Science.gov

Sample records for day culture period

  1. Scheduling: Seven Period Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Driven by stable or declining financial resources many school districts are considering the costs and benefits of a seven-period day. While there is limited evidence that any particular scheduling model has a greater impact on student learning than any other, it is clear that the school schedule is a tool that can significantly impact teacher…

  2. Aim for 55-Day Dry Period for Top Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The research cited in this article determined the optimal dry period length (the number of days between lactations when a cow is not being milked) for US Jersey cows using traits such as milk, fat, and protein yield, fat and protein percentages, somatic cell score, and days open. This was accomplis...

  3. Long-Period Tidal Variations in the Length of Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Erofeeva, Svetlana Y.

    2014-01-01

    A new model of long-period tidal variations in length of day is developed. The model comprises 80 spectral lines with periods between 18.6 years and 4.7 days, and it consistently includes effects of mantle anelasticity and dynamic ocean tides for all lines. The anelastic properties followWahr and Bergen; experimental confirmation for their results now exists at the fortnightly period, but there remains uncertainty when extrapolating to the longest periods. The ocean modeling builds on recent work with the fortnightly constituent, which suggests that oceanic tidal angular momentum can be reliably predicted at these periods without data assimilation. This is a critical property when modeling most long-period tides, for which little observational data exist. Dynamic ocean effects are quite pronounced at shortest periods as out-of-phase rotation components become nearly as large as in-phase components. The model is tested against a 20 year time series of space geodetic measurements of length of day. The current international standard model is shown to leave significant residual tidal energy, and the new model is found to mostly eliminate that energy, with especially large variance reduction for constituents Sa, Ssa, Mf, and Mt.

  4. A 50 day periodicity in the cosmic ray anisotropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fillius, W.; Ip, W.-H.; Axford, I.

    1983-01-01

    A modulation of the anisotropy of relativistic interplanetary particles with a period of approximately 50 days is discussed. Even though it is not unusual for cosmic ray data to reflect the solar rotation frequency and its harmonics with periods of 25/n days (n being 1, 2, 3, . . .), it is not known how a periodicity of 50 days, which would be a subharmonic, is generated. Since the Cerenkov counter responds to all kinds of relativistic particles, it does not identify the particles that cause the 50 day east-west modulation. Jovian electrons are considered unlikely in that they are most abundant near their source, whereas the modulation has never been reported for ground-based neutron monitors. It is pointed out that since the Cerenkov threshold is somewhat lower than typical neutron monitor cutoffs, it is conceivable that the modulation affects nucleons just in this energy gap. It is also thought that there might be a uniformly distributed component of interplanetary electrons which undergo this peculiar modulation.

  5. Cultural Support Workers and Long Day Care Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Melinda G.; Knowles, Meg; Grieshaber, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In Australia, eligible long day care services may apply for support at the state level to assist with the transition of children from culturally or linguistically diverse backgrounds into childcare settings. For staff in childcare services, this support comes in the form of a cultural support worker (CSW). The primary role of a CSW is to build…

  6. Automating Partial Period Bond Valuation with Excel's Day Counting Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicknair, David; Spruell, James

    2009-01-01

    An Excel model for calculating the actual price of bonds under a 30 day/month, 360 day/year day counting assumption by nesting the DAYS360 function within the PV function is developed. When programmed into an Excel spreadsheet, the model can accommodate annual and semiannual payment bonds sold on or between interest dates using six fundamental…

  7. Automating Partial Period Bond Valuation with Excel's Day Counting Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vicknair, David; Spruell, James

    2009-01-01

    An Excel model for calculating the actual price of bonds under a 30 day/month, 360 day/year day counting assumption by nesting the DAYS360 function within the PV function is developed. When programmed into an Excel spreadsheet, the model can accommodate annual and semiannual payment bonds sold on or between interest dates using six fundamental

  8. Sun-Earth Day Connects History, Culture and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, T.; Thieman, J.

    2003-12-01

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education forum annually promotes and event called Sun-Earth Day: a national celebration of the Sun, the space around the Earth (geospace), and how all of it affects life on our planet. For the past 3 years this event has provided a venue by which classrooms, museums, planetaria, and at NASA centers have had a sensational time sharing stories, images, and activities related to the Sun-Earth connections and the views o fthe Sun from Earth. Each year we select a different theme by which NASA Space Science can be further related to cross-curricular activities. Sun-Earth Day 2002, "Celebrate the Equinox", drew parallels between Native American Cultures and NASA's Sun-Earth Connection research via cultural stories, interviews, web links, activities and Native American participation. Sun-Earth Day 2003, "Live From the Aurora", shared the beauty of the Aurora through a variety of activities and stories related to perspectives of Northern Peoples. Sun-Earth Day 2004 will share the excitement of the transit of Venus through comparisons of Venus with Earth and Mars, calculations of the distances to nearby stars, and the use of transits to identify extra-solar planets. Finally, Sun-Earth Day 2005 will bring several of these themes together by turning our focus to the history and culture surrounding ancient observatories such as Chaco Canyon, Machu Picchu, and Chichen Itza.

  9. 12 CFR 329.104 - Ten-day grace period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... calendar days following the maturity of a time deposit, the bank may continue to pay interest on the... provides for such post-maturity interest. The payment of such post-maturity interest will not be regarded... days after maturity, the renewed deposit may be dated back to the maturity date of the matured...

  10. The 78.4 day period of Cygnus XR-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, J. F.; Caraveo, P.; Coe, M. J.; Crannell, C. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Frost, K. J.; Orwig, L. E.

    1979-01-01

    A search for a 78.4 day modulation in the high energy X-ray flux observed with OSO-8 and in the U-band optical polarization is reported. It is suggested that if such a modulation does exist, it is more likely to be related to the rotation of the free modes of oscillation of the primary than to the existence of a third body in the system.

  11. Artery Remodeling Under Axial Twist in Three Days Organ Culture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Liang; Xiao, Yangming; Voorhees, Andrew; Qi, Ying-Xin; Jiang, Zong-Lai; Han, Hai-Chao

    2015-08-01

    Arteries often endure axial twist due to body movement and surgical procedures, but how arteries remodel under axial twist remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate early stage arterial wall remodeling under axial twist. Porcine carotid arteries were twisted axially and maintained for three days in ex vivo organ culture systems while the pressure and flow remained the same as untwisted controls. Cell proliferation, internal elastic lamina (IEL) fenestrae shape and size, endothelial cell (EC) morphology and orientation, as well as the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), MMP-2 and MMP-9, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) were quantified using immunohistochemistry staining and immunoblotting. Our results demonstrated that cell proliferation in both the intima and media were significantly higher in the twisted arteries compared to the controls. The cell proliferation in the intima increased from 1.33 ± 0.21% to 7.63 ± 1.89%, and in the media from 1.93 ± 0.84% to 8.27 ± 2.92% (p < 0.05). IEL fenestrae total area decreased from 26.07 ± 2.13% to 14.74 ± 0.61% and average size decreased from 169.03 ± 18.85 μm(2) to 80.14 ± 1.96 μm(2) (p < 0.01), but aspect ratio increased in the twist group from 2.39 ± 0.15 to 2.83 ± 0.29 (p < 0.05). MMP-2 expression significantly increased (p < 0.05) while MMP-9 and TIMP-2 showed no significant difference in the twist group. The ECs in the twisted arteries were significantly elongated compared to the controls after three days. The angle between the major axis of the ECs and blood flow direction under twist was 7.46 ± 2.44 degrees after 3 days organ culture, a decrease from the initial 15.58 ± 1.29 degrees. These results demonstrate that axial twist can stimulate artery remodeling. These findings complement our understanding of arterial wall remodeling under mechanical stress resulting from pressure and flow variations. PMID:25503524

  12. Novel three dimensional human endocervix cultures respond to 28-day hormone treatment.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Sevim Yildiz; Yu, Yanni; Burdette, Joanne E; Pavone, Mary Ellen; Hope, Thomas J; Woodruff, Teresa K; Kim, J Julie

    2015-04-01

    The endocervix has both anatomical and biological functions that participate in the delicate balance between tolerance necessary for conception and protection from pathogens. Our goal was to develop a robust 3-dimensional (3D) endocervix model that was a reliable representation of the in vivo tissues and to identify the physiological responses to changing levels of steroid hormones during a 28-day time period. Human endocervical cells were grown on polystyrene scaffolds, and the morphologic and hormonal responses of cultured cells were assessed in response to fluctuating levels of estradiol (E2) or progesterone (P4). Morphologically, the 3D cultures were composed of a mixed population of cells, including epithelial and stromal cells. Treatment with E2 and P4 (d 28) increased cell growth and proliferation as compared with no treatment control. Cells expressed estrogen receptor and P4 receptor and produced both neutral and acidic mucins, including Mucin 16. In addition, a 45-plex Luminex assay identified numerous factors secreted and regulated by hormones. Specifically, IL-1β and leukemia inhibitory factor significantly decreased in the presence of E2 and P4 as compared with the no hormone control at day 26. Cotreatment with RU486 (mifepristone) attenuated the inhibition of IL-1β and leukemia inhibitory factor secretion. In summary, a robust, novel 3D endocervical culture was developed, and physiologic responses to the menstrual cycle mimic of E2 and P4 levels for a period of 28 days were identified. PMID:25635622

  13. Teaching Culture in a North American Context: Mother's Day/Father's Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mollica, Anthony; Sterling, Tania

    1994-01-01

    Presents activities for teaching students about Mother's Day and Father's Day. Includes a fictional interview with Anna Jarvis, who helped start the Mother's Day holiday in the early 20th century. (MDM)

  14. Periodic CO2 Dosing Strategy for Dunaliella salina Batch Culture

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Kezhen; Gilmour, D. James; Zimmerman, William B.

    2015-01-01

    A periodic CO2 dosing strategy for D. salina 19/30 batch culture is proposed. A model of periodic CO2 dosing including dosing time calculation, dosing interval estimation and final chlorophyll yield prediction was established. In experiments, 5% CO2/95% N2 gas was periodically dosed into D. salina culture. Two different gas dosing flow rates were tested. The corresponding dosing time for each flow rate was estimated via the model (10 min·d−1 for 0.7 L·min−1 and 36 min·d−1 for 0.3 L·min−1). Daily pH measurements showed that the pH of these cultures dosed periodically was always kept between 7.5 and 9.5, which highlights that periodic gas supply can maintain a suitable range of pH for microalgal growth without expensive buffers. Notably the culture dosed for set daily intervals was seen to have similar growth to the culture supplied constantly, but with much higher CO2 capture efficiency (11%–18%) compared to continuous dosing (0.25%). It shows great potential for using periodic gas supply to reduce cost, wasted gas and energy use. PMID:25997005

  15. Evidence for an approx. 300 day period in Cygnus X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Priedhorsky, W.C.; Terrell, J.; Holt, S.S.

    1983-07-01

    We present the time history of X-ray emission from Cyg X-1 over an 11 year period, with 10 day resolution. The data were obtained by experiments on the Vela 5B (1969--1979) and Ariel 5 (1974--1980) satellites. Cyg X-1 varies by approx.25% with a 294 +- 4 day period. This modulation is apparently unrelated to the known transitions between the source high and low states. Flux minima occur at 1974.05+nP. The observed period is within the possible range for the precession period of an accretion disk, or of the companion star HDE 226868, in the Cyg X-1 system.

  16. 77 FR 64759 - Rescission of 10-Day Agency Discretionary Period in Assigning Unsatisfactory Safety Ratings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ..., including the driver, for direct compensation, and (3) more than 15 passengers, including the driver, but not for direct compensation. The 1990 Act established a period of 45 days during which these motor... additional 60 days to continue to operate if they were making a good faith effort to become fit....

  17. 42 CFR 137.170 - When does the 365 day period commence?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... day period, an audit report is deemed received on the date of actual receipt by the Secretary, at the address specified in § 137.172, if, within 60 days after receiving the audit report, the Secretary does not give notice of a determination by the Secretary to reject the single-agency audit report...

  18. 42 CFR 137.170 - When does the 365 day period commence?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... day period, an audit report is deemed received on the date of actual receipt by the Secretary, at the address specified in § 137.172, if, within 60 days after receiving the audit report, the Secretary does not give notice of a determination by the Secretary to reject the single-agency audit report...

  19. 42 CFR 137.170 - When does the 365 day period commence?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... day period, an audit report is deemed received on the date of actual receipt by the Secretary, at the address specified in § 137.172, if, within 60 days after receiving the audit report, the Secretary does not give notice of a determination by the Secretary to reject the single-agency audit report...

  20. 42 CFR 137.170 - When does the 365 day period commence?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... day period, an audit report is deemed received on the date of actual receipt by the Secretary, at the address specified in § 137.172, if, within 60 days after receiving the audit report, the Secretary does not give notice of a determination by the Secretary to reject the single-agency audit report...

  1. 42 CFR 137.170 - When does the 365 day period commence?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... day period, an audit report is deemed received on the date of actual receipt by the Secretary, at the address specified in § 137.172, if, within 60 days after receiving the audit report, the Secretary does not give notice of a determination by the Secretary to reject the single-agency audit report...

  2. Rehydration with a caffeinated beverage during the nonexercise periods of 3 consecutive days of 2-a-day practices.

    PubMed

    Fiala, Kelly A; Casa, Douglas J; Roti, Melissa W

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of rehydration with a caffeinated beverage during nonexercise periods on hydration status throughout consecutive practices in the heat. Ten (7 women, 3 men) partially heat- acclimated athletes (age 24 +/-1y, body fat 19.2 +/- 2 %, weight 68.4 +/- 4.0 kg, height 170 +/- 3 cm) completed 3 successive days of 2-a-day practices (2 h/practice, 4 h/d) in mild heat (WBGT = 23 C). The 2 trials (double-blind, random, cross-over design) included; 1) caffeine (CAF) rehydrated with Coca-Cola and 2) caffeine-free (CF) rehydrated with Caffeine-Free Coca-Cola. Urine and psychological measures were determined before and after each 2-h practice. A significant difference was found for urine color for the post-AM time point, F = 5.526, P = 0.031. No differences were found among other variables (P > 0.05). In summary, there is little evidence to suggest that the use of beverages containing caffeine during nonexercise might hinder hydration status. PMID:15467100

  3. Detection of the 531-day-period wobble from the polar motion time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, H.; Shen, W.-B.

    2014-12-01

    After Cater (1981, 1982) weakly detected a 530-day-period wobble (531dW) in the polar motion, only few studies were addressed to the observations of this wobble. In this report, based the EOP C04 polar motion time series by using the ensemble empirical mode decomposition method, the 531dW of the polar motion was clearly observed. Here, we present main results, and the details can be found in Ding and Shen (2014). Key words: Polar motion time series; EEMD; 531-day-period wobble.

  4. Differential success in sampling of Atlantic Forest amphibians among different periods of the day.

    PubMed

    Rocha, C F D; Siqueira, C C; Ariani, C V; Vrcibradic, D; Guedes, D M; Kiefer, M C; Almeida-Gomes, M; Goyannes-Araújo, P; Borges-Júnior, V N T; Van Sluys, M

    2015-05-01

    In general, anurans tend to be nocturnal, though diurnal activity is characteristic of some groups. Studies show that frog activity may be inferred based on the number of individuals collected at different periods of the day, during large-scale field surveys. We investigated the best period of the day to conduct amphibian sampling in nine Atlantic Rainforest areas in southeastern Brazil, based on intensive field surveys. At each locality we employed similar sampling effort during diurnal, crepuscular and nocturnal searches (totaling 704.5 sampling hours). We pooled data from all localities for each period and estimated the proportion of frogs of each species active at each period based on the total number of individuals and on the number of species found during all surveys for that period. We recorded a total of 817 individual frogs from 69 species. Species richness was highest at night (median = 12 species), intermediate at dusk (median = 8), and lowest during the day (median = 4). The percentage of the total number of individual frogs found (pooled species) was highest during the night (ca. 53%) and lowest during the day (ca. 14%). Analyzing each species separately, the number of individuals recorded was consistently higher at dusk and night for most species. Our study evidences a trend for nocturnal activity for most Atlantic Rainforest frogs, with few species having primarily diurnal habits. Those results may favor future studies and conservation efforts for amphibian species. PMID:26132005

  5. The "Approximate 150 Day Quasi-Periodicity" in Interplanetary and Solar Phenomena During Cycle 23

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, I. G.; Cane, H. V.

    2004-01-01

    A"quasi-periodicity" of approx. 150 days in various solar and interplanetary phenomena has been reported in earlier solar cycles. We suggest that variations in the occurrence of solar energetic particle events, inter-planetary coronal mass ejections, and geomagnetic storm sudden commenceents during solar cycle 23 show evidence of this quasi-periodicity, which is also present in the sunspot number, in particular in the northern solar hemisphere. It is not, however, prominent in the interplanetary magnetic field strength.

  6. A 153 day periodicity in the occurrence of solar flares producing energetic interplanetary electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Droge, Wolfgang; Gibbs, Kenneth; Grunsfeld, John M.; Meyer, Peter; Newport, Brian J.

    1990-01-01

    The occurrence times of energetic (above 10 MeV) solar flare electron events observed on board the ISEE 3 spacecraft during the years 1978-1982 have been examined; strong evidence is found for a periodicity of 153 + or - 2 days, confirming the discovery of a periodicity in the occurrence of solar flares producing X-rays and gamma rays. The Rayleigh test for periodicity is applied to obtain a probability of less than 10 to the -6th that the times of the electron flares were drawn from a uniform distribution.

  7. The 155-day solar period in the sixteenth century and later

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, S. M.

    1990-01-01

    Recent interest in short solar periods has been stimulated by the discovery of a peak period of about 150-160 days in very energetic solar flares and hard X-ray flares. Auroral data are used here as a proxy for solar activity to show the presence of the peak in data from 1570 to 1573 and in some other time periods. The data are also used to show the absence or lack of prominence of this peak at other times in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

  8. 19 CFR 141.82 - Invoice for installment shipments arriving within a period of 10 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Invoice for installment shipments arriving within..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Invoices § 141.82 Invoice for installment shipments arriving within a period of 10 days. (a) One invoice...

  9. 26 CFR 54.9815-2708 - Prohibition on waiting periods that exceed 90 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) No effect on other laws. Compliance with this section is not determinative of compliance with any other provision of State or Federal law (including ERISA, the Code, or other provisions of the Patient... on waiting periods that exceed 90 days. (a) General rule. A group health plan, and a health...

  10. 29 CFR 2590.715-2708 - Prohibition on waiting periods that exceed 90 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... exceed the permitted 90-day period. (h) No effect on other laws. Compliance with this section is not determinative of compliance with any other provision of State or Federal law (including ERISA, the Code, or... rule. A group health plan, and a health insurance issuer offering group health insurance coverage,...

  11. 78 FR 36560 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: FHA Lender Approval, Annual Renewal, Periodic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: FHA Lender Approval, Annual Renewal...: Colette Pollard, Reports Management Officer, QDAM, Department of Housing and Urban Development, 451 7th... Title of Information Collection: FHA Lender Approval, Annual Renewal, Periodic Updates and...

  12. 42 CFR 137.134 - When does the 45 day review period begin?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When does the 45 day review period begin? 137.134 Section 137.134 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNANCE Final Offer § 137.134 When...

  13. Tradeoffs between global warming and day length on the vegetation carbon uptake period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Hammerle, Albin; Gianelle, Damiano; Marcola, Barbara; Galvagno, Marta; Cremonese, Edoardo; Morra di Cella, Umberto

    2013-04-01

    There has been much discussion about whether earlier vegetation greenup associated with global warming will allow for an earlier starts of the net carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake period (CUP) by vegetation and thus possibly increase the terrestrial carbon sink. One aspect of this discussion that has received little attention so far is that earlier vegetation greenup will occur at shorter day lengths which reduces the time of the day during which the presence of sunlight allows for photosynthesis and thus carbon uptake. We hypothesise that shorter day lengths associated with earlier vegetation greenup will partly compensate for any temperature-mediated earlier starts of the vegetation period. To test this hypothesis we use eddy covariance CO2 flux data from three mountain grasslands in the Alps: Neustift (970m), Monte Bondone (1500m), Torgnon (2160m). The three grassland sites are at the same latitude, but differ in elevation and thus temperature and thus the length of the snow cover period. We hypothesise that the warming-induced lengthening of the vegetation period will be compensated most by day length at the lowest elevation site, where snow melt occurs close to the spring equinox when day length changes fastest. In contrast, snow melt at the site with the highest elevation occurs closer to the summer solstice, when daily changes in day length are minimal, and we thus hypothesise that compensating effects due to day length will be smallest there. The hypothesis was tested using a phenomenological model of the net CO2 exchange of mountain grassland ecosystems that has been trained with measured eddy covariance CO2 fluxes. On average, the model was well able to simulate both daytime and nighttime NEE and thus predicted the start of the CUP reasonably well. The model was then used to simulate the start of the carbon uptake period using climatological time series of air temperature by uniformly increasing air temperature between 0 and 3 K. A 10 day earlier start of the CUP went along with a 32, 27 and 20 min reduction in day length at Neustift, Monte Bondone and Torgnon, respectively. Simulated warming (up to +3K) caused both snow melt and the start of the CUP to occur earlier. The earlier start of the CUP, however, did not match the earlier snow melt due to concurrent reductions in day length and so the time period in between increased with warming. As hypothesised this increase scaled with elevation and the timing of snow melt. A 10 day earlier snow melt caused the time period until the start of the CUP to increase by 1.8, 1.3 and 0.6 days at Neustift, Monte Bondone and Torgnon, respectively. As hypothesised, warming-induced earlier snow melts did not translate one-to-one to earlier starts of the CUP due to concurrent reductions in day length. The magnitude of this effect depended on the time of year when snow melt occurs. For the investigated grasslands along the elevational gradient, snow melt occurred the latest at highest elevation (Torgnon) and the start of the CUP at this site was thus most responsive to warming.

  14. A 20-day period standing oscillation in the northern winter stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocke, K.; Studer, S.; Martius, O.; Scheiben, D.; Kämpfer, N.

    2013-04-01

    Observations of the ozone profile by a ground-based microwave radiometer in Switzerland indicate a dominant 20-day oscillation in stratospheric ozone, possibly related to oscillations of the polar vortex edge during winter. For further understanding of the nature of the 20-day oscillation, the ozone data set of ERA Interim meteorological reanalysis is analyzed at the latitude belt of 47.5° N and in the time from 1979 to 2010. Spectral analysis of ozone time series at 7 hPa indicates that the 20-day oscillation is maximal at two locations: 7.5° E, 47.5° N and 60° E, 47.5° N. Composites of the stream function are derived for different phases of the 20-day oscillation of stratospheric ozone at 7 hPa in the Northern Hemisphere. The streamline at Ψ = -2 × 107 m2 s-1 is in the vicinity of the polar vortex edge. The other streamline at Ψ = 4 × 107 m2 s1 surrounds the Aleutian anticyclone and goes to the subtropics. The composites show 20-day period standing oscillations at the polar vortex edge and in the subtropics above Northern Africa, India, and China. The 20-day period standing oscillation above Aral Sea and India is correlated to the strength of the Aleutian anticyclone.

  15. The power spectrum of the solar wind speed for periods greater than 10 days

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fenimore, E. E.; Asbridge, J. R.; Bame, S. J.; Feldman, W. C.; Gosling, J. T.

    1978-01-01

    The use of the more than 11 years of solar wind speed data obtained by Vela 2-6 and Imp 6-8 to study the power spectrum of speed variations in the range near the solar rotational frequency is discussed. The broad bands of power near periods of 27 days (corresponding to the rotational period of the sun), 13.5 days, and higher harmonics are characterized, and it is suggested that the described individual peaks in both the solar wind and the geomagnetic spectra are probably not due to differential rotation. The alternate explanation is that the multipeak nature of the power spectra are explained by a wave packet concept in which recurring highspeed streams are described as a series of pulses (separated by a constant period) that last for a varying number of solar rotations.

  16. A 90-Day Subchronic Toxicity Study of Submerged Mycelial Culture of Cordyceps cicadae (Ascomycetes) in Rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Lien; Yeh, Shu-Hsing; Lin, Ting-Wei; Chen, Chin-Chu; Chen, Chin-Shuh; Kuo, Chia-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps cicadae is a parasitic fungus that hibernates inside a host (Cicada flammata Dist.) and then grows its fruiting body on the surface of the insect. The complete insect/fungus combination of C. cicadae has been widely applied in Chinese traditional medicine. Recent studies have demonstrated that the medicinal benefits of cultured mycelia are as effective as those found in the wild. However, toxicological information regarding the chronic consumption of C. cicadae mycelia culture is not available. This study was conducted to evaluate the possible toxicity arising from repeated exposure to freeze-dried submerged mycelial culture of C. cicadae for 90 days. A total of eighty 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (10 males and 10 females in each group). C. cicadae was administered daily to animals by gavage at doses of 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg body weight for 90 days. No animal deaths occurred and no treatment-related clinical signs were observed during the study period. No statistical differences in body weight gain, relative organ weight, hematology, serum chemistry, and urinalysis were observed. Gross necropsy and histopathological findings indicated that there was no treatment-related abnormality. Based on the results, the no observed adverse effect level of C. cicadae whole broth is determined to be > 2000 mg/kg for male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. The results of this study provides support for the use of C. cicadae fermentation product as a safe agent in functional food. PMID:26559863

  17. Inflammatory and genotoxic responses during 30-day welding-fume exposure period.

    PubMed

    Yu, Il Je; Song, Kyung Seuk; Maeng, Seung Hee; Kim, Soo Jin; Sung, Jae Hyuck; Han, Jeong Hee; Chung, Yong Hyun; Cho, Myung Haing; Chung, Kyu Hyuck; Han, Kuy Tae; Hyun, Jin Sook; Kim, Kwang Jong

    2004-12-01

    Welder's pneumoconiosis has generally been determined to be benign and unassociated with respiratory symptoms based on the absence of pulmonary-function abnormalities in welders with marked radiographic abnormalities. In previous studies, the current authors suggested a three-phase lung fibrosis process to study the pathological process of lung fibrosis and found that the critical point for recovery was after 30 days of welding-fume exposure at a high dose, at which point early and delicate fibrosis was observed in the perivascular and peribronchiolar regions. Accordingly, the current study investigated the inflammatory and genotoxic responses during a 30-day period of welding-fume exposure to elucidate the process of fibrosis. As such, rats were exposed to manual metal arc-stainless steel (MMA-SS) welding fumes at concentrations of 65.6 +/- 2.9 (low dose) and 116.8 +/- 3.9 mg/m3 (high dose) total suspended particulate for 2 h per day in an inhalation chamber for 30 days. Animals were sacrificed after the initial 2 h exposure, and after 15 and 30 days of exposure. The rats exposed to the welding fumes exhibited a statistically significant (P < 0.05) decrease in body weight when compared to the control during the 30-day exposure period, yet an elevated cellular differential count and higher levels of albumin, LDH, and beta-NAG, but not elevated TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta in the acellular bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In addition, the DNA damage resulting from 30 days of welding-fume exposure was confirmed by a comet assay and the inmmunohistochemistry for 8-hydroxydeoxyguanine (8-OH-dG). Consequently, the elevated inflammatory and genotoxic indicators confirmed the lung injury and inflammation caused by the MMA-SS welding-fume exposure. PMID:15475184

  18. Growth of mallards fed phosphamidon for 13-day periods during three different developmental stages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haseltine, S.; Hensler, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    Mallard ducklings (Anas platyrhynchos) were exposed to a 13-day dietary treatment of O, 0.5, or 5.0 ppm phosphamidon at one of three successive age intervals (5-17 days, 18-30 days, or 31-43 days) during a 10-week growth period. Weekly measurements of body weight, wing length, primary feather length, and bill length revealed slower development of primary feathers in those birds treated from 5 to 17 days; treatment effects on body weight and wing length from 6 to 8 weeks of age were observed among those birds treated from 18 to 30 days of age. Some differences in growth patterns among birds treated with the same phosphamidon level, but at different growth stages, were attributed to the varying size of the group with which a duckling was housed at different times in the growth process. No brain cholinesterase depression was observed in any group either 24 h after phosphamidon treatment was terminated or at 10 weeks of age.

  19. Cultural interaction and biological distance in postclassic period Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ragsdale, Corey S; Edgar, Heather J H

    2015-05-01

    Economic, political, and cultural relationships connected virtually every population throughout Mexico during Postclassic period (AD 900-1520). Much of what is known about population interaction in prehistoric Mexico is based on archaeological or ethnohistoric data. What is unclear, especially for the Postclassic period, is how these data correlate with biological population structure. We address this by assessing biological (phenotypic) distances among 28 samples based upon a comparison of dental morphology trait frequencies, which serve as a proxy for genetic variation, from 810 individuals. These distances were compared with models representing geographic and cultural relationships among the same groups. Results of Mantel and partial Mantel matrix correlation tests show that shared migration and trade are correlated with biological distances, but geographic distance is not. Trade and political interaction are also correlated with biological distance when combined in a single matrix. These results indicate that trade and political relationships affected population structure among Postclassic Mexican populations. We suggest that trade likely played a major role in shaping patterns of interaction between populations. This study also shows that the biological distance data support the migration histories described in ethnohistoric sources. PMID:25599818

  20. The dynamic response of visual accommodation over a seven-day period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, R. J.; Murphy, M. R.

    1974-01-01

    Four college students, ranging in age from 18 to 21 years, were tested on their dynamic, monocular accommodation responses to a square wave stimulus and sine waves of two frequencies. The tests were conducted over a period of seven days in a controlled environment, each subject being tested once every three hours. Latency, magnitude, velocity, gain and phase lag of the responses were measured, and means and standard deviations were computed. The latency of response was stable throughout and agreed fairly well with previous studies. The response magnitude was relatively stable. Three of the subjects had higher velocities on receding targets; one was faster on approaching targets. The group mean velocity increased over the seven days of the study. In keeping with the trend to faster dynamics over the seven days, both gain and phase lag improved.

  1. The identification of 93 day periodic photometric variability for YSO YLW 16A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavchan, P.; Güth, T.; Laohakunakorn, N.; Parks, J. R.

    2013-06-01

    Aims: Periodic variability in young stellar objects (YSOs) offers indirect evidence for an active dynamical mechanism. Starspots, accretion, stellar companions, and disk veiling can contribute to the photometric variability of YSOs. Methods: As part of an ongoing study of the ρ Oph star forming region, we report the discovery of 92.6 day periodic variations for the Class I YSO YLW 16A, observed over a period of three years. A SED model was fit to available photometric data for the object. Results: We propose a triple-system with an inner binary with a period of 93 days eclipsed by a warped circum-binary disk. The nature of the secondary is unconstrained and could be stellar or sub-stellar. We confirm the discovery of a tertiary companion at a projected separation of ~40 AU that could account for the circum-binary disk warp. This light curve and model is similar to the model we proposed for WL 4 in previous work. Understanding these systems may lead to insights about the nature of stellar evolution and planetary formation, and provide valuable benchmarks for future theoretical modeling and near- and mid-infrared synoptic surveys of YSOs.

  2. Pulsations of the sun and a beat period of 399 days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, V. A.; Khaneichuk, V. I.

    2011-06-01

    Measurements of the Doppler effect of the solar photosphere have been carried out at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory for 37 years, beginning in 1974 (in total, 2188 days or 13 247 h). The measurements use the differential center-to-limb method of registration of line-of-sight velocity with a solar magnetograph (in the iron absorption line ?512.4 nm). As a result of the experiment, two global pulsations of the sun with periods P 0 = 9600.606(12) and P 1 = 9597.936(16) s have been discovered. The nature of the periods is unknown. The first pulsation was detected in 1974-1982; the second, during nearly all the 37 years. The 2008-2010 data confirm the stability of the initial phase of the P 1 pulsation with a mean (differential) amplitude of 0.25 m/s. The fact that the beat period of the two pulsations coincides with the synodic period of Jupiter's orbital revolution, i.e., 399 days, raises a new, complex problem for solar physics and cosmogony.

  3. The 65 Day Period in 3C 66A during Bright State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lainela, M.; Takalo, L. O.; Sillanpää, A.; Pursimo, T.; Nilsson, K.; Katajainen, S.; Tosti, G.; Fiorucci, M.; Luciani, M.; Villata, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; De Francesco, G.; Sobrito, G.; Benítez, E.; Dultzin-Hacyan, D.; de Diego, J. A.; Turner, G. W.; Robertson, J. W.; Honeycutt, R. K.

    1999-08-01

    Historically, 3C 66A has been considered a relative quiescent blazar. For that reason, 3C 66A was selected as a comparison source for OJ 287 in the OJ-94 project. However, after more detailed observation it turns out that the variability of 3C 66A itself is very interesting. We have analyzed the entire project data set of 3C 66A from fall of 1993 to spring of 1998 by using structure function analysis, Deeming periodograms, Scargle periodograms, and the folded light curves. Here we present the first preliminary evidence for the 65 day period in 3C 66A observed during the bright state. Our analysis indicates that this period is slowly slowing down. We will also discuss the possible physical mechanism producing the observed periodicity.

  4. The physical properties of giant exoplanets within 400 days of period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santerne, Alexandre

    2015-12-01

    At a time when small planets in the habitable zone are found, not all the questions about giant planets have been answered. For example, their formation, migration and evolution are far from being fully understood. In this context, the Kepler space mission is providing unprecedented constraints to theories by probing transiting giant planets in a wide range of orbital periods. In this talk, we will present the results of a 6-year spectroscopic survey with the SOPHIE spectrograph of the transiting giant-planet candidates detected by Kepler within 400 days of period. First, we will describe the giant-planet candidate sample from the Kepler catalog and our spectroscopic observations which allowed us to screen out more than half of the candidates as false positives. Then, we will present the occurrence rate of giant planets, based on our sample cleaned from fake transiting planets, and compare it with other surveys. Finally, we will discuss the physical properties of the giant transiting planets within 400 days of period and compare them with predictions from planet-synthesis models.

  5. Observations of 20-day period meridional current oscillations in the upper ocean along the Pacific Equator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, David; Knox, Robert A.; Luther, Douglas S.

    1988-01-01

    Prominent oscillations of the meridional current, with a mean period of approximately 20 days, is observed in the upper ocean from May 1979 to October 1985 using moored current measurements along the Pacific equator at 95, 110, 124, 140, and 152 deg W, as well as off (but near) the equator at 110 and 140 deg W. The fluctuations are relatively narrowband in frequency. A 95 percent statistically significant peak in the power spectra of the meridional current occurs at 110, 124, and 140 deg W, but not at 95 and 152 deg W where the spectral peaks are smaller. The dominant wave period decreases by about 4 percent from 110 to 140 deg W. The wave amplitude decreases with depth, and the wave is essentially confined to the upper 80 m. The penetration depth of the oscillation is greatest at 110 deg W and least at 140 deg W.

  6. Regulation of period 1 expression in cultured rat pineal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukuhara, Chiaki; Dirden, James C.; Tosini, Gianluca

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro expression of Period 1 (Per1), Period 2 (Per2) and arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT) genes in the rat pineal gland to understand the mechanism(s) regulating the expression of these genes in this organ. Pineals, when maintained in vitro for 5 days, did not show circadian rhythmicity in the expression of any of the three genes monitored. Norepinephrine (NE) induced AA-NAT and Per1, whereas its effect on Per2 was negligible. Contrary to what was observed in other systems, NE stimulation did not induce circadian expression of Per1. The effect of NE on Per1 level was dose- and receptor subtype-dependent, and both cAMP and cGMP induced Per1. Per1 was not induced by repeated NE - or forskolin - stimulation. Protein synthesis was not necessary for NE-induced Per1, but it was for reduction of Per1 following NE stimulation. Per1 transcription in pinealocytes was activated by BMAL1/CLOCK. Our results indicate that important differences are present in the regulation of these genes in the mammalian pineal. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Long-Period Cultural Noise: The Panama Canal Seiche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, D. E.; Hutt, C. R.; Ringler, A.; Gee, L. S.

    2009-12-01

    Traditionally, the spectral composition of human generated or “cultural” seismic noise is dominated by short-period (SP) energy (<1s). In this study, we present evidence for long-period (LP) cultural noise (100-200s) at the USGS Global Seismographic Network (GSN) station CU.BCIP, located at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) on Barro Colorado Island (BCI) in the Panama Canal. The LP seismic energy has a strong diurnal signal, with highest power during the daytime when traffic through the Panama Canal is the heaviest, ~1 ship every 10 minutes. The lowest power occurs during the late-night/early-morning hours, when container ship traffic slows to ~1 ship every hour. Spectral power observations are corroborated with data recorded by a water-level meter located approximately 80m from the seismic station, indicating that water waves are the primary source of the LP seismic signal. We show that the observed water waves are a “seiche” induced by the wakes of container ship traffic in the canal. As passing ships disturb the water surface, standing waves are induced by the summation of propagating waves, traveling in opposite directions, due to reflections off the opposite shorelines of the Panama Canal. Vertical harmonic motion results as gravity seeks to restore the horizontal surface of the body of water to a state of hydrostatic equilibrium. The longest natural-period of a seiche in an enclosed body of water is a function of basin depth and length and can be computed by a common oceanographic relationship, known as the Merian formula. For a reasonable range of Panama Canal dimensions in the vicinity of BCI, (depths from 15 to 30m and lengths from 700 to 1500m), the predicted dominant period of a seiche is between 100-200s, consistent with our seismic spectral power observations. Small rhythmic seiches are always present in disturbed enclosed bodies of water and are most often caused by either meteorological effects (wind and atmospheric pressure variations), and/or seismic activity (earthquakes, tsunamis). Historical accounts of anomalously large seiches in enclosed bodies of water such as harbors (Galveston, TX), lakes (Great Lakes, Lake Baikal), and inland seas (Adriatic Sea, Baltic Sea, North Sea) demonstrate the existence of significant flooding hazard to adjacent coastal communities. We present a possible new passive-seismic method for seiche monitoring.

  8. Erratum: The 2.27 day period of WR-134 (HD 191765)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccandliss, Stephan R.; Bohannan, Bruce; Robert, Carmelle; Moffat, Anthony F. J.

    1994-01-01

    The original temporal analysis of a 12 night spectral timeseries of Wolf-Rayet (WR)-134 has been found to be flawed and a re-analysis shows that the line profile variations are indeed periodic. When combined with a 4 night timeseries taken 45 days earlier, a period near 2.27 d is found in periodograms of the He II lambda 5412 line centroid, rms line width, and line skew variations. When the emission line residuals are ordered as a function of phase, a sinuous feature appears to 'snake' about the line center with an amplitude of +/-500 km/s. This is approximately equal to 20 larger than the line centroid amplitude; the calculation of which is heavily weighted by static portions of the line profile. In addition to the 'snake,' emission residuals appear that move away from line center on unbound trajectories and are thought to result from the interaction of a periodic driver with the unstable flow of the radiation driven wind.

  9. On the nonstationarity of the decadal periodicities of the length of day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Michelis, P.; Tozzi, R.; Consolini, G.

    2013-12-01

    The Earth's rotation rate is not constant, but changes on all observable timescales, from subdaily to decadal and longer. These variations are usually discussed in terms of variations in the length of the day (LoD) and are caused by processes acting within the interior, at the surface and outside of the Earth. Here, we investigate the presence of long-standing decadal variations in yearly LoD data covering the period from 1832 to 2009 by applying the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT). The HHT has been slightly modified here to take into account the uncertainty of LoD values that has changed greatly in time due to the use of different LoD measurement techniques. The LoD time series has been completely decomposed into five intrinsic mode functions (IMF) and a residual trend. The estimation of instantaneous frequencies and related amplitudes of the obtained IMFs has allowed us to compute the Hilbert spectrum that has been used as the starting point for studying and discussing the stationarity of typical LoD timescale stationarity. The obtained results while showing the presence of multiple periodicities also indicate the absence of really stationary periodicities. Therefore, rather than considering the processes taking place in the Earth's core as the result of a superposition of oscillations (i.e. stationary mechanisms) occurring on a discrete number of different timescales, it would be better to think of a superposition of fluctuations that are intermittent in both frequency and amplitude.

  10. Erratum: The 2.27 day period of WR-134 (HD 191765)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCandliss, Stephan R.; Bohannan, Bruce; Robert, Carmelle; Moffat, Anthony F. J.

    1994-11-01

    The original temporal analysis of a 12 night spectral timeseries of Wolf-Rayet (WR)-134 has been found to be flawed and a re-analysis shows that the line profile variations are indeed periodic. When combined with a 4 night timeseries taken 45 days earlier, a period near 2.27 d is found in periodograms of the He II lambda 5412 line centroid, rms line width, and line skew variations. When the emission line residuals are ordered as a function of phase, a sinuous feature appears to 'snake' about the line center with an amplitude of +/-500 km/s. This is approximately equal to 20 larger than the line centroid amplitude; the calculation of which is heavily weighted by static portions of the line profile. In addition to the 'snake,' emission residuals appear that move away from line center on unbound trajectories and are thought to result from the interaction of a periodic driver with the unstable flow of the radiation driven wind.

  11. WASP-117b: a 10-day-period Saturn in an eccentric and misaligned orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lendl, M.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Anderson, D. R.; Collier Cameron, A.; Delrez, L.; Doyle, A. P.; Gillon, M.; Hellier, C.; Jehin, E.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Neveu-VanMalle, M.; Pepe, F.; Pollacco, D.; Queloz, D.; Ségransan, D.; Smalley, B.; Smith, A. M. S.; Udry, S.; Van Grootel, V.; West, R. G.

    2014-08-01

    We report the discovery of WASP-117b, the first planet with a period beyond 10 days found by the WASP survey. The planet has a mass of Mp = 0.2755 ± 0.0089 MJ, a radius of Rp= 1.021_{-0.065+0.076 Rjup} and is in an eccentric (e = 0.302 ± 0.023), 10.02165 ± 0.00055 d orbit around a main-sequence F9 star. The host star's brightness (V = 10.15 mag) makes WASP-117 a good target for follow-up observations, and with a periastron planetary equilibrium temperature of Teq= 1225_{-39+36} K and a low planetary mean density (ρp= 0.259_{-0.048+0.054 ρjup}) it is one of the best targets for transmission spectroscopy among planets with periods around 10 days. From a measurement of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, we infer a projected angle between the planetary orbit and stellar spin axes of β = -44 ± 11 deg, and we further derive an orbital obliquity of ψ = 69.6 +4.7-4.1 deg. Owing to the large orbital separation, tidal forces causing orbital circularization and realignment of the planetary orbit with the stellar plane are weak, having had little impact on the planetary orbit over the system lifetime. WASP-117b joins a small sample of transiting giant planets with well characterized orbits at periods above 8 days. Based on data obtained with WASP-South, CORALIE and EulerCam at the Euler-Swiss telescope, TRAPPIST, and HARPS at the ESO 3.6 m telescope (Prog. IDs 087.C-0649, 089.C-0151, 090.C-0540)Photometric and radial velocities are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/568/A81

  12. A seven day running training period increases basal urinary hepcidin levels as compared to cycling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This investigation compared the effects of an extended period of weight-bearing (running) vs. non-weight-bearing (cycling) exercise on hepcidin production and its implications for iron status. Methods Ten active males performed two separate exercise training blocks with either running (RTB) or cycling (CTB) as the exercise mode. Each block consisted of five training sessions (Day 1, 2, 4, 5, 6) performed over a seven day period that were matched for exercise intensity. Basal venous blood samples were obtained on Day 1 (D1), and on Recovery Days 3 (R3) and 7 (R7) to assess iron status, while basal and 3 h post-exercise urinary hepcidin levels were measured on D1, D2, D6, as well as R3 and R7 (basal levels only) for each condition. Results Basal urinary hepcidin levels were significantly elevated (p ≤ 0.05) at D2, R3 and R7 as compared to D1 in RTB. Furthermore, 3 h post-exercise urinary hepcidin levels on D1 were also significantly higher in RTB compared to CTB (p ≤ 0.05). In CTB, urinary hepcidin levels were not statistically different on D1 as compared to R7. Iron parameters were not significantly different at D1 compared to R3 and R7 during both conditions. Conclusions These results suggest that basal hepcidin levels may increase over the course of an extended training program, especially if a weight-bearing exercise modality is undertaken. However, despite any variations in hepcidin production, serum iron parameters in both RTB and CTB were unaffected, possibly due to the short duration of each training block. In comparing running to cycling, non-weight-bearing activity may require more training sessions, or sessions of extended duration, before any significant changes in basal hepcidin levels appear. Chronic elevations in hepcidin levels may help to explain the high incidence of iron deficiency in athletes. PMID:24716892

  13. Russian Reading in a Period of Social and Cultural Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stelmakh, V. D.

    1995-01-01

    Addresses social and cultural changes of reading in Russia: (1) changes in cultural hierarchy; (2) changes in reader behavior; (3) declining importance of classic literature; and (4) rise of mass culture and its effects. Tables present information on the genre of books that were best sellers and books borrowed from Russian libraries. (JMV)

  14. PCR-Based Quantification of Borrelia burgdorferi Organisms in Canine Tissues over a 500-Day Postinfection Period

    PubMed Central

    Straubinger, Reinhard K.

    2000-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi infection in beagle dogs was studied quantitatively with skin punch biopsy samples and blood samples collected at 4- and 2-week intervals, respectively, over a 500-day period. Thereafter, 25 tissue samples of each dog were collected for further analysis. Starting at day 120 after tick challenge, 12 dogs were treated with antibiotics (azithromycin, ceftriaxone, or doxycycline) for 30 consecutive days. Four dogs received no antibiotic therapy. Quantification of B. burgdorferi DNA was done with an ABI Prism 7700 Sequence Detection System with oligonucleotide primers and a fluorescence-labeled probe designed to specifically amplify a fragment of the ospA gene of B. burgdorferi strain N40. All 16 dogs became infected with B. burgdorferi after tick challenge. In skin biopsy samples, spirochete numbers peaked at day 60 postinfection (<1.5 × 106 organisms per 100 μg of extracted DNA), at the same time when clinical signs of arthritis developed in 11 of 16 dogs, and decreased to almost undetectable levels during the following 6 months. The number of B. burgdorferi organisms detected in skin biopsy samples was inversely correlated with the antibody levels measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibiotic treatment reduced the amount of detectable spirochete DNA in skin tissue by a factor of 1,000 or more. At the end of the experiment, B. burgdorferi DNA was detectable at low levels (102 to 104 organisms per 100 μg of extracted DNA) in multiple tissue samples regardless of treatment. However, more tissue samples of untreated dogs than of antibiotic-treated dogs were positive, and tissue samples of untreated dogs also were positive by culture. Only 1.6% of 576 blood samples of all dogs were positive for B. burgdorferi by PCR. PMID:10834975

  15. Search for the 531 day-period wobble signal in the polar motion based on EEMD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, H.; Shen, W. B.

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we use a nonlinear and non-stationary time series analysis method, the ensemble empirical mode decomposition method (EEMD), to analyze the polar motion (PM) time series (EOP C04 series from 1962 to 2013) to find a 531 day-period wobble (531 dW) signal. The 531 dW signal has been found in the early PM seires (1962-1977) while cannot be found in the recent PM seires (1978-2013) using conventional analysis approaches. By the virtue of the demodulation feature of EEMD, the 531 dW can be confirmed to be present in PM based on the differences of the amplitudes and phases between different intrinsic mode functions. Results from three sub-series divided from the EOP C04 series show that the period of the 531 dW is subject to variations, in the range of 530.9-524 d, and its amplitude is also time-dependent (about 2-11 mas). Synthetic tests are carried out to explain why the 531 dW can only be observed in recent 30-years PM time series after using EEMD. The 531 dW is also detected in two longest available superconducting gravimeter (SG) records, which further confirms the presence of the 531 dW. The confirmation of 531 dW existence could be significant in establishing a more reasonable Earth rotation model and may effectively contribute to the prediction of the PM and its mechanism interpretation.

  16. Beloit College's Ten-Day Foreign Language and Culture Program: The Director's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Street, Jack D.

    1986-01-01

    Explains Beloit College's 10-day program, designed to interest entering freshman in study of foreign languages (Arabic, Chinese, French, German, Greek, Italian, Japanese, Latin, Russian, and Spanish) and cultures. The program was successful in teaching the basics of the foreign languages and in eliminating anxiety about the study of those…

  17. GENE EXPRESSION PATTERNS OF CD-1 DAY-8 EMBRYO CULTURES EXPOSED TO BROMOCHLORO ACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gene expression patterns of CD-1 day-8 embryo cultures exposed to bromochloro acetic acid

    Edward D. Karoly?*, Judith E. Schmid* and E. Sidney Hunter III*
    ?Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina and *Reproductiv...

  18. Geopathology on May Day: Expressions of Culture on Hawai'i's Elementary School Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Jamie Simpson

    2013-01-01

    In Hawai'i's elementary schools, May Day programs feature children adorned with flower leis, singing and dancing hula about Hawaiian culture and performing traditions from major ethnic groups who settled the islands. Using the lens of geopathology, this research questions how various groups of residents long for belonging and struggle for

  19. Geopathology on May Day: Expressions of Culture on Hawai'i's Elementary School Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Jamie Simpson

    2013-01-01

    In Hawai'i's elementary schools, May Day programs feature children adorned with flower leis, singing and dancing hula about Hawaiian culture and performing traditions from major ethnic groups who settled the islands. Using the lens of geopathology, this research questions how various groups of residents long for belonging and struggle for…

  20. Task Specific Frequencies of Neck Motion Measured in Healthy Young Adults over a 5 Day Period

    PubMed Central

    Cobian, Daniel G.; Sterling, Andrew C.; Anderson, Paul A.; Heiderscheit, Bryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Study Design Observational cohort design. Objective To quantify the frequencies and magnitudes of neck motion during daily activities in healthy subjects. Summary of Background Data Previous studies have measured the maximum excursions during re-created ADLs in lab settings, but there is a lack of information available on frequencies and excursions of neck motion with ADLs in non-artificial settings. Methods Ten healthy young adults were fitted with a portable motion measurement device that recorded movement about each primary axis. Participants were instructed to wear the unit continuously over a 5-day period and record their daily activities with corresponding times. After the collection period, subjects' activity logs were analyzed and data were partitioned into five categories which provided the most primary representation of ADLs: athletics, work, travel, sleep, and miscellaneous. Each category was further divided into increasingly specific activities (e.g. running and walking). Frequency of motions within 5° increments was determined and an hourly rate was calculated for each activity. Median motion about each axis for each activity was also determined. Results The total number of movements per hour for all axes, regardless of amplitude, was highest during athletic activity and lowest during sleeping. The majority of movements (92% of athletic activity, 90% of work) required less than 25° of lateral bending, while greater range of movement requirements were observed for flexion-extension and axial rotation. The median range of motion along all axes was highest for athletic activity and lowest for sleeping. Conclusions The results of this study provide a baseline of the frequency and magnitude of neck motion during normal ADLs for the specified population. These findings can assist physicians and physical therapists in determining the extent of disability and identifying activities that will likely be problematic for patients with limited cervical motion. PMID:19282725

  1. A New Model for Long-Period Tidal Variations in Length of Day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, R. D.; Erofeeva, S.

    2012-12-01

    The standard IERS model for tidal variations in length of day (LOD), covering the band from one week to 18.6 years, stems from a 30-year-old paper by Yoder, Williams, and Parke. Their original table has been updated in the latest adopted standards by modifying only a few constituents: four constituents were adjusted for effects of mantle anelasticity and two constituents for effects of ocean tides. We here present a new, consistent, and comprehensive model. While Yoder et al. employed 62 tidal spectral lines, we employ 80, most of the new lines being higher frequency lines that are now detectable, or nearly detectable, in LOD measurements. We employ an anelastic model of Wahr and Bergen consistently to all lines throughout the entire long-period band, although there remains uncertainty in extrapolating to the lowest frequencies. Our model of ocean tides builds on recent experience modeling the fortnightly Mf tide (Ray and Egbert, Geophys. J. Int., 2012), for which good observational data allow extensive testing of both the numerical ocean model and the Wahr-Bergen anelastic model. Ocean model improvements now appear adequate to remove our dependence on data assimilation for Mf (at least for earth-rotation effects), which is a critical requirement before extending to other frequencies that lack reliable observational constraints. We have run the model for 12 major long-period constituents. The ocean-tide admittance at these 12 frequencies is then interpolated smoothly to all other lines, while relaxing to self-consistent equilibrium for the node tide. Application of this new model to a modern time series of space-geodetic LOD measurements shows a significant reduction in variance compared with the current IERS model. For example, in the 10-70 cpy band, the variance is reduced by 8%.

  2. The First 90 Days of the New Middle School Principal in a Turnaround School: In-Depth Case Study of the Transition Period (First 90 Days)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeza, Marco A.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed skills, strategies, and theories that new middle school principals used to be successful during their transition period (the first 90 days) in turnaround schools. Based on research on transitions, three research questions guided the study: 1. Do middle school principals in a turnaround school situation find the transition

  3. 27.3-day and average 13.6-day periodic oscillations in the Earth's rotation rate and atmospheric pressure fields due to celestial gravitation forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guoqing; Zong, Haifeng; Zhang, Qingyun

    2011-01-01

    Variation in length of day of the Earth (LOD, equivalent to the Earth's rotation rate) versus change in atmospheric geopotential height fields and astronomical parameters were analyzed for the years 1962-2006. This revealed that there is a 27.3-day and an average 13.6-day periodic oscillation in LOD and atmospheric pressure fields following lunar revolution around the Earth. Accompanying the alternating change in celestial gravitation forcing on the Earth and its atmosphere, the Earth's LOD changes from minimum to maximum, then to minimum, and the atmospheric geopotential height fields in the tropics oscillate from low to high, then to low. The 27.3-day and average 13.6-day periodic atmospheric oscillation in the tropics is proposed to be a type of strong atmospheric tide, excited by celestial gravitation forcing. A formula for a Tidal Index was derived to estimate the strength of the celestial gravitation forcing, and a high degree of correlation was found between the Tidal Index determined by astronomical parameters, LOD, and atmospheric geopotential height. The reason for the atmospheric tide is periodic departure of the lunar orbit from the celestial equator during lunar revolution around the Earth. The alternating asymmetric change in celestial gravitation forcing on the Earth and its atmosphere produces a "modulation" to the change in the Earth's LOD and atmospheric pressure fields.

  4. 76 FR 6794 - 30-Day Submission Period for Requests for ONC-Approved Accreditor (ONC-AA) Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... Program for Health Information Technology, 76 FR 1262 (Jan. 7, 2011) (the ``Permanent Certification... HUMAN SERVICES 30-Day Submission Period for Requests for ONC-Approved Accreditor (ONC-AA) Status AGENCY... ONC-Approved Accreditor (ONC-AA) status. Authority: 42 U.S.C. 300jj-11. DATES: The 30-day...

  5. CTEPP NC DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 10 (PERIODS 1-3): DAY CARE CENTER CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains data concerning the childs activities at the day care center over the 48-h monitoring period. The diary was divided into three time periods over the 48-h monitoring interval. The Food Survey collected information on the frequency and types of fruits, veget...

  6. 29 CFR 553.230 - Maximum hours standards for work periods of 7 to 28 days-section 7(k).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in the work period bears to 28. (b) For those employees engaged in law enforcement activities... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum hours standards for work periods of 7 to 28 days... AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire Protection and Law Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies...

  7. CTEPP DATA COLLECTION FORM 10 (PERIODS 1-3): DAY CARE CENTER CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data collection form collects information on the child's activities at the day care center over the 48-hr monitoring period. The diary is divided into three time periods over the 48-monitoring interval. The Food Survey collects information on the frequency and types of frui...

  8. CTEPP NC DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 10 (PERIODS 1-3): DAY CARE CENTER CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains data concerning the child’s activities at the day care center over the 48-h monitoring period. The diary was divided into three time periods over the 48-h monitoring interval. The Food Survey collected information on the frequency and types of fruits, veget...

  9. Discovery of a 115 Day Orbital Period in the Ultraluminous X-ray Source NGC 5408 X-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2009-01-01

    We report the detection of a 115 day periodicity in SWIFT/XRT monitoring data from the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) NGC 5408 X-1. Our o ngoing campaign samples its X-ray flux approximately twice weekly and has now achieved a temporal baseline of ti 485 days. Periodogram ana lysis reveals a significant periodicity with a period of 115.5 +/- 4 days. The modulation is detected with a significance of 3.2 x 10(exp -4) . The fractional modulation amplitude decreases with increasing e nergy, ranging from 0.13 +/- 0.02 above 1 keV to 0.24 +/- 0.02 below 1 keV. The shape of the profile evolves as well, becoming less sharply peaked at higher energies. The periodogram analysis is consistent wi th a periodic process, however, continued monitoring is required to c onfirm the coherent nature of the modulation. Spectral analysis indic ates that NGC 5408 X-1 can reach 0.3 - 10 keV luminosities of approxi mately 2 x 10 40 ergs/s . We suggest that, like the 62 day period of the ULX in M82 (X41.4-1-60), the periodicity detected in NGC 5408 X-1 represents the orbital period of the black hole binary containing the ULX. If this is true then the secondary can only be a giant or super giant star.

  10. Results of 5-year photometric monitoring of the intermediate polar V2306 Cygni: correction of the orbital period and evidence of 2-day periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breus, V.; Petrík, K.; Zoła, S.; Baransky, A.; Hegedus, T.

    2015-09-01

    We present the results of 6 years of photometric monitoring of the magnetic cataclysmic variable V2306 Cygni (formerly known as 1WGAJ1958.2+3232) obtained at collaborating observatories. Using (O-C) analysis we tried to study variability of the spin period of the white dwarf, however we cannot make a firm conclusion based on the scatter. Simultaneously, using (O-C) diagram of orbital minima, we found that the value of 0.181545(3) days better corresponds with the light curve, than do previously published orbital period values. We also found that the variability has a 2.01 day period; this variability may be interpreted as possible precession of the accretion disk in this system.

  11. The Two Complexes of Activity Observed in the Northern Hemisphere during 1982 and the 24-Day Periodicity of Flare Occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruždjak, V.; Ruždjak, D.; Brajša, R.; Temmer, M.; Hanslmeier, A.

    Daily numbers of solar Hα flares of importance classes ≥ 1 for the northern solar hemisphere in 1982 are studied applying wavelet power spectra (WPS). Special attention is paid to the occurrence of a 24-day period in the WPS. The wavelet power spectra method is combined with synoptic maps of the magnetic fields. Separately, flare indices of two activity complexes mainly contributing to flare occrrence in this period are examined. It is found that the detected 24-day signal in the WPS is mainly a consequence of the presence of the two flare activity complexes separated by about 45° in longitude during several succesive Carrington rotations.

  12. A degree-day model for the latent period of stagonospora nodorum blotch in winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB), which is caused by Stagonospora nodorum, occurs frequently in the southeastern United States and severe epidemics can lead to substantial economic losses. To establish a model for the development of SNB based on the effects of temperature on the latent period of th...

  13. 26 CFR 301.6332-3 - The 21-day holding period applicable to property held by banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... provisions of this paragraph (c) may be illustrated by the following examples: Example 1. On April 2, 1992, a... of A's contract with X Bank up through April 23, 1992, (the last day of the holding period). Example 2. The facts are the same as in Example 1 except that on April 3, 1992, A deposits an additional...

  14. 26 CFR 301.6332-3 - The 21-day holding period applicable to property held by banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... provisions of this paragraph (c) may be illustrated by the following examples: Example 1. On April 2, 1992, a... of A's contract with X Bank up through April 23, 1992, (the last day of the holding period). Example 2. The facts are the same as in Example 1 except that on April 3, 1992, A deposits an additional...

  15. The 54-day orbital period of AX J1820.5-1434 unveiled by Swift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segreto, A.; La Parola, V.; Cusumano, G.; D'Aì, A.; Masetti, N.; Campana, S.

    2013-10-01

    Context. The hard X-ray survey that Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) has been performing since late 2004 provides a considerable database for a large number of sources, whose hard X-ray emission are poorly known. Aims: We exploit the BAT survey archive to improve the temporal and spectral characterization of the Galactic hard-X-ray sources. We focus here on the study of the high mass X-ray binary AX J1820.5-1434. Methods: All the data relevant to AX J1820.5-1434 were extracted from the BAT survey archive and analyzed using a folding technique to search for periodical modulations. A broad-band spectral analysis was also performed, complementing the BAT spectrum with the available Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT) and XMM-Newton pointed observations. Results: A timing analysis revealed the detection of a coherent signal at P0 = 54.0 ± 0.4 d, which we interpret as the orbital period of the binary system. When folded with a period of P0, the light curve shows an asymmetric profile with a minimum roughly consistent with zero intensity. The broadband spectral analysis coupling Swift-XRT, XMM-Newton, and Swift-BAT spectra confirms that the source emission is well modeled with a strongly absorbed power law with no evidence of a high energy exponential cutoff.

  16. A 154-day periodicity in the occurrence of hard solar flares?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieger, E.; Kanbach, G.; Reppin, C.; Share, G. H.; Forrest, D. J.; Chupp, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of the temporal distribution of 139 solar flares monitored by the Gamma Ray Spectrometer aboard the Solar Maximum Mission is reported. It is found that, instead of being randomly distributed in time, these events have a tendency to occur in groups with a mean spacing of about 154 days (75 nHz) over the observing interval. A larger sample of flares with an X-ray classification of M 2.5 or larger recorded by the GOES satellite showed a similar regularity.

  17. Finding a 24 Day Orbital Period for the X-Ray Binary 1A 1118-616

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staubert, R.; Pottschmidt, K.; Doroshenko, V.; Wilms, J.; Suchy, S.; Rothschild, R.; Santangelo, A.

    2010-01-01

    We report the first determination of the binary period and the orbital ephemeris of the Be X-ray binary containing the pulsar IA 1118-616 (35 years after the discovery of the source). The orbital period is found to be P(sub orb) = 24.0+/-0.4 days. The source was observed by RXTE during its last big X-ray outburst in January 2009, peaking at MJD 54845.4. This outburst was sampled by taking short observations every few days, covering an elapsed time comparable to the orbital period. Using the phase connection technique, pulse arrival time delays could be measured and an orbital solution determined. The data are consistent with a circular orbit, the time of 90 degrees longitude was found to be T,/2 = MJD 54845.37(10), coincident with the peak X-ray flux.

  18. 75 FR 1656 - Draft Safety Culture Policy Statement: Request for Public Comments; Extension of Comment Period

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ..., 2009, (74 FR 57525) (ML093030375), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) published for public comment... COMMISSION Draft Safety Culture Policy Statement: Request for Public Comments; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). ACTION: Issuance of draft safety culture policy...

  19. Responses of primary cultured haemocytes from the marine gastropod Haliotis tuberculata under 10-day exposure to cadmium chloride.

    PubMed

    Latire, Thomas; Le Pabic, Charles; Mottin, Elmina; Mottier, Antoine; Costil, Katherine; Koueta, Noussithé; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Serpentini, Antoine

    2012-03-01

    Among metals, cadmium, a non-essential element, is an important pollutant that is released into aquatic environments. Due to its persistence and bioaccumulation, this metal has been shown to exert immunological effects on organisms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of cadmium chloride using a haemocyte primary culture from the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata. Most studies have maintained viable haemocytes in vitro for periods ranging from several hours to several days during acute exposures. Few investigations have reported the effects of metals using longer in vitro exposures, which are more realistic with regard to mimicking environmental conditions. In this study, we exposed abalone haemocytes to concentrations from 0.5 to 50,000 μgL(-1) of CdCl2 for 10 days. The effects of cadmium chloride were reflected in a significant decrease in the number of viable cells and morphological modifications in a concentration-dependent manner beginning at a concentration of 500 μgL(-1) as well as in some physiological processes, such as phagocytotic activity and the number of lysosome-positive cells. In contrast, phenoloxidase (PO) activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were increased beginning at a concentration of 5 μgL(-1), which is consistent with environmental concentrations in polluted sites. For PO activity and ROS production, maximally 9-fold and 130% inductions, respectively, were recorded under the highest dose. These results thus indicate that cadmium chloride alters immune parameters of abalone haemocytes and that the long-term (10 days) primary culture system used here represents a suitable, sensitive in vitro model for assessing cytotoxic responses. PMID:22018399

  20. Building enterprise-wide resilience by integrating business continuity capability into day-to-day business culture and technology.

    PubMed

    Alesi, Patrick

    2008-04-01

    This paper follows the development of the business continuity planning (BCP) programme at Lehman Brothers following the events of September 11th. Previous attempts to implement a `traditional' form of BCP had been ineffective, but following the events, the firm began to look at BCP in a new light. This paper deals with three main themes: creating a culture of resiliency, leveraging technology, and building flexible plans. Distributing accountability for BCP to business line managers, integrating BCP change management into the normal course of business, and providing every employee with personalised BCP information breeds a culture of resiliency where people are empowered to react to events without burdensome, hierarchical response and recovery procedures. Building a strong relationship with one's application development community can result in novel, customised BCP solutions; existing systems and data structures can be used to enhance an existing BCP. Even the best plans are often challenged by events; understanding that flexibility is essential to effective incident response is a critical element in the development of a proper business continuity plan. PMID:21339108

  1. An estimate of equatorial wave energy flux at 9- to 90-day periods in the Central Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksen, Charles C.; Richman, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Deep fluctuations in current along the equator in the Central Pacific are dominated by coherent structures which correspond closely to narrow-band propagating equatorial waves. Currents were measured roughly at 1500 and 3000 m depths at five moorings between 144 and 148 deg W from January 1981 to March 1983, as part of the Pacific Equatorial Ocean Dynamics program. In each frequency band resolved, a single complex empirical orthogonal function accounts for half to three quarters of the observed variance in either zonal or meridional current. Dispersion for equatorial first meridional Rossby and Rossby gravity waves is consistent with the observed vertical-zonal coherence structure. The observations indicate that energy flux is westward and downward in long first meridional mode Rossby waves at periods 45 days and longer, and eastward and downward in short first meridional mode Rossby waves and Rossby-gravity waves at periods 30 days and shorter. A local minimum in energy flux occurs at periods corresponding to a maximum in upper-ocean meridional current energy contributed by tropical instability waves. Total vertical flux across the 9- to 90-day period range is 2.5 kW/m.

  2. Clouds in North Polar Region Tracked by MOC Over Five Day Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    It is mid-summer in the northern hemisphere of Mars--a time of enhanced heating that leads to the release of water vapor into the atmosphere. In the north polar region, temperature differences between bright areas of year-round ice and dark areas of sand and rock create strong winds that mix the atmosphere and create waves of clouds that swirl around the polar cap. Sometimes, as seen during the Viking mission, these winds form tight cyclones; other times, they weave an intricate pattern reflecting the turbulence of the circulation of the atmosphere.

    This animation shows four days of observations of a representative portion of the northern hemisphere. Five Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) wide angle image pairs(red/blue filters) were combined. These image pairs were warped to create a polar stereographic map projection, which is used by cartographers to present polar areas as if viewed from above. The edges of the pictures move back and forth because of the slightly different path taken by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft on each of the five orbits used in this sequence. Seen in the right-hand side of the image is the permanent ice cap and the dark areas that surround it.

    The motion of the clouds viewed in this image is typical for this season on Mars, and shows forms often seen on Earth. Waves of clouds are moving from the upper portion of the frame towards the bottom (towards the east northeast). This motion is most likely the movement of a moister portion of the martian atmosphere under the influence of circumpolar winds. Early in the sequence, a prominent circular band of clouds moves almost due east, rotating slightly counter-clockwise. Towards the end of the sequence, the circle dissipates and a linear set of clouds propagates towards the bottom of the frame. Linear cloud speeds vary from day today, averaging about 16 km/hr (10 miles/hr); rotational rates appear to have been less than 10 km/hr (6 miles/hr).

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  3. Spin-orbit alignment for 110 day period KOI368.01 from gravity darkening

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlers, John P.; Seubert, Shayne A.; Barnes, Jason W.

    2014-05-10

    We fit the Kepler photometric light curve of the KOI-368 system using an oblate, gravity-darkened stellar model in order to constrain its spin-orbit alignment. We find that the system is relatively well-aligned with a sky-projected spin-orbit alignment of λ = 10° ± 2°, a stellar obliquity of ψ = 3° ± 7°, and a true spin-orbit alignment of ψ = 11° ± 3°. Although our measurement differs significantly from zero, the low value for ψ is consistent with spin-orbit alignment. We also measure various transit parameters of the KOI-368 system: R {sub KOI-368} = 2.28 ± 0.02 R {sub ☉}, R{sub p} = 1.83 ± 0.02 R {sub jup}, and i = 89.°221 ± 0.°013. This work shows that our gravity-darkened model can constrain long-period, well-aligned planets and M-class stars orbiting fast-rotators, allowing for measurement of a new subcategory of transiting bodies.

  4. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF THE 0.94-DAY PERIOD TRANSITING PLANETARY SYSTEM WASP-18

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, John; Anderson, D. R.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Hinse, T. C.; Dominik, M.; Mathiasen, M.; Browne, P.; Glitrup, M.; Joergensen, U. G.; Harpsoee, K.; Liebig, C.; Maier, G.; Bozza, V.; Calchi Novati, S.; Mancini, L.; Burgdorf, M.; Dreizler, S.; Hessman, F.; Hundertmark, M.; Finet, F.

    2009-12-10

    We present high-precision photometry of five consecutive transits of WASP-18, an extrasolar planetary system with one of the shortest orbital periods known. Through the use of telescope defocusing we achieve a photometric precision of 0.47-0.83 mmag per observation over complete transit events. The data are analyzed using the JKTEBOP code and three different sets of stellar evolutionary models. We find the mass and radius of the planet to be M {sub b} = 10.43 +- 0.30 +- 0.24 M {sub Jup} and R {sub b} = 1.165 +- 0.055 +- 0.014 R {sub Jup} (statistical and systematic errors), respectively. The systematic errors in the orbital separation and the stellar and planetary masses, arising from the use of theoretical predictions, are of a similar size to the statistical errors and set a limit on our understanding of the WASP-18 system. We point out that seven of the nine known massive transiting planets (M {sub b} > 3 M {sub Jup}) have eccentric orbits, whereas significant orbital eccentricity has been detected for only four of the 46 less-massive planets. This may indicate that there are two different populations of transiting planets, but could also be explained by observational biases. Further radial velocity observations of low-mass planets will make it possible to choose between these two scenarios.

  5. "A Day in the Life": Advancing a Methodology for the Cultural Study of Development and Learning in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen, Julia; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Tapanya, Sombat; Pinto, Giuliana; Hancock, Roger; Young, Susan; Gamannossi, Beatrice Accorti

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the methodology of an ecological investigation of aspects of culture in the interactional construction of early childhood in diverse global communities: Peru, Italy, Canada, Thailand, and the United Kingdom. Regarding culture as a dynamic dimension of the child's socialisation, the approach taken was to film a "day in the life"…

  6. "A Day in the Life": Advancing a Methodology for the Cultural Study of Development and Learning in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen, Julia; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Tapanya, Sombat; Pinto, Giuliana; Hancock, Roger; Young, Susan; Gamannossi, Beatrice Accorti

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores the methodology of an ecological investigation of aspects of culture in the interactional construction of early childhood in diverse global communities: Peru, Italy, Canada, Thailand, and the United Kingdom. Regarding culture as a dynamic dimension of the child's socialisation, the approach taken was to film a "day in the life"

  7. The response of middle atmospheric ozone to solar UV irradiance variations with a period of 27 days

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, LI; Brasseur, Guy; London, Julius

    1994-01-01

    A one-dimensional photochemical-dynamical-radiative time-dependent model was used to study the response of middle atmospheric temperature and ozone to solar UV irradiance variations with the period of 27 days. The model solar UV O(x), HO(x), NO(x), and CIO(x)families and modeled solar UV variations. The amplitude of the primary temperature response to the solar UV variation is plus 0.4 K at 85-90 km with a phase lag of about 6 days. A secondary maximum response of plus 0.3 K at 45-50 km appears with a phase lag of 1 day. There is a maximum positive ozone response to the 27-day solar UV oscillation of 2.5 percent at 80-90 km with a phase lag of about 10 days after the solar irradiance maximum. At 70 km the ozone response is about 1.2 percent and is out of phase with the solar variation. In the upper stratosphere (40-50 km) the relative ozone variation is small, about 0.2 percent to 0.3 percent, and there is a negative phase of about 4 days between the ozone and solar oscillations. These oscillations are in phase in the middle stratosphere (35-40 km) where there is again a maximum relative response of about 0.6 percent. The reasons for these ozone amplitude and phase variations are discussed.

  8. Validation of shortened 2-day sterility testing of mesenchymal stem cell-based therapeutic preparation on an automated culture system.

    PubMed

    Lysák, Daniel; Holubová, Monika; Bergerová, Tamara; Vávrová, Monika; Cangemi, Giuseppina Cristina; Ciccocioppo, Rachele; Kruzliak, Peter; Jindra, Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Cell therapy products represent a new trend of treatment in the field of immunotherapy and regenerative medicine. Their biological nature and multistep preparation procedure require the application of complex release criteria and quality control. Microbial contamination of cell therapy products is a potential source of morbidity in recipients. The automated blood culture systems are widely used for the detection of microorganisms in cell therapy products. However the standard 2-week cultivation period is too long for some cell-based treatments and alternative methods have to be devised. We tried to verify whether a shortened cultivation of the supernatant from the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) culture obtained 2 days before the cell harvest could sufficiently detect microbial growth and allow the release of MSC for clinical application. We compared the standard Ph. Eur. cultivation method and the automated blood culture system BACTEC (Becton Dickinson). The time to detection (TTD) and the detection limit were analyzed for three bacterial and two fungal strains. The Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were recognized within 24 h with both methods (detection limit ~10 CFU). The time required for the detection of Bacillus subtilis was shorter with the automated method (TTD 10.3 vs. 60 h for 10-100 CFU). The BACTEC system reached significantly shorter times to the detection of Candida albicans and Aspergillus brasiliensis growth compared to the classical method (15.5 vs. 48 and 31.5 vs. 48 h, respectively; 10-100 CFU). The positivity was demonstrated within 48 h in all bottles, regardless of the size of the inoculum. This study validated the automated cultivation system as a method able to detect all tested microorganisms within a 48-h period with a detection limit of ~10 CFU. Only in case of B. subtilis, the lowest inoculum (~10 CFU) was not recognized. The 2-day cultivation technique is then capable of confirming the microbiological safety of MSC and allows their timely release for clinical application. PMID:26143146

  9. Factors influencing the chance of cows being pregnant 30 days after the herd voluntary waiting period.

    PubMed

    Löf, E; Gustafsson, H; Emanuelson, U

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to study factors affecting a reproductive performance indicator at the cow level adjusted for herd management strategy. Associations between the outcome variable, pregnant or not at the herd voluntary waiting period (VWP) plus 30d (pregnant at VWP+30), and the predictor variables were analyzed using a multivariable, generalized estimation equations model that adjusted for clustering of the data at the herd level. The statistical analysis was stratified on parity. In total, 132,721 cows were retained for analyses, of which 29,113 (22%) were pregnant at VWP+30d. Of the nonpregnant cows, 81,483 cows had records of artificial inseminations (AI) and 22,125 cows had no records of AI. The chance of pregnancy was higher for cows of the Swedish Red and for other/crossbreeds compared with Swedish Holstein, for cows from herds with high heat detection efficiency compared with cows from herds with medium and low heat detection efficiency, for cows from herds with long VWP (i.e., >51d) compared with cows from herds with short VWP (<51d), and for cows in freestalls compared with cows in tiestalls. The chance for pregnancy was lower for cows with severe problems at claw trimming compared with cows with no problems at trimming (only for second- and higher-parity cows), for cows that had a record of reproduction-related disease, for cows that had a record of any other disease compared with cows without record, for second- and higher-parity cows with records of dystocia compared with cows with no record of dystocia, for first-parity cows in the group with the highest milk yield compared with first-parity cows in the group with the lowest milk yield, for cows of third and higher parity in the group with the lowest milk yield compared with cows in higher yielding groups, for cows bred in summer compared with those bred in winter-spring (not significant for first-parity cows), and for cows with a twin birth had compared with cows with a single birth. We observed associations of the dose-response type, such that when the milk fat-to-protein ratio increased, the chance for pregnancy decreased, and as the somatic cell count increased, the chance for pregnancy decreased. In conclusion, factors that are known to affect reproductive efficiency also affect the chance of cows being pregnant at the herd VWP plus 30d. PMID:24485688

  10. Electromagnetic induction in the oceans and the anomalous behaviour of coastal C-responses for periods up to 20 days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuvshinov, Alexei V.; Olsen, Nils; Avdeev, Dmitry B.; Pankratov, Oleg V.

    2002-06-01

    Electromagnetic transfer functions at coastal sites are known to be strongly distorted by the conductivity of the seawater. This ocean effect is generally considered to be small for periods greater than a few days. We revise this statement by detailed and systematic model studies in the period range from 1 to 64 days, with subsequent comparison of the modelled and observed electromagnetic responses. The conductivity model consists of a radial symmetric (1-D) section that is overlaid by a thin spherical surface shell, the conductance of which is compiled using the NOAA ETOPO topography/bathymetry and map of sediment thicknesses. The simulations were performed for spatial resolutions of the surface shell of 5° × 5°, 2° × 2° and 1° × 1°, respectively, and for two, continental and oceanic, underlying 1-D conductivity models. The inducing source is described by the spherical harmonic P10 in dipole coordinates. Comparisons are made for the coastal geomagnetic observatories Apia, Hermanus, Kakioka, Kanoya, and Simosato where an anomalous behaviour of the local response has been previously detected. From the comparison of observed and modelled responses we conclude that peculiarities in the observed coastal responses in the period range from 1 to 20 days can be explained to a large amount by induction in the oceans. We show that correction for the ocean effect results in responses that are much better interpretable by 1-D conductivity models compared to the uncorrected responses.

  11. 76 FR 33395 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collections: ECA Sports & Culture Evaluation Surveys

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collections: ECA Sports & Culture Evaluation Surveys ACTION: Notice of... Information Collection: Sports & Culture Evaluation, Between the Lines (BTL) Survey. OMB Control Number: None... Respond: Voluntary. Title of Information Collection: Sports & Culture Evaluation, Sports Envoys...

  12. 76 FR 16030 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation Kennedy Center Mentor Survey, OMB... Policy and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation Kennedy Center Mentor Survey. OMB... larger Sports and Culture Evaluation to conduct a survey of exchange participants who participated in...

  13. 76 FR 16031 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation Kennedy Center Visitors Survey, OMB... Policy and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation Kennedy Center Visitors Survey... larger Sports and Culture Evaluation to conduct a survey of exchange participants who participated in...

  14. Expression of fetal-type intermediate filaments by 17-day-old rat Sertoli cells cultured on reconstituted basement membrane.

    PubMed

    Guillou, F; Monet-Kuntz, C; Fontaine, I; Flechon, J E

    1990-05-01

    The expression of cytokeratin- and vimentin-type intermediate filaments was studied by means of immunohistochemistry in Sertoli cells cultured on two types of reconstituted basement membrane in two-compartment culture chambers. In situ, the Sertoli cells of 17-day-old rats contained only vimentin intermediate filaments. During culture, a gradual reorganization of intermediate filaments accompanied by an increased cytokeratin immunoreactivity was observed. After 6 days, Sertoli cells contained both cytokeratin and vimentin, and the same cytokeratin type as in fetal and newborn testis was revealed by electrophoresis and immunoblotting. The present study shows that the isolation and culture of Sertoli cells causes, even in an improved culture system, qualitative changes in the expression of intermediate filament proteins. PMID:1694107

  15. Global Characteristics of the Correlation and Time Lag Between Solar and Ionospheric Parameters in the 27-day Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Choon-Ki; Han, Shin-Chan; Dieter,Bilitza; Ki-Weon,Seo

    2012-01-01

    The 27-day variations of topside ionosphere are investigated using the in-situ electron density measurements from the CHAMP planar Langmuir probe and GRACE K-band ranging system. As the two satellite systems orbit at the altitudes of approx. 370 km and approx. 480 km, respectively, the satellite data sets are greatly valuable for examining the electron density variations in the vicinity of F2-peak. In a 27-day period, the electron density measurements from the satellites are in good agreements with the solar flux, except during the solar minimum period. The time delays are mostly 1-2 day and represent the hemispherical asymmetry. The globally-estimated spatial patterns of the correlation between solar flux and in-situ satellite measurements show poor correlations in the (magnetic) equatorial region, which are not found from the ground measurements of vertically-integrated electron content. We suggest that the most plausible cause for the poor correlation is the vertical movement of ionization due to atmospheric dynamic processes that is not controlled by the solar extreme ultraviolet radiation.

  16. Quasi-periodic radar echoes from midlatitude sporadic E and role of the 5-day planetary wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunoda, Roland T.; Yamamoto, Mamoru; Igarashi, Kiyoshi; Hocke, Klemens; Fukao, Shoichiro

    Using measurements of magnetic-aspect-sensitive radar echoes from midlatitude sporadic E collected over a two-month period from Tanegashima, Japan, we show that while their occurrence duration from night to night did not exhibit any systematic variation, that of the so-called quasi-periodic (QP) echoes varied sinusoidally with a period of 5 days. We have interpreted this behavior in terms of effects produced by a planetary wave and identified its presence through neutral-wind measurements made with a partial-reflection drift radar located nearby at Yamagawa. We propose that the occurrence of QP echoes is affected both by a contribution of the wind to the dynamo electric field and by the direction of the neutral wind. We argue that because the wind vector of the planetary wave is elliptically polarized at midlatitudes, a preferred wind direction conducive to the generation of QP echoes occurs once every 5 days. On the other hand, this wave is linearly polarized and directed zonally over the geographic equator. The fact that QP echoes are most fully developed at midlatitudes and less so at lower latitudes suggests that zonal flow is not particularly favorable for QP echo production.

  17. The October-November, 2003 Solar Activity and its Relationship to the "approx. 155 day" Solar Periodicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, I. G.; Cane, H. V.

    2004-01-01

    Periodicities of approx. 155 days in various solar and interplanetary phenomena were first discovered during solar cycle 21 and have been shown to be intermittently present in other solar cycles. In the current solar cycle (23), they have been reported in solar energetic particle events and interplanetary coronal mass ejections. We assess whether the "unexpected" October - November 2003 burst of solar activity during the late declining phase of the cycle may have been a manifestation of such a periodic behavior, and hence might have been to some extent "predictable". If the pattern were to continue, episodes of enhanced activity might be expected around April - May and October, 2004. There was a modest increase activity increase in mid-April, 2004 which may conform to this pattern.

  18. The October-November, 2003 Solar Activity and its Relationship to the "approximately 155 day" Solar Periodicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, I. G.; Cane, H. V.

    2005-01-01

    Periodicities of - 155 days in various solar and interplanetary phenomena were first discovered during solar cycle 21 and have been shown t o be intermittently present in other solar cycles. In the current solar cycle (23), they have been reported in solar energetic particle events and interplanetary coronal maSS ejections. We assess whether the "unexpected" October - November 2003 burst of solar activity during the late declining phase of the cycle may have been a manifestation of such a periodic behavior, and hence might have been to =me extent "predictable". If the pattern were to continue, episodes of enhanced activity might be expected around April - May and October, 2004. There was a mod- est increase activity increase in mid-April, 2004 which may conform to this pattern.

  19. 76 FR 16033 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation BTL Survey, OMB Control Number 1405..., Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation BTL Survey. OMB Control Number: None. Type of Request: New... collection clearance will allow ECA/P/V as part of their larger Sports and Culture Evaluation to conduct...

  20. 76 FR 16033 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation IVLP Survey, OMB Control Number 1405..., Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation IVLP Survey. OMB Control Number: None. Type of Request: New... larger Sports and Culture Evaluation to conduct a survey of exchange participants who participated...

  1. 76 FR 16029 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation Envoys Survey, OMB Control Number... Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation Envoys Survey OMB Control Number: None Type of... collection clearance will allow ECA/P/V as part of their larger Sports and Culture Evaluation to conduct...

  2. 76 FR 16031 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation Sports Surveys, OMB Control Number... Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation Sports Surveys. OMB Control Number: None. Type... collection clearance will allow ECA/P/V as part of their larger Sports and Culture Evaluation to conduct...

  3. 76 FR 16032 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation IWP Survey, OMB Control Number 1405..., Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation IWP Survey. OMB Control Number: None. Type of Request: New... collection clearance will allow ECA/P/V as part of their larger Sports and Culture Evaluation to conduct...

  4. The Metabolomic Profile of Spent Culture Media from Day-3 Human Embryos Cultured under Low Oxygen Tension.

    PubMed

    de Los Santos, Maria José; Gámiz, Pilar; de Los Santos, José María; Romero, Josep Lluís; Prados, Nicolás; Alonso, Cristina; Remohí, José; Dominguez, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Despite efforts made to improve the in vitro embryo culture conditions used during assisted reproduction procedures, human embryos must adapt to different in vitro oxygen concentrations and the new metabolic milieu provided by the diverse culture media used for such protocols. It has been shown that the embryo culture environment can affect not only cellular metabolism, but also gene expression in different species of mammalian embryos. Therefore we wanted to compare the metabolic footprint left by human cleavage-stage embryos under two types of oxygen atmospheric culture conditions (6% and 20% O2). The spent culture media from 39 transferred and implanted embryos from a total of 22 patients undergoing egg donation treatment was analyzed; 23 embryos came from 13 patients in the 6% oxygen concentration group, and 16 embryos from 9 patients were used in the 20% oxygen concentration group. The multivariate statistics we used in our analysis showed that human cleavage-stage embryos grown under both types of oxygen concentration left a similar metabolic fingerprint. We failed to observe any change in the net depletion or release of relevant analytes, such as glucose and especially fatty acids, by human cleavage-stage embryos under either type of culture condition. Therefore it seems that low oxygen tension during embryo culture does not alter the global metabolism of human cleavage-stage embryos. PMID:26562014

  5. The Metabolomic Profile of Spent Culture Media from Day-3 Human Embryos Cultured under Low Oxygen Tension

    PubMed Central

    de los Santos, Maria José; Gámiz, Pilar; de los Santos, José María; Romero, Josep Lluís; Prados, Nicolás; Alonso, Cristina; Remohí, José; Dominguez, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Despite efforts made to improve the in vitro embryo culture conditions used during assisted reproduction procedures, human embryos must adapt to different in vitro oxygen concentrations and the new metabolic milieu provided by the diverse culture media used for such protocols. It has been shown that the embryo culture environment can affect not only cellular metabolism, but also gene expression in different species of mammalian embryos. Therefore we wanted to compare the metabolic footprint left by human cleavage-stage embryos under two types of oxygen atmospheric culture conditions (6% and 20% O2). The spent culture media from 39 transferred and implanted embryos from a total of 22 patients undergoing egg donation treatment was analyzed; 23 embryos came from 13 patients in the 6% oxygen concentration group, and 16 embryos from 9 patients were used in the 20% oxygen concentration group. The multivariate statistics we used in our analysis showed that human cleavage-stage embryos grown under both types of oxygen concentration left a similar metabolic fingerprint. We failed to observe any change in the net depletion or release of relevant analytes, such as glucose and especially fatty acids, by human cleavage-stage embryos under either type of culture condition. Therefore it seems that low oxygen tension during embryo culture does not alter the global metabolism of human cleavage-stage embryos. PMID:26562014

  6. SOPHIE velocimetry of Kepler transit candidates. XVII. The physical properties of giant exoplanets within 400 days of period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santerne, A.; Moutou, C.; Tsantaki, M.; Bouchy, F.; Hébrard, G.; Adibekyan, V.; Almenara, J.-M.; Amard, L.; Barros, S. C. C.; Boisse, I.; Bonomo, A. S.; Bruno, G.; Courcol, B.; Deleuil, M.; Demangeon, O.; Díaz, R. F.; Guillot, T.; Havel, M.; Montagnier, G.; Rajpurohit, A. S.; Rey, J.; Santos, N. C.

    2016-03-01

    While giant extrasolar planets have been studied for more than two decades now, there are still some open questions as to their dominant formation and migration processes, as well as to their atmospheric evolution in different stellar environments. In this paper, we study a sample of giant transiting exoplanets detected by the Kepler telescope with orbital periods up to 400 days. We first defined a sample of 129 giant-planet candidates that we followed up with the SOPHIE spectrograph (OHP, France) in a 6-year radial velocity campaign. This allowed us to unveil the nature of these candidates and to measure a false-positive rate of 54.6 ± 6.5% for giant-planet candidates orbiting within 400 days of period. Based on a sample of confirmed or likely planets, we then derived the occurrence rates of giant planets in different ranges of orbital periods. The overall occurrence rate of giant planets within 400 days is 4.6 ± 0.6%. We recovered, for the first time in the Kepler data, the different populations of giant planets reported by radial velocity surveys. Comparing these rates with other yields, we find that the occurrence rate of giant planets is lower only for hot Jupiters but not for the longer-period planets. We also derive a first measurement of the occurrence rate of brown dwarfs in the brown-dwarf desert with a value of 0.29 ± 0.17%. Finally, we discuss the physical properties of the giant planets in our sample. We confirm that giant planets receiving moderate irradiation are not inflated, but we find that they are on average smaller than predicted by formation and evolution models. In this regime of low-irradiated giant planets, we find a possible correlation between their bulk density and the iron abundance of the host star, which needs more detections to be confirmed. Based on observations made with SOPHIE on the 1.93 m telescope at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (CNRS), France.RV data (Appendices C and D) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/A64

  7. Physical and Behavioral Measures that Predict Cats’ Socialization in an Animal Shelter Environment during a Three Day Period

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Margaret; Garrison, Laurie; Miller, Katherine; Weiss, Emily; Drain, Natasha; Makolinski, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Information from surveys completed by the cats’ caregivers provided a score for the level of socialization of cats. We examined the effectiveness of structured assessments and measures in their ability to distinguish More and Less Socialized cats in a shelter-like setting over a three day period. Statistical models were developed that best predicted More and Less Socialized cats. Measures from these models were used to calculate a point system where more points indicated more socialization. In combination with key socialized behaviors, these points were able to fairly accurately distinguish More Socialized from Less Socialized cats. Abstract Animal welfare organizations typically take in cats with unknown levels of socialization towards humans, ranging from unsocialized cats well-socialized but lost pets. Agencies typically determine the socialization status and disposition options of cats within three days, when even a well-socialized pet may be too frightened of the unfamiliar surroundings to display its typical behavior. This is the third part of a three-phase project to develop and evaluate a reliable and valid tool to predict cats’ socialization levels. We recruited cats from the full spectrum of socialization and, using information from the cats’ caregivers regarding typical behavior toward familiar and unfamiliar people, assigned each cat to a Socialization Category. This information was compared to the cats’ behavior during three days of structured assessments conducted in a shelter-like setting. The results of logistic regression modeling generated two models using assessments from the mornings of the second and third day, focusing on predicting shyer or more aloof but socialized cats. Using the coefficients from each of these models, two sets of points were calculated which were useful in differentiating More and Less Socialized cats. In combination with key socialized behaviors, these points were able to fairly accurately identify More and Less Socialized cats. PMID:26479759

  8. The role of 3D microenvironmental organization in MCF-7 epithelial–mesenchymal transition after 7 culture days

    SciTech Connect

    Foroni, Laura; Vasuri, Francesco; Valente, Sabrina; Gualandi, Chiara; Focarete, Maria Letizia; Caprara, Giacomo; Scandola, Mariastella; D'Errico-Grigioni, Antonia; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea

    2013-06-10

    We present a multi-technique study on in vitro epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human MCF-7 cells cultured on electrospun scaffolds of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLA), with random and aligned fiber orientations. Our aim is to investigate the morphological and genetic characteristics induced by extracellular matrix in tumor cells cultured in different 3D environments, and at different time points. Cell vitality was assessed with AlamarBlue at days 1, 3, 5 and 7. Scanning electron microscopy was performed at culture days 3 and 7. Immunohistochemistry (for E-cadherin, β-catenin, cytokeratins, nucleophosmin, tubulin, Ki-67 and vimentin), immunofluorescence (for F-actin) western blot (for E-cadherin, β-catenin and vimentin) and transmission electron microscopy were carried out at day 7. An EMT gene array followed by PCR analysis confirmed the regulation of selected genes. At day 7, scanning electron microscopy on aligned-PLA revealed spindle-shaped cells gathered in buds and ribbon-like structures, with a higher nucleolar/nuclear ratio and a loss in E-cadherin and β-catenin at immunohistochemistry and western blot. An up-regulation of SMAD2, TGF-β2, TFPI2 and SOX10 was found in aligned-PLA compared to random-PLA cultured cells. The topography of the extracellular matrix has a role in tumor EMT, and a more aggressive phenotype characterizes MCF-7 cells cultured on aligned-PLA scaffold. -- Highlights: • After 7 culture days an aligned-PLA scaffold induces a spindle shape to MCF-7 cells. • Despite these changes, the aligned MCF-7 cells keep an epithelial phenotype. • The extracellular environment alone influences the E-cadherin/β-catenin axis. • The extracellular environment can promote the epithelial–mesenchymal transition.

  9. Impact of Magnet Culture in Maintaining Quality Outcomes During Periods of Organizational Transition.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Judith F Zedreck; Wolf, Gail; Dudjak, Linda; Jordan, Bernadette

    2015-01-01

    Organizational transition presents substantial risk to maintaining quality outcomes. The leadership style and culture present during periods of change and transition empower the frontline staff to react quickly and identify opportunities. The culture of Magnet develops the skill set that enables staff to be leaders in problem solving and identifying creative care delivery approaches. Objectives of this study were to analyze the impact of organizational transition on patient and staff satisfaction, quality, and safety in a Magnet-designated hospital and determine key factors contributing to these outcomes. PMID:25768059

  10. The Day Bolivian Students Came to School Motivating Students through Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davin, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    Like many elementary foreign language teachers, the author traveled from room to room to teach. Each room had different materials and a different classroom culture. This article describes how the author taught her students about Bolivia and how to motivate them through culture. It discusses a service-learning project that brings life-changing…

  11. A HIGHLY INCLINED ORBIT FOR THE 110 DAY PERIOD M-DWARF COMPANION KOI-368.01

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, George; Huang, Chelsea X.

    2013-10-20

    We report the detection of asymmetry in the transit light curves of the 110 day period companion to KOI-368, a rapidly rotating A-dwarf. The significant distortion in the transit light curve is attributed to spin-orbit misalignment between the transiting companion and the gravity darkened host star. Our analysis was based on 11 long cadence and 2 short cadence transits of KOI-368.01 from the Kepler mission, as well as stellar parameters determined from our follow-up spectroscopic observation. We measured the true obliquity between the orbit normal and the stellar rotation axis to be 69{sub -10}{sup +9o}. We also find a secondary eclipse event with depth 29 ± 3 ppm at phase 0.59, from which the temperature of the companion is constrained to 3060 ± 50 K, indicating that KOI-368.01 is a late M-dwarf. The eccentricity is also calculated from the eclipse to be 0.1429 ± 0.0007. The long period, high obliquity, and low eccentricity of KOI-368.01 allow us to limit a number of proposed theories for the misalignment of binary systems.

  12. Postnatal Day 2 to 11 Constitutes a 5-HT-Sensitive Period Impacting Adult mPFC Function

    PubMed Central

    Rebello, Tahilia J.; Yu, Qinghui; Goodfellow, Nathalie M.; Caffrey Cagliostro, Martha K.; Teissier, Anne; Morelli, Emanuela; Demireva, Elena Y.; Chemiakine, Alexei; Rosoklija, Gorazd B.; Dwork, Andrew J.; Lambe, Evelyn K.; Ansorge, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Early-life serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] signaling modulates brain development, which impacts adult behavior, but 5-HT-sensitive periods, neural substrates, and behavioral consequences remain poorly understood. Here we identify the period ranging from postnatal day 2 (P2) to P11 as 5-HT sensitive, with 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) blockade increasing anxiety- and depression-like behavior, and impairing fear extinction learning and memory in adult mice. Concomitantly, P2–P11 5-HTT blockade causes dendritic hypotrophy and reduced excitability of infralimbic (IL) cortex pyramidal neurons that normally promote fear extinction. By contrast, the neighboring prelimbic (PL) pyramidal neurons, which normally inhibit fear extinction, become more excitable. Excitotoxic IL but not PL lesions in adult control mice reproduce the anxiety-related phenotypes. These findings suggest that increased 5-HT signaling during P2–P11 alters adult mPFC function to increase anxiety and impair fear extinction, and imply a differential role for IL and PL neurons in regulating affective behaviors. Together, our results support a developmental mechanism for the etiology and pathophysiology of affective disorders and fear-related behaviors. PMID:25209278

  13. Planktonic and biofilm community characterization and Salmonella resistance of 14-day old chicken cecal microflora derived continuous-flow cultures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    These studies were initiated to compare the composition of GIT bacterial communities in birds during the transition period in age where their susceptibility to Salmonella shifts to resistance. One of the challenges to developing probiotics is to develop an efficacious culture of minimal diversity, ...

  14. Multiparametric temporal analysis of the Caco-2/TC7 demonstrated functional and differentiated monolayers as early as 14 days of culture.

    PubMed

    Zeller, Perrine; Bricks, Thibault; Vidal, Guillaume; Jacques, Sébastien; Anton, Pauline M; Leclerc, Eric

    2015-05-25

    Reducing the differentiation period for obtaining an in vitro intestinal barrier model is required to reduce the duration and cost for drug screening assays. In this frame, the Caco-2/TC7 subclone differentiation state was investigated from day 0 (D0) to day 32 (D32). As such, the expression of 45 genes (including cell junction, cell polarization, cell functionality, drug transport and metabolism genes) was followed throughout the 32 days. In parallel, the monolayer polarization and the formation of the cellular junctions were characterized by the immuno-staining of occludin, claudin-1 and actin proteins. The cell monolayer permeability was analyzed via transepithelial electric resistance measurements and paracellular transport of Lucifer Yellow. The P-gp efflux efficiency was assessed by rhodamine 123 transport. Alkaline phosphate activity was quantified to assess the cell differentiation. Three stages of differentiation were observed using the clustering of principal component analysis of the RTqPCR data and the overall assays. From D0 to D10, cells were in a proliferation stage and under-differentiated; from D14 to D21 a stable differentiation stage was reached; from D25 to D32 the epithelium seemed to enter into a post-differentiated stage. This study demonstrates that Caco-2/TC7 cells are functional and ready for use in drug screening permeability assays from 14 days in culture when compared with conventional 21 days for Caco-2 cells. In addition, this study provides a refined set of data allowing temporal and multi scale investigations, due to the intracellular kinetics and mRNA levels that can be correlated with membrane protein kinetics and functional extracellular activities. Therefore, shorter time in culture combined with a better knowledge of the cells during the time in culture will in turn help to improve the quality and cost of Caco-2/TC7 assays for drug development. PMID:25725134

  15. Use of a lactobacillus-based probiotic culture to reduce Salmonella in day of hatch broilers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A commercially available Lactobacillus probiotic (FM-B11™ Ivesco LLC) (B11) significantly reduced Salmonella recovery from day-of-hatch chicks in several studies. For all experiments, day-of-hatch male broiler chicks (n=40 per pen) were challenged with approximately 10**4 cfu per chick of Salmonell...

  16. Cultural/Favorite Recipe Day: Strengthening Approaches to Increase Culturally Diverse Foods Served in Head Start Meals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jessica A.; Agrawal, Tara; Carter, Sonia; Grinder, AnnMarie; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    One approach to halting the childhood obesity epidemic has been the modification of foods available to children during the school day. In recent years there has been an increased focus on obesity prevention efforts among children ages birth to 5 and the role of child care settings in prevention efforts. Head Start serves as an important venue for

  17. Cultural/Favorite Recipe Day: Strengthening Approaches to Increase Culturally Diverse Foods Served in Head Start Meals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jessica A.; Agrawal, Tara; Carter, Sonia; Grinder, AnnMarie; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    One approach to halting the childhood obesity epidemic has been the modification of foods available to children during the school day. In recent years there has been an increased focus on obesity prevention efforts among children ages birth to 5 and the role of child care settings in prevention efforts. Head Start serves as an important venue for…

  18. Effects of timing of vaccination (day 0 versus day 14 of a receiving period) with a modified-live respiratory viral vaccine on performance, feed intake, and febrile response of beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of timing of the administration of a modified-live respiratory viral vaccine on day 0 or on day 14 of a receiving period on performance, feed intake, and febrile response in beef heifers. Our hypothesis was vaccine timing will alter febrile res...

  19. Effects of timing of a modified-live respiratory viral vaccination (day 0 versus day 14 of a receiving period) on performance, feed intake, and febrile response of beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of timing associated with the administration of a modified-live respiratory viral vaccine (IBR-PI3-BRSV-BVD) on day 0 or on day 14 of a receiving period on performance, feed intake, and the febrile response in beef heifers. Our hypothesis was t...

  20. Effects of a Seven Day Overload-Period of High-Intensity Training on Performance and Physiology of Competitive Cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Bradley; Costa, Vitor P.; O'Brien, Brendan J.; Guglielmo, Luiz G.; Paton, Carl D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Competitive endurance athletes commonly undertake periods of overload training in the weeks prior to major competitions. This investigation examined the effects of two seven-day high-intensity overload training regimes (HIT) on performance and physiological characteristics of competitive cyclists. Design The study was a matched groups, controlled trial. Methods Twenty-eight male cyclists (mean ± SD, Age: 33±10 years, Mass 74±7 kg, VO2 peak 4.7±0.5 L·min−1) were assigned to a control group or one of two training groups for seven consecutive days of HIT. Before and after training cyclists completed an ergometer based incremental exercise test and a 20-km time-trial. The HIT sessions were ∼120 minutes in duration and consisted of matched volumes of 5, 10 and 20 second (short) or 15, 30 and 45 second (long) maximal intensity efforts. Results Both the short and long HIT regimes led to significant (p<0.05) gains in time trial performance compared to the control group. Relative to the control group, the mean changes (±90% confidence limits) in time-trial power were 8.2%±3.8% and 10.4%±4.3% for the short and long HIT regimes respectively; corresponding increases in peak power in the incremental test were 5.5%±2.7% and 9.5%±2.5%. Both HIT (short vs long) interventions led to non-significant (p>0.05) increases (mean ± SD) in VO2 peak (2.3%±4.7% vs 3.5%±6.2%), lactate threshold power (3.6%±3.5% vs 2.9%±5.3%) and gross efficiency (3.2%±2.4% vs 5.1%±3.9%) with only small differences between HIT regimes. Conclusions Seven days of overload HIT induces substantial enhancements in time-trial performance despite non-significant increases in physiological measures with competitive cyclists. PMID:25521824

  1. An orbital period of 0.94 days for the hot-Jupiter planet WASP-18b.

    PubMed

    Hellier, Coel; Anderson, D R; Cameron, A Collier; Gillon, M; Hebb, L; Maxted, P F L; Queloz, D; Smalley, B; Triaud, A H M J; West, R G; Wilson, D M; Bentley, S J; Enoch, B; Horne, K; Irwin, J; Lister, T A; Mayor, M; Parley, N; Pepe, F; Pollacco, D L; Segransan, D; Udry, S; Wheatley, P J

    2009-08-27

    The 'hot Jupiters' that abound in lists of known extrasolar planets are thought to have formed far from their host stars, but migrate inwards through interactions with the proto-planetary disk from which they were born, or by an alternative mechanism such as planet-planet scattering. The hot Jupiters closest to their parent stars, at orbital distances of only approximately 0.02 astronomical units, have strong tidal interactions, and systems such as OGLE-TR-56 have been suggested as tests of tidal dissipation theory. Here we report the discovery of planet WASP-18b with an orbital period of 0.94 days and a mass of ten Jupiter masses (10 M(Jup)), resulting in a tidal interaction an order of magnitude stronger than that of planet OGLE-TR-56b. Under the assumption that the tidal-dissipation parameter Q of the host star is of the order of 10(6), as measured for Solar System bodies and binary stars and as often applied to extrasolar planets, WASP-18b will be spiralling inwards on a timescale less than a thousandth that of the lifetime of its host star. Therefore either WASP-18 is in a rare, exceptionally short-lived state, or the tidal dissipation in this system (and possibly other hot-Jupiter systems) must be much weaker than in the Solar System. PMID:19713926

  2. The quasi 2 day wave activities during 2007 austral summer period as revealed by Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Sheng-Yang; Liu, Han-Li; Pedatella, N. M.; Dou, Xiankang; Li, Tao; Chen, Tingdi

    2016-03-01

    The quasi 2 day wave (QTDW) observed during 2007 austral summer period is well reproduced in an reanalysis produced by the data assimilation version of the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM + Data Assimilation Research Testbed) developed at National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). It is found that the QTDW peaked 3 times from January to February but with different zonal wave numbers. Diagnostic analysis shows that the mean flow instabilities, refractive index, and critical layers of QTDWs are fundamental for their propagation and amplification, and thus, the temporal variations of the background wind are responsible for the different wave number structures at different times. The westward propagating wave number 2 mode (W2) grew and maximized in the first half of January, when the mean flow instabilities related to the summer easterly jet were enclosed by the critical layers of the westward propagating wave number 3 (W3) and wave number 4 (W4) modes. This prevented W3 and W4 from approaching and extracting energy from the unstable region. The W2 decayed rapidly thereafter due to the recession of critical layer and thus the lack of additional amplification by the mean flow instability. The W3 peaked in late January, when the instabilities were still encircled by the critical layer of W4. The attenuation of W3 afterward was also due to the disappearance of critical layer and thus the lack of overreflection. Finally, the W4 peaked in late February when both the instability and critical layer were appropriate.

  3. Podcasts as a Learning Tool: German Language and Culture Every Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Podcasts provide a straightforward opportunity to stay connected with language, culture, and recent events of German-speaking countries. Podcasts offer clearly articulated, authentic material that can be automatically and regularly delivered to your computer and classrooms; continuously exposing students and teachers to German. This article…

  4. The Class and Cultural Functions of Obesity Discourse: Our Latter Day Child Saving Movement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, John; Davies, Brian; Rich, Emma

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the inexorable rise of "health" as regulative discourse, highlighting its class and cultural dimensions. With reference to the policy content of recent obesity reports, analysis suggests that contemporary concerns around obesity are but a modern variant of earlier eighteenth and nineteenth century child saving crusades whose…

  5. A "Day in the Lives" of Four Resilient Youths: Cultural Roots of Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theron, Linda; Cameron, Catherine Ann; Didkowsky, Nora; Lau, Cindy; Liebenberg, Linda; Ungar, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Grounded in the examples of four impoverished, relocated youths (two Sesotho-speaking orphans in South Africa and two Mexican immigrants in Canada), we explore cultural factors as potential roots of resilience. We triangulate rich qualitative findings (visual, dialogical, and observational) to foreground the particular, as well as acknowledge the…

  6. HepG2 cells develop signs of riboflavin deficiency within four days of culture in riboflavin-deficient medium*

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Ricarda; Manthey, Karoline C.; Griffin, Jacob B.; Zempleni, Janos

    2006-01-01

    Flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide are essential coenzymes in redox reactions. For example, flavin adenine dinucleotide is a coenzyme for both glutathione reductase and enzymes that mediate the oxidative folding of secretory proteins. Here we investigated short-term effects of moderately riboflavin-deficient culture medium on flavin-related responses in HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells. Cells were cultured in riboflavin-deficient (3.1 nmol/L) medium for up to six days; controls were cultured in riboflavin-sufficient (532 nmol/L) medium. The activity of glutathione reductase decreased by 98% within four days of riboflavin-deficient culture. Transport rates of riboflavin increased in response to riboflavin depletion, whereas expression of enzymes mediating flavocoenzyme synthesis (flavokinase and flavin adenine dinucleotide synthetase) decreased in response to depletion. The oxidative folding and synthesis of plasminogen and apolipoprotein B-100, respectively, was impaired within four days of culture in riboflavin-deficient medium; this is consistent with impaired processing of secretory proteins in riboflavin-deficient cells. Riboflavin depletion was associated with increased DNA-binding activities of transcription factors with affinity for endoplasmic reticulum stress elements and NF-κB consensus elements, suggesting cell stress. Moreover, the abundance of the stress-induced protein GADD153 was greater in riboflavin-deficient cells compared with controls. Riboflavin deficiency was associated with decreased rates of cell proliferation caused by arrest in G1 phase of the cell cycle. These studies are consistent with the hypothesis that HepG2 cells have a great demand for riboflavin, and that cell stress develops rapidly if riboflavin supply is marginally low. PMID:16081269

  7. Primitive lymphohematopoietic precursor cell lines generated in culture from day 7 early-mid-primitive streak stage mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Palacios, R; Imhof, B A

    1996-12-16

    During mouse development, the first lymphohematopoietic precursor cells and myeloid or erythroid cell lineage-determined cells can be detected in the yolk sac at days 8-8.5 of gestation. The characteristics of the cells that give rise to these yolk sac primitive lymphohematopoietic cells and the molecular events controlling this process remain poorly defined. We show here that cell suspensions from day 7 early-mid-primitive streak stage embryo proper generated early immature PgP-1+ Joro 177+ Lin- hematopoietic cells and some Mac-1+ myeloid and TER 119+ erythroid cells after co-culture with the yolk sac-derived stromal cell line YS6 without addition of exogenous cytokines. Purified Lin- hematopoietic cells generated in these cultures did not express genes known to be transcribed at early stages of lymphoid, myeloid or erythroid cell differentiation and were able to give rise to T and B lymphocytes, myeloid cells and erythroid cells after appropriate further induction in vitro. Several cell lines were established in culture with a mixture of four cytokines from the PgP-1+ Joro 177+ Lin- cell population. The cell lines shared phenotypic and genotypic characteristics with the PgP-1+ Joro 177+ Lin- cell population generated in culture from day 7 embryo proper and they were able to reconstitute the lymphohematopoietic system of irradiated mice. Taken together these results support a model of lymphohematopoiesis in which cells from day 7 early-mid-primitive streak mouse embryo proper migrate and colonize the visceral yolk sac. There they generate primitive lymphohematopoietic precursor cells and the first erythroid and myeloid hematopoietic cells under the influence of yolk sac stromal cells like the YS6 cells described here. PMID:9003763

  8. Improvement of development of equine preantral follicles after 6 days of in vitro culture with ascorbic acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Gomes, R G; Lisboa, L A; Silva, C B; Max, M C; Marino, P C; Oliveira, R L; González, S M; Barreiros, T R R; Marinho, L S R; Seneda, M M

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different concentrations of ascorbic acid (25, 50, and 100 μg/mL) in supplemented minimum essential medium (MEM+) on the development of equine preantral follicles that were cultured in vitro for 2 or 6 days. The contralateral ovaries (n = 5) from five mares in seasonal anestrus were collected from a local abattoir. Nine ovarian tissue fragments of approximately 5 × 5 × 1 mm were obtained from each animal. One fragment was immediately fixed and subjected to histologic analysis (control group; Day 0), and the other eight were placed in PBS supplemented with penicillin (200 IU/mL) and streptomycin (200 mg/mL) at 4 °C for 1 hour (during transport to the laboratory). The fragments were cultured in situ for 2 days (D2) or 6 days (D6) in MEM+ or MEM+ plus ascorbic acid at three different concentrations, establishing the following nine groups: control; MEM+ (D2); MEM+ (D6); MEM+ 25 μg/mL of ascorbic acid (D2); MEM+ 25 μg/mL of ascorbic acid (D6); MEM+ 50 μg/mL of ascorbic acid (D2); MEM+ 50 μg/mL of ascorbic acid (D6); MEM+ 100 μg/mL of ascorbic acid (D2); and MEM+ 100 μg/mL of ascorbic acid (D6). The preantral follicles were classified according to their stage (primordial, primary, secondary, or antral) and their morphology (normal or abnormal). Slides (n = 951) including 4450 histologic sections were evaluated. Follicles were observed in only 4.85% (216 of 4450) of the histologic sections. Of the 407 follicles evaluated, 120 were in the primordial stage and 287 were in different developmental stages; additionally, 43.5% were morphologically normal. After 6 days of culture, the groups cultured with 50 and 100 μg/mL of ascorbic acid differed in terms of follicular development compared with the other groups. On the basis of occurrence of follicular development and the presence of viable follicles, it can be concluded that a positive effect of culture for 6 days in MEM+ supplemented with 50 and 100 μg/mL of ascorbic acid was observed on equine ovarian fragments. PMID:26074067

  9. 42 CFR 409.63 - Reduction of inpatient psychiatric benefit days available in the initial benefit period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... stay was for diagnosis or treatment of mental illness. (2) After entitlement, all psychiatric care days... there. The 60 days spent in the general hospital for psychiatric treatment before entitlement do not... days of psychiatric treatment in a general hospital. Thus, Medicare payment could be made only for...

  10. Culture and Character Education in a Jewish Day School: A Case Study of Life and Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roso, Calvin G.

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses how to teach character comprehensively by studying ways a school's concurrent curricula (the official curriculum, the operational curriculum, the extra curriculum, and the hidden curriculum) can be used to teach character to students. A single case study analyzes the curriculum at a Jewish day school by examining school…

  11. Cultural techniques for altering the flowering time and double-cropping short-day varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    July-plugged transplants of short-day cv. Strawberry Festival (Fragaria x ananassa), flowered in October and November even though they were grown under long photoperiods and warm temperatures (greater than 21 degrees C) in July and August. These unexpected results were attributed to a high plant de...

  12. 75 FR 60490 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ...The Department of State is seeking Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approval for the information collection described below. The purpose of this notice is to allow 60 days for public comment in the Federal Register preceding submission to OMB. We are conducting this process in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Bureau of......

  13. [Observation of the first mitose cycle of human lymphocytes after ten days in culture (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Doloy, M T; Le Go, R; Ducatez, G; Lepetit, J; Bourguignon, M

    1980-01-01

    A technique is described which allows the observation of the first in vitro division of human lymphocytes following a long lag period with no mitotic activity. This technique is useful when studying the effect of chronic aggressions on the chromosomes. PMID:6967292

  14. CTEPP-OH DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 10 (PERIODS 1-3): DAY CARE CENTER CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains data for CTEPP-OH concerning the childs activities at the day care center over the 48-h monitoring period. The diary was divided into three time periods over the 48-h monitoring interval. The Food Survey collected information on the frequency and types of ...

  15. CTEPP-OH DATA COLLECTED ON FORM 10 (PERIODS 1-3): DAY CARE CENTER CHILD ACTIVITY DIARY AND FOOD SURVEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This data set contains data for CTEPP-OH concerning the child’s activities at the day care center over the 48-h monitoring period. The diary was divided into three time periods over the 48-h monitoring interval. The Food Survey collected information on the frequency and types of ...

  16. 29 CFR 553.230 - Maximum hours standards for work periods of 7 to 28 days-section 7(k).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-section 7(k). 553.230 Section 553.230 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire Protection and Law Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Overtime... protection activities is 7.57 hours per day (rounded) and the ratio of 171 hours to 28 days for...

  17. 29 CFR 553.230 - Maximum hours standards for work periods of 7 to 28 days-section 7(k).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-section 7(k). 553.230 Section 553.230 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire Protection and Law Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Overtime... protection activities is 7.57 hours per day (rounded) and the ratio of 171 hours to 28 days for...

  18. 29 CFR 553.230 - Maximum hours standards for work periods of 7 to 28 days-section 7(k).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-section 7(k). 553.230 Section 553.230 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire Protection and Law Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Overtime... protection activities is 7.57 hours per day (rounded) and the ratio of 171 hours to 28 days for...

  19. 29 CFR 553.230 - Maximum hours standards for work periods of 7 to 28 days-section 7(k).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-section 7(k). 553.230 Section 553.230 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire Protection and Law Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Overtime... protection activities is 7.57 hours per day (rounded) and the ratio of 171 hours to 28 days for...

  20. Swift Reveals a ~5.7 Day Super-orbital Period in the M31 Globular Cluster X-Ray Binary XB158

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, R.; Garcia, M. R.; Murray, S. S.

    2015-03-01

    The M31 globular cluster X-ray binary XB158 (a.k.a. Bo 158) exhibits intensity dips on a 2.78 hr period in some observations, but not others. The short period suggests a low mass ratio, and an asymmetric, precessing disk due to additional tidal torques from the donor star since the disk crosses the 3:1 resonance. Previous theoretical three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamical modeling suggested a super-orbital disk precession period 29 ± 1 times the orbital period, i.e., ~81 ± 3 hr. We conducted a Swift monitoring campaign of 30 observations over ~1 month in order to search for evidence of such a super-orbital period. Fitting the 0.3-10 keV Swift X-Ray Telescope luminosity light curve with a sinusoid yielded a period of 5.65 ± 0.05 days, and a >5σ improvement in χ2 over the best fit constant intensity model. A Lomb-Scargle periodogram revealed that periods of 5.4-5.8 days were detected at a >3σ level, with a peak at 5.6 days. We consider this strong evidence for a 5.65 day super-orbital period, ~70% longer than the predicted period. The 0.3-10 keV luminosity varied by a factor of ~5, consistent with variations seen in long-term monitoring from Chandra. We conclude that other X-ray binaries exhibiting similar long-term behavior are likely to also be X-ray binaries with low mass ratios and super-orbital periods.

  1. African Easterly Waves in 30-day High-Resolution Global Simulations: A Case Study During the 2006 NAMMA Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Bo-Wen; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Wu, Man-Li C.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, extended -range (30 -day) high-resolution simulations with the NASA global mesoscale model are conducted to simulate the initiation and propagation of six consecutive African easterly waves (AEWs) from late August to September 2006 and their association with hurricane formation. It is shown that the statistical characteristics of individual AEWs are realistically simulated with larger errors in the 5th and 6th AEWs. Remarkable simulations of a mean African easterly jet (AEJ) are also obtained. Nine additional 30 -day experiments suggest that although land surface processes might contribute to the predictability of the AEJ and AEWs, the initiation and detailed evolution of AEWs still depend on the accurate representation of dynamic and land surface initial conditions and their time -varying nonlinear interactions. Of interest is the potential to extend the lead time for predicting hurricane formation (e.g., a lead time of up to 22 days) as the 4th AEW is realistically simulated.

  2. Analyzing the Relationship of Organizational Trust and Organizational Culture with Knowledge Sharing Behavior in Teachers of Second Intermediate Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahhosseini, Sakineh; Nadi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The present paper aims to study the relationship of organizational trust, organizational culture with knowledge sharing behavior among teachers of Second Intermediate Period in the City of Isfahan. Research method was correlation and statistical population included all teachers of Second Intermediate Period of Isfahan in academic year 2013-2014 (N…

  3. Analyzing the Relationship of Organizational Trust and Organizational Culture with Knowledge Sharing Behavior in Teachers of Second Intermediate Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahhosseini, Sakineh; Nadi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The present paper aims to study the relationship of organizational trust, organizational culture with knowledge sharing behavior among teachers of Second Intermediate Period in the City of Isfahan. Research method was correlation and statistical population included all teachers of Second Intermediate Period of Isfahan in academic year 2013-2014 (N

  4. Disparities in Fetal Death and First Day Death: The Influence of Risk Factors in 2 Time Periods

    PubMed Central

    Barfield, Wanda D.; Petrini, Joann; Ruben Smith

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined how changes in risk factors over time influence fetal, first day, and combined fetalfirst day mortality and subsequent racial/ethnic disparities. Methods. We selected deliveries to US resident non-Hispanic White and Black mothers from the linked live birthinfant death cohort and fetal deaths files (19951996; 20012002) and calculated changes over time of mortality rates, odds, and relative odds ratios (RORs) overall and among mothers with modifiable risk factors (smoking, diabetes, or hypertensive disorders). Results. Adjusted odds ratios (AORs) for fetal mortality overall (AOR?=?0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.96, 1.01) and among Blacks (AOR?=?0.98; 95% CI?=?0.93, 1.03) indicated no change over time. Among women with modifiable risk factors, the RORs indicated no change in disparities. The ROR was not significant for fetal mortality (ROR?=?0.96; 95% CI?=?0.83, 1.01) among smokers, but there was evidence of some decline. There was evidence of increase in RORs in fetal death among mothers with diabetes and hypertensive disorders, but differences were not significant. Conclusions. Disparities in fetal, first day, and combined fetalfirst day mortality have persisted and reflect discrepancies in care provision or other factors more challenging to measure. PMID:22698022

  5. Can the 62 Day X-ray Period of ULX M82 X-1 Be Due to a Precessing Accretion Disk?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2013-01-01

    We have analyzed all the archival RXTE/PCA monitoring observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) M82 X-1 in order to study the properties of its previously discovered 62 day X-ray period (Kaaret & Feng 2007). Based on the high coherence of the modulation it has been argued that the observed period is the orbital period of the binary. Utilizing a much longer data set than in previous studies we find: (1) The phase-resolved X-ray (3-15 keV) energy spectra - modeled with a thermal accretion disk and a power-law corona - suggest that the accretion disk's contribution to the total flux is responsible for the overall periodic modulation while the power-law flux remains approximately constant with phase. (2) Suggestive evidence for a sudden phase shift-of approximately 0.3 in phase (20 days)-between the first and the second halves of the light curve separated by roughly 1000 days. If confirmed, the implied timescale to change the period is approx. = 10 yrs, which is exceptionally fast for an orbital phenomenon. These independent pieces of evidence are consistent with the 62 day period being due to a precessing accretion disk, similar to the so-called super-orbital periods observed in systems like Her X-1, LMC X-4, and SS433. However, the timing evidence for a change in the period needs to be confirmed with additional observations. This should be possible with further monitoring of M82 with instruments such as the X-ray telescope (XRT) on board Swift.

  6. Physical and Behavioral Measures that Predict Cats' Socialization in an Animal Shelter Environment during a Three Day Period.

    PubMed

    Slater, Margaret; Garrison, Laurie; Miller, Katherine; Weiss, Emily; Drain, Natasha; Makolinski, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Animal welfare organizations typically take in cats with unknown levels of socialization towards humans, ranging from unsocialized cats well-socialized but lost pets. Agencies typically determine the socialization status and disposition options of cats within three days, when even a well-socialized pet may be too frightened of the unfamiliar surroundings to display its typical behavior. This is the third part of a three-phase project to develop and evaluate a reliable and valid tool to predict cats' socialization levels. We recruited cats from the full spectrum of socialization and, using information from the cats' caregivers regarding typical behavior toward familiar and unfamiliar people, assigned each cat to a Socialization Category. This information was compared to the cats' behavior during three days of structured assessments conducted in a shelter-like setting. The results of logistic regression modeling generated two models using assessments from the mornings of the second and third day, focusing on predicting shyer or more aloof but socialized cats. Using the coefficients from each of these models, two sets of points were calculated which were useful in differentiating More and Less Socialized cats. In combination with key socialized behaviors, these points were able to fairly accurately identify More and Less Socialized cats. PMID:26479759

  7. 42 CFR 137.135 - May the Secretary request and obtain an extension of time of the 45 day review period?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false May the Secretary request and obtain an extension of time of the 45 day review period? 137.135 Section 137.135 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  8. Effect of the fluid core on changes in the length of day due to long period tides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahr, J. M.; Smith, M. L.; Sasao, T.

    1981-01-01

    The long period luni-solar tidal potential is known to cause periodic changes in the earth's rotation rate. It is found that the effect of a dissipationless fluid outer core is to reduce the amplitudes of these tidal perturbations by about 11 percent. When the fluid core effect is added to Agnew and Farrell's (1978) estimate of the effect of an equilibrium ocean, the result is in accord with observation. The effects of dissipative processes within the fluid core are also examined. Out-of-phase perturbations are found which could be as large as about 10 ms at 18.6 yr. It is concluded, however, that the poorly understood decade fluctuations in the earth's rotation rate will prohibit observation of this effect.

  9. The CHARA Array Resolves the 1.1 Day Period Spectroscopic Binary HD 146361, the Shortest Period System Resolved To-Date

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Deepak; McAlister, H. A.

    2007-12-01

    We present a visual orbit for the spectroscopic binary, HD 146361, derived from observations at the CHARA Array's long baseline interferometer. The 26 calibrated visibility measurements obtained during May - July 2007 allow us to determine a full orbital solution and component masses for this known spectroscopic binary. The HD 146361 pair has a circular orbit of nearly equal-mass components with a good quality double-lined spectroscopic orbit (Dave Latham, private communication). We have adopted the well-constrained spectroscopic orbital elements and fit the angular semi-major axis, inclination, and longitude of nodes to the binary visibility curve equations. Using these elements and the Hipparcos parallax of 46.11 ± 0.98 mas, we obtain component masses of 1.046 ± 0.084 Msol and 1.000 ± 0.080 Msol. We have planned further observations of this system to reduce the mass uncertainties and may present an updated result at the meeting. This is the shortest period spectroscopic binary resolved as of yet with an interferometer. This work is being done in the context of Raghavan's thesis project, which is a survey of solar-type stars in the solar neighborhood. By completing this survey, we hope to build a comprehensive view of the environments around solar-type stars and improve our understanding of their habitats by analyzing their companions of all types - stars, brown dwarfs, and planets. We have chosen an unbiased, volume-limited sample of 455 primary stars as representatives of the solar-type stars in our Galaxy. Our effort is a modern update to the seminal work of Duquennoy & Mayor (1991) and will contribute to the broader subjects of stellar evolution and planetary system formation, evolution, and stability. Research at the CHARA Array is supported by the College of Arts and Sciences at Georgia State University and by the National Science Foundation through NSF Grant AST 0606958.

  10. Kepler and the seven dwarfs: detection of low-level day-time-scale periodic photometric variations in white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maoz, Dan; Mazeh, Tsevi; McQuillan, Amy

    2015-02-01

    We make use of the high photometric precision of Kepler to search for periodic modulations among 14 normal (DA- and DB-type, likely non-magnetic) hot white dwarfs (WDs). In five, and possibly up to seven of the WDs, we detect periodic, ˜2 h-10 d, variations, with semi-amplitudes of 60-2000 ppm, lower than ever seen in WDs. We consider various explanations: WD rotation combined with magnetic cool spots; rotation combined with magnetic dichroism; rotation combined with hotspots from an interstellar-medium accretion flow; transits by size ˜50-200 km objects; relativistic beaming due to reflex motion caused by a cool companion WD; or reflection/re-radiation of the primary WD light by a brown-dwarf or giant-planet companion, undergoing illumination phases as it orbits the WD. Each mechanism could be behind some of the variable WDs, but could not be responsible for all five to seven variable cases. Alternatively, the periodicity may arise from UV metal-line opacity, associated with accretion of rocky material, a phenomenon seen in ˜50 per cent of hot WDs. Non-uniform UV opacity, combined with WD rotation and fluorescent optical re-emission of the absorbed UV energy, could perhaps explain our findings. Even if reflection by a planet is the cause in only a few of the seven cases, it would imply that hot Jupiters are very common around WDs. If some of the rotation-related mechanisms are at work, then normal WDs rotate as slowly as do peculiar WDs, the only kind for which precise rotation measurements have been possible to date.

  11. Pathogenicity and pathogenesis of a United States porcine deltacoronavirus cell culture isolate in 5-day-old neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Gauger, Phillip; Stafne, Molly; Thomas, Joseph; Arruda, Paulo; Burrough, Eric; Madson, Darin; Brodie, Joseph; Magstadt, Drew; Derscheid, Rachel; Welch, Michael; Zhang, Jianqiang

    2015-08-01

    Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was first identified in Hong Kong in 2009-2010 and reported in United States swine for the first time in February 2014. However, diagnostic tools other than polymerase chain reaction for PDCoV detection were lacking and Koch's postulates had not been fulfilled to confirm the pathogenic potential of PDCoV. In the present study, PDCoV peptide-specific rabbit antisera were developed and used in immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry assays to assist PDCoV diagnostics. The pathogenicity and pathogenesis of PDCoV was investigated following orogastric inoculation of 5-day-old piglets with a plaque-purified PDCoV cell culture isolate (3 × 10(4) TCID50 per pig). The PDCoV-inoculated piglets developed mild to moderate diarrhea, shed increasing amount of virus in rectal swabs from 2 to 7 days post inoculation, and developed macroscopic and microscopic lesions in small intestines with viral antigen confirmed by immunohistochemistry staining. This study experimentally confirmed PDCoV pathogenicity and characterized PDCoV pathogenesis in neonatal piglets. PMID:25817405

  12. SWIFT OBSERVATIONS OF THE HIGH-MASS X-RAY BINARY IGR J16283-4838 UNVEIL A 288 DAY ORBITAL PERIOD

    SciTech Connect

    Cusumano, G.; Segreto, A.; La Parola, V.; D'Aì, A.; Masetti, N.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2013-09-20

    We report on the temporal and spectral properties of the high-mass X-ray binary IGR J16283-4838 in the hard X-ray band. We searched the first 88 months of Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) survey data for long-term periodic modulations. We also investigated the broad band (0.2-150 keV) spectral properties of IGR J16283-4838 complementing the BAT dataset with soft X-ray data from the available Swift-XRT pointed observations. The BAT light curve of IGR J16283-4838 revealed a periodic modulation at P{sub o} = 287.6 ± 1.7 days (with a significance higher than 4 standard deviations). The profile of the light curve folded at P{sub o} shows a sharp peak lasting ∼12 days over a flat plateau. The long-term light curve also shows a ∼300 day interval of prolonged enhanced emission. The observed phenomenology suggests that IGR J16283-4838 has a Be nature, where the narrow periodic peaks and the ∼300 day outburst can be interpreted as Type I and Type II outbursts, respectively. The broad band 0.2-150 keV spectrum can be described with an absorbed power-law and a steepening in the BAT energy range.

  13. Two-day period fluctuation of PMC occurrence over Syowa Station, Antarctica observed by a ground-based lidar and AIM satellite.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, T.; Suzuki, H.; Tsutsumi, M.; Ejiri, M. K.; Tomikawa, Y.; Abo, M.; Kawahara, T.; Tsuda, T. T.; Nishiyama, T.

    2014-12-01

    A Rayleigh/Raman lidar system has been operated by the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE) since February, 2011 (JARE 52nd) in Syowa Station Antarctica (69.0S, 39.5E). The lidar system consists of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser (355nm) as a transmitter and two telescopes with four photo multiplier tubes which are to detect Rayleigh scattered light from low and high atmosphere at 355 nm and N2 Raman emission at 387nm. Polar Mesospheric Cloud (PMC) was detected by the lidar at 22:30UT (+3hr for LT) on Feb 4th, 2011, the first day of a routine operation. This event was the first time to detect PMC over Syowa Station by a lidar [Suzuki et al., Ann. Geophys., 2013]. However, signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the PMC event was not so good due to large shot noises from daytime background signals. Moreover, a receiver system was designed mainly for nighttime observations. In this way, observation of PMC during the midnight sun, which also corresponds to most frequent PMC season, was difficult. Thus, to improve SNR of the PMC observation with the lidar during daytime, a narrow band-pass Fabry-Perot etalon unit has been developed and installed in the receiver system on Dec 2013 by JARE 55th. By using this new system, clear PMC signals were successfully detected under daylight condition during the period of summer operation of JARE55th. During this period of 53 days (from 17 Dec. 2013 to 7 Feb. 2014), only 11 days were with a clear sky and suitable for PMC observation. Thus, it was difficult to study temporal variations on a PMC activity only by using the lidar data. Fortunately, NASA's AIM satellite had passed near Syowa Station and provided with complimentary PMC data during observation gap of the lidar. By combining our lidar data with the AIM/CIPS data, nearly continuous monitoring of PMC variability over Syowa Station was achieved for period between 13th and 18th in January 2014. PMC occurrence with an interval of two days over Syowa Station during the period was clearly confirmed. Co-located MF radar also showed clear two days fluctuation in horizontal wind velocities around PMC altitude during the same period. In this presentation, we will discuss the cause of the two-day oscillation found in PMC occurrence and horizontal wind velocity. In particular, two-day planetary wave will be quantitatively investigated as a potential cause of the fluctuation.

  14. Three Cases of West Nile Encephalitis over an Eight-Day Period at a Downtown Los Angeles Community Hospital.

    PubMed

    Puchalski, Adam; Liu, Antonio K; Williams, Byron

    2015-01-01

    Since its introduction in New York City in 1999, the virus has spread throughout the entire North American continent and continues to spread into Central and Latin America. Our report discusses the signs and symptoms, diagnostics, and treatment of West Nile disease. It is important to recognize the disease quickly and initiate appropriate treatment. We present three cases of West Nile encephalitis at White Memorial Medical Center in East Los Angeles that occurred over the span of eight days. All three patients live within four to six miles from the hospital and do not live or work in an environment favorable to mosquitoes including shallow bodies of standing water, abandoned tires, or mud ruts. All the patients were Hispanic. Physicians and other health care providers should consider West Nile infection in the differential diagnosis of causes of aseptic meningitis and encephalitis, obtain appropriate laboratory studies, and promptly report cases to public health authorities. State governments should establish abatement programs that will eliminate sources that allow for mosquito reproduction and harboring. The public needs to be given resources that educate them on what entails the disease caused by the West Nile virus, what the symptoms are, and, most importantly, what they can do to prevent themselves from becoming infected. PMID:26106493

  15. Earth Observing-1 Advanced Imager Flight Performance Assessment: Investigating Dark Current Stability Over One-Half Orbit Period during the First 60 Days

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendenhall, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    The stability of the EO-1 Advanced Land Imager dark current levels over the period of one-half orbit is investigated. A series of two-second dark current collections, over the course of 40 minutes, was performed during the first sixty days the instrument was in orbit. Analysis of this data indicates only two dark current reference periods, obtained entering and exiting eclipse, are required to remove ALI dark current offsets for 99.9% of the focal plane to within 1.5 digital numbers for any observation on the solar illuminated portion of the orbit.

  16. Continuous Influenza Virus Production in Cell Culture Shows a Periodic Accumulation of Defective Interfering Particles

    PubMed Central

    Pflugmacher, Antje; Behrendt, Ilona; Jordan, Ingo; Flockerzi, Dietrich; Genzel, Yvonne; Reichl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    Influenza viruses are a major public health burden during seasonal epidemics and a continuous threat due to their potential to cause pandemics. Annual vaccination provides the best protection against the contagious respiratory illness caused by influenza viruses. However, the current production capacities for influenza vaccines are insufficient to meet the increasing demands. We explored the possibility to establish a continuous production process for influenza viruses using the duck-derived suspension cell line AGE1.CR. A two-stage bioreactor setup was designed in which cells were cultivated in a first stirred tank reactor where an almost constant cell concentration was maintained. Cells were then constantly fed to a second bioreactor where virus infection and replication took place. Using this two-stage reactor system, it was possible to continuously produce influenza viruses. Surprisingly, virus titers showed a periodic increase and decrease during the run-time of 17 days. These titer fluctuations were caused by the presence of defective interfering particles (DIPs), which we detected by PCR. Mathematical modeling confirmed this observation showing that constant virus titers can only emerge in the absence of DIPs. Even with very low amounts of DIPs in the seed virus and very low rates for de novo DIP generation, defective viruses rapidly accumulate and, therefore, represent a serious challenge for continuous vaccine production. Yet, the continuous replication of influenza virus using a two-stage bioreactor setup is a novel tool to study aspects of viral evolution and the impact of DIPs. PMID:24039749

  17. Modulation of innate immune function and phenotype in bred dairy heifers during the periparturient period induced by feeding an immunostimulant for 60 days prior to delivery.

    PubMed

    Nace, E L; Nickerson, S C; Kautz, F M; Breidling, S; Wochele, D; Ely, L O; Hurley, D J

    2014-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a feed additive (OmniGen-AF(®), reported to have immune modulating activity) on innate immunity and health events during the periparturient period in dairy heifers when immunity is suppressed. From 60 days prepartum through calving, supplemented heifers (n=20) received OmniGen-AF(®) daily and were compared with unsupplemented controls (n=20). Blood leukocyte innate immune activity (phenotype markers, phagocytic activity, and reactive oxygen species--ROS production) was measured prior to feeding (60 days prepartum), 30 days later, and on days 1, 7, 14, and 30 postpartum. Adverse health events (udder edema, ketosis, displaced abomasum, and death) and milk production were measured at calving and into early lactation. The fraction of leukocytes with measurable CD62L (L-selectin) on their surface from supplemented heifers tended to be greater during the periparturient period in treated heifers than controls (p=0.100). Likewise, leukocyte phagocytosis of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus during this time period tended to be greater in heifers supplemented with OmniGen-AF(®) (p=0.100). Conversely, ROS production in response to phorbol myristate acetate or when leukocytes were stimulated with killed S. aureus lysate tended to be greater among control heifers compared with supplemented animals (p=0.100). Supplemented heifers exhibited fewer incidents of udder edema than controls (p=0.030) and tended to exhibit a lower rate of new cases of mastitis (p=0.098); however, no differences were observed in milk somatic cell counts or level of milk production. Results demonstrate a positive role of OmniGen-AF(®) in amplifying leukocyte function consistent with antibacterial activity during the periparturient period, and support the continued study of dietary supplementation to enhance mammary gland health in dairy cows. PMID:25219783

  18. 29 CFR 37.79 - If, before the 90-day period has expired, a recipient issues a Notice of Final Action with which...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true If, before the 90-day period has expired, a recipient issues a Notice of Final Action with which the complainant is dissatisfied, how long does the complainant have to file a complaint with the Director? 37.79 Section 37.79 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NONDISCRIMINATION...

  19. Poroelastic behaviour of the degenerating human intervertebral disc: a ten-day study in a loaded disc culture system.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, K S; Vergroesen, P-P A; Peeters, M; Holewijn, R M; Kingma, I; Smit, T H

    2015-01-01

    The intervertebral disc (IVD) allows flexibility to the vertebral column, and transfers the predominant axial loads during daily activities. Its axial biomechanical behaviour is poroelastic, due to the water-binding and releasing capacity of the nucleus pulposus. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc presumably affects both the instantaneous elastic response to the load on the IVD and the subsequent interstitial flow of fluid. This study aims to quantify the poroelastic behaviour of the IVD and its change with degeneration, as defined by the magnetic resonance imaging-based Pfirrmann Score (PS). For a period of ten days, 36 human lumbar IVDs were loaded with a simulated physiological axial loading regime, while deformation was monitored. The IVDs responded to the loads with instantaneous elastic and slow poroelastic axial deformation. Several mechanical parameters changed throughout the first five days of the experiment, until the IVDs settled into a dynamic equilibrium. In this equilibrium, degeneration was significantly related to a decrease in disc height loss during the daytime high load phase (ρ = -0.49), and to a decrease in the rate of this deformation during the final half hour of each day (ρ = -0.53). These properties were related to the nucleus glycosaminoglycan/hydroxyproline (GAG/HYP) ratio, rather than GAG content alone, indicating that remodelling of the extracellular matrix reduces poroelastic properties of the IVD. This implies that the degenerated discs have a reduced capacity to bind water and/or a reduced resistance against fluid flow. The resulting loss in hydrostatic pressure may further change cell behaviour in the nucleus pulposus. PMID:26091731

  20. Cultural Identities of Adolescent Immigrants: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study Including the Pre-Migration Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tartakovsky, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the cultural identities of adolescent immigrants in the pre-migration period and during the first 3 years after immigration. The target population consists of high-school Jewish adolescents from Russia and Ukraine participating in an Israeli immigration program. In this program, Jewish adolescents immigrate to Israel…

  1. Randomized, observer-blind, split-face study to compare the irritation potential of 2 topical acne formulations over a 14-day treatment period.

    PubMed

    Ting, William

    2012-08-01

    This randomized, observer-blind, split-face study assessed the irritation potential and likelihood of continued use of clindamycin phosphate 1.2%--benzoyl peroxide (BPO) 2.5% gel or adapalene 0.1%--BPO 2.5% gel once daily over a 14-day treatment period in 21 participants (11 males; 10 females) with acne who were 18 years or older. Investigator clinical assessment (erythema and dryness) and self-assessment (dryness and burning/stinging) were performed at baseline and each study visit (days 1-14) using a 4-point scale (O = none; 3 = severe). Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and corneometry measurements were performed at baseline and days 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, and 14. Lesions were counted at baseline and on day 14. Participant satisfaction questionnaires were completed on days 7 and 14. At the end of the study, investigators reported none or only mild erythema in 86% (18/21) of participants treated with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%--BPO 2.5% gel compared with 62% (13/21) of participants treated with adapalene 0.1%--BPO 2.5% gel. No severe erythema was reported with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%--BPO 2.5% gel. Adapalene 0.1%--BPO 2.5% gel was prematurely discontinued due to severe erythema in 1 participant on day 5 and a second participant on day 9. Additionally, 2 more participants reported severe erythema on day 14. Mean erythema scores were 0.9 (mean change from baseline, 0.7) with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%--BPO 2.5% gel and 1.4 (mean change from baseline, 1.3) with adapalene 0. 1%--BPO 2.5% gel on day 14 (P < .05 for days 6-14). Similar results were seen with dryness. Mean scores were 0.5 (mean change from baseline, 0.4) and 1.0 (mean change from baseline, 1.0), respectively (P < .05 for days 6-14). Self-assessment, TEWL, and corneometry results underscored the investigator clinical assessment. Participant preference and likelihood of continued usage was greater with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%--BPO 2.5% gel. Continued use and efficacy results for the treatment of acne were influenced by the potential of the product to cause irritation and the participant preferences. Irritation potential was more pronounced and severe with adapalene 0.1%--BPO 2.5% gel. Undoubtedly, as a result more participants preferred treatment with clindamycin phosphate 1.2%--BPO 2.5% gel and were more likely to continue to use the product. PMID:22988653

  2. [Seiichi Ishida, a chief physician of Shinsaku Takasugi: culture and politics as seen by a doctor of the Reformation period].

    PubMed

    Kameda, Kazukuni

    2009-12-01

    This is first paper on Seiichi Ishida, who worked as the Bakan town doctor at the end of the Edo period. Seiichi was initially a private practice physician of Habuura, Asa-gun. He then studied Dutch medicine under Banri Hyakutake of Hakata and on his return home he further prospered. From the Kaei period, the assessment of Seiichi as an artistic, cultured person became high and at the beginning of the Ansei period he moved to Okinoshima of Shimonoseki. By the Bunkyu period, Seiichi held an important place in the history of cultural exchange among Shimonoseki's cultural figures. In the Keio period he moved to Odo, which was to the West of Isakiura and further inland. It was a very tranquil and beautiful place. It was from around this time that his socialization commenced with samurai belonging to the reformist group of the Hagi Domain. Shinsaku Takasugi in particular, adored Seiichi as a friend of the heart who loved Chinese poetry, and trusted him as his chief physician. Furthermore, Seiichi's political activity intensified and it has become clear that he was deeply involved in rescuing Botoni Nomura from Himeshima and the Hagi Domain's production of counterfeit currency. PMID:20503779

  3. “Nothing Special, Everything Is Maamuli”: Socio-Cultural and Family Practices Influencing the Perinatal Period in Urban India

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Shanti; Srinivasan, Krishnamachari; Kurpad, Anura; Razee, Husna; Ritchie, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, India contributes the largest share in sheer numbers to the burden of maternal and infant under-nutrition, morbidity and mortality. A major gap in our knowledge is how socio-cultural practices and beliefs influence the perinatal period and thus perinatal outcomes, particularly in the rapidly growing urban setting. Methods and Findings Using data from a qualitative study in urban south India, including in-depth interviews with 36 women who had recently been through childbirth as well as observations of family life and clinic encounters, we explored the territory of familial, cultural and traditional practices and beliefs influencing women and their families through pregnancy, childbirth and infancy. We found that while there were some similarities in cultural practices to those described before in studies from low resource village settings, there are changing practices and ideas. Fertility concerns dominate women’s experience of married life; notions of gender preference and ideal family size are changing rapidly in response to the urban context; however inter-generational family pressures are still considerable. While a rich repertoire of cultural practices persists throughout the perinatal continuum, their existence is normalised and even underplayed. In terms of diet and nutrition, traditional messages including notions of ‘hot’ and ‘cold’ foods, are stronger than health messages; however breastfeeding is the cultural norm and the practice of delayed breastfeeding appears to be disappearing in this urban setting. Marriage, pregnancy and childbirth are so much part of the norm for women, that there is little expectation of individual choice in any of these major life events. Conclusions A greater understanding is needed of the dynamic factors shaping the perinatal period in urban India, including an acknowledgment of the health promoting as well as potentially harmful cultural practices and the critical role of the family. This will help plan culturally appropriate integrated perinatal health care. PMID:25369447

  4. High energy X-ray observations of CYG X-3 from from OSO-8: Further evidence of a 34.1 day period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolan, J. F.; Crannell, C. J.; Dennis, B. R.; Frost, K. J.; Orwig, L. E.

    1981-01-01

    The X-ray source Cyg X-3 (=4U2030+40) was observed with the high energy X-ray spectrometer on OSO-8 for two weeks in 1975 and in 1976 and for one week in 1977. No change in spectral shape and intensity above 23 keV was observed from year to year. No correlation is observed between the source's intensity and the phase of the 34.1 day period discovered by Molteni, et al. (1980). The pulsed fraction of the 4.8 hour light curve between 23 and 73 keV varies from week to week, however, and the magnitude of the pulsed fraction appears to be correlated with the 34.1 day phase. No immediate explanation of this behavior is apparent in terms of previously proposed models of the source.

  5. A study of gravity-wave spectra in the troposphere and stratosphere at 5-min to 5-day periods with the Poker Flat MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bemra, R. S.; Rastogi, P. K.; Balsley, B. B.

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of frequency spectra at periods of about 5 days to 5 min from two 20-day sets of velocity measurements in the stratosphere and troposphere region obtained with the Poker Flat mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar during January and June, 1984 is presented. A technique based on median filtering and averaged order statistics for automatic editing, smoothing and spectral analysis of velocity time series contaminated with spurious data points or outliers is outlined. The validity of this technique and its effects on the inferred spectral index was tested through simulation. Spectra obtained with this technique are discussed. The measured spectral indices show variability with season and height, especially across the tropopause. The discussion briefly outlines the need for obtaining better climatologies of velocity spectra and for the refinements of the existing theories to explain their behavior.

  6. Practical Physical and Behavioral Measures to Assess the Socialization Spectrum of Cats in a Shelter-Like Setting during a Three Day Period.

    PubMed

    Slater, Margaret; Garrison, Laurie; Miller, Katherine; Weiss, Emily; Makolinski, Kathleen; Drain, Natasha; Mirontshuk, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Animal welfare organizations routinely accept large numbers of cats with unknown histories, and whose backgrounds vary from well-socialized pets to cats that have had little or no contact with humans. Agencies are challenged with making the determination of socialization level in a highly stressful environment where cats are often too frightened to show typical behaviors. A variety of structured behavioral assessments were conducted in a shelter-like environment, from intake through a three day holding period, on cats from the full range of socialization as reported by their caregivers. Our results show that certain behaviors such as rubbing, playing, chirping, having the tail up or being at the front of the cage were found to be unique to More Socialized cats. While not all more socialized cats showed these behaviors, cats that did were socialized. Assessing the cats throughout the three day period was beneficial in eliciting key behaviors from shyer and more frightened cats. These results will be used in future work to develop an assessment tool to identify the socialization status of cats as a standardized guide for transparent and reliable disposition decisions and higher live release rates for cats in animal shelters. PMID:26479757

  7. Enhancement of nisin production by Lactococcus lactis in periodically re-alkalized cultures.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Nelson Pérez; Castro, Lorenzo Pastrana

    2003-10-01

    Synthesis of nisin as well as biomass production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis CECT (Colección Española de Cultivos Tipo) 539 on both hydrolysed mussel-processing waste and whey medium were followed in three fixed volume fed-batch fermentations, with re-alkalization cycles. The two cultures on mussel-processing waste (MPW) were fed with a 240 g/l concentrated glucose and with a concentrated MPW (about 100 g of glucose/l). The culture on whey was fed with a mixture of concentrated whey (48 g of total sugars/l) and a 400 g/l concentrated lactose. The three cultures were mainly characterized with higher nisin titres [49.7, 109.6 and 124.7 bacteriocin activity units (AU)/ml respectively] compared with the batch process on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe [(1960) J. Appl. Bacteriol. 23, 130-135] medium (49.6 AU/ml), MPW (9.5 AU/ml) and whey (22.5 AU/ml) [1 AU/ml is the amount of antibacterial compound needed to obtain 50% growth inhibition (LD50) compared with control tubes]. In the three fed-batch cultures a shift from homolactic to mixed-acid fermentation was observed, and other products (acetic acid, butane-2,3-diol or ethanol) in addition to lactic acid were detectable in the medium. However, their contributions to the total antibacterial activity of the post-incubates (the cell-free culture supernatant obtained at the end of the fermentation process) of L. lactis CECT 539 against Carnobacterium piscicola CECT 4020 were very low. PMID:12793859

  8. Seasonal size distribution of airborne culturable bacteria and fungi and preliminary estimation of their deposition in human lungs during non-haze and haze days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Min; Jia, Ruizhi; Qiu, Tianlei; Han, Meilin; Song, Yuan; Wang, Xuming

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, haze events in Beijing have significantly increased in frequency. On haze days, airborne microorganisms are considered to be a potential risk factor for various health concerns. However, limited information on bioaerosols has prevented our proper understanding of the possible threat to human health due to these bioaerosols. In this study, we used a six-stage impactor for sampling culturable bioaerosols and the LUDEP 2.07 computer-based model for calculating their deposition on human lungs to investigate seasonal concentration, size distribution, and corresponding deposition efficiency and flux in the human respiratory tract during different haze-level events. The current results of the analysis of 398 samples over four seasons indicate that the concentration of culturable airborne bacteria decreased with increasing haze severity. The bioaerosol concentration ratio was skewed towards larger particle sizes on heavy haze days leading to larger bioaerosol aerodynamic diameters than on non-haze days. During nasal breathing by an adult male engaged in light exercise in an outdoor environment, the total deposition efficiency of culturable bioaerosols is 80-90% including approximately 70% in the upper respiratory tract, 5-7% in the alveoli, and about 3% in the bronchial couple with bronchiolar regions. Although the difference in culturable bioaerosol aerodynamic diameters at different haze levels was not large enough to cause obvious differences in lung deposition efficiency, the deposition fluxes clearly varied with the degree of haze owing to the varied concentration of culturable airborne bacteria and fungi. The results here could improve our understanding of the seasonal health threat due to culturable bioaerosols during non-haze and haze days.

  9. 77 FR 42790 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Last Days of Pompeii...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ..., Apocalypse, Resurrection'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following determinations: Pursuant to the... ``The Last Days of Pompeii: Decadence, Apocalypse, Resurrection,'' imported from abroad for...

  10. Turbulence Kinetic Energy budget during the afternoon transition - Part 1: Observed surface TKE budget and boundary layer description for 10 intensive observation period days

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, E.; Lohou, F.; Lothon, M.; Pardyjak, E.; Mahrt, L.; Darbieu, C.

    2015-11-01

    The decay of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and its budget in the afternoon period from mid-day until zero buoyancy flux at the surface is studied in a two-part paper by means of measurements from the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) field campaign for 10 Intensive Observation Period days. Here, in Part 1, near-surface measurements from a small tower are used to estimate a TKE budget. The overall boundary layer characteristics and meso-scale situation at the site are also described based upon taller tower measurements, radiosoundings and remote sensing instrumentation. Analysis of the TKE budget during the afternoon transition reveals a variety of different surface layer dynamics in terms of TKE and TKE decay. This is largely attributed to variations in the 8 m wind speed, which is responsible for different amounts of near-surface shear production on different afternoons and variations within some of the afternoon periods. The partitioning of near surface production into local dissipation and transport in neutral and unstably stratified conditions was investigated. Although variations exist both between and within afternoons, as a rule of thumb, our results suggest that about 50 % of the near surface production of TKE is compensated by local dissipation near the surface, leaving about 50 % available for transport. This result indicates that it is important to also consider TKE transport as a factor influencing the near-surface TKE decay rate, which in many earlier studies has mainly been linked with the production terms of TKE by buoyancy and wind shear. We also conclude that the TKE tendency is smaller than the other budget terms, indicating a quasi-stationary evolution of TKE in the afternoon transition. Even though the TKE tendency was observed to be small, a strong correlation to mean buoyancy production of -0.69 was found for the afternoon period. For comparison with previous results, the TKE budget terms are normalized with friction velocity and measurement height and discussed in the framework of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. Empirically fitted expressions are presented. Alternatively, we also suggest a non-local parametrization of dissipation using a TKE-length scale model which takes into account the boundary layer depth in addition to distance above the ground. The non-local formulation is shown to give a better description of dissipation compared to a local parametrization.

  11. Integrated biological and cultural practices can reduce crop rotation period of organic strawberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approached by an organic grower and the land owner, a team of researchers conducted a replicated on-farm experiment with the break period between strawberry crops (continuous strawberries with broccoli residue incorporation, one year break, two year break, three year break, and seven year break) as ...

  12. Practical Physical and Behavioral Measures to Assess the Socialization Spectrum of Cats in a Shelter-Like Setting during a Three Day Period

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Margaret; Garrison, Laurie; Miller, Katherine; Weiss, Emily; Makolinski, Kathleen; Drain, Natasha; Mirontshuk, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Animal welfare organizations accept large numbers of cats with no known history. Because shelters are often highly stressful environments for cats, it is likely to be difficult to differentiate a frightened cat that is socialized to humans from a feral cat that is not. However, this distinction can help channel cats into appropriate dispositions. We conducted structured assessments to measure various behaviors and their potential to distinguish socialization levels. Our results show that a specific set of behaviors are only exhibited by more socialized cats. Many cats needed time to adjust to the shelter-type setting to show these socialized behaviors. Abstract Animal welfare organizations routinely accept large numbers of cats with unknown histories, and whose backgrounds vary from well-socialized pets to cats that have had little or no contact with humans. Agencies are challenged with making the determination of socialization level in a highly stressful environment where cats are often too frightened to show typical behaviors. A variety of structured behavioral assessments were conducted in a shelter-like environment, from intake through a three day holding period, on cats from the full range of socialization as reported by their caregivers. Our results show that certain behaviors such as rubbing, playing, chirping, having the tail up or being at the front of the cage were found to be unique to More Socialized cats. While not all more socialized cats showed these behaviors, cats that did were socialized. Assessing the cats throughout the three day period was beneficial in eliciting key behaviors from shyer and more frightened cats. These results will be used in future work to develop an assessment tool to identify the socialization status of cats as a standardized guide for transparent and reliable disposition decisions and higher live release rates for cats in animal shelters. PMID:26479757

  13. Safety, efficacy and acceptability of outpatient mifepristone-misoprostol medical abortion through 70 days since last menstrual period in public sector facilities in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Sanhueza Smith, Patricio; Peña, Melanie; Dzuba, Ilana G; García Martinez, María Laura; Aranguré Peraza, Ana Gabriela; Bousiéguez, Manuel; Shochet, Tara; Winikoff, Beverly

    2015-02-01

    Extensive evidence exists regarding the efficacy and acceptability of medical abortion through 63 days since last menstrual period (LMP). In Mexico City's Secretariat of Health (SSDF) outpatient facilities, mifepristone-misoprostol medical abortion is the first-line approach for abortion care in this pregnancy range. Recent research demonstrates continued high rates of complete abortion through 70 days LMP. To expand access to legal abortion services in Mexico City (where abortion is legal through 12 weeks LMP), this study sought to assess the efficacy and acceptability of the standard outpatient approach through 70 days in two SSDF points of service. One thousand and one women seeking pregnancy termination were enrolled and given 200 mg mifepristone followed by 800 μg misoprostol 24-48 hours later. Women were asked to return to the clinic one week later for evaluation. The great majority of women (93.3%; 95% CI: 91.6-94.8) had complete abortions. Women with pregnancies ≤ 8 weeks LMP had significantly higher success rates than women in the 9th or 10th weeks (94.9% vs. 90.5%; p = 0.01). The difference in success rates between the 9th and 10th weeks was not significant (90.0% vs. 91.2%; p = 0.71). The majority of women found the side effects (82.9%) and the use of misoprostol (84.4%) to be very acceptable or acceptable. This study provides additional evidence supporting an extended outpatient medical abortion regimen through 10 weeks LMP. PMID:25702071

  14. Musical rhythms in heart period dynamics: a cross-cultural and interdisciplinary approach to cardiac rhythms.

    PubMed

    Bettermann, H; Amponsah, D; Cysarz, D; van Leeuwen, P

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to expand classic heart period analysis methods by techniques from ethnomusicology that explicitly take complex musical rhythm principles into consideration. The methods used are based on the theory of African music, the theory of symbolic dynamics, and combinatorial theory. Heart period tachograms from 192 24-h electrocardiograms of 96 healthy subjects were transformed into binary symbol sequences that were interpretable as elementary rhythmic (percussive) patterns, the time lines in African music. Using a hierarchical rhythm pattern scheme closely related to the Derler Rhythm Classification (from jazz theory), we calculated the predominance and stability of pattern classes. The results show that during sleep certain classes, specific to individuals, occurred in a cyclically recurrent manner and many times more often than expected. Simultaneously, other classes disappeared more or less completely. Moreover, the most frequent classes obviously originate from phase-locking processes in autonomic regulation (e.g., between respiratory and cardiac cycles). In conclusion, the new interdisciplinary method presented here demonstrates that heart period patterns, in particular those occurring during night sleep, can be interpreted as musical rhythms. This method may be of great potential use in music therapy research. PMID:10564129

  15. Better Quality and More Usable Embryos Obtained on Day 3 Cultured in 5% Than 20% Oxygen: A Controlled and Randomized Study Using the Sibling Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Peng, Huixia; Shi, Wenhao; Zhang, Wei; Xue, Xia; Li, Na; Li, Wei; Shi, Juanzi

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of atmospheric oxygen (O2) concentration on embryonic development, a controlled and randomized study using the sibling oocytes was carried out. A total of 147 patients were studied. Embryos were cultured in O2 concentration 20% versus 5% during the gamete, zygote, and first 3 days. The mean cell numbers of embryo (7.69 1.91 vs 7.20 1.82, P = .011) and rate of clinically useable embryos (81.62% vs 77.22%, P = .017) were significantly higher in 5% O2 than in 20% O2. There was no difference in the zygote developmental stage, day 2, day 4, and blastocyst stage. The quality of blastocyst (both inner cell mass and trophectoderm) showed no difference. Also, there was no increase in embryos fragmentation and uneven cells in 20% O2 culture condition. In conclusion, 20% O2 reduced the mean cell numbers of embryo and the number of clinically useable embryos on day 3. However, there was no subsequent negative impact on development of day 4 and blastocyst stage. PMID:26342053

  16. Dancing as an Aspect of Early Mormon (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints) and Utah Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, Leona

    Dance has often been a significant part of a cultural heritage. Most of the religious organizations which were formed just after the United States achieved its independence, however, rejected many European religious customs, including dance. Despite this, the Mormon church not only allowed dance, but advocated and sponsored it. Dance was an…

  17. Outdoor Day-Care Centres--A Culturalization of Nature: How Do Children Relate to Nature as Educational Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melhuus, E. Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    This article will discuss how children and adults experience a certain outdoor environment as part of an educational practice, through the activities the adults and children have. It will further discuss how these activities realize cultural values through the educators' and children's activities. In Norway the use of outdoor environments has…

  18. Neurologic and immunologic effects of exposure to corticosterone, chlorpyrifos, and multiple doses of tri-ortho-tolyl phosphate over a 28-day period in rats.

    PubMed

    Ehrich, M; Hancock, S; Ward, D; Holladay, S; Pung, T; Flory, L; Hinckley, J; Jortner, B S

    2004-03-12

    An animal (rat) model of chronic stress (corticosterone in the drinking water) was used to study the interaction of stress and the organophosphorus (OP) neurotoxicants chlorpyrifos (60 mg/kg subcutaneously in a single dose) and tri-ortho-tolyl phosphate (TOTP, at 75, 150, or 300 mg/kg given 7 times orally in a 2-wk period). Adult male Long-Evans rats were provided with corticosterone in drinking water (400 microg/ml, w/v) for a total of 28 d, which led to significantly decreased weight and decreased cellularity of the thymus and spleen. Seven days after initiation of corticosterone treatment, half of the rats were given chlorpyrifos, and an additional 7 d later the 2-wk, 7-dose treatment of TOTP was initiated. During the 28-d test period, behavior of rats was evaluated using a functional observational battery (FOB), motor activity, and passive avoidance. Reductions in body weight, grip strength, and ambulatory movements occurred as a result of corticosterone treatment. Decreased body weight and grip strength were also elicited by TOTP, and the interactions of corticosterone and TOTP enhanced the effects on body weight and grip strength. Blood cholinesterase levels were obtained during the 28-d study period and found useful for monitoring OP exposure. At the end of the 28-d testing period, rats were sacrificed and activities of cholinesterase, neurotoxic esterase (neuropathy target esterase), and/or carboxylesterase were evaluated in blood, liver, and/or brain regions (basal forebrain, caudate putamen, cerebral cortex, hippocampus). All these esterases in brain were inhibited in a dose-related manner by TOTP, with some enhancement in rats drinking corticosterone-containing water. In addition, choline acetyltransferase, glial acidic fibrillary protein (GFAP), glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase were evaluated in one or more of the brain regions already identified. Choline acetyltransferase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities were unaffected by treatments. However, GFAP was elevated above control levels in the cerebral cortex of rats by all treatments (corticosterone, chlorpyrifos, TOTP). Neuropathological examination revealed early stages of dose-related increased distal myelinated fiber axonal degeneration seen in the medullary fasciculus gracilis at only the highest dose of TOTP (300 mg/kg). PMID:14718179

  19. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against Lactobacillus rhamnosus and starter culture in fermented milk during its shelf-life period

    PubMed Central

    Moritz, Cristiane Mengue Feniman; Rall, Vera Lcia Mores; Saeki, Margarida Jri; Jnior, Ary Fernandes

    2012-01-01

    The use of essential oils in foods has attracted great interest, due to their antagonistic action against pathogenic microorganisms. However, this action is undesirable for probiotic foods, as products containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The aim of the present study was to measure the sensitivity profile of L. rhamnosus and a yogurt starter culture in fermented milk, upon addition of increasing concentrations of cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils. Essential oils were prepared by steam distillation, and chemically characterised by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and determination of density. Survival curves were obtained from counts of L. rhamnosus and the starter culture (alone and in combination), upon addition of 0.04% essential oils. In parallel, titratable acidity was monitored over 28 experimental days. Minimum inhibitory concentration values, obtained using the microdilution method in Brain Heart Infusion medium, were 0.025, 0.2 and 0.4% for cinnamon, clove and mint essential oils, respectively. Cinnamon essential oil had the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against the starter culture, interfering with lactic acid production. Although viable cell counts of L. rhamnosus were lower following treatment with all 3 essential oils, relative to controls, these results were not statistically significant; in addition, cell counts remained greater than the minimum count of 108CFU/mL required for a product to be considered a probiotic. Thus, although use of cinnamon essential oil in yogurt makes starter culture fermentation unfeasible, it does not prevent the application of L. rhamnosus to probiotic fermented milk. Furthermore, clove and mint essential oil caused sublethal stress to L. rhamnosus. PMID:24031939

  20. Auroral activities observed by SNPP VIIRS day/night band during a long period geomagnetic storm event on April 29-30, 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xi; Cao, Changyong; Liu, Tung-chang; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Wenhui; Fung, Shing F.

    2015-10-01

    The Day/Night Band (DNB) of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard Suomi-NPP represents a major advancement in night time imaging capabilities. The DNB senses radiance that can span 7 orders of magnitude in one panchromatic (0.5-0.9 μm) reflective solar band and provides imagery of clouds and other Earth features over illumination levels ranging from full sunlight to quarter moon. When the satellite passes through the day-night terminator, the DNB sensor is affected by stray light due to solar illumination on the instrument. With the implementation of stray light correction, stray light-corrected DNB images enable the observation of aurora occurred in the high latitude regions during geomagnetic storms. In this paper, DNB observations of auroral activities are analyzed during a long period (> 20 hours) of geomagnetic storm event occurred on Apr. 29-30, 2014. The storm event has the Bz component of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) pointing southward for more than 20 hours. During this event, the geomagnetic storm index Dst reached -67 nT and the geomagnetic auroral electrojet (AE) index increased and reached as high as 1200 nT with large amplitude fluctuations. The event occurred during new moon period and DNB observation has minimum moon light contamination. During this event, auroras are observed by DNB for each orbital pass on the night side (~local time 1:30am) in the southern hemisphere. DNB radiance data are processed to identify regions of aurora during each orbital pass. The evolution of aurora is characterized with time series of the poleward and equatorward boundary of aurora, area, peak radiance and total light emission of the aurora in DNB observation. These characteristic parameters are correlated with solar wind and geomagnetic index parameters. It is found that the evolution of total area-integrated radiance of auroral region over the southern hemisphere correlated well with the ground geomagnetic AE index with correlation coefficient = 0.71. DNB observations of aurora help understand the relations among solar wind variation, auroral activities and geomagnetic responses.

  1. Probing rotational dynamo extremes: X-ray and optical spectroscopy of the 0.5 day period eclipsing binary, HD 79826.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huenemoerder, David; Nichols, Joy S.; DePalma, David; Garcia-Alvarez, David; Schulz, Norbert S.; Canizares, Claude R

    2014-06-01

    The highly modulated optical light curve of HD 79826 (spectral type G5) was discovered in the Chandra guide-star light curves, indicating a period of about 0.5 days, a strong and migrating distortion wave, and a shallow eclipse. We subsequently obtained simultaneous Chandra high resolution X-ray spectra and optical photometry, along with contemporaneous ground-based photometry and spectra. X-ray rotational or eclipse modulation was totally obscured by X-ray variability and flares. X-ray spectra are characterized by coronal emission near thesaturation limit of Lx/Lbol = 0.001. Optical spectra show extremely rotationally broadened features, variable with orbital phase. Optical light curves show the modulation to be not only rapidly migrating in phase, but also of variable amplitude. We will further characterize the X-ray emission through measurements of line widths, velocities, and fluxes, and provide coronal plasma models. This star is near or at the limits of dynamo saturation, and since it is partially eclipsing, has potential to be well characterized in terms of fundamental stellar parameters. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by NASA through the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) contract SV3-73016 for the Chandra X-Ray Center and Science Instruments.

  2. Trade-offs between global warming and day length on the start of the carbon uptake period in seasonally cold ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Cremonese, Edoardo; Hammerle, Albin; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Galvagno, Marta; Gianelle, Damiano; Marcolla, Barbara; di Cella, Umberto Morra

    2013-01-01

    [1] It is well established that warming leads to longer growing seasons in seasonally cold ecosystems. Whether this goes along with an increase in the net ecosystem carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake is much more controversial. We studied the effects of warming on the start of the carbon uptake period (CUP) of three mountain grasslands situated along an elevational gradient in the Alps. To this end, we used a simple empirical model of the net ecosystem CO2 exchange, calibrated, and forced with multiyear empirical data from each site. We show that reductions in the quantity and duration of daylight associated with earlier snowmelts were responsible for diminishing returns, in terms of carbon gain, from longer growing seasons caused by reductions in daytime photosynthetic uptake and increases in nighttime losses of CO2. This effect was less pronounced at high, compared to low, elevations, where the start of the CUP occurred closer to the summer solstice when changes in day length and incident radiation are minimal. PMID:24587563

  3. Trade-offs between global warming and day length on the start of the carbon uptake period in seasonally cold ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Cremonese, Edoardo; Hammerle, Albin; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Galvagno, Marta; Gianelle, Damiano; Marcolla, Barbara; Cella, Umberto Morra

    2013-12-01

    is well established that warming leads to longer growing seasons in seasonally cold ecosystems. Whether this goes along with an increase in the net ecosystem carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake is much more controversial. We studied the effects of warming on the start of the carbon uptake period (CUP) of three mountain grasslands situated along an elevational gradient in the Alps. To this end, we used a simple empirical model of the net ecosystem CO2 exchange, calibrated, and forced with multiyear empirical data from each site. We show that reductions in the quantity and duration of daylight associated with earlier snowmelts were responsible for diminishing returns, in terms of carbon gain, from longer growing seasons caused by reductions in daytime photosynthetic uptake and increases in nighttime losses of CO2. This effect was less pronounced at high, compared to low, elevations, where the start of the CUP occurred closer to the summer solstice when changes in day length and incident radiation are minimal.

  4. Probing Rotational Dynamo Extremes: X-ray and Optical Spectroscopy of the 0.5 Day Period Eclipsing Binary, HD 79826

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huenemoerder, David P.; Nichols, Joy S.; DePalma, David; Garcia-Alvarez, David; Schulz, Norbert S.

    2015-01-01

    The highly modulated optical light curve of HD 79826 (spectral types G5+M5) was discovered in the \\chan guide-star light curves, indicating a period of about 0.5 days, a strong and migrating distortion wave, and a shallow eclipse. We subsequently obtained simultaneous \\chan high resolution X-ray spectra and optical photometry, along with contemporaneous ground-based photometry and spectra. X-ray rotational or eclipse modulation was totally obscured by X-ray variability and flares. X-ray spectra are characterized by coronal emission near the saturation limit of L_{x}/L_{bol} = 10^{mthree}. Optical spectra show extremely rotationally broadened features, variable with orbital phase. Optical light curves show the modulation to be not only rapidly migrating in phase, but also of variable amplitude. We characterize the X-ray emission through measurements of line widths, velocities, and fluxes, and provide coronal plasma models. This star is near or at the limits of dynamo saturation, and since it is partially eclipsing, has potential to be well characterized in terms of fundamental stellar parameters.

  5. Collagen content in the vastus lateralis and the soleus muscle following a 90-day bed rest period with or without resistance exercises

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Schjerling, Peter; Tesch, Per; Stål, Per; Langberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction spaceflight seems associated with deterioration of the function of the skeletal muscles. Since muscle collagen is critical for muscle function, an improved understanding of the content of the muscle collagen during long-term inactivity seems important. Bed-rest with in-bed resistance training serves as a proxy for the conditions in space. Therefore, ground-based studies may improve the understanding of the consequences of long-term inactivity. Purpose the purpose is to compare the change in collagen protein in the vastus lateralis (VL) and the soleus (SOL) muscle amongst persons exposed to a 90-day bed rest with or without resistance exercise. Methods an explorative analysis was completed based on data from a randomized, controlled trial. The intervention group (BRE, SOL n=4, VL n=8) performed supine-based squat exercises, whereas the controls (BE, SOL n=6, VL n=12) remained inactive during follow-up. Muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis and soleus were taken at baseline (pre) and after 90-days’ follow-up (post). Muscle collagen (μg collagen/mg protein) was quantified. Two-way repeated measurements ANOVA was used to compare the interaction between the intervention (BRE/BR) and time (pre/post) for each muscle. Results the collagen content of VL was similar between pre and post in the BRE group (−3.8 μg collagen/mg protein [95% CI: −22.0; 14.4], p=0.68) while it rose amongst individuals in the BR group (14.9 μg collagen/mg protein [95% CI: −0.01; 29.7], p=0.05). The difference of 18.66 [95% CI: −6.5; 43.9] between BRE and BR across time was, however, not significant (p=0.14). No significant reduction in SOL muscle collagen content was observed from pre to post in the BR group (−9.3 μg collagen/mg protein [95% CI: −24.9; 6.4], p=0.25) or in the BRE group (−6.5 μg collagen/mg protein [95% CI: −25.6; 12.6], p=0.50). There was no difference in the effect of BR versus BRE over time (mean difference −2.78 μg collagen/mg protein [95% CI: −29.7; 24.1], p=0.82). Conclusion muscle collagen content in the VL or SOL muscle does not seem to differ after a 90-day bed rest period with or without squat exercises. PMID:26958541

  6. Ground-based observations of Saturn's auroral ionosphere over three days: Trends in H3+ temperature, density and emission with Saturn local time and planetary period oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donoghue, James; Melin, Henrik; Stallard, Tom S.; Provan, G.; Moore, Luke; Badman, Sarah V.; Cowley, Stan W. H.; Baines, Kevin H.; Miller, Steve; Blake, James S. D.

    2016-01-01

    On 19-21 April 2013, the ground-based 10-m W.M. Keck II telescope was used to simultaneously measure H3+ emissions from four regions of Saturn's auroral ionosphere: (1) the northern noon region of the main auroral oval; (2) the northern midnight main oval; (3) the northern polar cap and (4) the southern noon main oval. The H3+ emission from these regions was captured in the form of high resolution spectral images as the planet rotated. The results herein contain twenty-three H3+ temperatures, column densities and total emissions located in the aforementioned regions - ninety-two data points in total, spread over timescales of both hours and days. Thermospheric temperatures in the spring-time northern main oval are found to be cooler than their autumn-time southern counterparts by tens of K, consistent with the hypothesis that the total thermospheric heating rate is inversely proportional to magnetic field strength. The main oval H3+ density and emission is lower at northern midnight than it is at noon, in agreement with a nearby peak in the electron influx in the post-dawn sector and a minimum flux at midnight. Finally, when arranging the northern main oval H3+ parameters as a function of the oscillation period seen in Saturn's magnetic field - the planetary period oscillation (PPO) phase - we see a large peak in H3+ density and emission at ∼115° northern phase, with a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of ∼44°. This seems to indicate that the influx of electrons associated with the PPO phase at 90° is responsible at least in part for the behavior of all H3+ parameters. A combination of the H3+ production and loss timescales and the ±10° uncertainty in the location of a given PPO phase are likely, at least in part, to be responsible for the observed peaks in H3+ density and emission occurring at a later time than the peak precipitation expected at 90° PPO phase.

  7. Concerns Expressed by Parents of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders for Different Time Periods of the Day: A Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Yoshinori; Usami, Masahide; Sasayama, Daimei; Okada, Takashi; Iwadare, Yoshitaka; Watanabe, Kyota; Ushijima, Hirokage; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Harada, Maiko; Tanaka, Hiromi; Kodaira, Masaki; Sugiyama, Nobuhiro; Sawa, Tetsuji; Saito, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim The Questionnaire: Children with Difficulties (QCD) is a parent-assessed questionnaire designed to evaluate child’s difficulties in functioning during specific periods of the day. This study aimed to evaluate difficulties in daily functioning of children and adolescents with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) using the QCD. Results were compared with those for a community sample. Methods A case–control design was used. The cases comprised elementary school students (182 males, 51 females) and junior high school students (100 males, 39 females) with PDD, whereas a community sample of elementary school students (568 males, 579 females) and junior high school students (180 males, 183 females) was enrolled as controls. Their behavior was assessed using the QCD, the Tokyo Autistic Behavior Scale (TABS), the ADHD-rating scale (ADHD-RS), and the Oppositional Defiant Behavior Inventory (ODBI) for elementary and junior high school students, respectively. Effects of gender and diagnosis on the QCD scores were analyzed. Correlation coefficients between QCD and TABS, ADHD-RS, and ODBI scores were analyzed. Results The QCD scores for the children with PDD were significantly lower compared with those from the community sample (P < 0.001). Significantly strong correlations were observed in more areas of the ADHD-RS and ODBI scores compared with the TABS scores. Conclusions Children with PDD experienced greater difficulties in completing basic daily activities; moreover, their QCD scores revealed stronger associations with their ADHD-RS and ODBI scores in comparison with their TABS scores. The difficulties of PDD, ADHD and OBDI symptoms combined in children makes it necessary to assess all diagnoses before any therapy for PDD is initiated in order to be able to evaluate its results properly. PMID:25898260

  8. An anxiety, personality and altitude symptomatology study during a 31-day period of hypoxia in a hypobaric chamber (experiment 'Everest-Comex 1997').

    PubMed

    Nicolas, M; Thullier-Lestienne, F; Bouquet, C; Gardette, B; Gortan, C; Joulia, F; Bonnon, M; Richalet, J P; Therme, P; Abraini, J H

    1999-12-01

    Extreme environmental situations are useful tools for the investigation of the general processes of adaptation. Among such situations, high altitude of more than 3000 m produces a set of pathological disorders that includes both cerebral (cAS) and respiratory (RAS) altitude symptoms. High altitude exposure further induces anxiety responses and behavioural disturbances. The authors report an investigation on anxiety responses, personality traits, and altitude symptoms (AS) in climbers participating in a 31-day period of confinement and gradual decompression in a hypobaric chamber equivalent to a climb from sea-level to Mount Everest (8848 m altitude). Personality traits, state-trait anxiety, and AS were assessed, using the Cattell 16 Personality Factor questionnaire (16PF), the Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Lake Louise concensus questionnaire. Results show significant group effect for state-anxiety and AS; state-anxiety and AS increased as altitude increased. They also show that state-type anxiety shows a similar time-course to cAS, but not RAS. Alternatively, our results demonstrate a significant negative correlation between Factor M of the 16PF questionnaire, which is a personality trait that ranges from praxernia to autia. In contrast, no significant correlation was found between personality traits and AS. This suggests that AS could not be predicted using personality traits and further support that personality traits, such as praxernia (happening sensitivity), could play a major role in the occurrence of state-type anxiety responses in extreme environments. In addition, the general processes of coping and adaptation in individuals participating in extreme environmental experiments are discussed. PMID:11543191

  9. Day to Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurecki, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    A clean, healthy and safe school provides students, faculty and staff with an environment conducive to learning and working. However, budget and staff reductions can lead to substandard cleaning practices and unsanitary conditions. Some school facility managers have been making the switch to a day-schedule to reduce security and energy costs, and…

  10. Day to Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurecki, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    A clean, healthy and safe school provides students, faculty and staff with an environment conducive to learning and working. However, budget and staff reductions can lead to substandard cleaning practices and unsanitary conditions. Some school facility managers have been making the switch to a day-schedule to reduce security and energy costs, and

  11. Hypoglycemia-Associated Autonomic Failure in Healthy Humans: Comparison of Two vs Three Periods of Hypoglycemia on Hypoglycemia-Induced Counterregulatory and Symptom Response 5 Days Later

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, A.; Eberly, L. E.; Kim, J.; Roberts, R.; Seaquist, E. R.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure (HAAF) limits the ability of patients with diabetes to achieve target glycemia. Animal models have provided insights into the pathogenesis of HAAF, but a robust human model of HAAF in which recurrent hypoglycemia impacts the counterregulatory responses to hypoglycemia days later is lacking. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of two or three episodes of moderate hypoglycemia on counterregulatory responses to subsequent hypoglycemia induced 5 days later. Design and Subjects: Six healthy subjects participated in each of the two study protocols. In both protocol 1 and 2, subjects underwent two 2-hour hypoglycemic clamp studies during the morning and afternoon of day 1. In protocol 2, subjects underwent an additional third hypoglycemic clamp during the morning of day 2. All subjects in both protocols underwent a final hypoglycemic clamp on the morning of day 5. Results: In protocol 1, there were no significant differences in the hypoglycemia-induced hormone response or in symptoms scores between the mornings of days 1 and 5. In protocol 2, hypoglycemia-induced epinephrine (P = .02) and cortisol (P = .04) secretions were significantly lower on day 5 compared with day 1, whereas glucagon (P = .08) and norepinephrine (P = .59) were not different. Also in protocol 2, neurogenic (P = .02) and neuroglycopenic (P = .04) symptoms during hypoglycemia were decreased on day 5 compared with day 1. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that exposure of healthy humans to three 2-hour hypoglycemic episodes over 30 hours leads to significant blunting in counterregulatory and symptom response to subsequent hypoglycemia on day 5. PMID:24423306

  12. KELT-6b: A P ~ 7.9 Day Hot Saturn Transiting a Metal-poor Star with a Long-period Companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Karen A.; Eastman, Jason D.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Siverd, Robert J.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Pepper, Joshua; Kielkopf, John F.; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W.; Fischer, Debra A.; Manner, Mark; Bieryla, Allyson; Latham, David W.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Gregorio, Joao; Buchhave, Lars A.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Penev, Kaloyan; Crepp, Justin R.; Hinkley, Sasha; Street, Rachel A.; Cargile, Phillip; Mack, Claude E.; Oberst, Thomas E.; Avril, Ryan L.; Mellon, Samuel N.; McLeod, Kim K.; Penny, Matthew T.; Stefanik, Robert P.; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L.; Mao, Qingqing; Richert, Alexander J. W.; DePoy, Darren L.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Gould, Andrew; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Oelkers, Ryan J.; Pogge, Richard W.; Trueblood, Mark; Trueblood, Patricia

    2014-02-01

    We report the discovery of KELT-6b, a mildly inflated Saturn-mass planet transiting a metal-poor host. The initial transit signal was identified in KELT-North survey data, and the planetary nature of the occulter was established using a combination of follow-up photometry, high-resolution imaging, high-resolution spectroscopy, and precise radial velocity measurements. The fiducial model from a global analysis including constraints from isochrones indicates that the V = 10.38 host star (BD+31 2447) is a mildly evolved, late-F star with T eff = 6102 ± 43 K, log g_\\star =4.07_{-0.07}^{+0.04}, and [Fe/H] = -0.28 ± 0.04, with an inferred mass M sstarf = 1.09 ± 0.04 M ⊙ and radius R_\\star =1.58_{-0.09}^{+0.16} \\,R_\\odot. The planetary companion has mass MP = 0.43 ± 0.05 M Jup, radius R_{P}=1.19_{-0.08}^{+0.13} \\,R_Jup, surface gravity log g_{P}=2.86_{-0.08}^{+0.06}, and density \\rho _{P}=0.31_{-0.08}^{+0.07}\\,g\\,cm^{-3}. The planet is on an orbit with semimajor axis a = 0.079 ± 0.001 AU and eccentricity e=0.22_{-0.10}^{+0.12}, which is roughly consistent with circular, and has ephemeris of T c(BJDTDB) = 2456347.79679 ± 0.00036 and P = 7.845631 ± 0.000046 days. Equally plausible fits that employ empirical constraints on the host-star parameters rather than isochrones yield a larger planet mass and radius by ~4}-7}. KELT-6b has surface gravity and incident flux similar to HD 209458b, but orbits a host that is more metal poor than HD 209458 by ~0.3 dex. Thus, the KELT-6 system offers an opportunity to perform a comparative measurement of two similar planets in similar environments around stars of very different metallicities. The precise radial velocity data also reveal an acceleration indicative of a longer-period third body in the system, although the companion is not detected in Keck adaptive optics images. KELT is a joint project of The Ohio State University, Vanderbilt University, and Lehigh University.

  13. KELT-6b: A P ∼ 7.9 day hot Saturn transiting a metal-poor star with a long-period companion

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Karen A.; Kielkopf, John F.; Eastman, Jason D.; Beatty, Thomas G.; Gaudi, B. Scott; Siverd, Robert J.; Pepper, Joshua; Stassun, Keivan G.; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W.; Fulton, Benjamin J.; Fischer, Debra A.; Manner, Mark; Bieryla, Allyson; Latham, David W.; Gregorio, Joao; Buchhave, Lars A.; Jensen, Eric L. N.; Penev, Kaloyan; Crepp, Justin R.; and others

    2014-02-01

    We report the discovery of KELT-6b, a mildly inflated Saturn-mass planet transiting a metal-poor host. The initial transit signal was identified in KELT-North survey data, and the planetary nature of the occulter was established using a combination of follow-up photometry, high-resolution imaging, high-resolution spectroscopy, and precise radial velocity measurements. The fiducial model from a global analysis including constraints from isochrones indicates that the V = 10.38 host star (BD+31 2447) is a mildly evolved, late-F star with T {sub eff} = 6102 ± 43 K, log g{sub ⋆}=4.07{sub −0.07}{sup +0.04}, and [Fe/H] = –0.28 ± 0.04, with an inferred mass M {sub *} = 1.09 ± 0.04 M {sub ☉} and radius R{sub ⋆}=1.58{sub −0.09}{sup +0.16} R{sub ⊙}. The planetary companion has mass M{sub P} = 0.43 ± 0.05 M {sub Jup}, radius R{sub P}=1.19{sub −0.08}{sup +0.13} R{sub Jup}, surface gravity log g{sub P}=2.86{sub −0.08}{sup +0.06}, and density ρ{sub P}=0.31{sub −0.08}{sup +0.07} g cm{sup −3}. The planet is on an orbit with semimajor axis a = 0.079 ± 0.001 AU and eccentricity e=0.22{sub −0.10}{sup +0.12}, which is roughly consistent with circular, and has ephemeris of T {sub c}(BJD{sub TDB}) = 2456347.79679 ± 0.00036 and P = 7.845631 ± 0.000046 days. Equally plausible fits that employ empirical constraints on the host-star parameters rather than isochrones yield a larger planet mass and radius by ∼4)-7). KELT-6b has surface gravity and incident flux similar to HD 209458b, but orbits a host that is more metal poor than HD 209458 by ∼0.3 dex. Thus, the KELT-6 system offers an opportunity to perform a comparative measurement of two similar planets in similar environments around stars of very different metallicities. The precise radial velocity data also reveal an acceleration indicative of a longer-period third body in the system, although the companion is not detected in Keck adaptive optics images.

  14. HAT-P-24b: An Inflated Hot Jupiter on a 3.36 Day Period Transiting a Hot, Metal-poor Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipping, D. M.; Bakos, G. Á.; Hartman, J.; Torres, G.; Shporer, A.; Latham, D. W.; Kovács, Géza; Noyes, R. W.; Howard, A. W.; Fischer, D. A.; Johnson, J. A.; Marcy, G. W.; Béky, B.; Perumpilly, G.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Sasselov, D. D.; Stefanik, R. P.; Lázár, J.; Papp, I.; Sári, P.

    2010-12-01

    We report the discovery of HAT-P-24b, a transiting extrasolar planet orbiting the moderately bright V = 11.818 F8 dwarf star GSC 0774-01441, with a period P = 3.3552464 ± 0.0000071 days, transit epoch Tc = 2455216.97669 ± 0.00024 (BJD)11, and transit duration 3.653 ± 0.025 hr. The host star has a mass of 1.191 ± 0.042 M sun, radius of 1.317 ± 0.068 R sun, effective temperature 6373 ± 80 K, and a low metallicity of [Fe/H] = -0.16 ± 0.08. The planetary companion has a mass of 0.681 ± 0.031 M J and radius of 1.243 ± 0.072 R J yielding a mean density of 0.439 ± 0.069 g cm-3. By repeating our global fits with different parameter sets, we have performed a critical investigation of the fitting techniques used for previous Hungarian-made Automated Telescope planetary discoveries. We find that the system properties are robust against the choice of priors. The effects of fixed versus fitted limb darkening are also examined. HAT-P-24b probably maintains a small eccentricity of e = 0.052+0.022 -0.017, which is accepted over the circular orbit model with false alarm probability 5.8%. In the absence of eccentricity pumping, this result suggests that HAT-P-24b experiences less tidal dissipation than Jupiter. Due to relatively rapid stellar rotation, we estimate that HAT-P-24b should exhibit one of the largest known Rossiter-McLaughlin effect amplitudes for an exoplanet (ΔV RM ~= 95 m s-1) and thus a precise measurement of the sky-projected spin-orbit alignment should be possible. Based in part on observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated by the University of California and the California Institute of Technology. Keck time has been granted by NOAO and NASA.

  15. Effects of timing on vaccination (day 0 versus day 14 of a receiving period) with a modified-live respiratory viral vaccine on performance, feed intake, and febrile response of beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of timing of administration of a modified-live respiratory viral vaccine (IBR-PI3-BRSV-BVD) on d 0 or on d 14 of a receiving period on performance, feed intake, and febrile response in beef heifers. Our hypothesis was vaccine timing will alter ...

  16. A whole-genome microarray study of Arabidopsis thaliana semisolid callus cultures exposed to microgravity and nonmicrogravity related spaceflight conditions for 5 days on board of Shenzhou 8.

    PubMed

    Fengler, Svenja; Spirer, Ina; Neef, Maren; Ecke, Margret; Nieselt, Kay; Hampp, Rdiger

    2015-01-01

    The Simbox mission was the first joint space project between Germany and China in November 2011. Eleven-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana wild type semisolid callus cultures were integrated into fully automated plant cultivation containers and exposed to spaceflight conditions within the Simbox hardware on board of the spacecraft Shenzhou 8. The related ground experiment was conducted under similar conditions. The use of an in-flight centrifuge provided a 1?g gravitational field in space. The cells were metabolically quenched after 5 days via RNAlater injection. The impact on the Arabidopsis transcriptome was investigated by means of whole-genome gene expression analysis. The results show a major impact of nonmicrogravity related spaceflight conditions. Genes that were significantly altered in transcript abundance are mainly involved in protein phosphorylation and MAPK cascade-related signaling processes, as well as in the cellular defense and stress responses. In contrast to short-term effects of microgravity (seconds, minutes), this mission identified only minor changes after 5 days of microgravity. These concerned genes coding for proteins involved in the plastid-associated translation machinery, mitochondrial electron transport, and energy production. PMID:25654111

  17. A Whole-Genome Microarray Study of Arabidopsis thaliana Semisolid Callus Cultures Exposed to Microgravity and Nonmicrogravity Related Spaceflight Conditions for 5 Days on Board of Shenzhou 8

    PubMed Central

    Neef, Maren; Ecke, Margret; Hampp, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    The Simbox mission was the first joint space project between Germany and China in November 2011. Eleven-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana wild type semisolid callus cultures were integrated into fully automated plant cultivation containers and exposed to spaceflight conditions within the Simbox hardware on board of the spacecraft Shenzhou 8. The related ground experiment was conducted under similar conditions. The use of an in-flight centrifuge provided a 1 g gravitational field in space. The cells were metabolically quenched after 5 days via RNAlater injection. The impact on the Arabidopsis transcriptome was investigated by means of whole-genome gene expression analysis. The results show a major impact of nonmicrogravity related spaceflight conditions. Genes that were significantly altered in transcript abundance are mainly involved in protein phosphorylation and MAPK cascade-related signaling processes, as well as in the cellular defense and stress responses. In contrast to short-term effects of microgravity (seconds, minutes), this mission identified only minor changes after 5 days of microgravity. These concerned genes coding for proteins involved in the plastid-associated translation machinery, mitochondrial electron transport, and energy production. PMID:25654111

  18. The analysis of fundamental period of cultural heritage buildings: experimental data for church towers in Basilicata (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gizzi, Fabrizio T.; Liberatore, Domenico; Masini, Nicola; Sileo, Maria; Zotta, Cinzia; Potenza, Maria Rosaria; Scavone, Manuela; Sorrentino, Luigi

    2014-05-01

    Seismic hazard is among the main factors conditioning the conservation of historical centres and cultural heritage located in them. This consideration is suitable especially for downtown areas located in Italy, whose territory is prone to seismic hazards, in the southern area especially. As a matter of fact, the historical sources inform us that most of monuments located in Southern Italy suffered damage and consequent restoration or rebuilding due to the earthquake of the past. Therefore, knowing what buildings are the most exposed to the seismic risk can help the stakeholders to fix priority actions aimed at mitigating the effects of future events. Starting from these preliminary remarks, in the framework of the Project PRO_CULT, we started an extensive campaign of measurements of dynamic features of the church towers in some towns of the Basilicata Region (Southern Italy). The aim of the research activity is to assess the fundamental period of such a typology of historical buildings and comparing it with the dynamic features of the foundation soil to put into evidence possible resonance phenomena responsible of an increase of building damage during the seismic shaking. The selection of the towns to be considered as a target of the experimental survey was performed taking into account the availability of written sources dealing with the historical seismic effects suffered by the bell-towers over the centuries with special attention to the sites heavily affected by the 16 December 1857 Basilicata and 23 November 1980 Irpinia-Basilicata earthquakes (Gizzi and Masini 2007). The fundamental period of bell-towers is estimated using ambient noise vibration signals recorded at the highest level of the towers. The techniques used to get the dynamic values are both the Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR) and the Horizontal to Horizontal Spectral Ratio (HHSR) (Liberatore et al. 2008). Once the fundamental frequency has been estimated, it is compared with the dynamic features of the soil obtained by free-field measurements. The detailed architectural survey of each investigated tower will also allow correlating the estimated frequencies with the features of the historic building such as structural symmetry, number of storeys and height of the tower, building materials, presence and dimension of openings, presence of tie rods, and presence of adjoining buildings. In this way, we can get new insights for a tentative scheme of typological classification of such historic buildings. References Gizzi F.T., Masini N. 2007. Historical earthquakes and damage patterns in Potenza (Basilicata, southern Italy), Annals of Geophysics, 50 (5), pp.675-687, doi: 10.4401/ag-3061 Liberatore D., Mucciarelli M., Gallipoli M. R., Masini N. 2008, Two Applications of the HVSR Technique to Cultural Heritage and Historical Masonry in Increasing Seismic Safety by Combining Engineering Technologies and Seismological Data, M. Mucciarelli, M. Herak and J. Cassidy eds., Springer, [ISBN 978-1-4020-9196-4; ISSN: 1871-4668], 325-336, doi: 10.1007/978-1-4020-9196-4_22 Acknowledgements The authors thanks Basilicata Region for supporting this activity in the framework of the Project "PRO_CULT" (Advanced methodological approaches and technologies for Protection and Security of Cultural Heritage ) financed by Regional Operational Programme ERDF 2007/2013

  19. Randomized, Double-Blind, Split-Face Study to Compare the Irritation Potential of Two Topical Acne Formulations Over a 21-Day Treatment Period.

    PubMed

    Kircik, Leon H; Bhatt, Varsha; Martin, Gina; Pillai, Radhakrishnan

    2016-02-01

    The use of fixed combinations in acne vulgaris (acne) is very common, however comparative clinical trial data are limited. Cutaneous tolerability can influence patient compliance, and concerns about skin irritation with topical acne treatments have lead to a number of comparative split-face studies.
    Recently, a new fixed combination product was introduced (clin 1.0%-BP 3.75% gel) that was shown to be effective in reducing both inflammatory and noninflammatory lesions in moderate to severe acne. Here, we assess the tolerability of clin 1.0%-BP 3.75% gel compared with adap 0.1%-BP 2.5% gel in healthy volunteers with no apparent facial redness or dryness over 21-days, using a split-face methodology.
    Especially over the first two weeks of treatment, clin 1.0%-BP 3.75% gel was more tolerable than adap 0.1%-BP 2.5% gel, with statistically significant differences in cumulative change from baseline starting as early as day 8 (dryness) and day 9 (erythema), and composite index on days 8-12 and 16. Transepidermal water loss was less with clin 1.0%-BP 3.75% gel, although the difference was not statistically significant.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(2):178-182. PMID:26885785

  20. Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    Twelve conference papers on cultural aspects of second language instruction include: "Towards True Multiculturalism: Ideas for Teachers" (Brian McVeigh); Comparing Cultures Through Critical Thinking: Development and Interpretations of Meaningful Observations" (Laurel D. Kamada); "Authority and Individualism in Japan and the USA" (Alisa Woodring);…

  1. Variability of the quasi-2-day wave and interaction with longer period planetary waves in the MLT at Cachoeira Paulista (22.7°S, 45°W)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guharay, A.; Batista, P. P.; Clemesha, B. R.

    2015-08-01

    An exclusive study has been carried out with long term meteor wind data (2000-2014) to characterize the quasi-2-day wave (QTDW) in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) and its interactions with the longer period planetary waves at Cachoeira Paulista (22.7°S, 45°W). The QTDW is observed to be dominant during late summer (January-February) all the years under consideration except 2013. All the wave parameters exhibit significant interannual variability. The maximum wave amplitude comes out to be 39 m/s, which is significantly higher than the reported northern hemispheric findings. The mean MLT period exhibits a wide range of variability (36-70 h) indicating the presence of multiple Rossby normal modes with varying zonal wave numbers. Modulations of the QTDW amplitude by the planetary waves with longer periodicities (>9 days) are evident, especially during summer. The nonlinear interactions between the 2-day wave and longer period waves are believed to give rise to a host of secondary waves with frequencies lying close to 2-day. The strong QTDW activity, as observed at this location, has potential to cause significant effect on the overlying ionosphere and hence the atmosphere-ionosphere dynamical coupling.

  2. Parathyroid hormone blocks the stimulatory effect of insulin-like growth factor-I on collagen synthesis in cultured 21-day fetal rat calvariae

    SciTech Connect

    Kream, B.E.; Petersen, D.N.; Raisz, L.G. )

    1990-01-01

    We examined the interaction of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) on collagen synthesis in 21-day fetal rat calvariae as assessed by measuring the incorporation of ({sup 3}H)proline into collagenase-digestible protein. After 96 hours of culture, 10 nM PTH antagonized the stimulation of collagen synthesis and partially blocked the increase in dry weight produced by 10 nM IGF-I. The effect of PTH to block IGF-I stimulated collagen synthesis was observed in the central bone of calvariae and was mimicked by forskolin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, but not by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, transforming growth factor-alpha or dexamethasone. Our data are consistent with the concept that the direct effect of PTH is to inhibit basal CDP labeling and fully oppose IGF-I stimulated CDP labeling. The finding that this effect of PTH is mimicked by forskolin and PMA suggests that this block in IGF-I stimulation of CDP labeling involves both cAMP and protein kinase C mediated pathways.

  3. The impact of a 17-day training period for an international championship on mucosal immune parameters in top-level basketball players and staff members.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Alexandre; Arsati, Franco; Cury, Patrcia Ramos; Franciscon, Clvis; Simes, Antonio Carlos; de Oliveira, Paulo Roberto; de Arajo, Vera Cavalcanti

    2008-10-01

    This investigation examined the impact of a 17-d training period (that included basketball-specific training, sprints, intermittent running exercises, and weight training, prior to an international championship competition) on salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA) levels in 10 subjects (athletes and staff members) from a national basketball team, as a biomarker for mucosal immune defence. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected at rest at the beginning of the preparation for the Pan American Games and 1 d before the first game. The recovery interval from the last bout of exercise was 4 h. The SIgA level was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and expressed as absolute concentrations, secretion rate, and SIgA level relative to total protein. The decrease in SIgA levels following training was greater in athletes than in support staff; however, no significant differences between the two groups were detected. A decrease in SIgA level, regardless of the method used to express IgA results, was verified for athletes. Only one episode of upper respiratory tract illness symptoms was reported, and it was not associated with changes in SIgA levels. In summary, a situation of combined stress for an important championship was found to decrease the level of SIgA-mediated immune protection at the mucosal surface in team members, with greater changes observed in the athletes. PMID:18821985

  4. Response of male broiler chickens to dietary lysine:true metabolizable energy (nitrogen-corrected) ratios during three consecutive fourteen-day periods from hatching.

    PubMed

    Sibbald, I R; Wolynetz, M S

    1990-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to estimate the changes in body composition associated with the concentration of dietary lysine, independent of energy intake. A secondary objective was to determine whether the treatment effects on body composition could be inferred by using the initial body weight of the birds as a covariate, rather than data from groups initially slaughtered. The experiment comprised three phases, based on the age of the birds: 1 to 15, 15 to 29, and 29 to 43 days. The same 56 dietary treatments, arranged as an 8-by-7 factorial, were used in each phase. The dietary treatments consisted of eight ratios for bioavailable lysine and TMEn with seven levels of cellulose dilution, the latter being used to ensure a range of TMEn intakes. The experimental units were groups of 4 chicks in Phase 1 and individual birds in Phases 2 and 3. The comparative slaughter procedure was used. The initial slaughter populations comprised 30 groups of 4 birds for Phase 1 and 40 individual birds for Phase 2 and Phase 3. The intakes of bioavailable lysine and bioavailable energy (ITMEn) were measured, and the body weights were recorded. The carcasses were assayed for dry matter, energy, protein, lipids, and ash. The gains in body weight, water content, and protein content reached maxima at ratios for lysine to TMEn of between .76 and .86 g per mJ, independent of the phase. The gains in dry matter, energy intake, and lipid content per unit of ITMEn were independent of the lysine:TMEn ratio and of the phase (P greater than .05). The phase affected the regression coefficients for gains in body weight and body water (P less than .01) but not for protein (P greater than .05). Phase effects were most apparent in the intercepts of the regression lines where the differences reflected variations in body-maintenance requirements for energy. A covariance analysis provided estimates for the rates of response very similar to those obtained by using data from the initial slaughter groups. Both experimental approaches depend for precision and accuracy on a strong relationship between body weight and composition; such does not appear to exist for total carcass energy and lipid content. PMID:2122432

  5. Producing biodiesel from cotton seed oil using Rhizopus oryzae ATTC #34612 whole cell biocatalysts: Culture media and cultivation period optimization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of culture medium composition and cultivation time on biodiesel production by Rhizopus oryzae ATCC #34612 whole cell catalysts, immobilized on novel rigid polyethylene biomass supports, was investigated. Supplementation of the medium with carbon sources led to higher lipase activity and i...

  6. Irregular Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... of 10 and 15, but some get it earlier and some later. The first period is known as menarche (pronounced: MEH-nar-kee). Doctors often talk about a girl's monthly cycle — the number of days from the start of her period to the start of the ...

  7. Vectortine's Day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lock, Frank

    1998-11-01

    Holidays at Lemon Bay High are days of unusual activities, as they well may be at other high schools. One of our special days is Valentine's Day. In order to maintain some academic focus in the physics department, while allowing my students to participate in the celebration, we've developed a physics version of the hearts-and-flowers February celebration. It's Vectortine's Day in physics class.

  8. Fermentation of liquid coproducts and liquid compound diets: Part 2. Effects on pH, acid-binding capacity, organic acids and ethanol during a 6-day storage period.

    PubMed

    Scholten, R H; Rijnen, M M; Schrama, J W; Boer, H; van der Peet-Schwering, C M; Den Hartog, L A; Vesseur, P C; Verstegen, M W

    2001-06-01

    The effects of a 6-day storage period on changes in pH, acid-binding capacity, level of organic acids and ethanol of three liquid coproducts [liquid wheat starch (LWS), mashed potato steam peel (PSP) and cheese whey (CW)] and two liquid compound diets [liquid grower diet (LGD) and liquid finisher diet (LFD)] were studied. All products, except LWS, showed a significant decrease in pH and acid-binding capacity during storage. At the end of the storage period, all products reached a pH of between 3.5 and 3.9. In general, it can be concluded that the lactic acid content, and to a lesser extent the acetic acid content, increased dramatically during storage. In contrast, the ethanol content increased significantly in the liquid compound diets only. The pattern of changes in pH and organic acids during the 6-day storage period was different between the liquid coproducts and the liquid compound diets. At the start of storage, liquid coproducts are already in the 'middle' of the fermentation process, while liquid compound diets need approximately 24-36 h before fermentation begins. Consequently, in practice a different approach to obtain fermented diets is needed for liquid coproducts and liquid compound diets. PMID:11686780

  9. Altered energy status of primary cerebellar granule neuronal cultures from rats exposed to lead in the pre- and neonatal period.

    PubMed

    Baranowska-Bosiacka, I; Gutowska, I; Marchetti, C; Rutkowska, M; Marchlewicz, M; Kolasa, A; Prokopowicz, A; Wiernicki, I; Piotrowska, K; Baśkiewicz, M; Safranow, K; Wiszniewska, B; Chlubek, D

    2011-02-01

    This paper examines the effect of pre- and neonatal exposure of rats to lead (0.1% lead acetate in drinking water, resulting in rat offspring whole blood lead concentration (Pb-B) 4μg/dL) on the energy status of neuronal mitochondria by measuring changes in ATP, ADP, AMP, adenosine, TAN concentration, adenylate energy charge value (AEC) and mitochondrial membrane potential in primary cerebellar granule neurons (CGC) in dissociated cultures. Fluorescence studies were performed to imaging and evaluate mitochondria mass, mitochondrial membrane potential, intracellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity in intact CGC was measured spectrophotometrically. Our data shows that pre- and neonatal exposure of rats to Pb, even below the threshold of whole blood Pb value considered safe for people, affects the energy status of cultured primary cerebellar granule neurons through a decrease in ATP and TAN concentrations and AEC value, inhibition of Na(+)/K(+) ATPase, and increase in intracellular and mitochondrial ROS concentration. These observations suggest that even these low levels of Pb are likely to induce important alterations in neuronal function that could play a role in neurodegeneration. PMID:21108985

  10. Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merro, John; And Others

    Interviews on the quality of day care in the United States are presented in this transcript of a program broadcast in the National Public Radio weekly series, "Options in Education." Writers, day care center personnel and others describe and evaluate the current situation. Federal legislation concerning children is examined, and researchers…

  11. Dinosaur Day!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakamura, Sandra; Baptiste, H. Prentice

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they capitalized on their first-grade students' love of dinosaurs by hosting a fun-filled Dinosaur Day in their classroom. On Dinosaur Day, students rotated through four dinosaur-related learning stations that integrated science content with art, language arts, math, and history in a fun and time-efficient…

  12. CEMI Days

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    CEMI Days are an important channel of engagement between DOE and the manufacturing industry to identify challenges and opportunities for increasing U.S. manufacturing competitiveness. CEMI Days that are held at manufacturing companies’ facilities can include tours of R&D operations or other points of interest determined by the host company.

  13. Drought, epidemic disease, and the fall of classic period cultures in Mesoamerica (AD 750-950). Hemorrhagic fevers as a cause of massive population loss.

    PubMed

    Acuna-Soto, Rodolfo; Stahle, David W; Therrell, Matthew D; Gomez Chavez, Sergio; Cleaveland, Malcolm K

    2005-01-01

    The classical period in Mexico (AD 250-750) was an era of splendor. The city of Teotihuacan was one of the largest and most sophisticated human conglomerates of the pre-industrial world. The Mayan civilization in southeastern Mexico and the Yucatan peninsula reached an impressive degree of development at the same time. This time of prosperity came to an end during the Terminal Classic Period (AD 750-950) a time of massive population loss throughout Mesoamerica. A second episode of massive depopulation in the same area was experienced during the sixteenth century when, in less than one century, between 80% and 90% of the entire indigenous population was lost. The 16th century depopulation of Mexico constitutes one of the worst demographic catastrophes in human history. Although newly imported European and African diseases caused high mortality among the native population, the major 16th century population losses were caused by a series of epidemics of a hemorrhagic fever called Cocoliztli, a highly lethal disease unknown to both Aztec and European physicians during the colonial era. The cocoliztli epidemics occurred during the 16th century megadrought, when severe drought extended at times from central Mexico to the boreal forest of Canada, and from the Pacific to the Atlantic coast. The collapse of the cultures of the Classic Period seems also to have occurred during a time of severe drought. Tree ring and lake sediment records indicate that some of the most severe and prolonged droughts to impact North America-Mesoamerica in the past 1000-4000 years occurred between AD 650 and 1000, particularly during the 8th and 9th centuries, a period of time that coincides with the Terminal Classic Period. Based on the similarities of the climatic (severe drought) and demographic (massive population loss) events in Mesoamerica during the sixteenth century, we propose that drought-associated epidemics of hemorrhagic fever may have contributed to the massive population loss during the Terminal Classic Period. PMID:15922121

  14. No Matter How Long the Night, the Day is Sure to Come: Culture and Educational Transformation in Post-Colonial Namibia and Post-Apartheid South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nekhwevha, Fhulu

    1999-11-01

    Following the defeat of Apartheid, the 1990s have witnessed serious attempts by Namibians and South Africans alike to reconstruct their social institutions along democratic lines. While education has not been excluded from these efforts, there is evidence that the new curricula are primarily influenced by western educational models. For example, prescriptions of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank have been uncritically incorporated into the new educational programme. Consequently the curricula lack an indigenous ingredient, namely the cultural capital of the African masses. It is suggested in this article that the much acclaimed African cultural renaissance in education will only become a reality when educationalists embrace the "pedagogy of hope".

  15. "I Go to School Six Days a Week": The Role of Cultural and Religious Practices within Hybrid Turkish-American Communities in Supporting Academic and Socioemotional Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isik-Ercan, Zeynep

    2012-01-01

    Children's participation in cultural activities within the community, and the particular cognitive and socioemotional skills that they gain as a result of their participation, have been thoroughly studied (Cole, 1990; Gallimore & Tharp, 1990; Moll et al., 2005; Scribner & Cole, 1981). However, the connection of these skills to school learning or…

  16. Inspire Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohach, Barbara M.; Meade, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    The authors collaborated on hosting a "Spring Inspire Day." planned and delivered by preservice elementary teachers as a social studies/science methods project. Projects that have authentic application opportunities can make learning meaningful for prospective teachers as well as elementary students. With the impetus for an integrated

  17. Inspire Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohach, Barbara M.; Meade, Birgitta

    2014-01-01

    The authors collaborated on hosting a "Spring Inspire Day." planned and delivered by preservice elementary teachers as a social studies/science methods project. Projects that have authentic application opportunities can make learning meaningful for prospective teachers as well as elementary students. With the impetus for an integrated…

  18. Increase in nitrate uptake by soybean plants during interruption of the dark period with low intensity light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raper, C. D. Jr; Vessey, J. K.; Henry, L. T.

    1991-01-01

    Diurnal patterns of net NO3- uptake by nonnodulated soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Ransom] plants growing in flowing hydroponic culture at 26 and 16 degrees C root temperatures were measured at hourly intervals during alternate days of a 12-day growth period. Ion chromatography was used to determine removal of NO3- from the culture solution. Day and night periods of 9 and 15 h were used during growth. The night period included two 6-h dark periods and an intervening 3-h period of night interruption by incandescent lamps to effect a long-day photoperiod and repress floral initiation. At both root temperatures, the average specific rates of NO3- uptake were twice as great during the night interruption period as during the day period; they were greater during the day period than during the dark periods; and they were greater during the dark period immediately following the day period than during the later dark period that followed the night interruption. While these average patterns were repetitious among days, measured rates of uptake varied hourly and included intervals of net efflux scattered through the day period and more frequently through the 2 dark periods. Root temperature did not affect the average daily specific rates of uptake or the qualitative relationships among day, dark and night interruption periods of the diurnal cycle.

  19. 34 CFR 300.11 - Day; business day; school day.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Day; business day; school day. 300.11 Section 300.11... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.11 Day; business day; school day. (a) Day means calendar day unless otherwise indicated as business day or school day. (b) Business...

  20. Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports: Using Strength-Based Approaches to Enhance the Culture of Care in Residential and Day Treatment Education Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalke, Thomas; Glanton, Ann; Cristalli, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports model, first introduced into public schools, has been extended to alternative settings. This article highlights applying PBIS to day treatment and residential treatment education programs increasingly challenged to serve seriously emotionally disturbed youth whose risk factors have become more…

  1. International Women's Day speech.

    PubMed

    Kazibwe, S W

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the International Women's Day are: 1) to celebrate the struggle for women's rights in the economic, social, political, and cultural domain; 2) to reaffirm women's solidarity in the struggle for peace; 3) and to show what women have achieved. In 1988, Uganda's government of the National Resistance Movement created the Ministry of Women in Development. The period 1988-1990 was one of consultations, needs assessment, planning, and recruiting staff for the Ministry. From 1990 to 1993, measurable results have been achieved. The Ministry's gender concerns pertained to the sector policies of the Ministries of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries, Education, Health, Water, Energy, Minerals, and Environment Protection. Under the Umbrella Project for Women in Development, gender sensitization has been achieved with policy makers in ministries, at district level, and in the media. Gender issues have also been incorporated in the National Political School Curriculum. The Ministry has also trained a corps of 73 women trainers from 38 districts. The Ministry, with funding from DANIDA, collected women's views on the constitution through meetings and seminars in all the districts in the country. Recommendations were submitted in a consolidated report to the Constitution Commission. A pilot para-legal scheme is successfully being implemented in Kamuli district. A community-based pool of legal advisors has been developed. Legal matters that affect both women and men are undertaken at the community level. The economic emancipation of women is a crucial part of the Ministry's mandate. In conjunction with NGOs, pilot credit programs are being run in Mukono, Jinja, Mbale, and Kapchorwa districts. Cross-sectoral programs are in close collaboration with the rural water and sanitation program, the Northern Uganda rehabilitation program, and the integrated Basic Education Pilot Project to be implemented in 8 districts. PMID:12345405

  2. Positive behavioral interventions and supports: using strength-based approaches to enhance the culture of care in residential and day treatment education environments.

    PubMed

    Kalke, Thomas; Glanton, Ann; Cristalli, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports model, first introduced into public schools, has been extended to alternative settings. This article highlights applying PBIS to day treatment and residential treatment education programs increasingly challenged to serve seriously emotionally disturbed youth whose risk factors have become more complex. The results demonstrate a more positive environment enhancing children's treatment and education along with decreasing numbers of safety holds and need for out-of-classroom supports. PMID:18422053

  3. Treatment of streptococcal pharyngitis with amoxycillin once a day.

    PubMed Central

    Shvartzman, P; Tabenkin, H; Rosentzwaig, A; Dolginov, F

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To evaluate treatment of group A beta haemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis with amoxycillin once daily compared with phenoxymethylpenicillin three or four times a day. DESIGN--Randomised controlled study of consecutive patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of group A beta haemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis in whom culture of a throat swab yielded positive results. SETTING--Five family medicine practices. SUBJECTS--157 patients aged over 3 years who required treatment with antibiotics. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Clinical response, bacteriological response, days at work and school lost, and compliance. RESULTS--During the period of the study 393 patients presented with symptoms suggesting streptococcal pharyngitis; 157 of them had throat swabs that yielded positive results on culture. Eighty two were treated with phenoxymethylpenicillin and 75 with amoxycillin. No difference was observed in the clinical response, days at work and school lost (139 days for 64 patients taking phenoxymethylpenicillin v 100 days for 57 patients taking amoxycillin; p > 0.2), or residual positive cultures after two days (6 (7.3%) v 3 (4%); p > 0.5). A significant difference in the bacteriological response was found after 14 days (5 (6.1%) v 0; p < 0.04) with no positive cultures observed in the amoxycillin group. CONCLUSIONS--These findings support the hypothesis that amoxycillin once daily is as effective as phenoxymethylpenicillin in the treatment of group A beta haemolytic streptococcal pharyngitis. PMID:8499823

  4. Valentine's Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA02174 Valentine's Day

    This isolated mesa [lower left center of the image] has an almost heart-shaped margin. Happy Valentine's Day from Mars.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 29.4N, Longitude 79.1E. 18 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Hydrology day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel-Seytoux, H. J.

    Registration for the Hydrology Day sponsored by the Front Range Branch of AGU on April 23 at Colorado State University in Fort Collins, Colorado, totaled 121 participants, of whom 61 were students.Thirty-one individuals joined the Front Range Branch. Three students from Colorado State University won the awards for best paper in their category: Thomas W. Anzia (Sr.), ‘A Comprehensive Table of Standard Deviates for Confidence Limits on Extreme Events’ Victor Nazareth (M.S.), ‘Aquifer Properties from Single-Hole Aquifer Tests’ and Roy W. Koch (Ph.D.), ‘A Physically Based Derivation of the Distribution of Excess Precipitation.’ Judges for the awards were Dr. Bittinger, Resource Consultants, Fort Collins; George Leavesley and Daniel Bauer, USGS, Water Resources Division, Denver; Scott Tucker, Executive Director, Denver Urban Drainage and Flood Control District; Charles Brendecke, Department of Civil Engineering, Univ. of Colorado, Boulder.

  6. CoRoT 101186644: A transiting low-mass dense M-dwarf on an eccentric 20.7-day period orbit around a late F-star. Discovered in the CoRoT lightcurves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tal-Or, L.; Mazeh, T.; Alonso, R.; Bouchy, F.; Cabrera, J.; Deeg, H. J.; Deleuil, M.; Faigler, S.; Fridlund, M.; Hébrard, G.; Moutou, C.; Santerne, A.; Tingley, B.

    2013-05-01

    We present the study of the CoRoT transiting planet candidate 101186644, also named LRc01_E1_4780. Analysis of the CoRoT lightcurve and the HARPS spectroscopic follow-up observations of this faint (mV = 16) candidate revealed an eclipsing binary composed of a late F-type primary (Teff = 6090 ± 200 K) and a low-mass, dense late M-dwarf secondary on an eccentric (e = 0.4) orbit with a period of ~20.7 days. The M-dwarf has a mass of 0.096 ± 0.011 M⊙, and a radius of 0.104-0.006+0.026 R⊙, which possibly makes it the smallest and densest late M-dwarf reported so far. Unlike the claim that theoretical models predict radii that are 5-15% smaller than measured for low-mass stars, this one seems to have a radius that is consistent and might even be below the radius predicted by theoretical models. Based on observations made with the 1-m telescope at the Wise Observatory, Israel, the Swiss 1.2-m Leonhard Euler telescope at La Silla Observatory, Chile, the IAC-80 telescope at the Observatory del Teide, Canarias, Spain, and the 3.6-m telescope at La Silla Observatory (ESO), Chile (program 184.C-0639).

  7. Influence of algae species, substrata and culture conditions on attached microalgal culture.

    PubMed

    Shen, Y; Xu, X; Zhao, Y; Lin, X

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to understand and optimize the formation of microalgae biofilms in specific culture conditions. Firstly, the adhesion of six freshwater algae species was compared. Chlorococcum sp. was selected because of the high adhesion biomass productivity (ABP) and adhesion rate achieved. Secondly, the adhesion of Chlorococcum sp. was compared with nine commonly used supporting materials, and glass fiber-reinforced plastic proved to be the optimal substrata. Thirdly, based on response surface methodology experiments, a second-order polynomial model was developed to examine the effect of culture period, initial total nitrogen concentration (ITNC) in manure wastewater, pH and culture volume of the growth chamber on the adhesion of Chlorococcum sp. using glass fiber-reinforced plastic. The experimental and modeling results showed that ITNC, pH and culture volume as well as the interactions between culture period and ITNC, culture period and culture volume were significant on ABP. Optimum culture conditions were predicted at a culture period of 11 days, ITNC of 70 mg L(-1), pH of 8 and culture volume of 340 mL, under which the predicted maximum ABP was 4.26 g m(-2) day(-1). The prediction was close to validation experimental results, indicating that the model could be used to guide and optimize the attached culture of Chlorococcum sp. using glass fiber-reinforced plastic. PMID:23843094

  8. Silicon cell culture templates with nanotopography: periodic nanostructures and random nanoporous topologies generated by high-repetition rate sub-15 fs pulsed near-infrared laser light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, Martin; Uchugonova, Aisada; Koch, Marcus; Knig, Karsten

    2012-03-01

    In recent years a variety of studies has demonstrated that artificially generated microenvironments can exert a strong influence on cell growth, cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation behavior in the culture dish. In particular, cells tend to adapt themselves to elongated micro- and nanostructures. Thus, nanostructured substrates are of significant interest in the biological and biomedical sciences as adhesion and development of cells can be controlled via the topological surface properties. In contrast to earlier approaches relying on electron beam or nanoimprint lithography, nanostructures were produced on Si(100) surfaces using sub-15 femtosecond high-resolution laser scanning microscopy. Laser processing was performed with the silicon surface immersed in water followed by hydrofluoric acid etching in order to remove silicon oxide residues. Ripples of at a periodicity of 150 nm as well as random nanoporous surface arrangements were generated by Ti:Sapphire laser light of centre wavelength 800 nm (bandwidth 120 nm, repetition rate 85 MHz) at picojoule pulse energies. Growth of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells revealed good adhesion to the silicon substrates. Importantly, alignment of cells along the direction of ripples was observed, whereas randomly nanoporous surfaces did not induce any preferences in cell orientation.

  9. Day Care: Resources for Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotberg, Edith H., Ed.

    The question of federal day care programs on a mass scale oriented toward influencing family life is discussed, and a number of issues concerning the behavioral and social effects of such a system are raised. This document is divided into six parts. Part I discusses the following: day care settings--social, cultural, and anthropological…

  10. Radiometric detection of yeasts in blood cultures of cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Hopfer, R.L.; Orengo, A.; Chesnut, S.; Wenglar, M.

    1980-09-01

    During a 12-month period, 19,457 blood cultures were collected. Yeasts were isolated from 193 cultures derived from 76 cancer patients. Candida albicans or Candida tropicalis accounted for 79% of isolates. Of the three methods compared, the radiometric method required 2.9 days to become positive, blind subculture required 2.6 days, and Gram stains required 1 day. However, the radiometric method was clearly superior in detecting positive cultures, since 73% of all cultures were first detected radiometrically, 22% were detected by subculture, and only 5% were detected by Gram stain. Although 93% of the isolates were detected by aerobic culture, five (7%) isolates were obtained only from anaerobic cultures. Seven days of incubation appear to be sufficient for the radiometric detection of yeasts.

  11. Japan: The Modernization of an Ancient Culture. Series on Public Issues No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolken, Lawrence C.

    This booklet, one of a series of booklets intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues of the day, traces the modernization of the ancient culture of Japan. Four major areas are covered: (1) "An Ancient Culture" covers the period from the first settling of Japan through the Heian period, the medieval ages, the Meiji…

  12. Periodicities of solar flare and its relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hady, Ahmed A.

    1995-01-01

    Daily flare index during period between March 1975 and May 1978, were studied by using power spectral analysis method. There are periodicities between 4.5 days to 21.7 days. Our results confirm the periodicity around 12.5 days found by several authors. This periodicity was attributed to the rotation of solar core. Long term periodicities were given where 88 and 320 days periodicities were confirmed. The relation between these periodicities and other solar activities periodicity were given.

  13. English Day--A Whole Day of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Yehudit Od

    1997-01-01

    English Day is celebrated annually at one Israeli school through language- and culture-related activities. One year, the school implemented whole-language learning strategies and involved parents and students in related activities at a series of activity stations featuring movies, books, television, fashion, comics, games, technology, science,…

  14. 'Intermittent' solar periodicities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, Charles L.

    1992-01-01

    The signal from a stable periodicity can seem to be intermittent when it is partially masked by an unmodelled window function or when the data set is too short to resolve closely spaced periodicities. By taking this into account, short-lived periodicities in solar data can be reinterpreted as evidence for continuously periodic behavior. The periodic sources are located in the solar interior and caused by global oscillation modes. The convective envelope acts as the window for these sources. Recent reports of seven periodicities from 100 to 1000 days are compared with this model. Precise long-term values for the periodicities are predicted and they agree closely with observations. Some elements are suggested that might explain the well-documented 155-day periodicity. Conventional filtering methods to suppress effects of the 11-year cycle are criticized as inadequate.

  15. Enhanced recovery of Phytophthora ramorum from soil following 30 days storage at 4C

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlamydospores of Phytophthora ramorum produced by mixing 20 percent V8 juice broth cultures with sand and incubating over a 30 day period were used to infest field soil at densities ranging from 0.2 to 42 chlamydospores per cubic centimeter of soil. Chlamydospore recovery was determined by baiting...

  16. Festivals of the Darkest Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacha, Frances B.

    1980-01-01

    Presents historical background on various winter festivals around the world including Saturnalia, Christmas, winter solstice, Yule festivals, Hannukah, Divali, and New Year's Day. Suggests how teachers can help elementary school students understand their own culture by studying these and other festivals using maps, mobiles, discussion, and reading…

  17. Heat Stress Responses in Cultured Plant Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Min-Tze; Wallner, Stephen J.; Waddell, John W.

    1984-01-01

    The pipetting of pear (Pyrus communis cv Bartlett) suspension cultures was followed by a substantial but transient decrease in heat sensitivity. During a culture cycle, pear cells were most sensitive to heat at day 3, which coincided with the period of most active cell division. To minimize serious artifacts, the influence of culture handling and age on parameters such as heat sensitivity must be standardized. PMID:16663538

  18. Stennis Space Center celebrates Diversity Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Kendall Mitchell of the Naval Oceanographic Office (right) learns about the culture of Bolivia from Narda Inchausty, president of the Foreign Born Wives Association in Slidell, La., during 2009 Diversity Day events at NASA's John Stennis Space Center. Stennis hosted Diversity Day activities for employees on Oct. 7. The day's events included cultural and agency exhibits, diversity-related performances, a trivia contest and a classic car and motorcycle show. It also featured the first-ever sitewide Stennis Employee Showcase.

  19. Betelgeuse Period Analysis Using VSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempsey, F.

    2015-06-01

    (Abstract only) Betelgeuse was studied using the VSTAR software package and analysis of the observations in the AAVSO database. Period analysis derived a period of 376 days, in comparison with literature periods of 420 days using satellite UV data but significantly different from the VSX period of 2,335 days. The unique set of PEP observations of this star is also shown and advantage of PEP Johnson V observations is shown in comparison with the visual observations.

  20. When Every Day Is Professional Development Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Stonaker, Lew

    2007-01-01

    In the Monroe Township (New Jersey) Public Schools, teachers' learning occurs daily, not just on one day in October and February. Central office and school-level administrators foster job-embedded teacher growth. Every day is a professional development day in the district, but that has not always been so. How did the district become a system with

  1. When Every Day Is Professional Development Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.; Stonaker, Lew

    2007-01-01

    In the Monroe Township (New Jersey) Public Schools, teachers' learning occurs daily, not just on one day in October and February. Central office and school-level administrators foster job-embedded teacher growth. Every day is a professional development day in the district, but that has not always been so. How did the district become a system with…

  2. Study of the Infectivity of Saline-Stored Campylobacter jejuni for Day-Old Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Hald, Birthe; Knudsen, Katrine; Lind, Peter; Madsen, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    The culturability of three Campylobacter jejuni strains and their infectivity for day-old chicks were assessed following storage of the strains in saline. The potential for colonization of chicks was weakened during the storage period and terminated 3 to 4 weeks before the strains became nonculturable. The results from this study suggest that the role of starved and aged but still culturable campylobacters may be diminutive, but even more, that the role of viable but nonculturable stages in campylobacter epidemiology may be negligible. Even high levels of maternally derived anti-campylobacter outer membrane protein serum antibodies in day-old chicks did not protect the chicks from campylobacter colonization. PMID:11319130

  3. Walls of Time: The "Walk through Time" Was Inspired by How Artists of Various Time Periods and Cultures Have Decorated Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komrska, Shelley; Rupe, Melissa

    2005-01-01

    Last year, a school embarked on a school-wide project that would take all of their students, kindergarten through-sixth grade, through a tangible art timeline. The result was a passageway--over seventy-five feet in length--that revealed the history of art, from cave painting to modern-day graffiti art. The "walk through time" was inspired by how…

  4. Walls of Time: The "Walk through Time" Was Inspired by How Artists of Various Time Periods and Cultures Have Decorated Walls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komrska, Shelley; Rupe, Melissa

    2005-01-01

    Last year, a school embarked on a school-wide project that would take all of their students, kindergarten through-sixth grade, through a tangible art timeline. The result was a passageway--over seventy-five feet in length--that revealed the history of art, from cave painting to modern-day graffiti art. The "walk through time" was inspired by how

  5. STS-79 Flight Day 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    On this fifth day of the STS-79 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. William F. Readdy, Pilot Terrence W. Wilcutt, Mission Specialists, Thomas D. Akers, Shannon Lucid, Jay Apt, and Carl E. Walz, in the first full day of joint Shuttle/Mir operations begin in with the transfer of a biotechnology investigation and logistical supplies from Atlantis to Mir. The Biotechnology System, an investigation that will study the long-term development of cartilage cells in microgravity, was transported to Mir early this morning. During his planned four-month stay on Mir, John Blaha will take weekly samples of the culture which may provide researchers with information on engineering cartilage cells for possible use in transplantation. They also took time out of their schedules to talk with Good Morning America's Elizabeth Vargas in a brief interview. Prior to beginning the day's transfer activities, all nine astronauts and cosmonauts participated in a joint planning session to outline the day's schedule.

  6. Stress-Induced Changes in the Expression of the Clock Protein PERIOD1 in the Rat Limbic Forebrain and Hypothalamus: Role of Stress Type, Time of Day, and Predictability

    PubMed Central

    Al-Safadi, Sherin; Al-Safadi, Aya; Branchaud, Marie; Rutherford, Spencer; Dayanandan, Arun; Robinson, Barry; Amir, Shimon

    2014-01-01

    Stressful events can disrupt circadian rhythms in mammals but mechanisms underlying this disruption remain largely unknown. One hypothesis is that stress alters circadian protein expression in the forebrain, leading to functional dysregulation of the brain circadian network and consequent disruption of circadian physiological and behavioral rhythms. Here we characterized the effects of several different stressors on the expression of the core clock protein, PER1 and the activity marker, FOS in select forebrain and hypothalamic nuclei in rats. We found that acute exposure to processive stressors, restraint and forced swim, elevated PER1 and FOS expression in the paraventricular and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei and piriform cortex but suppressed PER1 and FOS levels exclusively in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEAl) and oval nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTov). Conversely, systemic stressors, interleukin-1β and 2-Deoxy-D-glucose, increased PER1 and FOS levels in all regions studied, including the CEAl and BNSTov. PER1 levels in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master pacemaker, were unaffected by any of the stress manipulations. The effect of stress on PER1 and FOS was modulated by time of day and, in the case of daily restraint, by predictability. These results demonstrate that the expression of PER1 in the forebrain is modulated by stress, consistent with the hypothesis that PER1 serves as a link between stress and the brain circadian network. Furthermore, the results show that the mechanisms that control PER1 and FOS expression in CEAl and BNSTov are uniquely sensitive to differences in the type of stressor. Finally, the finding that the effect of stress on PER1 parallels its effect on FOS supports the idea that Per1 functions as an immediate-early gene. Our observations point to a novel role for PER1 as a key player in the interface between stress and circadian rhythms. PMID:25338089

  7. Schoolwide Literacy Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polder, Darlene D.

    2000-01-01

    Describes 10 "literacy day" activities that one California elementary school has used successfully schoolwide, typically one such day per month, to make reading fun and purposeful, while developing a sense of community. Includes: spread-a-quilt day; teacher exchange day; turn off the TV; Dr. Seuss day; community readers; schoolwide poets; original…

  8. First Day of Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your Child All About Food Allergies The First Day of Life KidsHealth > For Parents > The First Day ... continue What Your Baby Does on the First Day Many parents are surprised to see how alert ...

  9. Non-spore forming eubacteria isolated at an altitude of 20,000 m in Earth's atmosphere: extended incubation periods needed for culture-based assays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Dale W.

    2008-01-01

    On 13 August 2004, an atmospheric sample was collected at an altitude of 20,000 m along a west to east transect over the continental United States by NASA’s Stratospheric and Cosmic Dust Program. This sample was then shipped to the US Geological Survey’s Global Desert Dust program for microbiological analyses. This sample, which was plated on a low nutrient agar to determine if cultivable microorganisms were present, produced 590 small yellow to off-white colonies after approximately 7 weeks of incubation at room-temperature. Of 50 colonies selected for identification using 16S rRNA sequencing, 41 belonged to the family Micrococcaceae, seven to the family Microbacteriaceae, one to the genus Staphylococcus, and one to the genus Brevibacterium. All of the isolates identified were non-spore-forming pigmented bacteria, and their presence in this sample illustrate that it is not unusual to recover viable microbes at extreme altitudes. Additionally, the extended period required to initiate growth demonstrates the need for lengthy incubation periods when analyzing high-altitude samples for cultivable microorganisms.

  10. Problem Periods

    MedlinePlus

    ... body fat to be very low, which can cause your periods to stop. This can happen if you are training hard for sports or if you ... problems with hormones. One common hormone condition that causes period problems is ... will often stop having periods. When to see a doctor top ...

  11. 75 FR 42818 - Agency Information Collection; Activity Under OMB Review; Collection of Safety Culture Data for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... on March 12, 2010 (75 FR 11988) and the comment period ended on May 11, 2010. The 60-day notice...; Collection of Safety Culture Data for Program Evaluation AGENCY: Research & Innovative Technology... Culture Data for Program Evaluation. Type of Request: Approval of a new information collection....

  12. Rabbit whole embryo culture.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Valerie A; Carney, Edward W

    2012-01-01

    Although the rabbit is used extensively in developmental toxicity testing, relatively little is known about the fundamental developmental biology of this species let alone mechanisms underlying developmental toxicity. This paucity of information about the rabbit is partly due to the historic lack of whole embryo culture (WEC) methods for the rabbit, which have only been made available fairly recently. In rabbit WEC, early somite stage embryos (gestation day 9) enclosed within an intact amnion and attached to the visceral yolk sac are dissected from maternal tissues and placed in culture for up to 48 h at approximately 37C and are continuously exposed to an humidified gas atmosphere mixture in a rotating culture system. During this 48 h culture period, major phases of organogenesis can be studied including cardiac looping and segmentation, neural tube closure, and development of anlagen of the otic system, eyes and craniofacial structures, somites and early phases of limb development (up to bud stage), as well as expansion and closure of the visceral yolk sac around the embryo. Following completion of the culture period, embryos are evaluated based on several growth and development parameters and also are assessed for morphological abnormalities. The ability to sustain embryo development independent of the maternal system allows for exposure at precise development stages providing the opportunity study the direct action of a teratogen or one of its metabolites on the developing embryo. Rabbit WEC is perhaps most useful when used in conjunction with rodent WEC methods to investigate species-specific mechanisms of developmental toxicity. PMID:22669668

  13. Family Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Carol, Ed.; Dittmann, Laura L., Ed.

    This handbook is intended to provide information for the family seeking day care for its children, the family wishing to begin a family day care service, and an agency considering implementing a network of family day care homes. The first section of the handbook is especially intended for parents who are trying to decide which type of day care…

  14. Adult Day Services

    MedlinePlus

    A Smart Choice Adult Day Services Comparison At-a-Glance 1 Adult Day Services Assisted Living Home Care Nursing Homes Live at home with family ... supervision Nursing care available as needed during the day Flexibility to receive care only on days when ...

  15. Day-1 chick development.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Guojun

    2014-03-01

    The first day of chick development takes place inside the mother hen (in utero), during which the embryo progresses from fertilization to late blastula/early gastrula formation. The salient features of developmental anatomy in this period are conserved among the sauropsids (birds and reptiles). Many of these features are also shared in prototherian (monotreme) embryos, whereas metatherian (marsupial) and eutherian (placental) embryos display significant variations. Important for understanding the evolution of early development in amniotes, the knowledge of cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating in utero chick development may also offer valuable insight into early lineage specification in prototherians and conserved features in mammalian early development. This commentary provides a snapshot of what is currently known about intrauterine chick development and identifies key issues that await further clarification, including the process of cellularization, allocation of maternal determinants, zygotic gene activation, mid-blastula transition, cell layer increase and reduction, radial symmetry breaking, early lineage segregation, and role of yolk syncytium in early patterning. PMID:24550174

  16. Defrosting Polar Dunes--Changes Over a 26-Day Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    As the retreat of the south polar winter frost cap became visible in June 1999, high resolution images from the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) began to show dark spots forming on the surfaces of frost-covered sand dunes. Immediately, the MOC science team began to plan to observe several dune fields more than once, should that opportunity arise, so that the evolution of these dark spots could be documented and studied. Such work will eventually lead to abetter understanding of how the martian polar caps retreat as winter ends and spring unfolds in each hemisphere.

    MGS is in a polar orbit, which means that, unlike many other places on Mars, the spacecraft has more opportunities to take pictures of the same place. Dune fields near 87o latitude can be repeatedly viewed; dunes near the equator are not likely to be photographed more than once during the entire MGS mission.

    The pictures presented here show changes on a set of nearly pear-shaped sand dunes located on the floor of an unnamed crater at 59oS, 353oW. The picture on the left shows the dunes as they appeared on June 19, 1999, the picture on the right shows the same dunes on July 15, 1999. The dark spots in the June 19picture--indicating areas where frost has sublimed away--became larger by July 15th. In addition, new spots had appeared as of mid-July. If possible, these dunes will be photographed by MOC again in mid-August and each month until the frost is gone.

    The pictures shown in (B) (above) are expanded views of portions of the pictures in (A). The 200 meter scale bar equals 656 feet; the 100 meter bar is 328 feet (109 yards) long. All images are illuminated from the upper left; north is toward the upper right.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  17. In vitro maintenance of spermatogenesis in Xenopus laevis testis explants cultured in serum-free media

    SciTech Connect

    Risley, M.S.; Miller, A.; Bumcrot, D.A.

    1987-05-01

    Spermatogenesis has been maintained for extended periods in Xenopus laevis testis explants cultured in serum-free media supplemented with bovine serum albumin, insulin, transferrin, follicle-stimulating hormone, dihydrotestosterone, testosterone, retinol, ascorbate, and tocopherol. The organization of the testis fragments was maintained for 28 days, and all stages of development were present throughout the culture period. /sup 3/H-Thymidine-labeled secondary (Type B) spermatogonia developed in 28 days into spermatids at the acrosomal vesicle stage whereas labeled zygotene spermatocytes became mature spermatids in 28 days. Spermatogonial proliferation also continued in vitro for 28 days. Germ cell differentiation was not dependent upon exogenous testosterone, ascorbate, or tocopherol since /sup 3/H-labeled spermatogonia became mature spermatids in testes cultured 35 days in media lacking these supplements. Autoradiography demonstrated that 55% of the luminal sperm present in explants cultured 10 days had differentiated in vitro. Sperm from testes cultured 10-35 days were similar to sperm from freshly dissected testes with regard to motility and fecundity, and eggs fertilized with sperm from explant cultures developed normally into swimming tadpoles. The results demonstrate the feasibility of maintaining vertebrate spermatogenesis in culture and suggest that in vitro analysis of Xenopus spermatogenesis using defined media may provide important insights into the evolution of regulatory mechanisms in spermatogenesis.

  18. Period Cramps

    MedlinePlus

    ... and what to do if you're a girl who gets them. What Are Period Cramps? Lots of girls experience cramps before or during their periods. Cramps ... prostaglandins (say: pross-tuh-GLAN-dinz), chemicals a girl's body produces to make the muscles of the ...

  19. Every Day Is National Lab Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Glen

    2010-01-01

    President Barack Obama recently issued a call for increased hands-on learning in U.S. schools in an address at the National Academy of Sciences. Obama concluded that the future of the United States depends on one's ability to encourage young people to "create, and build, and invent." In this article, the author discusses National Lab Day (NLD)…

  20. Riley-Day syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Riley-Day syndrome is an inherited disorder that affects nerves throughout the body. ... Riley-Day syndrome is passed down through families (inherited). A person must inherit a copy of the defective gene ...

  1. Growing degree day calculator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Degree-day benchmarks indicate discrete biological events in the development of insect pests. For the Sparganothis fruitworm, we have isolated all key development events and linked them to degree-day accumulations. These degree-day accumulations can greatly improve treatment timings for cranberry IP...

  2. Every Day Is Mathematical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Rita H.; Jarrah, Adeeb M.

    2012-01-01

    March 14 is special because it is Pi Day. Mathematics is celebrated on that day because the date, 3-14, replicates the first three digits of pi. Pi-related songs, websites, trivia facts, and more are at the fingertips of interested teachers and students. Less celebrated, but still fairly well known, is National Metric Day, which falls on October…

  3. Every Day Is Mathematical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barger, Rita H.; Jarrah, Adeeb M.

    2012-01-01

    March 14 is special because it is Pi Day. Mathematics is celebrated on that day because the date, 3-14, replicates the first three digits of pi. Pi-related songs, websites, trivia facts, and more are at the fingertips of interested teachers and students. Less celebrated, but still fairly well known, is National Metric Day, which falls on October

  4. Nitric oxide and oxidative stress in placental explant cultures.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Juvic M; Casart, Ysabel C; Camejo, María I

    2016-02-01

    Placental explant culture, and cellular cytolysis and cellular differentiation have been previously studied. However, oxidative stress and nitric oxide profiles have not been evaluated in these systems. The aim of this study was to determine the release of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide from placental explants cultured over a seven day period. Placental explants were maintained for seven days in culture and the medium was changed every 24 hours. The response was assessed in terms of syncytiotrophoblast differentiation (human chorionic gonadotropin, hCG), cellular cytolysis (lactate dehydrogenase, LDH), oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS), and nitric oxide (NO). Levels of hCG increased progressively from day two to attain its highest level on days four and five after which it decreased gradually. In contrast, the levels of LDH, TBARS, and NO were elevated in the early days of placental culture when new syncytiotrophoblast from cytotrophoblast were forming and also in the last days of culture when tissue was declining. In conclusion, the levels of NO and lipid peroxidation follow a pattern similar to LDH and contrary to hCG. Future placental explant studies to evaluate oxidative stress and NO should consider the physiological changes inherent during the time of culture. PMID:26366632

  5. Group culture of human zygotes is superior to individual culture in terms of blastulation, implantation and life birth.

    PubMed

    Ebner, T; Shebl, O; Moser, M; Mayer, R B; Arzt, W; Tews, G

    2010-12-01

    This prospective study tested a new type of culture dish for the effects of individual culture and autotrophic factors. Within a 6-month period, 72 patients with nine or more fertilized eggs were enrolled in this prospective evaluation. Their 936 zygotes were split into three subgroups (individual culture, individual culture with contact to neighbours, group culture). All concepti were cultured in 30 ?l drops (medium change on day 3) until blastocyst stage. On day 5, a single-blastocyst transfer was performed and the remaining blastocysts of good quality were vitrified. Fertilization rates were 69% for IVF and 81% for intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Blastulation was 48%. Single-blastocyst transfer resulted in a clinical pregnancy rate of 54%. Group culture was superior in terms of compaction (P<0.01) and blastulation (P<0.001) as compared with individual culture. A better blastocyst quality was observed in group culture (P<0.05). As a trend, more life births were achieved with blastocysts derived from group culture. As far as is known, this is the first evidence that grouping embryos improves preimplantation development in human and it is recommended that culture volume should be reduced or embryo density increased. PMID:21051291

  6. Sensitive Periods

    PubMed Central

    Zeanah, Charles H.; Gunnar, Megan R.; McCall, Robert B.; Kreppner, Jana M.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter reviews sensitive periods in human brain development based on the literature on children raised in institutions. Sensitive experiences occur when experiences are uniquely influential for the development of neural circuitry. Because in humans, we make inferences about sensitive periods from evaluations of complex behaviors, we underestimate the occurrence of sensitive periods at the level of neural circuitry. Although we are most interested in complex behaviors, such as IQ or attachment or externalizing problems, many different sensitive periods at the level of circuits probably underlie these complex behaviors. Results from a number of studies suggest that across most, but not all, domains of development, institutional rearing limited to the first 4–6 months of life is associated with no significant increase risk for long-term adverse effects relative to non-institutionalized children. Beyond that, evidence for sensitive periods is less compelling, meaning that “the earlier the better” rule for enhanced caregiving is a reasonable conclusion at the current state of the science. PMID:25125708

  7. Open Day at SHMI.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarosova, M.

    2010-09-01

    During the World Meteorological Day there has been preparing "Open Day" at Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute. This event has more than 10 years traditions. "Open Day" is one of a lot of possibilities to give more information about meteorology, climatology, hydrology too to public. This "Day" is executed in whole Slovakia. People can visit the laboratories, the forecasting room....and meteo and clima measuring points. The most popular is visiting forecasting room. Visitors are interested in e.g. climatologic change in Slovakia territory, preparing weather forecasting, dangerous phenomena.... Every year we have more than 500 visitors.

  8. Recent Innovations in Cultural Practices in the Mid-Atlantic Coast Region of the U. S.: Novel Systems for Increasing Fall Fruiting in Short-day Type Strawberry Cultivars and Opportunities for Out-of-Season Fruit Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producing strawberry transplants from runner tips that were plugged about one month earlier (early July) than the standard time (early August) promoted fall flowering in some short-day strawberry cultivars. In 2002, 100 percent of ‘Chandler’ transplants produced in early July flowered in the fall,...

  9. Cultural Diplomacy in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haigh, Anthony

    The evolution of European government activities in the sphere of international cultural relations is examined. Section 1 describes the period between World War I and World War II when European governments tried to enhance their prestige and policies by means of cultural propaganda. Section 2 analyzes the period during World War II when the…

  10. Adult Education in the American Experience from the Colonial Period to the Present. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubblefield, Harold W.; Keane, Patrick

    This book offers a comprehensive history of adult education in the United States from the colonial period to the present day. Chapter 1 discusses definitions of adult education and explores formative influences. Chapters 2-3 on the colonial and post-Revolutionary periods trace an Atlantic information network, rise of a literate culture, Puritan…

  11. Popular Chat Day Q & A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Day / Popular Chat Day Q & A Popular Chat Day Q & A Read students most popular questions about ... New Order Free Materials National Drugs & Alcohol Chat Day Chat Day Participant FAQs Popular Chat Day Q & ...

  12. Popular Chat Day Q & A

    MedlinePlus

    ... Day / Popular Chat Day Q & A Popular Chat Day Q & A Read students’ most popular questions about ... New Order Free Materials National Drugs & Alcohol Chat Day Chat Day Participant FAQs Popular Chat Day Q & ...

  13. For Just One Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, S.

    2004-01-01

    This essay explores the fantasy of a mother who wonders what her son would have been like if he were not severely disabled. For just one day, she confesses, she would like to know the anticipated son who disappeared from her life the day her disabled son was born, 21 years ago. The essay provides vivid examples of challenging experiences she has

  14. Science Challenge Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Science fairs can be good motivators, but as extracurricular activities, they leave some students behind. However, by staging a Science Challenge Day at school, educators can involve all students in doing everything from choosing activities to judging projects. This article presents a model for running a successful Science Challenge Day. The…

  15. RED-LETTER DAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...

  16. Day Nurseries in Senegal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gueye, Khady

    1977-01-01

    Describes a village day nursery organized by peasant women in 1962 to provide care for preschool children whose mothers must work in the rice fields. Outlines the aims of the day nursery and the prerequisites for its establishment. Community and parent participation is stressed. (JK)

  17. The Presidents' Day Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, D. Jackson

    2008-01-01

    The history behind the holiday commonly called "Presidents' Day" is a bit confusing. It started as a federal holiday called Washington's Birthday. It was a day set aside to honor George Washington for his accomplishments as a founding father of the country. Later, many northern states began to recognize Abraham Lincoln's Birthday as well for his…

  18. Science Challenge Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Science fairs can be good motivators, but as extracurricular activities, they leave some students behind. However, by staging a Science Challenge Day at school, educators can involve all students in doing everything from choosing activities to judging projects. This article presents a model for running a successful Science Challenge Day. The

  19. Family Science Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCubbins, Sara; Thomas, Bethany; Vetere, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a family-friendly science day event that encourages scientific discovery through hands-on activities, while also providing an opportunity to learn about scientific careers from actual research scientists and science educators, thereby raising awareness of the importance of STEM in our society. The one-day event bought

  20. Family Science Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCubbins, Sara; Thomas, Bethany; Vetere, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a family-friendly science day event that encourages scientific discovery through hands-on activities, while also providing an opportunity to learn about scientific careers from actual research scientists and science educators, thereby raising awareness of the importance of STEM in our society. The one-day event bought…

  1. Who Cares? Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Children and Family Services, Springfield.

    The purpose of this report prepared by the Illinois Department of Children and Family Services is to describe the growth of day care services in Illinois during 1972 and to present information which will aid state agencies and citizens in planning for and coordinating day care services. The report is divided into discussions of past, present, and

  2. My Lucky Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olvey, Maura

    2010-01-01

    Teaching based on problem solving brings challenges for the teacher, primarily that of finding problems with multiple access points that accommodate all students. This article narrates the author's lucky day as she discovers the Four fours problem which impacted her passion for teaching math. The day she presented the Four fours problem to her

  3. The Presidents' Day Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, D. Jackson

    2008-01-01

    The history behind the holiday commonly called "Presidents' Day" is a bit confusing. It started as a federal holiday called Washington's Birthday. It was a day set aside to honor George Washington for his accomplishments as a founding father of the country. Later, many northern states began to recognize Abraham Lincoln's Birthday as well for his

  4. My Lucky Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olvey, Maura

    2010-01-01

    Teaching based on problem solving brings challenges for the teacher, primarily that of finding problems with multiple access points that accommodate all students. This article narrates the author's lucky day as she discovers the Four fours problem which impacted her passion for teaching math. The day she presented the Four fours problem to her…

  5. Rainy Day Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Child Care, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Experienced caregivers plan ahead for rainy days. This article describes specific rainy day activities for young children, such as books and crafts to learn about rain (rain in a jar, making a rainbow), simple cooking activities (taffy pull, cinnamon candy tea), and games (mummy wrap, hunt the thimble, rain lotto). (EV)

  6. Day of the Dead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dann, Tammy; Murphy, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Foreign Language in Elementary School (FLES) teachers in the West Des Moines schools incorporate the Day of the Dead into the fourth grade curriculum each year. The teachers discuss the Day of the Dead celebration at the Art Center, and many ask for volunteers from fourth grade to participate in the event. Student presentations include a wide…

  7. Infections in day care.

    PubMed

    Ferson, M J

    1993-02-01

    The number of preschool-aged children who attend day care has increased dramatically in recent years. Factors promoting spread of infections in this setting include crowding, lack of hygiene, high prevalence of early exploratory behaviors, and the likelihood of many susceptible children being in close contact. As a result, children attending day care experience a great number of episodes of respiratory and gastrointestinal illness than do other children. Moreover, the risk of a number of specific infections, including Haemophilus influenzae type b and hepatitis A, is increased by attendance in day care. Day-care staff are at increased risk of a number of infections, some of which, including cytomegalovirus and parvovirus B19, may have adverse consequences to a fetus. The presence of children in day care increases the risk of illness among staff and family members and may promote the circulation of infections in the community as a whole. PMID:8374625

  8. Bite Injuries at a Day Care Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomons, Hope C.; Elardo, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the incidence of bites among reported accidents to children in a university day care center over a 42-month period in an effort to examine the ways in which bites varied by age, sex, body part injured, cause of injury, season, and time of day. (BB)

  9. Periodic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Edwin

    2013-03-01

    Periodic polymers can be made by self assembly, directed self assembly and by photolithography. Such materials provide a versatile platform for 1, 2 and 3D periodic nano-micro scale composites with either dielectric or impedance contrast or both, and these can serve for example, as photonic and or phononic crystals for electromagnetic and elastic waves as well as mechanical frames/trusses. Compared to electromagnetic waves, elastic waves are both less complex (longitudinal modes in fluids) and more complex (longitudinal, transverse in-plane and transverse out-of-plane modes in solids). Engineering of the dispersion relation between wave frequency w and wave vector, k enables the opening of band gaps in the density of modes and detailed shaping of w(k). Band gaps can be opened by Bragg scattering, anti-crossing of bands and discrete shape resonances. Current interest is in our group focuses using design - modeling, fabrication and measurement of polymer-based periodic materials for applications as tunable optics and control of phonon flow. Several examples will be described including the design of structures for multispectral band gaps for elastic waves to alter the phonon density of states, the creation of block polymer and bicontinuous metal-carbon nanoframes for structures that are robust against ballistic projectiles and quasi-crystalline solid/fluid structures that can steer shock waves.

  10. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Seleshe, Semeneh; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Mooha

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently. PMID:26760739

  11. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently. PMID:26760739

  12. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  13. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  14. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  15. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  16. 24 CFR 58.21 - Time periods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time periods. 58.21 Section 58.21...: Environmental Review Procedures § 58.21 Time periods. All time periods in this part shall be counted in calendar days. The first day of a time period begins at 12:01 a.m. local time on the day following...

  17. Adult Day Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... care, to enhance self-esteem, and to encourage socialization. There are two types of adult day care: ... Meals Medical care Physical therapy Recreation Respite care Socialization Supervision Transportation Medication management Back to top Center ...

  18. Day care health risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... virus. It is spread by poor or no hand washing after going to the bathroom or changing a ... and then preparing food. In addition to good hand washing, day care staff and children should get the ...

  19. Pregnancy - identifying fertile days

    MedlinePlus

    ... between days 7 and 20 of a woman's menstrual cycle. In order to become pregnant, having sex every ... hours of ovulation. If you have an irregular menstrual cycle, an ovulation predictor kit can help you know ...

  20. Space Day 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winslow, Joyce

    2000-01-01

    Introduces three design challenges for fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students created by the Challenger Center for Space Science Education. Presents information on Space Day and the National Classroom and provides Internet site addresses. (YDS)

  1. Culture Computing: Interactive Technology to Explore Culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheok, Adrian David

    The present day rapid development of media science and digital technology is offering the modern generation more opportunities as well as challenges as the new fundamental literacy. Therefore, to reach the modern generation on issues such as an appreciation of cultures, we have to find common grounds based on digital media technology. In an increasingly hybrid cultural environment, interaction and fusion of cultural factors with the computer technology will be an investigation into the possibilities of providing an experience into the cultures of the world, operating in the environments the modern generation inhabits. Research has created novel merging of traditional cultures and literature with recent media literacy. Three cultural computing systems, Media Me, BlogWall and Confucius Computer, are presented in this chapter. Studies showed that users gave positive feedback to their experience of interacting with cultural computing systems.

  2. Stennis Day Camper

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Sara Beth Casey, 5, proudly displays her artwork, 'Planets.' Sara Beth created the art as a student of Stennis Day Camp, a free camp for Stennis Space Center employees' children whose schools have not resumed since Hurricane Katrina hit the region on Aug. 29. The camp has registered nearly 200 children and averages 100 children each day. The camp will continue until all schools are back in session.

  3. AAS 227: Day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 4 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Helen B. Warner Prize: Origins of Structure in Planetary Systems (by Erika Nesvold)Another excellent prize lecture started off todays sessions. The Helen B. Warner Prize is awarded for achievement in observational or theoretical astrophysics by a young researcher (no more than eight years after their Ph.D.). This years Warner Prize was presented to Ruth Murray-Clay of UC Santa Barbara. For her award lecture, Murray-Clay told us all about planetary system architecture: the number, masses, and orbits of planets in a given system.Ruth Murray-Clay [photo from http://web.physics.ucsb.edu/ ~murray/biocv.html]The underlying question motivating this type of research is: How rare is the Solar System? In other words, how likely is it that a given planetary system will have rocky planets close to their star, gas giants farther out, and ice giants at the outer reaches of the system? Answering this question will help us solve the physics problem of how and where planets form, and will also help us on our search for other planets like Earth.The data on exoplanet population from transit and radial velocity observations and from direct imaging tell us that our Solar System is not common (many systems we observe have much more eccentric gas giants), but that doesnt mean its not typical. While we wait for more and better observations of exoplanet systems, theory can help us understand why the Solar System formed the way it did, and where to look for systems that formed the same way. For example, some of Murray-Clays previous work has shown that metal-rich stars tend to host more hot Jupiters and eccentric giant planets (very different from Solar System architecture). So if we want to find more systems like our own, we need to search around stars with low-to-moderate metallicity.Extrasolar Planets: Hosts, Interactions, Formation, and Interiors (by Caroline Morley)This session was a mashup of a variety of planetary topics ranging from solar flares to interiors to habitability.Leslie Rogers kicked off the session by presenting work done in collaboration with her student Ellen Price to constrain the composition of the ultra-short period (4 hours!?!) planet candidate KOI 1843.03 using models of the objects interior. Since its so close to the star, it can only exist without being torn apart if its very dense, which allows them to calculate that it must be iron-rich like Mercury!Next Kevin Thielen, an undergrad at Eckerd College, presented results from a summer project to apply a variable polytrope index to planet models. Tom Barclay then showed models that demonstrate the huge effect that having giant planets in the outer solar system has on the formation of terrestrial planets. He finds that without Jupiter and Saturn, more planets would form (8 instead of 3-4!) and giant impacts (like the moon-forming impact) would be more frequent but less energetic.Aomawa Shields shifted to discuss her 3D GCM models to determine the orbital configurations that would lead to liquid water on the surface of the planet Kepler-62f. She determines the effect of eccentricity, axis tilt (obliquity), and rotation rate on habitability. Edward Guinan brought us closer to home discussing the potential for superflares solar flares up to hundreds of times more energetic than normalin our solar system. Analyses of Kepler data suggest that these flares likely happen every 300-500 years in Sunlike stars (way more often than previously thought!), and would devastate communications systems on Earth (and hurt astronauts in space).Peter Buhler and Taisiya Kopytova finished up the session. Peter showed how he used Spitzer secondary eclipses and MESA models to determine the tidal love number and core mass of HAT-P-13b. Taisiya presented her thesis work on observations of brown dwarfs and low-mass stars. She shows that in many cases, particularly for young objects and cold objects, the models for these objects do not fit the data very well!Press Conference: Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) IV (by Susanna Kohler)The final press conference of the meeting was all about the fourth generation of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey.In the opening talk, Michael Blanton (New York University) presented some early results from SDSS-IV, which is slated to run from 2014 to 2020. The major components to SDSS-IV are extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (eBOSS), a cosmological survey of quasars and galaxies; APO Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE-2), a stellar survey of the Milky Way; and Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA), a survey that will map the detailed internal structure of nearly 10,000 nearby galaxies.Next up was Melissa Ness (Max Planck Institute for Astronomy), speaking about APOGEEs creation of the first global age map of the Milky Way. APOGEE obtained the spectra for 70,000 red giant stars. These spectra, combined with the stars light curves, allowed the team to infer the ages of these stars distributed across the Milky Way galaxy. The resulting map is shown in the video below. From this map, Ness says its pretty clear: the Milky Way started as a small disk, and its expanded out from there, since. Our galaxy grew, and it grew up by growing out. Heres the press release. This is a big 3D map showing the age of stars in the Milky Way the latest from #aas227: https://t.co/HiPbm9eW6J pic.twitter.com/DqG6NNsPTU jonathan jb webb (@jjbw) January 8, 2016Francesco Belfiore (University of Cambridge) gave the next talk, cleverly titled Proof That Some Galaxies Are LIERs. The title is a play on the astrophysical source known as a LINER, or Low-Ionization Nuclear Emission-line Region an area within a galactic center that displays line emission from weakly ionized or neutral atoms. These have commonly been interpreted as being a wimpy active galactic nucleus (AGN). But a closer look with MaNGA, which is able to take spectroscopic data for the whole galaxy at once, has revealed that these sources are actually distributed throughout the galaxy, rather than being nuclear hence, no N: these galaxies are LIERs. Instead of AGN, the sources may be newly born white dwarfs. Heres the press release.Artists conception of the changing look quasar as it appeared in early 2015. [Dana Berry / SkyWorks Digital, Inc.; SDSS collaboration]The final speaker was Jessie Runnoe (Pennsylvania State University), who captured everyones attention with the topic of changing look quasars. We know that quasars can transition from a bright state, where active accretion onto the galaxys central supermassive black hole is visible in their emission spectrum, to a dim state, where they look like a normal galaxy. But SDSS has just observed the quasar SDSS J1011+5442 turn off within the span of just 10 years. Based on the data, the team concludes that this quasar exhausted the supply of gas in its immediate vicinity, turning off when there was no longer anything available to accrete. Runnoe showed an awesome animation of this process, which you can check out here. Heres the press release.Coffee, Black Holes, Editors and Beer: The Science-Writing Life (by Susanna Kohler)This talk was a part of the series Beyond the Academy: Showcasing Astronomy Alumni in Non-Academic Careers. Matthew Francis is a former academic scientist (with a PhD in physics and astronomy) who transitioned to being a freelance science writer. Wearing a distinctive bowler hat, Francis talked to a room full of students (and some non-students!) about what its like to be a science writer. Here are some highlights from among his recommendations and comments.A day in the life of a science writer.About the mechanics of freelancing:Some sample numbers: he wrote 73 articles in 2015, for 12 different publications. These vary in length and time invested. He supports himself fully by freelancing.The time between pitching a story and getting it published can vary between a few hours for online news stories to months for feature articles.The answer to the question, What do science writers do all day? (see photo)About transitioning into science writing:If youre interested in a science writing career, start blogging now to build up a portfolio.Use your training! As a researcher, you can read plots, understand scientific articles, and talk to scientists as colleagues. These are great strengths.About writing for the public:Theres a difference in writing for academics and the public: when writing for academics, youre trying to bring them up to your level. When writing for the public, thats probably not the goal.That said, on the subject of dumbing down: If you think your audience is somehow deficient, youve already failed.writing for the web: youll make fundamental spelling/grammar errors, youll find them only when you read the published post. Truth! #aas227 astrobites (@astrobites) January 8, 2016At the end of the session, Francis told us what he considers to be the best part of being a science writer: getting to tell people something that theyve never heard before. Getting it right is communicating a mundane fact to you that is an astounding surprise to your audience.Plenary Talk: News on the Search for Milky Way Satellite Galaxies (by Susanna Kohler)The second-to-last plenary talk of the meeting was given by Keith Bechtol, John Bahcall fellow at University of Wisconsin-Madison. Bechtol spoke about the recent discovery of new satellite galaxies of the Milky Way. Dwarf galaxies orbiting the Milky Way are often hard to spot because they are so faint while globular clusters have mass-to-light ratios of around 1, the ultra-faint satellites around the Milky Way can have mass-to-light ratios of hundreds or thousands! A combination of better facilities and improved analysis techniques has been lengthening the list of known Milky Way satellites, however: SDSS took us from ~10 to ~30 in the last ten years, and facilities like the Dark Energy Survey Camera (DES), Pan-STARRS 1, SkyMapper, and Hyper Suprime-Cam pushed that number to ~50 in 2015.Bechtol plenary on the discovery of new MW satellites #aas227 pic.twitter.com/3GH0Sd2J8c Matthias Steinmetz (@GalacticRAVE) January 8, 2016The new candidates discovered with DES are all less luminous and more distant than previous satellites found. One interesting aspect of this sample is that 15/17 of the candidates fall in the southern half of the DES footprint, and are located near the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. This anisotropy is not thought to be a selection effect so is it coincidence, or could they possibly be satellites of satellites? Were not sure yet!Why do we care about finding Milky Way satellites? There are lots of reasons, but one of the biggest is that they may help us to unravel some of the mysteries of dark matter. These faint-but-massive galaxies were probably born in the Milky Ways dark-matter halo, and they could be great places to indirectly detect dark matter. In addition, theres the missing satellite problem the phenomenon wherein the cold-dark-matter model predicts there should be hundreds of satellites around the Milky Way, yet weve only found a few dozen. Finding more of these galaxies would help clear up whether its the theory or the observations that are wrong.One more time, it shouldnt be called the Missing Satellite Problem. The theorists have a Satellite Overabundance Problem. #aas227 Peter Yoachim (@PeterYoachim) January 8, 2016Overall, Bechtol declares, its been an exciting year for the discovery of new Milky Way satellites, and with new surveys and facilities still in development, the future looks promising as well!Hack Day (by Meredith Rawls)A large contingent of astronomers spent our Friday working on small projects or chunks of larger projects that could be accomplished in a day. Astrobites has written about hack days before. Look for a dedicated recap post with all the great projects later in January!

  4. Embryonic mouse pre-metatarsal development in organ culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klement, B. J.; Spooner, B. S.

    1993-01-01

    Embryonic mouse pre-metatarsals were removed from embryos at 13 days of gestation and cultured in a defined, serum-free medium for up to 15 days. By histological analysis, we observe that the cultured pre-metatarsal tissue undergoes a similar developmental profile as pre-metatarsals growing normally in vivo. The initial mesenchyme condensation regions undergo differentiation and morphogenesis to form distinct rods made up of cartilage tissue. A marker of this differentiation step is the synthesis of type II collagen. Metabolic labelling, pepsin digestion, SDS-PAGE, and autoradiography were used to demonstrate this protein when cartilage tissue is present in the cultures. After additional culture time, terminal chondrocyte differentiation and morphogenesis take place in specific regions of the cartilage rods to form bands of hypertrophied chondrocytes. One marker of this differentiation step is the synthesis of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase. We have measured the activity of this enzyme throughout the culture period and see a substantial increase at the time of terminal chondrocyte differentiation. Another feature of hypertrophied chondrocytes is that the matrix around the cells becomes calcified. Calcified matrix in our cultured pre-metatarsals was visualized by staining with alizarin red. By supplementing the defined culture medium with ITS, we observed that terminal chondrocyte differentiation took place in a shorter culture time. Supplementation of the medium with serum results in a similar acceleration of terminal differentiation, and, with additional culture time, an osteoid-like matrix forms around the central region of the rods.

  5. Rationalization of Comet Halley's periods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belton, Michael J. S.

    1990-01-01

    The sense of long axis orientation of Comet Halley during the Vega 1 encounter must be reversed from that deduced by Sagdeev et al. (1986) in order to harmonize the comet nucleus' Vega/Giotto-observed orientations with periodicities extracted from time-series brightness data. It is also demonstrated that Vega/Giotto observations can be satisfied by either a 2.2- or 3.7-day long-axis free precession period. A novel Fourier algorithm is used to reanalyze five independent data sets; strong evidence is adduced for periods harmonically related to a 7.4-day period. The preferred candidate models for Halley's nuclear rotation are characterized by a long-axis precession period of 3.7 days.

  6. Rationalization of Comet Halley's periods

    SciTech Connect

    Belton, M.J.S. )

    1990-07-01

    The sense of long axis orientation of Comet Halley during the Vega 1 encounter must be reversed from that deduced by Sagdeev et al. (1986) in order to harmonize the comet nucleus' Vega/Giotto-observed orientations with periodicities extracted from time-series brightness data. It is also demonstrated that Vega/Giotto observations can be satisfied by either a 2.2- or 3.7-day long-axis free precession period. A novel Fourier algorithm is used to reanalyze five independent data sets; strong evidence is adduced for periods harmonically related to a 7.4-day period. The preferred candidate models for Halley's nuclear rotation are characterized by a long-axis precession period of 3.7 days. 79 refs.

  7. Paleolithic Counseling - The Good Old Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Paul T.

    This paper outlines what clients were like in the "Good Ol' Days", as compared with what they are like now. Formerly clients appeared to come in with a plethora of ego energy, while now it seems more like a depletion. Explicit in our culture now is the idea that it is almost healthy and good to publicize one's private experience. Some of…

  8. Vascularized collagen-glycosaminoglycan matrix provides a dermal substrate and improves take of cultured epithelial autografts.

    PubMed

    Orgill, D P; Butler, C; Regan, J F; Barlow, M S; Yannas, I V; Compton, C C

    1998-08-01

    Cultured epithelial autografts are an important adjunct in treating severely burned patients, greatly expanding the epidermis using a small donor site. Problems with cultured epithelial autografts include the time delay to culture cells to confluence and variable take on full-thickness wounds. Dermal allografts have been used as a substrate to improve the take of cultured epithelial autografts. This study examined the effect of a vascularized collagen-glycosaminoglycan matrix as a substrate for cultured epithelial autografts. The matrix was grafted onto 12 full-thickness wounds in Yorkshire pigs and allowed to vascularize for 10 days. The cultured epithelial autografts were applied over the vascularized collagen-glycosaminoglycan matrix (n = 12) or onto freshly excised full-thickness wounds (n = 10). Gross and histologic observations were made over a 3-week period. Gross observations at 7 days indicated cultured epithelial autografts to have nearly complete confluence when applied to wounds treated by collagen-glycosaminoglycan, whereas cultured epithelial autografts applied to freshly excised wounds did not take. Gross determination of epithelial confluence was verified by histologic analysis of randomly selected wounds. Histologic epithelial confluence of cultured epithelial autografts on collagen-glycosaminoglycan (98 +/- 4 percent) was significantly greater than that on full-thickness wounds (4 +/- 10 percent). Electron microscopy of the cultured epithelial autografts/collagen-glycosaminoglycan construct demonstrated anchoring fibrils at the dermal-epidermal junction at day 7. The neoepidermis of wounds treated by cultured epithelial autografts/collagen-glycosaminoglycan was hyperplastic at day 7 but developed a normal maturation sequence by 21 days. Results from this study suggest that vascularized collagen-glycosaminoglycan matrices produce a favorable substrate for cultured epithelial autografts and may improve cultured epithelial autografts take in burn patients. PMID:9703079

  9. Day Care: Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Florence P.; And Others

    This collection of 12 short, bilingual papers on nutrition and preschool children is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Topics dealt with include an overview of children's nutritional needs; development of

  10. One Play a Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Undergraduate theater students rarely get the chance to work on a major world premiere, but this year hundreds of them will. Currently, more than 70 colleges and universities are participating in "365 Days/365 Plays," an ambitious project from Pulitzer Prize-winning playwright Suzan-Lori Parks. Every week, as they mount their portion of this epic…

  11. Make a Splash Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coverdale, Greg; Rust, April; Jensen, Belinda

    2004-01-01

    At the annual, all-day events-sponsored by Project WET (Water Education for Teachers) and held in nearly every state across the country each September--students participate in interactive activities and exhibits to learn about water resources and explore how human behaviors, such as development and recreation, can affect the quality of the…

  12. Seize the Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkey, Tim

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve what happens in classrooms, a considerable amount of work needs to take place between teachers and principals. This can only happen if campus leaders make dramatic shifts in how and where they spend their daily time. Principals can have a greater impact on teaching and learning by transforming their work one day at a time. The…

  13. International School Library Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clyde, Laurel A.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the development of an International School Library Day and discusses activities in Australian school libraries. Highlights include the development of Web pages; sponsorship by national, state, or provincial associations; publicity materials; joint activities with other countries; student involvement; and activities with public libraries.…

  14. Every Child, Every Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allington, Richard L.; Gabriel, Rachael E.

    2012-01-01

    We know more now than we ever did before about how to make every child a successful reader, write Allington and Gabriel in this research review. Yet, few students regularly receive the best reading instruction we know how to give. The authors present research supporting their recommendation that every child, every day, should (1) read something he…

  15. An Earth Day Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Don, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Presents what the author believes to be some of the most important environmental books published since Earth Day 1970. Discusses each selection and how it provides the historical background, basic information, and appreciation necessary to understand the character of our environmental dilemma and our need to address it. (MCO)

  16. Sun-Earth Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Michael Sandras, a member of the Pontchartrain Astronomical Society, explains his solar telescope to students of Second Street in Bay St. Louis, Hancock County and Nicholson elementary schools in StenniSphere's Millennium Hall on April 10. The students participated in several hands-on activities at Stennis Space Center's Sun-Earth Day celebration.

  17. No Treatment Day School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, Judith A.; Holder, Stanley R.

    2006-01-01

    At the No Treatment Day School, less than 15% of students used the dormitory during the school week. Located in the heart of a reservation and serving local students, the K-12 school enrolled over 1,000 students. The site received Therapeutic Residential Model funding for the 2001-2002 school year. Initial evaluation of this site found an array of…

  18. Family Day Care Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Coordinated Child Care (4-C) in Dane County, Inc., Madison, WI.

    This handbook provides both general and specific information on child development and child care to help adults who are providing child care in their homes. Information is presented in six sections which describe: (1) the family day care system, the occupation of caregiver, and the development of relationships; (2) development of a health program,

  19. Marketing Your Day Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, George

    1997-01-01

    Marketing strategies for day camps include encouraging camp staff to get involved in organizations involving children, families, and communities; holding camp fairs; offering the use of camp facilities to outside groups; hosting sport leagues and local youth outings; planning community fairs; and otherwise involving the camp in the community. (LP)

  20. Dog Day Afternoon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filipczak, Bob

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the problem faced by trainers who are "on stage" for eight hours a day. Offers tips to relieve the stress caused by continuous training, including maintaining personal space, taking a lunch break, keeping physically energized, and avoiding burnout when teaching the same thing over and over. (JOW)

  1. First Day of School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bort, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    In this brief article, the author, a science teacher at F. C. Hammond Middle School in Alexandria, Virginia, describes how the setting up of a simple science experiment on the first day of school can get students excited about learning science. The experiment involves heating a small amount of water in a flask, then covering the opening of the…

  2. Fabulous Weather Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in

  3. Fabulous Weather Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Candice; Mogil, H. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Each year, first graders at Kensington Parkwood Elementary School in Kensington, Maryland, look forward to Fabulous Weather Day. Students learn how meteorologists collect data about the weather, how they study wind, temperature, precipitation, basic types/characteristics of clouds, and how they forecast. The project helps the students grow in…

  4. Day Care: Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Florence P.; And Others

    This collection of 12 short, bilingual papers on nutrition and preschool children is part of a series of papers on various aspects of day care published by the Canadian Department of Health and Welfare. Each paper is presented in both English and French. Topics dealt with include an overview of children's nutritional needs; development of…

  5. Multigenerational Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerschner, Paul A.

    This study explores the potential benefits of multigenerational day care programs. Two small preschool programs serving predominantly low income black families were chosen for comparison. The programs were matched for child/staff ratio, level of staff professionalism, and characteristics of families served. The programs differed, however, in their

  6. We Love Science Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kepler, Lynne

    1986-01-01

    Describes the goals and outcomes of the "We Love Science Day" programs that resulted from the inservice course, "Creative Integration of Science in Elementary Education" for Pennsylvania teachers. Provides samples of the hands-on activities that were offered to students, parents, and teachers. Includes a calendar of extracurricular science…

  7. 90-Day Cycle Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sandra; Takahashi, Sola

    2013-01-01

    90-Day Cycles are a disciplined and structured form of inquiry designed to produce and test knowledge syntheses, prototyped processes, or products in support of improvement work. With any type of activity, organizations inevitably encounter roadblocks to improving performance and outcomes. These barriers might include intractable problems at…

  8. Glycosphingolipid biosynthesis in adult mouse kidney cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Lyerla, T.A.; Gross, S.K.; McCluer, R.H.

    1986-05-01

    Primary kidney cultures from C57BL/6J mice, six weeks of age or older, were produced using D-valine medium to select for epithelial cell growth. After allowing cells to attach and proliferate for one week following plating, medium was changed once per week. Cells formed nearly confluent monolayers during the second week of culture. The cultured cells contained all of the glycosphingolipids seen in the adult kidney, as analyzed by HPLC as the perbenzoyl derivatives. Glucosylceramide, however, was highly predominant in the cultured cells, whereas dihexosyl- and trihexosylceramides predominate in the intact kidney. Sex differences in glycolipid contents found in the intact kidney were also apparent in these cultured cells: greater amounts of nonhydroxy fatty acid (Nfa) containing galactosylceramide and Nfa digalactosylceramide were present in the male cells. Neutral glycosphingolipids were labeled after two weeks in culture using /sup 3/H-labeled palmitate. The /sup 3/H-palmitate was incorporated into all of the glycolipids within two hours of labeling, and after three days of chase with unlabeled palmitate, some redistribution into higher glycosphingolipids was apparent. Hence, adult mouse kidney cells in D-valine medium retain their differentiated characteristics for a sufficient period of time to allow investigation of glycolipid syntheses in monolayer cultures of epithelial cells derived from this organ.

  9. Day One Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, John; Ibell, Timothy; Evernden, Mark; Darby, Antony

    2015-01-01

    Emissions reductions targets for the UK set out in the Climate Change Act for the period to 2050 will only be achieved with significant changes to the built environment, which is currently estimated to account for 50% of the UK's carbon emissions. The socio-technological nature of Civil Engineering means that this field is uniquely placed to lead…

  10. Day One Sustainability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, John; Ibell, Timothy; Evernden, Mark; Darby, Antony

    2015-01-01

    Emissions reductions targets for the UK set out in the Climate Change Act for the period to 2050 will only be achieved with significant changes to the built environment, which is currently estimated to account for 50% of the UK's carbon emissions. The socio-technological nature of Civil Engineering means that this field is uniquely placed to lead

  11. Mercury's Rotation Period: Photographic Confirmation.

    PubMed

    Smith, B A; Reese, E J

    1968-12-13

    Photographic measures of surface features on Mercury have led to a rotation period of 58.663 +/- 0.021 days, which is in good agreement with the 58.646-day period required by a predicted 2:3 resonance between the axial and orbital periods. The incorrect interpretation of earlier visual and photographic observations which supported an 88-day rotation period appears to be partially explained by peculiar characteristics associated with the observability of various hermo-graphic longitudes. The apparent contrast of most of the recorded surface features is marginal for visual observation when viewed through the terrestrial daytime sky. The intrinsic contrast of a relatively conspicuous feature was measured as 0.20, a value lower than that of typical markings observed on the moon and Mars. PMID:17756336

  12. Flight Day 2 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The STS-107 second flight day begins with a shot of the Spacehab Research Double Module. Live presentations of experiments underway inside of the Spacehab Module are presented. Six experiments are shown. As part of the Space Technology and Research Student Payload, students from Australia, China, Israel, Japan, New York, and Liechtenstein are studying the effect that microgravity has on ants, spiders, silkworms, fish, bees, granular materials, and crystals. Mission Specialist Kalpana Chawla is seen working with the zeolite crystal growth experiment.

  13. Analysis of heart development in cultured rat embryos.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, M; Price, R L; Chintanawonges, C; Simpson, D G; Horacek, M J; Borg, T K; Terracio, L

    1997-01-01

    The long-range goal of this research is to establish an in vitro system that will permit pertubation of mammalian heart development and in situ examination of the cellular and molecular events underlying cardiac morphogenesis. Rat embryos at 9.5-11.5 days of gestation were placed in culture bottles containing rat serum and Tyrode's solution. Embryos cultured for 24 and 48 h were compared to age-matched in vivo controls for morphological score, morphometric analysis of heart development, and confocal and electron microscopic analysis of myofiber pattern formation. Morphological scores indicated that embryos cultured for 24 h from day 9.5 to 10.5 had essentially normal development when compared to age-matched embryos allowed to develop in vivo. Development of embryos maintained for 48 h in culture was slightly delayed at 66-68% of age matched in vivo embryos. Analysis of hearts from embryos allowed to develop 9.5-11.5 days in vivo plus 24 and 48 h in culture showed that the ventricular thickness and height, as well as the truncal, atrial and ventricular diameters were equivalent to those of hearts from age-matched in vivo controls. Hearts from embryos allowed to develop from 11.5-12.5 days in vitro and cultured for 24 and 48 h had smaller left ventricular and atrial dimensions than controls. Cardiac myofibrillogenesis and myofibrillar pattern formation in embryos cultured from 9.5 days of in vivo development for 48 h were also normal. These studies indicate that the rat whole embryo culture system is a useful model to study several critical periods in mammalian heart development. PMID:9040051

  14. [Nonadhesive populations in cultures of mesenchymal stromal cells from hematopoietic organs in mouse and rat].

    PubMed

    Byeverova, E I; Bragina, E V; Molchanova, E A

    2008-01-01

    The study of adhesive properties of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells evaluated from fibroblast colony-forming units in the bone marrow of adult mice and rats in populations of cells attached and unattached to plastic substrate after 2 h to 7 days in culture demonstrated both similarities and differences. The increase in the fibroblast colony-forming units in the adhesive population peaked on day 7 of in vitro culture in both cases; however, nearly no fibroblast colony-forming units were observed in the nonadhesive population from the mouse bone marrow in this period. Conversely, the number of colonies from the rat bone marrow nonadhesive population on day 7 of culture considerably increased, and this nonadhesive population in long-term culture became the source for subsequent nonadhesive subpopulations containing fibroblast colony-forming units. After 7 days of in vitro culture, the suspension of cells isolated from the liver of 17-day-old rat fetuses also contained a fraction of unattached fibroblast colony-forming units. In the nonadhesive subpopulations from the bone marrow and fetal liver, fibroblast colony-forming units were observed up to day 48 and 30, respectively. Stromal cell precursors of nonadhesive subpopulations from the rat bone marrow featured a period of colony formation reduced to 7 days (i.e., they were formed 1.5-2 times faster compared to the primary culture). The total number of fibroblast colony-forming units from all nonadhesive subpopulations was roughly 6 and 7.4 times that of the adhesive population of the primary culture from the bone marrow and fetal liver, respectively. Considering that the mammalian bone marrow remains the preferred source of mesenchymal stromal cells, using nonadhesive subpopulations in the presented culture system can considerably increase the yield of stromal precursor cells. PMID:19137707

  15. In vitro culture of sheep lamb ovarian cortical tissue in a sequential culture medium

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xiayu; Yang, Mei; Wang, Liqin; Tong, Chen

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluates the effect of a sequential culture system on the follicular development of sheep lamb ovaries, aiming to establish an available in vitro culture system for ovarian culture. Methods Lamb ovarian cortical fragments were cultured on a steel mesh with a nitrocellulose membrane pre-coated by type1 collagen. Several culture media were used for the determinations, specifically, a control medium (α-MEM), a constant medium (control medium supplemented with 75 ng/mL human recombinant EGF, 200 mIU/mL sheep FSH, 100 ng/mL human recombinant GDF-9, and 100 ng/mL human recombinant bFGF), and a sequential medium (control medium supplemented with sequential growth factors added on different days). Ovarian tissues, both fresh and cultured, were processed for histological and apoptotic assays, while spent culture media were processed for hormone assays. Results It was found that the growth of lamb primordial follicles can be initiated during culture in vitro. Compared to the control medium, sequential culture medium significantly increased the percentage of secondary follicles in cultures, while the follicle and oocyte diameters of primary and secondary follicles were also observed to increase in this medium. The constant medium was found to increase the number and diameter of secondary follicles only 18 days after culture. After this same period of time, some normal antral follicles were found in the sequential medium, while a few abnormal antral-like follicles were found in the control medium. Moreover, sequential medium appeared to significantly increase estradiol and inhibin production, especially 10–18 days after culture. The highest percentage of normal follicles and the lowest apoptotic cell rates were observed in the sequential medium, suggesting that a sequential addition style of culture can improve follicle and tissue viability. Conclusions The sequential addition of FSH, EGF, GDF-9, and bFGF can stimulate primordial follicle transmittal into the later development stages, even as far as the antral stage, improve the survival rate of follicles, and maintain follicular viability. PMID:20393796

  16. Enhanced Osteogenesis of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Periodic Heat Shock in Self-Assembling Peptide Hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Shi, Zhong-Dong; Ji, Xinying; Morales, Jorge; Zhang, Jingwei; Kaur, Navneet

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms for the heat-induced osteogenesis are not completely known and the thermal regulation of human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) differentiation is not well studied. In this study, the direct effects of mild heat shock (HS) on the differentiation of hMSCs into osteoblasts in self-assembling peptide hydrogel and on tissue culture plates were investigated. hMSCs isolated from human bone marrow were seeded in conventional culture plates (two-dimensional [2D] culture) and on the surface of three-dimensional (3D) PuraMatrix peptide hydrogel (3D culture), followed by 1 h HS at 41°C once a week during osteogenic differentiation. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was enhanced in both 2D and 3D cultures via periodic HS at early stage of differentiation; meanwhile, HS significantly increased the calcium deposition at day 19 and 27 of differentiation in both 2D and 3D cultures. The periodic HS also upregulated osteo-specific genes, osterix (OSX) on day 11, osteopontin (OP) on day 19, and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) on day 25 in 2D culture. In 3D PuraMatrix culture, the runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) was upregulated by HS on day 25 of differentiation. The heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was significantly upregulated by HS in differentiated hMSCs analyzed at 24 h after HS. These results demonstrate that HS induced an earlier differentiation of hMSCs and enhanced the maturation of osteoblasts differentiated from hMSCs. Therefore, mild HS treatment may be potentially used to enhance the bone regeneration using hMSCs. Our data will guide the design of in vivo heating protocols and enable further investigations in thermal treatments of MSC osteogenesis for bone tissue engineering. PMID:23072422

  17. 2010 Day of Remembrance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Patrick Scheuermann (left), deputy director at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, and Richard Gilbrech, associate director, place a wreath in memory of the 17 astronauts lost in service of the space program since 1967. The wreath was placed during NASA's 2010 Day of Remembrance, observed each year in January. The annual observance memorializes the three astronauts lost in the Apollo 1 launch pad fire in 1967, the seven astronauts lost in the Challenger tragedy in 1986 and the seven astronauts lost in the Columbia accident in 2003. During the Stennis observance, Scheuermann praised the fallen astronauts as 'brave space pioneers who gave their lives in the cause of exploration and discovery.'

  18. One Cold Autumn Day

    PubMed Central

    de Schweinitz, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral change is at the heart of effective primary care, but when patients don’t change, how do we account for our days? In this personal essay, I relate an encounter with a patient who wants to quit smoking, lose weight, and control her diabetes. I am discouraged when she deflects my recommendations, but a colleague’s comment encourages a deeper inquiry. Knowing the patient’s story and deepening the conversation, however, do not guarantee change. The experience reminds me why patience, humility, and faith are core values of the primary care physician. PMID:25964410

  19. Martian Valentine's Day

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    14 February 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a heart-shaped hill surrounded by cracked terrain within a depression in far northwestern Arabia Terra, near the Cydonia region of Mars. Happy St. Valentine's Day from the MGS MOC team!

    Location near: 39.1oN, 358.1oW Image width: 3.0 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Spring

  20. 7 CFR 1230.621 - Voting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Voting period. 1230.621 Section 1230.621 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.621 Voting period. The term Voting period means the 3-consecutive business day period for in-person voting. Referendum...

  1. 7 CFR 1230.621 - Voting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Voting period. 1230.621 Section 1230.621 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.621 Voting period. The term Voting period means the 3-consecutive business day period for in-person voting. Referendum...

  2. 7 CFR 1230.621 - Voting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Voting period. 1230.621 Section 1230.621 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.621 Voting period. The term Voting period means the 3-consecutive business day period for in-person voting. Referendum...

  3. 7 CFR 1230.621 - Voting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting period. 1230.621 Section 1230.621 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.621 Voting period. The term Voting period means the 3-consecutive business day period for in-person voting. Referendum...

  4. 7 CFR 1230.621 - Voting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Voting period. 1230.621 Section 1230.621 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Procedures for the Conduct of Referendum Definitions § 1230.621 Voting period. The term Voting period means the 3-consecutive business day period for in-person voting. Referendum...

  5. 9 CFR 2.101 - Holding period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Holding period. 2.101 Section 2.101... WELFARE REGULATIONS Compliance With Standards and Holding Period § 2.101 Holding period. (a) Any live dog...) Live dogs or cats which have completed a 5-day holding period with another dealer or exhibitor, or a...

  6. Three-day fever.

    PubMed

    Akakpo, A J

    2015-08-01

    Three-day fever is a viral disease caused by an Ephemerovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae, transmitted by arthropod vectors. It is common in tropical and sub-tropical regions, where it affects mainly domestic cattle and buffaloes, especially in intensive dairy or fattening production systems. It is of economic importance because it reduces milk production and fertility and causes abortion. The disease is generally benign. It manifests in several susceptible subjects simultaneously, with a sudden episode of fever accompanied by muscle involvement with arthritis, stiffness of the limbs, and lameness, followed by rapid recovery. The presence of a serofibrinous exudate in the joints is indicative of the disease. Clinical diagnosis is often difficult in the absence of pathognomonic signs. Epidemiological factors (proliferation of arthropod vectors), associated with a short-lived fever and the presence of many immature neutrophils, point strongly to three-day fever. In the absence of any specific treatment, the symptoms are treated with antibiotics and anti-inflammatories. Medical prophylaxis currently uses live attenuated vaccines, pending the development of recombinant vaccines, which are giving promising results. PMID:26601454

  7. Activities of Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase and Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase and 14C-Bicarbonate Fixation during in Vitro Culture of Pinus radiata Cotyledons 1

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prakash P.; Bender, Ludwig; Thorpe, Trevor A.

    1988-01-01

    The activities of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPC) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), as indicators of autotrophic and nonautotrophic CO2 fixation, were measured in excised cotyledons of Pinus radiata D. Don cultured for 21 days under shoot-forming (SF) and nonshoot-forming (NSF) conditions. The activity of RuBPC was found to increase in both SF and NSF cultures during the initial 5 days of culture. However, it leveled off from day 5 to day 10 and subsequently began to decrease until the end of the culture period under the SF conditions. In contrast, in the NSF cultures, RuBPC activity increased until day 15, when it was twofold higher than the maximum activity found in the SF cultures. An increase in PEPC activity of about 2.5 times the level of activity in freshly excised cotyledons was observed during the initial 5 days of culture under the SF conditions. PEPC activity began to decline after day 5 until it reached the level of activity seen in NSF cotyledons by day 15. In contrast, the activity of PEPC did not show any significant increase during the initial 10 days of culture under the NSF conditions. The Km (phosphoenolpyruvate) of PEPC from SF cotyledons was about 35% higher than that of NSF cotyledons. Cotyledons from two culture periods (days 5 and 15) were incubated for 15 seconds with NaH14CO3. The label in the malate and asparatate fractions as a percentage of total 14C incorporation was 3 times higher in the SF cotyledons than in the NSF cotyledons. A higher incorporation of 14C into products of photosynthesis under the NSF conditions was also observed. PMID:16666206

  8. Detection of rapidly growing mycobacteria in routine cultures of samples from patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Esther, Charles R; Hoberman, Steven; Fine, Jason; Allen, Sonia; Culbreath, Karissa; Rodino, Kyle; Kerr, Alan; Gilligan, Peter

    2011-04-01

    Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are respiratory pathogens in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF), but detection generally requires specialized cultures for acid-fast bacilli (AFB; AFB cultures). We determined that RGM could be recovered from routine cultures of samples from patients with CF by extending incubation of the Burkholderia cepacia selective agar (BCSA) from 5 to 14 days. To explore the impact of this modification, we compared results from routine and AFB cultures of samples from CF patients for 2 years before (4,212 samples by routine culture, 1,810 samples by AFB culture, 670 patients) and 2 years after (4,720 samples by routine culture, 2,179 samples by AFB culture, 695 patients) the change. Clinical relevance was assessed with samples from a subgroup of 340 patients followed regularly throughout both periods. Extending incubation of BCSA enhanced RGM recovery from routine cultures (0.7% before, 2.8% after; P < 0.001); recovery from AFB cultures was unchanged (5.5% before, 5.7% after). Estimates of RGM detection sensitivity by culture or patient-based methods ranged from ∼65 to 75% for routine cultures (nonsignificantly lower than the ∼80 to 85% for AFB cultures) and were adversely affected by coculture with mold or nonpseudomonal, nonfermenting Gram-negative rods. In the after period, 16 CF patients met the criteria for RGM infection by routine culture, including 4 who did not meet the criteria for RGM infection by AFB culture. We conclude that a simple methodological change enhanced recovery of RGM from routine cultures. The modified culture method could be utilized to improve screening for RGM in CF patients or as a simpler method to follow patients with known RGM infection. However, this method should be used cautiously in patients with certain coinfections. PMID:21289148

  9. Blood culture cross contamination associated with a radiometric analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, M.R.; Miller, A.D.; Davis, A.C.

    1982-04-01

    During a 9-day period in August 1980 in a New Jersey hospital, three pairs of consecutively numbered blood cultures from different patients were identified as positive for the same organism, for each pair, both cultures were positive in the same atmosphere, both organisms had the same sensitivities, and the second of each pair grew at least 2 days after the first and was the only positive blood culture obtained from the patient. When the hospital laboratory discontinued use of its radiometric culture analyzer for 15 days, no more consecutive pairs of positive cultures occurred. Subsequent use of the machine for 9 days with a new power unit but the original circuit boards resulted in one more similar consecutive pair (Staphylococcus epidermidis). After replacement of the entire power unit, there were no further such pairs. Examination of the machine by the manufacturer revealed a defective circuit board which resulted in inadequate needle sterilization. Laboratories which utilize radiometric analyzers should be aware of the potential for cross contamination. Recognition of such events requires alert microbiologists and infection control practitioners and a record system in the bacteriology laboratory designed to identify such clusters.

  10. Proceedings, Dean's Day 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Zanner, M.A.

    1999-03-01

    On January 14--15, 1999, Sandia National Laboratories sponsored Deans Day, a conference for the Deans of Engineering and other executive-level representatives from 29 invited universities. Through breakout sessions and a wrap-up discussion, university and Sandia participants identified activities to further develop their strategic relationships. The four primary activities are: (A) concentrate joint efforts on current and future research strengths and needs; (B) attract the best students (at all grade levels) to science and engineering; (C) promote awareness of the need for and work together to influence a national science and technology R and D policy; and (D) enable the universities and Sandia to be true allies, jointly pursuing research opportunities and funding from government agencies and industry.

  11. [World Population Day editorial].

    PubMed

    1995-07-01

    Despite demographic progress in many regions, world population is growing by more than 90 million persons each year. This massive growth is relatively new in human history. 80 years were required to add 1 billion inhabitants after 1850, but at current rates only 11 years will be required. The course of world demographic evolution will be decided by the actions or inaction of each man and woman on the planet. Questions of population are at the center of sustainable development and should be an essential feature of any vision of the future. Correctly conducted population programs provide essential services for the health and well-being of individuals and families and facilitate the task of creating structures for sustainable economic growth. In honor of World Population Day on July 11, the Salvadoran Demographic Association has presented a series of informative articles on the relationship between population and health, environment, education, food and nutrition, reproductive health, and family planning. PMID:12179417

  12. World HABITAT Day message.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, A

    1990-01-01

    The Executive Director of the UN Centre for Human Settlements (HABITAT) discusses the 1989 World HABITAT Day message--Shelter, Health, and the Family. Women and children spend most of their time in their homes and neighborhoods. The environment and the way they live in that environment determine their health status and well being. Healthy housing encompasses protection against rain, heat, cold, and disease. Yet more than 25% of the world's population have inadequate housing which is responsible for various communicable and chronic diseases, injuries, and psychological stresses. For example, overcrowding leads to respiratory infection. Inferior building materials and designs foster the harboring and breeding of disease vectors and destruction by natural disasters. Limited access to potable water and sanitation facilities and poor personal hygiene cause death, disabilities, and blemishes to millions of people as well as fosters food contamination. 10,000 people die each day from injuries or conditions directly related to inadequate shelter and related services. The urban poor tend to be at the point where industrialization meets underdevelopment because they live in marginal areas often near refuse dumps, swamps, and areas subject to landslides, earthquake, or flooding. Social and psychological problems also emerge from such an environment which further undermine the underpinnings of a secure and pleasant family life. Few activities designed to improve shelter consider the health of the occupants, however. Education about the link between housing and health among the poor at the household and community levels may empower them to alleviate the health hazards. The Executive Director requests the international community, governments, their agencies, nongovernmental organizations, builders, planners, and policymakers to consider the link between housing and health when making policy and decisions. PMID:2326215

  13. The day of women.

    PubMed

    Jimenez David, R

    1994-09-01

    March, 1994, was celebrated as Women's Month in the Philippines, with a focus on women's health. The theme chosen was Me, Too, a response to the ideal of feminine martyrdom. The intended message was that it is acceptable for women to look after themselves first, because only this way could they look after the other people in their lives. The Woman Who is Okey is defined as the woman who looks after her health and who practices self-care. The major health problems of women include cancer of the breast and cervix; reproductive tract infections; HIV/AIDS; poor nutrition, exacerbated by pregnancy and lactation; and increased incidence of cardiovascular disease linked to an increase in women smokers. The Woman Who is Okey is a woman who: carries out breast self examination each month, submits to a pap smear examination every year, does not smoke, spaces her pregnancies by 2-3 year intervals, knows how to protect herself from HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, visits a health center regularly for prenatal check-ups and other health services, and meets her hygienic and fitness needs. The campaign was broadened to include rape, violence, sexual harassment, and discrimination and exploitation of women. The activities of the Department of Health (DOH) during March 8, International Women's Day, were coordinated with those planned by women's groups spearheaded by the National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women (NCRFW). The DOH set up a permanent Women's Center in government hospitals throughout the country and began to institutionalize assistance to women who are victims of violence, including rape. The national celebration held in Manila was a day-long program organized by the NCRFW, in which close to 18,000 women participated from all political organizations. President Fidel V. Ramos was the keynote speaker. PMID:12288259

  14. Cosmos: The Integrated Day Comes to College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutz, Ronald E.; And Others

    Four full days of classroom instruction, devoted to the modeling of effective curriculum integration, were designed for preservice elementary school teachers. The unit was the result of a conviction on the part of teacher educators that children learn best when learning is not separated into forty-minute periods of math, social studies, language…

  15. Cosmos: The Integrated Day Comes to College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutz, Ronald E.; And Others

    Four full days of classroom instruction, devoted to the modeling of effective curriculum integration, were designed for preservice elementary school teachers. The unit was the result of a conviction on the part of teacher educators that children learn best when learning is not separated into forty-minute periods of math, social studies, language

  16. TISSUE CULTURE AS A METHOD FOR EVALUATING THE BIOTRANSFORMATION OF XENOBIOTICS BY PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Suspension cultures of Rosa cv. Paul's scarlet were used as a model system to examine the metabolism of l,3-dinitrobenzene (DNB), an industrial waste compound. n a three-day period, 90% of the DNB supplied (96 nmoles) was metabolized by approximately 12 grams (fresh weight) of ce...

  17. Prospective identification of erythroid elements in cultured peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Miller, J L; Njoroge, J M; Gubin, A N; Rodgers, G P

    1999-04-01

    We have developed a prospective approach to identify the generation of erythroid cells derived from cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by monitoring the expression of the cell surface protein CD48. Unpurified populations of PBMC obtained from the buffy coats of normal volunteers were grown in suspension culture in the absence or presence of erythropoietin. A profile of surface CD48 expression permitted a flow cytometric identification of erythropoietin responsive populations at various stages of their maturation. In the absence of erythropoietin (EPO) supplemented media, the CD48- cells represented <5% of the total population of PBMC remaining in culture. In cultures supplemented with 1 U/mL EPO, the mean percentage of CD48- cells increased to 34.7 + 14.9% (p < 0.01) after 14 days in culture. Coordinated CD34 and CD71 (transferrin receptor) expression, morphology, gamma-globin transcription, and colony formation in methylcellulose were observed during the 14-day culture period. Flow cytometric monitoring of bulk cultured PBMC provides a simple and reliable means for the prospective or real-time study of human erythropoiesis. PMID:10210320

  18. Establishment and in vitro culture of porcine spermatogonial germ cells in low temperature culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Young; Park, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Ran; Lee, Kyung-Hoon; Kim, Yong-Hee; Ryu, Buom-Yong; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Moon, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jin-Ki; Chung, Hak-Jae; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Song, Hyuk

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a porcine spermatogonial germ cell (pSGC) line and develop an in vitro culture system. Isolated total testicular cells (TTCs) from 5-day-old porcine testes were primary cultured at 31, 34, and 37°C. Although the time of colony appearance was delayed at 31°C, strong alkaline phosphatase staining, expressions of pluripotency marker genes such as OCT4, NANOG, and THY1, and the gene expressions of the undifferentiated germ cell markers PLZF and protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5) were identified compared to 34 and 37°C. Cell cycle analysis for both pSGC and feeder cells at the three temperatures revealed that more pSGCs were in the G2/M phase at 31°C than 37°C at the subculture stage. In vitro, pSGCs could stably maintain undifferentiated germ cell and stem cell characteristics for over 60days during culture at 31°C. Xenotransplantation of pSGCs to immune deficient mice demonstrated a successful colonization and localization on the seminiferous tubule basement membrane in the recipient testes. In conclusion, pSGCs from neonatal porcine were successfully established and cultured for long periods under a low temperature culture environment in vitro. PMID:24041805

  19. Round the World in 18 Days: Science Connecting Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Gill

    2003-01-01

    The autumn 2002 term at the Eden Project was a roller-coaster ride of multicultural celebration and a fantastic lesson in the power of young people to take practical action in addressing issues that affect their communities on a local and global scale. From Cornwall to India--global links provide valuable insights and opportunities for active…

  20. International Cultural Experience Day: A Festival for Foreign Language Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Gene; And Others

    An annual foreign language festival established by McNeese State University and the Calcasieu Parish School System (Louisiana) was designed to motivate students, inform them of employment opportunities, help them understand their own and other heritages, and illustrate the international and intercultural opportunities and challenges of the modern…

  1. AAS 227: Day 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 3 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Henry Norris Russell Lecture: Viewing the Universe with Infrared Eyes: The Spitzer Space Telescope (by Erika Nesvold)The Henry Norris Russell Award is the highest honor given by the AAS, for a lifetime of eminence in astronomy research. This years award went to Giovanni Fazio of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. Fazio became a leader in gamma ray astronomy before switching mid-career to the study of infrared astronomy, and he gave his award lecture on the latter subject, specifically on the Spitzer Space Telescope, one of the most successful infrared telescopes of all time.Artists rendering of the Spitzer space telescope. [NASA/JPL-Caltech]Spitzer has been operating for more than twelve years, and has resulted in over six thousand papers in refereed journals in that time. The telescope sits in an Earth-trailing orbit around the Sun, and is now farther from the Earth (1.4 AU) than the Earth is from the Sun. Fazio gave the audience a fascinating overview of the science done by Spitzer over more than a decade. One of the most productive areas of research for Spitzer is the study of exoplanets, which hadnt even been discovered when the Spitzer Telescope was first conceived. Spitzers high sensitivity and ability to observe exoplanets over many orbits has made it a powerhouse for learning about the temperatures, atmospheres, and orbits of exoplanets. The list of examples that Fazio provided included the first global temperature map of an exoplanet (HD 189733b), the detection of the closest transiting exoplanet (HD 219134b), and the measurement of thermal emission from a super-Earth (55 Cnc e). Spitzers large distance from the Earth (specifically, the ground-based telescopes on Earth) even allowed astronomers to observe an exoplanet via gravitational microlensing using a special technique called space-based parallax.Spitzer has also been extremely useful for observing everything from Solar System scales (such as the enormous infrared dust ring around Saturn) to galactic structures. Comparing images of galaxies observed at visible wavelengths with Spitzer images of the same galaxies at infrared wavelengths has allowed us to probe the structure and composition of galaxies at a new level.Astronomers have also used Spitzer to explore the evolution of stars. Thanks to its infrared detectors, Spitzer can look through large clouds of dust that are opaque at visible wavelengths, and observe young stellar objects in their birth environments. Cosmologists can use Spitzer to study the early universe and the formation of galaxies over twelve billion years ago. Fazio used all of these examples and more to demonstrate that Spitzer has truly changed our understanding of the universe.Climate Change for Astronomers (Meredith Rawls)Every astronomer at #aas227 wants to learn about climate change! WOW this room is ridiculously full. pic.twitter.com/ud9an0gLJG Meredith Rawls (@merrdiff) January 7, 2016The second half of the session was a presentation by Doug Duncan featuring an activity from his 101-level college course. He uses climate change as a way to teach critical thinking and scientific reasoning. Members of the audience were walked through an exercise that included interpreting plots of changing surface temperatures, think-pair-share style clicker questions, and comparing excerpts from scientific articles and the media. Eventually, students discover that the Earths overall temperature is going up, but observations can vary from year to year because heat is moving between the atmosphere and the oceans.Press Conference: Fermis Vision, First Stars, Massive Galaxy Cluster, and Dark Energy (by Susanna Kohler)Todays afternoon press conference was an exciting assortment of results, difficult to categorize under a single umbrella.First up was Marco Ajello (Clemson University), who spoke about 2FHL, the second Fermi-LAT catalog of high-energy sources. LAT stands for Large Area Telescope, an instrument on board the Fermi gamma-ray space observatory that scans the entire sky every three hours. Ajello described the contents of the 2FHL catalog: 360 gamma-ray sources, of which 75% are blazars (distant galactic nuclei with jets pointed toward us), 11% are sources within the galaxy, and the remaining 14% are unknown. With this catalog, Fermi has expanded into higher energies than ever before, providing the first map of the 50 GeV 2 TeV sky. Heres the press release.OMeara: Im a lowly spectroscopist so I dont have fun pictures to show you, just squiggly lines. #aas227 astrobites (@astrobites) January 7, 2016Next to speak, John OMeara (St. Michaels College) told us about the discovery of a gas cloud that may be a remnant from the first population of stars. OMeara showed us the emission spectrum from a distant quasar, which displays abrupt absorption by a cloud of gas located at a redshift of z~3.5. Absorption by gas clouds is not unusual but what is unusual is that this cloud is extremely metal-poor, with only 1/2500th solar metallicity. This is the lowest heavy-element content ever measured, and a sign that the cloud might have been enriched by Population III stars the theoretical first population of stars, which were born when gas in the universe was still pristine. Heres the press release.Cluster IDCS J1426.5+3508. [NASA, European Space Agency, University of Florida, University of Missouri, and University of California]Mark Brodwin (University of Missouri, Kansas City) was up next, discussing the most distant massive galaxy cluster that has ever been discovered. The cluster IDCS J1426.5+3508, weighing in at several trillion solar masses (as measured by three independent techniques!), is located at a redshift of z=1.75. Since clusters take several billion years to form, and its redshift corresponds to a time when the universe was only 3.8 billion years old, were probably seeing it at a very early age. This combination of mass and youth is unique! Brodwin also pointed out another interesting feature: the clusters core isnt centered, which means it probably underwent a major merger with another cluster within the last 500 million years. Heres the press release.The final speaker was Sukanya Chakrabarti (Rochester Institute of Technology), who gave a very interesting talk about a topic Id never heard of: galactoseismology. Galactoseismology involves observing waves in the disk of a galaxy to learn about the properties of dwarf galaxies that caused the perturbations. In this case, Chakrabarti evaluated ripples in the outer disk of our galaxy, and used these to predict the location of a dwarf galaxy that must have skimmed the outskirts of our galaxy a few hundred million years ago, causing the waves. This is a cool technique for learning about dwarf galaxies whether or not theyre visible, since theyll cause ripples even if theyre dominated by dark matter. Chakrabarti showed an awesome simulation of this dwarfs interaction with the Milky Way, which you can check out on her website. Heres the press release.

  2. On periodicity of solar wind phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, V. K.; Joshi, G. C.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the rate of occurrence of solar wind phenomena observed between 1972-1984 using power spectrum analysis. The data have been taken from the high speed solar wind (HSSW) streams catalogue published by Mavromichalaki et al. (1988). The power spectrum analysis of HSSW events indicate that HSSW stream events have a periodicity of 9 days. This periodicity of HSSW events is 1/3 of the 27 days period of coronal holes which are the major source of solar wind events. In our opinion the 9 days period may be the energy build up time to produce the HSSW stream events.

  3. New Swedish Cultural Environment Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs, Stockholm (Sweden).

    Current Swedish cultural policy was laid down in 1974. It was decided that one of the aims of that policy must be to ensure that earlier periods of history would be preserved and brought to life. The Government Bill (Prop. 1987/88:104) on protection of the cultural environment is concerned with helping the general public understand that cultural

  4. AAS 227: Day 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or atastrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the@astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Welcome to Day 2 of the winter American Astronomical Society (AAS) meeting in Kissimmee! Several of us are attending the conference this year, and we will report highlights from each day here on astrobites. If youd like to see more timely updates during the day, we encourage you to follow @astrobites on twitter or search the #aas227 hashtag.Plenary Session: Black Hole Physics with the Event Horizon Telescope (by Susanna Kohler)If anyone needed motivation to wake up early this morning, they got it in the form of Feryal Ozel (University of Arizona) enthralling us all with exciting pictures, videos, and words about black holes and the Event Horizon Telescope. Ozel spoke to a packed room (at 8:30am!) about where the project currently stands, and where its heading in the future.The EHT has pretty much the coolest goal ever: actually image the event horizons of black holes in our universe. The problem is that the largest black hole we can look at (Sgr A*, in the center of our galaxy) has an event horizon size of 50 as. For this kind of resolution roughly equivalent to trying to image a DVD on the Moon! wed need an Earth-sized telescope. EHT has solved this problem by linking telescopes around the world, creating one giant, mm-wavelength effective telescope with a baseline the size of Earth.Besides producing awesome images, the EHT will be able to test properties of black-hole spacetime, the no-hair theorem, and general relativity (GR) in new regimes.Ozel walked us through some of the theory prep work we need to do now in order to get the most science out of the EHT, including devising new tests of GR, and performing predictive GRMHD simulations hydrodynamics simulations that include magnetic fields and full GR treatment. Ozel pointed out that one of the recent theoretical advancements in GRMHD simulations is harnessing the power of GPUs to render images in simulations; check out the tweet below for the awesome video she showed us!Watch C. Chan manipulate black hole simulation with hand motions https://t.co/O5BgaltYAu (more on the code: https://t.co/9GC46ReMGs) #aas227 Sarah Scoles (@ScolesSarah) January 6, 2016Deployment of the full EHT array is planned for early 2017, and theyve already got 10 targets selected black holes that are near enough and large enough that the EHT should be able to image their shadows. I, for one, cant wait to see the first results!Grad School and Postdocs as a Means to a Job (by Meredith Rawls)This morning session was presented by Karen Kelsky of The Professor Is In. She presented a very practical overview of the advice in her book (which this job-searching Astrobiter highly recommends). Her target audience is postdocs and graduate students who are finishing their PhDs and applying for tenure-track jobs. Karens background is in the social sciences, but she has worked with many scientists and her expertise easily transferred. Much of her writing advice also applies for undergraduates who are writing research statements and proposals to apply to graduate school. For example:What not to do, with @ProfessorIsIn #aas227 pic.twitter.com/afGAsSuPwN Meredith Rawls (@merrdiff) January 6, 2016One of Karens main takeaways is that academia is not automatically good preparation for a job search. Writing documents like cover letters, resumes, and research statements will be harder and take more time than you think, and it is important to make them top-notch. Karen was also surprised that the majority of professional astronomers at the AAS meeting carry backpacks, because she typically advises against bringing a backpack to a job interview or campus visit. She conceded that astronomy is an exception to this rule!Brown Dwarfs and Exoplanets (by Caroline Morley)I started my morning in a session near and dear to my heart on brown dwarfs. The session had four dissertation talks, showcasing each students (impressive!) work over the last 4+ years.Astrobites alumnus Ben Montet kicked off the session to talk about his recent work to study the eclipsing brown dwarf LHS 6343, discovered in Kepler data. This brown dwarf is one of the best so-called benchmark brown dwarfs that we have discovered. Unlike almost every other object, we can measure LHS 6343s mass, radius, luminosity, and metallicity. Bens Spitzer observations reveal that its a ~1100 K T dwarf.Joe Filippazzo spoke next about his work to put together a large and impressive database of 300 brown dwarfs ranging in spectral type from M to Y, stitching together literature photometry, parallaxes, and both low and high resolution spectra. He studies the effect of age on the fundamental properties of these objects, empirically without needing models! You can download the database at BDNYC.org and use Joes open-source Python package astrokit which includes the SQL management tools to use the database.Jonathan Gagn presented results from his survey to find young free-floating objects in young moving groups. These objects are really interesting because they have the masses of planets but are easier to observe since they dont have nearby stars. He is currently extending his survey from his PhD thesis to be able to find even cooler objects (literally and figuratively) in these groups.Sebastian Pineda gave a very interesting talk about his thesis work to understand auroral emission from brown dwarfs. Brown dwarfs with a range of temperatures have been observed to have both radio activity and H-alpha emission, despite their neutral atmospheres. These properties are believed to be generated by auroral emission just like aurorae on Jupiter! One of many interesting results is that cooler objects have rare and weak aurorae. Sebastian postulates that these brown dwarfs may have aurorae that are modulated by the presence of satellites (brown dwarf moons?!). Very cool idea that needs more study!The last speaker of the session was the only non-dissertation talk of the session. Nolan Grieves presented results from his statistical survey of brown dwarf companions using the MARVELS radial velocity survey and finds a brown dwarf companion occurrence rate around 0.7%.Science to Action: Thoughts on Convincing a Skeptical Public (by Meredith Rawls)This years Public Policy plenary talk was delivered by William Press from UT Austin. Many scientific stories follow a familiar narrative, and too often, scientific consensus about a hazard has been accepted by the public only after some catalyzing event like a catastrophic fire or a spike in deaths linked to smoking. Press suggested that climate change may be at the tipping point of mainstream acceptance. He also discussed how a definition of science can encompass two distinct ideas: a series of fact-based conclusions and a value judgment based on rational thinking. To illustrate this dichotomy, he posed a question to the audience:Debate about science vs about values. Speaker forced a vote by raise of hand; split 50/50 in big room. Wow. #aas227 pic.twitter.com/rdvqUuuR95 Meredith Rawls (@merrdiff) January 6, 2016Press stated that he strongly supports the top view, but it was eye-opening to see a nearly even split of raised hands. His point was that GMO labeling ultimately boils down to a value judgement, not a scientific one, and we should be careful to understand the difference. Science communicators certainly have our work cut out for us! In the broadest sense, Press takeaway for effective science communication is a two-step approach: (1) communicate the value of a rationalist approach to decision making, and (2) communicate well-established scientific results.AAS Journals Workshop for Authors RefereesFirst half (by Susanna Kohler)Disclaimer: Im an employee of the AAS, as editor of AAS Nova.This 2-hour-long author referee workshop was intended partially as an overview of what it means to be an author or a referee (in any journal), and partly as a reveal of some of the new features that are now being implemented within the AAS publishing program. Many of the presentations have been uploaded here. A few highlights from the first half:Talks about authoring articles by Ethan Vishniac, and refereeing articles by Butler BurtonIntro to AAS Nova the AASs means of sharing its authors results with the broader community by me!Discussion of the AASs new policy for software citation by Chris LintottSecond half (by Becky Nevin)In between hopping between all the amazing science sessions today I made it to the last half of a very interesting Author Referee Workshop run by AAS journals. Even with missing the first half, I can still tell that theres a lot of changes coming to AAS journals (which include ApJ, AJ, ApJS, ApJL), in particular in the way that your research will be published. All good from what I saw in particular theyve addressed the long-standing problem of how to cite astronomical software (usually produced for free by a keen member of the community). Now they give guidelines for how to do this and have even appointed a new lead editor for instrumentation software.What got me most excited though was the demonstration by Greg Schwarz of AASTex v6.0 a markup package to assist authors in preparing manuscripts intended for submission to AAS-affiliated journals i.e. super cool amazing new LaTeX commands to satisfy even the most obsessive LaTeX-er! Check it out, because it will definitely ease the pain of writing and responding to referees. In the final talk (before free lunch, score!) Gus Muench showcased the new ways that authors will be able to include interactive JavaScript figures into articles in AAS journals. You can check out some of the amazing integrations in this nifty tutorial.A Report on the Inclusive Astronomy 2015 Meeting: Community Recommendations for Diversity and Inclusion in AstronomyThis very well-attended session recapped the Inclusive Astronomy 2015 meeting (see this link for a summary!)The IA2015 meeting results can be found here.A draft of the recommendations from IA2015 is here. Note that this document, termed the Nashville Recommendations, is a living document that isnt yet finalized, and feedback is welcome.Dannie Heineman Prize: From ~ to Precision Science: Cosmology from 1995 to 2025 (by Erika Nesvold)Marc Kamionkowski of Johns Hopkins University and David Spergel of Princeton University shared this years Heineman Prize for outstanding work in astronomy, and gave an impressive tag-team overview of the progress in the field of cosmology over the past 20 years.Spergel pointed out that in 1995, cosmologists were still debating over the value of the Hubble constant, and whether or not the universe is flat. Kamionkowski pointed out that back then, cosmology was an order of magnitude game where observations lagged far behind theory. He noted that in general, theorists tend to sit around predicting things, and not much progress is made in testing those predictions, at least not within the lifetime of an individual theorist. In cosmology, however, the measurements and observations made since 1995 have been more successful and precise than anyone could have anticipated.This is thanks in part to the WMAP mission and later the Planck satellite, which measured the cosmic microwave background and collected an amazing set of data. There is excellent agreement between the data from WMAP and Planck, a triumph for observational cosmologists. Much to the surprise of Spergel and other cosmologists, a simple model of only five fundamental parameters fits these data extremely well. Twenty years later, thanks to the hard work of cosmologists, we now know that the age of the universe is 13.8 billion years, and that it is composed of roughly 4% atoms, 23% dark matter, and 73% dark energy.Spergel and Kamionkowski then pointed towards the future, predicting even more spectacular results to come over the next decade or so. Our current model of the universe predicts gravitational waves, which we havent observed so far, but the search is heating up. Kamionkowski called this potentially the most important new physics result of this century! He also explained that we can now do neutrino physics using the cosmic microwave background, which already provides the strongest constraint on the sum of neutrinon masses. In the next decade, we should be able to further determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. The coming years in cosmology could be even more exciting than the past twenty!HEAD Rossi Prize talk: A New View of the High Energy Universe with NuSTAR (by Susanna Kohler)This years Rossi Prize winner Fiona Harrison capped off the main part of the day with a plenary talk about some of the highlights from the first two years of the NuSTAR mission, NASAs space-based, high-energy X-ray telescope.Additional science results from the past two years with NuSTAR.Harrison began by telling us about NuSTARs launch in 2012, in which a Pegasus rocket with NuSTAR as its payload was launched from a L-1011 Stargazer aircraft. She claims to have been unconcerned about this part: The payload would go up or it would go down, there wasnt anything I could do about it. The real terror for the NuSTAR team came 9 days later when the telescope slowly unfolded itself over the span of 24 minutes, snapping components into place. All went well, however, and NuSTAR has since been forging exciting new territory in the high-energy X-ray regime!Harrison discussed science highlights from the last two years of NuSTAR, like the discovery of a population of dead stars in the inner parsecs of the galaxy, the identification of the mechanism that most likely re-energizes stalled shocks in supernovae and launches the explosion (in case youre keeping track, its because the star sloshes around. Seriously.), or the evidence that supernova 1987A exploded asymmetrically.NuSTAR is funded through the end of 2016 and is now in its extended mission, so we can expect to see more exciting science coming from it in the future!

  5. 78 FR 17283 - 30-Day Notice and Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... 17, 2013, at 78 FR 3968. That notice allowed for a 60-day public review and comment period. No... Surface Transportation Board 30-Day Notice and Request for Comments AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: 30-day notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: As part of its continuing effort...

  6. 78 FR 29147 - 30-Day Notice and Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ..., 2013 at 78 FR 14807, allowing for OMB review and a 60-day public comment period. No comments were received. This notice allows for an additional 30 days for public comment. DATES: Comments are encouraged... SECURITY United States Secret Service 30-Day Notice and Request for Comments SUMMARY: The Department...

  7. 39 CFR 121.2 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... applied to Periodicals pieces properly accepted before the day-zero Critical Entry Time (CET) and merged... pieces properly accepted before the day-zero CET and merged with First-Class Mail pieces for surface... properly accepted before the day-zero CET if: the origin and destination are separately in Puerto Rico...

  8. 39 CFR 121.2 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... applied to Periodicals pieces properly accepted before the day-zero Critical Entry Time (CET) and merged... pieces properly accepted before the day-zero CET and merged with First-Class Mail pieces for surface... properly accepted before the day-zero CET if: the origin and destination are separately in Puerto Rico...

  9. Family Day Care Training Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakatsu, Gail

    California's Family Day Care Training Program was designed to recruit and train in 7 weeks, Lao, Vietnamese, and Chinese refugees to establish their own state-licensed, family day care homes. Topics in the program's curriculum include an introduction to family day care, state licenses for family day care, state licensing requirements for family…

  10. Glycine induced culture-harvesting strategy for Botryococcus braunii.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ying; Zhu, Wenzhe; Chen, Chaozhou; Nie, Yilei

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of culture conditions, including carbon sources and concentration, culture period, and precondition time, on the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and its influence on microalgal flocculation. EPS are natural high molecule polymer, excreted by microalgae themselves. EPS can accelerate the formation of microbial aggregates through binding cells closely. Organic carbon sources, such as glucose, glycerol, acetate and glycine were compared to select the optimal source to stimulate EPS accumulation. Subsequently, the effect of culture period, glycine dose and precondition time on EPS production and its influence on biomass growth and flocculation efficiency were investigated. As the main parts of EPS, tightly bound EPS were found positively related to suspended solids concentration. However, the loosely bound EPS may weaken the floc structure, leading to poor water-cells separation. Under the optimal condition with culture period of 16 days, glycine dose of 0.5 g l(-1) and precondition time of 5 days, the biomass concentration increased from 1.49 to 2 g l(-1), and the maximum suspended solids concentration of 7.06% with biomass recovery rate of 70.6% was achieved. PMID:26553477

  11. Carbon disulphide production in laboratory cultures of marine phytoplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Huixiang; Scarratt, Michael G.; Moore, Robert M.

    Carbon disulphide (CS 2) data were collected from axenic monocultures of six species of marine phytoplankton. The tested species included Chaetoceros calcitrans, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Phaeocystis sp., Porphyridium purpureum, Synechococcus sp. and Isochrysis sp. For a period of between two weeks and forty days, substantial accumulation of CS 2 was found in the cultures of C. calcitrans, P. tricornutum and Phaeocystis sp., whereas the change of CS 2 concentration in the remaining cultures was insignificant. C. calcitrans had a potential for CS 2 production about 10 times higher than P. tricornutum or Phaeocystis sp. The formation of the compound was strongly dependent on the physiological state of the cultured species. More investigation is needed to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the formation of this sulphur compound in these cultures.

  12. An ex vivo rodent mandible culture model for bone repair.

    PubMed

    Smith, Emma L; Locke, Matthew; Waddington, Rachel J; Sloan, Alastair J

    2010-12-01

    To understand fully cellular mechanisms during bone tissue repair and engineering, there is a need to develop reproducible three-dimensional organotypic culture models, whereby cells in their natural extracellular matrix can be manipulated. Limitations in current model systems do not allow for this integrated approach. This study aimed to develop and validate an ex vivo fractured rat mandible model, to investigate specific molecular and cellular processes involved in bone repair. Slices of mandible from 28-day-old male Wistar rats were cultured in Trowel-type cultures at the liquid-gas interface for up to 21 days. Maintenance of cell and tissue architecture and viability was shown within fractured mandible slices during all culture periods. Autoradiographic studies demonstrated that resident cells were actively synthesizing and secreting proteins, and cells of the osteoblast lineage were shown to survive throughout the culture periods. The model was responsive to exogenously added transforming growth factor-β1, with observed increases in cellular migration/proliferation and expression of bone matrix proteins. The ex vivo mandible model developed within this study may represent an ideal system for investigating specific processes of bone repair, as well as a promising alternative to in vivo testing of novel clinical therapeutics. PMID:20218818

  13. A critical period for functional vestibular development in zebrafish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorman, Stephen J.; Cordova, Rodolfo; Davies, Sarah A.

    2002-01-01

    We have determined a critical period for vestibular development in zebrafish by using a bioreactor designed by NASA to simulate microgravity for cells in culture. A critical period is defined as the briefest period of time during development when stimulus deprivation results in long lasting or permanent sensory deficits. Zebrafish eggs were collected within 3 hours of being laid and fertilized. In experiment 1, eggs were placed in the bioreactor at 3, 24, 30, 36, 48, or 72 hours postfertilization (hPF) and maintained in the bioreactor until 96 hPF. In experiment 2, eggs were placed in the bioreactor immediately after they were collected and maintained in the bioreactor until 24, 36, 48, 60, 66, 72, or 96 hPF. Beginning at 96 hPF, all larvae had their vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) evaluated once each day for 5 days. Only larvae that hatched from eggs that were placed in the bioreactor before 30 hPF in experiment 1 or removed from the bioreactor later than 66 hPF in experiment 2 had VOR deficits that persisted for at least 5 days. These data suggest a critical period for vestibular development in the zebrafish that begins before 30 hPF and ends after 66 hPF. To confirm this, zebrafish eggs were placed in the bioreactor at 24 hPF and removed at 72 hPF. VORs were evaluated in these larvae once each day for 5 days beginning at 96 hPF. These larvae had VOR deficits that persisted for at least 5 days. In addition, larvae that had been maintained in the bioreactor from 24 to 66 hPF or from 30 to 72 hPF, had only temporary VOR deficits. In a final experiment, zebrafish eggs were placed in the bioreactor at 3 hPF and removed at 96 hPF but the bioreactor was turned off from 24 hPF to 72 hPF. These larvae had normal VORs when they were removed from the bioreactor at 96 hPF. Taken as a whole, these data support the idea that there is a critical period for functional maturation of the zebrafish vestibular system. The developmental period identified includes the timeframe during which the vestibular primary afferent neurons are born, innervate their central and peripheral targets, and remodel their central projections. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Human and Rodent Brain Primary Neuronal Culture Spontaneous Activity Using Micro-Electrode Array Technology.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Alessandro; Obeid, Iyad

    2016-03-01

    Electrical activity in embryonic brain tissue has typically been studied using Micro Electrode Array (MEA) technology to make dozens of simultaneous recordings from dissociated neuronal cultures, brain stem cell progenitors, or brain slices from fetal rodents. Although these rodent neuronal primary culture electrical properties are mostly investigated, it has not been yet established to what extent the electrical characteristics of rodent brain neuronal cultures can be generalized to those of humans. A direct comparison of spontaneous spiking activity between rodent and human primary neurons grown under the same in vitro conditions using MEA technology has never been carried out before and will be described in the present study. Human and rodent dissociated fetal brain neuronal cultures were established in-vitro by culturing on a glass grid of 60 planar microelectrodes neurons under identical conditions. Three different cultures of human neurons were produced from tissue sourced from a single aborted fetus (at 16-18 gestational weeks) and these were compared with seven different cultures of embryonic rat neurons (at 18 gestational days) originally isolated from a single rat. The results show that the human and rodent cultures behaved significantly differently. Whereas the rodent cultures demonstrated robust spontaneous activation and network activity after only 10 days, the human cultures required nearly 40 days to achieve a substantially weaker level of electrical function. These results suggest that rat neuron preparations may yield inferences that do not necessarily transfer to humans. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 559-565, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26284690

  15. St. Mary's has a "Sailabration". An Indiana hospital sets aside a day for spiritual renewal.

    PubMed

    Sister Betty Anne Darch; Newsmaster, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    Ascension Health has asked all of its health care ministries to promote spirituality in the workplace. St. Mary's Health System, Evansville, IN, responded to this request with several initiatives, including the development, facilitation, and implementation of a new model for what St. Mary's calls its "Employee Renewal Day." Revamped from a voluntary unpaid day to a paid day on which participation is strongly encouraged, Employee Renewal Day 2004 focused on fellowship, relaxation, and the history and heritage of St. Mary's and its sponsor. Based on an employee's suggestion, the mission team adopted a nautical theme, "Sailabration Cruise: A Day of Renewal," and took employees on "a voyage" complete with mission-themed ports, passenger photos, a ship's log, purser's desk, and an activities director. More than 1,200 St. Mary's employees-or 23 percent of the total workforce-participated. All of St. Mary's 135 leaders were in attendance. The new Employee Renewal Day model will be tried over a three-year period, so as to measure the progress of furthering the integration of spirituality within the organizational culture. PMID:15926423

  16. Hydroxylation, conjugation and sulfation of bile acids in primary monolayer cultures of rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Princen, H.M.; Meijer, P.

    1988-08-15

    Hydroxylation of lithocholic, chenodeoxycholic, deoxycholic and cholic acids was studied in monolayers of rat hepatocytes cultured for 76 h. The majority of added lithocholic and chenodeoxycholic acids was metabolized to beta-muricholic acid (56-76%). A small part of these bile acids (9%), however, and a considerable amount of deoxycholic and cholic acids (21%) were converted into metabolites more polar than cholic acid in the first culture period. Formation of these compounds decreased during the last day of culture. Bile acids synthesized after addition of (4-/sup 14/C)-cholesterol were almost entirely (97%) sulfated and/or conjugated, predominantly with taurine (54-66%), during culture. Sulfated bile acids were mainly composed of free bile acids. The ability of hepatocytes to sulfurylate bile acids declined with culture age. Thus, rat hepatocytes in primary monolayer culture are capable to sulfurylate bile acids and to hydroxylate trihydroxylated bile acids, suggesting formation of polyhydroxylated metabolites.

  17. Development of uridine diphosphate-glucuronyltransferase activity in cultures of chick-embryo liver

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Vivian; Dutton, G. J.; Nemeth, A. M.

    1967-01-01

    1. The liver of the domestric fowl (Gallus gallus) remains capable of conjugating o-aminophenol with glucuronic acid after 8 days' culture. The pathway of o-aminophenyl glucuronide formation in cultured liver, as in fresh tissue, includes the enzyme UDP-glucuronyltransferase. 2. UDP-glucuronyltransferase activity in chick-embryo liver increases on culture from very low to adult values within 6–8 days. 3. The development of UDP-glucuronyltransferase activity in cultured chick-embryo liver requires certain serum factors in the medium. The requirements change with embryo age. Liver from embryos younger than 15 days develops enzyme activity equally well in media containing either foetal or adult serum; liver from embryos older than 16 days develops activity only with adult serum. The development of enzyme activity in liver from the older embryos appears to be stimulated by diffusible factors in adult serum and inhibited by diffusible factors in foetal serum. It is suggested that the stimulation and inhibition of enzyme formation by small, diffusible molecules may be part of the mechanism regulating UDP-glucuronyltransferase activity in vivo. 4. Liver from 19-day-old chick embryos cultured with foetal serum begins to develop UDP-glucuronyltransferase activity if transferred to an adult-serum medium. Its capacity to develop UDP-glucuronyltransferase activity in adult serum survives in a foetal-serum medium for at least 5 days, the longest period tested. 5. The activity of UDP-glucuronyltransferase reached in 19-day chick-embryo liver after 1 or 2 days with adult serum is maintained without further increase after transfer to a foetal-serum medium. After 3 days with adult serum UDP-glucuronyltransferase activity continues to increase when the tissue is transferred to a foetal-serum medium. Thus liver from 19-day-old embryos requires 3 days with adult serum before development of enzyme activity becomes independent of a continuous adult-serum environment. PMID:6049938

  18. Effects of IGF-1 on In Vitro Culture of Bovine Preantral Follicles are Dose-Dependent.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, C R; de Azevedo, J L; Silveira, R G; Penitente-Filho, J; Carrascal-Triana, E L; Zolini, A M; Araujo, V R; Torres, Caa; Gonçalves, W G

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed at assessing the effect of different concentrations of the growth factor similar to insulin 1 (IGF-1) in the development, survival and ultrastructure of the bovine preantral follicles cultured in situ. Fragments of bovine ovarian cortical tissue were cultured during 1 and 7 days in 1 ml of α-MEM(+) , supplemented with different concentrations of human recombinant IGF-1 (0, 30, 70 and 100 ng/ml), in an incubator at 37°C and 5% of CO2 in 24-well plates with total replacement of the medium every 2 days. Non-cultured ovarian fragments (control) and ovarian fragments cultured during 1 and 7 days were processed for classic histology, mechanical isolation and electron transmission microscopy (ETM). Parameters such as normality, viability, activation, development, diameter and ultrastructure were evaluated. All statistical analyses were carried out using sas Version 9.2. The results showed that the percentage of follicles morphologically normal in the IGF-1 30 ng/ml treatment was similar to the fresh control (p > 0.05) both on the day 1 and on the day 7 of in vitro culture. In the viability analysis, the cultured treatments maintained the percentage of viable follicles during the entire culture period (p > 0.05). After 7 days of culture, the IGF-1 30 ng/ml treatment showed higher percentages of developing follicles (48.33%) than those of the fresh control (22.22%) and the cultured treatments (p < 0.05). Also, after 7 days of culture, IGF-1 30 ng/ml presented a higher follicular diameter when compared to the control and other concentrations of IGF-1 tested. Ultrastructurally, the non-cultured control and IGF-1 30 ng/ml, after 7 days of culture, showed conserved oocytes, nuclei and organelles. Hence, it is concluded that IGF-1 30 ng/ml was the most efficient concentration for the development of bovine preantral follicles cultured in vitro. PMID:27099180

  19. Periods found in heat measurements obtained by calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, K.C.

    1984-02-28

    During a span of 640 days, a periodicity of 1.5158 +- 0.0008 days was discovered in successive heater equilibria on Calorimeter No. 127. Measurements were taken at 12-h intervals, with occasional changes of exactly 3 or 6 h in the schedule of measurements. This schedule eliminated all other possible periods except a period of 0.150156 days. Periods of 1.519125 and 1.511283 days were discovered in data on the excess length of day as obtained by the US Naval Observatory over a period of 24 y. These two periods could equally well represent periods of 0.150189 and 0.150112 days, since measurements were obtained only once every 24 h. It is suggested that periods observed in sensitive calorimeters and in length of day data may be related. 1 reference, 6 figures, 5 tables.

  20. The effect of ajmalicine spiking and resin addition timing on the production of indole alkaloids from Catharanthus roseus cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Lee-Parsons, Carolyn W T; Shuler, Michael L

    2002-08-20

    The potential for the feedback inhibition of indole alkaloid synthesis was investigated by spiking suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus with 0, 9, or 18 mg/L ajmalicine on day 0. The production of ajmalicine, catharanthine, and serpentine were inhibited in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition was transient as the exogenous ajmalicine was ultimately either metabolized in the medium or within the cell. The addition of neutral resin has previously been shown to enhance ajmalicine production. To minimize product inhibition and product metabolism, Amberlite XAD-7 resin was added to immobilized cultures of C. roseus starting on either day 0, 5, or 15, and fresh resin was exchanged for spent resin every 5 days. The addition of resin did not decrease the viability of the culture. Growth was reduced only in cultures with resin added on day 0. Alkaloid production was enhanced to different extents by the timing of resin addition, suggesting that feedback inhibition or product metabolism was present throughout the culture period. Ajmalicine recovery was nearly 100% when the resin was added initially either on day 0 or day 5. Ajmalicine recovery was reduced to 55% when the resin was added later in the culture period starting on day 15, presumably because of resin saturation or the inaccessibility of alkaloids trapped in the vacuole. Delaying the addition of XAD-7 resin until 5 days after the start of the culture resulted in the highest improvement in ajmalicine production, i.e approximately 70% and also resulted in the complete recovery of ajmalicine from the cell. PMID:12115404

  1. Urine culture

    MedlinePlus

    Culture and sensitivity - urine ... when urinating. You also may have a urine culture after you have been treated for an infection. ... when bacteria or yeast are found in the culture. This likely means that you have a urinary ...

  2. Relationship of safety culture and process safety.

    PubMed

    Olive, Claire; O'Connor, T Michael; Mannan, M Sam

    2006-03-17

    Throughout history, humans have gathered in groups for social, religious, and industrial purposes. As the conglomeration of people interact, a set of underlying values, beliefs, and principles begins to develop that serve to guide behavior within the group. These "guidelines" are commonly referred to as the group culture. Modern-day organizations, including corporations, have developed their own unique cultures derived from the diversity of the organizational interests and the background of the employees. Safety culture, a sub-set of organizational culture, has been a major focus in recent years. This is especially true in the chemical industry due to the series of preventable, safety-related disasters that occurred in the late seventies and eighties. Some of the most notable disasters, during this time period, occurred at Bhopal, Flixborough, and Seveso. However, current events, like the September 11th terrorist attacks and the disintegration of the Columbia shuttle, have caused an assessment of safety culture in a variety of other organizations. PMID:16314040

  3. AAS 227: Day 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Editors Note:This week were at the 227th AAS Meeting in Kissimmee, FL. Along with several fellow authors from astrobites.com, I will bewritingupdates on selectedevents at themeeting and posting at the end of each day. Follow along here or at astrobites.com, or catch ourlive-tweeted updates from the @astrobites Twitter account. The usual posting schedule for AAS Nova will resumenext week.Things kicked off last night at our undergraduate reception booth. Thanks to all of you who stopped by we were delightedto have so many people tell us that they already know about and useastrobites, and we were excited to introduce a new cohort of students at AAS to astrobites for the first time.Tuesday morning was the official start of the meeting. Here are just a few of the talks and workshops astrobiters attended today.Opening Address (by Becky Smethurst)The President of the AAS, aka our fearless leader Meg Urry kicked off the meeting this morning at the purely coffee powered hour of 8am this morning. She spoke about the importance of young astronomers at the meeting (heres looking at you reader!) and also the importance of the new Working Group for Accessibility and Disabilities (aka WGAD pronounced like wicked) at the AAS. The Society has made extra effort this year to make the conference accessible to all,a message which was very well received by everyone in attendance.Kavli Lecture: New Horizons Alan Stern (by Becky Smethurst)We were definitely spoilt with the first Plenary lecture at this years conference Alan Stern gave us a a review of the New Horizons mission of the Pluto Fly By (astrobites covered the mission back in July with this post). We were treated to beautiful images, wonderful results and a foray into geology.Before (Hubble) and after #NewHorizons. #thatisall #science #astro alanstern #aas227 pic.twitter.com/kkMt6RsSIR Science News (@topsciencething) January 5, 2016Some awesome facts from the lecture that blew my mind:New Horizons is now 2AU (!) beyond PlutoThe mission was featured on the front pages of 450 newspapers worldwide on every single continent (including Antartica!)New Horizons reached the Moon in9 HOURSafter launch (compared to the ~3 days it took the Apollo missions)The mission controllers were aiming for a 100km window of space all the way from EarthThere was a window of ~400seconds which the probe had to arrive within the probe arrived90 seconds early! Putting tardy astronomers everywhere to shame.Charon was the only satellite of Pluto known at the time of the mission proposalThe canyon found on Charon is not only bigger than the Grand Canyon but bigger than Mariner Valley on Mars which is already4000 km (2500 mi) long and reaches depths of up to 7 km (4 mi)!Charons surface. Tectonic feature runs about 1500 km, around 10 km deep. Eat it, Mars. #aas227 pic.twitter.com/blewwJaXEn Danny Barringer (@HeavyFe_H) January 5, 2016The mountains ringing the Sputnik Planum (aka the heart of Pluto) are over 4km high and are snow capped with methane icePlutos mountain ranges. Means surface nitrogen layer is thin, probably water ice according to @AlanStern. #aas227 pic.twitter.com/0yyHZvpBOE Danny Barringer (@HeavyFe_H) January 5, 2016Plutos atmosphere has a dozendistincthaze layers but how they arecreated is a mystery#aas227 hazes on Pluto wow pic.twitter.com/VPx99ZhPj1 Lisa StorrieLombardi (@lisajsl) January 5, 2016Alan also spoke about the future of New Horizons there is a new mission proposal for a fly by of a Kuiper Belt object 2014MU69 in Jan 2019 which should give us a better understanding of this icy frontier at the edge ofthe Solar System. As a parting gift Alan playedthemost gorgeously detailed fly over video of Plutos surface that had all in the room melting into their flip flops. Its safe to say that the whole room is now Pluto-curious and wondering whether a change of discipline is in order!Press Conference: Black Holes and Exoplanets (by Susanna Kohler)This morning marked the first press conference of the meeting, covering some hot topics in black holes and exoplanets.Hubble (background) and Chandra (purple) image of SDSS J1126+2944. The arrow marks the second black hole. (From http://casa.colorado.edu/~comerford/press)The first speaker was Julie Comerford (University of Colorado Boulder), who told us about SDSS J1126+2944, a galaxy that was shown by Chandra X-ray detections to contain not just one, but two supermassive black holes. This is a sign of a recent merger between two galaxies, which can result in one new, larger galaxy with two nuclei for a while. The second black hole is surrounded by only a small sphere of stars. This may be because the rest have been stripped away in the process of the merger but its also possible that the second black hole is an elusive intermediate mass black hole of only 100-1,000,000 solar masses! Heres the press release.The second speaker was Eric Schlegel (University of Texas, San Antonio), who spoke about the galaxy NGC 5195. Eric discussed an interesting problem: we know that star formation ends in galaxies after a time, but the gas must be cleared out of the galaxy for the star formation to halt. What process does this? Schlegels collaboration found evidence in NGC 5195 for a burping supermassive black hole the shock from the black holes outflow sweeps up the hydrogen gas and blows it out of the galactic center. Heres the press release.NuSTAR image of Andromeda, inset on a UV image by NASAs Galaxy Evolution Explorer. Click for a better look! [NASA/JPL-Caltech/GSFC]Next up was Daniel Wik (NASA/Goddard SFC), who discussed recent high-energy X-ray observations of Andromeda galaxy with NASAs NuSTAR. As Wik described it, NuSTAR is like a CSI detective, working to identify what fraction of the compact remnants in X-ray binaries of Andromeda are neutron stars, and what fraction are black holes. Since X-ray binaries play a crucial role in heating gas in protogalaxies, shaping galaxy formation, its important that we learn more about this population and how it evolves over time. Heres the press release.The final speaker was grad studentSamuel Grunblatt (University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy), who spoke about measuring the mass of exoplanets around active stars. In radial velocity studies of exoplanets, a planet orbiting its star causes the star to wobble. This signal for an Earth-like planet is as tiny as 9 cm/s! Unfortunately, activity of the star can cause radial velocity noise of 1-10 m/s so to detect Earth-like planets, we need to find a way of subtracting off the noise. Grunblatt talked about an intriguing new method for determining planet masses that controls for the signature of their hosts activity. Heres his paper.Annie Jump Cannon Award Lecture: On the Dynamics of Planets, Stars and Black Holes (by Erika Nesvold)This year, the Annie Jump Cannon Award was given to Smadar Naoz, an assistant professor at UCLA. The Cannon Award is given every year to a young (less than 5 years since PhD), female astronomer for outstanding work in her field. Traditionally, the Cannon Award recipient delivers a lecture on her research, so this year we were lucky to see a dynamic and engaging talk by Smadar Naoz about her research in dynamical theory.You may have heard the common career advice that you should focus on becoming the expert on one particular facet of astronomy: a particular type of object, an observational technique, a type of instrument, etc. Naoz has managed to follow that advice while still managing to study a huge range of astronomical topics, from exoplanets to cosmology. She studies hierarchical triples, systems of three gravitational bodies in which two of the bodies orbit one another very closely, while the third orbits the other two from a much greater distance. For example, a planet in a tight orbit around a star, with a brown dwarf orbiting hundreds of AU away, make up a hierarchical triple system. So does a system in which two black holes orbit each other closely, with a third black hole orbiting farther away. The physics of these systems are all the same, so by studying the equations that govern a hierarchical triple system, Naoz can study a huge variety of astronomical objects.In particular, Naoz studies a mechanism called the Kozai-Lidov mechanism, named after the two researchers who discovered it independently. If the outer body in a hierarchical triple orbits at a high enough inclination to the inner body ( 40 degrees), the Kozai-Lidov mechanism will excite the inclination and eccentricity of the inner body. In fact, the inclination and eccentricity will oscillate opposite one another: as the inclination increases, the eccentricity will decrease, and vice versa. In the course of her research, Naoz discovered a flaw in Kozais original derivations of this mechanism, and derived a more accurate, general set of equations describing the Kozai-Lidov mechanism. These new equations indicate that the eccentricity of the inner object can become extremely high, and that the inclination can become so high that the objects orbit can flip from prograde to retrograde! In other words, the object can start orbiting in the opposite direction around the central body.Wondering how Naoz found the error in Kozai? I happen to know she rederives all the equations in every paper she reads. Wow. #aas227 Erika Nesvold (@erikanesvold) January 5, 2016This work has applications in many different types of systems. For example, over the past decade, observers have discovered a large number of retrograde hot Jupiters, gas giant planets orbiting very close to their star, in the opposite direction from the stars spin. Naoz showed that the new, correct Kozai-Lidov mechanism can explain the orbits of these exoplanets, because it increases the planets eccentricity until its orbit approaches very close to the star, and it flips the inclination into a retrograde orbit. Naoz: A puzzle: how to explain retrograde planets? Kozai mechanism can do that! #aas227 Peter Edmonds (@PeterDEdmonds) January 5, 2016Naoz also showed applications of the Kozai-Lidov mechanisms to dark matter halos around black holes, triple black hole systems, and so-called blue stragglers: main-sequence stars in clusters that are brighter and bluer than they should be. Her body of work is an excellent example of how theorists can adapt general physics theories to a wonderful variety of astronomical problems.holy styrofoam planets batman naoz just explained everything. #aas227 August Muench (@augustmuench) January 5, 2016Harassment in the Astronomical Sciences Town Hall(by Caroline Morley)The Town Hall on Harassment in the Astronomical Sciences involved a sobering panel discussion on the current state on workplace climate in astronomy and the current steps that the AAS and federal agencies are taking to improve it. Christina Richey kicked it off by presenting preliminary results from the CSWA Survey on workplace climate. This survey involved 426 participants, and reveals that many people, especially junior members of the field, experience harassment including both verbal and physical harassment. These results will be published this year. Next up, Dara Norman, a Councilor of the AAS and a member of the AAS Ethics Task Force, spoke about the proposed changes to the current AAS Ethics Statement. These changes will focus on corrective policies to improve the state of the field; they will solicit community feedback this Spring and vote on the changes at the Summer AAS meeting. Last, Jim Ulvestad, representing the federal agencies including NSF, NASA, and the DOE, spoke about the current policies for reporting to federal funding agencies. He reminds us that if an institution accepts money from the federal government, they are required by law to follow laws such as Title VI (covering racial harassment) and Title IX (covering sexual harassment), and that breaches can be reported to the funding agency.Tools and Tips for Better Software (aka Pain Reduction for Code Authors)(by Caroline Morley)This afternoon breakout session included a drinking-from-the-firehose set of short talks that covered everything from source-code management and software testing to building communities that create sustainable code. First, Kenza Arraki discussed software such as Git to do version control to keep track of code changes. (Version Control is my (science) New Years Resolution, so I was happy to learn that there is aCodeAcademy tutorial for Git!). Next up, AdrianPrice-Whelan described the merits of software testing and suggests that we actually do Test-driven development where we write tests for the code first, then write code, run tests and debug until tests all pass. Erik Tollerud spoke on Why Document code and how you might convince yourself to do so (documenting code is another good science New Years Resolution!) The most important rule is to always document as you code because you wont ever go back! Bruce Berriman described the best practices for code release, including, importantly, licensing it and describing it well (with tutorials, examples). Matthew Turk reminded us the importance of building community around code development. Robert Nemiroff ended the talks with a discussion of what to do withdeadcodes. The lowest bar? Put it in your Dropbox and share it with your collaborators and students!For more info on all of these topics and more, consider attending a Software Carpentry workshop.

  4. Full-Day or Half-Day Kindergarten? ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberg, Dianne

    This ERIC Digest examines how changing family patterns have affected the full-day/half-day kindergarten issue, discussing why schools are currently considering alternative scheduling and describing the advantages and disadvantages of each type of program. The following changing family patterns affecting the choice of full-day kindergarten programs…

  5. Safeguards Culture

    SciTech Connect

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2012-07-01

    The concepts of nuclear safety and security culture are well established; however, a common understanding of safeguards culture is not internationally recognized. Supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration, the authors prepared this report, an analysis of the concept of safeguards culture, and gauged its value to the safeguards community. The authors explored distinctions between safeguards culture, safeguards compliance, and safeguards performance, and evaluated synergies and differences between safeguards culture and safety/security culture. The report concludes with suggested next steps.

  6. The 5-day wave and ionospheric absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    In a previous paper, Fraser and Thorpe (1976) indicated that the average partial-coherence spectra for three summers and the average for three winters at a southern mid-latitude site had a dominant peak at a period of about six days. This peak in coherence between absorption and temperature is anomalous, and the present paper explains how some of the unexpected coherence features can be explained by the five-day wave described by Geisler and Dickinson (1976) and whose existence in the upper stratosphere was discussed by Rodgers (1976).

  7. Opacification of lenses cultured in the presence of Pb

    PubMed Central

    Lin, C.; Isom, R.; Vaishnav, K.; Zigler, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Occupational and environmental Pb-exposure is associated with protein aggregation diseases which typically present in elderly populations (Parkinsons and cataract). Post-translational processing of crystallins, the major structural proteins of the lens, is altered with short-term Pb-exposure in Fisher 344 rats. In addition, lenses from aged rats become opaque upon long-term exposure to Pb in organ culture. To explore the route to lens opacification in the presence of Pb, cultured lenses from young rats which exhibit higher metabolic activity in lens culture and are more susceptible to experimental cataract in vivo and in vitro were exposed to Pb and evaluated for morphological and biochemical alterations. Methods Following culture in Pb (as lead nitrate) for four days (in the presence/absence of oxidative challenge), lenses were examined for clarity, integrity of epithelial layer, and molecular stability including crystallin post-translational modification and choline transport. Clarity of lenses cultured with/without Pb for up to 8 days was assessed to determine if Pb exposure would accelerate opacification. Results Lenses cultured in Pb for four days exhibited epithelial abnormalities including epithelial cell multilayering and nuclei abnormalities with extension of the nucleated epithelial cells past the bow region. Alterations in crystallin post-translational modifications and decreased membrane transport of choline were noted without corresponding lens opacification or altered α-crystallin chaperone activity. Lenses treated with Pb according to the same exposure protocol with subsequent challenge by hydrogen peroxide became opaque while the contralateral control lenses did not. Lenses which were cultured in the presence of Pb for longer periods with no subsequent oxidative insult exhibited lens failure at earlier time points than did the controls. Conclusions These data indicate that Pb-exposure can accelerate the degradation of the cultured lens through induction of epithelial cell abnormalities, induce structural protein modifications before opacity, and predispose the lens to opacification with subsequent oxidant challenge. PMID:21139692

  8. Post-translational control of collagen fibrillogenesis in mineralizing cultures of chick osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerstenfeld, L. C.; Riva, A.; Hodgens, K.; Eyre, D. R.; Landis, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    Cultured osteoblasts from chick embryo calvaria were used as a model system to investigate the post-translational extracellular mechanisms controlling the macroassembly of collagen fibrils. The results of these studies demonstrated that cultured osteoblasts secreted a collagenous extracellular matrix that assembled and mineralized in a defined temporal and spatial sequence. The assembly of collagen occurred in a polarized fashion, such that successive orthogonal arrays of fibrils formed between successive cell layers proceeding from the culture surface toward the media. Mineralization followed in the same manner, being observed first in the deepest and oldest fibril layers. Collagen fibrillogenesis, the kinetics of cross-link formation, and collagen stability in the extracellular matrix of the cultures were examined over a 30 day culture period. Between days 8 and 12 in culture, collagen fibril diameters increased from < 30 nm to an average of 30-45 nm. Thereafter, diameters ranged in size from 20 to 200 nm. Quantitation of the collagen cross-linking residues, hydroxylysyl pyridinoline (HP) and lysyl pyridinoline (LP), showed that these mature cross-links increased from undetectable levels to concentrations found in normal chick bone. Analysis of the kinetics of their formation by pulse-chase labeling the cultures with [3H]lysine showed a doubling time of approximately 5 days. The relationships between cross-link formation, fibrillogenesis, and collagen stability were examined in cultures treated with beta-aminopropionitrile (beta-APN), a potent inhibitor of lysyl oxidase and cross-link formation. In beta-APN-treated cultures, total collagen synthesis was increased twofold, with no change in mRNA levels for type I collagen, whereas the amount of collagen accumulated in the cell layer was decreased by 50% and mineral deposition was reduced. The rate of collagen retention in the matrix was assessed by pulse-chase analysis of [3H]proline over a 16 day period in control and beta-APN-treated cultures. In control cultures, about 20% of the labeled collagen was lost from the cell layers over a 16 day period compared with > 80% in the presence of beta-APN. The beta-APN-treated cultures also showed a wider diversity of fibril diameters with a median in the > 45-60 nm range. In summary, these data suggest that cross-linking and assembly of collagen fibrils secreted by osteoblasts in vitro occur in a fashion similar to that found in vivo. The rate of cross-link formation is relatively constant and may be correlated with increasing collagen mass.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

  9. Clinical and economic impact of contaminated blood cultures within the hospital setting.

    PubMed

    Alahmadi, Y M; Aldeyab, M A; McElnay, J C; Scott, M G; Darwish Elhajji, F W; Magee, F A; Dowds, M; Edwards, C; Fullerton, L; Tate, A; Kearney, M P

    2011-03-01

    Blood cultures have an important role in the diagnosis of serious infections, although contamination of blood cultures (i.e. false-positive blood cultures) is a common problem within the hospital setting. The objective of the present investigation was to determine the impact of the false-positive blood culture results on the following outcomes: length of stay, hotel costs, antimicrobial costs, and costs of laboratory and radiological investigation. A retrospective case-control study design was used in which 142 false-positive blood culture cases were matched with suitable controls (patients for whom cultures were reported as true negatives). The matching criteria included age, comorbidity score and month of admission to the hospital. The research covered a 13-month period (July 2007 to July 2008). The findings indicated that differences in means, between cases and controls, for the length of hospital stay and the total costs were 5.4 days [95% CI (confidence interval): 2.8-8.1 days; P<0.001] and £5,001.5 [$7,502.2; 95% CI: £3,283.9 ($4,925.8) to £6,719.1 ($10,078.6); P<0.001], respectively. Consequently, and considering that 254 false-positive blood cultures had occurred in the study site hospital over a one-year period, patients with false-positive blood cultures added 1372 extra hospital days and incurred detrimental additional hospital costs of £1,270,381 ($1,905,572) per year. The findings therefore demonstrate that false-positive blood cultures have a significant impact on increasing hospital length of stay, laboratory and pharmacy costs. These findings highlight the need to intervene to raise the standard of blood-culture-taking technique, thus improving both the quality of patient care and resource use. PMID:21216032

  10. Mycobacterium and Aerobic Actinomycete Culture: Are Two Medium Types and Extended Incubation Times Necessary?

    PubMed

    Simner, Patricia J; Doerr, Kelly A; Steinmetz, Lory K; Wengenack, Nancy L

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterial cultures are historically performed using a liquid medium and a solid agar medium with an incubation period of up to 60 days. We performed a retrospective analysis of 21,494 mycobacterial and aerobic actinomycetes cultures performed over 10 months to determine whether two medium types remain necessary and to investigate whether culture incubation length can be shortened. Specimens were cultured using Bactec MGIT liquid medium and Middlebrook 7H11/S7H11 solid medium with incubation periods of 42 and 60 days, respectively. Time-to-positivity and the identity of isolates recovered from each medium were evaluated. A total of 1,205/21,494 cultures (6%) were positive on at least one medium. Of the 1,353 isolates recovered, 1,110 (82%) were nontuberculous mycobacteria, 145 (11%) were aerobic actinomycetes, and 98 (7%) wereMycobacterium tuberculosiscomplex. Assessing medium types, 1,121 isolates were recovered from solid medium cultures, 922 isolates were recovered from liquid medium cultures, and 690 isolates were recovered on both media. Liquid cultures were positive an average of 10 days before solid cultures when the two medium types were positive (P< 0.0001). Isolates detected on solid medium after 6 weeks of incubation included 65 (5%) nontuberculous mycobacteria, 4 (0.3%) aerobic actinomycetes, and 2 (0.2%) isolates from theM. tuberculosiscomplex. Medical chart review suggested that most of these later-growing isolates were insignificant, as the diagnosis was already known, or they were considered colonizers/contaminants. This study reaffirms the need for both liquid medium and solid medium for mycobacterial and aerobic actinomycetes culture and demonstrates that solid medium incubation times may be reduced to 6 weeks without significantly impacting sensitivity. PMID:26865689

  11. A Rotating Bioreactor for Scalable Culture and Differentiation of Respiratory Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Raredon, Micha Sam Brickman; Ghaedi, Mahboobe; Calle, Elizabeth A.; Niklason, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory epithelium is difficult to grow in vitro, as it requires a well-maintained polarizing air–liquid interface (ALI) to maintain differentiation. Traditional methods rely on permeable membrane culture inserts, which are difficult to work with and are ill-suited for the production of large numbers of cells, such as the quantities required for cell-based clinical therapies. Herein, we investigate an alternative form of culture in which the cells are placed on a porous substrate that is continuously rolled, such that the monolayer of cells is alternately submerged in media or apically exposed to air. Our prototype bioreactor is reliable for up to 21 days of continuous culture and is designed for scale-up for large-scale cell culture with continuous medium and gas exchange. Normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells were cultured on an absorbent substrate in the reactor for periods of 7, 14, and 21 days and were compared to static controls that were submerged in media. Quantification by immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR of markers specific to differentiated respiratory epithelium indicated increased cilia, mucous production, and tight junction formation in the rolled cultures, compared to static. Together with scanning electron microscopy and paraffin histology, the data indicate that the intermittent ALI provided by the rolling bioreactor promotes a polarized epithelial phenotype over a period of 21 days. PMID:26858899

  12. A Rotating Bioreactor for Scalable Culture and Differentiation of Respiratory Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Raredon, Micha Sam Brickman; Ghaedi, Mahboobe; Calle, Elizabeth A; Niklason, Laura E

    2015-10-01

    Respiratory epithelium is difficult to grow in vitro, as it requires a well-maintained polarizing air-liquid interface (ALI) to maintain differentiation. Traditional methods rely on permeable membrane culture inserts, which are difficult to work with and are ill-suited for the production of large numbers of cells, such as the quantities required for cell-based clinical therapies. Herein, we investigate an alternative form of culture in which the cells are placed on a porous substrate that is continuously rolled, such that the monolayer of cells is alternately submerged in media or apically exposed to air. Our prototype bioreactor is reliable for up to 21 days of continuous culture and is designed for scale-up for large-scale cell culture with continuous medium and gas exchange. Normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells were cultured on an absorbent substrate in the reactor for periods of 7, 14, and 21 days and were compared to static controls that were submerged in media. Quantification by immunohistochemistry and quantitative PCR of markers specific to differentiated respiratory epithelium indicated increased cilia, mucous production, and tight junction formation in the rolled cultures, compared to static. Together with scanning electron microscopy and paraffin histology, the data indicate that the intermittent ALI provided by the rolling bioreactor promotes a polarized epithelial phenotype over a period of 21 days. PMID:26858899

  13. Myth or Truth: Independence Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Traci

    Most Americans think of the Fourth of July as Independence Day, but is it really the day the U.S. declared and celebrated independence? By exploring myths and truths surrounding Independence Day, this lesson asks students to think critically about commonly believed stories regarding the beginning of the Revolutionary War and the Independence Day…

  14. Perspectives on Infant Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elardo, Richard, E.; Pagan, Betty, Ed.

    These proceedings of the first annual SACUS workshop on infant day care contain the papers presented at the conference, plus an appendix--Developmental Objectives for Infants and Toddlers. The papers are: "Infant Day Care--Fads, Facts, and Fancies" by Bettye M. Caldwell; "Family Day Care""A Broad Perspective" by Malcolm S. Host; "Getting…

  15. National Trails Day. Project SEED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Mark

    This paper describes how a school district in Maine implemented an outdoor education program centered around National Trails Day (a day of awareness of outdoor recreational areas in the United States). The program combined classroom learning with an all-day hike on the Appalachian Trail by 240 seventh-grade students. Numerous teachers, school…

  16. Family Day Care Provider Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of Children and Family Services, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Family day care providers are responsible for creating a high-quality program where children have opportunities to grow, learn and thrive. Part of providing high-quality child care includes complying with the family day care regulations from the New York State Office of Children and Family Services (OCFS). This Handbook will help day care…

  17. Culture matters.

    PubMed

    Arif, Zeba

    Zebaa Arif reflects on changes during her career as a mental health nurse in relation to cultural care issues: Cultural awareness is becoming embedded in patient care. All aspects of care are influenced by cultural beliefs and should form part of assessment. Leadership is essential in influencing cultural care, as is organisational commitment. PMID:16262169

  18. Learning Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David

    Adult and continuing education in the arts can and does play a role in the development of cultural identity. Dimensions of culture include ethnicity, location, age, social class, and time. This definition of culture leads to the conclusion that cultures are generally small and are dynamic rather than static. Research shows that individuals in what…

  19. 78 FR 22283 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... the Federal Register in 1996 (61 FR 8971, March 6, 1996) and were repatriated after the 30 day waiting period expired. The two cultural items were mentioned in the March 6, 1996 Notice of Inventory Completion... information in support of the claim to Everglades National Park at the address in this notice by May 15,...

  20. Optimal temperature control for a structured model of plant cell culture.

    PubMed

    Bailey, C M; Nicholson, H

    1990-02-01

    This article calculates optimal open-loop temperature trajectories that maximize the average rate of product synthesis of a plant cell culture. It uses a previously published five-state mathematical model which describes the growth and product synthesis of a batch plant cell suspension culture of Catharanthus roseus under temperature control. The optimal open-loop temperatures maximize the final product concentration for predefined fermentation periods. A single switch in temperature is shown by computer simulation to be near optimal, with a 22% increase in final product yield over that obtained at the optimal constant temperature. Examination of the achieved final product yield as a function of fermentation period allows this period also to be chosen optimally. This time is reduced from 16 days in the constant temperature case to 12 days in the switched temperature case. PMID:18592517

  1. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R.; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors. PMID:26365061

  2. Culture Learning/Culture Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trifonovitch, Gregory J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes some barriers to cross-cultural communication and learning and presents four stages of cultural adjustment for the benefit of teachers who must teach and develop cultural understanding in students while learning about different cultural characteristics exhibited by those students. (Editor/RK)

  3. The culture of care within psychiatric services: tackling inequalities and improving clinical and organisational capabilities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Cultural Consultation is a clinical process that emerged from anthropological critiques of mental healthcare. It includes attention to therapeutic communication, research observations and research methods that capture cultural practices and narratives in mental healthcare. This essay describes the work of a Cultural Consultation Service (ToCCS) that improves service user outcomes by offering cultural consultation to mental health practitioners. The setting is a psychiatric service with complex and challenging work located in an ethnically diverse inner city urban area. Following a period of 18 months of cultural consultation, we gather the dominant narratives that emerged during our evaluation of our service. Results These narratives highlight how culture is conceptualized and acted upon in the day-to-day practices of individual health and social care professionals, specialist psychiatric teams and in care systems. The findings reveal common narratives and themes about culture, ethnicity, race and their perceived place and meaningfulness in clinical care. These narratives express underlying assumptions and covert rules for managing, and sometimes negating, dilemmas and difficulties when considering “culture” in the presentation and expression of mental distress. The narratives reveal an overall “culture of understanding cultural issues” and specific “cultures of care”. These emerged as necessary foci of intervention to improve service user outcomes. Conclusion Understanding the cultures of care showed that clinical and managerial over-structuring of care prioritises organisational proficiency, but it leads to inflexibility. Consequently, the care provided is less personalised and less accommodating of cultural issues, therefore, professionals are unable to see or consider cultural influences in recovery. PMID:23020856

  4. A Well-Controlled Nucleus Pulposus Tissue Culture System with Injection Port for Evaluating Regenerative Therapies.

    PubMed

    Arkesteijn, Irene T M; Mouser, Vivian H M; Mwale, Fackson; van Dijk, Bart G M; Ito, Keita

    2016-05-01

    In vitro evaluation of nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue regeneration would be useful, but current systems for NP culture are not ideal for injections. The aim of this study was to develop a long-term culture system for NP tissue that allows injections of regenerative agents. Bovine caudal NPs were harvested and placed in the newly designed culture system. After equilibration of the tissue to 0.3 MPa the volume was fixed and the tissue was cultured for 28 days. The cell viability and extracellular matrix composition remained unchanged during the culture period and gene expression profiles were similar to those obtained in earlier studies. Furthermore, to test the responsiveness of bovine caudal NPs in the system, samples were cultured for 4 days and injected twice (day 1 and 3) with (1) PBS, (2) Link-N, for regeneration, and (3) TNF-α, for degeneration. It was shown that TNF-α increased COX2 gene expression, whereas no effect of Link-N was detected. In conclusion, the newly designed system allows long-term culture of NP tissue, wherein tissue reactions to injected stimulants can be observed. PMID:26294008

  5. Day-to-day variability of the global post-sunset equatorial ionization anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coker, Clayton; Dymond, Kenneth; Budzien, Scott; Chua, Damien

    We report global observations of the daily variability of the post-sunset Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA). Multiple Tiny Ionospheric Photometer (TIP) sensors on the Constellation Ob-serving System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) constellation are used to produce high resolution maps the global pattern of the post-sunset equatorial anomaly for indi-vidual days. TIP is a compact, nadir directed, ultraviolet photometer operating at the 135.6-nm wavelength. TIP measures the horizontal structure of the ionosphere with 15-30 km resolution and high sensitivity. For the near solar minimum condition and equinox period of Septem-ber 2006, evidence of tidal influences is observed in the equatorial anomaly. The day-to-day persistence of the 4-cell pattern produced by the diurnal eastward zonal wavenumber-3 (DE3) tide is remarkable. The daily 4-cell patterns display more dramatic variation in the equatorial anomaly than indicated by earlier studies using multi-day averages. In some longitude sectors the anomaly disappears completely on some days. The crest width is also much narrower than indicated by multi-day averages of the 4-cell pattern. Additionally, daily variations in magni-tude of individual cells are observed and appear to occur on hemispheric scales, suggesting a large scale day-to-day variability in the global neutral wind pattern. Finally, the impact of this daily variability on low latitude irregularity development and scintillation is examined.

  6. Study of the Half-Day/Full-Day Kindergarten Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McInroy, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    This case study and problem analysis was an in-depth investigation of the half-day/full-day kindergarten model by utilizing interviews and focus groups to provide insight from parents, teachers, and other district personnel as to how the model has impacted the social, emotional, and academic development of the participating students. This study…

  7. Rethinking the Day of Silence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Back in 2006, 7th and 8th graders at Green Acres, the K-8 independent school where the author taught in suburban Maryland, participated in the Day of Silence. The Day of Silence is a national event: Students across the country take a one-day pledge of silence to show that they want to make schools safe for all students, regardless of their sexual

  8. Rethinking the Day of Silence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Back in 2006, 7th and 8th graders at Green Acres, the K-8 independent school where the author taught in suburban Maryland, participated in the Day of Silence. The Day of Silence is a national event: Students across the country take a one-day pledge of silence to show that they want to make schools safe for all students, regardless of their sexual…

  9. Sun-Earth Day, 2001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Mortfield, P.; Hathaway, D. H.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    To promote awareness of the Sun-Earth connection, NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, in collaboration with the Stanford SOLAR Center, sponsored a one-day Sun-Earth Day event on April 27, 2001. Although "celebrated" on only one day, teachers and students from across the nation, prepared for over a month in advance. Workshops were held in March to train teachers. Students performed experiments, results of which were shared through video clips and an internet web cast. Our poster includes highlights from student experiments (grades 2 - 12), lessons learned from the teacher workshops and the event itself, and plans for Sun-Earth Day 2002.

  10. Cultural Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Daniel L.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2013-01-01

    Cultural neuroscience issues from the apparently incompatible combination of neuroscience and cultural psychology. A brief literature sampling suggests, instead, several preliminary topics that demonstrate proof of possibilities: cultural differences in both lower-level processes (e.g. perception, number representation) and higher-order processes (e.g. inferring others’ emotions, contemplating the self) are beginning to shed new light on both culture and cognition. Candidates for future cultural neuroscience research include cultural variations in the default (resting) network, which may be social; regulation and inhibition of feelings, thoughts, and actions; prejudice and dehumanization; and neural signatures of fundamental warmth and competence judgments. PMID:23874143

  11. What is the incubation period for listeriosis?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Listeriosis is a foodborne infection with a low incidence but a high case fatality rate. Unlike common foodborne diseases, the incubation period can be long. The first incubation periods were documented during a large listeriosis outbreak published in 1987 by Linnan and al. in the New England Journal of Medicine (range: 3 days to 70 days). Data on the incubation period of listeriosis are scarce. Our study aim was to estimate precisely the incubation period of listeriosis using available data since 1987. Methods We estimated the incubation period of listeriosis using available published data and data from outbreak investigations carried out by the French National Institute for Public Health Surveillance. We selected cases with an incubation period calculated when a patient had a single exposure to a confirmed food source contaminated by Listeria monocytogenes. Results We identified 37 cases of invasive listeriosis (10 cases with central nervous system involvement (CNS cases), 15 bacteraemia cases and 12 pregnancy-associated cases) and 9 outbreaks with gastroenteritis. The overall median incubation period of invasive listeriosis was 8 days (range: 1–67 days) and differed significantly by clinical form of the disease (p<0.0001). A longer incubation period was observed for pregnancy-associated cases (median: 27.5 days; range: 17–67 days) than for CNS cases (median: 9 days; range: 1–14 days) and for bacteraemia cases (median: 2 days; range: 1–12 days). For gastroenteritis cases, the median incubation period was 24 hours with variation from 6 to 240 hours. Conclusions This information has implications for the investigation of food borne listeriosis outbreaks as the incubation period is used to determine the time period for which a food history is collected. We believe that, for listeriosis outbreaks, adapting the exposure window for documenting patients’ food histories in accordance with the clinical form of infection will facilitate the identification of food products as the source of contamination. We therefore propose to take an exposure window of 14 days before the diagnosis for CNS and bacteraemia cases, and of 6 weeks before the diagnosis, for pregnancy-associated cases. PMID:23305174

  12. Long term organ culture of human prostate tissue in a NASA-designed rotating wall bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margolis, L.; Hatfill, S.; Chuaqui, R.; Vocke, C.; Emmert-Buck, M.; Linehan, W. M.; Duray, P. H.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To maintain ex vivo integral prostatic tissue including intact stromal and ductal elements using the NASA-designed Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) which maintains colocalized cells in an environment that promotes both three-dimensional cellular interactions together with the uniform mass transfer of nutrients and metabolic wastes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples of normal prostate were obtained as a byproduct of transurethral prostatectomy or needle biopsy. Prostatic tissue dissected into small 1 x 1 mm. blocks was cultured in the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) Bioreactor for various time periods and analyzed using histological, immunochemical, and total cell RNA assays. RESULTS: We report the long term maintenance of benign explanted human prostate tissue grown in simple culture medium, under the simulated microgravity conditions afforded by the RWV bioreactor. Mesenchymal stromal elements including blood vessels and architecturally preserved tubuloglandular acini were maintained for a minimum of 28 days. Cytokeratins, vimentin and TGF-beta2 receptor and ligand were preserved through the entire culture period as revealed by immunocytochemistry. Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) was continuously expressed during the culture period, although somewhat decreased. Prostatic specific antigen (PSA) and its transcript were down regulated over time of culture. Prostatic carcinoma cells from the TSU cell line were able to invade RWV-cultured benign prostate tissue explants. CONCLUSIONS: The RWV bioreactor represents an additional new technology for culturing prostate tissue for further investigations concerning the basic physiology and pathobiology of this clinically important tissue.

  13. Life cycle of Lampito mauritii (Kinberg) in comparison with Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg) cultured on different substrates.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathi, K

    2007-10-01

    Growth (length, biomass and mean growth rate) and reproduction (total duration, clitellum appearance, clitellum completion, cocoon commencement, rate of cocoon production, incubation period, hatching success and mean number of hatching per cocoon) of indigenous Lampito mauritii (Kinberg) in comparison with exotic Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg) cultured on three feed substrates-clay loam soil, cowdung and pressmud (filter cake) have been studied over a period of 360 days under laboratory conditions (30 +/- 2 degrees C, 60-65% moisture). There is a positive relationship between length and biomass of both worms cultured on three feed substrates throughout the period of study The decrease of worm length and biomass observed slightly on 63-70th days in Lampito mauritii and 42-49th days in Eudrilus eugeniae cultured on three fed substrates are the results of the onset of cocoon production. After 270 days both worms in all these fed substrates show decreasing trends of length and biomass which are due to continued reproduction and aging. Among the three fed substrates, pressmud supports significantly maximum worm length and biomass (between 90-130 days in Eudrilus eugeniae and 110-170 days in Lampito mauritii), earlier attainment of sexual maturity (between 51-76 days in Limpito mauritii and 27-37 days in Eudrilus eugeniae), earlier commencement of cocoon production (37.7 +/- 0.0 days in Eudrilus eugeniae and 76.4 +/- 0.10 days in Limpitomauritii), shorter incubation periods (16.3 +/- 0.28 days in Eudrilus eugeniae and 26.7 +/- 0.81 days in Limpito mauritii), more hatching success (98% in Limpito mauritii and 86% in Eudrilus eugeniae), more mean number of hatchling percocoon (3.2 + 0.03 in Limpito mauritii and 2.6 +/- 0.06 in Eudrilus eugeniae) and shorter duration of life cycle (108.8 +/- 0.07 days in Limpito mauritii and 60.2 +/- 0.09 days in Eudrilus eugeniae) than cowdung and clay loam soil. PMID:18405116

  14. Morphological Changes of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Culture

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, M. J.; Thomas, G. H.

    1973-01-01

    A technique is described for the culture of slices of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) for periods of a week in organ culture. Under these conditions tissue repair took place, resulting in a covering layer of transitional epithelium which formed around the explant and spread out laterally as a monolayer. Autoradiography and studies with [3H]thymidine uptake suggested that the repair activity, which reached a peak at Day 3 in culture, was the centre of biochemical activity, overshadowing that of the rest of the explant. Necrosis of the explant base tended to develop abruptly during the first day of culture but thereafter remained stable. The epithelium was well preserved morphologically, but explant acid phosphatase activity fell progressively. No morphological response to testosterone (10-5 mol/l) or stilboestrol diphosphate (10-5 mol/l) was seen. Attention is drawn to a possible source of misinterpretation of results offered by the uptake of [3H]thymidine into DNA in organ culture. ImagesFig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 1 PMID:4121823

  15. 2014 Maine Earth Science Day

    On October 15, 2014 Maine Earth Science Day was held at the Maine State Museum in Augusta. The USGS was represented by Charlie Culbertson, left, and Nick Waldron, right. This photo was taken as the two were packing up for the day, and shows a main feature of the table, a touch screen display with th...

  16. Celebrate International School Library Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braxton, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    The Fourth Monday in October is International School Library Day (ISLD)--an opportunity for school libraries around the world to celebrate the contribution they make to the education of the children in their care. International School Library Day was proclaimed in 1999 by Dr Blanche Woolls, president of the International Association of School

  17. Day Care Infection Control Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seattle-King County Dept. of Public Health, Seattle, WA.

    This day care infection control manual was assembled to provide technical guidance for the prevention and control of communicable diseases to child day care facilities in Seattle and King County, Washington. For each disease, the manual provides background information, public health control recommendations, and letters that can be used to

  18. In Defense of Snow Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    In snowy climates, school superintendents must frequently decide whether an impending storm warrants closing schools for the day. Concerns about student and teacher safety must be weighed against the loss of student learning time, along with state requirements for days of instruction and the cost and inconvenience of extending the school year into…

  19. Dorothy Day's Vision of Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Nancy L.

    An examination of Dorothy Day's role as chief journalist, editor, and publisher of "The Catholic Worker," the ideological monthly she cofounded in 1933, reveals that she was the final authority within the organization of the newspaper. Deeply committed to proselytizing for her cause, the Catholic Worker Movement, Day still simultaneously…

  20. Day Care Infection Control Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seattle-King County Dept. of Public Health, Seattle, WA.

    This day care infection control manual was assembled to provide technical guidance for the prevention and control of communicable diseases to child day care facilities in Seattle and King County, Washington. For each disease, the manual provides background information, public health control recommendations, and letters that can be used to…

  1. Day Care Center Enrichment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia State Dept. of Welfare, Charleston.

    This guide to a West Virginia Department of Welfare project for upgrading the quality of day care centers throughout the state presents samples of the forms used in the program, accompanied by a brief description of the program's format, requirements and procedures. The Day Care Center Enrichment Program provides a monetary incentive for…

  2. In Defense of Snow Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    In snowy climates, school superintendents must frequently decide whether an impending storm warrants closing schools for the day. Concerns about student and teacher safety must be weighed against the loss of student learning time, along with state requirements for days of instruction and the cost and inconvenience of extending the school year into

  3. Youth Field Day Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    Youth field days expose children to outdoor activities, land use ethics, and habitat conservation and encourage adults to be mentors in these areas. A typical youth field day could have programs in archery, fishing, boating, shooting, or safety. The event requires a diverse steering committee that usually includes sporting clubs and state…

  4. Montessori All Day, All Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Connie; Davis, Liza

    2015-01-01

    Introducing real community into the Children's House goes back to the roots of Montessori education through all-day Montessori. The all-day environment is a house where children live with a "developmental room" of Montessori materials including a living room, kitchen, dining area, bedroom, bathroom, greeting rooms, and outdoor spaces.…

  5. Familial Periodic Paralyses

    MedlinePlus

    ... NINDS NINDS Familial Periodic Paralyses Information Page Synonym(s): Periodic Paralyses Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What are Familial Periodic Paralyses? Is there any treatment? What is the ...

  6. [Establishment of a cell suspension culture system of endangered Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg].

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Han, Xiao-Min; Liang, Liang; Liu, Qing-Chang; Xu, Yan-Hong; Yang, Cheng-Min; Zhang, Zheng; Sun, Jing; Wei, Jian-He

    2014-08-01

    Aquilaria sinensis callus induced by stem tips were used to establish the suspension cell system. The results showed that the most suitable medium for callus induction and subculture is MS + 2.0 mg x L(-1) NAA + 1.0 mg x L(-1) 6-BA. After 12 times of subculture, the energetic and loose callus, which were appropriate for cell suspension culture, were cultured and shook in liquid medium MS + 2.0 mg x L(-1) NAA + 1.0 mg x L(-1) 6-BA + 500.0 mg x L(-1) casein hydrolysate (CH) to establish the suspension cell system. The growth curve of suspension cells showed a "S" type. At the beginning of the culture, cell density increased slowly; during 4 to 6 days, suspension cells reached logarithmic growth period; during 7 to 12 days, suspension cells were in the platform period; but after 12 days, cell density and activity went down obviously. Agarwood sesquiterpenes were not detected in the suspension cells during the growth period, however, they could be detected in MeJA treated suspension cells. In this study, a stable and active growing suspension cell system was established, which was a proper system to study the mechanism of agarwood sesquiterpene formation, and additionally provided a potential way to generate agarwood sesquiterpenes through application of cell culture. PMID:25322564

  7. Culturing Protozoa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Paul

    1980-01-01

    Compares various nutrient media, growth conditions, and stock solutions used in culturing protozoa. A hay infusion in Chalkey's solution maintained at a stable temperature is recommended for producing the most dense and diverse cultures. (WB)

  8. Gastric culture

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric culture is a test to check a child's stomach contents for the bacteria that cause tuberculosis (TB). ... is placed in a special dish called a culture medium and watched for the growth of bacteria.

  9. Throat Culture

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Throat Culture Share this page: Was this page helpful? Collecting | ... treatment | Getting results | see BLOOD SAMPLE Collecting A culture is a test that is often used to ...

  10. Ajmalicine, Serpentine, and Catharanthine Accumulation in Catharanthus roseus Bioreactor Cultures.

    PubMed

    Drapeau, D; Blanch, H W; Wilke, C R

    1987-08-01

    A 141, stirred-tank bioreactor was used to investigate the effect of 7% glucose solutions on CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS suspension cultures. Measurement of oxygen uptake rate indicated that alkaloid accumulation occurred primarily during a 20-day transition period between growth-oriented metabolism and maintenance-oriented metabolism. Exposure of the cells to light during this period stimulated catharanthine accumulation and triggered a switch from ajmalicine accumulation to serpentine accumulation. In addition, it suppressed the secretion of both ajmalicine and serpentine; without light nearly 80% of the ajmalicine and serpentine was found in the medium, whereas with light less than 20% was secreted. Alkaloid accumulation was found to be adversely affected by increasing the volume of inoculum culture transferred to a given volume of fresh glucose solution, apparently due to the entry of 2,4-D with the inoculum. PMID:17269046

  11. 7 CFR 247.16 - Certification period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.16 Certification period. (a... final day of the month in which eligibility expires (e.g., the last day of the month in which a child... discrimination by race, color, national origin, age, sex, or disability. (Approved by the Office of...

  12. 7 CFR 247.16 - Certification period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.16 Certification period. (a... final day of the month in which eligibility expires (e.g., the last day of the month in which a child... discrimination by race, color, national origin, age, sex, or disability. (Approved by the Office of...

  13. 7 CFR 247.16 - Certification period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.16 Certification period. (a... final day of the month in which eligibility expires (e.g., the last day of the month in which a child... discrimination by race, color, national origin, age, sex, or disability. (Approved by the Office of...

  14. Traditional healing with animals (zootherapy): medieval to present-day Levantine practice.

    PubMed

    Lev, Efraim

    2003-03-01

    Animals and products derived from different organs of their bodies have constituted part of the inventory of medicinal substances used in various cultures since ancient times. This article reviews the history of healing with animals in the Levant (the Land of Israel and parts of present-day Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan, defined by the Muslims in the Middle Ages as Bilad al-Sham) throughout history. Intensive research into the phenomenon of zootherapy in the Levant from early medieval to present-day traditional medicine yielded 99 substances of animal origin which were used medicinally during that long period. Fifty-two animal extracts and products were documented as being used from the early Muslim period (10th century) to the late Ottoman period (19th century). Seventy-seven were recorded as being used in the 20th century. Seven main animal sources have been exploited for medical uses throughout history: honey, wax, adder, beaver testicles, musk oil, coral, and ambergris. The first three are local and relatively easy to obtain; the last four are exotic, therefore, rare and expensive. The use of other materials of animal origin came to an end in the course of history because of change in the moral outlook of modern societies. Among the latter we note mummy, silkworm, stinkbug, scarabees, snail, scorpion, and triton. PMID:12576209

  15. Beyond Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Daniel D.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the lack of literature relating to cultural differences and school library media programs and reviews the book "Beyond Culture" by Edward T. Hall. Highlights include the population/environment crisis, cultural literacy, the use of technology, and Marshall McLuhan's idea of the global village. (LRW)

  16. Teaching Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magrath, Douglas R.

    The study of a foreign language is the study of another culture. Cultural involvement begins as learners progress from grammar to the actual use of language. Culture includes the ideas, customs, skills, arts, and tools of a people and influences both cognitive and affective behavior. It should be introduced as part of the total language…

  17. Use of an automated blood culture system (BD BACTEC™) for diagnosis of prosthetic joint infections: easy and fast

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background For the diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) automated BACTEC™ blood culture bottle methods have comparable sensitivity, specificity and a shorter time to positivity than traditional cooked meat enrichment broth methods. We evaluate the culture incubation period required to maximise sensitivity and specificity of microbiological diagnosis, and the ability of BACTEC™ to detect slow growing Propionibacteria spp. Methods Multiple periprosthetic tissue samples taken by a standardised method from 332 patients undergoing prosthetic joint revision arthroplasty were cultured for 14 days, using a BD BACTEC™ instrumented blood culture system, in a prospective study from 1st January to 31st August 2012. The “gold standard” definition for PJI was the presence of at least one histological criterion, the presence of a sinus tract or purulence around the device. Cases where > =2 samples yielded indistinguishable isolates were considered culture-positive. 1000 BACTEC™ bottle cultures which were negative after 14 days incubation were sub-cultured for Propionibacteria spp. Results 79 patients fulfilled the definition for PJI, and 66 of these were culture-positive. All but 1 of these 66 culture-positive cases of PJI were detected within 3 days of incubation. Only one additional (clinically-insignificant) Propionibacterium spp. was identified on terminal subculture of 1000 bottles. Conclusions Prolonged microbiological culture for 2 weeks is unnecessary when using BACTEC™ culture methods. The majority of clinically significant organisms grow within 3 days, and Propionibacteria spp. are identified without the need for terminal subculture. These findings should facilitate earlier decisions on final antimicrobial prescribing. PMID:24885168

  18. Hydrology days chips away at “Culture” barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel-Seytoux, Hubert J.

    John Walton once said, upon embarking on a study of how Los Angeles took water away from Owens Valley, “Community only became a reality when economic and political rights were fought for and partially gained.” He called culture “the system of meanings that people construct in social life and use to guide their action.” Walton's words are true of hydrologists: hydrologists have fought to become a community, but we do not yet have a productive culture. Creating such a culture is what the Hydrology Days meeting is all about.

  19. Cultural practices updates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultural practice updates from 2013 included the effects of shredding in spring, residue management, periodic flooding, no-till fertilizer applications, and billet planting on cane tonnage and sugar yield. Shredding, whether high or low, had little impacts in 2013. However, burning following shreddi...

  20. The ocean sampling day consortium.

    PubMed

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo; Schnetzer, Julia; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Lehmann, Katja; Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio; Jeanthon, Christian; Rahav, Eyal; Ullrich, Matthias; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar; Polymenakou, Paraskevi; Kotoulas, Giorgos; Siam, Rania; Abdallah, Rehab Z; Sonnenschein, Eva C; Cariou, Thierry; O'Gara, Fergal; Jackson, Stephen; Orlic, Sandi; Steinke, Michael; Busch, Julia; Duarte, Bernardo; Caçador, Isabel; Canning-Clode, João; Bobrova, Oleksandra; Marteinsson, Viggo; Reynisson, Eyjolfur; Loureiro, Clara Magalhães; Luna, Gian Marco; Quero, Grazia Marina; Löscher, Carolin R; Kremp, Anke; DeLorenzo, Marie E; Øvreås, Lise; Tolman, Jennifer; LaRoche, Julie; Penna, Antonella; Frischer, Marc; Davis, Timothy; Katherine, Barker; Meyer, Christopher P; Ramos, Sandra; Magalhães, Catarina; Jude-Lemeilleur, Florence; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Wang, Shiao; Poulton, Nicole; Jones, Scott; Collin, Rachel; Fuhrman, Jed A; Conan, Pascal; Alonso, Cecilia; Stambler, Noga; Goodwin, Kelly; Yakimov, Michael M; Baltar, Federico; Bodrossy, Levente; Van De Kamp, Jodie; Frampton, Dion Mf; Ostrowski, Martin; Van Ruth, Paul; Malthouse, Paul; Claus, Simon; Deneudt, Klaas; Mortelmans, Jonas; Pitois, Sophie; Wallom, David; Salter, Ian; Costa, Rodrigo; Schroeder, Declan C; Kandil, Mahrous M; Amaral, Valentina; Biancalana, Florencia; Santana, Rafael; Pedrotti, Maria Luiza; Yoshida, Takashi; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ingleton, Tim; Munnik, Kate; Rodriguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Berteaux-Lecellier, Veronique; Wecker, Patricia; Cancio, Ibon; Vaulot, Daniel; Bienhold, Christina; Ghazal, Hassan; Chaouni, Bouchra; Essayeh, Soumya; Ettamimi, Sara; Zaid, El Houcine; Boukhatem, Noureddine; Bouali, Abderrahim; Chahboune, Rajaa; Barrijal, Said; Timinouni, Mohammed; El Otmani, Fatima; Bennani, Mohamed; Mea, Marianna; Todorova, Nadezhda; Karamfilov, Ventzislav; Ten Hoopen, Petra; Cochrane, Guy; L'Haridon, Stephane; Bizsel, Kemal Can; Vezzi, Alessandro; Lauro, Federico M; Martin, Patrick; Jensen, Rachelle M; Hinks, Jamie; Gebbels, Susan; Rosselli, Riccardo; De Pascale, Fabio; Schiavon, Riccardo; Dos Santos, Antonina; Villar, Emilie; Pesant, Stéphane; Cataletto, Bruno; Malfatti, Francesca; Edirisinghe, Ranjith; Silveira, Jorge A Herrera; Barbier, Michele; Turk, Valentina; Tinta, Tinkara; Fuller, Wayne J; Salihoglu, Ilkay; Serakinci, Nedime; Ergoren, Mahmut Cerkez; Bresnan, Eileen; Iriberri, Juan; Nyhus, Paul Anders Fronth; Bente, Edvardsen; Karlsen, Hans Erik; Golyshin, Peter N; Gasol, Josep M; Moncheva, Snejana; Dzhembekova, Nina; Johnson, Zackary; Sinigalliano, Christopher David; Gidley, Maribeth Louise; Zingone, Adriana; Danovaro, Roberto; Tsiamis, George; Clark, Melody S; Costa, Ana Cristina; El Bour, Monia; Martins, Ana M; Collins, R Eric; Ducluzeau, Anne-Lise; Martinez, Jonathan; Costello, Mark J; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A; Gilbert, Jack A; Davies, Neil; Field, Dawn; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world's oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and their embedded functional traits. PMID:26097697

  1. The ocean sampling day consortium.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Kopf A; Bicak M; Kottmann R; Schnetzer J; Kostadinov I; Lehmann K; Fernandez-Guerra A; Jeanthon C; Rahav E; Ullrich M; Wichels A; Gerdts G; Polymenakou P; Kotoulas G; Siam R; Abdallah RZ; Sonnenschein EC; Cariou T; O'Gara F; Jackson S; Orlic S; Steinke M; Busch J; Duarte B; Caçador I; Canning-Clode J; Bobrova O; Marteinsson V; Reynisson E; Loureiro CM; Luna GM; Quero GM; Löscher CR; Kremp A; DeLorenzo ME; Øvreås L; Tolman J; LaRoche J; Penna A; Frischer M; Davis T; Katherine B; Meyer CP; Ramos S; Magalhães C; Jude-Lemeilleur F; Aguirre-Macedo ML; Wang S; Poulton N; Jones S; Collin R; Fuhrman JA; Conan P; Alonso C; Stambler N; Goodwin K; Yakimov MM; Baltar F; Bodrossy L; Van De Kamp J; Frampton DM; Ostrowski M; Van Ruth P; Malthouse P; Claus S; Deneudt K; Mortelmans J; Pitois S; Wallom D; Salter I; Costa R; Schroeder DC; Kandil MM; Amaral V; Biancalana F; Santana R; Pedrotti ML; Yoshida T; Ogata H; Ingleton T; Munnik K; Rodriguez-Ezpeleta N; Berteaux-Lecellier V; Wecker P; Cancio I; Vaulot D; Bienhold C; Ghazal H; Chaouni B; Essayeh S; Ettamimi S; Zaid el H; Boukhatem N; Bouali A; Chahboune R; Barrijal S; Timinouni M; El Otmani F; Bennani M; Mea M; Todorova N; Karamfilov V; Ten Hoopen P; Cochrane G; L'Haridon S; Bizsel KC; Vezzi A; Lauro FM; Martin P; Jensen RM; Hinks J; Gebbels S; Rosselli R; De Pascale F; Schiavon R; Dos Santos A; Villar E; Pesant S; Cataletto B; Malfatti F; Edirisinghe R; Silveira JA; Barbier M; Turk V; Tinta T; Fuller WJ; Salihoglu I; Serakinci N; Ergoren MC; Bresnan E; Iriberri J; Nyhus PA; Bente E; Karlsen HE; Golyshin PN; Gasol JM; Moncheva S; Dzhembekova N; Johnson Z; Sinigalliano CD; Gidley ML; Zingone A; Danovaro R; Tsiamis G; Clark MS; Costa AC; El Bour M; Martins AM; Collins RE; Ducluzeau AL; Martinez J; Costello MJ; Amaral-Zettler LA; Gilbert JA; Davies N; Field D; Glöckner FO

    2015-01-01

    Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world's oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and their embedded functional traits.

  2. The Ocean Sampling Day Consortium

    SciTech Connect

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo; Schnetzer, Julia; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Lehmann, Katja; Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio; Jeanthon, Christian; Rahav, Eyal; Ullrich, Matthias; Wichels, Antje; Gerdts, Gunnar; Polymenakou, Paraskevi; Kotoulas, Giorgos; Siam, Rania; Abdallah, Rehab Z.; Sonnenschein, Eva C.; Cariou, Thierry; O’Gara, Fergal; Jackson, Stephen; Orlic, Sandi; Steinke, Michael; Busch, Julia; Duarte, Bernardo; Caçador, Isabel; Canning-Clode, João; Bobrova, Oleksandra; Marteinsson, Viggo; Reynisson, Eyjolfur; Loureiro, Clara Magalhães; Luna, Gian Marco; Quero, Grazia Marina; Löscher, Carolin R.; Kremp, Anke; DeLorenzo, Marie E.; Øvreås, Lise; Tolman, Jennifer; LaRoche, Julie; Penna, Antonella; Frischer, Marc; Davis, Timothy; Katherine, Barker; Meyer, Christopher P.; Ramos, Sandra; Magalhães, Catarina; Jude-Lemeilleur, Florence; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Wang, Shiao; Poulton, Nicole; Jones, Scott; Collin, Rachel; Fuhrman, Jed A.; Conan, Pascal; Alonso, Cecilia; Stambler, Noga; Goodwin, Kelly; Yakimov, Michael M.; Baltar, Federico; Bodrossy, Levente; Van De Kamp, Jodie; Frampton, Dion M. F.; Ostrowski, Martin; Van Ruth, Paul; Malthouse, Paul; Claus, Simon; Deneudt, Klaas; Mortelmans, Jonas; Pitois, Sophie; Wallom, David; Salter, Ian; Costa, Rodrigo; Schroeder, Declan C.; Kandil, Mahrous M.; Amaral, Valentina; Biancalana, Florencia; Santana, Rafael; Pedrotti, Maria Luiza; Yoshida, Takashi; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Ingleton, Tim; Munnik, Kate; Rodriguez-Ezpeleta, Naiara; Berteaux-Lecellier, Veronique; Wecker, Patricia; Cancio, Ibon; Vaulot, Daniel; Bienhold, Christina; Ghazal, Hassan; Chaouni, Bouchra; Essayeh, Soumya; Ettamimi, Sara; Zaid, El Houcine; Boukhatem, Noureddine; Bouali, Abderrahim; Chahboune, Rajaa; Barrijal, Said; Timinouni, Mohammed; El Otmani, Fatima; Bennani, Mohamed; Mea, Marianna; Todorova, Nadezhda; Karamfilov, Ventzislav; ten Hoopen, Petra; Cochrane, Guy; L’Haridon, Stephane; Bizsel, Kemal Can; Vezzi, Alessandro; Lauro, Federico M.; Martin, Patrick; Jensen, Rachelle M.; Hinks, Jamie; Gebbels, Susan; Rosselli, Riccardo; De Pascale, Fabio; Schiavon, Riccardo; dos Santos, Antonina; Villar, Emilie; Pesant, Stéphane; Cataletto, Bruno; Malfatti, Francesca; Edirisinghe, Ranjith; Silveira, Jorge A. Herrera; Barbier, Michele; Turk, Valentina; Tinta, Tinkara; Fuller, Wayne J.; Salihoglu, Ilkay; Serakinci, Nedime; Ergoren, Mahmut Cerkez; Bresnan, Eileen; Iriberri, Juan; Nyhus, Paul Anders Fronth; Bente, Edvardsen; Karlsen, Hans Erik; Golyshin, Peter N.; Gasol, Josep M.; Moncheva, Snejana; Dzhembekova, Nina; Johnson, Zackary; Sinigalliano, Christopher David; Gidley, Maribeth Louise; Zingone, Adriana; Danovaro, Roberto; Tsiamis, George; Clark, Melody S.; Costa, Ana Cristina; El Bour, Monia; Martins, Ana M.; Collins, R. Eric; Ducluzeau, Anne-Lise; Martinez, Jonathan; Costello, Mark J.; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A.; Gilbert, Jack A.; Davies, Neil; Field, Dawn; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2015-06-19

    In this study, Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world’s oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and their embedded functional traits.

  3. A comparison study on airborne particles during haze days and non-haze days in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhenquan; Mu, Yujing; Liu, Yanju; Shao, Longyi

    2013-07-01

    Airborne particles in Beijing during haze days and non-haze days were collected by an eleven-stage cascade impactor (MOUDI 110, MSP, USA), and the mass concentrations and water soluble inorganic ions of the size segregated airborne particles were quantitatively analyzed. PM10 concentrations during haze days ranged from 250.5 to 519.4 μgm(-3) which were about 3-8 times greater than those (ranged from 67.6 to 94.0 μgm(-3)) during non-haze days, and PM1.8 concentrations during haze periods were in the range of 117.6-378.6 μgm(-3) which were 3-14 times higher than those (27.0 to 36.8 μgm(-3)) during non-haze days. In comparison with non-haze days, all water soluble inorganic ions investigated in the airborne particles greatly enhanced during haze days. NH₄(+), NO₃(-) and SO₄(2-) were found to be the dominant water soluble inorganic ions, accounting for 91-95% of the total inorganic ions in PM1.8 during haze days, and 73-81% during non-haze days. The size distributions of SO₄(2-), NO₃(-), Cl(-), K(+) and Na(+) exhibited bimodal types, while single mode was found for NH₄(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). Only with exception of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), all ions were concentrated in fine particles around 0.56-1.0 μm of "droplet mode" during haze days, while 0.32-0.56 μm of "condensation mode" during non-haze days. The extremely high mole ratio (>2) of [NH4(+)]/[SO₄(2-)] during haze days implied that the main form of ammonium in PM1.8 might be (NH4)₂SO₄ and NH₄NO₃. The mass ratio of NO₃(-)/SO₄(2-) was >1 in PM1.8 during haze days and ~1 during non-haze days, indicating that NOx from the vehicle exhaust in Beijing is playing more and more important role on fine particle formation. PMID:23583755

  4. 7 CFR 1.417 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... days after the comment period, pursuant to 36 CFR 233.190(h)(2). The request must be postmarked no... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Review period. 1.417 Section 1.417 Agriculture Office... of Sourcing Area Applications and Formal Review of Sourcing Areas Pursuant to the Forest...

  5. 7 CFR 1.417 - Review period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... days after the comment period, pursuant to 36 CFR 233.190(h)(2). The request must be postmarked no... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review period. 1.417 Section 1.417 Agriculture Office... of Sourcing Area Applications and Formal Review of Sourcing Areas Pursuant to the Forest...

  6. 39 CFR 121.2 - Periodicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standard Mail flats and Periodicals flats are subject to the service standards applicable to Standard Mail... UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE POST OFFICE SERVICES SERVICE STANDARDS FOR MARKET-DOMINANT MAIL PRODUCTS..., and 999. (2) The Periodicals service standard is the sum of the applicable (1-to-3-day)...

  7. 3D Hepatic Cultures Simultaneously Maintain Primary Hepatocyte and Liver Sinusoidal Endothelial Cell Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeonhee; Rajagopalan, Padmavathy

    2010-01-01

    Developing in vitro engineered hepatic tissues that exhibit stable phenotype is a major challenge in the field of hepatic tissue engineering. However, the rapid dedifferentiation of hepatic parenchymal (hepatocytes) and non-parenchymal (liver sinusoidal endothelial, LSEC) cell types when removed from their natural environment in vivo remains a major obstacle. The primary goal of this study was to demonstrate that hepatic cells cultured in layered architectures could preserve or potentially enhance liver-specific behavior of both cell types. Primary rat hepatocytes and rat LSECs (rLSECs) were cultured in a layered three-dimensional (3D) configuration. The cell layers were separated by a chitosan-hyaluronic acid polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM), which served to mimic the Space of Disse. Hepatocytes and rLSECs exhibited several key phenotypic characteristics over a twelve day culture period. Immunostaining for the sinusoidal endothelial 1 antibody (SE-1) demonstrated that rLSECs cultured in the 3D hepatic model maintained this unique feature over twelve days. In contrast, rLSECs cultured in monolayers lost their phenotype within three days. The unique stratified structure of the 3D culture resulted in enhanced heterotypic cell-cell interactions, which led to improvements in hepatocyte functions. Albumin production increased three to six fold in the rLSEC-PEM-Hepatocyte cultures. Only rLSEC-PEM-Hepatocyte cultures exhibited increasing CYP1A1/2 and CYP3A activity. Well-defined bile canaliculi were observed only in the rLSEC-PEM-Hepatocyte cultures. Together, these data suggest that rLSEC-PEM-Hepatocyte cultures are highly suitable models to monitor the transformation of toxins in the liver and their transport out of this organ. In summary, these results indicate that the layered rLSEC-PEM-hepatocyte model, which recapitulates key features of hepatic sinusoids, is a potentially powerful medium for obtaining comprehensive knowledge on liver metabolism, detoxification and signaling pathways in vitro. PMID:21103392

  8. Calculation of day and night emittance values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, Anne B.

    1986-01-01

    In July 1983, the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) was flown over Death Valley, California on both a midday and predawn flight within a two-day period. The availability of calibrated digital data permitted the calculation of day and night surface temperature and surface spectral emittance. Image processing of the data included panorama correction and calibration to radiance using the on-board black bodies and the measured spectral response of each channel. Scene-dependent isolated-point noise due to bit drops, was located by its relatively discontinuous values and replaced by the average of the surrounding data values. A method was developed in order to separate the spectral and temperature information contained in the TIMS data. Night and day data sets were processed. The TIMS is unique in allowing collection of both spectral emittance and thermal information in digital format with the same airborne scanner. For the first time it was possible to produce day and night emittance images of the same area, coregistered. These data add to an understanding of the physical basis for the discrimination of difference in surface materials afforded by TIMS.

  9. New Swedish Cultural Environment Protection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs, Stockholm (Sweden).

    Current Swedish cultural policy was laid down in 1974. It was decided that one of the aims of that policy must be to ensure that earlier periods of history would be preserved and brought to life. The Government Bill (Prop. 1987/88:104) on protection of the cultural environment is concerned with helping the general public understand that cultural…

  10. Periodic exploding dissipative solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartes, Carlos; Descalzi, Orazio

    2016-03-01

    We show the existence of periodic exploding dissipative solitons. These nonchaotic explosions appear when higher-order nonlinear and dispersive effects are added to the complex cubic-quintic Ginzburg-Landau equation modeling fiber soliton lasers. This counterintuitive phenomenon is the result of period-halving bifurcations leading to order (periodic explosions), followed by period-doubling bifurcations leading to chaos (chaotic explosions).

  11. Degradation of Ti-6Al-4V alloy under cyclic loading in a simulated body environment with cell culturing.

    PubMed

    Doi, Kotaro; Miyabe, Sayaka; Tsuchiya, Hiroaki; Fujimoto, Shinji

    2016-03-01

    The present study reports the corrosion fatigue of the Ti-6Al-4V alloy using cyclic deformation test in a simulated body fluid under cell culturing for the first time. Cyclic deformation tests were carried out using three types of specimens to reveal the effects of proteins and cells on the corrosion fatigue of the alloy. For the 1-day-immersed and 1-week-immersed specimens, tensile specimens were soaked in a simulated body fluid for 1 day and 1 week, respectively, before cyclic deformation test, whereas for the cell-cultured specimen, MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells were seeded and then cultured on tensile specimens for 1 week. The incubation period for crack initiation was longer for the cell-cultured and 1-week-immersed specimens compared to that for the 1-day-immersed specimen. On the other hand, crack propagation period for the cell-cultured and 1-week-immersed specimens was shorter than that for the 1-day-immersed specimen. These results indicate that proteins and cells adhered on the alloy surface inhibit metal dissolution at newly created surface emerged by cyclic deformation to suppress crack initiation, whereas they accelerate crack propagation because dissolution at crack tip is accelerated in the occluded space formed under proteins and cells. PMID:26651063

  12. A 90-day subchronic toxicological assessment of Antrodia cinnamomea in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tai-I; Chen, Chin-Chu; Lin, Ting-Wei; Tsai, Yueh-Ting; Nam, Mun-Kit

    2011-02-01

    Antrodia cinnamomea (Ac) is a medicinal mushroom widely used for the treatment of abdominal pain, hypertension and hepatocellular carcinoma, but subchronic toxicity of this material has not yet been investigated. This present study was conducted to assess the 90-day oral toxicity of A. cinnamomea from submerged culture in male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Eighty rats were divided into four groups, each consisting of ten male and ten female rats. Test articles were administered by oral gavage to rats at 3000, 2200 and 1500 mg/kg BW/day for 90 consecutive days and reverse osmosis water was used as control. All animals survived to the end of the study. During the experiment period, no abnormal changes were observed in clinical signs, body weight and ophthalmological examinations. No significant differences were found in urinalysis, hematology and serum biochemistry parameters between the treatment and control groups. Necropsy and histopathological examination indicated no treatment-related changes. According to the above results, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of Antrodia cinnamomea is identified to be greater than 3000 mg/kg BW/day in Sprague-Dawley rats. PMID:21093523

  13. Postnatal care: a cross-cultural and historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Eberhard-Gran, Malin; Garthus-Niegel, Susan; Garthus-Niegel, Kristian; Eskild, Anne

    2010-12-01

    Childbirth and the immediate postpartum period represent a major transition in a woman's life. This period is considered a vulnerable time for the mother and child in most societies, and rituals for this transition are common. In this study, we present some examples of postpartum customs in a cross-cultural and historical perspective. Also, we present the current knowledge on the possible impact of postnatal care on mental health. Systematic literature searches were performed in Medline, PsycINFO, and the Science Citation Index Expanded (ISI) for the time period 1966 through May 2010. Reference lists in books on pregnancy and childbirth from the University Library in Oslo were used to obtain additional information. We found that the postnatal period seems to be universally defined as 40 days. Most cultures have special postnatal customs, including special diet, isolation, rest, and assistance for the mother. The uniformity of customs across different cultures is striking. However, many postnatal customs that were common before 1950 are no longer existent. The focus on rest and assistance for the mother after delivery has gradually decreased. Studies of associations of postnatal care and mental health in the mother are limited and show inconsistent results. More knowledge is needed on postnatal care and mental health. PMID:20680363

  14. Career Day - Duration: 62 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's 2013 Career Days was a joint collaboration between NASA Langley and the Newport News Shipbuilding where 600 high school students from Virginia took on two design challenges -- designing a ca...

  15. Earth Day Illustrated Haiku Contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-02-01

    As part of their 2007 Chemists Celebrate Earth Day Celebration, the American Chemical Society is sponsoring an illustrated haiku contest for students in grades K 12 around the theme, Recycling—Chemistry Can!

  16. Specimen Sample Preservation for Cell and Tissue Cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeker, Gabrielle; Ronzana, Karolyn; Schibner, Karen; Evans, Robert

    1996-01-01

    The era of the International Space Station with its longer duration missions will pose unique challenges to microgravity life sciences research. The Space Station Biological Research Project (SSBRP) is responsible for addressing these challenges and defining the science requirements necessary to conduct life science research on-board the International Space Station. Space Station will support a wide range of cell and tissue culture experiments for durations of 1 to 30 days. Space Shuttle flights to bring experimental samples back to Earth for analyses will only occur every 90 days. Therefore, samples may have to be retained for periods up to 60 days. This presents a new challenge in fresh specimen sample storage for cell biology. Fresh specimen samples are defined as samples that are preserved by means other than fixation and cryopreservation. The challenge of long-term storage of fresh specimen samples includes the need to suspend or inhibit proliferation and metabolism pending return to Earth-based laboratories. With this challenge being unique to space research, there have not been any ground based studies performed to address this issue. It was decided hy SSBRP that experiment support studies to address the following issues were needed: Fixative Solution Management; Media Storage Conditions; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Mammalian Cell/Tissue Cultures; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Plant Cell/Tissue Cultures; Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Aquatic Cell/Tissue Cultures; and Fresh Specimen Sample Storage of Microbial Cell/Tissue Cultures. The objective of these studies was to derive a set of conditions and recommendations that can be used in a long duration microgravity environment such as Space Station that will permit extended storage of cell and tissue culture specimens in a state consistent with zero or minimal growth, while at the same time maintaining their stability and viability.

  17. Are you ready for that rainy day?

    PubMed

    O'Connor, John

    2009-01-01

    When taking out income protection, always insist that the company providing it will cover you for your 'own' occupation and not just 'any' occupation or a 'suited' one. Be aware of the deferred period or 'waiting time' and try and get some 'Day 1' in place. The younger a dentist decides to take out income protection, the better. Not only will they secure cover at a reasonable price now, but they will also be able to maintain it for their whole career. PMID:19301524

  18. Trends in same-day bilateral total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Poultsides, Lazaros A; Rasouli, Mohammad R; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Parvizi, Javad; Memtsoudis, Stavros G; Sculco, Thomas P

    2014-09-01

    Between 2000 and 2009 demographics, comorbidity, complications, and 30-day mortality following same-day BTKA (SBTKA) in two high-volume institutions were obtained. Two 5-year periods were created to facilitate trend analysis. The percentage of SBTKA decreased by 36.2% in the latter period. A decline in mean age reflected mainly by a 50% decrease in patients >75 years was observed. The average LOS decreased (5.7 vs. 4.5 days). Overall, selected patients were healthier in the second period. The prevalence of CAD and obesity decreased, whereas hypercholesteremia increased. The overall complication rate decreased by 55.5%; reduction in cardiac adverse events and acute posthemorrhagic anemia was observed. The rate of PE and 30-day mortality was unchanged with time. A need for more selective preoperative screening for potential candidates of SBTKAs is indicated. PMID:24848780

  19. A Day at the Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubel, Joy Alter

    2009-01-01

    The school field trip, once a supporting player in a well-rounded education, is slowly becoming endangered. Widespread budget cuts have made happily anticipated class trips to museums, zoos, and other cultural destinations increasingly scarce. A librarian may be able to rescue the field trip from extinction by transforming the school building into…

  20. A Day at the Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubel, Joy Alter

    2009-01-01

    The school field trip, once a supporting player in a well-rounded education, is slowly becoming endangered. Widespread budget cuts have made happily anticipated class trips to museums, zoos, and other cultural destinations increasingly scarce. A librarian may be able to rescue the field trip from extinction by transforming the school building into

  1. Antarctica Day: An International Celebration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, A.; Hambrook Berkman, J.; Berkman, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    For more than half a century, the 1959 Antarctic Treaty continues to shine as a rare beacon of international cooperation. To celebrate this milestone of peace in our civilization with hope and inspiration for future generations, Antarctica Day is celebrated each year on December 1st , the anniversary of the Antarctic Treaty signing. As an annual event - initiated by the Foundation for the Good Governance of International Spaces (www.internationalspaces.org/) in collaboration with the Association of Polar Early Carer Scientists (www.apecs.is) - Antarctica Day encourages participation from around the world. The Antarctic Treaty set aside 10% of the earth, 'forever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes in the interest of mankind.' It was the first nuclear arms agreement and the first institution to govern all human activities in an international region beyond sovereign jurisdictions. In this spirit, Antarctica Day aims to: - Demonstrate how diverse nations can work together peacefully, using science as a global language of cooperation for decision making beyond national boundaries, - Provide strategies for students learning about Antarctica through art, science and history at all school levels, - Increase collaboration and communication between classrooms, communities, researchers and government officials around the world, and - Provide a focus for polar educators to build on each year. Through close collaboration with a number of partners. Antarctica Day activities have included: a Polar Film Festival convened by The Explorers Club; live sessions connecting classrooms with scientists in Antarctica thanks to PolarTREC and ARCUS; an international activity that involved children from 13 countries who created over 600 flags which exemplify Antarctica Day (these were actually flown in Antarctica with signed certificates then returned to the classes); a map where Antarctica Day participants all over the world could share what they were doing; an Antarctic bird count involving the International Association of Antarctic Tour Operators; and public lectures and online videos (including a notable submission from Polar Educators International). Antarctica Day was initiated as a legacy of the 2009 Antarctic Treaty Summit (www.atsumit50.aq), which was convened at the Smithsonian Institution with 40 sponsoring institutions from around the world as part of the International Polar Year. Antarctic Day involved participants from 14 nations in 2010. 28 nations in 2011, and 26 nations in 2012 with representatives from all 7 continents. Antarctica Day 2013 will have recently taken place before the AGU Fall Meeting 2013, and we will present updates at that time. Our aim is to continue expanding Antarctica Day as a globally-accessible platform to share, interpret and cherish the values associated with Antarctica for the benefit of present and future generations. We look forward to the discussion and sharing that this session will provide.

  2. Giving Thanks: Observing Thanksgiving, Kwanzaa, and Day of the Dead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dever, Martha T.; Barta, James J.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a primary-grade curriculum unit organized around the theme of "giving thanks" and encompassing the holidays of Thanksgiving, Kwanzaa, and Day of the Dead. Provides historical background and cultural context for each holiday, engagement activities, investigation activities, sharing activities, and a short list of related children's…

  3. In the Schools: California Treat: Three Days in Five Ecosystems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigby, Jennifer A.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a 3-day program sponsored by the Orange County Marine Institute that provides biological, cultural, and historical learning experiences. Discusses the setting and activities of the five ecosystems explored by the students. The Chaparral to Ocean Science Camp includes chaparral, riparian, woodland, intertidal, and pelagic environments.…

  4. The Wounded Bear: A Modern Day Medicine Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagleheart, Shianne

    2002-01-01

    In Native American culture, medicine stories are used to teach important lessons that have healing effects on the listener. Following is an excerpt from "The Wounded Bear", a modern day medicine story. The story offers a blueprint for healing the heartbreak and violence in our communities. (Author)

  5. Starting a Day Care Center: The Day Care Center Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Checkett, Donald

    Designed to be of help to individuals and groups seeking to establish a day care center in the metropolitan St. Louis area, this manual calls attention to important and basic information which must be taken into account if planning is to produce tangible results. Following a brief section defining commonly used terms referring to organized…

  6. Skin or nail culture

    MedlinePlus

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  7. Effect of youth culture music on high school students' academic performance.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, J C; Collins, B R

    1975-03-01

    This study investigated the assumption that youth culture orientation adversely affects school performance, using rock music as the youth culture component. Adolescents in grades 9-12 were assigned to a subject matter topic in the area of literature, mathematics, physical science, or social science and requested to study this topic intensely for 30 min in a music condition consisting of rock, classical, or no music. The subjects then were tested on their retention of the factual content of the article either immediately after the study period, 1 day later, or 3 days later. Retention was significantly lower in the rock music condition. Students recalled more content in the literature topic and in the immediate test. The results are discussed with reference to a social learning theory interpretation of youth culture. PMID:24414436

  8. The day-to-day occurrence of equatorial plasma bubbles measured from Vanimo, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, B. A.; Yizengaw, E.; Francis, M.; Terkildsen, M. B.; Marshall, R. A.; Norman, R.; Zhang, K.

    2013-12-01

    An analysis of the occurrence of Equatorial Plasma Bubbles (EPBs) detected using a ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver located at Vanimo in South-east Asia will be presented. The 3-year (2000-2002) dataset employed shows that the EPB occurrence maximizes (minimizes) during the equinoxes (solstices), in good agreement with previous findings. The low-latitude ionosonde station at Vanimo is used in conjunction with the GPS receiver in an analysis of the day-to-day EPB occurrence variability during the equinox period. A superposed epoch analysis of the ionosonde data reveals that the height, and the change in height, of the F layer is 1 standard deviation (1σ) larger on the days for which EPBs were detected, compared to non-EPB days. These results are interpreted using the generalized Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) plasma instability growth rate, for which stronger upward drift of the lower-altitude F-layer plasma promotes faster growth of EPBs after sunset. These results are then compared to the results of the Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamic General Circulation Model (TIEGCM), which surprisingly show strong similarities to the observations, despite only using geomagnetic and solar activity inputs. The TIEGCM is also used to directly calculate the hourly flux-tube integrated R-T growth rate. A superposed epoch analysis reveals that the modeled R-T growth rate is a little less than 1σ higher on average for EPB days compared to non-EPB days. The implication of this result is that the TIEGCM generates almost enough day-to-day variability in order to account for the day-to-day EPB occurrence observed during the equinox. This result isn't necessarily expected due to the model's limited altitude coverage of 100-700 km (depending on solar activity) and the lack of ionospheric observation inputs. It is thought that the remaining variability could originate from either lower altitudes (e.g. atmospheric gravity waves from the troposphere) or from higher altitudes (resulting from coupling with the magnetosphere and solar wind), or potentially both. It is concluded that the continuing advancement of numerical modeling of the thermosphere and ionosphere, coupled with altitudes above and below, is required to better understand the day-to-day EPB occurrence.

  9. The moon-day project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchal, C.

    1982-07-01

    With the development of Astronautics very large projects become possible. The Moon-Day project comes from a simple idea: 2000 km 2 of mirrors on the Moon reflecting the solar light toward the Earth will make it possible to turn off street lighting during the Moon nights. With more mirrors it is even possible to produce a "moon-day" similar to the light at sunrise or sunset, that will be a great improvement on the quality of life, especially in tropical and equatorial countries where people, and above all farmers, will have the possibility to work during the cool night hours instead of the exhausting day hours. Comparison with mirrors on a geostationary orbit shows the many advantages of the mirrors on the Moon.

  10. The Ocean Sampling Day Consortium

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo; Schnetzer, Julia; Kostadinov, Ivaylo; Lehmann, Katja; Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio; Jeanthon, Christian; Rahav, Eyal; Ullrich, Matthias; et al

    2015-06-19

    In this study, Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world’s oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our vision for a sustainable study of marine microbial communities and theirmore » embedded functional traits.« less

  11. In vitro culture of Keratinocytes from human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells: the Saigonese culture.

    PubMed

    Tran, Cong Toai; Huynh, Duy Thao; Gargiulo, Ciro; Nguyen, Phuong Thao; Tran, Thi Thanh Thuy; Huynh, Minh Tuan; Nguyen, Thanh Tung; Filgueira, Luis; Strong, D Micheal

    2011-05-01

    There have been many attempts to acquire and culture human keratinocytes for clinical purposes including from keratotome slices in media with fetal calf serum (FCS) or pituitary extract (PE), from skin specimens in media with feeder layers, from suction blister epidermal roofs' in serum-free culture and from human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in media with skin feeder layers. Conversely this study was designed to investigate whether keratinocytes could be obtained directly from hUCB MSCs in vitro. It is widely established that mesenchymal stem cells from human umbilical cord blood have multipotent capacity and the ability to differentiate into disparate cell lineages hUCB MSCs were directly induced to differentiate into keratinocytes by using a specific medium composed of primary culture medium (PCM) and serum free medium (SFM) in a ratio 1:9 for a period of 7 days and tested by immunostain p63 and K1-K10. Cells thus cultured were positive in both tests, confirming the possibility to directly obtain keratinocytes from MSCs hUCB in vitro. PMID:20349146

  12. Cell isolation and culture.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sihui; Kuhn, Jeffrey R

    2013-01-01

    Cell isolation and culture are essential tools for the study of cell function. Isolated cells grown under controlled conditions can be manipulated and imaged at a level of resolution that is not possible in whole animals or even tissue explants. Recent advances have allowed for large-scale isolation and culture of primary C. elegans cells from both embryos and all four larval stages. Isolated cells can be used for single-cell profiling, electrophysiology, and high-resolution microscopy to assay cell autonomous development and behavior. This chapter describes protocols for the isolation and culture of C. elegans embryonic and larval stage cells. Our protocols describe isolation of embryonic and L1 stage cells from nematodes grown on high-density NA22 bacterial plates and isolation of L2 through L4 stage cells from nematodes grown in axenic liquid culture. Both embryonic and larval cells can be isolated from nematode populations within 3 hours and can be cultured for several days. A primer on sterile cell culture techniques is given in the appendices. PMID:23430760

  13. Changing our culture.

    PubMed

    Benzil, Deborah L

    2014-05-01

    Today, a great challenge of our profession is to envision how we will deliver exemplary neurosurgical care in the future. To accomplish this requires anticipating how economic, political, and societal influences will affect our ability to provide the highest quality of patient care in an arena that will look increasingly different from today's world of medicine. Already, our profession is battling a relentless assault as numerous sectors implement change that impacts us and our community every day. Surviving this requires an effective strategy that will involve significant cultural change. To accomplish this, neurosurgery must take an honest look inward and then commit to being the agents of positive cultural change. Such a path will not be easy but should reap important benefits for all of neurosurgery and our patients. Several practical and proven strategies can help us to realize the rewards of changing our culture. Vital to this process is understanding that effecting behavioral change will increase the likelihood of achieving sustainable cultural change. Innovation and diversity are crucial to encourage and reward when trying to effect meaningful cultural change, while appreciating the power of a "Tipping Point" strategy will also reap significant benefits. As a profession, if we adopt these strategies and tactics we can lead our profession to proceed in improvement, and as individuals we can use the spirit that drove us into neurosurgery to become the agents of an enduring and meaningful cultural change that will benefit our patients and us. PMID:24559225

  14. STS-74 flight day 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    On this fourth day of the STS-74 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Kenneth Cameron, Pilot James Halsell, and Mission Specialists William McArthur, Jerry Ross, and Chris Hatfield, perform a successful docking between the space shuttle and the Mir space station using the Russian-made docking module that had been previously installed on the third day of the mission. The astronauts and the Mir 20 cosmonauts, Cmdr. Yuri Gidzenko, Flight Engineer Gergei Avdeyev, and Cosmonaut-Researcher (ESA) Thomas Reiter, are shown greeting each other from inside the docking module and an in-orbit interview between the crews and NASA is conducted in both English and Russian.

  15. STS-91 Day 08 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this eighth day of the STS-91 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Charles J. Precourt, Pilot Dominic L. Pudwill Gorie and Mission Specialists Wendy B. Lawrence, Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, Janet L. Kavandi, and Valery Victorovitch Ryumin focus on science investigations and participate in several special interviews and phone calls. Following yesterday's undocking with the Russian Mir space station, crew members are given a couple of hours off duty during the day to provide a brief rest break from the hectic pace of their flight.

  16. [Diabetes and the day hospital].

    PubMed

    Zghal, A; el Fehik, N; Bousnina, O; Daoud, I; Zghal, I; Gaigi, S

    2000-04-01

    The day hospital is a relatively new way of hospitalization in Tunisia, the first experience beginning in 1985 to the National Institute of Nutrition. This hospitalization avoid the drawbacks of classic hospitalization (dependency, discomfort, separation) and boredom and present a lot of advantages of social command, humanitarian, psychological, medical and economical the cost of hospitalization is clearly reduced). This day hospitalization is beneficial in several pathologies notably the illness nutrition and metabolic diseases (diabetes, obesity, dyslipoproteinemia, hyperuricemia), where the patients continue to have a good physical activity and where the education médico sanitary and dietary hygiéno occupies a position of choice. PMID:11026830

  17. "Every Day He Has a Dream to Tell": Classroom Literacy Curriculum in a Full-Day Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heydon, Rachel; Moffatt, Lyndsay; Iannacci, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Within an era of change to early childhood education and care, this case study of kindergarten classroom literacy curricula sought to understand the production and effects of the curriculum within one urban, Canadian full-day kindergarten that included culturally and linguistically diverse children. Central was a concern for the place of

  18. "Every Day He Has a Dream to Tell": Classroom Literacy Curriculum in a Full-Day Kindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heydon, Rachel; Moffatt, Lyndsay; Iannacci, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Within an era of change to early childhood education and care, this case study of kindergarten classroom literacy curricula sought to understand the production and effects of the curriculum within one urban, Canadian full-day kindergarten that included culturally and linguistically diverse children. Central was a concern for the place of…

  19. Hydroponics or soilless culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, H. D.

    1963-01-01

    Historically, hydroponics is not a new field; plant physiologists have known and used it for some 100 years. Inevitably, some enthusiasts got carried away.Claims were made of enormous potential yields; skyscraper tops were said to be capable of producing enough food for all of their occupants; and closets, basements, garages, etc. were wishfully converted into fields for hydroponic culture. Numerous publications on the subject appeared during this period. Basic requirements for hydropinc techniques are given along with examples of where soilless culture has been used commercially.

  20. Period meter for reactors

    DOEpatents

    Rusch, Gordon K.

    1976-01-06

    An improved log N amplifier type nuclear reactor period meter with reduced probability for noise-induced scrams is provided. With the reactor at low power levels a sampling circuit is provided to determine the reactor period by measuring the finite change in the amplitude of the log N amplifier output signal for a predetermined time period, while at high power levels, differentiation of the log N amplifier output signal provides an additional measure of the reactor period.

  1. A Comparative Study of Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profiles of Primary Hepatocytes in Collagen Sandwich and Monolayer Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeonhee; Lasher, Christopher D.; Milford, Logan M.; Murali, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    Two commonly used culture systems in hepatic tissue engineering are the collagen sandwich (CS) and monolayers of cells. In this study, genome-wide gene expression profiles of primary hepatocytes were measured over an 8-day period for each cell culture system using Affymetrix GeneChips and compared via gene set enrichment analysis to elicit biologically meaningful information at the level of gene sets. Our results demonstrate that gene expression in hepatocytes in CS cultures steadily and comprehensively diverges from that in monolayer cultures. Gene sets up-regulated in CS cultures include several associated with liver metabolic and synthesis functions, such as metabolism of lipids, amino acids, carbohydrates, and alcohol, and synthesis of bile acids. Monooxygenases such as Cytochrome-P450 enzymes do not show any change between the culture systems after 1 day, but exhibit significant up-regulation in CS cultures after 3 days in comparison to hepatocyte monolayers. These data provide insights into the up- and down-regulation of several liver-critical gene sets and their subsequent effects on liver-specific functions. These results provide a baseline for further explorations into the systems biology of engineered liver mimics. PMID:20412007

  2. The Periodic Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  3. The Periodic Pyramid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy

  4. Quasi-10-day wave in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Jeffrey M.; Zhang, Xiaoli

    2015-11-01

    In the classical theory of oscillations on a spherical-rotating Earth, the quasi-10-day wave (Q10DW) exists as a westward propagating "free" or "unforced" normal mode oscillation with zonal wave number s = 1. In the present study, we employ Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics/Sounding of the Atmosphere using Broadband Emission Radiometry temperature measurements between 20 and 100 km and ±50° latitude, and extending from 2002 to 2013, to provide a comprehensive perspective on the Q10DW as it actually exists in the atmosphere. Climatological seasonal-latitudinal structures are presented which demonstrate that the Q10DW is weakest during summer months and equatorward of ±50° latitude but otherwise has amplitudes ranging from 1.0 K at ˜45 km to ˜5 K at 100 km. Seasonal asymmetries and significant interannual variability also exist. The mean period of the Q10DW is 9.8 days with a standard deviation of about 0.4 day. On average the Q10DW conforms reasonably well with theoretical expectations for a normal mode subject to the effects of dissipation and mean winds, at least below 80 km. Above 80 km this conformity often breaks down. Several factors potentially contributing to this nonconformity are discussed.

  5. Synthesis of sperm-specific basic nuclear proteins (SPs) in cultured spermatids from Xenopus laevis

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, S.; Hiyoshi, H. )

    1991-05-01

    The accumulation and synthesis of sperm-specific basic nuclear proteins (SPs) in Xenopus spermatids in vitro were studied by acid-urea-Triton polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. In synchronous cultures of round spermatids, the amount of SP2 and SP3-5 accumulated almost linearly with time, while that of SP1 remained almost constant. Fluorography showed that round spermatids incorporated {sup 14}C arginine mostly into SP1 and SP3-5, very little into SP2, and none into histones. When {sup 14}C arginine was incorporated into cells for 24 h on Days 0, 3, and 6, followed by immediate extraction of basic nuclear proteins, the SP1 band was detected faintly on Day 0 and the intensity increased to the maximum level by Day 3 and remained constant on Day 6; the SP3-5 bands were first detected on Day 3 and their intensity increased by Day 6. Thus, SP1 and SP3-5 were synthesized differentially during the culture period. When {sup 14}C arginine or {sup 14}C lysine was incorporated into round spermatids on Days 0, 3, and 6 for 15 h and chased for 3-12 days, the intensity of the SP2 band increased significantly, while the intensity of the SP1 band decreased concomitantly. This result indicates that SP2 was processed from a precursor protein which is probably SP1.

  6. Experiments for a Special Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Special events like science days, teacher's meetings and physics recruiting efforts require spectacular and, if possible, interactive experiments for the audience. Based on past experience with such events, we have gathered and present here a series of demonstration experiments in mechanics, optics, waves and electricity which are suitable, and…

  7. The Last Day of Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Willard J.

    1982-01-01

    A narrative account of what might occur the first day of a nuclear war is interspersed with facts about the nuclear arms race and about the destructive power of weapons already stockpiled in the United States and the Soviet Union. A plea is made for preserving civilization from such a catastrophe. (PP)

  8. From Five Days to Four

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarbrough, Rachel; Gilman, David Alan

    2006-01-01

    Facing financial difficulties, the Webster County Public School System in rural Kentucky implemented a four-day school week to save money on transportation and staffing. The district's research in the experience of other rural districts had indicated that such a calendar change could increase efficiency and also yield some unexpected benefits.…

  9. International Literacy Day Tool Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This tool kit suggests various International Literacy Day activities to raise awareness of the issues of adult literacy and language learning, to connect local literacy programs with national programs, and to help achieve the National Literacy Summit goal by 2010. The kit is intended for individuals, programs, and organizations that want to call…

  10. Day Care Management. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourque, Janet

    A curriculum was developed and a pilot project was conducted to train 20 day care center directors at Lake Washington Vocational Technical Institute. This document summarizes the curriculum development project and provides the curriculum that was developed. The report contains a summary and outline of the course, a skills assessment, pretests and…

  11. Experiments for a Special Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gluck, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Special events like science days, teacher's meetings and physics recruiting efforts require spectacular and, if possible, interactive experiments for the audience. Based on past experience with such events, we have gathered and present here a series of demonstration experiments in mechanics, optics, waves and electricity which are suitable, and

  12. Earth Day Changes in Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Betty; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes recycling related activities associated with the Earth Day celebration at the University School of East Tennessee State University. Activities involve tree planting, campus clean-up, student posters, assemblies, a schoolwide rally, and displays of recyclable items. A study examining attitude change revealed that hands-on activities…

  13. A New Day for Kids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farbman, David

    2007-01-01

    The Martin Luther King School in Boston and nine other Massachusetts public schools used a grant from the Massachusetts Department of Education to expand their school days by at least two hours. Each school lengthened the time students spent in reading and math instruction. Farbman focuses on the Martin Luther King School's foray into an extended…

  14. Bright Ideas for Dark Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easley, Dauna

    2005-01-01

    In this brief column, the author of "Teachers Touch Eternity," provides 20 tips that teachers can use to motivate themselves and others through the dark days of winter: (1) Fake it till you make it; (2) Allow for spontaneity; (3) Build an encouragement folder; (4) Lighten up! (5) Read motivational books or inspirational thoughts late at night or…

  15. Take Advantage of Constitution Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCune, Bonnie F.

    2008-01-01

    The announcement of the mandate for Constitution and Citizenship Day shortly before September, 2005, probably led to groans of dismay. Not another "must-do" for teachers and schools already stressed by federal and state requirements for standardized tests, increasingly rigid curricula, and scrutiny from the public and officials. But the idea and…

  16. United Nations Day, 24 October.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Ken, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Serving as the journal of the Manitoba Social Science Teachers' Association, this issue commemorates United Nations Day with the editorial, "Teaching about the United Nations" (Ken Osborne). Another article devoted to the international organization is "The United Nations and International Peace and Security" (Ken Osborne). The article is intended…

  17. Bright Ideas for Dark Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easley, Dauna

    2005-01-01

    In this brief column, the author of "Teachers Touch Eternity," provides 20 tips that teachers can use to motivate themselves and others through the dark days of winter: (1) Fake it till you make it; (2) Allow for spontaneity; (3) Build an encouragement folder; (4) Lighten up! (5) Read motivational books or inspirational thoughts late at night or

  18. Make Your Own Snow Day!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robeck, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Children love snow days, even when they come during the warmest weather. In this lesson the snow isn't falling outside, it's in the classroom--thanks to "Snowflake Bentley" (Briggs Martin 1998) and several models of snowflakes. A lesson on snow demonstrates several principles of practice for using models in elementary science. Focusing on snow was…

  19. Infectious Diseases in Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleator, Esther K.

    Discussed in this publication are infectious illnesses for which children attending day care appear to be at special risk. Also covered are the common cold, some infectious disease problems receiving media attention, and some other annoying but not serious diseases, such as head lice, pinworms, and contagious skin conditions. Causes,…

  20. A New Day for Intellectuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delbanco, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Soon after election day, the columnist Nicholas D. Kristof wrote in "The New York Times" that the "second most remarkable thing" about the election was that "American voters have just picked a president who is an open, out-of-the-closet, practicing intellectual." Surely, one of the secrets of President Obama's rhetorical power is his ability to…