time-series brightness data. It is also demonstrated that Vega/Giotto observations can be satisfied by either a 2.2- or 3.7-day long-axis free precession period. A novel Fourier algorithm is used to reanalyze five independent data sets; strong evidence is adduced for periods harmonically related to a 7.4-day period. The preferred candidate models for Halley's nuclear rotation are characterized by a long-axis precession period of 3.7 days.

  15. Day night variation of cohesive sediment stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, P. L.; Lucas, C. H.; Rossington, S. K.

    2005-08-01

    Surface sediment properties related to cohesive sediment stability were measured over 8 consecutive day- and night-time emersion periods at three upper intertidal sites on a mudflat in August 2003, during the transition from spring to neap tides. Significant differences between day- and night-time critical erosion shear stress ( τc) and chlorophyll a were found. A high degree of temporal and spatial variability existed between the sediment properties. During the first half of the study period, a rhythmic day-night variation occurred between τc, chl a, colloidal-S- and EDTA-extracted carbohydrate. During the second part of the study, the magnitude of variation of these parameters diminished. Results showed that sediments were more stable during the day than at night. Differences between day- and night-time sediment stability were related not only to diatom migration, but also to wave energy during preceding immersion periods. No significant relationships existed between τc and either chl a, or colloidal-S- or EDTA-extracted carbohydrate sediment content. It is suggested that tidal phasing, in terms of both the time during the day at which low water spring and neap tides occur, as well as the duration of the emersion period, control the biomass dynamics. The tidal phasing effect is expected to be more pronounced on a cohesive intertidal flat where low water spring tides occur at noon and midnight. The results of this study will be of use in time-dependent estuarine models.

  16. Marketing Your Day Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, George

    1997-01-01

    Marketing strategies for day camps include encouraging camp staff to get involved in organizations involving children, families, and communities; holding camp fairs; offering the use of camp facilities to outside groups; hosting sport leagues and local youth outings; planning community fairs; and otherwise involving the camp in the community. (LP)

  17. First Day of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bort, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    In this brief article, the author, a science teacher at F. C. Hammond Middle School in Alexandria, Virginia, describes how the setting up of a simple science experiment on the first day of school can get students excited about learning science. The experiment involves heating a small amount of water in a flask, then covering the opening of the…

  18. Make a Splash Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coverdale, Greg; Rust, April; Jensen, Belinda

    2004-01-01

    At the annual, all-day events-sponsored by Project WET (Water Education for Teachers) and held in nearly every state across the country each September--students participate in interactive activities and exhibits to learn about water resources and explore how human behaviors, such as development and recreation, can affect the quality of the…

  19. Family Day Care Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Coordinated Child Care (4-C) in Dane County, Inc., Madison, WI.

    This handbook provides both general and specific information on child development and child care to help adults who are providing child care in their homes. Information is presented in six sections which describe: (1) the family day care system, the occupation of caregiver, and the development of relationships; (2) development of a health program,…

  20. One Play a Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate theater students rarely get the chance to work on a major world premiere, but this year hundreds of them will. Currently, more than 70 colleges and universities are participating in "365 Days/365 Plays," an ambitious project from Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright Suzan-Lori Parks. Every week, as they mount their portion of this epic…

  1. Day Care: Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Florence P.; And Others

    This collection of 12 short, bilingual papers on nutrition and preschool children is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Topics dealt with include an overview of children's nutritional needs; development of…

  2. An Earth Day Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Don, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presents what the author believes to be some of the most important environmental books published since Earth Day 1970. Discusses each selection and how it provides the historical background, basic information, and appreciation necessary to understand the character of our environmental dilemma and our need to address it. (MCO)

  3. Sun-Earth Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Michael Sandras, a member of the Pontchartrain Astronomical Society, explains his solar telescope to students of Second Street in Bay St. Louis, Hancock County and Nicholson elementary schools in StenniSphere's Millennium Hall on April 10. The students participated in several hands-on activities at Stennis Space Center's Sun-Earth Day celebration.

  4. We Love Science Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kepler, Lynne

    1986-01-01

    Describes the goals and outcomes of the "We Love Science Day" programs that resulted from the inservice course, "Creative Integration of Science in Elementary Education" for Pennsylvania teachers. Provides samples of the hands-on activities that were offered to students, parents, and teachers. Includes a calendar of extracurricular science…

  5. Fabulous Weather Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in…

  6. International School Library Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyde, Laurel A.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the development of an International School Library Day and discusses activities in Australian school libraries. Highlights include the development of Web pages; sponsorship by national, state, or provincial associations; publicity materials; joint activities with other countries; student involvement; and activities with public libraries.…

  7. 90-Day Cycle Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sandra; Takahashi, Sola

    2013-01-01

    90-Day Cycles are a disciplined and structured form of inquiry designed to produce and test knowledge syntheses, prototyped processes, or products in support of improvement work. With any type of activity, organizations inevitably encounter roadblocks to improving performance and outcomes. These barriers might include intractable problems at…

  8. Seize the Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkey, Tim

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve what happens in classrooms, a considerable amount of work needs to take place between teachers and principals. This can only happen if campus leaders make dramatic shifts in how and where they spend their daily time. Principals can have a greater impact on teaching and learning by transforming their work one day at a time. The…

  9. Every Child, Every Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allington, Richard L.; Gabriel, Rachael E.

    2012-01-01

    We know more now than we ever did before about how to make every child a successful reader, write Allington and Gabriel in this research review. Yet, few students regularly receive the best reading instruction we know how to give. The authors present research supporting their recommendation that every child, every day, should (1) read something he…

  10. 39 CFR 121.2 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Periodicals. 121.2 Section 121.2 Postal Service... § 121.2 Periodicals. (a) End-to-End. (1)(i) Until February 1, 2014, a 2- to 4-day service standard is applied to Periodicals pieces properly accepted before the day-zero Critical Entry Time (CET) and...

  11. Mechanical properties of adult feline ventricular myocytes in culture.

    PubMed

    Pollack, P S; Carson, N L; Nuss, H B; Marino, T A; Houser, S R

    1991-01-01

    The contractile and electrophysiological properties of cultured adult feline ventricular myocytes were studied. Cells were field stimulated and contraction was measured using a video-based edge detector. The magnitude of contraction decreased by 36% and the rate of contraction decreased by 52% 2 h after the cells were plated on laminin-coated cover slips. The magnitude and rate of contraction then remained stable for 1 wk. The duration of contraction prolonged and a second component to the twitch frequently, but not invariably, developed after 5 days in culture. This was associated with prolongation of the action potential duration. After 7 days in culture, cells could be divided into two groups based on resting membrane potential. Norepinephrine increased the magnitude of contraction for 5 days after plating. Cultured ventricular myocytes became unresponsive to the effects of norepinephrine after 7 days. Adult cardiac myocytes maintained in primary culture continue to respond to field stimulation and retain many contractile properties for up to 7 days; however, the functional characteristics of these cells do not remain uniform during this time period. PMID:1992803

  12. AAS 228: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note: Lastweek we were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Here is a final post aboutselectedevents on the last day of the meeting, written by authors fromastrobites.com, a grad-student collaborative project with which we recently announced a new partnership! Starting in July,keep an eye out for astrobites postsat AAS Nova in between Highlights(i.e., on Tuesdays and Thursdays).Were excited to be working together to bring you more recent astronomy research from AAS journals!Extrasolar Planets: Detection (by Leonardo dos Santos)Thursdays first session on exoplanets was about detecting these distant worlds, and the opening talk was given by Robert Siverd (Las Cumbres Observatory). He describes the NRES, a network of spectrographs that will look for exoplanets using the radial velocity method. One of the coolest aspects of this instrument is that it will feature an on the fly scheduling system that will perform observations as efficiently as possible. The spectrograph is still being tested, but a unit will be deployed at CTIO later this year.@lcogt contracted by @NASA_TESS for follow up of their candidates. #aas228 Jessie Christiansen (@aussiastronomer) June 16, 2016Measuring the depths of transits and eclipses in Spitzer has been problematic in the past, since the Spitzer instrument IRAC (InfraRed Array Camera) has a non-uniform response in its detectors pixels. But, as reported by James Ingalls (Spitzer Science Center, Caltech), observers are circumventing this issue by using what they call the staring mode (avoiding large pointing jumps) and an algorithm to pick sweet spot pixels. Moreover, the results from the IRAC Data Challenge are helping to better understand its behavior. Giuseppe Morello (University College London), on the other hand, explained how his research group gets rid of instrumental effects from IRAC using machine learning. This method removes systematics from exoplanet transit data no matter if the noise source is from an instrument or

  13. Effects of hyperbaric oxygenation on cultured barley embryos.

    PubMed

    Arican, E; Gozukirmizi, N

    2008-12-01

    Changes in relative water content (RWC), lipid peroxidation, proline and antioxidant system in relation to the tolerance to oxidative stress enzymes mediated high pressure were investigated in Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Tokak. For this purpose, mature embryos cultured on MS media were treated in a hyperbaric oxygenation chamber (approx. 59.06 feets, 2 kp/cm2) with pure oxygen for 60 minutes/day for a growth period of ten days in a plant growth chamber. Constitutive activities of SOD, APOX, GR and POX were higher in hyperbaric oxygenated (HBO) explants, being 96.07%, 28.57%, 77.77% and 54.14% for the 5th days; 95.78%, 40%, 37.5%, and 94.98% for the 10th days of culture, respectively, than in the control plants. Increase in SOD activity was also shown on polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis on the 10th day of application. Proline accumulation was increased in HBO-treated explants both on the 5th days (85.71%) and 10th days (37.14%) of treatment. MDA content was found to be higher in HBO treated explants both on the 5th (53.84%) and 10th (59.83%) days of culture. PMID:19133501

  14. Day One Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, John; Ibell, Timothy; Evernden, Mark; Darby, Antony

    2015-01-01

    Emissions reductions targets for the UK set out in the Climate Change Act for the period to 2050 will only be achieved with significant changes to the built environment, which is currently estimated to account for 50% of the UK's carbon emissions. The socio-technological nature of Civil Engineering means that this field is uniquely placed to lead…

  15. Flight Day 2 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The STS-107 second flight day begins with a shot of the Spacehab Research Double Module. Live presentations of experiments underway inside of the Spacehab Module are presented. Six experiments are shown. As part of the Space Technology and Research Student Payload, students from Australia, China, Israel, Japan, New York, and Liechtenstein are studying the effect that microgravity has on ants, spiders, silkworms, fish, bees, granular materials, and crystals. Mission Specialist Kalpana Chawla is seen working with the zeolite crystal growth experiment.

  16. 33 CFR 117.881 - John Day River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... after each day's authorized commercial fishing period established by the Columbia River Compact (Washington State Department of Fisheries and the Fish Commission of Oregon) for the Columbia River...

  17. 33 CFR 117.881 - John Day River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... after each day's authorized commercial fishing period established by the Columbia River Compact (Washington State Department of Fisheries and the Fish Commission of Oregon) for the Columbia River...

  18. 33 CFR 117.881 - John Day River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... after each day's authorized commercial fishing period established by the Columbia River Compact (Washington State Department of Fisheries and the Fish Commission of Oregon) for the Columbia River...

  19. 33 CFR 117.881 - John Day River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... after each day's authorized commercial fishing period established by the Columbia River Compact (Washington State Department of Fisheries and the Fish Commission of Oregon) for the Columbia River...

  20. [Nonadhesive populations in cultures of mesenchymal stromal cells from hematopoietic organs in mouse and rat].

    PubMed

    Byeverova, E I; Bragina, E V; Molchanova, E A

    2008-01-01

    The study of adhesive properties of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells evaluated from fibroblast colony-forming units in the bone marrow of adult mice and rats in populations of cells attached and unattached to plastic substrate after 2 h to 7 days in culture demonstrated both similarities and differences. The increase in the fibroblast colony-forming units in the adhesive population peaked on day 7 of in vitro culture in both cases; however, nearly no fibroblast colony-forming units were observed in the nonadhesive population from the mouse bone marrow in this period. Conversely, the number of colonies from the rat bone marrow nonadhesive population on day 7 of culture considerably increased, and this nonadhesive population in long-term culture became the source for subsequent nonadhesive subpopulations containing fibroblast colony-forming units. After 7 days of in vitro culture, the suspension of cells isolated from the liver of 17-day-old rat fetuses also contained a fraction of unattached fibroblast colony-forming units. In the nonadhesive subpopulations from the bone marrow and fetal liver, fibroblast colony-forming units were observed up to day 48 and 30, respectively. Stromal cell precursors of nonadhesive subpopulations from the rat bone marrow featured a period of colony formation reduced to 7 days (i.e., they were formed 1.5-2 times faster compared to the primary culture). The total number of fibroblast colony-forming units from all nonadhesive subpopulations was roughly 6 and 7.4 times that of the adhesive population of the primary culture from the bone marrow and fetal liver, respectively. Considering that the mammalian bone marrow remains the preferred source of mesenchymal stromal cells, using nonadhesive subpopulations in the presented culture system can considerably increase the yield of stromal precursor cells. PMID:19137707

  1. One Cold Autumn Day

    PubMed Central

    de Schweinitz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral change is at the heart of effective primary care, but when patients don’t change, how do we account for our days? In this personal essay, I relate an encounter with a patient who wants to quit smoking, lose weight, and control her diabetes. I am discouraged when she deflects my recommendations, but a colleague’s comment encourages a deeper inquiry. Knowing the patient’s story and deepening the conversation, however, do not guarantee change. The experience reminds me why patience, humility, and faith are core values of the primary care physician. PMID:25964410

  2. Preventing 30-day readmissions.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Sherri

    2015-03-01

    Preventing 30-day readmissions to hospitals is a top priority in the era of health care reform. New regulations will be costly to health care facilities because of payment guidelines. The most frequently readmitted medical conditions are acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia. The transition from the hospital and into the home has been classified as a vulnerable time for many patients. During this time of transition patients may fail to fully understand their discharge instructions. Ineffective communication, low health literacy, and compliance issues contribute to readmissions. Telehealth and the use of technology may be used to prevent some readmissions. PMID:25680492

  3. AAS 228: Day 1 afternoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    is less likely to see, and vice versa. Angela Berti detected the signal of galactic conformity all the way to redshift z=1, an effect that makes galaxies more likely to be found around neighbors that are very similar (in terms of color or shape) than different kinds. Georgiana Ogrean closed the session by showing a merger between two galaxies that is not producing a strong shock front. 112: Astronomy Education for All: The 2017 Eclipse, Accessibility and NASA (by Meredith Rawls)This afternoon session kicked off with an advertisement for US-based astronomers favorite upcoming event: the 2017 Solar Eclipse. Jay Pasachoff reviewed plans for the August 21, 2017 event and pointed us to resources about choosing the best viewing site and what to expect on the momentous day. We also heard from Denise Smith, Jim Manning, and Daniel McIntosh about various NASA-funded efforts for education and outreach in the classroom and beyond. A sampling of NASA education and outreach resources compiled over several years, presented by Jim Manning #aas228 pic.twitter.com/T41gdHFoDv Meredith Rawls (@merrdiff) June 13, 2016The other two talks from this session focused on the newly-formed AAS Working Group for Accessibility and Disability and what the astronomical community can do to cultivate a more accessible culture. Speakers Jackie Monkiewicz and Lauren Gilbert described how and why inaccessibility is driving people away from the field: by requiring people with disabilities to disclose those disabilities, by maintaining inaccessible buildings and observatories, by acting inappropriately when accommodations are requested, and by not working well in advance of a course or event to anticipate the needs of people with disabilities. To learn more about what you can do to make astronomy accessible, and what efforts are already underway (including right here at AAS 228), see these resources compiled by AstroBetter.Press Conference: From Molecules to Galaxies (by Leonardo dos Santos

  4. Three-day fever.

    PubMed

    Akakpo, A J

    2015-08-01

    Three-day fever is a viral disease caused by an Ephemerovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae, transmitted by arthropod vectors. It is common in tropical and sub-tropical regions, where it affects mainly domestic cattle and buffaloes, especially in intensive dairy or fattening production systems. It is of economic importance because it reduces milk production and fertility and causes abortion. The disease is generally benign. It manifests in several susceptible subjects simultaneously, with a sudden episode of fever accompanied by muscle involvement with arthritis, stiffness of the limbs, and lameness, followed by rapid recovery. The presence of a serofibrinous exudate in the joints is indicative of the disease. Clinical diagnosis is often difficult in the absence of pathognomonic signs. Epidemiological factors (proliferation of arthropod vectors), associated with a short-lived fever and the presence of many immature neutrophils, point strongly to three-day fever. In the absence of any specific treatment, the symptoms are treated with antibiotics and anti-inflammatories. Medical prophylaxis currently uses live attenuated vaccines, pending the development of recombinant vaccines, which are giving promising results. PMID:26601454

  5. Activities of Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase and Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase and 14C-Bicarbonate Fixation during in Vitro Culture of Pinus radiata Cotyledons 1

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prakash P.; Bender, Ludwig; Thorpe, Trevor A.

    1988-01-01

    The activities of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPC) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), as indicators of autotrophic and nonautotrophic CO2 fixation, were measured in excised cotyledons of Pinus radiata D. Don cultured for 21 days under shoot-forming (SF) and nonshoot-forming (NSF) conditions. The activity of RuBPC was found to increase in both SF and NSF cultures during the initial 5 days of culture. However, it leveled off from day 5 to day 10 and subsequently began to decrease until the end of the culture period under the SF conditions. In contrast, in the NSF cultures, RuBPC activity increased until day 15, when it was twofold higher than the maximum activity found in the SF cultures. An increase in PEPC activity of about 2.5 times the level of activity in freshly excised cotyledons was observed during the initial 5 days of culture under the SF conditions. PEPC activity began to decline after day 5 until it reached the level of activity seen in NSF cotyledons by day 15. In contrast, the activity of PEPC did not show any significant increase during the initial 10 days of culture under the NSF conditions. The Km (phosphoenolpyruvate) of PEPC from SF cotyledons was about 35% higher than that of NSF cotyledons. Cotyledons from two culture periods (days 5 and 15) were incubated for 15 seconds with NaH14CO3. The label in the malate and asparatate fractions as a percentage of total 14C incorporation was 3 times higher in the SF cotyledons than in the NSF cotyledons. A higher incorporation of 14C into products of photosynthesis under the NSF conditions was also observed. PMID:16666206

  6. World AIDS Day 1998.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Excerpts of speeches given at a public rally on World AIDS Day 1998 underscore the need to energize support for those living with HIV/AIDS, emphasize the importance of increasing public education efforts, and memorialize those lost to the disease. Reverend Pat Bumgardner stressed the need to educate children about practicing safe sex and the dangers of drug use. He also focused attention on AIDS as a worldwide crisis, with the 30 million people who have HIV or AIDS. Councilwoman Margarita Lopez spoke about achieving objectives and securing resources through activism. She also condemned New York City's Mayor for trying to hinder the rally. Anne Chelimsky, who did not speak at the rally but attended it, reflected on her new role as an activist, and on how the rally affected her. PMID:11367196

  7. Proceedings, Dean's Day 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Zanner, M.A.

    1999-03-01

    On January 14--15, 1999, Sandia National Laboratories sponsored Deans Day, a conference for the Deans of Engineering and other executive-level representatives from 29 invited universities. Through breakout sessions and a wrap-up discussion, university and Sandia participants identified activities to further develop their strategic relationships. The four primary activities are: (A) concentrate joint efforts on current and future research strengths and needs; (B) attract the best students (at all grade levels) to science and engineering; (C) promote awareness of the need for and work together to influence a national science and technology R and D policy; and (D) enable the universities and Sandia to be true allies, jointly pursuing research opportunities and funding from government agencies and industry.

  8. Perspectives on Infant Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elardo, Richard, Ed.; Pagan, Betty, Ed.

    This second edition contains articles on (1) infant day care, (2) day care as a way to extend parental support systems, (3) meeting developmental needs of infants, (4) ecology of day care, (5) ecology of infant day care, (6) quality care for infants, (7) the daily schedule, (8) precautions in establishing infant day care, (9) teaching--learning…

  9. Crusade for Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayre, Ruth W.

    1995-01-01

    Reprints an article originally published in 1961. Describes the "culture crusade" at William Penn High School for Girls in midcity Philadelphia, part of Project WINGS, an overall program of educational incentive and motivation. Notes that over a 2-year period, more than 1,000 girls went on at least 1 cultural trip. (RS)

  10. Cosmos: The Integrated Day Comes to College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutz, Ronald E.; And Others

    Four full days of classroom instruction, devoted to the modeling of effective curriculum integration, were designed for preservice elementary school teachers. The unit was the result of a conviction on the part of teacher educators that children learn best when learning is not separated into forty-minute periods of math, social studies, language…

  11. AAS 227: Day 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 3 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope (by Erika Nesvold)The Henry Norris Russell Award is the highest honor given by the AAS, for a lifetime of eminence in astronomy research. This years award went to Giovanni Fazio of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Fazio became a leader in gamma ray astronomy before switching mid-career to the study of infrared astronomy, and he gave his award lecture on the latter subject, specifically on the Spitzer Space Telescope, one of the most successful infrared telescopes of all time.Artists rendering of the Spitzer space telescope. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Spitzer has been operating for more than twelve years, and has resulted in over six thousand papers in refereed journals in that time. The telescope sits in an Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, and is now farther from the Earth (1.4 AU) than the Earth is from the Sun. Fazio gave the audience a fascinating overview of the science done by Spitzer over more than a decade. One of the most productive areas of research for Spitzer is the study of exoplanets, which hadnt even been discovered when the Spitzer Telescope was first conceived. Spitzers high sensitivity and ability to observe exoplanets over

  12. AAS 227: Day 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 2 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Plenary Session: Black Hole Physics with the Event Horizon Telescope (by Susanna Kohler)If anyone needed motivation to wake up early this morning, they got it in the form of Feryal Ozel (University of Arizona) enthralling us all with exciting pictures, videos, and words about black holes and the Event Horizon Telescope. Ozel spoke to a packed room (at 8:30am!) about where the project currently stands, and where its heading in the future.The EHT has pretty much the coolest goal ever: actually image the event horizons of black holes in our universe. The problem is that the largest black hole we can look at (Sgr A*, in the center of our galaxy) has an event horizon size of 50 as. For this kind of resolution roughly equivalent to trying to image a DVD on the Moon! wed need an Earth-sized telescope. EHT has solved this problem by linking telescopes around the world, creating one giant, mm-wavelength effective telescope with a baseline the size of Earth.Besides producing awesome images, the EHT will be able to test properties of black-hole spacetime, the no-hair theorem, and general relativity (GR) in new regimes.Ozel walked us through some of the theory prep work we need to do now in order to get the most science out of the EHT, including devising new

  13. The triple day.

    PubMed

    Smith, V

    1980-08-01

    The risks are high and the returns low when Peruvian women work outside the home, but they have few other options. Most have large families, and their husbands scramble to earn a few dollars. For some women the day begins at 3:30 a.m. when they go to Lima to peddle fish, combs, or whatever commodity is available. The poor women who live in the pueblos jovenes of Lima, the newly formed outskirts, have banded together in a Christian group called Luz y Esperanza, or Light and Hope. The group has a 10-year history of coping with unsanitary water and resultant health problems, child care, and lack of electricity. The women began with neighborhood issues but have also developed an interest in trade unions and other less local concerns. Members have also started to attend union meetings in Lima and involved themselves in recent trade union struggles. The development of the women's political consciousness is closely intertwined with their Christian faith. They believe Christ is the source of the energy they need to persevere. PMID:12262074

  14. TISSUE CULTURE AS A METHOD FOR EVALUATING THE BIOTRANSFORMATION OF XENOBIOTICS BY PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Suspension cultures of Rosa cv. Paul's scarlet were used as a model system to examine the metabolism of l,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB), an industrial waste compound. n a three-day period, 90% of the DNB supplied (96 nmoles) was metabolized by approximately 12 grams (fresh weight) of ce...

  15. Loofa sponge as a scaffold for culture of rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jyh-Ping; Lin, Tsung-Cheng

    2005-01-01

    The dried fruit from Luffa cylindrica (loofa sponge, LS), which represents a new chitinous source material, was used as a 3-D scaffold for the culture of rat hepatocytes. With the macroporous structure and large pore size (ca. 800 microm) of LS, cell loading to the scaffold should be carried out by dynamic seeding with continuous shaking throughout the seeding period. Hepatocytes attach well to the surface of loofa fibers after seeding and maintain their round shapes. The initial ammonia removal and urea-N synthesis rates of hepatocytes immobilized within LS slightly decreased with increasing cell densities, but their metabolic activities were comparable to or better than those in monolayer culture on tissue culture polystyrene control surfaces. Both urea-N synthesis and albumin secretion rates could be maintained up to 7 days for cells immobilized within LS and spheroid-like cell aggregates could be found after the second day. PMID:15903271

  16. Day one sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orr, John; Ibell, Timothy; Evernden, Mark; Darby, Antony

    2015-05-01

    Emissions reductions targets for the UK set out in the Climate Change Act for the period to 2050 will only be achieved with significant changes to the built environment, which is currently estimated to account for 50% of the UK's carbon emissions. The socio-technological nature of Civil Engineering means that this field is uniquely placed to lead the UK through such adaptations. This paper discusses the importance of interdisciplinary teaching to produce multi-faceted team approaches to sustainable design solutions. Methods for measuring success in education are often not fit for purpose, producing good students but poor engineers. Real-world failures to apply sustainable design present a serious, difficult to detect, and ultimately economically negative situation. Techniques to replace summative examinations are presented and discussed, with the aim of enhancing core technical skills alongside those required for sustainable design. Finally, the role of our future engineers in policy-making is discussed. In addition to carbon, the provision of water and food will heavily influence the work of civil engineers in the coming decades. Leadership from civil engineers with the technical knowledge and social awareness to tackle these issues will be required. This provides both opportunities and challenges for engineering education in the UK.

  17. AAS 227: Day 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 3 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope (by Erika Nesvold)The Henry Norris Russell Award is the highest honor given by the AAS, for a lifetime of eminence in astronomy research. This years award went to Giovanni Fazio of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Fazio became a leader in gamma ray astronomy before switching mid-career to the study of infrared astronomy, and he gave his award lecture on the latter subject, specifically on the Spitzer Space Telescope, one of the most successful infrared telescopes of all time.Artists rendering of the Spitzer space telescope. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Spitzer has been operating for more than twelve years, and has resulted in over six thousand papers in refereed journals in that time. The telescope sits in an Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, and is now farther from the Earth (1.4 AU) than the Earth is from the Sun. Fazio gave the audience a fascinating overview of the science done by Spitzer over more than a decade. One of the most productive areas of research for Spitzer is the study of exoplanets, which hadnt even been discovered when the Spitzer Telescope was first conceived. Spitzers high sensitivity and ability to observe exoplanets over

  18. Round the World in 18 Days: Science Connecting Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Gill

    2003-01-01

    The autumn 2002 term at the Eden Project was a roller-coaster ride of multicultural celebration and a fantastic lesson in the power of young people to take practical action in addressing issues that affect their communities on a local and global scale. From Cornwall to India--global links provide valuable insights and opportunities for active…

  19. International Cultural Experience Day: A Festival for Foreign Language Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Gene; And Others

    An annual foreign language festival established by McNeese State University and the Calcasieu Parish School System (Louisiana) was designed to motivate students, inform them of employment opportunities, help them understand their own and other heritages, and illustrate the international and intercultural opportunities and challenges of the modern…

  20. AAS 227: Day 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 2 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Plenary Session: Black Hole Physics with the Event Horizon Telescope (by Susanna Kohler)If anyone needed motivation to wake up early this morning, they got it in the form of Feryal Ozel (University of Arizona) enthralling us all with exciting pictures, videos, and words about black holes and the Event Horizon Telescope. Ozel spoke to a packed room (at 8:30am!) about where the project currently stands, and where its heading in the future.The EHT has pretty much the coolest goal ever: actually image the event horizons of black holes in our universe. The problem is that the largest black hole we can look at (Sgr A*, in the center of our galaxy) has an event horizon size of 50 as. For this kind of resolution roughly equivalent to trying to image a DVD on the Moon! wed need an Earth-sized telescope. EHT has solved this problem by linking telescopes around the world, creating one giant, mm-wavelength effective telescope with a baseline the size of Earth.Besides producing awesome images, the EHT will be able to test properties of black-hole spacetime, the no-hair theorem, and general relativity (GR) in new regimes.Ozel walked us through some of the theory prep work we need to do now in order to get the most science out of the EHT, including devising new

  1. 2016 SPD: Day 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors note: This week were in Boulder, Colorado at the 47th meeting of the AAS Solar Physics Division (SPD). Follow along to catch some of the latest news from the field of solar physics!The 2016 SPD meeting was launched this morning from the University of Colorado Boulder campus. Two of the hot topics at this years meeting include celebration of the recent move of the National Solar Observatorys headquarters to Boulder, and discussion of the future Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST, formerly the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, ATST). DKIST, planned for a 2019 completion in Hawaii, is the next big telescope on the horizon for solar physics.Todays press conference had an interesting focus: instruments providing new high-energy observations of the Sun. Representatives from four different instruments were here to talk about some of the latest X-ray solar observations.GRIPSThe GRIPS payload flew at 130,000 ft over Antarctica on a giant balloon in January 2016. [NASA/Albert Shih]First up, Albert Shih (NASA Goddard) described the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares, or GRIPS. GRIPS is a balloon-borne instrument designed to detect X-rays and gamma rays emitted during solar flares. Up to tens of a percent of the energy in solar flares is emitted in the form of accelerated particles, but the physics behind this process is not well understood. GRIPS observes where the highest-energy particles are accelerated, in an effort to learn more about the process.GRIPS was launched on 19 January, 2016 and flew for roughly 12 days gathering ~1 million seconds of data! The logistics of this instruments flight are especially interesting, since it was launched from Antarctica and carried by a balloon at a whopping elevation of 130,000 ft (to get high enough that the atmosphere doesnt absorb all the photons GRIPS is trying to observe). Though the data from the mission has been retrieved, the bulk of the hardware remains where it landed at the end of January. It must

  2. Family Day Care Training Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakatsu, Gail

    California's Family Day Care Training Program was designed to recruit and train in 7 weeks, Lao, Vietnamese, and Chinese refugees to establish their own state-licensed, family day care homes. Topics in the program's curriculum include an introduction to family day care, state licenses for family day care, state licensing requirements for family…

  3. [Effect evaluation of three cell culture models].

    PubMed

    Wang, Aiguo; Xia, Tao; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Xuemin

    2003-11-01

    Primary rat hepatocytes were cultured using three kinds of models in vitro and the enzyme leakage, albumin secretion, and cytochrome P450 1A (CYP 1A) activity were observed. The results showed that the level of LDH in the medium decreased over time in the period of culture. However, on 5 days, LDH showed a significant increase in monolayer culture (MC) while after 8 days LDH was not detected in sandwich culture (SC). The levels of AST and ALT in the medium did not change significantly over the investigated time. The basic CYP 1A activity gradually decreased with time in MC and SC. The decline of CYP 1A in rat hepatocytes was faster in MC than that in SC. This effect was partially reversed by using cytochrome P450 (CYP450) inducers such as omeprazol and 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and the CYP 1A induction was always higher in MC than that in SC. Basic CYP 1A activity in bioreactor was keeped over 2 weeks and the highest albumin production was observed in bioreactor, and next were SC and MC. In conclusion, our results clearly indicated that there have some advantages and disadvantages in each of models in which can address different questions in metabolism of toxicants and drugs. PMID:14963896

  4. 2016 SPD: Day 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    advances in simulating sunspot formation. He and his collaborators have used high-performance computing to build a model that successfully reproduces many of the key properties of sunspots that are observed.In particular, these simulations track the motions of the magnetic field starting within the interior of the Sun (8000 km below the surface!). The magnetic field is generated and intensified by convection deep within the solar interior. Bundles of magnetic field then rise through the convection zone, eventually breaking through the solar surface and giving rise to sunspots.This process of tracking the flow as it travels from the convective layer all the way through the solar surface has resulted in what may be some of the highest fidelity simulations of sunspots thus far. The structures produced in these simulations compares very favorably with actual observations of sunspots including the asymmetry seen in most sunspots.Counting Spots on the SunContinuing the discussion of sunspots, Leif Svalgaard (Stanford University) next took us on a historical journey from the 1600s through the present. For the last 400 years starting with Galileo people have kept records of the number of sunspots visible on the Suns disk.One of Galileos drawings of his sunspot observations from 1612. [The Galileo Project]This turns out to be a very useful practice! Total solar irradiance, a measure used as input into climate models, is reconstructed from sunspot numbers. Therefore, the historical record of sunspots over the last 400 years impacts our estimates of the long-term trends in solar activity.Based on raw sunspot counts, studies have argued that solar activity has been steadily increasing over time. But could this be a misinterpretation resulting from the fact that our technology and therefore our ability to detect sunspots has improved over time? Svalgaard believes so.By studying and reconstructing 18th century telescopes, he demonstrates that modern-day sunspot counts are able to detect

  5. 2016 SPD: Day 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors note: This week were in Boulder, Colorado at the 47th meeting of the AAS Solar Physics Division (SPD). Follow along to catch some of the latest news from the field of solar physics!The 2016 SPD meeting was launched this morning from the University of Colorado Boulder campus. Two of the hot topics at this years meeting include celebration of the recent move of the National Solar Observatorys headquarters to Boulder, and discussion of the future Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST, formerly the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope, ATST). DKIST, planned for a 2019 completion in Hawaii, is the next big telescope on the horizon for solar physics.Todays press conference had an interesting focus: instruments providing new high-energy observations of the Sun. Representatives from four different instruments were here to talk about some of the latest X-ray solar observations.GRIPSThe GRIPS payload flew at 130,000 ft over Antarctica on a giant balloon in January 2016. [NASA/Albert Shih]First up, Albert Shih (NASA Goddard) described the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares, or GRIPS. GRIPS is a balloon-borne instrument designed to detect X-rays and gamma rays emitted during solar flares. Up to tens of a percent of the energy in solar flares is emitted in the form of accelerated particles, but the physics behind this process is not well understood. GRIPS observes where the highest-energy particles are accelerated, in an effort to learn more about the process.GRIPS was launched on 19 January, 2016 and flew for roughly 12 days gathering ~1 million seconds of data! The logistics of this instruments flight are especially interesting, since it was launched from Antarctica and carried by a balloon at a whopping elevation of 130,000 ft (to get high enough that the atmosphere doesnt absorb all the photons GRIPS is trying to observe). Though the data from the mission has been retrieved, the bulk of the hardware remains where it landed at the end of January. It must

  6. AAS 227: Day 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or at astrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the @astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto have so many people tell us that they already know about and useastrobites, and we were excited to introduce a new cohort of students at AAS to astrobites for the first time.Tuesday morning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended today.Opening Address (by Becky Smethurst)The President of the AAS, aka our fearless leader Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at the purely coffee powered hour of 8am this morning. She spoke about the importance of young astronomers at the meeting (heres looking at you reader!) and also the importance of the new Working Group for Accessibility and Disabilities (aka WGAD pronounced like wicked) at the AAS. The Society has made extra effort this year to make the conference accessible to all,a message which was very well received by everyone in attendance.Kavli Lecture: New Horizons Alan Stern (by Becky Smethurst)We were definitely spoilt with the first Plenary lecture at this years conference Alan Stern gave us a a review of the New Horizons mission of the Pluto Fly By (astrobites covered the mission back in July with this post). We were treated to beautiful images, wonderful results and a foray into geology.Before (Hubble) and after #NewHorizons. #thatisall #science #astro alanstern #aas227 pic.twitter.com/kkMt6RsSIR Science News (@topsciencething) January 5, 2016Some awesome facts from the lecture that blew my mind:New Horizons is now 2AU (!) beyond Pluto

  7. On periodicity of solar wind phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, V. K.; Joshi, G. C.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the rate of occurrence of solar wind phenomena observed between 1972-1984 using power spectrum analysis. The data have been taken from the high speed solar wind (HSSW) streams catalogue published by Mavromichalaki et al. (1988). The power spectrum analysis of HSSW events indicate that HSSW stream events have a periodicity of 9 days. This periodicity of HSSW events is 1/3 of the 27 days period of coronal holes which are the major source of solar wind events. In our opinion the 9 days period may be the energy build up time to produce the HSSW stream events.

  8. The Mass Culture of Porphyridium cruentum

    PubMed Central

    Golueke, Clarence G.; Oswald, William J.

    1962-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of temperature, detention period, light intensity, and salinity on the growth rate and over-all light energy conversion efficiency of Porphyridium cruentum cultured on a medium consisting of concentrated sea water and sewage enriched with urea, chelated iron, and other additives. It was found that the optimal temperature was within the range of 21 to 26 C. Growth was retarded at temperatures less than 13 C, and completely inhibited above 31 C. Over-all light energy conversion efficiency increased from 2.24% at the 4-day detention period to 2.76% at the 10-day period. Conversion efficiency ranged from 5.8% at a light energy absorption rate of 8.2 cal:liter:min to 2.3% at 35 to 39 cal:liter:min. At salt concentrations less than 3.5%, Porphyridium could not successfully compete with other algae in open cultures. Salt concentrations as high as 4.6% had no inhibitory effect on its growth. In studies on nutrition, it was found that growth on a medium of salts used in formulating synthetic sea water dissolved in sewage was equal to that on a control medium consisting of concentrated sea water and sewage (see above). They showed that sewage contains a substance or substances essential for optimal growth. Vitamin B12 alone could not substitute for it. Images FIG. 1 PMID:13900025

  9. 2016 SPD: Day 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    last the longest 2 minutes and 40 seconds is the small town of Hopkinsville, KY. WKU is located a little over an hour away, and both locations are prepared for a large influx of people on eclipse day!Partial solar eclipse as viewed by the space-based Solar Dynamics Observatory. [NASA/SDO]WKU is located just off the centerline of eclipse path, which has some advantages: this provides better viewing of some of the chromospheric features of the Sun during the eclipse, like priminences and solar loops. WKU is setting up a variety of educational and public outreach activities at their football stadium and the WKU farm, and they encourage you to come visit for the eclipse!In addition, they are participating in a nationwide experiment called Citizen CATE, short for the Continental American Telescopic Eclipse. This project will use 60 telescopes spanning the 2500 mile path of totality to record continuous data of the eclipse as it travels across the US. The result will be data of a remarkable 90 minutes of totality, revealing the activity of the solar corona and providing an extended view of the eclipse as has never been seen before.Science During the EclipseNext up was Shadia Habbal (University of Hawaii), who is a co-leader of the AAS 2017 Eclipse Task Force. In addition to her education and outreach efforts associated with the eclipse, however, Habbal is a solar eclipse researcher. She and her collaborators are known as the Solar Wind Sherpas, due to the fact that they hand-carry their science equipment around the world for solar eclipses!Solar corona during a 2008 eclipse, with color overlay indicating emission from highly ionized iron lines. [Habbal et al. 2010]The primary science done during solar eclipses is the study of the solar corona, the region that extends from the solar surface out to several solar radii. This region is too faint to observe normally, but when the light from the Suns disk is blocked out, we can examine it.Unfortunately, the space telescopes that

  10. St. Mary's has a "Sailabration". An Indiana hospital sets aside a day for spiritual renewal.

    PubMed

    Sister Betty Anne Darch; Newsmaster, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    Ascension Health has asked all of its health care ministries to promote spirituality in the workplace. St. Mary's Health System, Evansville, IN, responded to this request with several initiatives, including the development, facilitation, and implementation of a new model for what St. Mary's calls its "Employee Renewal Day." Revamped from a voluntary unpaid day to a paid day on which participation is strongly encouraged, Employee Renewal Day 2004 focused on fellowship, relaxation, and the history and heritage of St. Mary's and its sponsor. Based on an employee's suggestion, the mission team adopted a nautical theme, "Sailabration Cruise: A Day of Renewal," and took employees on "a voyage" complete with mission-themed ports, passenger photos, a ship's log, purser's desk, and an activities director. More than 1,200 St. Mary's employees-or 23 percent of the total workforce-participated. All of St. Mary's 135 leaders were in attendance. The new Employee Renewal Day model will be tried over a three-year period, so as to measure the progress of furthering the integration of spirituality within the organizational culture. PMID:15926423

  11. Glycine induced culture-harvesting strategy for Botryococcus braunii.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ying; Zhu, Wenzhe; Chen, Chaozhou; Nie, Yilei

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of culture conditions, including carbon sources and concentration, culture period, and precondition time, on the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and its influence on microalgal flocculation. EPS are natural high molecule polymer, excreted by microalgae themselves. EPS can accelerate the formation of microbial aggregates through binding cells closely. Organic carbon sources, such as glucose, glycerol, acetate and glycine were compared to select the optimal source to stimulate EPS accumulation. Subsequently, the effect of culture period, glycine dose and precondition time on EPS production and its influence on biomass growth and flocculation efficiency were investigated. As the main parts of EPS, tightly bound EPS were found positively related to suspended solids concentration. However, the loosely bound EPS may weaken the floc structure, leading to poor water-cells separation. Under the optimal condition with culture period of 16 days, glycine dose of 0.5 g l(-1) and precondition time of 5 days, the biomass concentration increased from 1.49 to 2 g l(-1), and the maximum suspended solids concentration of 7.06% with biomass recovery rate of 70.6% was achieved. PMID:26553477

  12. The Porcine Aortic Tissue Culture System in vitro for Stem Cell Research

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Eun; Oh, Keun-Hee; Yang, Ji-Hye; Kwon, Sun-Keun; Cho, Tae-Jun; Lee, Seul-Bi; Nam, Hyun; Lee, Dong-Sup; Lee, Jung-Ryul; Lee, Gene

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Due to the shortage of human donors for transplantation, the use of animal organs for xenotransplantation has come into great interest. Xeno-derived vessels and cardiac valves would be possible alternatives for the patient suffering from cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, we established in vitro culture system of a porcine vessel that could be helpful for the research of xenograft and stem cell research. Methods and Results: We primarily isolated porcine thoracic aorta, cultured square-shaped pieces up to 17 days and analyzed its morphology and characters. The endothelial cells were primarily isolated from cultured porcine aortic pieces and their morphology, function and character were analyzed in order to confirm them as endothelial cells at day 3, 4, 8, 10 and 17. Even at day 17, the morphology exhibited the intact endothelial layer as well as specifically expressed CD31 and von Willebrand factor. The morphology of primarily isolated cells from cultured tissues was identical as an endothelial cell. By flow cytometry analysis, more than 80% of the isolated cells expressed CD31 and up to 80% took up acetyl low density lipoprotein (ac-LDL) until day 10 of tissue culture period even though it decreased to about 50% at day 17 that means they not only showed typical endothelial cell characters but also functioned properly. Conclusions: We successfully established and optimized a porcine vascular tissue in vitro culture system that could be a valuable model for in vitro study of xenotransplantation and stem cell research. PMID:24298344

  13. A critical period for functional vestibular development in zebrafish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorman, Stephen J.; Cordova, Rodolfo; Davies, Sarah A.

    2002-01-01

    We have determined a critical period for vestibular development in zebrafish by using a bioreactor designed by NASA to simulate microgravity for cells in culture. A critical period is defined as the briefest period of time during development when stimulus deprivation results in long lasting or permanent sensory deficits. Zebrafish eggs were collected within 3 hours of being laid and fertilized. In experiment 1, eggs were placed in the bioreactor at 3, 24, 30, 36, 48, or 72 hours postfertilization (hPF) and maintained in the bioreactor until 96 hPF. In experiment 2, eggs were placed in the bioreactor immediately after they were collected and maintained in the bioreactor until 24, 36, 48, 60, 66, 72, or 96 hPF. Beginning at 96 hPF, all larvae had their vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) evaluated once each day for 5 days. Only larvae that hatched from eggs that were placed in the bioreactor before 30 hPF in experiment 1 or removed from the bioreactor later than 66 hPF in experiment 2 had VOR deficits that persisted for at least 5 days. These data suggest a critical period for vestibular development in the zebrafish that begins before 30 hPF and ends after 66 hPF. To confirm this, zebrafish eggs were placed in the bioreactor at 24 hPF and removed at 72 hPF. VORs were evaluated in these larvae once each day for 5 days beginning at 96 hPF. These larvae had VOR deficits that persisted for at least 5 days. In addition, larvae that had been maintained in the bioreactor from 24 to 66 hPF or from 30 to 72 hPF, had only temporary VOR deficits. In a final experiment, zebrafish eggs were placed in the bioreactor at 3 hPF and removed at 96 hPF but the bioreactor was turned off from 24 hPF to 72 hPF. These larvae had normal VORs when they were removed from the bioreactor at 96 hPF. Taken as a whole, these data support the idea that there is a critical period for functional maturation of the zebrafish vestibular system. The developmental period identified includes the timeframe

  14. Southeast Elevation, Attic Stair Nosing, Day Room Fireplace Details, Day ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Southeast Elevation, Attic Stair Nosing, Day Room Fireplace Details, Day Room Mantel Shelf, Northeast Elevation - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers - Battle Mountain Sanitarium, Ward 4, 500 North Fifth Street, Hot Springs, Fall River County, SD

  15. 2016 SPD: Day 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    advances in simulating sunspot formation. He and his collaborators have used high-performance computing to build a model that successfully reproduces many of the key properties of sunspots that are observed.In particular, these simulations track the motions of the magnetic field starting within the interior of the Sun (8000 km below the surface!). The magnetic field is generated and intensified by convection deep within the solar interior. Bundles of magnetic field then rise through the convection zone, eventually breaking through the solar surface and giving rise to sunspots.This process of tracking the flow as it travels from the convective layer all the way through the solar surface has resulted in what may be some of the highest fidelity simulations of sunspots thus far. The structures produced in these simulations compares very favorably with actual observations of sunspots including the asymmetry seen in most sunspots.Counting Spots on the SunContinuing the discussion of sunspots, Leif Svalgaard (Stanford University) next took us on a historical journey from the 1600s through the present. For the last 400 years starting with Galileo people have kept records of the number of sunspots visible on the Suns disk.One of Galileos drawings of his sunspot observations from 1612. [The Galileo Project]This turns out to be a very useful practice! Total solar irradiance, a measure used as input into climate models, is reconstructed from sunspot numbers. Therefore, the historical record of sunspots over the last 400 years impacts our estimates of the long-term trends in solar activity.Based on raw sunspot counts, studies have argued that solar activity has been steadily increasing over time. But could this be a misinterpretation resulting from the fact that our technology and therefore our ability to detect sunspots has improved over time? Svalgaard believes so.By studying and reconstructing 18th century telescopes, he demonstrates that modern-day sunspot counts are able to detect

  16. 2016 SPD: Day 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    last the longest 2 minutes and 40 seconds is the small town of Hopkinsville, KY. WKU is located a little over an hour away, and both locations are prepared for a large influx of people on eclipse day!Partial solar eclipse as viewed by the space-based Solar Dynamics Observatory. [NASA/SDO]WKU is located just off the centerline of eclipse path, which has some advantages: this provides better viewing of some of the chromospheric features of the Sun during the eclipse, like priminences and solar loops. WKU is setting up a variety of educational and public outreach activities at their football stadium and the WKU farm, and they encourage you to come visit for the eclipse!In addition, they are participating in a nationwide experiment called Citizen CATE, short for the Continental American Telescopic Eclipse. This project will use 60 telescopes spanning the 2500 mile path of totality to record continuous data of the eclipse as it travels across the US. The result will be data of a remarkable 90 minutes of totality, revealing the activity of the solar corona and providing an extended view of the eclipse as has never been seen before.Science During the EclipseNext up was Shadia Habbal (University of Hawaii), who is a co-leader of the AAS 2017 Eclipse Task Force. In addition to her education and outreach efforts associated with the eclipse, however, Habbal is a solar eclipse researcher. She and her collaborators are known as the Solar Wind Sherpas, due to the fact that they hand-carry their science equipment around the world for solar eclipses!Solar corona during a 2008 eclipse, with color overlay indicating emission from highly ionized iron lines. [Habbal et al. 2010]The primary science done during solar eclipses is the study of the solar corona, the region that extends from the solar surface out to several solar radii. This region is too faint to observe normally, but when the light from the Suns disk is blocked out, we can examine it.Unfortunately, the space telescopes that

  17. The culture of human embryonic stem cells in microchannel perfusion bioreactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korin, Natanel; Bransky, Avishay; Dinnar, Uri; Levenberg, Shulamit

    2007-12-01

    The culture of human Embryonic Stem (ES) cells in microchannel bioreactors can be highly beneficial for ES cell biology studies and ES tissue engineering applications. In the present study we examine the use of Human Foreskin Fibroblasts (HFF) cells as feeder cells for human ES culture in a microchannel perfusion bioreactor. PDMS microchannels (depth:130 micron) were fabricated using conventional soft-lithography techniques. The channels were sterilized, coated with a human fibronectin solution and seeded with cells. Following a period of static incubation, culture medium was perfused through the channels at various flow rates and cell growth was monitored throughout the culture process. Mass transport and fluid mechanics models were used to evaluate the culture conditions (shear stress, oxygen levels within the micro-bioreactor as a function of the medium flow rate. The conditions for successful long-term culture (>7 days) of HFF under flow were established. Experiments with human embryonic stem cells cultured in microchannels show that the conditions essential to co-culture human ES cell on HFF cells under perfusion differ from the conditions necessary for HFF cell culture. Human ES cells were found to be highly sensitive to flow and culture conditions and did not grow under flow rates which were suitable for HFF long-term culture. Successful culture of undifferentiated human ES cell colonies in a perfusion micro-bioreactor is a basic step towards utilizing microfluidic techniques to explore stem cell biology.

  18. AAS 227: Day 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or at astrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the @astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto have so many people tell us that they already know about and useastrobites, and we were excited to introduce a new cohort of students at AAS to astrobites for the first time.Tuesday morning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended today.Opening Address (by Becky Smethurst)The President of the AAS, aka our fearless leader Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at the purely coffee powered hour of 8am this morning. She spoke about the importance of young astronomers at the meeting (heres looking at you reader!) and also the importance of the new Working Group for Accessibility and Disabilities (aka WGAD pronounced like wicked) at the AAS. The Society has made extra effort this year to make the conference accessible to all,a message which was very well received by everyone in attendance.Kavli Lecture: New Horizons Alan Stern (by Becky Smethurst)We were definitely spoilt with the first Plenary lecture at this years conference Alan Stern gave us a a review of the New Horizons mission of the Pluto Fly By (astrobites covered the mission back in July with this post). We were treated to beautiful images, wonderful results and a foray into geology.Before (Hubble) and after #NewHorizons. #thatisall #science #astro alanstern #aas227 pic.twitter.com/kkMt6RsSIR Science News (@topsciencething) January 5, 2016Some awesome facts from the lecture that blew my mind:New Horizons is now 2AU (!) beyond Pluto

  19. Effects of IGF-1 on In Vitro Culture of Bovine Preantral Follicles are Dose-Dependent.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, C R; de Azevedo, J L; Silveira, R G; Penitente-Filho, J; Carrascal-Triana, E L; Zolini, A M; Araujo, V R; Torres, Caa; Gonçalves, W G

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed at assessing the effect of different concentrations of the growth factor similar to insulin 1 (IGF-1) in the development, survival and ultrastructure of the bovine preantral follicles cultured in situ. Fragments of bovine ovarian cortical tissue were cultured during 1 and 7 days in 1 ml of α-MEM(+) , supplemented with different concentrations of human recombinant IGF-1 (0, 30, 70 and 100 ng/ml), in an incubator at 37°C and 5% of CO2 in 24-well plates with total replacement of the medium every 2 days. Non-cultured ovarian fragments (control) and ovarian fragments cultured during 1 and 7 days were processed for classic histology, mechanical isolation and electron transmission microscopy (ETM). Parameters such as normality, viability, activation, development, diameter and ultrastructure were evaluated. All statistical analyses were carried out using sas Version 9.2. The results showed that the percentage of follicles morphologically normal in the IGF-1 30 ng/ml treatment was similar to the fresh control (p > 0.05) both on the day 1 and on the day 7 of in vitro culture. In the viability analysis, the cultured treatments maintained the percentage of viable follicles during the entire culture period (p > 0.05). After 7 days of culture, the IGF-1 30 ng/ml treatment showed higher percentages of developing follicles (48.33%) than those of the fresh control (22.22%) and the cultured treatments (p < 0.05). Also, after 7 days of culture, IGF-1 30 ng/ml presented a higher follicular diameter when compared to the control and other concentrations of IGF-1 tested. Ultrastructurally, the non-cultured control and IGF-1 30 ng/ml, after 7 days of culture, showed conserved oocytes, nuclei and organelles. Hence, it is concluded that IGF-1 30 ng/ml was the most efficient concentration for the development of bovine preantral follicles cultured in vitro. PMID:27099180

  20. Survival and growth of goat primordial follicles after in vitro culture of ovarian cortical slices in media containing coconut water.

    PubMed

    Silva, José R V; van den Hurk, Robert; Costa, Sonia H F; Andrade, Evelyn R; Nunes, Ana P A; Ferreira, Francisco V A; Lôbo, Raimundo N B; Figueiredo, José R

    2004-04-01

    The development of culture systems to support the initiation of growth of primordial follicles is important to the study of the factors that control the earliest stages of folliculogenesis. We investigated the effectiveness of five culture media, two supplements and three culture periods on the survival and growth of goat primordial follicles after culturing ovarian cortex. The media were based on minimal essential minimum (MEM) and coconut water solution (CWS) added in the proportion of 0, 25, 50, 75 or 100%. The two supplements were none versus supplemented with insulin-transferrin-selenium, pyruvate, glutamine, hypoxanthine, and BSA. Pieces of goat ovarian cortex were cultured in the media for 1, 3 or 5 days and representative samples were evaluated at day 0 as non-cultured controls. The replicates were the two ovaries of five mixed breed goats. The number of primordial, intermediate, primary and secondary follicles at each period of culture and the number of degenerated follicles were evaluated. Mitotic activity of granulosa cells was studied by immunolocalization of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The number of follicles in each stage and degenerated follicles were statistically analyzed by ANOVA using a factorial design and the significance of differences assessed using Tukey test. Chi-square test was used to compare the percentage of follicles with PCNA positive granulosa cells. As the culture period progressed, the number of primordial follicles fell and there was a significant increase in the number of primary follicles. The fall in the number of primordial follicles was particularly marked after 1 day culture. No effect of media on the number of primordial and primary follicles was observed after culture, but MEM as well as supplements increased the number of intermediate follicles. Follicular degeneration was kept at the same level after culture in the media tested, except for pure CWS that increased the number of degenerated follicles. In

  1. Relationship of safety culture and process safety.

    PubMed

    Olive, Claire; O'Connor, T Michael; Mannan, M Sam

    2006-03-17

    Throughout history, humans have gathered in groups for social, religious, and industrial purposes. As the conglomeration of people interact, a set of underlying values, beliefs, and principles begins to develop that serve to guide behavior within the group. These "guidelines" are commonly referred to as the group culture. Modern-day organizations, including corporations, have developed their own unique cultures derived from the diversity of the organizational interests and the background of the employees. Safety culture, a sub-set of organizational culture, has been a major focus in recent years. This is especially true in the chemical industry due to the series of preventable, safety-related disasters that occurred in the late seventies and eighties. Some of the most notable disasters, during this time period, occurred at Bhopal, Flixborough, and Seveso. However, current events, like the September 11th terrorist attacks and the disintegration of the Columbia shuttle, have caused an assessment of safety culture in a variety of other organizations. PMID:16314040

  2. 39 CFR 121.2 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Periodicals. 121.2 Section 121.2 Postal Service... § 121.2 Periodicals. (a) End-to-End. (1)(i) Until the effective date identified by the Postal Service in a future Federal Register document, a 2- to 4-day service standard is applied to Periodicals...

  3. Last Days of Life (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for more information. Symptoms During the Final Months, Weeks, and Days of Life Key Points Delirium Delirium ... may get worse during the final days or weeks of life. Shortness of breath or not being ...

  4. LYRA Mid-Term Periodicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wauters, L.; Dominique, M.; Dammasch, I. E.

    2016-08-01

    The spectra of the PROBA2/LYRA data, similarly to every other solar time series, show predominant periodicities that can be of solar or instrumental origin. In this article, we compare the main periodicities characterizing the LYRA spectrum to those found in the sunspot number, in the 10.7 cm flux, in an X-ray flare index, and in the sunspot area evolution. We focused on the 2010 to 2014 time range, for which the LYRA data are available, although we also briefly address the evolution of the main periodicities in the longer range. The mid-term periodicities at {˜} 28, {˜} 44, {˜} 54, {˜} 59, {˜} 100, {˜} 110, and {˜} 150 days appear as highly significant in several analyzed datasets. The consistency of distinct periodicities between datasets provides characteristics for the global Sun. This consistency also strengthens the reliability of LYRA data.

  5. Urine culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  6. Stool Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bacterial Culture, stool; Feces Culture Formal name: Enteric Pathogens Culture, stool Related tests: Ova and Parasite Exam , ... Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli , Widal Test , Gastrointestinal Pathogens Panel All content on Lab Tests Online has ...

  7. Fecal culture

    MedlinePlus

    Stool culture; Culture - stool ... stool tests are done in addition to the culture, such as: Gram stain of stool Fecal smear ... Giannella RA. Infectious enteritis and proctocolitis and bacterial food poisoning. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, ...

  8. 2010 Stennis Day of Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Rich Delgado, commanding officer of the Fleet Survey Team located at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, visits with Kertrina Watson Lewis, executive director of the HandsOn volunteer organization in New Orleans, during Day of Service activities Jan. 12. The Day of Service was part of the annual Martin Luther King Jr. Day observance at Stennis. During the day, Mississippi and Louisiana organizations visited the center to encourage employees to register and serve as volunteers for various community activities.

  9. 2010 Stennis Day of Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Employees at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center visit exhibits of volunteer organizations during their observance of Martin Luther King Jr. Day with a Day of Service on Jan. 12. During the day, Mississippi and Louisiana organizations visited the center to encourage employees to register and serve as volunteers for various community activities. The day's focus was emphasized again and again - great things can happen when individuals work together toward a common goal.

  10. Day-to-day changes in ionospheric electron content at low latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabas, R. S.; Bhuyan, P. K.; Tyagi, T. R.; Bhardwaj, R. K.; Lal, J. B.

    1984-06-01

    For a number of years, the ionospheric electron content (IEC) over the Indian subcontinent has been determined on the basis of the Faraday rotation of satellite radio beacon transmissions. In these determinations, use was made of the orbiting satellites BE-B and BE-C, and, for a limited period, of the geostationary satellite ATS 6. A large variability in day-to-day values of IEC was reported, and it was tried to correlate this phenomenon with magnetic activity, solar flux, or the effect of neutral winds. Tyagi (1978) observed that the day-to-day changes in IEC occur in the form of single day abnormality, and alternate day abnormality. Long-term fluctuations were found with a periodicity of about 45 days. The present investigation is concerned with a more detailed study of the observed variations. An analysis is conducted of IEC data recorded during the low phase of the solar cycle, taking into account data from six low-latitude stations covering a latitude range from approximately 15.0 deg N to 30.0 deg N.

  11. Post-translational control of collagen fibrillogenesis in mineralizing cultures of chick osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerstenfeld, L. C.; Riva, A.; Hodgens, K.; Eyre, D. R.; Landis, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Cultured osteoblasts from chick embryo calvaria were used as a model system to investigate the post-translational extracellular mechanisms controlling the macroassembly of collagen fibrils. The results of these studies demonstrated that cultured osteoblasts secreted a collagenous extracellular matrix that assembled and mineralized in a defined temporal and spatial sequence. The assembly of collagen occurred in a polarized fashion, such that successive orthogonal arrays of fibrils formed between successive cell layers proceeding from the culture surface toward the media. Mineralization followed in the same manner, being observed first in the deepest and oldest fibril layers. Collagen fibrillogenesis, the kinetics of cross-link formation, and collagen stability in the extracellular matrix of the cultures were examined over a 30 day culture period. Between days 8 and 12 in culture, collagen fibril diameters increased from < 30 nm to an average of 30-45 nm. Thereafter, diameters ranged in size from 20 to 200 nm. Quantitation of the collagen cross-linking residues, hydroxylysyl pyridinoline (HP) and lysyl pyridinoline (LP), showed that these mature cross-links increased from undetectable levels to concentrations found in normal chick bone. Analysis of the kinetics of their formation by pulse-chase labeling the cultures with [3H]lysine showed a doubling time of approximately 5 days. The relationships between cross-link formation, fibrillogenesis, and collagen stability were examined in cultures treated with beta-aminopropionitrile (beta-APN), a potent inhibitor of lysyl oxidase and cross-link formation. In beta-APN-treated cultures, total collagen synthesis was increased twofold, with no change in mRNA levels for type I collagen, whereas the amount of collagen accumulated in the cell layer was decreased by 50% and mineral deposition was reduced. The rate of collagen retention in the matrix was assessed by pulse-chase analysis of [3H]proline over a 16 day period in

  12. Myth or Truth: Independence Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Traci

    Most Americans think of the Fourth of July as Independence Day, but is it really the day the U.S. declared and celebrated independence? By exploring myths and truths surrounding Independence Day, this lesson asks students to think critically about commonly believed stories regarding the beginning of the Revolutionary War and the Independence Day…

  13. The 4 Day School Week

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dam, Ai

    2006-01-01

    Colorado law requires school districts to schedule 1080 hours per year of instructional time for secondary schools and 990 instructional hours for elementary schools. The 1080 hours equate to six hours per day for 180 days. The 990 hours equate to five and one-half hours per day. Up to 24 hours may be counted for parent-teacher conferences, staff…

  14. Perspectives on Infant Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elardo, Richard, E.; Pagan, Betty, Ed.

    These proceedings of the first annual SACUS workshop on infant day care contain the papers presented at the conference, plus an appendix--Developmental Objectives for Infants and Toddlers. The papers are: "Infant Day Care--Fads, Facts, and Fancies" by Bettye M. Caldwell; "Family Day Care""A Broad Perspective" by Malcolm S. Host; "Getting…

  15. National Trails Day. Project SEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Mark

    This paper describes how a school district in Maine implemented an outdoor education program centered around National Trails Day (a day of awareness of outdoor recreational areas in the United States). The program combined classroom learning with an all-day hike on the Appalachian Trail by 240 seventh-grade students. Numerous teachers, school…

  16. Family Day Care Provider Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of Children and Family Services, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Family day care providers are responsible for creating a high-quality program where children have opportunities to grow, learn and thrive. Part of providing high-quality child care includes complying with the family day care regulations from the New York State Office of Children and Family Services (OCFS). This Handbook will help day care…

  17. Safeguards Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  18. Retinal ganglion cells are autonomous circadian oscillators synthesizing N-acetylserotonin during the day.

    PubMed

    Garbarino-Pico, Eduardo; Carpentieri, Agata R; Contin, Maria A; Sarmiento, María I Keller; Brocco, Marcela A; Panzetta, Pedro; Rosenstein, Ruth E; Caputto, Beatriz L; Guido, Mario E

    2004-12-01

    Retinal ganglion cells send visual and circadian information to the brain regarding the environmental light-dark cycles. We investigated the capability of retinal ganglion cells of synthesizing melatonin, a highly reliable circadian marker that regulates retinal physiology, as well as the capacity of these cells to function as autonomous circadian oscillators. Chick retinal ganglion cells presented higher levels of melatonin assessed by radioimmunoassay during both the subjective day in constant darkness and the light phase of a light-dark cycle. Similar changes were observed in mRNA levels and activity of arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase, a key enzyme in melatonin biosynthesis, with the highest levels of both parameters during the subjective day. These daily variations were preceded by the elevation of cyclic-AMP content, the second messenger involved in the regulation of melatonin biosynthesis. Moreover, cultures of immunopurified retinal ganglion cells at embryonic day 8 synchronized by medium exchange synthesized a [3H]melatonin-like indole from [3H]tryptophan. This [3H]indole was rapidly released to the culture medium and exhibited a daily variation, with levels peaking 8 h after synchronization, which declined a few hours later. Cultures of embryonic retinal ganglion cells also showed self-sustained daily rhythms in arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase mRNA expression during at least three cycles with a period near 24 h. These rhythms were also observed after the application of glutamate. The results demonstrate that chick retinal ganglion cells may function as autonomous circadian oscillators synthesizing a melatonin-like indole during the day. PMID:15448149

  19. Reduced expression of granule proteins during extended survival of eosinophils in splenocyte culture with GM-CSF.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Seul Hye; Na, Hye Young; Sohn, Moah; Han, Sun Murray; Choi, Wanho; In, Hyunju; Hong, Sookyung; Jeon, Hyejin; Seo, Jun-Young; Ahn, Jongcheol; Park, Chae Gyu

    2016-05-01

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a multifaceted hematopoietic cytokine and the culture of mouse bone marrow with GM-CSF produces a variety of myeloid cells including granulocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. In the present study, we cultured mouse splenocytes with GM-CSF and examined the changes in hematopoietic cell populations over a week. Most of the splenic hematopoietic cells disappeared significantly from culture within 6days with or without the presence of GM-CSF. Among the splenic granulocyte populations, only eosinophils fully survived throughout the culture with GM-CSF for more than a week. During 10days of culture with GM-CSF, splenic eosinophils maintained their morphology as well as most of their surface molecules at high levels, including CCR3 and Siglec F. Meanwhile, the expression of mRNAs encoding major basic protein-1 (MBP-1) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), two major eosinophil-derived granule proteins, was diminished significantly from the cultured eosinophils. EPO assays also revealed that eosinophils in culture for more than 5days retained 30% or less EPO activity compared to those in uncultured splenocytes. In contrast, culture of splenocytes with GM-CSF did not change the capacity of eosinophils to migrate in response to eotaxin-1. Our results indicate that mouse splenic eosinophils are effectively cultured for lengthy periods while their expression of eosinophil-derived granule proteins is specifically suppressed. The relevance of these findings to eosinophilic inflammatory response is discussed. PMID:26969350

  20. The Effects of Fibroblast Co-Culture and Activin A on in vitro Growth of Mouse Preantral Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Karimpour Malekshah, Abbasali; Heidari, Mahmoud; Parivar, Kazem; Azami, Nasrin Sadat

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was conducted to evaluate fibroblast co-culture and Activin A on in vitro maturation and fertilization of mouse preantral follicles. Methods: The ovaries from 12-14-day-old mice were dissected, and 120-150 μm preantral follicles were cultured individually in α-MEM as based medium for 12 days. A total number of 456 follicles were cultured in four conditions: (i) base medium as control group (n = 113), (ii) base medium supplemented with 30 ng/ml Activin A (n = 115), (iii) base medium co-cultured with mouse embryonic fibroblast (n = 113), and (iv) base medium supplemented with 30 ng/ml Activin A and co-cultured with fibroblast (n = 115). Rate of growth, survivability, antrum formation, ovulation, embryonic development and steroid production were evaluated. Analysis of Variance and Duncan test were applied for analyzing. Results: Both co-culture and co-culture + Activin A groups showed significant difference (P<0.05) in growth (on days 4, 6, and 8 of culture period) and survival rates. However, there was no significant difference in antrum formation, ovulation rate, and embryonic development of ovulated oocytes. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in the estradiol production on days 8, 10, and 12 between co-culture + Activin A and the control group. Progesterone production also was significant (P<0.05) in co-culture + Activin A group on days 6, 8, 10, and 12 compared to control group. Conclusion: Fibroblast co-culture and Activin A promoted growth and survivability of preantral follicles. However, simultaneous use of them was more efficient. PMID:24375163

  1. Learning Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David

    Adult and continuing education in the arts can and does play a role in the development of cultural identity. Dimensions of culture include ethnicity, location, age, social class, and time. This definition of culture leads to the conclusion that cultures are generally small and are dynamic rather than static. Research shows that individuals in what…

  2. Culture matters.

    PubMed

    Arif, Zeba

    Zebaa Arif reflects on changes during her career as a mental health nurse in relation to cultural care issues: Cultural awareness is becoming embedded in patient care. All aspects of care are influenced by cultural beliefs and should form part of assessment. Leadership is essential in influencing cultural care, as is organisational commitment. PMID:16262169

  3. Study of the Half-Day/Full-Day Kindergarten Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInroy, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    This case study and problem analysis was an in-depth investigation of the half-day/full-day kindergarten model by utilizing interviews and focus groups to provide insight from parents, teachers, and other district personnel as to how the model has impacted the social, emotional, and academic development of the participating students. This study…

  4. Rethinking the Day of Silence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Back in 2006, 7th and 8th graders at Green Acres, the K-8 independent school where the author taught in suburban Maryland, participated in the Day of Silence. The Day of Silence is a national event: Students across the country take a one-day pledge of silence to show that they want to make schools safe for all students, regardless of their sexual…

  5. Sun-Earth Day, 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Mortfield, P.; Hathaway, D. H.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To promote awareness of the Sun-Earth connection, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, in collaboration with the Stanford SOLAR Center, sponsored a one-day Sun-Earth Day event on April 27, 2001. Although "celebrated" on only one day, teachers and students from across the nation, prepared for over a month in advance. Workshops were held in March to train teachers. Students performed experiments, results of which were shared through video clips and an internet web cast. Our poster includes highlights from student experiments (grades 2 - 12), lessons learned from the teacher workshops and the event itself, and plans for Sun-Earth Day 2002.

  6. A Well-Controlled Nucleus Pulposus Tissue Culture System with Injection Port for Evaluating Regenerative Therapies.

    PubMed

    Arkesteijn, Irene T M; Mouser, Vivian H M; Mwale, Fackson; van Dijk, Bart G M; Ito, Keita

    2016-05-01

    In vitro evaluation of nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue regeneration would be useful, but current systems for NP culture are not ideal for injections. The aim of this study was to develop a long-term culture system for NP tissue that allows injections of regenerative agents. Bovine caudal NPs were harvested and placed in the newly designed culture system. After equilibration of the tissue to 0.3 MPa the volume was fixed and the tissue was cultured for 28 days. The cell viability and extracellular matrix composition remained unchanged during the culture period and gene expression profiles were similar to those obtained in earlier studies. Furthermore, to test the responsiveness of bovine caudal NPs in the system, samples were cultured for 4 days and injected twice (day 1 and 3) with (1) PBS, (2) Link-N, for regeneration, and (3) TNF-α, for degeneration. It was shown that TNF-α increased COX2 gene expression, whereas no effect of Link-N was detected. In conclusion, the newly designed system allows long-term culture of NP tissue, wherein tissue reactions to injected stimulants can be observed. PMID:26294008

  7. Effect of medium osmotic potential on callus induction and shoot regeneration in flax anther culture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yurong; Dribnenki, Paul

    2004-11-01

    Development of an efficient and cost-effective doubled haploid production system in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is the prerequisite for the application of doubled haploid technology in a practical breeding program. Pre-culture of anthers on a medium containing 15% sucrose for 2-7 days before transfer to the same medium containing 6% sucrose for a total of 28 days culture period significantly increased shoot regeneration for all four genotypes evaluated. Moreover, pre-culture of anthers on medium containing 15% sucrose for 2-7 days was sufficient to dramatically reduce the frequency of shoot regeneration from somatic tissues and thereby to increase the frequency of microspore-derived plants in flax anther culture. Furthermore, replacing 15% sucrose with 6% sucrose and 9% polyethylene glycol (PEG), or 3% sucrose and 12% PEG, in pre-culture medium did not significantly affect callus induction and shoot regeneration. The results indicate that sucrose may act as carbon/energy source as well as an osmotic regulator in flax anther culture. Sucrose as an osmotic regulator may be replaced by a non-metabolizable osmoticum: PEG. The implication of this study in flax anther culture and breeding is discussed. PMID:15235814

  8. The culture of care within psychiatric services: tackling inequalities and improving clinical and organisational capabilities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Cultural Consultation is a clinical process that emerged from anthropological critiques of mental healthcare. It includes attention to therapeutic communication, research observations and research methods that capture cultural practices and narratives in mental healthcare. This essay describes the work of a Cultural Consultation Service (ToCCS) that improves service user outcomes by offering cultural consultation to mental health practitioners. The setting is a psychiatric service with complex and challenging work located in an ethnically diverse inner city urban area. Following a period of 18 months of cultural consultation, we gather the dominant narratives that emerged during our evaluation of our service. Results These narratives highlight how culture is conceptualized and acted upon in the day-to-day practices of individual health and social care professionals, specialist psychiatric teams and in care systems. The findings reveal common narratives and themes about culture, ethnicity, race and their perceived place and meaningfulness in clinical care. These narratives express underlying assumptions and covert rules for managing, and sometimes negating, dilemmas and difficulties when considering “culture” in the presentation and expression of mental distress. The narratives reveal an overall “culture of understanding cultural issues” and specific “cultures of care”. These emerged as necessary foci of intervention to improve service user outcomes. Conclusion Understanding the cultures of care showed that clinical and managerial over-structuring of care prioritises organisational proficiency, but it leads to inflexibility. Consequently, the care provided is less personalised and less accommodating of cultural issues, therefore, professionals are unable to see or consider cultural influences in recovery. PMID:23020856

  9. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R.; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors. PMID:26365061

  10. Ear drainage culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... to a lab and placed on a special dish (culture media). The lab team checks the dish every day to see if bacteria, fungi, or ... Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD ...

  11. Day Care Infection Control Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seattle-King County Dept. of Public Health, Seattle, WA.

    This day care infection control manual was assembled to provide technical guidance for the prevention and control of communicable diseases to child day care facilities in Seattle and King County, Washington. For each disease, the manual provides background information, public health control recommendations, and letters that can be used to…

  12. Youth Field Day Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    Youth field days expose children to outdoor activities, land use ethics, and habitat conservation and encourage adults to be mentors in these areas. A typical youth field day could have programs in archery, fishing, boating, shooting, or safety. The event requires a diverse steering committee that usually includes sporting clubs and state…

  13. Day Care Center Enrichment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Dept. of Welfare, Charleston.

    This guide to a West Virginia Department of Welfare project for upgrading the quality of day care centers throughout the state presents samples of the forms used in the program, accompanied by a brief description of the program's format, requirements and procedures. The Day Care Center Enrichment Program provides a monetary incentive for…

  14. Day Care for America's Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCrosse, E. Robert

    High quality day care is a pressing social need for the 1970's. Factors responsible for the strong interest in day care include pressures for welfare reform, the growing number of women in the labor force, minority pressures for equal opportunities, and research findings stressing the importance of development during the early years of a child's…

  15. In Defense of Snow Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    In snowy climates, school superintendents must frequently decide whether an impending storm warrants closing schools for the day. Concerns about student and teacher safety must be weighed against the loss of student learning time, along with state requirements for days of instruction and the cost and inconvenience of extending the school year into…

  16. Montessori All Day, All Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Connie; Davis, Liza

    2015-01-01

    Introducing real community into the Children's House goes back to the roots of Montessori education through all-day Montessori. The all-day environment is a house where children live with a "developmental room" of Montessori materials including a living room, kitchen, dining area, bedroom, bathroom, greeting rooms, and outdoor spaces.…

  17. Day Care and the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Bettye M.

    1981-01-01

    Although it has always been considered the "poor relation" of early childhood education, day care in the public schools is the most effective way of establishing a continuity between the preschool and the elementary school. The Kramer Model of "extended day school" is a cooperative venture between a college and a public school. (JN)

  18. Characterization of chondrocyte sheets prepared using a co-culture method with temperature-responsive culture inserts.

    PubMed

    Kokubo, Mami; Sato, Masato; Yamato, Masayuki; Mitani, Genya; Kutsuna, Toshiharu; Ebihara, Goro; Okano, Teruo; Mochida, Joji

    2016-06-01

    Conventional culture methods using temperature-responsive culture dishes require 4-5 weeks to prepare layered chondrocyte sheets that can be used in articular cartilage repair and regeneration. This study investigated whether the use of synovial tissue obtained from the same joint as the chondrocyte nutritive supply source could more quickly facilitate the preparation of chondrocyte sheets. After culturing derived synoviocytes and chondrocytes together (i.e. combined culture or co-culture) on temperature-responsive inserts, chondrocyte growth was assessed and a molecular analysis of the chondrocyte sheets was performed. Transplantable tissue could be obtained more quickly using this method (average 10.5 days). Real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining of the three-layer chondrocyte sheets confirmed the significant expression of genes critical to cartilage maintenance, including type II collagen (COL2), aggrecan-1 and tissue metallopeptidase inhibitor 1. However, the expression of COL1, matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3), MMP13 and A-disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 5 was suppressed. The adhesive factor fibronectin-1 (FN1) was observed in all sheet layers, whereas in sheets generated using conventional preparation methods positive FN1 immunostaining was observed only on the surface of the sheets. The results indicate that synoviocyte co-cultures provide an optimal environment for the preparation of chondrocyte sheets for tissue transplantation and are particularly beneficial for shortening the required culture period. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23868865

  19. Long term organ culture of human prostate tissue in a NASA-designed rotating wall bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margolis, L.; Hatfill, S.; Chuaqui, R.; Vocke, C.; Emmert-Buck, M.; Linehan, W. M.; Duray, P. H.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To maintain ex vivo integral prostatic tissue including intact stromal and ductal elements using the NASA-designed Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) which maintains colocalized cells in an environment that promotes both three-dimensional cellular interactions together with the uniform mass transfer of nutrients and metabolic wastes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples of normal prostate were obtained as a byproduct of transurethral prostatectomy or needle biopsy. Prostatic tissue dissected into small 1 x 1 mm. blocks was cultured in the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) Bioreactor for various time periods and analyzed using histological, immunochemical, and total cell RNA assays. RESULTS: We report the long term maintenance of benign explanted human prostate tissue grown in simple culture medium, under the simulated microgravity conditions afforded by the RWV bioreactor. Mesenchymal stromal elements including blood vessels and architecturally preserved tubuloglandular acini were maintained for a minimum of 28 days. Cytokeratins, vimentin and TGF-beta2 receptor and ligand were preserved through the entire culture period as revealed by immunocytochemistry. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) was continuously expressed during the culture period, although somewhat decreased. Prostatic specific antigen (PSA) and its transcript were down regulated over time of culture. Prostatic carcinoma cells from the TSU cell line were able to invade RWV-cultured benign prostate tissue explants. CONCLUSIONS: The RWV bioreactor represents an additional new technology for culturing prostate tissue for further investigations concerning the basic physiology and pathobiology of this clinically important tissue.

  20. 78 FR 29147 - 30-Day Notice and Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ..., 2013 at 78 FR 14807, allowing for OMB review and a 60-day public comment period. No comments were... SECURITY United States Secret Service 30-Day Notice and Request for Comments SUMMARY: The Department of... United States Secret Service, Department of Homeland Security, and sent via electronic mail to...

  1. What is the incubation period for listeriosis?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Listeriosis is a foodborne infection with a low incidence but a high case fatality rate. Unlike common foodborne diseases, the incubation period can be long. The first incubation periods were documented during a large listeriosis outbreak published in 1987 by Linnan and al. in the New England Journal of Medicine (range: 3 days to 70 days). Data on the incubation period of listeriosis are scarce. Our study aim was to estimate precisely the incubation period of listeriosis using available data since 1987. Methods We estimated the incubation period of listeriosis using available published data and data from outbreak investigations carried out by the French National Institute for Public Health Surveillance. We selected cases with an incubation period calculated when a patient had a single exposure to a confirmed food source contaminated by Listeria monocytogenes. Results We identified 37 cases of invasive listeriosis (10 cases with central nervous system involvement (CNS cases), 15 bacteraemia cases and 12 pregnancy-associated cases) and 9 outbreaks with gastroenteritis. The overall median incubation period of invasive listeriosis was 8 days (range: 1–67 days) and differed significantly by clinical form of the disease (p<0.0001). A longer incubation period was observed for pregnancy-associated cases (median: 27.5 days; range: 17–67 days) than for CNS cases (median: 9 days; range: 1–14 days) and for bacteraemia cases (median: 2 days; range: 1–12 days). For gastroenteritis cases, the median incubation period was 24 hours with variation from 6 to 240 hours. Conclusions This information has implications for the investigation of food borne listeriosis outbreaks as the incubation period is used to determine the time period for which a food history is collected. We believe that, for listeriosis outbreaks, adapting the exposure window for documenting patients’ food histories in accordance with the clinical form of infection will facilitate the

  2. Cultural Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Daniel L.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience issues from the apparently incompatible combination of neuroscience and cultural psychology. A brief literature sampling suggests, instead, several preliminary topics that demonstrate proof of possibilities: cultural differences in both lower-level processes (e.g. perception, number representation) and higher-order processes (e.g. inferring others’ emotions, contemplating the self) are beginning to shed new light on both culture and cognition. Candidates for future cultural neuroscience research include cultural variations in the default (resting) network, which may be social; regulation and inhibition of feelings, thoughts, and actions; prejudice and dehumanization; and neural signatures of fundamental warmth and competence judgments. PMID:23874143

  3. Protein-Engineered Hydrogel Encapsulation for 3-D Culture of Murine Cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Chang, David T.; Chai, Renjie; DiMarco, Rebecca; Heilshorn, Sarah C.; Cheng, Alan G.

    2016-01-01

    Hypothesis Elastin-like protein (ELP) hydrogel helps maintain the three-dimensional (3-D) cochlear structure in culture. Background Whole-organ culture of the cochlea is a useful model system facilitating manipulation and analysis of live sensory cells and surrounding nonsensory cells. The precisely organized 3-D cochlear structure demands a culture method that preserves this delicate architecture; however, current methods have not been optimized to serve such a purpose. Methods A protein-engineered ELP hydrogel was used to encapsulate organ of Corti isolated from neonatal mice. Cultured cochleae were immunostained for markers of hair cells and supporting cells. Organ of Corti hair cell and supporting cell density and organ dimensions were compared between the ELP and nonencapsulated systems. These culture systems were then compared with noncultured cochlea. Results After 3 days in vitro, vital dye uptake and immunostaining for sensory and nonsensory cells show that encapsulated cochlea contain viable cells with an organized architecture. In comparison with nonencapsulated cultured cochlea, ELP-encapsulated cochleae exhibit higher densities of hair cells and supporting cells and taller and narrower organ of Corti dimensions that more closely resemble those of noncultured cochleae. However, we found compromised cell viability when the culture period extended beyond 3 days. Conclusion We conclude that the ELP hydrogel can help preserve the 3-D architecture of neonatal cochlea in short-term culture, which may be applicable to in vitro study of the physiology and pathophysiology of the inner ear. PMID:25111520

  4. World Health Day is a day for safer motherhood.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    Every year, April 7 is kept as World Health Day. This year [1998] marks the 50th anniversary of the foundation of WHO. However, the day has a double significance because the theme of this year's World Health Day is safe motherhood. All around the world people will mark this day and remind communities and leaders that there is still much work to be done to make pregnancy and childbirth safer. World leaders in Washington will be doing their part on this day, for without high-level political commitment it is hard to get things done. However, this effort is not just for a day. The whole year is dedicated to the theme of safe motherhood. Please let us know about the initiatives taking place in your country, and do send photographs] We can all do something this year to make things better for women and their newborns. Please send your stories and photos to the Editor, Safe Motherhood (address on back page). As well as the 10 action messages that were developed at the technical consultation to mark the 10th anniversary of the Safe Motherhood Initiative, fact sheets and slides are also available either by writing to WHO or on the Internet. PMID:12293570

  5. How many days are enough? A study of 365 days of pedometer monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kang, Minsoo; Bassett, David R; Barreira, Tiago V; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Ainsworth, Barbara; Reis, Jared P; Strath, Scott; Swartz, Ann

    2009-09-01

    This study was designed to determine the number of days of pedometer monitoring necessary to achieve reliable and valid estimates of a 1-year average of step counts in adults based on either consecutive days (CD) or random days (RD) of data collection. Twenty-three participants (16 women; M age = 38 years, SD = 9.9) wore a Yamax SW 200 pedometer and recorded their step counts for 365 consecutive days. Nine measurement periods of various lengths were selected (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 14, 21, and 30 days). Each measurement period was randomly selected 10 times each for CD and RD from the larger database. For reliability and validity, two-way intraclass correlation coefficients and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) were calculated, respectively. The year-round average was considered the criterion measure of the "true" habitual physical activity. Data were analyzed separately by CD and RD. At least 5 CD or 6 RD were necessary to achieve an ICC of .80. A minimum of 30 CD or 14 RD were necessary to achieve an MAPE lower than 10%. These findings provide researchers and practitioners with useful information to determine appropriate measurement length and the method of data selection based on a desired level of reliability and validity. PMID:19791630

  6. Culture of islets of Langerhans from an infant with intractable neonatal hypoglycemia: cytochemical and radioimmunological studies.

    PubMed

    Ratovo, G; Gespach, C; Hollande, E; Creach, Y; Palevody, C; Rochiccioli, P

    1989-01-01

    Extralobular islet of Langerhans cells were isolated from the pancreas of an infant with intractable neonatal hypoglycemia (nesidioblastosis) by digestion with a mixture of trypsin and collagenase, and subsequent purification on a gradient of fetal calf serum. These islet cells cultured in Eagle's medium containing 20% fetal calf serum formed confluent endocrine cell monolayers within 15 days. These endocrine cells were studied immunocytochemically, and their secretion products were assayed by radioimmunological methods. The large numbers of beta, alpha and delta cells present in the islets before explanation remained functional in the cultures for 30 days. The beta cells secreted large amounts of insulin throughout this period, and secretion was stimulated by raising the glucose concentration in the medium from 5.6 to 16.8 mM. Initially there was little secretion of glucagon, but this increased during the subsequent 10 days in culture. It was not inhibited when the glucose concentration was raised from 5.6 to 16.8 mM. Somastostatin secretion remained stable throughout the period of culture, but tended to rise when the glucose concentration was increased. These results show that the culture of pancreatic cells from infants with nesidioblastosis provides an interesting in vitro system for studying the biological and biochemical characteristics of endocrine cells in the human pancreas. PMID:2698367

  7. Hydrology days chips away at “Culture” barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel-Seytoux, Hubert J.

    John Walton once said, upon embarking on a study of how Los Angeles took water away from Owens Valley, “Community only became a reality when economic and political rights were fought for and partially gained.” He called culture “the system of meanings that people construct in social life and use to guide their action.” Walton's words are true of hydrologists: hydrologists have fought to become a community, but we do not yet have a productive culture. Creating such a culture is what the Hydrology Days meeting is all about.

  8. Lactic Acid Production in a Mixed-Culture Biofilm Reactor †

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Ali; Pometto, Anthony L.; Johnson, Kenneth E.

    1993-01-01

    Novel solid supports, consisting of polypropylene blended with various agricultural materials (pp composite), were evaluated as supports for pure- and mixed-culture continuous lactic acid fermentations in biofilm reactors. Streptomyces viridosporus T7A (ATCC 39115) was used to form a biofilm, and Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus (ATCC 11443) was used for lactic acid production. For mixed-culture fermentations, a 15-day continuous fermentation of S. viridosporus was performed initially to establish the biofilm. The culture medium was then inoculated with L. casei subsp. rhamnosus. For pure-culture fermentation, L. casei subsp. rhamnosus was inoculated directly into the reactors containing sterile pp composite chips. The biofilm reactors containing various pp composite chips were compared with a biofilm reactor containing pure polypropylene chips and with a reactor containing a suspension culture. Continuous fermentation was started, and each flow rate (0.06 to 1.92 ml/min) was held constant for 24 h; steady state was achieved after 10 h. Lactic acid production was determined throughout the 24-h period by high-performance liquid chromatography. Production rates that were two to five times faster than those of the suspension culture (control) were observed for the pure- and mixed-culture bioreactors. Both lactic acid production rates and lactic acid concentrations in the culture medium were consistently higher in mixed-culture than in pure-culture fermentations. Biofilm formation on the chips was detected at harvest by chip clumping and Gram staining. PMID:16348843

  9. A comparison study on airborne particles during haze days and non-haze days in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhenquan; Mu, Yujing; Liu, Yanju; Shao, Longyi

    2013-07-01

    Airborne particles in Beijing during haze days and non-haze days were collected by an eleven-stage cascade impactor (MOUDI 110, MSP, USA), and the mass concentrations and water soluble inorganic ions of the size segregated airborne particles were quantitatively analyzed. PM10 concentrations during haze days ranged from 250.5 to 519.4 μgm(-3) which were about 3-8 times greater than those (ranged from 67.6 to 94.0 μgm(-3)) during non-haze days, and PM1.8 concentrations during haze periods were in the range of 117.6-378.6 μgm(-3) which were 3-14 times higher than those (27.0 to 36.8 μgm(-3)) during non-haze days. In comparison with non-haze days, all water soluble inorganic ions investigated in the airborne particles greatly enhanced during haze days. NH₄(+), NO₃(-) and SO₄(2-) were found to be the dominant water soluble inorganic ions, accounting for 91-95% of the total inorganic ions in PM1.8 during haze days, and 73-81% during non-haze days. The size distributions of SO₄(2-), NO₃(-), Cl(-), K(+) and Na(+) exhibited bimodal types, while single mode was found for NH₄(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). Only with exception of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), all ions were concentrated in fine particles around 0.56-1.0 μm of "droplet mode" during haze days, while 0.32-0.56 μm of "condensation mode" during non-haze days. The extremely high mole ratio (>2) of [NH4(+)]/[SO₄(2-)] during haze days implied that the main form of ammonium in PM1.8 might be (NH4)₂SO₄ and NH₄NO₃. The mass ratio of NO₃(-)/SO₄(2-) was >1 in PM1.8 during haze days and ~1 during non-haze days, indicating that NOx from the vehicle exhaust in Beijing is playing more and more important role on fine particle formation. PMID:23583755

  10. The Ocean Sampling Day Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo; Schnetzer, Julia; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Lehmann, Katja; Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio; Jeanthon, Christian; Rahav, Eyal; Ullrich, Matthias; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar; Polymenakou, Paraskevi; Kotoulas, Giorgos; Siam, Rania; Abdallah, Rehab Z.; Sonnenschein, Eva C.; Cariou, Thierry; O’Gara, Fergal; Jackson, Stephen; Orlic, Sandi; Steinke, Michael; Busch, Julia; Duarte, Bernardo; Caçador, Isabel; Canning-Clode, João; Bobrova, Oleksandra; Marteinsson, Viggo; Reynisson, Eyjolfur; Loureiro, Clara Magalhães; Luna, Gian Marco; Quero, Grazia Marina; Löscher, Carolin R.; Kremp, Anke; DeLorenzo, Marie E.; Øvreås, Lise; Tolman, Jennifer; LaRoche, Julie; Penna, Antonella; Frischer, Marc; Davis, Timothy; Katherine, Barker; Meyer, Christopher P.; Ramos, Sandra; Magalhães, Catarina; Jude-Lemeilleur, Florence; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Wang, Shiao; Poulton, Nicole; Jones, Scott; Collin, Rachel; Fuhrman, Jed A.; Conan, Pascal; Alonso, Cecilia; Stambler, Noga; Goodwin, Kelly; Yakimov, Michael M.; Baltar, Federico; Bodrossy, Levente; Van De Kamp, Jodie; Frampton, Dion M. F.; Ostrowski, Martin; Van Ruth, Paul; Malthouse, Paul; Claus, Simon; Deneudt, Klaas; Mortelmans, Jonas; Pitois, Sophie; Wallom, David; Salter, Ian; Costa, Rodrigo; Schroeder, Declan C.; Kandil, Mahrous M.; Amaral, Valentina; Biancalana, Florencia; Santana, Rafael; Pedrotti, Maria Luiza; Yoshida, Takashi; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ingleton, Tim; Munnik, Kate; Rodriguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Berteaux-Lecellier, Veronique; Wecker, Patricia; Cancio, Ibon; Vaulot, Daniel; Bienhold, Christina; Ghazal, Hassan; Chaouni, Bouchra; Essayeh, Soumya; Ettamimi, Sara; Zaid, El Houcine; Boukhatem, Noureddine; Bouali, Abderrahim; Chahboune, Rajaa; Barrijal, Said; Timinouni, Mohammed; El Otmani, Fatima; Bennani, Mohamed; Mea, Marianna; Todorova, Nadezhda; Karamfilov, Ventzislav; ten Hoopen, Petra; Cochrane, Guy; L’Haridon, Stephane; Bizsel, Kemal Can; Vezzi, Alessandro; Lauro, Federico M.; Martin, Patrick; Jensen, Rachelle M.; Hinks, Jamie; Gebbels, Susan; Rosselli, Riccardo; De Pascale, Fabio; Schiavon, Riccardo; dos Santos, Antonina; Villar, Emilie; Pesant, Stéphane; Cataletto, Bruno; Malfatti, Francesca; Edirisinghe, Ranjith; Silveira, Jorge A. Herrera; Barbier, Michele; Turk, Valentina; Tinta, Tinkara; Fuller, Wayne J.; Salihoglu, Ilkay; Serakinci, Nedime; Ergoren, Mahmut Cerkez; Bresnan, Eileen; Iriberri, Juan; Nyhus, Paul Anders Fronth; Bente, Edvardsen; Karlsen, Hans Erik; Golyshin, Peter N.; Gasol, Josep M.; Moncheva, Snejana; Dzhembekova, Nina; Johnson, Zackary; Sinigalliano, Christopher David; Gidley, Maribeth Louise; Zingone, Adriana; Danovaro, Roberto; Tsiamis, George; Clark, Melody S.; Costa, Ana Cristina; El Bour, Monia; Martins, Ana M.; Collins, R. Eric; Ducluzeau, Anne-Lise; Martinez, Jonathan; Costello, Mark J.; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Davies, Neil; Field, Dawn; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2015-06-19

    In this study, Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world’s oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and their embedded functional traits.

  11. The ocean sampling day consortium.

    PubMed

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo; Schnetzer, Julia; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Lehmann, Katja; Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio; Jeanthon, Christian; Rahav, Eyal; Ullrich, Matthias; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar; Polymenakou, Paraskevi; Kotoulas, Giorgos; Siam, Rania; Abdallah, Rehab Z; Sonnenschein, Eva C; Cariou, Thierry; O'Gara, Fergal; Jackson, Stephen; Orlic, Sandi; Steinke, Michael; Busch, Julia; Duarte, Bernardo; Caçador, Isabel; Canning-Clode, João; Bobrova, Oleksandra; Marteinsson, Viggo; Reynisson, Eyjolfur; Loureiro, Clara Magalhães; Luna, Gian Marco; Quero, Grazia Marina; Löscher, Carolin R; Kremp, Anke; DeLorenzo, Marie E; Øvreås, Lise; Tolman, Jennifer; LaRoche, Julie; Penna, Antonella; Frischer, Marc; Davis, Timothy; Katherine, Barker; Meyer, Christopher P; Ramos, Sandra; Magalhães, Catarina; Jude-Lemeilleur, Florence; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Wang, Shiao; Poulton, Nicole; Jones, Scott; Collin, Rachel; Fuhrman, Jed A; Conan, Pascal; Alonso, Cecilia; Stambler, Noga; Goodwin, Kelly; Yakimov, Michael M; Baltar, Federico; Bodrossy, Levente; Van De Kamp, Jodie; Frampton, Dion Mf; Ostrowski, Martin; Van Ruth, Paul; Malthouse, Paul; Claus, Simon; Deneudt, Klaas; Mortelmans, Jonas; Pitois, Sophie; Wallom, David; Salter, Ian; Costa, Rodrigo; Schroeder, Declan C; Kandil, Mahrous M; Amaral, Valentina; Biancalana, Florencia; Santana, Rafael; Pedrotti, Maria Luiza; Yoshida, Takashi; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ingleton, Tim; Munnik, Kate; Rodriguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Berteaux-Lecellier, Veronique; Wecker, Patricia; Cancio, Ibon; Vaulot, Daniel; Bienhold, Christina; Ghazal, Hassan; Chaouni, Bouchra; Essayeh, Soumya; Ettamimi, Sara; Zaid, El Houcine; Boukhatem, Noureddine; Bouali, Abderrahim; Chahboune, Rajaa; Barrijal, Said; Timinouni, Mohammed; El Otmani, Fatima; Bennani, Mohamed; Mea, Marianna; Todorova, Nadezhda; Karamfilov, Ventzislav; Ten Hoopen, Petra; Cochrane, Guy; L'Haridon, Stephane; Bizsel, Kemal Can; Vezzi, Alessandro; Lauro, Federico M; Martin, Patrick; Jensen, Rachelle M; Hinks, Jamie; Gebbels, Susan; Rosselli, Riccardo; De Pascale, Fabio; Schiavon, Riccardo; Dos Santos, Antonina; Villar, Emilie; Pesant, Stéphane; Cataletto, Bruno; Malfatti, Francesca; Edirisinghe, Ranjith; Silveira, Jorge A Herrera; Barbier, Michele; Turk, Valentina; Tinta, Tinkara; Fuller, Wayne J; Salihoglu, Ilkay; Serakinci, Nedime; Ergoren, Mahmut Cerkez; Bresnan, Eileen; Iriberri, Juan; Nyhus, Paul Anders Fronth; Bente, Edvardsen; Karlsen, Hans Erik; Golyshin, Peter N; Gasol, Josep M; Moncheva, Snejana; Dzhembekova, Nina; Johnson, Zackary; Sinigalliano, Christopher David; Gidley, Maribeth Louise; Zingone, Adriana; Danovaro, Roberto; Tsiamis, George; Clark, Melody S; Costa, Ana Cristina; El Bour, Monia; Martins, Ana M; Collins, R Eric; Ducluzeau, Anne-Lise; Martinez, Jonathan; Costello, Mark J; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A; Gilbert, Jack A; Davies, Neil; Field, Dawn; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world's oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and their embedded functional traits. PMID:26097697

  12. Developing Multicultural Awareness: An In-service Day Proposal for Rend Lake College, Ina, Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rust, Joseph Henry

    Noting that the state of Illinois mandates that community colleges address cultural diversity in their curriculum, this paper presents a proposal for a day-long in-service faculty education program to make faculty aware that cultural diversity exists at Rend Lake College (Illinois). The paper begins with a schedule for the in-service day, offering…

  13. 7 CFR 247.16 - Certification period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.16 Certification period. (a... final day of the month in which eligibility expires (e.g., the last day of the month in which a child... discrimination by race, color, national origin, age, sex, or disability. (Approved by the Office of...

  14. 7 CFR 247.16 - Certification period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.16 Certification period. (a... final day of the month in which eligibility expires (e.g., the last day of the month in which a child... discrimination by race, color, national origin, age, sex, or disability. (Approved by the Office of...

  15. 7 CFR 247.16 - Certification period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.16 Certification period. (a... final day of the month in which eligibility expires (e.g., the last day of the month in which a child... discrimination by race, color, national origin, age, sex, or disability. (Approved by the Office of...

  16. 17 CFR 290.2 - Periodic reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT ACT § 290.2 Periodic reports. (a) Within 45 days after the end of each of its... report of the EBRD to its Board of Governors shall be filed with the Commission within 10 days after the submission of such report to the Board of Governors....

  17. Development of 3D hydrogel culture systems with on-demand cell separation.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Sharon K; Bloodworth, Nathaniel C; Massad, Christopher S; Hammoudi, Taymour M; Suri, Shalu; Yang, Peter J; Lu, Hang; Temenoff, Johnna S

    2013-04-01

    Recently there has been an increased interest in the effects of paracrine signaling between groups of cells, particularly in the context of better understanding how stem cells contribute to tissue repair. Most current 3D co-culture methods lack the ability to effectively separate two cell populations after the culture period, which is important for simultaneously analyzing the reciprocal effects of each cell type on the other. Here, we detail the development of a 3D hydrogel co-culture system that allows us to culture different cell types for up to 7 days and subsequently separate and isolate the different cell populations using enzyme-sensitive glues. Separable 3D co-culture laminates were prepared by laminating PEG-based hydrogels with enzyme-degradable hydrogel adhesives. Encapsulated cell populations exhibited good segregation with well-defined interfaces. Furthermore, constructs can be separated on-demand upon addition of the appropriate enzyme, while cell viability remains high throughout the culture period, even after laminate separation. This platform offers great potential for a variety of basic cell signaling studies as the incorporation of an enzyme-sensitive adhesive interface allows the on-demand separation of individual cell populations for immediate analysis or further culture to examine persistence of co-culture effects and paracrine signaling on cell populations. PMID:23447378

  18. Familial Periodic Paralyses

    MedlinePlus

    ... NINDS NINDS Familial Periodic Paralyses Information Page Synonym(s): Periodic Paralyses Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Familial Periodic Paralyses? Is there any treatment? What is the ...

  19. Culturing Protozoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)

  20. Repellent Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    Considers defining "culture," noting how it is difficult to define because those individuals defining it cannot separate themselves from it. Relates these issues to student writing and their writing improvement. Addresses violence in relation to culture. (SG)

  1. Cultural practices updates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultural practice updates from 2013 included the effects of shredding in spring, residue management, periodic flooding, no-till fertilizer applications, and billet planting on cane tonnage and sugar yield. Shredding, whether high or low, had little impacts in 2013. However, burning following shreddi...

  2. AeroSpace Days 2013

    NASA Video Gallery

    At the eighth annual AeroSpace Days, first mom in space, Astronaut AnnaFisher, and Sen. Louise Lucas, interacted with students from Mack BennJr. Elementary School in Suffolk, Va. through NASA’s...

  3. Earth Day Illustrated Haiku Contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-02-01

    As part of their 2007 Chemists Celebrate Earth Day Celebration, the American Chemical Society is sponsoring an illustrated haiku contest for students in grades K 12 around the theme, Recycling—Chemistry Can!

  4. Culture Clubs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gersten, Bridget Fitzgerald

    1998-01-01

    One way to break down barriers and promote understanding among English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and mainstream students is to establish culture clubs. Culture clubs involve frequent exchange of information about social, academic, and cultural topics in extracurricular settings. They are a critical component of ESL programs. The article explains…

  5. Teaching Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magrath, Douglas R.

    The study of a foreign language is the study of another culture. Cultural involvement begins as learners progress from grammar to the actual use of language. Culture includes the ideas, customs, skills, arts, and tools of a people and influences both cognitive and affective behavior. It should be introduced as part of the total language…

  6. Go-To-Blazes Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Ross

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: Last year, the Bruce Trail Association held its first annual Go-To-Blazes Day in which a record number of volunteers gave the 700 kilometres of Trail from Queenston to Tobermory a spring-cleaning. One key section of Trail near Dyer's Bay had been closed for over a year. On this day, over four miles…

  7. Lightcurve and period determination for 582 Olympia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, David; Menke, John; Pozzoli, Valentino; Sheridan, Edwin; Dymock, Roger

    2004-03-01

    Minor planet 582 Olympia was observed over a period of 40 days from 9 February to 20 March 2003. More than 3000 data points from 42 sessions were obtained by 5 observers. The lightcurve obtained shows a rotational (synodic) period of 72.0 ± 0.5 hrs with amplitude of 0.20 ± 0.05 mag.

  8. 7 CFR 1.417 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... days after the comment period, pursuant to 36 CFR 233.190(h)(2). The request must be postmarked no... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Review period. 1.417 Section 1.417 Agriculture Office... of Sourcing Area Applications and Formal Review of Sourcing Areas Pursuant to the Forest...

  9. Degradation of Ti-6Al-4V alloy under cyclic loading in a simulated body environment with cell culturing.

    PubMed

    Doi, Kotaro; Miyabe, Sayaka; Tsuchiya, Hiroaki; Fujimoto, Shinji

    2016-03-01

    The present study reports the corrosion fatigue of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy using cyclic deformation test in a simulated body fluid under cell culturing for the first time. Cyclic deformation tests were carried out using three types of specimens to reveal the effects of proteins and cells on the corrosion fatigue of the alloy. For the 1-day-immersed and 1-week-immersed specimens, tensile specimens were soaked in a simulated body fluid for 1 day and 1 week, respectively, before cyclic deformation test, whereas for the cell-cultured specimen, MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells were seeded and then cultured on tensile specimens for 1 week. The incubation period for crack initiation was longer for the cell-cultured and 1-week-immersed specimens compared to that for the 1-day-immersed specimen. On the other hand, crack propagation period for the cell-cultured and 1-week-immersed specimens was shorter than that for the 1-day-immersed specimen. These results indicate that proteins and cells adhered on the alloy surface inhibit metal dissolution at newly created surface emerged by cyclic deformation to suppress crack initiation, whereas they accelerate crack propagation because dissolution at crack tip is accelerated in the occluded space formed under proteins and cells. PMID:26651063

  10. Antarctica Day: An International Celebration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, A.; Hambrook Berkman, J.; Berkman, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    For more than half a century, the 1959 Antarctic Treaty continues to shine as a rare beacon of international cooperation. To celebrate this milestone of peace in our civilization with hope and inspiration for future generations, Antarctica Day is celebrated each year on December 1st , the anniversary of the Antarctic Treaty signing. As an annual event - initiated by the Foundation for the Good Governance of International Spaces (www.internationalspaces.org/) in collaboration with the Association of Polar Early Carer Scientists (www.apecs.is) - Antarctica Day encourages participation from around the world. The Antarctic Treaty set aside 10% of the earth, 'forever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes in the interest of mankind.' It was the first nuclear arms agreement and the first institution to govern all human activities in an international region beyond sovereign jurisdictions. In this spirit, Antarctica Day aims to: - Demonstrate how diverse nations can work together peacefully, using science as a global language of cooperation for decision making beyond national boundaries, - Provide strategies for students learning about Antarctica through art, science and history at all school levels, - Increase collaboration and communication between classrooms, communities, researchers and government officials around the world, and - Provide a focus for polar educators to build on each year. Through close collaboration with a number of partners. Antarctica Day activities have included: a Polar Film Festival convened by The Explorers Club; live sessions connecting classrooms with scientists in Antarctica thanks to PolarTREC and ARCUS; an international activity that involved children from 13 countries who created over 600 flags which exemplify Antarctica Day (these were actually flown in Antarctica with signed certificates then returned to the classes); a map where Antarctica Day participants all over the world could share what they were doing; an Antarctic bird count

  11. A Day at the Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubel, Joy Alter

    2009-01-01

    The school field trip, once a supporting player in a well-rounded education, is slowly becoming endangered. Widespread budget cuts have made happily anticipated class trips to museums, zoos, and other cultural destinations increasingly scarce. A librarian may be able to rescue the field trip from extinction by transforming the school building into…

  12. New Swedish Cultural Environment Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs, Stockholm (Sweden).

    Current Swedish cultural policy was laid down in 1974. It was decided that one of the aims of that policy must be to ensure that earlier periods of history would be preserved and brought to life. The Government Bill (Prop. 1987/88:104) on protection of the cultural environment is concerned with helping the general public understand that cultural…

  13. Cultural Awareness: A Resource Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Velma E.; McNeill, Earldene

    This annotated bibliography cites books for children and resource materials such as books and articles, bibliographies, catalogs, and periodicals for adults which deal with various aspects of different cultures. Posters, pictures, records, films, filmstrips, slides, dolls, and museums which pertain to particular cultures are also listed. Separate…

  14. Specimen Sample Preservation for Cell and Tissue Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeker, Gabrielle; Ronzana, Karolyn; Schibner, Karen; Evans, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The era of the International Space Station with its longer duration missions will pose unique challenges to microgravity life sciences research. The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) is responsible for addressing these challenges and defining the science requirements necessary to conduct life science research on-board the International Space Station. Space Station will support a wide range of cell and tissue culture experiments for durations of 1 to 30 days. Space Shuttle flights to bring experimental samples back to Earth for analyses will only occur every 90 days. Therefore, samples may have to be retained for periods up to 60 days. This presents a new challenge in fresh specimen sample storage for cell biology. Fresh specimen samples are defined as samples that are preserved by means other than fixation and cryopreservation. The challenge of long-term storage of fresh specimen samples includes the need to suspend or inhibit proliferation and metabolism pending return to Earth-based laboratories. With this challenge being unique to space research, there have not been any ground based studies performed to address this issue. It was decided hy SSBRP that experiment support studies to address the following issues were needed: Fixative Solution Management; Media Storage Conditions; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Mammalian Cell/Tissue Cultures; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Plant Cell/Tissue Cultures; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Aquatic Cell/Tissue Cultures; and Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Microbial Cell/Tissue Cultures. The objective of these studies was to derive a set of conditions and recommendations that can be used in a long duration microgravity environment such as Space Station that will permit extended storage of cell and tissue culture specimens in a state consistent with zero or minimal growth, while at the same time maintaining their stability and viability.

  15. AAS 228: Day 2 morning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 228th AAS Meeting in San Diego, CA. Along with a team ofauthors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting twiceeach day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Plenary Session (Day 1) The Galaxy Zoo(by Benny Tsang)Galaxy Zoo was so hot that the servers hosting the galaxy images got melted down soon after being launched.Kevin Schawinski from ETH Zurich took us on a tour ofhis wonderful Galaxy Zoo. It is a huge zoo with about a quarter million zookeepers, they are citizen astronomers who collaboratively classify galaxies by their looks as an attempt to understand galaxy evolution. The big question that is being answered is: how do blue, actively star-forming galaxies evolve into red, quiescent (non-star-forming) galaxies? The Zoo helped reveal that blue galaxies turn into red galaxies via two possible paths galaxies might run out of supply of gas and shut off star formation slowly; or they could merge with one another and turn off star formation by destroying the gas reservoir rapidly!The Galaxy Zoo project also led to the discoveries of:Green Peas: they are the living fossils of galaxy evolution; compact, bright, green galaxies that are actively forming starsOverlapping galaxies: they are pairs of galaxies that are separated physically but happen to lie on the same line of sight; they provide excellent laboratories for studying dust extinctionHannys Voorwerp: an unusual object named after Hanny the discoverer, which is believed to be the first detection of quasar light echoThe idea of Galaxy Zoo in getting help from citizen scientists was further extended into an award-winningproject known as the Zooniverse, which is an online platform for streamlined crowd-sourcing for scientific research that requires human input. The future of astronomy is going to be

  16. 39 CFR 121.2 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Periodicals. 121.2 Section 121.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT MAIL PRODUCTS § 121.2 Periodicals. (a) End-to-End. (1)(i) Until February 1, 2014, a 2- to 4-day service standard is applied to Periodicals pieces properly...

  17. 20 CFR 336.14 - Extended benefit period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... benefits. In the case of sickness benefits, the beginning date is the first day of sickness after the employee exhausts normal sickness benefits. Such first day of unemployment or first day of sickness must be... sickness benefits, as the case may be. However, no extended benefit period may begin on any day...

  18. 20 CFR 336.14 - Extended benefit period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... benefits. In the case of sickness benefits, the beginning date is the first day of sickness after the employee exhausts normal sickness benefits. Such first day of unemployment or first day of sickness must be... sickness benefits, as the case may be. However, no extended benefit period may begin on any day...

  19. 20 CFR 336.14 - Extended benefit period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the case of sickness benefits, the beginning date is the first day of sickness after the employee exhausts normal sickness benefits. Such first day of unemployment or first day of sickness must be within... sickness benefits, as the case may be. However, no extended benefit period may begin on any day...

  20. 20 CFR 336.14 - Extended benefit period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the case of sickness benefits, the beginning date is the first day of sickness after the employee exhausts normal sickness benefits. Such first day of unemployment or first day of sickness must be within... sickness benefits, as the case may be. However, no extended benefit period may begin on any day...

  1. 20 CFR 336.14 - Extended benefit period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... benefits. In the case of sickness benefits, the beginning date is the first day of sickness after the employee exhausts normal sickness benefits. Such first day of unemployment or first day of sickness must be... sickness benefits, as the case may be. However, no extended benefit period may begin on any day...

  2. Giving Thanks: Observing Thanksgiving, Kwanzaa, and Day of the Dead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dever, Martha T.; Barta, James J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a primary-grade curriculum unit organized around the theme of "giving thanks" and encompassing the holidays of Thanksgiving, Kwanzaa, and Day of the Dead. Provides historical background and cultural context for each holiday, engagement activities, investigation activities, sharing activities, and a short list of related children's…

  3. The Wounded Bear: A Modern Day Medicine Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagleheart, Shianne

    2002-01-01

    In Native American culture, medicine stories are used to teach important lessons that have healing effects on the listener. Following is an excerpt from "The Wounded Bear", a modern day medicine story. The story offers a blueprint for healing the heartbreak and violence in our communities. (Author)

  4. In the Schools: California Treat: Three Days in Five Ecosystems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigby, Jennifer A.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a 3-day program sponsored by the Orange County Marine Institute that provides biological, cultural, and historical learning experiences. Discusses the setting and activities of the five ecosystems explored by the students. The Chaparral to Ocean Science Camp includes chaparral, riparian, woodland, intertidal, and pelagic environments.…

  5. Day-to-day repeatability of the Pulse Time Index of Norm

    PubMed Central

    Posokhov, Igor N; Konradi, Aleksandra O; Shlyakhto, Eugeny V; Mamontov, Oleg V; Orlov, Artemy V; Rogoza, Anatoly N

    2014-01-01

    The pulse wave velocity (PWV) threshold for hypertensive target organ damage is presently set at 10 meters per second. New 24-hour monitors (eg, BPLab® and Vasotens®) provide several PWV measurements over a period of 24–72 hours. A new parameter, ie, the Pulse Time Index of Norm (PTIN), can be calculated from these data. The PTIN is defined as the percentage of a 24-hour period during which the PWV does not exceed 10 meters per second. The aim of the present study was to test the new PTIN for clinical feasibility using day-to-day repeatability analysis. Oscillometrically generated waveform files (n=85), which were previously used for research studies, were reanalyzed using the new 2013 version software of the Vasotens technology program, which enables calculation of PTIN. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.98 and Cronbach’s alpha was 0.97, indicating that the PTIN has excellent day-to-day repeatability and internal consistency. The present results show adequate repeatability, and PTIN assessment using the Vasotens technology appears to be feasible. PMID:24600253

  6. The day-to-day occurrence of equatorial plasma bubbles measured from Vanimo, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, B. A.; Yizengaw, E.; Francis, M.; Terkildsen, M. B.; Marshall, R. A.; Norman, R.; Zhang, K.

    2013-12-01

    An analysis of the occurrence of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles (EPBs) detected using a ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver located at Vanimo in South-east Asia will be presented. The 3-year (2000-2002) dataset employed shows that the EPB occurrence maximizes (minimizes) during the equinoxes (solstices), in good agreement with previous findings. The low-latitude ionosonde station at Vanimo is used in conjunction with the GPS receiver in an analysis of the day-to-day EPB occurrence variability during the equinox period. A superposed epoch analysis of the ionosonde data reveals that the height, and the change in height, of the F layer is 1 standard deviation (1σ) larger on the days for which EPBs were detected, compared to non-EPB days. These results are interpreted using the generalized Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) plasma instability growth rate, for which stronger upward drift of the lower-altitude F-layer plasma promotes faster growth of EPBs after sunset. These results are then compared to the results of the Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamic General Circulation Model (TIEGCM), which surprisingly show strong similarities to the observations, despite only using geomagnetic and solar activity inputs. The TIEGCM is also used to directly calculate the hourly flux-tube integrated R-T growth rate. A superposed epoch analysis reveals that the modeled R-T growth rate is a little less than 1σ higher on average for EPB days compared to non-EPB days. The implication of this result is that the TIEGCM generates almost enough day-to-day variability in order to account for the day-to-day EPB occurrence observed during the equinox. This result isn't necessarily expected due to the model's limited altitude coverage of 100-700 km (depending on solar activity) and the lack of ionospheric observation inputs. It is thought that the remaining variability could originate from either lower altitudes (e.g. atmospheric gravity waves from the troposphere) or from higher

  7. The Ocean Sampling Day Consortium

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo; Schnetzer, Julia; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Lehmann, Katja; Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio; Jeanthon, Christian; Rahav, Eyal; Ullrich, Matthias; et al

    2015-06-19

    In this study, Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world’s oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and theirmore » embedded functional traits.« less

  8. Period doubling in the outer heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.

    1988-01-01

    From approximately July 28 to November 26, 1984, IMP 8 at 1 AU observed quasi-periodic interaction regions in the solar wind characterized by a peak every 13.4 days in the magnetic field strength, plasma density, and temperature, corresponding to an inertial period of 12.5 days. When the same solar wind reached Voyager 2 (which moved from 15.2 to 16.1 AU during the corresponding time interval, September 27, 1984, to January 27, 1985), the enhancements in the magnetic field strength and the plasma density and temperature recurred with a period of approximately 25 days. Thus the period of the large-scale fluctuations in B, N, and T doubled between 1 AU and 15.2 AU. The magnetic field strength increased linearly with the density and the temperature in the Voyager 2 data. The tails of the distributions of B, N, and T in the Voyager 2 data were approximately exponential.

  9. STS-90 Day 06 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this sixth day of the STS-90 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk are back on the job full-time as they begin the day six of on-orbit research on the human nervous system. Additional work with the Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) equipment which is collecting data on the crew's breathing patterns and blood concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide also takes place.

  10. STS-91 Day 08 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this eighth day of the STS-91 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Charles J. Precourt, Pilot Dominic L. Pudwill Gorie and Mission Specialists Wendy B. Lawrence, Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, Janet L. Kavandi, and Valery Victorovitch Ryumin focus on science investigations and participate in several special interviews and phone calls. Following yesterday's undocking with the Russian Mir space station, crew members are given a couple of hours off duty during the day to provide a brief rest break from the hectic pace of their flight.

  11. STS-79 Flight Day 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this seventh day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz, share a brief video tour of the Mir Space Station with flight controllers, taking a break from the transfer activities that has occupied the astronauts' time during three days of docked operations. Readdy and Apt floated through several of Mir's modules and back into Atlantis' double Spacehab module during the tour pointing out the numerous transfer items stowed on both spacecraft. Readdy, Wilcutt, Lucid and Blaha are seen discussing their mission in an interview with CNN's John Holliman.

  12. Effect of Fibroblast Co-culture on In Vitro Maturation and Fertilization of Mouse Preantral Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Mahmoud; Malekshah, Abbasali Karimpour; Parivar, Kazem; Khanbabaei, Ramezan; Rafiei, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate fibroblast co-culture on in vitro maturation and fertilization of prepubertal mouse preantral follicles. Materials and Methods The ovaries of 12-14 day old mice were dissected and 120-150 μm intact preantral follicles with one or two layers of granulosa cells, and round oocytes were cultured individually in α-minimal essential medium (α-MEM) supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 100 mIU/ml recombinant follicle stimulating hormone, 1% insulin, transferrin, selenium mix, 100 μg/ml penicillin and 50 μg/ml streptomycin as base medium for 12 days. A total number of 226 follicules were cultured under two conditions: i) base medium as control group (n=113); ii) base medium co-cultured with mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) (n=113). Follicular diameters, alone, in addition to other factors were analyzed by student’s t-test and chi-square test, respectively. Results The co-culture group showed significant differences (p<0.05) in growth rate (days 4, 6 and 8 of the culture period) and survival rate. However, there was no significant difference in antrum formation, ovulation rate and embryonic development of released oocytes. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in the estradiol and progesterone secretion at all days between the co-culture and control groups. Conclusion Fibroblast co-culture increased survival rate and steroid production of preantral follicles by promoting granulosa cell proliferation. PMID:24917917

  13. Effect of youth culture music on high school students' academic performance.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, J C; Collins, B R

    1975-03-01

    This study investigated the assumption that youth culture orientation adversely affects school performance, using rock music as the youth culture component. Adolescents in grades 9-12 were assigned to a subject matter topic in the area of literature, mathematics, physical science, or social science and requested to study this topic intensely for 30 min in a music condition consisting of rock, classical, or no music. The subjects then were tested on their retention of the factual content of the article either immediately after the study period, 1 day later, or 3 days later. Retention was significantly lower in the rock music condition. Students recalled more content in the literature topic and in the immediate test. The results are discussed with reference to a social learning theory interpretation of youth culture. PMID:24414436

  14. "Every Day He Has a Dream to Tell": Classroom Literacy Curriculum in a Full-Day Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heydon, Rachel; Moffatt, Lyndsay; Iannacci, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Within an era of change to early childhood education and care, this case study of kindergarten classroom literacy curricula sought to understand the production and effects of the curriculum within one urban, Canadian full-day kindergarten that included culturally and linguistically diverse children. Central was a concern for the place of…

  15. Quasi-10-day wave in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Jeffrey M.; Zhang, Xiaoli

    2015-11-01

    In the classical theory of oscillations on a spherical-rotating Earth, the quasi-10-day wave (Q10DW) exists as a westward propagating "free" or "unforced" normal mode oscillation with zonal wave number s = 1. In the present study, we employ Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics/Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry temperature measurements between 20 and 100 km and ±50° latitude, and extending from 2002 to 2013, to provide a comprehensive perspective on the Q10DW as it actually exists in the atmosphere. Climatological seasonal-latitudinal structures are presented which demonstrate that the Q10DW is weakest during summer months and equatorward of ±50° latitude but otherwise has amplitudes ranging from 1.0 K at ˜45 km to ˜5 K at 100 km. Seasonal asymmetries and significant interannual variability also exist. The mean period of the Q10DW is 9.8 days with a standard deviation of about 0.4 day. On average the Q10DW conforms reasonably well with theoretical expectations for a normal mode subject to the effects of dissipation and mean winds, at least below 80 km. Above 80 km this conformity often breaks down. Several factors potentially contributing to this nonconformity are discussed.

  16. Subcortical cytoskeleton periodicity throughout the nervous system.

    PubMed

    D'Este, Elisa; Kamin, Dirk; Velte, Caroline; Göttfert, Fabian; Simons, Mikael; Hell, Stefan W

    2016-01-01

    Superresolution fluorescence microscopy recently revealed a ~190 nm periodic cytoskeleton lattice consisting of actin, spectrin, and other proteins underneath the membrane of cultured hippocampal neurons. Whether the periodic cytoskeleton lattice is a structural feature of all neurons and how it is modified when axons are ensheathed by myelin forming glial cells is not known. Here, STED nanoscopy is used to demonstrate that this structure is a commonplace of virtually all neuron types in vitro. To check how the subcortical meshwork is modified during myelination, we studied sciatic nerve fibers from adult mice. Periodicity of both actin and spectrin was uncovered at the internodes, indicating no substantial differences between unmyelinated and myelinated axons. Remarkably, the actin/spectrin pattern was also detected in glial cells such as cultured oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Altogether our work shows that the periodic subcortical cytoskeletal meshwork is a fundamental characteristic of cells in the nervous system and is not a distinctive feature of neurons, as previously thought. PMID:26947559

  17. Infectious Diseases in Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleator, Esther K.

    Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

  18. A New Day for Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farbman, David

    2007-01-01

    The Martin Luther King School in Boston and nine other Massachusetts public schools used a grant from the Massachusetts Department of Education to expand their school days by at least two hours. Each school lengthened the time students spent in reading and math instruction. Farbman focuses on the Martin Luther King School's foray into an extended…

  19. School's in Session: Visitation Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulbert, Barbara T.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a parent program at Dryden Middle School in New York in which parents attend school for the entire day with their children. Includes information on parent orientation, structure of the visit, and students' reactions to parental visitation. Notes the importance of publicity, preparation, organization, and follow-up activities for program…

  20. From Five Days to Four

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarbrough, Rachel; Gilman, David Alan

    2006-01-01

    Facing financial difficulties, the Webster County Public School System in rural Kentucky implemented a four-day school week to save money on transportation and staffing. The district's research in the experience of other rural districts had indicated that such a calendar change could increase efficiency and also yield some unexpected benefits.…

  1. Experiments for a Special Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Special events like science days, teacher's meetings and physics recruiting efforts require spectacular and, if possible, interactive experiments for the audience. Based on past experience with such events, we have gathered and present here a series of demonstration experiments in mechanics, optics, waves and electricity which are suitable, and…

  2. Take Advantage of Constitution Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, Bonnie F.

    2008-01-01

    The announcement of the mandate for Constitution and Citizenship Day shortly before September, 2005, probably led to groans of dismay. Not another "must-do" for teachers and schools already stressed by federal and state requirements for standardized tests, increasingly rigid curricula, and scrutiny from the public and officials. But the idea and…

  3. United Nations Day, 24 October.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Ken, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Serving as the journal of the Manitoba Social Science Teachers' Association, this issue commemorates United Nations Day with the editorial, "Teaching about the United Nations" (Ken Osborne). Another article devoted to the international organization is "The United Nations and International Peace and Security" (Ken Osborne). The article is intended…

  4. A New Day for Intellectuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delbanco, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Soon after election day, the columnist Nicholas D. Kristof wrote in "The New York Times" that the "second most remarkable thing" about the election was that "American voters have just picked a president who is an open, out-of-the-closet, practicing intellectual." Surely, one of the secrets of President Obama's rhetorical power is his ability to…

  5. Bright Ideas for Dark Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easley, Dauna

    2005-01-01

    In this brief column, the author of "Teachers Touch Eternity," provides 20 tips that teachers can use to motivate themselves and others through the dark days of winter: (1) Fake it till you make it; (2) Allow for spontaneity; (3) Build an encouragement folder; (4) Lighten up! (5) Read motivational books or inspirational thoughts late at night or…

  6. Earth Day Changes in Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Betty; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes recycling related activities associated with the Earth Day celebration at the University School of East Tennessee State University. Activities involve tree planting, campus clean-up, student posters, assemblies, a schoolwide rally, and displays of recyclable items. A study examining attitude change revealed that hands-on activities…

  7. Day Care Management. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourque, Janet

    A curriculum was developed and a pilot project was conducted to train 20 day care center directors at Lake Washington Vocational Technical Institute. This document summarizes the curriculum development project and provides the curriculum that was developed. The report contains a summary and outline of the course, a skills assessment, pretests and…

  8. A Model Disability Awareness Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Emily Strauss

    1984-01-01

    Describes an all-day conciousness raising program designed to teach elementary school students about the disabled. The program described consisted of oral presentations and a theater performance by disabled individuals; it was presented to 270 students at Mary A. Hubbard School in Ramsey, New Jersey. (GC)

  9. Music in Our Schools Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Music Educators Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Article focused attention on the first national Music in Our Schools Day, whose purpose is to stress educational goals and processes of music education in the schools so that community understanding of and support for music education will be increased. (Author/RK)

  10. Giving Students Their School Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watchorn, Vince; Willingham, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Opportunities, not obligations. That is how Providence Country Day School (Rhode Island) characterizes its daily one-hour "Community Time." The block, from 9:25 to 10:25 a.m., is used chiefly for students to partake in activities of their own making--as a daily lesson in the value of students taking charge of their own education. On any…

  11. Make Your Own Snow Day!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robeck, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Children love snow days, even when they come during the warmest weather. In this lesson the snow isn't falling outside, it's in the classroom--thanks to "Snowflake Bentley" (Briggs Martin 1998) and several models of snowflakes. A lesson on snow demonstrates several principles of practice for using models in elementary science. Focusing on snow was…

  12. Governance: Blending Bureaucratic Rules with Day to Day Operational Realities

    PubMed Central

    Chinitz, David P

    2016-01-01

    Richard Saltman and Antonio Duran take up the challenging issue of governance in their article "Governance, Government and the Search for New Provider Models," and use two case studies of health policy changes in Sweden and Spain to shed light on the subject. In this commentary, I seek to link their conceptualization of governance, especially its interrelated roles at the macro, meso, and micro levels of health systems, with the case studies on which they report. While the case studies focus on the shifts in governance between the macro and meso levels and their impacts on achievement of desired policy outcomes, they also highlight the need to better integrate the dynamics of day to day operations within micro organizations into the overall governance picture.

  13. Skin or nail culture

    MedlinePlus

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  14. Description of Day-to-Day Variability in IRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitza, Dieter; Liu, Boding; Rodriguez, Joseph E.

    2013-04-01

    The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) describes the monthly average behavior of Earth's ionosphere based on most of the accessible and reliable ground and space observations of ionospheric parameters. IRI is doing an excellent job in accurately representing these average conditions as countless comparisons with additional data have shown and as acknowledged by the fact that international organizations (COSPAR, URSI, ISO, ECSS) have accepted IRI as their ionosphere standard. However, with our ever-increasing dependence on space technology it has become important to go beyond the monthly averages and to provide a description of the day-to-day variability of the ionosphere. We will review past and ongoing efforts to provide IRI users with a quantitative description of ionospheric variability depending on altitude, time of day, time of year, latitude and solar and magnetic activity. We will present new results from an analysis of ISIS and Alouette topside sounder data. The IRI team is also pursuing the development of an IRI Real-Time (IRI-RT) that uses assimilative algorithms or updating procedures to combine IRI with real-time data for a more accurate picture of current ionospheric conditions. We will review the status of these activities and report on latest results.

  15. Hydroponics or soilless culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, H. D.

    1963-01-01

    Historically, hydroponics is not a new field; plant physiologists have known and used it for some 100 years. Inevitably, some enthusiasts got carried away.Claims were made of enormous potential yields; skyscraper tops were said to be capable of producing enough food for all of their occupants; and closets, basements, garages, etc. were wishfully converted into fields for hydroponic culture. Numerous publications on the subject appeared during this period. Basic requirements for hydropinc techniques are given along with examples of where soilless culture has been used commercially.

  16. Organotypic slice cultures of human gastric and esophagogastric junction cancer.

    PubMed

    Koerfer, Justus; Kallendrusch, Sonja; Merz, Felicitas; Wittekind, Christian; Kubick, Christoph; Kassahun, Woubet T; Schumacher, Guido; Moebius, Christian; Gaßler, Nikolaus; Schopow, Nikolas; Geister, Daniela; Wiechmann, Volker; Weimann, Arved; Eckmann, Christian; Aigner, Achim; Bechmann, Ingo; Lordick, Florian

    2016-07-01

    Gastric and esophagogastric junction cancers are heterogeneous and aggressive tumors with an unpredictable response to cytotoxic treatment. New methods allowing for the analysis of drug resistance are needed. Here, we describe a novel technique by which human tumor specimens can be cultured ex vivo, preserving parts of the natural cancer microenvironment. Using a tissue chopper, fresh surgical tissue samples were cut in 400 μm slices and cultivated in 6-well plates for up to 6 days. The slices were processed for routine histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Cytokeratin stains (CK8, AE1/3) were applied for determining tumor cellularity, Ki-67 for proliferation, and cleaved caspase-3 staining for apoptosis. The slices were analyzed under naive conditions and following 2-4 days in vitro exposure to 5-FU and cisplatin. The slice culture technology allowed for a good preservation of tissue morphology and tumor cell integrity during the culture period. After chemotherapy exposure, a loss of tumor cellularity and an increase in apoptosis were observed. Drug sensitivity of the tumors could be assessed. Organotypic slice cultures of gastric and esophagogastric junction cancers were successfully established. Cytotoxic drug effects could be monitored. They may be used to examine mechanisms of drug resistance in human tissue and may provide a unique and powerful ex vivo platform for the prediction of treatment response. PMID:27073068

  17. 46 CFR 9.9 - Two hours between broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Two hours between broken periods. 9.9 Section 9.9... COMPENSATION FOR OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.9 Two hours between broken periods. Where 2 hours or more intervene between broken periods, one-half day's extra pay will be allowed for each distinct 2-hour period or...

  18. 46 CFR 9.9 - Two hours between broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Two hours between broken periods. 9.9 Section 9.9... COMPENSATION FOR OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.9 Two hours between broken periods. Where 2 hours or more intervene between broken periods, one-half day's extra pay will be allowed for each distinct 2-hour period or...

  19. 46 CFR 9.9 - Two hours between broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Two hours between broken periods. 9.9 Section 9.9... COMPENSATION FOR OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.9 Two hours between broken periods. Where 2 hours or more intervene between broken periods, one-half day's extra pay will be allowed for each distinct 2-hour period or...

  20. 46 CFR 9.9 - Two hours between broken periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Two hours between broken periods. 9.9 Section 9.9... COMPENSATION FOR OVERTIME SERVICES § 9.9 Two hours between broken periods. Where 2 hours or more intervene between broken periods, one-half day's extra pay will be allowed for each distinct 2-hour period or...